WorldWideScience

Sample records for production requirements costs

  1. Moly99 Production Facility: Report on Beamline Components, Requirements, Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishofberger, Kip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-23

    In FY14 we completed the design of the beam line for the linear accelerator production design concept. This design included a set of three bending magnets, quadrupole focusing magnets, and octopoles to flatten the beam on target. This design was generic and applicable to multiple different accelerators if necessary. In FY15 we built on that work to create specifications for the individual beam optic elements, including power supply requirements. This report captures the specification of beam line components with initial cost estimates for the NorthStar production facility.This report is organized as follows: The motivation of the beamline design is introduced briefly, along with renderings of the design. After that, a specific list is provided, which accounts for each beamline component, including part numbers and costs, to construct the beamline. After that, this report details the important sections of the beamline and individual components. A final summary and list of follow-on activities completes this report.

  2. Harvest operations for density management: planning requirements, production, costs, stand damage, and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loren D. Kellogg; Stephen J. Pilkerton

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, several studies have been undertaken to determine the planning requirements, productivity, costs, and residual stand damage of harvest operations in thinning treatments designed to promote development of complex forest structure in order to enhance ecological functioning and biological diversity. Th ese studies include the Oregon State...

  3. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system. [environment effects, miner health and safety, production cost, and coal conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Underground mining systems suitable for coal seams expoitable in the year 2000 are examined with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. Requirements for such systems may be summarized as follows: (1) production cost; (2)miner safety; (3) miner health; (4) environmental impact; and (5) coal conservation. No significant trade offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  4. Determination production costs using PBC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Vladimir V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic characteristics of modern markets make requirements in quality increasing, decreasing prices and shortening delivery of products. In the middle of this requirements are production costs for whose determination are developed many traditional and alternative methods including PBC method (Process Based Costing. This method enables precisely locating and calculating indirect production costs, and with determined direct costs enables determination of total production costs. This paper shows usage of PBC method for determination production costs for three forms of processing cutting tools.

  5. Production cost methods and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffe, R. E.; Fujita, T.

    1975-01-01

    The general gas cost equation for utility financing is presented. Modifications and assumptions made in order to apply the cost equation to hydrogen production are described. Cost data are given for various methods of hydrogen production. The cost matrix procedure is briefly discussed.

  6. RECTIFIED ETHANOL PRODUCTION COST ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola J Budimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impact of the most important factors of the total production costs in bioethanol production. The most influential factors are: total investment costs, price of raw materials (price of biomass, enzymes, yeast, and energy costs. Taking into account these factors, a procedure for estimation total production costs was establish. In order to gain insight into the relationship of production and selling price of bioethanol, price of bioethanol for some countries of the European Union and the United States are given.

  7. Nuclear power production costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramuspe, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of nuclear power in different highly developed countries is shown, by reviewing various international studies made on the subject. Generation costs (historical values) of Atucha I and Embalse Nuclear Power Plants, which are of the type used in those countries, are also included. The results of an international study on the economic aspects of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle are also reviewed. This study shows its relatively low incidence in the generation costs. The conclusion is that if in Argentina the same principles of economic racionality were followed, nuclear energy would be economically competitive in the future, as it is today. This is of great importance in view of its almost unavoidable character of alternative source of energy, and specially since we have to expect an important growth in the consumption of electricity, due to its low share in the total consumption of energy, and the low energy consumption per capita in Argentina. (Author) [es

  8. Environmental costs of meat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to address two questions: First, what is the real cost of meat to society if taking into account the environmental costs arising throughout the product life cycle; and second, whether and how the environmental costs related to meat production can be reduced. In addressing the issues...... to be the main contributor to the costs (55%), followed by global warming (21%) and respiratory inorganics (18%). A viable option combining improvement measures in three aspects: feed use, manure management, and manure utilization, reduces the environmental costs by a factor of 1.4. This results in an equal size......, we use pig meat production in the EU as a case study. The environmental costs of meat are displayed first as characterized results at different midpoint categories e.g. global warming, nature occupation, acidification, eutrophication, ecotoxicity, etc., and then aggregated into a single score using...

  9. Production costs for SRIC Populus biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Production costs for short rotation, intensive culture (SRIC) Populus biomass were developed from commercial-sized plantations under investigation throughout the US. Populus hybrid planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 850 cuttings/acre was projected to yield an average of 7 ovendry (OD) tons/acre/year. Discounted cash-flow analysis of multiple rotations showed preharvest production costs of $14/ton (OD). Harvesting and transportation expenses would increase the delivered cost to $35/ton (OD). Although this total cost compared favorably with the regional market price for aspen (Populus tremuloides), future investments in SRIC systems will require the development of biomass energy markets

  10. Minimizing activated carbons production cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavropoulos, G.G.; Zabaniotou, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    A detailed economic evaluation of activated carbons production process from various raw materials is undertaken using the conventional economic indices (ROI, POT, and NPV). The fundamental factors that affect production cost were taken into account. It is concluded that for an attractive investment in activated carbons production one should select the raw material with the highest product yield, adopt a chemical activation production scheme and should base product price on product-surface area (or more generally on product adsorption capacity for the adsorbate in consideration). A raw material that well meets the above-mentioned criteria is petroleum coke but others are also promising (charcoals, and carbon black). Production cost then can be optimized by determining its minimum value of cost that results from the intercept between the curves of plant capacity and raw material cost - if any. Taking into account the complexity of such a techno-economic analysis, a useful suggestion could be to start the evaluations from a plant capacity corresponding to the break-even point, i. e. the capacity at which income equals production cost. (author)

  11. Predicting Production Costs for Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.; Weston, R. P.

    2002-01-01

    For early design concepts, the conventional approach to cost is normally some kind of parametric weight-based cost model. There is now ample evidence that this approach can be misleading and inaccurate. By the nature of its development, a parametric cost model requires historical data and is valid only if the new design is analogous to those for which the model was derived. Advanced aerospace vehicles have no historical production data and are nowhere near the vehicles of the past. Using an existing weight-based cost model would only lead to errors and distortions of the true production cost. This paper outlines the development of a process-based cost model in which the physical elements of the vehicle are soared according to a first-order dynamics model. This theoretical cost model, first advocated by early work at MIT, has been expanded to cover the basic structures of an advanced aerospace vehicle. Elemental costs based on the geometry of the design can be summed up to provide an overall estimation of the total production cost for a design configuration. This capability to directly link any design configuration to realistic cost estimation is a key requirement for high payoff MDO problems. Another important consideration in this paper is the handling of part or product complexity. Here the concept of cost modulus is introduced to take into account variability due to different materials, sizes, shapes, precision of fabrication, and equipment requirements. The most important implication of the development of the proposed process-based cost model is that different design configurations can now be quickly related to their cost estimates in a seamless calculation process easily implemented on any spreadsheet tool.

  12. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-01-01

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies

  13. Designing Cost-Competitive Technology Products through Cost Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davila, T.; Wouters, Marc

    2004-01-01

    SYNOPSIS: As manufacturing innovations spread throughout leading organizations, product development becomes a more important source of competitive advantage. Within product development, cost management receives increasing attention. To date, cost management in new product development focuses

  14. Costs of electronuclear fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaim, T.; Loose, V.

    1978-07-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) proposes to study the electronuclear fuel producer (EFP) as a means of producing fissile fuel to generate electricity. The main advantage of the EFP is that it may reduce the risks of nuclear proliferation by breeding 233 U from thorium, thereby avoiding plutonium separation. A report on the costs of electronuclear fuel production based upon two designs considered by LASL is presented. The findings indicate that the EFP design variations considered are not likely to result in electricity generation costs as low as the uranium fuel cycle used in the US today. At current estimates of annual fuel output (500 kg 233 U per EFP), the costs of electricity generation using fuel produced by the EFP are more than three times higher than generating costs using the traditional fuel cycle. Sensitivity analysis indicates that electronuclear fuel production would become cost competitive with the traditional uranium fuel cycle when U 3 O 8 (yellowcake) prices approach $1000 per pound

  15. Requirements for low-cost electricity and hydrogen fuel production from multiunit inertial fusion energy plants with a shared driver and target factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, G.B.; Moir, R.W.; Hoffmman, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The economy of scale for multiunit inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants is explored based on the molten salt HYLIFE-II fusion chamber concept, for the purpose of producing lower cost electricity and hydrogen fuel. The cost of electricity (CoE) is minimized with a new IFE systems code IFEFUEL5 for a matrix of plant cases with one to eight fusion chambers of 250 to 2000-MW (electric) net output each, sharing a common heavy-ion driver and target factory. Improvements to previous HYLIFE-II models include a recirculating induction linac driver optimized as a function of driver energy and rep-rate (average driver power), inclusion of beam switchyard costs, a fusion chamber cost scaling dependence on both thermal power and fusion yield, and a more accurate bypass pump power scaling with chamber rep-rate. A CoE less than 3 cents/kW(electric)-h is found for plant outputs greater than 2 GW(electric), allowing hydrogen fuel production by wafer electrolysis to provide lower fuel cost per mile for higher efficiency hydrogen engines compared with gasoline engines. These multiunit, multi-GW(electric) IFE plants allow staged utility plant deployment, lower optimum chamber rep-rates, less sensitivity to driver and target fabrication costs, and a CoE possibly lower than future fission, fossil, and solar competitors. 37 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Industrial requirements for interactive product configurators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queva, Matthieu Stéphane Benoit; Probst, Christian W.; Vikkelsøe, Per

    2009-01-01

    The demand for highly customized products at low cost is driving the industry towards Mass Customization. Interactive product configurators play an essential role in this new trend, and must be able to support more and more complex features. The purpose of this paper is, firstly, to identify...... requirements for modern interactive configurators. Existing modeling and solving technologies for configuration are then reviewed and their limitations discussed. Finally, a proposition for a future product configuration system is described....

  17. Environmental costs of fossil fuel energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; Trebeschi, C.

    1997-01-01

    The costs of environmental impacts caused by fossil fuel energy production are external to the energy economy and normally they are not reflected in energy prices. To determine the environmental costs associated with an energy source a detailed analysis of all environmental impacts of the complete energy cycle is required. The economic evaluation of environmental damages is presented caused by atmospheric emissions produced by fossil fuel combustion for different uses. Considering the emission factors of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, dust and carbon dioxide and the economic evaluation of their environmental damages reported in literature, a range of environmental costs associated with different fossil fuels and technologies is presented. A comparison of environmental costs resulting from atmospheric emissions produced by fossil-fuel combustion for energy production shows that natural gas has a significantly higher environmental value than other fossil fuels. (R.P.)

  18. On production costs in vertical differentiation models

    OpenAIRE

    Dorothée Brécard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the effects of the introduction of a unit production cost beside a fixed cost of quality improvement in a duopoly model of vertical product differentiation. Thanks to an original methodology, we show that a low unit cost tends to reduce product differentiation and thus prices, whereas a high unit cost leads to widen product differentiation and to increase prices

  19. Product costing program for wood component manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jeff Palmer; Janice K Wiedenbeck; Steve. Lawser

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and timely product costing information is critically important for companies in planning the optimal utilization of company resources. While an overestimation of product costs can lead to loss of potential business and market share, underestimation of product costs can result in financial losses to the company. This article introduces a product costing program...

  20. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  1. Valuing productivity costs in a changing macroeconomic environment: the estimation of colorectal cancer productivity costs using the friction cost approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Paul; Koopmanschap, Marc; Sharp, Linda

    2016-06-01

    The friction cost approach (FCA) has been proposed as an alternative to the human capital approach for productivity cost valuation. However, FCA estimates are context dependent and influenced by extant macroeconomic conditions. We applied the FCA to estimate colorectal cancer labor productivity costs and assessed the impact of a changing macroeconomic environment on these estimates. Data from colorectal cancer survivors (n = 159) derived from a postal survey undertaken in Ireland March 2010 to January 2011 were combined with national wage data, population-level survival data, and occupation-specific friction periods to calculate temporary and permanent disability, and premature mortality costs using the FCA. The effects of changing labor market conditions between 2006 and 2013 on the friction period were modeled in scenario analyses. Costs were valued in 2008 euros. In the base-case, the total FCA per-person productivity cost for incident colorectal cancer patients of working age at diagnosis was €8543. In scenario 1 (a 2.2 % increase in unemployment), the fall in the friction period caused total productivity costs to decrease by up to 18 % compared to base-case estimates. In scenario 2 (a 9.2 % increase in unemployment), the largest decrease in productivity cost was up to 65 %. Adjusting for the vacancy rate reduced the effect of unemployment on the cost results. The friction period used in calculating labor productivity costs greatly affects the derived estimates; this friction period requires reassessment following changes in labor market conditions. The influence of changes in macroeconomic conditions on FCA-derived cost estimates may be substantial.

  2. Resource Requirements and Costs of Developing and Delivering MOOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona M. Hollands

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the ongoing alarm regarding uncontrollable costs of higher education, it would be reasonable to expect not only concern about the impact of MOOCs on educational outcomes, but also systematic efforts to document the resources expended on their development and delivery. However, there is little publicly available information on MOOC costs that is based on rigorous analysis. In this article, we first address what institutional resources are required for the development and delivery of MOOCs, based on interviews conducted with 83 administrators, faculty members, researchers, and other actors in the MOOCspace. Subsequently, we use the ingredients method to present cost analyses of MOOC production and delivery at four institutions. We find costs ranging from $38,980 to $325,330 per MOOC, and costs per completer of $74-$272, substantially lower than costs per completer of regular online courses, by merit of scalability. Based on this metric, MOOCs appear more cost-effective than online courses, but we recommend judging MOOCs by impact on learning and caution that they may only be cost-effective for the most self-motivated learners. By demonstrating the methods of cost analysis as applied to MOOCs, we hope that future assessments of the value of MOOCs will combine both cost information and effectiveness data to yield cost-effectiveness ratios that can be compared with the cost-effectiveness of alternative modes of education delivery. Such information will help decision-makers in higher education make rational decisions regarding the most productive use of limited educational resources, to the benefit of both learners and taxpayers.

  3. 47 CFR 76.925 - Costs of franchise requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Costs of franchise requirements. 76.925 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.925 Costs of franchise requirements. (a) Franchise requirement costs may include cost increases required by the franchising authority in...

  4. The ''reference costs'' of the electrical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This study objective is to give an aid for the investments choice in the field of electricity production and for national choices in the field of long-dated production. Important evolutions appeared since the last exercise ''reference costs'' of 1993. Electricity production costs, presented in this study, are actualized economic costs. They consider the following production facilities: nuclear, pulverized coal with fumes processing, circulating fluidized bed, combustion turbines, cogeneration and wind turbines. (A.L.B.)

  5. Cost Accounting: Production and Equipment Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, William T.

    Cost accounting for audiovisual productions should include direct costs, and, in some cases, the media administrator may have to calculate a per-hour surcharge for general operating overhead as well. Such procedures enable the administrator to determine cost effectiveness, to control cost overruns, and to generate more staff efficiency. Cost…

  6. Cost Optimization of Product Families using Analytic Cost Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for analysing the cost structure of a mass customized product family. The method uses linear regression and backwards selection to reduce the complexity of a data set describing a number of historical product configurations and incurred costs. By reducing the data...... set, the configuration variables which best describe the variation in product costs are identified. The method is tested using data from a Danish manufacturing company and the results indicate that the method is able to identify the most critical configuration variables. The method can be applied...... in product family redesign projects focusing on cost reduction to identify which modules contribute the most to cost variation and should thus be optimized....

  7. 24 CFR 232.610 - Certification of cost requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification of cost requirements... ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES Eligibility Requirements-Supplemental Loans To Finance Purchase and Installation of Fire Safety Equipment Cost Certification Requirements § 232.610 Certification of cost requirements...

  8. Cost Decision Support in Product Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebers, A.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1997-01-01

    The constraints addressed in decision making during product design, process planning and production planning determine the admissible solution space for the manufacture of products. The solution space determines largely the costs that are incurred in the production process. In order to be able to

  9. Economic costs of electricity production in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeldman, M.; Solinski, J.

    1994-02-01

    This study presents a methodology for the calculation of the economic costs of the production of electricity. This methodology is applied to assess electricity production cost in Poland by type of power station for the years 1995 and 2000. In addition, an overview is presented of the methods used by the OECD countries, particularly in the Netherlands. The main conclusions of the study are: 1) the real economic costs to generate electricity in Poland are about two times higher compared with the traditional book-keeping data; 2) the investment costs will become the most important cost component in the near future; and 3) there are considerables differences in production cost per kWh for the different types of power plants in Poland. 4 appendices, 14 refs

  10. Productivity Costs in Patients with Refractory Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke; Smith, Timothy L.; Schlosser, Rodney J.; Hwang, Peter H.; Mace, Jess C.; Soler, Zachary M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Disease-specific reductions in patient productivity can lead to substantial economic losses to society. The purpose of this study was to: 1) define the annual productivity cost for a patient with refractory chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and 2) evaluate the relationship between degree of productivity cost and CRS-specific characteristics. Study Design Prospective, multi-institutional, observational cohort study. Methods The human capital approach was used to define productivity costs. Annual absenteeism, presenteeism, and lost leisure time was quantified to define annual lost productive time (LPT). LPT was monetized using the annual daily wage rates obtained from the 2012 US National Census and the 2013 US Department of Labor statistics. Results A total of 55 patients with refractory CRS were enrolled. The mean work days lost related to absenteeism and presenteeism was 24.6 and 38.8 days per year, respectively. A total of 21.2 household days were lost per year related to daily sinus care requirements. The overall annual productivity cost was $10,077.07 per patient with refractory CRS. Productivity costs increased with worsening disease-specific QoL (r=0.440; p=0.001). Conclusion Results from this study have demonstrated that the annual productivity cost associated with refractory CRS is $10,077.07 per patient. This substantial cost to society provides a strong incentive to optimize current treatment protocols and continue evaluating novel clinical interventions to reduce this cost. PMID:24619604

  11. Productivity costs in patients with refractory chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke; Smith, Timothy L; Schlosser, Rodney J; Hwang, Peter H; Mace, Jess C; Soler, Zachary M

    2014-09-01

    Disease-specific reductions in patient productivity can lead to substantial economic losses to society. The purpose of this study was to: 1) define the annual productivity cost for a patient with refractory chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and 2) evaluate the relationship between degree of productivity cost and CRS-specific characteristics. Prospective, multi-institutional, observational cohort study. The human capital approach was used to define productivity costs. Annual absenteeism, presenteeism, and lost leisure time was quantified to define annual lost productive time (LPT). LPT was monetized using the annual daily wage rates obtained from the 2012 U.S. National Census and the 2013 U.S. Department of Labor statistics. A total of 55 patients with refractory CRS were enrolled. The mean work days lost related to absenteeism and presenteeism were 24.6 and 38.8 days per year, respectively. A total of 21.2 household days were lost per year related to daily sinus care requirements. The overall annual productivity cost was $10,077.07 per patient with refractory CRS. Productivity costs increased with worsening disease-specific QoL (r = 0.440; p = 0.001). Results from this study have demonstrated that the annual productivity cost associated with refractory CRS is $10,077.07 per patient. This substantial cost to society provides a strong incentive to optimize current treatment protocols and continue evaluating novel clinical interventions to reduce this cost. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... production, production prices and production costs. 229.1204 Section 229.1204 Commodity and Securities... production, production prices and production costs. (a) For each of the last three fiscal years disclose... production cost, not including ad valorem and severance taxes, per unit of production. Instruction 1 to Item...

  13. Lamb Production Costs: Analyses of Composition and Elasticities Analysis of Lamb Production Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Raineri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since lamb is a commodity, producers cannot control the price of the product they sell. Therefore, managing production costs is a necessity. We explored the study of elasticities as a tool for basing decision-making in sheep production, and aimed at investigating the composition and elasticities of lamb production costs, and their influence on the performance of the activity. A representative sheep production farm, designed in a panel meeting, was the base for calculation of lamb production cost. We then performed studies of: i costs composition, and ii cost elasticities for prices of inputs and for zootechnical indicators. Variable costs represented 64.15% of total cost, while 21.66% were represented by operational fixed costs, and 14.19% by the income of the factors. As for elasticities to input prices, the opportunity cost of land was the item to which production cost was more sensitive: a 1% increase in its price would cause a 0.2666% increase in lamb cost. Meanwhile, the impact of increasing any technical indicator was significantly higher than the impact of rising input prices. A 1% increase in weight at slaughter, for example, would reduce total cost in 0.91%. The greatest obstacle to economic viability of sheep production under the observed conditions is low technical efficiency. Increased production costs are more related to deficient zootechnical indexes than to high expenses.

  14. Estimating the cost of production stoppage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1979-01-01

    Estimation model considers learning curve quantities, and time of break to forecast losses due to break in production schedule. Major parameters capable of predicting costs are number of units made prior to production sequence, length of production break, and slope of learning curve produced prior to break.

  15. PLACE OF PRODUCTION COSTS SYSTEM ANALYSIS IN SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia CHEREDNYCHENKO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current economic conditions require the development and implementation of an adequate system of production costs, which would ensure a steady profit growth and production volumes in a highly competitive, constantly increasing input prices and tariffs. This management system must be based on an integrated production costs system analysis (PCSA, which would provide all operating costs management subsystems necessary information to design and make better management decisions. It provides a systematic analysis of more opportunities in knowledge, creating conditions of integrity mechanism knowledge object consisting of elements that show intersystem connections, each of which has its own defined and limited objectives, relationship with the environment.

  16. THE COST OF PRODUCTION UNDER DIRECT COSTING AND ABSORPTION COSTING – A COMPARATIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunea-Bontaş Cristina Aurora

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Managerial accounting has an important role in strategic management of a company, being designed especially for managers, in order to optimise their decision regarding operating activities. One of the objectives of managerial accounting is the cost calculation, for measuring inventory costs, and the costs and profitability of products and services. Cost calculation systems can vary in terms of which costs are assigned to cost objects, two significant calculation systems being adopted by the costing theory: full cost accounting, which includes all costs of production as product costs, and partial cost accounting, which includes only those costs that vary with output. This article provides a comparative approach regarding the differences between the calculation of the cost of production under direct costing and absorption costing. It also examines the implication of using each of these calculation systems on the financial position and financial performance of the companies reported on the statement of financial position and the income statement. Finally, the advantages of using direct costing for internal reporting are discussed, considering that this method is not acceptable for external reporting to stockholders and other external users.

  17. Cost optimal levels for energy performance requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Aggerholm, Søren; Kluttig-Erhorn, Heike

    This report summarises the work done within the Concerted Action EPBD from December 2010 to April 2011 in order to feed into the European Commission's proposal for a common European procedure for a Cost-Optimal methodology under the Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (recast) 2010/3...

  18. Cost allocation. Combined heat and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidzikauskas, V.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation are discussed. The include improvement in energy intensity of 1% by 2010, 85-90% efficiency versus 40-50% of condensation power and others. Share of CHP electricity production in ERRA countries is presented.Solutions for a development CHP cost allocation are considered. Conclusion are presented for CHP production cost allocation. (R.P.)

  19. Utilization and cost of log production from animal loging operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraj P. Shrestha; Bobby L. Lanford; Robert B. Rummer; Mark Dubois

    2006-01-01

    Forest harvesting with animals is a labor-intensive operation. It is expensive to use machines on smaller woodlots, which require frequent moves if mechanically logged. So, small logging systems using animals may be more cost effective. In this study, work sampling was used for five animal logging operations in Alabama to measure productive and non-productive time...

  20. Examining the production costs of antiretroviral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Eloan; Vasan, Ashwin; Kim, Jim Yong; Lee, Evan; Guimier, Jean Marc; Perriens, Joseph

    2006-08-22

    To present direct manufacturing costs and price calculations of individual antiretroviral drugs, enabling those responsible for their procurement to have a better understanding of the cost structure of their production, and to indicate the prices at which these antiretroviral drugs could be offered in developing country markets. Direct manufacturing costs and factory prices for selected first and second-line antiretroviral drugs were calculated based on cost structure data from a state-owned company in Brazil. Prices for the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) were taken from a recent survey by the World Health Organization (WHO). The calculated prices for antiretroviral drugs are compared with quoted prices offered by privately-owned, for-profit manufacturers. The API represents the largest component of direct manufacturing costs (55-99%), while other inputs, such as salaries, equipment costs, and scale of production, have a minimal impact. The calculated prices for most of the antiretroviral drugs studied fall within the lower quartile of the range of quoted prices in developing country markets. The exceptions are those drugs, primarily for second-line therapy, for which the API is either under patent, in short supply, or in limited use in developing countries (e.g. abacavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir). The availability of data on the cost of antiretroviral drug production and calculation of factory prices under a sustainable business model provide benchmarks that bulk purchasers of antiretroviral drugs could use to negotiate lower prices. While truly significant price decreases for antiretroviral drugs will depend largely on the future evolution of API prices, the present study demonstrates that for several antiretroviral drugs price reduction is currently possible. Whether or not these reductions materialize will depend on the magnitude of indirect cost and profit added by each supplier over the direct production costs. The ability to

  1. Quality costs in the production process

    OpenAIRE

    J. Michalska

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is showing the relationship of the quality costs with a production process. In this paper it was worked out and introduced the way of marking the documents with regard to the quality costs.Design/methodology/approach: In the frames of own research it has been analysed the quality costs in the production process from the documents marked using the worked out way of marking.Findings: On the basis of the own research it can be stated, that the majority of the eleme...

  2. Method for developing cost estimates for generic regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The NRC has established a practice of performing regulatory analyses, reflecting costs as well as benefits, of proposed new or revised generic requirements. A method had been developed to assist the NRC in preparing the types of cost estimates required for this purpose and for assigning priorities in the resolution of generic safety issues. The cost of a generic requirement is defined as the net present value of total lifetime cost incurred by the public, industry, and government in implementing the requirement for all affected plants. The method described here is for commercial light-water-reactor power plants. Estimating the cost for a generic requirement involves several steps: (1) identifying the activities that must be carried out to fully implement the requirement, (2) defining the work packages associated with the major activities, (3) identifying the individual elements of cost for each work package, (4) estimating the magnitude of each cost element, (5) aggregating individual plant costs over the plant lifetime, and (6) aggregating all plant costs and generic costs to produce a total, national, present value of lifetime cost for the requirement. The method developed addresses all six steps. In this paper, we discuss on the first three

  3. Preliminary Cost Estimates for Nuclear Hydrogen Production: HTSE System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, K. J.; Lee, K. Y.; Lee, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    KAERI is now focusing on the research and development of the key technologies required for the design and realization of a nuclear hydrogen production system. As a preliminary study of cost estimates for nuclear hydrogen systems, the hydrogen production costs of the nuclear energy sources benchmarking GTMHR and PBMR are estimated in the necessary input data on a Korean specific basis. G4-ECONS was appropriately modified to calculate the cost for hydrogen production of HTSE (High Temperature Steam Electrolysis) process with VHTR (Very High Temperature nuclear Reactor) as a thermal energy source. The estimated costs presented in this paper show that hydrogen production by the VHTR could be competitive with current techniques of hydrogen production from fossil fuels if CO 2 capture and sequestration is required. Nuclear production of hydrogen would allow large-scale production of hydrogen at economic prices while avoiding the release of CO 2 . Nuclear production of hydrogen could thus become the enabling technology for the hydrogen economy. The major factors that would affect the cost of hydrogen were also discussed

  4. Vector Production in an Academic Environment: A Tool to Assess Production Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeke, Aaron; Doumas, Patrick; Reeves, Lilith; McClurg, Kyle; Bischof, Daniela; Sego, Lina; Auberry, Alisha; Tatikonda, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Generating gene and cell therapy products under good manufacturing practices is a complex process. When determining the cost of these products, researchers must consider the large number of supplies used for manufacturing and the personnel and facility costs to generate vector and maintain a cleanroom facility. To facilitate cost estimates, the Indiana University Vector Production Facility teamed with the Indiana University Kelley School of Business to develop a costing tool that, in turn, provides pricing. The tool is designed in Microsoft Excel and is customizable to meet the needs of other core facilities. It is available from the National Gene Vector Biorepository. The tool allows cost determinations using three different costing methods and was developed in an effort to meet the A21 circular requirements for U.S. core facilities performing work for federally funded projects. The costing tool analysis reveals that the cost of vector production does not have a linear relationship with batch size. For example, increasing the production from 9 to18 liters of a retroviral vector product increases total costs a modest 1.2-fold rather than doubling in total cost. The analysis discussed in this article will help core facilities and investigators plan a cost-effective strategy for gene and cell therapy production. PMID:23360377

  5. Production costs of liquid fuels from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridgwater, A.V.; Double, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This project was undertaken to provide a consistent and thorough review of the full range of processes for producing liquid fuels from biomass to compare both alternative technologies and processes within those technologies in order to identify the most promising opportunities that deserve closer attention. Thermochemical conversion includes both indirect liquefaction through gasification, and direct liquefaction through pyrolysis and liquefaction in pressurized solvents. Biochemical conversion is based on a different set of feedstocks. Both acid and enzyme hydrolysis are included followed by fermentation. The liquid products considered include gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons and conventional alcohol fuels of methanol and ethanol. Results are given both as absolute fuel costs and as a comparison of estimated cost to market price. In terms of absolute fuel costs, thermochemical conversion offers the lowest cost products, with the least complex processes generally having an advantage. Biochemical routes are the least attractive. The most attractive processes from comparing production costs to product values are generally the alcohol fuels which enjoy a higher market value. (author)

  6. [Productivity costs of rheumatoid arthritis in Germany. Cost composition and prediction of main cost components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkesdal, S; Huelsemann, J L; Mittendorf, T; Zeh, S; Zeidler, H; Ruof, J

    2006-10-01

    Identification of predictors for the productivity cost components: (1) sick leave, and (2) work disability in gainfully employed and (3) impaired household productivity in unemployed patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the societal perspective. Investigation of productivity costs was linked to a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of clinical quality management in 338 patients with RA. The productivity losses were assessed according to the German Guidelines on Health Economic Evaluation. By means of multivariate logistic regression analyses, predictors of sick leave, work disability (employed patients, n=96), and for days confined to bed in unemployed patient (n=242) were determined. Mean annual costs of 970 EUR arose per person taking into consideration all patients (453 EUR sick leave, 63 EUR work disability, 454 EUR impaired productivity of unemployed patients). Disease activity, disease severity, and impaired physical function were global predictors for all of the cost components investigated. Sick leave costs were predicted by prior sick leave periods and the vocational status blue collar worker, work disability costs by sociodemographic variables (marital status, schooling), and the productivity costs of unemployed patients by impaired mental health and impaired physical functions. Interventions such as reduction in disease progression and control of disease activity, early vocational rehabilitation measures and vocational retraining in patients at risk of quitting working life, and self-management programs to learn coping strategies might decrease future RA-related productivity costs.

  7. MOV refurbishment program cuts costs, meets requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that a motor operated valve (MOV) rebuild program at Peach Bottom Atomic power station began in October, 1986 with what is known internally as Modification (MOD) 1915. The Engineering the Research Department developed this modification to address requirements in NRC Bulletin 85-03. The MOD consisted of As found/As left testing of MOVs in the HPCI (high pressure coolant injection) and RCIC (reactor core isolation cooling) systems; six minor motor operator enhancements to facilitate maintenance and testing, and to increase reliability, and installation of a data acquisition network to support differential pressure testing of a select number of valves in Unit 2. Twenty-four valves were involved. Modification plans incorporated the work into the outage that was scheduled for December, 1986 to February, 1987. The plans took into account other preventive and corrective MOV maintenance tasks to be performed by the Maintenance Department. In addition, modifications of control circuits to satisfy separation criteria for Appendix R had to be integrated into the schedule. To facilitate testing, adjustments to the standard test methods under the Permits and Blocking System were necessary. The normal method of testing a piece of equipment after maintenance was to clear or temporarily clear the permit (red tag) and have a plant operator operate the equipment for the test group. This method for setting up the testing an MOV was considered unacceptable because it could occupy a plant operator for an entire shaft or longer

  8. Final Report: Hydrogen Production Pathways Cost Analysis (2013 – 2016)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel Allan [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This report summarizes work conducted under a three year Department of Energy (DOE) funded project to Strategic Analysis, Inc. (SA) to analyze multiple hydrogen (H2) production technologies and project their corresponding levelized production cost of H2. The analysis was conducted using the H2A Hydrogen Analysis Tool developed by the DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The project was led by SA but conducted in close collaboration with the NREL and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). In-depth techno-economic analysis (TEA) of five different H2 production methods was conducted. These TEAs developed projections for capital costs, fuel/feedstock usage, energy usage, indirect capital costs, land usage, labor requirements, and other parameters, for each H2 production pathway, and use the resulting cost and system parameters as inputs into the H2A discounted cash flow model to project the production cost of H2 ($/kgH2). Five technologies were analyzed as part of the project and are summarized in this report: Proton Exchange Membrane technology (PEM), High temperature solid oxide electrolysis cell technology (SOEC), Dark fermentation of biomass for H2 production, H2 production via Monolithic Piston-Type Reactors with rapid swing reforming and regeneration reactions, and Reformer-Electrolyzer-Purifier (REP) technology developed by Fuel Cell Energy, Inc. (FCE).

  9. Reference costs of the electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This study periodically realized by the DGEMP aims to compare the competitiveness of the different channels of electric power production, for different utilization conditions. The first part ''reference costs of the 2003 electric power production'' examines the prices of the electric power produced by different channels in particular in the framework of the industrial implementing in 2015. The nuclear and thermal power plants are concerned. The second part is devoted to the decentralized production channels (wind energy, photovoltaic, cogeneration heat-electricity) is under construction and will be presented next year. (A.L.B.)

  10. Project feasibility and mine production costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longworth, C R

    1987-01-01

    The paper outlines the present investment environment existing in the Australian Coal Industry and places this in the context of the current world seaborne coal trade. Those factors which have the greatest influence on the viability of coal projects today, namely coal prices and quality, exchange rates, cash cost of production, capital and borrowing costs, infrastructure and government charges are dealt with briefly. The paper concludes by giving a schedule of those factors of a local character which can be changed to render projects more competitive and also presents some external factors beyond Australia's control which will, in part, influence the development of the industry in the next decade. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  11. The model for estimation production cost of embroidery handicraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofierni; Sriwana, IK; Septriani, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Embroidery industry is one of type of micro industry that produce embroidery handicraft. These industries are emerging in some rural areas of Indonesia. Embroidery clothing are produce such as scarves and clothes that show cultural value of certain region. The owner of an enterprise must calculate the cost of production before making a decision on how many products are received from the customer. A calculation approach to production cost analysis is needed to consider the feasibility of each order coming. This study is proposed to design the expert system (ES) in order to improve production management in the embroidery industry. The model will design used Fuzzy inference system as a model to estimate production cost. Research conducted based on survey and knowledge acquisitions from stakeholder of supply chain embroidery handicraft industry at Bukittinggi, West Sumatera, Indonesia. This paper will use fuzzy input where the quality, the complexity of the design and the working hours required and the result of the model are useful to manage production cost on embroidery production.

  12. Current U.S. uranium production costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyn, J.J.; Douglas, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. uranium industry has undergone significant changes in the 1980s. These changes have come about largely as a result of the much slower growth of nuclear power than that initially anticipated and the deployment of an excess uranium supply capacity by 1979. The demand and supply imbalance has led to a substantial build-up in excess inventories which will not be remedied until well into the 1990s. At the same time as domestic inventories were building, large low cost uranium deposits were being discovered and developed in Canada and Australia. Additionally, in the past year or so it has become apparent that low cost uranium from the Soviet Union and the Peoples Republic of China will increasingly become a factor in the marketplace. The soft demand, large inventories, and competitive imports, stimulated by the recently ratified U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement, have caused the U.S. uranium industry to contract to one-tenth of its size ten years ago, if employment is taken at the gage. In light of the foregoing, this paper examines the current U.S. uranium production cost outlook for the 1990s. It is based on a direct cost analysis of all identifiable uranium deposits, mines, and production centers

  13. Cost-optimal levels for energy performance requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Aggerholm, Søren; Kluttig-Erhorn, Heike

    2011-01-01

    The CA conducted a study on experiences and challenges for setting cost optimal levels for energy performance requirements. The results were used as input by the EU Commission in their work of establishing the Regulation on a comparative methodology framework for calculating cost optimal levels...... of minimum energy performance requirements. In addition to the summary report released in August 2011, the full detailed report on this study is now also made available, just as the EC is about to publish its proposed Regulation for MS to apply in their process to update national building requirements....

  14. Cost of product functions using analysis of value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita Parv

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The value of use is a specific notion but of a great generality that makes the product be regarded as a complex system that transforms itself in time, thus undergoing evolution. Therefore, the product is important not in itself, but for the sake of the requirements it satisfies and for the functions it provides. In the analysis of value there are connections of a technical nature that implicitly lead to connections of an economic nature. Thus, the method of the ”analysis of value” will actually examine the cost of product functions, the aim of the method being the balance of functions costs on the basis of their importance for the product. Identifying the functions represents one of the important stages of the analysis of value. The difficulty in fixing the functions derives from the fact that there are not any rules clear enough for this activity, but only principles

  15. Cost reduction in deep water production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrao, R.L.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a cost reduction program that Petrobras has conceived for its deep water field. Beginning with the Floating Production Unit, a new concept of FPSO was established where a simple system, designed to long term testing, can be upgraded, on the location, to be the definitive production unit. Regarding to the subsea system, the following projects will be considered. (1) Subsea Manifold: There are two 8-well-diverless manifolds designed for 1,000 meters presently under construction and after a value analysis, a new design was achieved for the next generation. Both projects will be discussed and a cost evaluation will also be provided. (2) Subsea Pipelines: Petrobras has just started a large program aiming to reduce cost on this important item. There are several projects such as hybrid (flexible and rigid) pipes for large diameter in deep water, alternatives laying methods, rigid riser on FPS, new material...etc. The authors intend to provide an overview of each project

  16. External costs of electricity production under scrutiny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.J.; Melchert, A.

    1993-01-01

    After a short introduction into the problems and questions surrounding the issue of external costs Chapter 2 presents the most important results of the studies under review and analysis in this work. Occasionally, minor discrepancies were found between the results given in the summary of a study and the data reported in the relevant chapters. Chapter 3 identifies and discusses differences in perspective between the studies under consideration. Chapter 4 analyses the most important premises and parameters adopted in the studies for the calculation of overall costs and net benefits of the different modes of electricity production. This serves to probe the reliability of the data, plausibility of the premises, and nature of the presupposed relationships. Chapter 5 examines the relationships of time assumed in the studies and gives a first comment on the more advanced Prognos study. Chapter 6, finally, offers a summarizing evaluation. (orig./UA) [de

  17. The Cost Structure - Key Element in the Development of Product Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jiroveanu

    2016-01-01

    In this regard, planning the launch of new products or services requires a strategic approach, astructural analysis of the costs and the identification of opportunities to increase optimization withthe aim of increasing the effectiveness of the product policy.

  18. Cost Accounting Standards: Determining an Institution's Disclosure Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Janet D.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the implications of recently adopted U.S. Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) that apply to educational institutions that contract with or receive grants from the federal government. It focuses on the disclosure requirements that colleges and universities must follow to comply with CAS. (MDM)

  19. Cost-saving production technologies and partial ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Barcena-Ruiz; Norma Olaizola

    2007-01-01

    This work analyzes the incentives to acquire cost-saving production technologies when cross-participation exists at ownership level. We show that cross-participation reduces the incentives to adopt the cost-saving production technology.

  20. Geosensors to Support Crop Production: Current Applications and User Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lammert Kooistra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensor technology, which benefits from high temporal measuring resolution, real-time data transfer and high spatial resolution of sensor data that shows in-field variations, has the potential to provide added value for crop production. The present paper explores how sensors and sensor networks have been utilised in the crop production process and what their added-value and the main bottlenecks are from the perspective of users. The focus is on sensor based applications and on requirements that users pose for them. Literature and two use cases were reviewed and applications were classified according to the crop production process: sensing of growth conditions, fertilising, irrigation, plant protection, harvesting and fleet control. The potential of sensor technology was widely acknowledged along the crop production chain. Users of the sensors require easy-to-use and reliable applications that are actionable in crop production at reasonable costs. The challenges are to develop sensor technology, data interoperability and management tools as well as data and measurement services in a way that requirements can be met, and potential benefits and added value can be realized in the farms in terms of higher yields, improved quality of yields, decreased input costs and production risks, and less work time and load.

  1. Allocation base of general production costs as optimization of prime costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levytska I.O.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Qualified management aimed at optimizing financial results is the key factor in today's society. Effective management decisions depend on the necessary information about the costs of production process in all its aspects – their structure, types, accounting policies of reflecting costs. General production costs, the so-called indirect costs that are not directly related to the production process, but provide its functioning in terms of supporting structural divisions and create the necessary conditions of production, play a significant role in calculating prime costs of goods (works, services. However, the accurate estimate of prime costs of goods (works, services should be determined with the value of indirect costs (in other words, general production costs, and properly determined with the base of their allocation. The choice of allocation base of general production costs is the significant moment, depending on the nature of business, which must guarantee fair distribution regarding to the largest share of direct expenses in the total structure of production costs. The study finds the essence of general production costs based on the analysis of key definitions of leading Ukrainian economists. The optimal allocation approach of general production costs is to calculate these costs as direct production costs within each subsidiary division (department separately without selecting a base as the main one to the their total amount.

  2. Crop succession requirements in agricultural production planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Haneveld, W.K.; Stegeman, A.

    2005-01-01

    A method is proposed to write crop succession requirements as linear constraints in an LP-based model for agricultural production planning. Crop succession information is given in the form of a set of inadmissible successions of crops. The decision variables represent the areas where a certain

  3. Customer Focused Product Design Using Integrated Model of Target Costing, Quality Function Deployment and Value Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rezaei Dolatabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Target costing by integrating customer requirements, technical attributes and cost information into the product design phase and eliminating the non-value added functions, plays a vital role in different phases of the product life cycle. Quality Function Deployment (QFD and Value Engineering (VE are two techniques which can be used for applying target costing, successfully. The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated model of target costing, QFD and VE to explore the role of target costing in managing product costs while promoting quality specifications meeting customers’ needs. F indings indicate that the integration of target costing, QFD and VE is an essential technique in managing the costs of production process. Findings also imply that integration of the three techniques provides a competitive cost advantage to companies.

  4. Lean Manufacturing Implementation: an Approach to Reduce Production Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraswari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Lean Manufacturing Implementation: An Approach To Reduce Production Cost. Opportunities to improve production processes and reduce production cost through the implementation of lean manufacturing in small medium garment manufacturing are presented in this research. This research shows that there is a possibility of decrease in production cost and increase in return on sales. Lean manufacturing implementation can eliminate waste in the production process. This is a set of techniques for identification and elimination of waste gathered from The Ford Production, Statistical Process Control and other techniques. Improvement of quality could be carried out while time and cost of production are being reduced.

  5. Estimating generation costs for wind power production in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benazet, J.F.; Probert, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    Wind power is being exploited in several European countries as one of a possible number of sources of renewable energy. However, in France there is a heavy reliance on nuclear and hydro-electric power and the potential of wind power as part of the energy mix has been virtually ignored. One of the reasons advanced for the under utilisation of this technology is that it is financially unattractive. In this paper the contribution which wind power could potentially make to overall power production levels in France is examined. A cost estimate model is developed which derives electricity generation costs and determines realistic levels of production for the future. The model automatically determines the associated number of wind turbines required and the geographical areas in which they should be located. (author)

  6. Cost effectiveness of adopted quality requirements in hospital laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Alneil; Ahmed-Abakur, Eltayib; Abugroun, Elsir; Bakhit, Siham; Holi, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed in quasi-experiment to assess adoption of the essential clauses of particular clinical laboratory quality management requirements based on international organization for standardization (ISO 15189) in hospital laboratories and to evaluate the cost effectiveness of compliance to ISO 15189. The quality management intervention based on ISO 15189 was conceded through three phases; pre - intervention phase, Intervention phase and Post-intervention phase. In pre-intervention phase the compliance to ISO 15189 was 49% for study group vs. 47% for control group with P value 0.48, while the post intervention results displayed 54% vs. 79% for study group and control group respectively in compliance to ISO 15189 and statistically significant difference (P value 0.00) with effect size (Cohen's d) of (0.00) in pre-intervention phase and (0.99) in post - intervention phase. The annual average cost per-test for the study group and control group was 1.80 ± 0.25 vs. 1.97 ± 0.39, respectively with P value 0.39 whereas the post-intervention results showed that the annual average total costs per-test for study group and control group was 1.57 ± 0.23 vs 2.08 ± 0.38, P value 0.019 respectively, with cost-effectiveness ratio of (0.88) in pre -intervention phase and (0.52) in post-intervention phase. The planned adoption of quality management requirements (QMS) in clinical laboratories had great effect to increase the compliance percent with quality management system requirement, raise the average total cost effectiveness, and improve the analytical process capability of the testing procedure.

  7. Methodological aspects of accounting production cost of public sector entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Геннадіївна Ловінська

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of obtaining objective information about the activities of the public sector in various areas of the production is defined. It is proved an expediency of development the Project of «Guidelines for the structure of production costs» on the basis of the approved in the public sector NP(SAPS 135 "Costs". The need for accounting costs by type of activity (operational, financial and investment is marked. The composition of production costs is defined

  8. Establishing a cost model when estimating product cost in early design phases

    OpenAIRE

    Jeppsson, Johanna; Sjöberg, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    About 75% of the total product cost is determined in the early design phase, which means that the possibilities to affect costs are relatively small when the design phase is completed. For companies, it is therefore vital to conduct reliable cost estimates in the early design phase, when selecting between different design choices. When conducting a cost estimate there are many uncertainties. The aim with this study is therefore to explore how uncertainties regarding product cost can be consid...

  9. Internal cost control on the ecological quality of products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Syroid

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To improve the environmental quality of products due attention should be paid to control the processes related to environmental quality input of the product. The results of the study help to state the purpose and objectives of the control, also to define objects for internal control of operations cost of environmental quality. So, we believe that the main purpose of internal cost control on the ecological quality of products is the establishment of the correctness and legality of business operations, prevention of violations and abuses in the expenditure of natural, labour, material and financial resources to ensure the minimization of negative impact on the health of consumers and the environment. The basic objectives of internal control of expenditure are brought forward, but it should be noted that they can vary and depend on the size, structure, spheres and types of economic activity of the enterprise, the requirements of management personnel. In the process of identifying the objects of control of environmental quality it should be noted that this list is not exhaustive, but it is most relevant to highlight objects such as genetically modified organisms and waste production. Also the subjects of cost control to environmental quality, their functions and the information base for monitoring are determined. Proper organization of the process of internal cost control on the ecological quality of products would benefit from a clear documentation of transactions, timely and complete registration of accounting data in the registers, the true reflection of information in managerial financial reporting and ensure reduction of the negative impact on the health of consumers and the environment.

  10. A cost analysis: processing maple syrup products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil K. Huyler; Lawrence D. Garrett

    1979-01-01

    A cost analysis of processing maple sap to syrup for three fuel types, oil-, wood-, and LP gas-fired evaporators, indicates that: (1) fuel, capital, and labor are the major cost components of processing sap to syrup; (2) wood-fired evaporators show a slight cost advantage over oil- and LP gas-fired evaporators; however, as the cost of wood approaches $50 per cord, wood...

  11. Using a Web-Based System to Estimate the Cost of Online Course Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stuart; He, Wu; Abdous, M'hammed

    2009-01-01

    The increasing demand for online courses requires efficient and low cost production. Since the decision to develop online courses is often affected by financial factors, it is becoming increasingly important to determine, upfront, the cost of online course production. Many of the programs and educators interested in developing online courses…

  12. Computer software to estimate timber harvesting system production, cost, and revenue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. John E. Baumgras; Dr. Chris B. LeDoux

    1992-01-01

    Large variations in timber harvesting cost and revenue can result from the differences between harvesting systems, the variable attributes of harvesting sites and timber stands, or changing product markets. Consequently, system and site specific estimates of production rates and costs are required to improve estimates of harvesting revenue. This paper describes...

  13. Westinghouse AP1000 Electrical Generation Costs - Meeting Marketplace Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, C. Keith

    2002-01-01

    The re-emergence of nuclear power as a leading contender for new base-load electrical generation is not an occurrence of happenstance. The nuclear industry, in general, and Westinghouse, specifically, have worked diligently with the U.S. power companies and other nuclear industry participants around the world to develop future plant designs and project implementation models that address prior problem areas that led to reduced support for nuclear power. In no particular order, the issues that Westinghouse, as an engineering and equipment supply company, focused on were: safety, plant capital costs, construction schedule reductions, plant availability, and electric generation costs. An examination of the above criteria quickly led to the conclusion that as long as safety is not compromised, simplifying plant designs can lead to positive progress of the desired endpoints for the next and later generations of nuclear units. The distinction between next and later generations relates to the readiness of the plant design for construction implementation. In setting requirement priorities, one axiom is inviolate: There is no exception, nor will there be, to the Golden Rule of business. In the electric power generation industry, once safety goals are met, low generation cost is the requirement that rules, without exception. The emphasis in this paper on distinguishing between next and later generation reactors is based on the recognition that many designs have been purposed for future application, but few have been able to attain the design pedigree required to successfully meet the requirements for next generation nuclear units. One fact is evident: Another generation of noncompetitive nuclear plants will cripple the potential for nuclear to take its place as a major contributor to new electrical generation. Only two plant designs effectively meet the economic tests and demonstrate both unparalleled safety and design credibility due to extensive progress toward engineering

  14. ECONOMIC ELEMENTS REGARDING THE STEEL COST PRODUCTION COUNTING

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian IOANA; Nicolae CONSTANTIN; Elena-Claudia DRAGNA; Massimo POLIFRONI

    2016-01-01

    Our article features the elements that make up the cost of production. The economic activity implies a consumption of factors followed-up by products expressed in goods or services. In the first part of the article, we have defined and detailed the cost of production. In the second part we have calculated the cost of the production of one tone of low alloyed steel with vanadium. The prices for the components of cost production have been established within, Tenaris site, located in Calarasi co...

  15. ECONOMIC ELEMENTS REGARDING THE STEEL COST PRODUCTION COUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian IOANA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Our article features the elements that make up the cost of production. The economic activity implies a consumption of factors followed-up by products expressed in goods or services. In the first part of the article, we have defined and detailed the cost of production. In the second part we have calculated the cost of the production of one tone of low alloyed steel with vanadium. The prices for the components of cost production have been established within, Tenaris site, located in Calarasi county, Romania.

  16. Productivity cost due to maternal ill health in Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneth Agampodi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The global impact of maternal ill health on economic productivity is estimated to be over 15 billion USD per year. Global data on productivity cost associated with maternal ill health are limited to estimations based on secondary data. Purpose of our study was to determine the productivity cost due to maternal ill health during pregnancy in Sri Lanka. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied 466 pregnant women, aged 24 to 36 weeks, residing in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. A two stage cluster sampling procedure was used in a cross sectional design and all pregnant women were interviewed at clinic centers, using the culturally adapted Immpact tool kit for productivity cost assessment. Of the 466 pregnant women studied, 421 (90.3% reported at least one ill health condition during the pregnancy period, and 353 (83.8% of them had conditions affecting their daily life. Total incapacitation requiring another person to carry out all their routine activities was reported by 122 (26.1% of the women. In this study sample, during the last episode of ill health, total number of days lost due to absenteeism was 3,356 (32.9% of total loss and the days lost due to presenteeism was 6,832.8 (67.1% of the total loss. Of the 353 women with ill health conditions affecting their daily life, 280 (60% had coping strategies to recover loss of productivity. Of the coping strategies used to recover productivity loss during maternal ill health, 76.8% (n = 215 was an intra-household adaptation, and 22.8% (n = 64 was through social networks. Loss of productivity was 28.9 days per episode of maternal ill health. The mean productivity cost due to last episode of ill health in this sample was Rs.8,444.26 (95% CI-Rs.6888.74-Rs.9999.78. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal ill health has a major impact on household productivity and economy. The major impact is due to, generally ignored minor ailments during pregnancy.

  17. Productivity costs in economic evaluations: past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Marieke; Brouwer, Werner; Rutten, Frans

    2013-07-01

    Productivity costs occur when the productivity of individuals is affected by illness, treatment, disability or premature death. The objective of this paper was to review past and current developments related to the inclusion, identification, measurement and valuation of productivity costs in economic evaluations. The main debates in the theory and practice of economic evaluations of health technologies described in this review have centred on the questions of whether and how to include productivity costs, especially productivity costs related to paid work. The past few decades have seen important progress in this area. There are important sources of productivity costs other than absenteeism (e.g. presenteeism and multiplier effects in co-workers), but their exact influence on costs remains unclear. Different measurement instruments have been developed over the years, but which instrument provides the most accurate estimates has not been established. Several valuation approaches have been proposed. While empirical research suggests that productivity costs are best included in the cost side of the cost-effectiveness ratio, the jury is still out regarding whether the human capital approach or the friction cost approach is the most appropriate valuation method to do so. Despite the progress and the substantial amount of scientific research, a consensus has not been reached on either the inclusion of productivity costs in economic evaluations or the methods used to produce productivity cost estimates. Such a lack of consensus has likely contributed to ignoring productivity costs in actual economic evaluations and is reflected in variations in national health economic guidelines. Further research is needed to lessen the controversy regarding the estimation of health-related productivity costs. More standardization would increase the comparability and credibility of economic evaluations taking a societal perspective.

  18. Cost of quality assurance in radiotherapy: human and material requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudrelier, V.; Garcia, R.; Chauvet, B.; Bourhis, J.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, three new important laws were passed concerning radiotherapy services. The first two concerns the internal and external quality control of linear accelerators and the last concerns the role of the medical physicist, whose presence was made mandatory during the whole length of the treatments. These laws, which aim to improve the quality and the security of treatments, represent an increase in price that we have calculated, and which prevents them being implemented, as a joint study realised by the SFRO and the SFPM has shown. The cost of quality in radiotherapy requires investment in material and manpower and improvement in availability of the accelerators which entails a complete reorganization of the services. Cost analysis is included. The difficulties in implementing these laws have also been evaluated and this evaluation already enables us to propose certain elements enabling us to go forward to globally improve the quality and security in radiotherapy. (author)

  19. Increased accuracy of cost-estimation using product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Bredahl; Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    This article describes an approach for utilizing Product Configuration Systems (PCS) for quantifying project costs in project-based companies. It presents a case study demonstrating a method of quantifying costs in a way that makes it possible to configure cost- and time estimates. Piecework costs......, material costs and sub-supplier costs are used as principle cost elements and linked to structural and process elements to facilitate configuration. The cost data are used by the PCS to generate fast and accurate cost-estimates, quotations, time estimates and cost summaries. The described cost...... quantification principles have been used in a Scandinavian SME (Small and Medium-sized Enterprise) since the 90’s, but have since 2011 been adopted to be used in a configuration system. A longitudinal case study was conducted to compare cost and time-estimation accuracy before and after implementation. We...

  20. 75 FR 16575 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...)] Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Adoption of a railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment. SUMMARY: By decision served on February 1, 2010, the Board proposed to adopt 1.010 (1.0% per year) as the 2008 productivity adjustment, as...

  1. 75 FR 5170 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ...)] Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Proposed Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures Productivity Adjustment. SUMMARY: In a decision served... railroad productivity for the 2004-2008 (5-year) averaging period. This is a decline of 0.5 of a percentage...

  2. 77 FR 7237 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Proposed railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment. SUMMARY: In a decision served on... productivity for the 2006-2010 (5-year) averaging period. This represents a 0.6% decrease over the average for...

  3. 78 FR 10262 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Proposed railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment. SUMMARY: In a decision served on... productivity for the 2007-2011 (5-year) averaging period. This represents a 0.1% increase over the average for...

  4. FORMALIZING PRODUCT COST DISTORTION: The Impact of Volume-Related Allocation Bases on Cost Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Jermias

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose o f this study is to formally analyze product cost distortions resulting from the process of allocating costs to products based on Activity-Based Costing (ABC and the conventional product costing systems. The model developed in this paper rigorously shows the impact of treating costs that are not volume related as if they are. The model demonstrates that the source of product cost distortion is the difference between the proportion of driver used by each product in ABC and the proportion of the base used by the same product in the conventional costing systems. The difference arises because the conventional costing systems ignore the existence of batch-related and product-related costs. The model predicts a positive association between volume and size diversity with product cost distortions. When interaction between volume and size diversity exists, the distortion is either mitigated or exacerbated. The magnitude of the distortion is jointly determined by the size of the differences and the size of the total indirect costs.

  5. Low-cost high purity production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, V. K.

    1978-01-01

    Economical process produces high-purity silicon crystals suitable for use in solar cells. Reaction is strongly exothermic and can be initiated at relatively low temperature, making it potentially suitable for development into low-cost commercial process. Important advantages include exothermic character and comparatively low process temperatures. These could lead to significant savings in equipment and energy costs.

  6. Transaction costs and social networks in productivity measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Henning, Christian H. C. A.

    2015-01-01

    and support. Hence, we use measures of a firm’s access to social networks as a proxy for the transaction costs the firm faces. We develop a microeconomic production model that takes into account transaction costs and networks. Using a data set of 384 Polish farms, we empirically estimate this model......We argue that in the presence of transaction costs, observed productivity measures may in many cases understate the true productivity, as production data seldom distinguish between resources entering the production process and resources of a similar type that are sacrificed for transaction costs....... Hence, both the absolute productivity measures and, more importantly, the productivity ranking will be distorted. A major driver of transaction costs is poor access to information and contract enforcement assistance. Social networks often catalyse information exchange as well as generate trust...

  7. Production of solidified high level wastes: a cost comparison of solidification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    Differential cost estimates of the annual operating and maintenance costs and the capital costs for five HLW Waste Solidification Alternates were developed. The annual operating and maintenance cost estimates included the cost of labor, consumables, utilities, shipping casks, shipping and disposal at a federal repository. The capital cost included the cost of the component, installation and building. The differential cost estimates do not include equipment and facilities which are either shared with the reprocessing facility or are common between all of the alternates. Total annual cost differential between the five waste form alternates is summarized in tabular form. The Borosilicate Glass Alternate has the lowest total annual cost. The other alternates have higher costs which range from $6.6 M to $7.4 M per year higher than the Glass alternate with the Supercalcine being the highest cost at $7.4 M per year differential. The major items in the cost estimates are then disposal costs in the operating cost estimates and the HLW Storage Tanks in the capital cost estimates. The Supercalcine Multibarrier Alternate ships 180 canisters per year more than the other alternates and consequently has a significantly higher operating cost. However, off-setting this the Supercalcine Multibarrier Alternate does not require HLW Storage Tanks for decay because of the high heat conductivity of this product and correspondingly the capital cost for this alternate is significantly lower than the other alternates. The radiological risk values are correlated with the cost evaluation normalized to cost ($)/MWe-yr

  8. Bridging environmental and financial cost of dairy production: A case study of Irish agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenhao; Holden, Nicholas M

    2018-02-15

    The Irish agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' is a roadmap for sectoral expansion and Irish dairy farming is expected to intensify, which could influence the environmental and economic performance of Irish milk production. Evaluating the total environmental impacts and the real cost of Irish milk production is a key step towards understanding the possibility of sustainable production. This paper addresses two main issues: aggregation of environmental impacts of Irish milk production by monetization, to understand the real cost of Irish milk production, including the environmental costs; and the effect of the agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' on total cost (combining financial cost and environmental cost) of Irish milk production. This study used 2013 Irish dairy farming as a baseline, and defined 'bottom', 'target' and 'optimum' scenarios, according to the change of elementary inputs required to meet agricultural policy ambitions. The study demonstrated that the three monetization methods, Stepwise 2006, Eco-cost 2012 and EPS 2000, could be used for aggregating different environmental impacts into monetary unit, and to provide an insight for evaluating policy related to total environmental performance. The results showed that the total environmental cost of Irish milk production could be greater than the financial cost (up to €0.53/kg energy corrected milk). The dairy expansion policy with improved herbage utilization and fertilizer application could reduce financial cost and minimize the total environmental cost of per unit milk produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Production Cost Efficiency and Profitability of Abakaliki Rice in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2014-11-17

    Nov 17, 2014 ... positive and significant effect on the total cost of rice production. They were all significant ... failure is experienced due to the flooded rice field. In addition ... for random effects on production beyond the control .... Standard error.

  10. Cost management and cross-functional communication through product architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwerink, Ruud; Wouters, Marc; Hissel, Paul; Kerssens-van Drongelen, I.C.

    2007-01-01

    Product architecture decisions regarding, for example, product modularity, component commonality, and design re-use, are important for balancing costs, responsiveness, quality, and other important business objectives. Firms are challenged with complex tradeoffs between competing design priorities,

  11. Estimating productivity costs using the friction cost approach in practice: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigozi, Jesse; Jowett, Sue; Lewis, Martyn; Barton, Pelham; Coast, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The choice of the most appropriate approach to valuing productivity loss has received much debate in the literature. The friction cost approach has been proposed as a more appropriate alternative to the human capital approach when valuing productivity loss, although its application remains limited. This study reviews application of the friction cost approach in health economic studies and examines how its use varies in practice across different country settings. A systematic review was performed to identify economic evaluation studies that have estimated productivity costs using the friction cost approach and published in English from 1996 to 2013. A standard template was developed and used to extract information from studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The search yielded 46 studies from 12 countries. Of these, 28 were from the Netherlands. Thirty-five studies reported the length of friction period used, with only 16 stating explicitly the source of the friction period. Nine studies reported the elasticity correction factor used. The reported friction cost approach methods used to derive productivity costs varied in quality across studies from different countries. Few health economic studies have estimated productivity costs using the friction cost approach. The estimation and reporting of productivity costs using this method appears to differ in quality by country. The review reveals gaps and lack of clarity in reporting of methods for friction cost evaluation. Generating reporting guidelines and country-specific parameters for the friction cost approach is recommended if increased application and accuracy of the method is to be realized.

  12. Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector. Costs of Production, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report contains 121 tables that estimate the costs of production of various commodities on United States farms in 1986. The report first assesses costs and returns on a per-unit basis, such as one acre or one animal, under three sections of a budget: cash receipts, cash expenses, and economic costs. The budgets are based on national…

  13. The contemporary art of cost management methods during product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, M.; Morales, S.; Epstein, M.J.; Lee, J.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To provide an overview of research published in the management accounting literature on methods for cost management in new product development, such as a target costing, life cycle costing, component commonality, and modular design. Methodology/approach The structured literature search

  14. Environmental management requirements/defensible costs project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) used a systems engineering approach to develop the first formal requirements baseline for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Management (EM) Programs. The recently signed Settlement Agreement with the State of Idaho (Batt Agreement), along with dramatically reduced EM funding targets from Department of Energy (DOE) headquarters, drove the immediacy of this effort. Programs have linked top-level requirements to work scope to cost estimates. All EM work, grouped by decision units, was scrubbed by INEL EM programs and by an independent open-quotes Murder Board.close quotes Direct participation of upper level management from LITCO and the DOE-Idaho Operations Office ensured best information and decisions. The result is a scrubbed down, defensible budget tied to top-level requirements for use in the upcoming DOE-Headquarters' budget workout, the Internal Review Board, the FY98 Activity Data Sheets submittal, and preparation of the FY97 control accounts and out-year plans. In addition to the remarkable accomplishments during the past eight weeks, major issues were identified and documented and follow-on tasks are underway which will lead to further improvements in INEL EM program management

  15. Environmental management requirements/defensible costs project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) used a systems engineering approach to develop the first formal requirements baseline for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Management (EM) Programs. The recently signed Settlement Agreement with the State of Idaho (Batt Agreement), along with dramatically reduced EM funding targets from Department of Energy (DOE) headquarters, drove the immediacy of this effort. Programs have linked top-level requirements to work scope to cost estimates. All EM work, grouped by decision units, was scrubbed by INEL EM programs and by an independent {open_quotes}Murder Board.{close_quotes} Direct participation of upper level management from LITCO and the DOE-Idaho Operations Office ensured best information and decisions. The result is a scrubbed down, defensible budget tied to top-level requirements for use in the upcoming DOE-Headquarters` budget workout, the Internal Review Board, the FY98 Activity Data Sheets submittal, and preparation of the FY97 control accounts and out-year plans. In addition to the remarkable accomplishments during the past eight weeks, major issues were identified and documented and follow-on tasks are underway which will lead to further improvements in INEL EM program management.

  16. External costs of electricity production: recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutier, D.

    1995-01-01

    The external costs of energy use, or the environmental effects not included in the market pricing system, must at some point be borne by society. This paper argues that the true cost of energy, including the remedying or prevention of its environmetnal consequences, should be included in the price paid by the consumer as this is the only effective method of minimizing the burden of environmental damage. The difficulties of quantifying the value of such damage and internalising it within power prices is described with reference to work in a number of countries. (UK)

  17. INTEGRATED COST MODEL FOR IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION IN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Hajduova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: All processes in the company play important role in ensuring functional integrated management system. We point out the importance of need for a systematic approach to the use of quantitative, but especially statistical methods for modelling the cost of the improvement activities that are part of an integrated management system. Development of integrated management systems worldwide leads towards building of systematic procedures of implementation maintenance and improvement of all systems according to the requirements of all the sides involved.Methodology: Statistical evaluation of the economic indicators of improvement costs and the need for a systematic approach to their management in terms of integrated management systems have become a key role also in the management of processes in the company Cu Drôt, a.s. The aim of this publication is to highlight the importance of proper implementation of statistical methods in the process of improvement costs management in the integrated management system of current market conditions and document the legitimacy of a systematic approach in the area of monitoring and analysing indicators of improvement with the aim of the efficient process management of company. We provide specific example of the implementation of appropriate statistical methods in the production of copper wire in a company Cu Drôt, a.s. This publication also aims to create a model for the estimation of integrated improvement costs, which through the use of statistical methods in the company Cu Drôt, a.s. is used to support decision-making on improving efficiency.Findings: In the present publication, a method for modelling the improvement process, by an integrated manner, is proposed. It is a method in which the basic attributes of the improvement in quality, safety and environment are considered and synergistically combined in the same improvement project. The work examines the use of sophisticated quantitative, especially

  18. Cost Estimates Of Concentrated Photovoltaic Heat Sink Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    PV), return on investment (ROI) 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 59 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY...improvements increase overall system returns on investment and 11 provide pathways for further reduction in system costs (Phillips et al., 2015). Phillips...generation. As the CPV market has matured, production costs have come down to near flat-panel photovoltaic (PV) production costs. CPV units

  19. Comparison of fuel production costs for future transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    The purpose of this poster is to provide an overview of fuel production costs for two types of synthetic fuels – methanol and methane, along with comparable costs for first and second generation biodiesel, two types of second generation bioethanol, and biogas. The model analysed is a 100% renewable...... scenario of Denmark for 2050, where the data for the transport sector has been changed to estimate the fuel production costs for eight different fuel pathways....

  20. Cost and price estimate of Brayton and Stirling engines in selected production volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortgang, H. R.; Mayers, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    The methods used to determine the production costs and required selling price of Brayton and Stirling engines modified for use in solar power conversion units are presented. Each engine part, component and assembly was examined and evaluated to determine the costs of its material and the method of manufacture based on specific annual production volumes. Cost estimates are presented for both the Stirling and Brayton engines in annual production volumes of 1,000, 25,000, 100,000 and 400,000. At annual production volumes above 50,000 units, the costs of both engines are similar, although the Stirling engine costs are somewhat lower. It is concluded that modifications to both the Brayton and Stirling engine designs could reduce the estimated costs.

  1. Unit labour costs, productivity and international competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ark, Bart van; Stuivenwold, Edwin; Ypma, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides international comparisons of relative levels of unit labour costs (ULC) for several OECD countries relative to the United States. The estimates are based on the Total Economy Database and the 60-Industry Database of the Groningen Growth and Development Centre (GGDC), and are also

  2. Cost Functions for Airframe Production Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    0 : 666QOOO 66u666=6L66 𔃺" ~ JM. ~ ~ OJ M %~ 0v Z𔃾:O 14% tqv6 Z6 6 𔃺 *1 199 REFERENCES 1. Alchian, Armen A. "Costs and Outputs." In, The...Allocation of Economic Resources, Edited by Moses Abramovitz. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1959. 2. Alchian, Armen A. "Reliability of

  3. Cost, production and effectiveness of masticated fireline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Dodson; Dana Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Fire managers are continuously looking for improved methods to construct fireline with minimal resource damage. One option for fireline construction that has so far received limited attention is the use of mastication equipment. This study evaluated a masticating disk mounted on a self-leveling feller- buncher for the cost, speed, and adherence to fireline...

  4. Energy requirement and economic analysis of citrus production in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Burhan E-mail: bozkan@akdeniz.edu.tr; Akcaoz, Handan; Karadeniz, Feyza

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the energy requirements of the inputs and output in citrus production in the Antalya province of Turkey. Data for the production of citrus fruits (orange, lemon and mandarin) were collected from 105 citrus farms by using a face to face questionnaire method. The research results revealed that lemon production was the most energy intensive among the three fruits investigated. The energy input of chemical fertilizer (49.68%), mainly nitrogen, has the biggest share in the total energy inputs followed by Diesel (30.79%). The lemon production consumed a total of 62 977.87 MJ/ha followed by orange and mandarin with 60 949.69 and 48 838.17 MJ/ha, respectively. The energy ratios for orange, mandarin and lemon were estimated to be 1.25, 1.17 and 1.06, respectively. On average, the non-renewable form of energy input was 95.90% of the total energy input used in citrus production compared to only 3.74% for the renewable form. The benefit-cost ratio was the highest in orange production (2.37) followed by lemon. The results indicate that orange production in the research area is most remunerative to growers compared to lemon and mandarin.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of combustion turbines: recommendations for reliability, maintainability, supportability and maintenance requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuwisse, C.; Despujols, A. [Electricite de France, Research and Development Division, Chatou (France); Givaudan, B. [Electricite de France, Research and Development Division - SEPTEN, Villeurbanne (France); Lafage, L. [Electricite de France, Engineering and Construction Division - CNET, Paris (France)

    1998-12-31

    The profitability of combustion turbines intended for export is of extreme importance for Electricite de France. It is principally during the development phase of a project that one can ensure resect of two indissociable factors, essential to the per-kWh production cost: global operating costs and performance in terms of reliability and availability. The approach proposed here advocates the global acquisition of the installation and its logistic support. Generally applicable recommendations are given. They enable integrating in the future plant specifications all requirements relative to plant reliability, availability, maintainability and logistic support. They are structured according to type: expression of needs and management factors. (orig.) 4 refs.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of combustion turbines: recommendations for reliability, maintainability, supportability and maintenance requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuwisse, C; Despujols, A [Electricite de France, Research and Development Division, Chatou (France); Givaudan, B [Electricite de France, Research and Development Division - SEPTEN, Villeurbanne (France); Lafage, L [Electricite de France, Engineering and Construction Division - CNET, Paris (France)

    1999-12-31

    The profitability of combustion turbines intended for export is of extreme importance for Electricite de France. It is principally during the development phase of a project that one can ensure resect of two indissociable factors, essential to the per-kWh production cost: global operating costs and performance in terms of reliability and availability. The approach proposed here advocates the global acquisition of the installation and its logistic support. Generally applicable recommendations are given. They enable integrating in the future plant specifications all requirements relative to plant reliability, availability, maintainability and logistic support. They are structured according to type: expression of needs and management factors. (orig.) 4 refs.

  7. Production and cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting small-diameter (< 5 inches) trees for energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei Pan; Han-Sup Han; Leonard R. Johnson; William J. Elliot

    2008-01-01

    Dense, small-diameter stands generally require thinning from below to improve fire-tolerance. The resulting forest biomass can be used for energy production. The cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting small-diameter trees often exceeds revenues due to high costs associated with harvesting and transportation and low market values for forest biomass....

  8. Assessing the cost saving potential of shared product architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Løkkegaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    company. Experiences from the case company show it is possible to reduce the number of architectures with 60% which leads to significant reduction in direct material and labor costs. This can be achieved without compromising the market offerings of products. Experiences from the case study indicate cost......This article presents a method for calculating cost savings of shared architectures in industrial companies called Architecture Mapping and Evaluation. The main contribution is an operational method to evaluate the cost potential and evaluate the number of product architectures in an industrial...

  9. Cogeneration Power Plants: a Proposed Methodology for Unitary Production Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metalli, E.

    2009-01-01

    A new methodology to evaluate unitary energetic production costs in the cogeneration power plants is proposed. This methodology exploits the energy conversion factors fixed by Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas. So it allows to settle such unitary costs univocally for a given plant, without assigning them a priori subjective values when there are two or more energy productions at the same time. Moreover the proposed methodology always ensures positive values for these costs, complying with the total generation cost balance equation. [it

  10. Reactors Save Energy, Costs for Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    While examining fuel-reforming technology for fuel cells onboard aircraft, Glenn Research Center partnered with Garrettsville, Ohio-based Catacel Corporation through the Glenn Alliance Technology Exchange program and a Space Act Agreement. Catacel developed a stackable structural reactor that is now employed for commercial hydrogen production and results in energy savings of about 20 percent.

  11. EFFECTIVE SAVINGS IN PRODUCTION TIMES AND COST

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    lamination process itself [5,6,7]. The purpose of this work is to fully expose, by means of experimental data, the ... takes staff to laminate such work piece (in cases of handlay-up processes) and machines. (for resin injection .... The unfinished layer of mat being laminated usually result in laminate products with rough surfaces ...

  12. Vertical governance change and product differentiation under decreasing component costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Huisman, K.J.M.; Kok, de A.G.

    In deciding on whether and when to outsource component production, firms should consider the trade-off between total production costs and the ability to horizontally differentiate products. We study the outsourcing decision in a duopoly under decreasing but uncertain market rates for components,

  13. Vertical governance change and product differentiation under decreasing component costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Huisman, K.J.M.; Kok, A.G. de

    2015-01-01

    In deciding on whether and when to outsource component production, firms should consider the trade-off between total production costs and the ability to horizontally differentiate products. We study the outsourcing decision in a duopoly under decreasing but uncertain market rates for components,

  14. The Production Effect: Costs and Benefits in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angela C.; Pyc, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    The production effect, the memorial benefit for information read aloud versus silently, has been touted as a simple memory improvement tool. The current experiments were designed to evaluate the relative costs and benefits of production using a free recall paradigm. Results extend beyond prior work showing a production effect only when production…

  15. Critical Research for Cost-Effective Photoelectrochemical Production of Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Liwei [Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC, Toledo, OH (United States); Deng, Xunming [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Abken, Anka [Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC, Toledo, OH (United States); Cao, Xinmin [Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC, Toledo, OH (United States); Du, Wenhui [Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC, Toledo, OH (United States); Vijh, Aarohi [Xunlight Corporation, Toledo, OH (United States); Ingler, William [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Chen, Changyong [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Fan, Qihua [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Collins, Robert [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Compaan, Alvin [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Yan, Yanfa [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Giolando, Dean [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Turner, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-10-29

    The objective of this project is to develop critical technologies required for cost-effective production of hydrogen from sunlight and water using a-Si triple junction solar cell based photo-electrodes. In this project, Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC (MWOE) and its collaborating organizations utilize triple junction a-Si thin film solar cells as the core element to fabricate photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells. Triple junction a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe solar cell is an ideal material for making cost-effective PEC system which uses sun light to split water and generate hydrogen. It has the following key features: 1) It has an open circuit voltage (Voc ) of ~ 2.3V and has an operating voltage around 1.6V. This is ideal for water splitting. There is no need to add a bias voltage or to inter-connect more than one solar cell. 2) It is made by depositing a-Si/a-SiGe/aSi-Ge thin films on a conducting stainless steel substrate which can serve as an electrode. When we immerse the triple junction solar cells in an electrolyte and illuminate it under sunlight, the voltage is large enough to split the water, generating oxygen at the Si solar cell side (for SS/n-i-p/sunlight structure) and hydrogen at the back, which is stainless steel side. There is no need to use a counter electrode or to make any wire connection. 3) It is being produced in large rolls of 3ft wide and up to 5000 ft long stainless steel web in a 25MW roll-to-roll production machine. Therefore it can be produced at a very low cost. After several years of research with many different kinds of material, we have developed promising transparent, conducting and corrosion resistant (TCCR) coating material; we carried out extensive research on oxygen and hydrogen generation catalysts, developed methods to make PEC electrode from production-grade a-Si solar cells; we have designed and tested various PEC module cases and carried out extensive outdoor testing; we were able to obtain a solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency (STH

  16. 76 FR 35218 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Cost or Pricing Data Requirements and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Pricing Data, by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov : http://www.regulations.gov . Submit...; Information Collection; Cost or Pricing Data Requirements and Information Other Than Cost or Pricing Data... concerning cost or pricing data requirements and information other than cost or pricing data. Public comments...

  17. Antimatter Requirements and Energy Costs for Near-Term Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G. R.; Gerrish, H. P.; Martin, J. J.; Smith, G. A.; Meyer, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    The superior energy density of antimatter annihilation has often been pointed to as the ultimate source of energy for propulsion. However, the limited capacity and very low efficiency of present-day antiproton production methods suggest that antimatter may be too costly to consider for near-term propulsion applications. We address this issue by assessing the antimatter requirements for six different types of propulsion concepts, including two in which antiprotons are used to drive energy release from combined fission/fusion. These requirements are compared against the capacity of both the current antimatter production infrastructure and the improved capabilities that could exist within the early part of next century. Results show that although it may be impractical to consider systems that rely on antimatter as the sole source of propulsive energy, the requirements for propulsion based on antimatter-assisted fission/fusion do fall within projected near-term production capabilities. In fact, a new facility designed solely for antiproton production but based on existing technology could feasibly support interstellar precursor missions and omniplanetary spaceflight with antimatter costs ranging up to $6.4 million per mission.

  18. Low-cost process for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.; Bauer, Hans F.; Grimes, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    A method is provided for producing hydrogen and carbon black from hydrocarbon gases comprising mixing the hydrocarbon gases with a source of carbon and applying radiofrequency energy to the mixture. The hydrocarbon gases and the carbon can both be the products of gasification of coal, particularly the mild gasification of coal. A method is also provided for producing hydrogen an carbon monoxide by treating a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and steam with radio-frequency energy.

  19. Microalgal CO2 sequestering – Modeling microalgae production costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilanovic, Dragoljub; Holland, Mark; Armon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Microalgae production costs were modeled as a function of specific expenses. ► The effects of uncontrollable expenses/factors were incorporated into the model. ► Modeled microalgae production costs were in the range $102–1503 t −1 ha −1 y −1 . - Abstract: Microalgae CO 2 sequestering facilities might become an industrial reality if microalgae biomass could be produced at cost below $500.00 t −1 . We develop a model for estimation of total production costs of microalgae as a function of known production-specific expenses, and incorporate into the model the effects of uncontrollable factors which affect known production-specific expenses. Random fluctuations were intentionally incorporated into the model, consequently into generated cost/technology scenarios, because each and every logically interconnected equipment/operation that is used in design/construction/operation/maintenance of a production process is inevitably subject to random cost/price fluctuations which can neither be eliminated nor a priori controlled. A total of 152 costs/technology scenarios were evaluated to find 44 scenarios in which predicted total production costs of microalgae (PTPCM) was in the range $200–500 t −1 ha −1 y −1 . An additional 24 scenarios were found with PTCPM in the range of $102–200 t −1 ha −1 y −1 . These findings suggest that microalgae CO 2 sequestering and the production of commercial compounds from microalgal biomass can be economically viable venture even today when microalgae production technology is still far from its optimum.

  20. Activity-based costing evaluation of [18F]-fludeoxyglucose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Bruno; Van Zanten, Annie; Pirson, Anne-Sophie; Crott, Ralph; Vander Borght, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    As healthcare expenses are escalating in many countries, the sector faces a new challenge of becoming more cost efficient. There is an urgent need for more accurate data on the costs of healthcare procedures. The cost of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [(18)F]-fludeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) studies is mainly influenced by the price of the radiopharmaceutical, which may vary throughout Europe from 300 to 500 Euro per patient dose (370 MBq). The aim of the current study is to conduct an activity-based costing (ABC) estimation of (18)F-FDG production in Europe to better identify the different cost components and to analyse their relative contribution to the total cost. Financial data were collected on capital expense and global operating costs through interviews with industry experts, PET centre managers, evaluation of prior studies, and review of expenses incurred at the University Medical Centre in Groningen (The Netherlands). After mapping the activities, we divided the cost in five categories: wage, equipment, consumables, overhead and space costs. A sensitivity analysis was performed for key cost components, including the compliance with regulatory requirements. The critical factor for profitability was throughput. Including the European regulation procedure, the cost for 370 MBq (18)F-FDG patient dose, 3 h EOS without delivery cost, ranges between 155 and 177 Euro/dose for two production runs and between 210 and 237 Euro/dose for one production run. These costs are predominantly determined by personnel and equipment costs, although the cost for quality assurance increases steadily. The ABC analysis provides significant insight into the production cost components of (18)F-FDG through different operating configurations. Reductions in equipment prices, increased availability of radiopharmaceuticals, growth in demand, and improvements in reimbursement will all contribute to the financial viability of this imaging technique.

  1. Activity-based costing evaluation of [18F]-fludeoxyglucose production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, Bruno; Pirson, Anne-Sophie; Borght, Thierry vander; Zanten, Annie van; Crott, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    As healthcare expenses are escalating in many countries, the sector faces a new challenge of becoming more cost efficient. There is an urgent need for more accurate data on the costs of healthcare procedures. The cost of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [ 18 F]-fludeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) studies is mainly influenced by the price of the radiopharmaceutical, which may vary throughout Europe from 300 to 500 Euro per patient dose (370 MBq). The aim of the current study is to conduct an activity-based costing (ABC) estimation of 18 F-FDG production in Europe to better identify the different cost components and to analyse their relative contribution to the total cost. Financial data were collected on capital expense and global operating costs through interviews with industry experts, PET centre managers, evaluation of prior studies, and review of expenses incurred at the University Medical Centre in Groningen (The Netherlands). After mapping the activities, we divided the cost in five categories: wage, equipment, consumables, overhead and space costs. A sensitivity analysis was performed for key cost components, including the compliance with regulatory requirements. The critical factor for profitability was throughput. Including the European regulation procedure, the cost for 370 MBq 18 F-FDG patient dose, 3 h EOS without delivery cost, ranges between 155 and 177 Euro/dose for two production runs and between 210 and 237 Euro/dose for one production run. These costs are predominantly determined by personnel and equipment costs, although the cost for quality assurance increases steadily. The ABC analysis provides significant insight into the production cost components of 18 F-FDG through different operating configurations. Reductions in equipment prices, increased availability of radiopharmaceuticals, growth in demand, and improvements in reimbursement will all contribute to the financial viability of this imaging technique. (orig.)

  2. Production-Built Homes: The Cost Advantages of Smart Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study identifies the components and techniques of home building in traditional versus conventional developments, and attempts to help production builders better understand the cost differences between the two types of developments.

  3. Low-Cost Production of Photonic Bandgap Materials Through Bubbling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Brien, Daniel J; Wetzel, Eric D

    2007-01-01

    .... This report proposes a simple low-cost method for PBGM production. A device has been constructed that produces micrometer-sized, monodisperse bubbles that can be assembled into a crystal lattice by surface tension...

  4. Impact of timber production and transport costs on stand management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; Chris B. LeDoux

    1988-01-01

    Evaluates the impact of cable logging technology, transportation network standards, and transport vehicles on stand management. Managers can use results to understand the impact of timber production costs on eastern hardwood management.

  5. Transaction costs and social networks in productivity measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Henning, Christian H. C. A.

    2015-01-01

    . Hence, both the absolute productivity measures and, more importantly, the productivity ranking will be distorted. A major driver of transaction costs is poor access to information and contract enforcement assistance. Social networks often catalyse information exchange as well as generate trust...... and support. Hence, we use measures of a firm’s access to social networks as a proxy for the transaction costs the firm faces. We develop a microeconomic production model that takes into account transaction costs and networks. Using a data set of 384 Polish farms, we empirically estimate this model...... and compare different parametric, semiparametric, and nonparametric model specifications. Our results generally support our hypothesis. Especially, large trading networks and dense household networks have a positive influence on a farm’s productivity. Furthermore, our results indicate that transaction costs...

  6. Cost-efficiency of animal welfare in broiler production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, Éva; Brooshooft, Suzanne D.; Jong, de Ingrid C.; Saatkamp, Helmut W.

    2016-01-01

    Broiler producers operate in a highly competitive and cost-price driven environment. In addition, in recent years the societal pressure to improve animal welfare (AW) in broiler production systems is increasing. Hence, from an economic and decision making point of view, the cost-efficiency of

  7. Fixed export costs and multi-product firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusen, H.; Smeets, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper has two aims. First, we uncover some salient components of fixed export costs, which play a crucial role in recent heterogeneous firms models of international trade. Second, we investigate whether the importance of these fixed export costs varies with the size of a firms export product

  8. Productivity and Cost Comparison of Two Different-Sized Skidders

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Klepac; Robert B. Rummer

    2000-01-01

    Productivity and cost of two skidders, Timberjack models 460 and 660, were evaluated while operatin in a loblolly pine plantation performin a clearcut harvest in the Southeastern US. Productivity without delimbing was 46.7 tonnes per PMH for the model 460 and 51.7 tonnes per PMH for the model 660. Cost per tonne was $1.70 for the model 460 and $1.90 for the model 660....

  9. Production costs of the Mexican poultry and pig sector

    OpenAIRE

    Horne, van, Peter; Hoste, Robert; Wagenberg, van, Coen

    2018-01-01

    Wageningen Economic Research conducted a study on the potential consequences of a free trade agreement between Mexico and the EU. The Dutch government is concerned that giving access to products from countries with a lower level of animal welfare could undermine the EU welfare standard. This study shows that production costs are lower in Mexico compared to the EU in all three sectors investigated: egg production, poultry meat and pig meat. In egg production in particular, the welfare standard...

  10. 40 CFR 158.310 - Product chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PAI TGAI or PA 9, 21 830.7300 Density/relative density/bulk density R MP and TGAI EP and TGAI 9 830... an oxidizing or reducing agent. 14. Required when the product contains combustible liquids. 15. Required when the product is potentially explosive. 16. Required when the product is an emulsifiable liquid...

  11. APPLICABILITY OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING IN NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wanda MARUSZEWSKA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to emphasis that activity based costing is a proper tool for engineers to enhance their deci-sion-making process while developing new product. The theoretical analysis shows that variety of factors shall be en-compassed into new product decision-making process and therefore engineers and management should pay great attention to proper cost allocation. The paper suggests the usage of Activity Based Costing methodology for new product development decision-making process. Author states that application ABC in the process of rational decision-making referring to new product development enables managers and engineers to prioritize possible solutions, and reallocate resources used in production process in order to meet wider organizational goals. It would also contribute in coopera-tion of managers and engineers for the sake of organizational goal.

  12. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  13. Time Domain Partitioning of Electricity Production Cost Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hummon, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hale, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Production cost models are often used for planning by simulating power system operations over long time horizons. The simulation of a day-ahead energy market can take several weeks to compute. Tractability improvements are often made through model simplifications, such as: reductions in transmission modeling detail, relaxation of commitment variable integrality, reductions in cost modeling detail, etc. One common simplification is to partition the simulation horizon so that weekly or monthly horizons can be simulated in parallel. However, horizon partitions are often executed with overlap periods of arbitrary and sometimes zero length. We calculate the time domain persistence of historical unit commitment decisions to inform time domain partitioning of production cost models. The results are implemented using PLEXOS production cost modeling software in an HPC environment to improve the computation time of simulations while maintaining solution integrity.

  14. Low-cost production of solar-cell panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D.; Sanchez, L. E.

    1980-01-01

    Large-scale production model combines most modern manufacturing techniques to produce silicon-solar-cell panels of low costs by 1982. Model proposes facility capable of operating around the clock with annual production capacity of 20 W of solar cell panels.

  15. Cost effective pilot scale production of biofertilizer using Rhizobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We standardized the protocol for pilot scale production of Rhizobium and Azotobacter biofertilizer technology using region specific and environmental stress compatible strains isolated from various agro climatic regions of Odisha, India. The cost benefit of biofertilizer production through a cottage industry is also presented.

  16. Cost and Return Analysis of Ginger Production in the Guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focuses on the cost and return analysis of ginger production in the guinea savannah agro ecology of Nigeria. The study is aimed at highlighting the profitability of ginger production with a view to informing and influencing farmers and relevant stakeholders. The study was conducted at Kajuru, Kaduna state in the ...

  17. MANUFACTURING PRICES, PRODUCTIVITY, AND LABOR COSTS IN 5 ECONOMIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANARK, B

    The United States continues to surge ahead of other major industrial economies in terms of lower prices, higher levels of labor productivity, and better unit labor cost performance; while the depreciation of the dollar plays an important role, real productivity gains are important as well.

  18. Workplace smoking related absenteeism and productivity costs in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S P; Wen, C P; Hu, S C; Cheng, T Y; Huang, S J

    2005-06-01

    To estimate productivity losses and financial costs to employers caused by cigarette smoking in the Taiwan workplace. The human capital approach was used to calculate lost productivity. Assuming the value of lost productivity was equal to the wage/salary rate and basing the calculations on smoking rate in the workforce, average days of absenteeism, average wage/salary rate, and increased risk and absenteeism among smokers obtained from earlier research, costs due to smoker absenteeism were estimated. Financial losses caused by passive smoking, smoking breaks, and occupational injuries were calculated. Using a conservative estimate of excess absenteeism from work, male smokers took off an average of 4.36 sick days and male non-smokers took off an average of 3.30 sick days. Female smokers took off an average of 4.96 sick days and non-smoking females took off an average of 3.75 sick days. Excess absenteeism caused by employee smoking was estimated to cost USD 178 million per annum for males and USD 6 million for females at a total cost of USD 184 million per annum. The time men and women spent taking smoking breaks amounted to nine days per year and six days per year, respectively, resulting in reduced output productivity losses of USD 733 million. Increased sick leave costs due to passive smoking were approximately USD 81 million. Potential costs incurred from occupational injuries among smoking employees were estimated to be USD 34 million. Financial costs caused by increased absenteeism and reduced productivity from employees who smoke are significant in Taiwan. Based on conservative estimates, total costs attributed to smoking in the workforce were approximately USD 1032 million.

  19. The cost of productivity losses associated with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal-Peters, J; Crown, W H; Goetzel, R Z; Schutt, D C

    2000-03-01

    To measure the cost of absenteeism and reduced productivity associated with allergic rhinitis. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) was used to obtain information on days lost from work and lost productivity due to allergic rhinitis. Wage estimates for occupations obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) were used to calculate the costs. Productivity losses associated with a diagnosis of allergic rhinitis in the 1995 NHIS were estimated to be $601 million. When additional survey information on the use of sedating over-the-counter (OTC) allergy medications, as well as workers' self-assessments of their reduction in at-work productivity due to allergic rhinitis, were considered, the estimated productivity loss increased dramatically. At-work productivity losses were estimated to range from $2.4 billion to $4.6 billion. Despite the inherent difficulty of measuring productivity losses, our lowest estimate is several times higher than previous estimates of the indirect medical costs associated with allergic rhinitis treatment. The most significant productivity losses resulted not from absenteeism but from reduced at-work productivity associated with the use of sedating OTC antihistamines.

  20. 48 CFR 215.404-74 - Fee requirements for cost-plus-award-fee contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fee requirements for cost... NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.404-74 Fee requirements for cost-plus-award-fee contracts. In developing a fee objective for cost-plus-award-fee contracts, the contracting officer shall— (a) Follow the...

  1. 48 CFR 1352.228-71 - Deductibles under required insurance coverage-cost reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... insurance coverage-cost reimbursement. 1352.228-71 Section 1352.228-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Provisions and Clauses 1352.228-71 Deductibles under required insurance coverage—cost reimbursement. As... Coverage—Cost Reimbursement (APR 2010) (a) The contractor is required to present evidence of the amount of...

  2. Weapon System Requirements: Detailed Systems Engineering Prior to Product Development Positions Programs for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    modified, replaced, or sustained by consumers or different manufacturers in addition to the manufacturer that developed the system. It also allows...WEAPON SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS Detailed Systems Engineering Prior to Product Development Positions Programs for Success...Engineering Prior to Product Development Positions Programs for Success Why GAO Did This Study Cost and schedule growth in DOD major defense

  3. A roadmap for cost-of-goods planning to guide economic production of cell therapy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsitz, Yonatan Y; Milligan, William D; Fitzpatrick, Ian; Stalmeijer, Evelien; Farid, Suzanne S; Tan, Kah Yong; Smith, David; Perry, Robert; Carmen, Jessica; Chen, Allen; Mooney, Charles; Fink, John

    2017-12-01

    Cell therapy products are frequently developed and produced without incorporating cost considerations into process development, contributing to prohibitively costly products. Herein we contextualize individual process development decisions within a broad framework for cost-efficient therapeutic manufacturing. This roadmap guides the analysis of cost of goods (COG) arising from tissue procurement, material acquisition, facility operation, production, and storage. We present the specific COG considerations related to each of these elements as identified through a 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy COG survey, highlighting the differences between autologous and allogeneic products. Planning and accounting for COG at each step in the production process could reduce costs, allowing for more affordable market pricing to improve the long-term viability of the cell therapy product and facilitate broader patient access to novel and transformative cell therapies. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cost minimization in a full-scale conventional wastewater treatment plant: associated costs of biological energy consumption versus sludge production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sid, S; Volant, A; Lesage, G; Heran, M

    2017-11-01

    Energy consumption and sludge production minimization represent rising challenges for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The goal of this study is to investigate how energy is consumed throughout the whole plant and how operating conditions affect this energy demand. A WWTP based on the activated sludge process was selected as a case study. Simulations were performed using a pre-compiled model implemented in GPS-X simulation software. Model validation was carried out by comparing experimental and modeling data of the dynamic behavior of the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration and nitrogen compounds concentration, energy consumption for aeration, mixing and sludge treatment and annual sludge production over a three year exercise. In this plant, the energy required for bioreactor aeration was calculated at approximately 44% of the total energy demand. A cost optimization strategy was applied by varying the MLSS concentrations (from 1 to 8 gTSS/L) while recording energy consumption, sludge production and effluent quality. An increase of MLSS led to an increase of the oxygen requirement for biomass aeration, but it also reduced total sludge production. Results permit identification of a key MLSS concentration allowing identification of the best compromise between levels of treatment required, biological energy demand and sludge production while minimizing the overall costs.

  5. 46 CFR 57.06-4 - Production testing specimen requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WELDING AND BRAZING Production Tests § 57.06-4 Production testing specimen requirements. (a) For test... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Production testing specimen requirements. 57.06-4... to welding shall not throw the finished test plate out of line by an angle of over 5°. (c) Where the...

  6. Cost of Maple Sap Production for Various Size Tubing Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niel K. Huyler

    2000-01-01

    Reports sap production costs for small (500 to 1,000 taps), medium (1,000 to 5,000), and large (5,000 to 15,000) maple syrup operations that use plastic tubing with vacuum pumping. The average annual operating cost per tap ranged from $4.64 for a 500-tap sugarbush operation to $1.84 for a sugarbush with 10,000 taps. The weighted average was $2.87 per tap or $11.48 per...

  7. Biomedical Requirements for High Productivity Computing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    differences in heart muscle structure between normal and brittle-boned mice suffering from osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) because of a deficiency in the protein...reached. In a typical comparative modeling exercise one would use a heuristic algorithm to determine possible sequences of interest, then the Smith...example exercise , require a description of the cellular events that create demands for oxygen. Having cellular level equations together with

  8. Cost Effective Technologies and Renewable Substrates for Biosurfactants’ Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M Banat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diverse types of microbial surface-active amphiphilic molecules are produced by a range of microbial communities. The extraordinary properties of biosurfactant / bioemulsifier (BS/BE as surface active products allows them to have key roles in various field of applications such as bioremediation, biodegradation, enhanced oil recovery, pharmaceutics, food processing among many others. This leads to a vast number of potential applications of these BS/BE in different industrial sectors. Despite the huge number of reports and patents describing BS and BE applications and advantages, commercialization of these compounds remain difficult, costly and to a large extent irregular. This is mainly due to the usage of chemically synthesized media for growing producing microorganism and in turn the production of preferred quality products. It is important to note that although a number of developments have taken place in the field of biosurfactant industries, large scale production remains economically challenging for many types of these products. This is mainly due to the huge monetary difference between the investment and achievable productivity from the commercial point of view. This review discusses low cost, renewable raw substrates and fermentation technology in BS/BE production processes and their role in reducing the production cost.

  9. 24 CFR 241.615 - Certification of cost requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., including any collateral agreements. (g) Certificate of public accountant. Where required by the... independent Certified Public Accountant or independent public accountant licensed by a regulatory authority of...

  10. 78 FR 78589 - Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... and approve new strategies for innovative program designs that improve cost-effectiveness and... Standards and Disclosure Statement, the threshold for IHEs to comply with Cost Accounting Standards is... appropriately in place for equipment over the threshold of $5,000 would create an administrative burden the cost...

  11. Electric plant cost and power production expenses 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    Electric Plant Cost and Power Production Expenses is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication presents electric utility statistics on power production expenses and construction costs of electric generating plants. Data presented here are intended to provide information to the electric utility industry, educational institutions, Federal, State, and local governments, and the general public. These data are collected and published to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act (Public Law 93-275), as amended

  12. Electric plant cost and power production expenses 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Electric Plant Cost and Power Production Expenses is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels (CNEAF); Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication presents electric utility statistics on power production expenses and construction costs of electric generating plants. Data presented here are intended to provide information to the electric utility industry, educational institutions, Federal, State, and local governments, and the general public. These data are collected and published to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act (Public Law 93-275), as amended

  13. Low cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Cinnamon, M.; Hamling, S.; Mahn, K.; Phillips, J.; Westmark, V.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes a low-cost approach to the manned exploration of Mars (which involves an unmanned mission followed two years later by a manned mission) based on near-term technologies and in situ propellant production. Particular attention is given to the basic mission architecture and its major components, including the orbital analysis, the unmanned segment, the Earth Return Vehicle, the aerobrake design, life sciences, guidance, communications, power, propellant production, the surface rovers, and Mars science. Also discussed are the cost per mission over an assumed 8-yr initiative.

  14. Analyzing the requirements for mass production of small wind turbine generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuskiewicz, T.; Asmussen, J.; Frankenfield, O.

    Mass producibility of small wind turbine generators to give manufacturers design and cost data for profitable production operations is discussed. A 15 kW wind turbine generator for production in annual volumes from 1,000 to 50,000 units is discussed. Methodology to cost the systems effectively is explained. The process estimate sequence followed is outlined with emphasis on the process estimate sheets compiled for each component and subsystem. These data enabled analysts to develop cost breakdown profiles crucial in manufacturing decision-making. The appraisal also led to various design recommendations including replacement of aluminum towers with cost effective carbon steel towers. Extensive cost information is supplied in tables covering subassemblies, capital requirements, and levelized energy costs. The physical layout of the plant is depicted to guide manufacturers in taking advantage of the growing business opportunity now offered in conjunction with the national need for energy development.

  15. 24 CFR 570.610 - Uniform administrative requirements and cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Uniform administrative requirements and cost principles. 570.610 Section 570.610 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... GRANTS Other Program Requirements § 570.610 Uniform administrative requirements and cost principles. The...

  16. Software Requirements for a System to Compute Mean Failure Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aissa, Anis Ben [University of Tunis, Belvedere, Tunisia; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Mili, Ali [New Jersey Insitute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    In earlier works, we presented a computational infrastructure that allows an analyst to estimate the security of a system in terms of the loss that each stakeholder. We also demonstrated this infrastructure through the results of security breakdowns for the ecommerce case. In this paper, we illustrate this infrastructure by an application that supports the computation of the Mean Failure Cost (MFC) for each stakeholder.

  17. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project: Cost Reduction and Productivity Improvement Program Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The purpose of the Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program Plan is to formalize and improve upon existing efforts to control costs which have been underway since project inception. This program plan has been coordinated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) and the DOE Field Office, Albuquerque (AL). It incorporates prior Uranium Mill Tallings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office guidance issued on the subject. The opportunities for reducing cosh and improving productivity are endless. The CR/PIP has these primary objectives: Improve productivity and quality; heighten the general cost consciousness of project participants, at all levels of their organizations; identify and implement specific innovative employee ideas that extend beyond what is required through existing processes and procedures; emphasize efforts that create additional value for the money spent by maintaining the project Total Estimated Cost (TEC) at the lowest possible level

  18. Security Requirements Management in Software Product Line Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, Daniel; Fernández-Medina, Eduardo; Piattini, Mario

    Security requirements engineering is both a central task and a critical success factor in product line development due to the complexity and extensive nature of product lines. However, most of the current product line practices in requirements engineering do not adequately address security requirements engineering. Therefore, in this chapter we will propose a security requirements engineering process (SREPPLine) driven by security standards and based on a security requirements decision model along with a security variability model to manage the variability of the artefacts related to security requirements. The aim of this approach is to deal with security requirements from the early stages of the product line development in a systematic way, in order to facilitate conformance with the most relevant security standards with regard to the management of security requirements, such as ISO/IEC 27001 and ISO/IEC 15408.

  19. Improving Power System Modeling. A Tool to Link Capacity Expansion and Production Cost Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diakov, Victor [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Capacity expansion models (CEM) provide a high-level long-term view at the prospects of the evolving power system. In simulating the possibilities of long-term capacity expansion, it is important to maintain the viability of power system operation in the short-term (daily, hourly and sub-hourly) scales. Production-cost models (PCM) simulate routine power system operation on these shorter time scales using detailed load, transmission and generation fleet data by minimizing production costs and following reliability requirements. When based on CEM 'predictions' about generating unit retirements and buildup, PCM provide more detailed simulation for the short-term system operation and, consequently, may confirm the validity of capacity expansion predictions. Further, production cost model simulations of a system that is based on capacity expansion model solution are 'evolutionary' sound: the generator mix is the result of logical sequence of unit retirement and buildup resulting from policy and incentives. The above has motivated us to bridge CEM with PCM by building a capacity expansion - to - production cost model Linking Tool (CEPCoLT). The Linking Tool is built to onset capacity expansion model prescriptions onto production cost model inputs. NREL's ReEDS and Energy Examplar's PLEXOS are the capacity expansion and the production cost models, respectively. Via the Linking Tool, PLEXOS provides details of operation for the regionally-defined ReEDS scenarios.

  20. Hydrogen Production Costs of Various Primary Energy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Tak, Nam Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Won Seok

    2005-11-01

    Many studies on the economical aspects of hydrogen energy technologies have been conducted with the increase of the technical and socioeconomic importance of the hydrogen energy. However, there is still no research which evaluates the economy of hydrogen production from the primary energy sources in consideration of Korean situations. In this study, the hydrogen production costs of major primary energy sources are compared in consideration of the Korean situations such as feedstock price, electricity rate, and load factor. The evaluation methodology is based on the report of the National Academy of Science (NAS) of U.S. The present study focuses on the possible future technology scenario defined by NAS. The scenario assumes technological improvement that may be achieved if present research and development (R and D) programs are successful. The production costs by the coal and natural gas are 1.1 $/kgH 2 and 1.36 $/kgH 2 , respectively. However, the fossil fuels are susceptible to the price variation depending on the oil and the raw material prices, and the hydrogen production cost also depends on the carbon tax. The economic competitiveness of the renewable energy sources such as the wind, solar, and biomass are relatively low when compared with that of the other energy sources. The estimated hydrogen production costs from the renewable energy sources range from 2.35 $/kgH 2 to 6.03 $/kgH 2 . On the other hand, the production cost by nuclear energy is lower than that of natural gas or coal when the prices of the oil and soft coal are above $50/barrel and 138 $/ton, respectively. Taking into consideration the recent rapid increase of the oil and soft coal prices and the limited fossil resource, the nuclear-hydrogen option appears to be the most economical way in the future

  1. Product costing practices in the North American hardwood component industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jan Wiedenbeck; Steve Lawser

    2011-01-01

    Companies, when bidding for jobs, need to be able to price products competitively while also assuring that the necessary profitability can be achieved. These goals, competitive pricing and profitability, cannot be reliably achieved unless industry participants possess a full understanding of their company's cost structure. Competitors blame companies without...

  2. Firm Productivity and Infrastructure Costs in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Iimi, Atsushi; Humphrey, Richard Martin; Melibaeva, Sevara

    2015-01-01

    Infrastructure is an important driving force for economic growth. It reduces trade and transaction costs and stimulates the productivity of the economy. Africa has been lagging behind in the global manufacturing market. Among others, infrastructure is an important constraint in many African countries. Using firm-level data for East Africa, the paper reexamines the relationship between firm ...

  3. Production, Cost and Chip Characteristics of In-Woods Microchipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Thompson; W. Sprinkle

    2013-01-01

    Emerging markets for biomass have increased the interest in producing microchips in the field. As a component of a large United States Department of Energy (DOE) funded project, microchipping has been trialed on a limited scale. The goal of the research was to evaluate the production, cost and chip characteristics of a mobile disc chipper configured to produce...

  4. Cost-effectiveness of ergonomic interventions in production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M.P. de; Koningsveld, E.P.A.; Fritzsche, L.; O'Sullivan, L.; Levizzari, A.

    2008-01-01

    Ergonomic measures to reduce or eliminate the risks for developing musculoskeletal disorders, usually affects the performance at work as well, e.g. productivity or quality. The costs and benefits that can be associated with ergonomic measures are highly diverse in nature. Prior to investing in any

  5. Accounting of allocation of production enterprises’ overhead costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.V. Ivaniuta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the complexity of engineering technological cycles, the use of traditional approaches to the allocation of overhead costs at the researching enterprises is inexpedient and inefficient. The authors find out that to solve this problem it is not enough to choose only one base of allocation because the formed prime cost with such an approach will not meet the reality. That is why it is suggested to use a multilevel allocation of overhead costs. The proposed approach involves the allocation of overhead costs at the following levels: fixed and variable, with shops of main and auxiliary production, calculation stations, some orders. Each level involves the selection of individual allocation bases that are grouped on economic, technological and integrated ones.

  6. Cost minimisation of product transhipment for physical distribution management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obioma R. Nwaogbe

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimal allocation of shipments (least cost of two manufactured products between depots and places of consumption. In this study, the least-cost method was used in solving the transportation algorithm using Tora 2.0 version software. The study was necessary because of the high operating costs associated with physical distribution when deliveries are not properly planned and considered with reference to alternative strategies. In contrast, significant savings can be achieved by using techniques available for determining the cheapest methods of transporting goods from several origins to several destinations. Cost minimisation is a very useful approach to the solution of transportation problems.

  7. The full costs of thermal power production in Eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venema, H.D.; Barg, S.

    2003-07-01

    This study examines the public health and global warming costs associated with generating electricity with fossil fuels such as coal, oil or natural gas. A Full Cost Accounting approach was used to determine the costs for Eastern Canada. The electricity sector is chosen because it is a large emitter of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The sector it will undergo potentially significant structural changes as Canada complies with the Kyoto Protocol. Alternative investments in nonpolluting sources of electricity should include analysis of full costs. Two types of factors are evaluated in this study: the public health costs caused by emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides and volatile organic carbon (VOC) in Eastern Canada, and the marginal climate change damages caused by the emissions of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) in Eastern Canada. The major contribution of this study is the application of the impact-pathway approach to power sector emissions. Recent Canadian studies have reported either the pollutant emission rates for different power generation technologies and fuels, or the health costs of ambient air pollution not specifically attributable to the power sector. This study isolates the component of air pollution attributable to the power sector and analyses its geographic distribution. It was concluded that coal-fired generation should be closely monitored because the externalities burden is the same magnitude as the marginal production cost. 77 refs., 20 tabs., 21 figs

  8. Thermo-climatic cost of the domestic consumption products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szargut, Jan; Stanek, Wojciech [Institute of Thermal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 22, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-02-15

    The thermo-climatic cost (TCC) expresses the cumulative emission of CO{sub 2} burdening all the steps of production processes connected with the fabrication of particular consumption products. The TCC of the considered product results from the consumption of semi-finished products and energy carriers. The TCC of hydrocarbon fuels contains three components: the immediate emission of CO{sub 2} resulting from the combustion of carbon, the TCC of delivery and processing and the TCC resulting from import of fuels. The TCC-component connected with import results from the TCC of the domestic products exported in order to gain the financial means for import. The values of the TCC can be used for the minimization of climatic damages by the selection of the production technology or the design and operation parameters of new processes. (author)

  9. Smartfactory, a modular, low cost productivity monitoring system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bosscha, PA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available lack of objectivity and plain incorrect data entries. In aid of the SMMEs the Smartfactory system offers a low-cost modular monitoring solution capable of implementation in a step by step fashion with little training required in installation...

  10. Land and Water requirements for meat production in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Wanli

    2010-01-01

    China will face a challenge for meat production with its available land and water. The production of meat requires substantial amounts of livestock feed, which in turn require vast amounts of land and water to produce it. As China has continued to develop

  11. Wood chip production technology and costs for fuel in Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, A.

    2007-12-15

    This work has been done in the project where the main target is to evaluate the technology and economy to use bush biomass for power production in Namibia. The project has been financed by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland and the Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry of the Republic of Namibia. The target of this study is to calculate the production costs of bush chips at the power plant using the current production technology and to look possibilities to develop production technology in order to mechanize production technology and to decrease the production costs. The wood production costs are used in feasibility studies, in which the technology and economy of utilization of wood chips for power generation in 5, 10 and 20 MW electric power plants and for power generation in Van Eck coal fired power plant in Windhoek are evaluated. Field tests were made at Cheetah Conservation Farm (CCF) in Otjiwarongo region. CCF is producing wood chips for briquette factory in Otjiwarongo. In the field tests it has been gathered information about this CCF semi-mechanized wood chip production technology. Also new machines for bush biomass chip production have been tested. A new mechanized production chain has been designed on the basis of this information. The production costs for the CCF semi-mechanized and the new production chain have been calculated. The target in the moisture content to produce wood chips for energy is 20 w-%. In the semi-mechanized wood chip production chain the work is done partly manually, and the supply chain is organized into crews of 4.8 men. The production chain consists of manual felling and compiling, drying, chipping with mobile chipper and manual feeding and road transport by a tractor with two trailers. The CCF production chain works well. The chipping and road transport productivity in the semimechanized production chain is low. New production machines, such as chainsaw, brush cutter, lawn mover type cutter, rotator saw in skid

  12. Formation of initial cost of stocks of own production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Krukovskiy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept and component stocks according to national accounting standards are revealed. The procedure for forming the initial value of the stock, depending on the way they arrive at the company according to the guidelines as well as methods for evaluating stocks of own production is grounded. The methodological principles of formation of information on stocks and the disclosure of its financial statements are considered. In the article investigated the procedure of forming the original value of stocks depending on how they flow to the enterprise. Number of methods of assessment of inventory, which can be used to reflect their value in the accounting and financial reporting, and methods of evaluation of own production is characterized. Identified costs are included in the initial cost of inventories, including inventories of own production. The estimation of the definition of agricultural produce at fair value and features of its application in the enterprise is proposed by authors.

  13. Full-scale testing, production and cost analysis data for the advanced composite stabilizer for Boeing 737 aircraft, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniversario, R. B.; Harvey, S. T.; Mccarty, J. E.; Parson, J. T.; Peterson, D. C.; Pritchett, L. D.; Wilson, D. R.; Wogulis, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    The development, testing, production activities, and associated costs that were required to produce five-and-one-half advanced-composite stabilizer shipsets for Boeing 737 aircraft are defined and discussed.

  14. Profitability indicators of milk production cost center in intensive systems of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to estimate some profitability indicators of dairy cost center farms with a high volume of daily production in feedlot. The Intended was also to identify the components that had the greatest influence on the operational cost. We used data from three milk systems production, with the origin of the purebred Holsteins. It was considered as a milk cost center production all expenses related in lactating and dry cows. The methodology used total cost and operating cost in profitability analysis. A production system, by presenting gross margin, net positive result, was able to produce short, medium and long term. Another production system had a positive gross margin and net, with conditions to survive in the short and medium term. Finally, the third system of production has shown a negative gross margin presenting decapitalizing and entering into debt, as revenues were not enough to pay operating expenses even effective. The component items of the effective operational cost that exercised higher “impact” cost and income from milk were, in decreasing order, the feeding, labor, miscellaneous expenses, sanitation, energy, milking, reproduction, equipment rental, BST and taxes.

  15. Strength development of concrete : balancing production requirements and ecological impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onghena, S.; Grunewald, S.; Schutter, G; Jaime C., Galvez; Aguado de Cea, Antonio; Fernandez-Ordonez, David; Sakai, Koji; Reye s, Encarnación; Casati, Maria J .; Enfedaque, Alejandro; Alberti, Marcos G.; de la Fuente, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The effective production of concrete structures requires adequate control of
    strength development in order to realise the scheduled production cycles. Demoulding of elements can take place only when sufficient strength is gained and the production cycle has to be maintained with seasonal changes

  16. Incubator Display Software Cost Reduction Toolset Software Requirements Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Susanne; Jeffords, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    The Incubator Display Software Requirements Specification was initially developed by Intrinsyx Technologies Corporation (Intrinsyx) under subcontract to Lockheed Martin, Contract Number NAS2-02090, for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center (ARC) Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP). The Incubator Display is a User Payload Application (UPA) used to control an Incubator subrack payload for the SSBRP. The Incubator Display functions on-orbit as part of the subrack payload laptop, on the ground as part of the Communication and Data System (CDS) ground control system, and also as part of the crew training environment.

  17. Private dentists assess treatment required as more extensive, demanding and costly, than public sector dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Risto; Eriksson, Anna-Leena; Vahlberg, Tero

    2012-08-01

    The aim was to evaluate whether contracted private practitioners assess required treatment more extensive, demanding and economically more rewarding than mainly salaried public sector dentists and to estimate the cost consequences of using these alternative providers. All dental services included in comprehensive treatments funded by the city of Turku and provided to adult patients during the year 2009 were recorded. Patients were distributed randomly without any determination of treatment needs before appointing them to different dentists. Treatment courses for 7432 patients in public clinics included 63 906 procedures and for 2932 patients assigned to treatment by contracted private practitioners included 21 194 procedures. Public sector dentists were mainly salaried with production incentives, and private practitioners worked purely on a fee-for-service basis. The cost estimates were based on the distributions of competence classifications recorded by the providers, which also formed the basis for reimbursement. For each studied treatment category with more than one competence classification, private contractors were less likely than their public sector counterparts to give an assessment of simple or less demanding: 8% versus 29% of examinations, 46% versus 69% of periodontal treatments, 63% versus 85% of extractions, 31% versus 46% of fillings, 18% versus 35% of root canals. The excess cost to society varied from 7.0% for root canal treatments to 21.3% for extractions, causing on average 14.4% higher cost level from use of private practitioners compared with public sector dentists. Private practitioners systematically classified the treatment procedures they provided as more demanding, and therefore more economically rewarding, than their public sector counterparts. The findings indicate that the costs of publicly funded dental care may be increased by the use of private dental contractors. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. 10 CFR 719.35 - What categories of costs require advance approval?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... questions about bills from either the Department or the contractor; (i) Food and beverages when the attorney... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What categories of costs require advance approval? 719.35 Section 719.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS Reimbursement of Costs...

  19. 48 CFR 215.403-3 - Requiring information other than cost or pricing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requiring information other than cost or pricing data. 215.403-3 Section 215.403-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.403-3 Requiring information other than cost or pricing data...

  20. Improving cost-effectiveness and mitigating risks of renewable energy requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, James P.

    Policy makers at the federal and state levels of government are debating actions to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on oil as an energy source. Several concerns drive this debate: sharp rises in energy prices, increasing unease about the risks of climate change, energy security, and interest in expanding the domestic renewable energy industry. Renewable energy requirements are frequently proposed to address these concerns, and are currently in place, in various forms, at the federal and state levels of government. These policies specify that a certain portion of the energy supply come from renewable energy sources. This dissertation focuses on a specific proposal, known as 25 X 25, which requires 25% of electricity and motor vehicle transportation fuels supplied to U.S. consumers to come from renewable energy sources, such as wind power and ethanol, by 2025. This dissertation builds on prior energy policy analysis, and more specifically analyses of renewable energy requirements, by assessing the social welfare implications of a 25 x 25 policy and applying new methods of uncertainty analysis to multiple policy options decision makers can use to implement the policy. These methods identify policy options that can improve the cost-effectiveness and reduce the risks of renewable energy requirements. While the dissertation focuses on a specific policy, the research methods and findings are applicable to other renewable energy requirement policies. In the dissertation, I analyze six strategies for implementing a 25 x 25 policy across several hundred scenarios that represent plausible futures for uncertainties in energy markets, such as renewable energy costs, energy demand, and fossil fuel prices. The strategies vary in the availability of resources that qualify towards the policy requirement and the use of a "safety valve" that allows refiners and utilities to pay a constant fee after renewable energy costs reach a predetermined threshold. I test

  1. Cost-effective IMTA: a comparison of the production efficiencies of mussels and seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Edwards, Maeve D.

    2014-01-01

    seaweed with regard to the amount of nitrogen assimilated. Furthermore, in optimized systems, areal requirement for mussels is similar to the cultivation of the same tonnage (1,000 t) of seaweed (approximately 8 ha). The cost-effectiveness of a mussel biofilter is €11–30 kg−1 nitrogen (N) removed based...... on various examples compared to production costs of €209–672 removed and €1,013 kg−1 N removed, respectively, for Laminaria digitata and Alaria esculenta from extrapolated laboratory and field trials. However, commercial seaweed (Saccharina latissima) producers claim that production costs are less than €10......–38 kg−1 N removed. These up-scaled and commercial figures make the seaweed cost competitive to mussels for removal of nitrogen. Disadvantages such as predators (e.g. eider ducks) and biofouling should also be taken into account before choice of biofilter is made. These drawbacks can reduce overall...

  2. 78 FR 38555 - Importer Permit Requirements for Tobacco Products and Processed Tobacco, and Other Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ..., and Other Requirements for Tobacco Products, Processed Tobacco, and Cigarette Papers and Tubes AGENCY... administration and enforcement of importer permits over the past decade, TTB believes that it can gain... minimum manufacturing and marking requirements for tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, and...

  3. Reducing the Requirements and Cost of Astronomical Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. Scott; Whitakter, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Limits on astronomical telescope apertures are being rapidly approached. These limits result from logistics, increasing complexity, and finally budgetary constraints. In an historical perspective, great strides have been made in the area of aperture, adaptive optics, wavefront sensors, detectors, stellar interferometers and image reconstruction. What will be the next advances? Emerging data analysis techniques based on communication theory holds the promise of yielding more information from observational data based on significant computer post-processing. This paper explores some of the current telescope limitations and ponders the possibilities increasing the yield of scientific data based on the migration computer post-processing techniques to higher dimensions. Some of these processes hold the promise of reducing the requirements on the basic telescope hardware making the next generation of instruments more affordable.

  4. PLAN 2003. Costs for management of the radioactive waste products from nuclear power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The companies that own nuclear power plants in Sweden are responsible for adopting measures needed to manage and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the Swedish nuclear power reactors in a safe manner. The so-called Financing Act (1992:1537) is linked to this responsibility and prescribes that a reactor owner, in consultation with other reactor owners, shall calculate the cost for management and disposal of the spent fuel and radioactive waste and for decommissioning and dismantling of the reactor plant. The reactor owner shall annually submit to the regulatory authority the cost data that are required for calculation of the fees to be imposed on electricity production during the ensuing year and of the guarantees that must be given as security for costs not covered by paid-in fees. The reactor owners have jointly commissioned SKB to calculate and compile these costs. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The cost calculations are based on the plan for management and disposal of the radioactive waste that has been prepared by SKB and is described in this report. The following facilities and systems are in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products; Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB; Final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1. Plans also exist for: Canister factory and encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel; Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel; Final repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste; Final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculations also include costs for research, development and demonstration, as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants. This report is based on the proposed strategy for the activities which is presented in SKB's RD and D-Programme 2001 and in the supplementary account to RD and D-Programme 98 which SKB submitted to the regulatory authority

  5. PLAN 2003. Costs for management of the radioactive waste products from nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    The companies that own nuclear power plants in Sweden are responsible for adopting measures needed to manage and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the Swedish nuclear power reactors in a safe manner. The so-called Financing Act (1992:1537) is linked to this responsibility and prescribes that a reactor owner, in consultation with other reactor owners, shall calculate the cost for management and disposal of the spent fuel and radioactive waste and for decommissioning and dismantling of the reactor plant. The reactor owner shall annually submit to the regulatory authority the cost data that are required for calculation of the fees to be imposed on electricity production during the ensuing year and of the guarantees that must be given as security for costs not covered by paid-in fees. The reactor owners have jointly commissioned SKB to calculate and compile these costs. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The cost calculations are based on the plan for management and disposal of the radioactive waste that has been prepared by SKB and is described in this report. The following facilities and systems are in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products; Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB; Final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1. Plans also exist for: Canister factory and encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel; Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel; Final repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste; Final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculations also include costs for research, development and demonstration, as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants. This report is based on the proposed strategy for the activities which is presented in SKB's RD and D-Programme 2001 and in the supplementary account to RD and D-Programme 98 which SKB submitted to the regulatory authority. The

  6. U3O8 production cost analysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This report presents the User's Manual for the computer program resulting from Bechtel's uranium production cost analysis. The model incorporates engineering and financial costs of sandstone mining and milling in the western United States. It does not consider exploration costs. The model was written in Fortran V, IBM compatible. Inputs from the user are such items as: ore grades, open pit or underground mines, acid or carbonate leach, and debt/equity ratio. The user may either input the desired discounted cash flow rate of return and obtain the necessary U 3 O 8 price, or input an estimated U 3 O 8 price and obtain the resulting discounted cash flow rate of return

  7. Impact of solar energy cost on water production cost of seawater desalination plants in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamei, A.; Zaag, P. van der; Munch, E.

    2008-01-01

    Many countries in North Africa and the Middle East are experiencing localized water shortages and are now using desalination technologies with either reverse osmosis (RO) or thermal desalination to overcome part of this shortage. Desalination is performed using electricity, mostly generated from fossil fuels with associated greenhouse gas emissions. Increased fuel prices and concern over climate change are causing a push to shift to alternative sources of energy, such as solar energy, since solar radiation is abundant in this region all year round. This paper presents unit production costs and energy costs for 21 RO desalination plants in the region. An equation is proposed to estimate the unit production costs of RO desalination plants as a function of plant capacity, price of energy and specific energy consumption. This equation is used to calculate unit production costs for desalinated water using photovoltaic (PV) solar energy based on current and future PV module prices. Multiple PV cells are connected together to form a module or a panel. Unit production costs of desalination plants using solar energy are compared with conventionally generated electricity considering different prices for electricity. The paper presents prices for both PV and solar thermal energy. The paper discusses at which electricity price solar energy can be considered economical to be used for RO desalination; this is independent of RO plant capacity. For countries with electricity prices of 0.09 US$/kWh, solar-generated electricity (using PV) can be competitive starting from 2 US$/W p (W p is the number of Watts output under standard conditions of sunlight). For Egypt (price of 0.06 US$/kWh), solar-generated electricity starts to be competitive from 1 US$/W p . Solar energy is not cost competitive at the moment (at a current module price for PV systems including installation of 8 US$/W p ), but advances in the technology will continue to drive the prices down, whilst penalties on usage

  8. Transforming Multidisciplinary Customer Requirements to Product Design Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Jie; Ding, Guo-Fu; Qin, Sheng-Feng; Li, Rong; Yan, Kai-Yin; Xiao, Shou-Ne; Yang, Guang-Wu

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing of complexity of complex mechatronic products, it is necessary to involve multidisciplinary design teams, thus, the traditional customer requirements modeling for a single discipline team becomes difficult to be applied in a multidisciplinary team and project since team members with various disciplinary backgrounds may have different interpretations of the customers' requirements. A new synthesized multidisciplinary customer requirements modeling method is provided for obtaining and describing the common understanding of customer requirements (CRs) and more importantly transferring them into a detailed and accurate product design specifications (PDS) to interact with different team members effectively. A case study of designing a high speed train verifies the rationality and feasibility of the proposed multidisciplinary requirement modeling method for complex mechatronic product development. This proposed research offersthe instruction to realize the customer-driven personalized customization of complex mechatronic product.

  9. Alternative methods of modeling wind generation using production costing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, M.R.; Pang, C.K.

    1996-08-01

    This paper examines the methods of incorporating wind generation in two production costing models: one is a load duration curve (LDC) based model and the other is a chronological-based model. These two models were used to evaluate the impacts of wind generation on two utility systems using actual collected wind data at two locations with high potential for wind generation. The results are sensitive to the selected wind data and the level of benefits of wind generation is sensitive to the load forecast. The total production cost over a year obtained by the chronological approach does not differ significantly from that of the LDC approach, though the chronological commitment of units is more realistic and more accurate. Chronological models provide the capability of answering important questions about wind resources which are difficult or impossible to address with LDC models

  10. Knocking on Industry’s Door: Needs in Product-Cost Optimization in the Early Product Life Cycle Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Walter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While theoretical concepts for product-costing methodologies have evolved over the decades, little emphasis has been placed on their integration into modern information systems. During a co-innovation workshop at SAP SE, we initiated our collaborative research with selected large-scale enterprises from the discrete manufacturing industry. Moreover, we conducted interviews with business experts to gain a sophisticated understanding of the cost-optimization process itself. As a result, we present an exemplary optimization process with an emphasis on the specific characteristics of the product development stage. Based upon this example, we identified associated deficits in information system support. No current software fulfills the enterprises’ requirements regarding cost optimization in the early stages of a product’s life cycle. Thus, the respective processes lack integration in corporate environments. Taking this on, our article compiles detailed problem identification and, moreover, suggests approaches to overcome these hurdles.

  11. Industrial agglomeration and production costs in Norwegian salmon aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Tveterås, Ragnar

    2002-01-01

    During the last decade, empirical evidence of regional agglomeration economies has emerged for some industries. This paper argues that externalities from agglomeration are not only present in some manufacturing and service sectors, but can also occur in primary industries, such as aquaculture. Econometric analyses in this literature have primarily estimated rather restrictive production function specifications on aggregated industry data. Here, cost functions are estimated o...

  12. Effects of regional agglomeration of salmon : aquaculture on production costs

    OpenAIRE

    Tveterås, Ragnar

    2001-01-01

    During the last decade empirical evidence of regional agglomeration economies has emerged for some industries. This report argues that externalities from agglomeration are not only present in some manufacturing and service sectors, but can also occur in primary industries such as aquaculture. Econometric analyses in this literature have primarily estimated production functions on aggregated industry data. Here, cost functions are estimated on firm level observations of Norwegian salmon aquacu...

  13. A REVIEW OF ESTIMATION OF SOFTWARE PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edin Osmanbegović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern business and management of business processes, the standardization of procedures allows the creation of added value, increasing competitiveness and success in the business of an organization. Evaluation of the budget for software development is crucial to the success of an IT project, because the inability to make a realistic assessment leads to inadequate project plans, customer dissatisfaction, poor quality of software products, and reduced profits. In order to minimize such situations, making accurate and reliable software cost estimation should be carried out at all stages of the project life cycle. Although hundreds of research articles focusing on the application of different methods of budget estimates of the software product have been published so far, there is no comprehensive review of the current situation or review of research trends in the budget estimates of the software product. This paper aims to create a framework for estimation of costs of development of software products by providing an overview of the most influential researchers, the most influential articles published in the WoS database, the most used keywords for searching the articles, as well as a review of the estimation techniques used in budget estimates of the software product.

  14. Reducing electrocoagulation harvesting costs for practical microalgal biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassey, Adam J; Theegala, Chandra S

    2014-01-01

    Electrocoagulation has shown potential to be a primary microalgae harvesting technique for biodiesel production. However, methods to reduce energy and electrode costs are still necessary for practical application. Electrocoagulation tests were conducted on Nannochloris sp. and Dunaliella sp. using perforated aluminium and iron electrodes under various charge densities. Aluminium electrodes were shown to be more efficient than iron electrodes when harvesting both algal species. Despite the lower harvesting efficiency, however, the iron electrodes were more energy and cost efficient. Operational costs of less than $0.03/L oil were achieved when harvesting Nannochloris sp. with iron electrodes at 35% harvest efficiency, whereas aluminium electrodes cost $0.75/L oil with 42% harvesting efficiency. Increasing the harvesting efficiencies for both aluminium and iron electrodes also increased the overall cost per litre of oil, therefore lower harvesting efficiencies with lower energy inputs was recommended. Also, increasing the culturing salinity to 2 ppt sodium chloride for freshwater Nannochloris sp. was determined practical to improve the electrocoagulation energy efficiency despite a 25% reduction in cell growth.

  15. Impact of product configuration systems on product profitability and costing accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrodia, Anna; Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Hvam, Lars

    2017-01-01

    in control of their product assortment, making the right decisions in the sales phase and increasing sales of optimal products. These benefits should have an impact on the company's ability to make more accurate cost estimations in the sales phase, which can positively affect the products’ profitability......This article aims at analyzing the impact of implementing a product configuration system (PCS) on the increased accuracy of the cost calculations and the increased profitability of the products. Companies that have implemented PCSs have achieved substantial benefits in terms of being more...... and after a PCS was implemented. The comparison in the case study revealed that increased accuracy of the cost calculations in the sales phase and consequently increased profitability can be achieved by implementing a PCS....

  16. Evidence on the cost of breast cancer drugs is required for rational decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuis, Anne Margreet Sofie; Koffijberg, Hendrik; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; Sleijfer, Stefan; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2018-01-01

    For rational decision making, assessing the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of new drugs and comparing the costs of drugs already on the market is required. In addition to value frameworks, such as the American Society of Clinical Oncology Value Framework and the European Society of Medical Oncology-Magnitude of Clinical benefit Scale, this also requires a transparent overview of actual drug prices. While list prices are available, evidence on treatment cost is not. This paper aims to synthesise evidence on the reimbursement and costs of high-cost breast cancer drugs in The Netherlands (NL). A literature review was performed to identify currently reimbursed breast cancer drugs in the NL. Treatment costs were determined by multiplying list prices with the average length of treatment and dosing schedule. Comparing list prices to the estimated treatment cost resulted in substantial differences in the ranking of costliness of the drugs. The average mean treatment length was unknown for 11/31 breast cancer drugs (26.2%). The differences in the 15 highest-cost drugs were largest for Bevacizumab, Lapatinib and everolimus, with list prices of €541, €158, €1,168 and estimated treatment cost of €174,400, €18,682 and €31,207, respectively. The lowest-cost (patented) targeted drug is €1,818 more expensive than the highest-cost (off-patent) generic drug according to the estimated drug treatment cost. A lack of evidence on the reimbursement and cost of high-cost breast cancer drugs complicates rapid and transparent evidence synthesis, necessary to focus strategies aiming to limit the increasing healthcare costs. Interestingly, the findings show that off-patent generics (such as paclitaxel or doxorubicin), although substantially cheaper than patented drugs, are still relatively costly. Extending standardisation and increasing European and national regulations on presenting information on costs per cancer drug is highly recommended.

  17. Costs in the function of business decision making for mushroom production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Ranogajec

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom growing, as a branch of agriculture has been rapidly developing in recent years. Emphasis is particularly put on the application of technology that can accelerate the production process to increase yield and to minimize human labor invested in production. Mushroom production was analyzed on a farm with a monthly production of 15,000 kg or an annual production of 180,000 kg. The calculations were based on the defined difference between the costs of manual labor and machine service invested in the mushroom growing room. The break-even point or the coverage point was set at 83,414 kg, referring to the production level with the same manual and machine work costs. Machine refilling for mushroom production above the mentioned amount is more profitable, while manual refilling is economically efficient within the production below the determined amount. On the analyzed farm, applied machine work led to the lowering of costs for 167,778.00 HRK per year. Purchase of machinery requires a total investment of 1,207,500 HRK with the return of 7.2 years.

  18. Impacts of facility size and location decisions on ethanol production cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocoloski, Matt; Michael Griffin, W.; Scott Matthews, H.

    2011-01-01

    Cellulosic ethanol has been identified as a promising alternative to fossil fuels to provide energy for the transportation sector. One of the obstacles cellulosic ethanol must overcome in order to contribute to transportation energy demand is the infrastructure required to produce and distribute the fuel. Given a nascent cellulosic ethanol industry, locating cellulosic ethanol refineries and creating the accompanying infrastructure is essentially a greenfield problem that may benefit greatly from quantitative analysis. This study models cellulosic ethanol infrastructure investment using a mixed integer program (MIP) that locates ethanol refineries and connects these refineries to the biomass supplies and ethanol demands in a way that minimizes the total cost. For the single- and multi-state regions examined in this study, larger facilities can decrease ethanol costs by $0.20-0.30 per gallon, and placing these facilities in locations that minimize feedstock and product transportation costs can decrease ethanol costs by up to $0.25 per gallon compared to uninformed placement that could result from influences such as local subsidies to encourage economic development. To best benefit society, policies should allow for incentives that encourage these low-cost production scenarios and avoid politically motivated siting of plants. - Research highlights: → Mixed-integer programming can be used to model ethanol infrastructure investment. → Large cellulosic ethanol facilities can decrease production cost by $0.20/gallon. → Optimized facility placement can save $0.25/gallon.

  19. Life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorapipatana, Chumnong; Yoosin, Suthamma [Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Pracha-Uthit Rd., Tungkru, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Center for Energy Technology and Environment, Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-02-15

    To increase the security of energy supply, lessen dependence on crude oil import and buffer against the impacts of large change in crude oil prices, the Thai government initiated and officially announced the national ethanol fuel program in year 2000. Since then, domestic ethanol demand has grown rapidly. Presently, all commercial ethanol in Thailand is produced from molasses as Thai law prohibits producing it from sugar cane directly. This is likely to limit ethanol supply in the near future. One possible solution is to supply more ethanol from cassava which is widely cultivated in this country. However, its production cost has not yet been known for certain. The objective of this study is to estimate the life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava and to assess its economic competitiveness with gasoline in the Thai fuel market. Based on the record of cassava prices during the years 2002-2005, it was found that using it as feedstock would share more than 50% of the ethanol from cassava total production cost. It was also found that a bio-ethanol plant, with a capacity of 150,000 l/day, can produce ethanol from cassava in a range of ex-factory costs from 16.42 to 20.83 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (excluding all taxes), with an average cost of 18.15 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (41, 52 and 45 US cents/l gasoline equivalent respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate). In the same years, the range of 95-octane gasoline prices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to 20.86 baht/l, with an average price of 11.50 baht/l (15, 52 and 29 US cents/l respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate) which were much cheaper than the costs of ethanol made from cassava. Thus, we conclude that under the scenario of low to normal crude oil price, ethanol from cassava is not competitive with gasoline. The gasoline price has to rise consistently above 18.15 baht (45 US cents)/l before ethanol made from cassava can be commercially competitive with gasoline. (author)

  20. Life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorapipatana, Chumnong; Yoosin, Suthamma

    2011-01-01

    To increase the security of energy supply, lessen dependence on crude oil import and buffer against the impacts of large change in crude oil prices, the Thai government initiated and officially announced the national ethanol fuel program in year 2000. Since then, domestic ethanol demand has grown rapidly. Presently, all commercial ethanol in Thailand is produced from molasses as Thai law prohibits producing it from sugar cane directly. This is likely to limit ethanol supply in the near future. One possible solution is to supply more ethanol from cassava which is widely cultivated in this country. However, its production cost has not yet been known for certain. The objective of this study is to estimate the life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava and to assess its economic competitiveness with gasoline in the Thai fuel market. Based on the record of cassava prices during the years 2002-2005, it was found that using it as feedstock would share more than 50% of the ethanol from cassava total production cost. It was also found that a bio-ethanol plant, with a capacity of 150,000 l/day, can produce ethanol from cassava in a range of ex-factory costs from 16.42 to 20.83 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (excluding all taxes), with an average cost of 18.15 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (41, 52 and 45 US cents/l gasoline equivalent respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate). In the same years, the range of 95-octane gasoline prices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to 20.86 baht/l, with an average price of 11.50 baht/l (15, 52 and 29 US cents/l respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate) which were much cheaper than the costs of ethanol made from cassava. Thus, we conclude that under the scenario of low to normal crude oil price, ethanol from cassava is not competitive with gasoline. The gasoline price has to rise consistently above 18.15 baht (45 US cents)/l before ethanol made from cassava can be commercially competitive with gasoline. (author)

  1. Production low cost plastic scintillator by using commercial polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Plastic Scintillators can be described as solid materials which contain organic fluorescent compounds dissolved within a polymer matrix. Transparent plastics commonly used for light scintillation are Polystyrene (or PS, poly-vinyl-benzene) and polyvinyl-toluene (or PVT, poly-methyl-styron). By changing the composition of plastic Scintillators some features such as light yield, radiation hardening, decay time etc. can be controlled. Plastic scintillation detectors have been used in nuclear and high energy physics for many decades. Among their benefits are fast response, ease of manufacture and versatility. Their main drawbacks are radiation resistance and cost. Many research projects have concentrated on improving the fundamental properties of plastic scintillators, but little attention has focussed on their cost and easier manufacturing techniques. First plastic Scintillators were produced in 1950's. Activities for production of low cost Scintillators accelerated in second half of 1970's. In 1975 acrylic based Plexipop Scintillator was developed. Despite its low cost, since its structure was not aromatic the light yield of Plexipop was about one quarter of classical Scintillators. Problems arising from slow response time and weak mechanical properties in scintillators developed, has not been solved until 1980. Within the last decade extrusion method became very popular in preparation of low cost and high quality plastic scintillators. In this activity, preliminary studies for low cost plastic scintillator production by using commercial polystyrene pellets and extrusion plus compression method were aimed. For this purpose, PS blocks consist of commercial fluorescent dopant were prepared in June 2008 by use of the extruder and pres in SANAEM. Molds suitable for accoupling to extruder were designed and manufactured and optimum production parameters such as extrusion temperature profile, extrusion rate and moulding pressure were obtained hence, PS Scintillator Blocks

  2. 48 CFR 52.215-20 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data. 52.215-20 Section 52.215-20... Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data. As prescribed in 15.408(l), insert the following provision: Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than...

  3. 48 CFR 52.215-21 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications. 52.215-21... Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data... Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications (OCT 2010) (a) Exceptions...

  4. Use of low-cost aluminum in electric energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, Andrey Z.; Sheindlin, Alexander E.; Kleymenov, Boris V.; Shkolnikov, Eugene I.; Lopatin, Marat Yu.

    Suppression of the parasitic corrosion while maintaining the electrochemical activity of the anode metal is one of the serious problems that affects the energy efficiency of aluminum-air batteries. The need to use high-purity aluminum or special aluminum-based alloys results in a significant increase in the cost of the anode, and thus an increase in the total cost of energy generated by the aluminum-air battery, which narrows the range of possible applications for this type of power source. This study considers the process of parasitic corrosion as a method for hydrogen production. Hydrogen produced in an aluminum-air battery by this way may be further employed in a hydrogen-air fuel cell (Hy-air FC) or in a heat engine, or it may be burnt to generate heat. Therefore, anode materials may be provided by commercially pure aluminum, commercially produced aluminum alloys, and secondary aluminum. These materials are much cheaper and more readily available than special anode alloys of aluminum and high-purity aluminum. The aim of present study is to obtain experimental data for comparison of energy and cost parameters of some commercially produced aluminum alloys, of high-purity aluminum, and of a special Al-ln anode alloy in the context of using these materials as anodes for an Al-air battery and for combined production of electrical power and hydrogen.

  5. DEPENDENCE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND COST OF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sklyarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic systems exist on condition of receipt and spending of energy. Energy consumption is a necessary condition for the existence and functioning of the economic systems of any scale: macroeconomics, microeconomics, regional economy or the world economy.The economic system operates on the scale at which it is able to produce energy and get access to energy. Moreover, receipt and consumption of energy in the operation of the economic system is mainly determined by, the level of energy production from energy sources, since this level is determined by the level of energy consumption by industries and enterprises of the economy.Currently, the economic system does not produce energy in reserve. Thus, the question of energy effi ciency and energy saving was always acute.The article describes the energy efficiency and energy saving effect on the cost of production. Were used two methods: “costs and release” matrix and “price - value added” matrix. The result is the equation of dependence of energy efficiency and costs.

  6. COSTING OF QUALITY IN BUSINESS BASE UNIT SEVERAL PRODUCTIONS, CIENFUEGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculate the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

  7. Structuring Formal Requirements Specifications for Reuse and Product Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimdahl, Mats P. E.

    2001-01-01

    In this project we have investigated how formal specifications should be structured to allow for requirements reuse, product family engineering, and ease of requirements change, The contributions of this work include (1) a requirements specification methodology specifically targeted for critical avionics applications, (2) guidelines for how to structure state-based specifications to facilitate ease of change and reuse, and (3) examples from the avionics domain demonstrating the proposed approach.

  8. Increased Use of Productivity Management Can Help Control Government Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-10

    estimated that 34 percent of agency spend- ing reductions made to balance the budget in fiscal year 1984 can be attributed to the productivity program. The...result in the services 5. [] use of employee incentives (9) of some employees no longer being required in the unit in which they 6. [) quality of worklife

  9. Product costing guide for wood dimension and component manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jeff Palmer; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Steve. Lawser

    2014-01-01

    The North American hardwood dimension and components industry plays a critical role in the hardwood forest products industry as the industry is a user of high-value hardwood lumber. Customer expectations, global markets, and international competition, however, require hardwood dimension and components manufacturers to continuously improve their ability to manage their...

  10. Cost optimal building performance requirements. Calculation methodology for reporting on national energy performance requirements on the basis of cost optimality within the framework of the EPBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boermans, T.; Bettgenhaeuser, K.; Hermelink, A.; Schimschar, S. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    On the European level, the principles for the requirements for the energy performance of buildings are set by the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). Dating from December 2002, the EPBD has set a common framework from which the individual Member States in the EU developed or adapted their individual national regulations. The EPBD in 2008 and 2009 underwent a recast procedure, with final political agreement having been reached in November 2009. The new Directive was then formally adopted on May 19, 2010. Among other clarifications and new provisions, the EPBD recast introduces a benchmarking mechanism for national energy performance requirements for the purpose of determining cost-optimal levels to be used by Member States for comparing and setting these requirements. The previous EPBD set out a general framework to assess the energy performance of buildings and required Member States to define maximum values for energy delivered to meet the energy demand associated with the standardised use of the building. However it did not contain requirements or guidance related to the ambition level of such requirements. As a consequence, building regulations in the various Member States have been developed by the use of different approaches (influenced by different building traditions, political processes and individual market conditions) and resulted in different ambition levels where in many cases cost optimality principles could justify higher ambitions. The EPBD recast now requests that Member States shall ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set 'with a view to achieving cost-optimal levels'. The cost optimum level shall be calculated in accordance with a comparative methodology. The objective of this report is to contribute to the ongoing discussion in Europe around the details of such a methodology by describing possible details on how to calculate cost optimal levels and pointing towards important factors and

  11. Evidence on the cost of breast cancer drugs is required for rational decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, Anne Margreet Sofie; Koffijberg, Hendrik; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; Sleijfer, Stefan; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2018-01-01

    Background: For rational decision making, assessing the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of new drugs and comparing the costs of drugs already on the market is required. In addition to value frameworks, such as the American Society of Clinical Oncology Value Framework and the European Society of

  12. 48 CFR 15.403-3 - Requiring data other than certified cost or pricing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... certified cost or pricing data. 15.403-3 Section 15.403-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.403-3 Requiring data other than certified cost or pricing data. (a)(1) In those acquisitions that do...

  13. The effect of CO2 regulations on the cost of corn ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevin, R. J.; Mueller, S.

    2008-04-01

    To explore the effect of CO2 price on the effective cost of ethanol production we have developed a model that integrates financial and emissions accounting for dry-mill corn ethanol plants. Three policy options are modeled: (1) a charge per unit of life cycle CO2 emissions, (2) a charge per unit of direct biorefinery emissions only, and (3) a low carbon fuel standard (LCFS). A CO2 charge on life cycle emissions increases production costs by between 0.005 and 0.008 l-1 per 10 Mg-1 CO2 price increment, across all modeled plant energy systems, with increases under direct emissions somewhat lower in all cases. In contrast, a LCFS increases the cost of production for selected plant energy systems only: a LCFS requiring reductions in average fuel global warming intensity (GWI) with a target of 10% below the 2005 baseline increases the production costs for coal-fired plants only. For all other plant types, the LCFS operates as a subsidy. The findings depend strongly on the magnitude of a land use change adder. Some land use change adders currently discussed in the literature will push the GWI of all modeled production systems above the LCFS target, flipping the CO2 price from a subsidy to a tax.

  14. The concept of in-house management of the formation of the cost of production in the agricultural enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrova Elena Aleksandrovna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with modern methods of intra-formation control the cost of agricultural production, the composition of the costs of agricultural firms, the order of their control and optimization. A structural model, which is a technique of internal control and audit at the macro and micro level hierarchical control agricultural enterprise. The composition of the information required to implement a methodology in-house control, accounting and analytical procedures used to assess the cost items and management decisions.

  15. Advanced solar concentrator mass production, operation, and maintenance cost assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, W. A.; Bedard, R. J.; Bell, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    The object of this assessment was to estimate the costs of the preliminary design at: production rates of 100 to 1,000,000 concentrators per year; concentrators per aperture diameters of 5, 10, 11, and 15 meters; and various receiver/power conversion package weights. The design of the cellular glass substrate Advanced Solar Concentrator is presented. The concentrator is an 11 meter diameter, two axis tracking, parabolic dish solar concentrator. The reflective surface of this design consists of inner and outer groups of mirror glass/cellular glass gores.

  16. The nitrogen cost of food production: Norwegian society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzaroli Bleken, M. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway). Dept. of Horticulture and Crop Sciences; Bakken, L.R. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway). Dept. of Soil and Water Sciences

    1997-05-01

    The N-enrichment of the biosphere due to human activities has potential global consequences in enhancing cumulatively, the emission of N{sub 2}O to the atmosphere. This aspect of nitrogen pollution demands a global analysis of the `human nitrogen cycle`. We have used Norway as an example to analyze the nitrogen flows within a society and the dissipation of N to the environment. The present paper concentrates on the food producing sector, which was found to represent the largest N-flow and had the most complex interferences within the nitrogen cycle. The edible products that reach the consumers` mouths account for around 10% of the total N inputs at the primary (plant) production level. The largest N-dissipation occurs in plant production, but the performance of the society as a whole is largely determined by the human diet. The N-cost, defined as the ratio between fertilizer N-input (including animal manure) and the N products, is around 3 for wheat, 14 for dairy products and 21 for meat. The analysis of different mitigation options also reveal the importance of recycling at the highest possible trophic level. Major reductions in the total consumption of N can be obtained by moderate changes towards a more vegetarian diet and better utilization of existing food. In contrast, recycling of waste at the lowest trophic level (compost) is very inefficient. 43 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  17. Preliminary analysis about reducing production costs in uranium mining and metallurgy at Fuzhou uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Sanmao

    1999-01-01

    The production costs in uranium ming and metallurgy have been analyzed quantitatively term by term according to present production situation for The Uranium Mining and Metallurgy Corp, which is part of Fuzhou Uranium Mine. The principal factors influencing on the production costs and the main means reducing the production costs have been found

  18. The effective cost of tritium for tokamak fusion power reactors with reduced tritium production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilligan, J.G.; Evans, K.

    1983-01-01

    If sufficient tritium cannot be produced and processed in tokamak blankets then at least two alternatives are possible. Tritium can be purchased; or reactors with reduced tritium (RT) content in the plasma can be designed. The latter choice may require development of magnet technology etc., but the authors show that the impact on the cost-of-electricity may be mild. Cost tradeoffs are compared to the market value of tritium. Adequate tritium production in fusion blankets is preferred, but the authors show there is some flexibility in the deployment of fusion if this is not possible

  19. Cost Minimization for Joint Energy Management and Production Scheduling Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rahul H.

    production planning framework are discussed. A modified Particle Swarm Optimization solution technique is adopted to solve the proposed scheduling problem. The algorithm is described in detail and compared to Genetic Algorithm. Case studies are presented to illustrate the benefits of using the proposed model and the effectiveness of the Particle Swarm Optimization approach. Numerical Experiments are implemented and analyzed to test the effectiveness of the proposed model. The proposed scheduling strategy can achieve savings of around 19 to 27 % in cost per part when compared to the baseline scheduling scenarios. By optimizing key production system parameters from the cost per part model, the baseline scenarios can obtain around 20 to 35 % in savings for the cost per part. These savings further increase by 42 to 55 % when system parameter optimization is integrated with the proposed scheduling problem. Using this method, the most influential parameters on the cost per part are the rated power from production, the production rate, and the initial machine reliabilities. The modified Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm adopted allows greater diversity and exploration compared to Genetic Algorithm for the proposed joint model which results in it being more computationally efficient in determining the optimal scheduling. While Genetic Algorithm could achieve a solution quality of 2,279.63 at an expense of 2,300 seconds in computational effort. In comparison, the proposed Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm achieved a solution quality of 2,167.26 in less than half the computation effort which is required by Genetic Algorithm.

  20. Innovation in product design as a factor for reducing logistic and production costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Fighera Marzall

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovation has been considered of fundamental importance for organizations competing in dynamic environments, which along with cost management has been shown as an organizational strategy that allows the company to measure its results and implement measures that impact on the organization's performance as a whole. This paper, carried out in a metal mechanical industry of a telecommunications engineering branch, aims to analyse cost reduction in logistics raw materials areas through innovation in the product design, which are antennas and towers for telephone networks. In terms of methodology, this study presents itself as a qualitative and quantitative research-action, which from the link between theory and practice allows for intervention in the middle of the researchers studied. As a result, an innovative project was developed, which allowed for the reduction costs of production by 68% and logistics by 32%. Despite the significant decrease in costs, the quality of manufactured products not declined and customer needs were met, thus making the company more competitive against competitors. Not widespread in the literature, this analysis of the impact on logistics and production costs due to improvements in the project is the main contribution theoretical of this paper.

  1. Cost account in agriculture with particular accordance to requirements of decision making process and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kondraszuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents cost account applicability in the agricultural companies regarding the general theory of economic and organisation of enterprises. The main focus was laid down to analyse the unit total cost account with variable costs and their applicability in three spheres: stock valuation and profit, requirements of planning and decision making processes and controlling. It was concluded that cost calculation at the level of agricultural enterprise should be an inherent element of integrated information system at the level of registry, planning, decision making and control.

  2. An estimate of the cost of electricity production from hot-dry rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives an estimate of the cost to produce electricity from hot-dry rock (HDR). Employment of the energy in HDR for the production of electricity requires drilling multiple wells from the surface to the hot rock, connecting the wells through hydraulic fracturing, and then circulating water through the fracture system to extract heat from the rock. The basic HDR system modeled in this paper consists of an injection well, two production wells, the fracture system (or HDR reservoir), and a binary power plant. Water is pumped into the reservoir through the injection well where it is heated and then recovered through the production wells. Upon recovery, the hot water is pumped through a heat exchanger transferring heat to the binary, or working, fluid in the power plant. The power plant is a net 5.1-MW e binary plant employing dry cooling. Make-up water is supplied by a local well. In this paper, the cost of producing electricity with the basic system is estimated as the sum of the costs of the individual parts. The effects on cost of variations to certain assumptions, as well as the sensitivity of costs to different aspects of the basic system, are also investigated

  3. The Deployment of Product-Related Environmental Legislation into Product Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela C. A. Pigosso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental legislation is increasingly changing its focus from manufacturing-oriented to product-oriented instruments. Compliance with product-related environmental legislation is achieved by the incorporation of environmental requirements into the early phases of the product development process (PDP. Nevertheless, the deployment of product-related environmental legislation into product requirements is still a challenge. This study followed an inductive approach to propose a guideline to support the identification, analysis and deployment of product requirements based on product-related environmental legislation. The guideline is composed of nine steps, clustered into three groups according to their main objective: (A identification of environmental product-related legislation; (B identification of legislative topics to be considered for the deployment of requirements; and (C creation and validation of product requirements. The product requirements deployed are to be considered during the PDP. The guideline was evaluated in an expert consultation in a large manufacturing company, suggesting that it can be used to support the systematization and deployment of product-related environmental requirements.

  4. External costs of electricity production: case study Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozicevic Vrhovcak, Maja; Tomsic, Zeljko; Debrecin, Nenad

    2005-01-01

    Because electricity production is one of the major sources of pollution, and at the same time is the most centralised one, environmental issues in power system operation and planning are gaining ever-increasing attention. It is very difficult to compare environmental impacts of various electricity generation technologies and fuel types because they are extremely divergent. The most widely accepted common denominator today is the so-called external cost by which a monetary value is associated with environmental damage. In this paper, damages to human health resulting from Croatian thermal power plants annual operation are presented. Stack emissions have been translated into ambient concentrations by atmospheric dispersion modelling. Existing data on relations between human health degradation and ground concentrations of the analysed pollutants have been used. Geographic information software has been used in order to account for spatially dependent data. Monetary values have been assigned to the estimated human health damage. External costs resulting from impact of Croatian thermal power plants airborne emissions on human health have been calculated. The total Croatian thermal power system external costs, resulting from impacts on human health, are presented and discussed

  5. REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND COST OF PRODUCTION FOR DRYING FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Erol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the production costs for heat used in drying fruit plants was studied using of local biomass from tree branch pruning. The average annual get 3 t / ha biomass whit energy potential of 37 GJ/ha at a cost of up to 60 €/t. biomass at 10 - 50 mm chopped and dried below 20% can be gasefied with TLUD process characterized by high energy conversion efficiency, stability and safety in operation, emissions of CO and PM very low. TLUD process produces on average and 15% biochar that can be used as fuel or as agricultural amendment to increase fertility and for atmospheric carbon sequestration. There have been experiments simulated by model of USCMER 30/60MGB dryer equipped with two thermal modules TLUD FORTE-40 for apple slices drying heat of the apple prinings. Biomass used and biochar resulting chemical and energy were defined as micro-gasification process TLUD. That can dry 205 kg of apple slices in 6 hours with 74 kg of dry biomass to 10% of that remains and 12.2 kg biochar, biochar with or without 52 kg biomass, which costs € 8.55 or € 5.97, ie 4.3 or 6.1 times cheaper than diesel. On dry ton of sliced apple it can produce 59.6 kg biochar with soil seize -174.8 kg. CO2.

  6. Concepts for Life Cycle Cost Control Required to Achieve Space Transportation Affordability and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Robinson, John W.; Donahue, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Cost control must be implemented through the establishment of requirements and controlled continually by managing to these requirements. Cost control of the non-recurring side of life cycle cost has traditionally been implemented in both commercial and government programs. The government uses the budget process to implement this control. The commercial approach is to use a similar process of allocating the non-recurring cost to major elements of the program. This type of control generally manages through a work breakdown structure (WBS) by defining the major elements of the program. If the cost control is to be applied across the entire program life cycle cost (LCC), the approach must be addressed very differently. A functional breakdown structure (FBS) is defined and recommended. Use of a FBS provides the visibifity to allow the choice of an integrated solution reducing the cost of providing many different elements of like function. The different functional solutions that drive the hardware logistics, quantity of documentation, operational labor, reliability and maintainability balance, and total integration of the entire system from DDT&E through the life of the program must be fully defined, compared, and final decisions made among these competing solutions. The major drivers of recurring cost have been identified and are presented and discussed. The LCC requirements must be established and flowed down to provide control of LCC. This LCC control will require a structured rigid process similar to the one traditionally used to control weight/performance for space transportation systems throughout the entire program. It has been demonstrated over the last 30 years that without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that affordable and sustainable space transportation system LCC will be achieved.

  7. COST OF PRODUCTION, GROSS RETURN AND NET PROFIT IN COMMERCIAL EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, Zahoor-ul-Haq1, M.A. Mian, F.R. Durrani and M. Syed

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Chakwal, Pakistan by collecting data from randomly selected 109 flocks to investigate cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer. Majority of the buildings in the study area were rented therefore, rent per layer was added to the total cost of production instead of depreciation on building and equipments. Overall total cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer was Rs. 393.88 ± 5.36, 432.14 ± 8.01 and 38.26 ± 6.66, respectively. Rate of return over the invested capital was 27%. Mean feed cost per layer was Rs. 302.23 ± 5.01, including Rs. 10.27 ± 0.24, 29.19 ± 0.42 and 262.77 ± 5.08 for starter, grower and layer ration, respectively. Feed cost was the major component contributing 76.73% to the total cost of production. Average cost of labor, day-old chick, building rent, vaccination, therapy, miscellaneous item, electricity, bedding material and transportation was Rs. 19.90 ± 0.45, 19.75 ± 0.05, 16.25 ± 0.26, 12.80 ± 0.10, 10.90 ± 2.32, 4.35 ± 0.09, 3.15 ± 0.07, 2.65 ± 0.09 and 1.90 ± 0.08, respectively, contributing 5.05, 5.01, 4.13, 3.25, 2.77, 1.10, 0.80, 0.67 and 0.48 % to the total cost of production. Gross return from the sale of marketable eggs, culled eggs, spent/culled bird, empty bags and manure was Rs. 388.84 ± 7.91, 3.85 ± 0.01, 35.80 ± 0.23, 2.20 ± 0.04 and 1.45 ± 0.01, respectively, contributing 89.98, 0.89, 8.28, 0.51 and 0.34% to the total return. Determining the effect of different parameters on the cost of production and net profit, large flocks, Hisex strain, brood-grow and lay system of rearing, good hygienic conditions of the farm, normal stocking rate and cage system of housing wee found to give maximum gross return as well as net profit.

  8. Challenges in balancing the amount of solution information in requirement specifications for embedded products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savolainen, Juha; Hauksdóttir, Dagný; Mannion, Mike

    2013-01-01

    customers have such intimate knowledge of their products that their requirements tend to be very specific, and if the customer knows the exact solution needed that naturally will reduce the cost of the requirements elicitation as well as design activities. Practitioners are challenged to understand when......Requirements are traditionally viewed as being free of the details of an envisioned solution and specified using purely problem domain entities. Preventing premature design in the requirements permits the available design space not to be restricted too early which might inhibit innovative designs....... In practice, on many industrial projects, separating the problem and solution domain entities can be difficult, and arguably there are benefits for not doing so. Many customers feel more confident describing their requirements, often as the difference between the existing products and their needs, some...

  9. Estimation of external costs of energy production in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estlander, A.; Otterstroem, T.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the project is to develop a method for estimation of external costs of energy production in Finland. The purpose of the method is to take into account all the most important impacts on health, materials and the environment. The study will assess environmental effects of emissions from Finnish energy production on people and the environment locally (population centres), nationally (Finland) and globally. The different energy production forms to be included in the study are heat and electric energy generated with coal, natural gas, fuel oil and peat (not industry's energy production). Local and national environmental impact assessment is carried out within the Finnish borders. The economic influence of emissions (in particular greenhouse gases) originating outside Finland but with global impact will also be assessed, as far as Finland is concerned. When studying the amounts of emissions the whole fuel chain is taken into account: production, processing or transport, storage in the different stages of the chain of use, and end use. The main components under review are SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , H x C y , CO, particulates and a couple of heavy metals. In addition. the study considers ozone (O 3 ), which is formed in the atmosphere. The primary monetary valuation method used is the indirect monetarization. which is based on dose-response functions and the use of both market prices and willingness-to-pay assessments. The method to be developed during the project for monetary valuation of effects caused by emissions on health, materials and the environment can be utilized in further monetarization studies. The results of the work can used to assess the profitability of energy production plants and energy companies from the economic point of view

  10. Cost-optimal levels of minimum energy performance requirements in the Danish Building Regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggerholm, S.

    2013-09-15

    The purpose of the report is to analyse the cost optimality of the energy requirements in the Danish Building Regulations 2010, BR10 to new building and to existing buildings undergoing major renovation. The energy requirements in the Danish Building Regulations have by tradition always been based on the cost and benefits related to the private economical or financial perspective. Macro economical calculations have in the past only been made in addition. The cost optimum used in this report is thus based on the financial perspective. Due to the high energy taxes in Denmark there is a significant difference between the consumer price and the macro economical for energy. Energy taxes are also paid by commercial consumers when the energy is used for building operation e.g. heating, lighting, ventilation etc. In relation to the new housing examples the present minimum energy requirements in BR 10 all shows gaps that are negative with a deviation of up till 16 % from the point of cost optimality. With the planned tightening of the requirements to new houses in 2015 and in 2020, the energy requirements can be expected to be tighter than the cost optimal point, if the costs for the needed improvements don't decrease correspondingly. In relation to the new office building there is a gap of 31 % to the point of cost optimality in relation to the 2010 requirement. In relation to the 2015 and 2020 requirements there are negative gaps to the point of cost optimality based on today's prices. If the gaps for all the new buildings are weighted to an average based on mix of building types and heat supply for new buildings in Denmark there is a gap of 3 % in average for the new building. The excessive tightness with today's prices is 34 % in relation to the 2015 requirement and 49 % in relation to the 2020 requirement. The component requirement to elements in the building envelope and to installations in existing buildings adds up to significant energy efficiency

  11. Design Tools for Cost-Effective Implementation of Planetary Protection Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Louise; Belz, Andrea; Evans, Michael; Kastner, Jason; Satter, Celeste; Spry, Andy

    2006-01-01

    Since the Viking missions to Mars in the 1970s, accounting for the costs associated with planetary protection implementation has not been done systematically during early project formulation phases, leading to unanticipated costs during subsequent implementation phases of flight projects. The simultaneous development of more stringent planetary protection requirements, resulting from new knowledge about the limits of life on Earth, together with current plans to conduct life-detection experiments on a number of different solar system target bodies motivates a systematic approach to integrating planetary protection requirements and mission design. A current development effort at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is aimed at integrating planetary protection requirements more fully into the early phases of mission architecture formulation and at developing tools to more rigorously predict associated cost and schedule impacts of architecture options chosen to meet planetary protection requirements.

  12. New legal requirements for submission of product information to poisons centres in EU member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Ronald; Brekelmans, Pieter; Desel, Herbert; de Vries, Irma

    2018-01-01

    In the past eight years, the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT) has been intensively involved in a European Commission led process to develop EU legislation on the information of hazardous products that companies have to notify to EU Poisons Centres (or equivalent "appointed bodies"). As a result of this process, the Commission adopted Regulation (EU) No 2017/542, amending the CLP Regulation by adding an Annex on harmonised product submission requirements. Harmonised mixture information requirements: Detailed and consistent information on the composition of the hazardous product will become available to EU Poisons Centres (PC). The information will be submitted by companies to PCs (or equivalent "appointed bodies") using a web-based software application or in-house software. Two new important features are introduced. Firstly, to be able to rapidly identify the product formula, a Unique Formula Identifier (UFI) on the product label links to the submitted information. Secondly, for better comparability of reports on poisonings between EU member states, a harmonised Product Categorisation System will specify the intended use of a product. Rapid product identification and availability of detailed composition information will lead to timely and adequate medical intervention. This may lead to considerable reduction in healthcare costs. Additionally, for companies trading across the EU, costs of submission of this information will be reduced significantly. Next steps: From 2017, an implementation period has started, consisting of a three-year period for stakeholders to implement the new requirements, followed by a gradual applicability for consumer products (2020), professional products (2021) and industrial use-only products (2024). Technical tools to generate the electronic format and the UFI together with guidance documents are expected to be made available by the end of 2017 by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). Guidance on

  13. Nisin Production Utilizing Skimmed Milk Aiming to Reduce Process Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Andrade, Maura Sayuri; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    Nisin is a natural additive for conservation of food, pharmaceutical, and dental products and can be used as a therapeutic agent. Nisin inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study was performed to optimize large-scale nisin production in skimmed milk and subproducts aiming at low-costs process and stimulating its utilization. Lactococcus lactis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 11454 was developed in a rotary shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin activity, growth parameters, and media components were also studied. Nisin activity in growth media was expressed in arbitrary units (AU/mL) and converted to standard nisin concentration (Nisaplin®, 25 mg of pure nisin is 1.0×106 AU/mL). Nisin activity in skimmed milk 2.27 gtotal solids was up to threefold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 4.54 gtotal solids and was up to 85-fold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 1.14 gtotal solids. L. lactis was assayed in a New Brunswick fermentor with 1.5 L of diluted skimmed milk (2.27 gtotal solids) and airflow of 1.5 mL/min (30°C/36/200 rpm), without pH control. In this condition nisin activity was observed after 4 h (45.07 AU/mL) and in the end of 36 h process (3312.07 AU/mL). This work shows the utilization of a low-cost growth medium (diluted skimmed milk) to nisin production with wide applications. Furthermore, milk subproducts (milk whey) can be exploited in nisin production, because in Brazil 50% of milk whey is disposed with no treatment in rivers and because of high organic matter concentrations it is considered an important pollutant. In this particular case an optimized production of an antimicrobial would be lined up with industrial disposal recycling.

  14. Characterizing costs and benefits of uncertain future regulatory requirements on the U.S. natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.L.; Smith, G.E.; Fitzgibbon, T.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental regulatory requirements at both the state and federal level are constantly changing, making it difficult for industry and R ampersand D program managers to project future compliance requirements and costs. Even if a company is trying to keep abreast of various proposed regulatory initiatives, the number of possible combinations of initiatives that could occur in the future seems virtually limitless. Uncertainty associated with potential future environmental compliance requirements makes the identification and evaluation of future investment and R ampersand D opportunities exceedingly difficult, and makes the process of systematic strategic planning increasingly complex. This paper describes a methodology for accounting for uncertain future environmental compliance costs in a systematic, comprehensive manner. Through analysis of proposed initiatives for making future environmental requirements more stringent, forecasting the likelihood of occurrence and potential timing of each initiative, and estimating potential future compliance costs associated with each initiative, a thorough process for incorporating regulatory uncertainty into strategic planning and project evaluation is described. This approach can be used for evaluating R ampersand D opportunities to determine where development of new technologies or assessment of risks posed by industry operations may have the greatest impact on future industry costs of compliance. This approach could also be used to account for the uncertainty of future environmental costs in corporate strategic planning or for factoring future compliance costs into project evaluation. This approach could also be enhanced through use in conjunction with other modeling and forecasting systems that could consider a broad range of impacts, including impacts on gas production, industry activity levels, and tax revenues

  15. User oriented definition of product requirements within mechatronic engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Gerst, M.;Gierhardt, H.;Braun, T.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the application of a modeling technique from software engineering to mechatronic engineering is presented. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is used to model users´ needs and relate them to product requirements. Within a bus seat development project a Use Case Model and an Analyses Model were elaborated. Advantages and Disadvantages of the presented procedure are shown.

  16. Global Water Availability and Requirements for Future Food Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Hoff, H.; Biemans, H.; Fader, M.; Waha, K.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares, spatially explicitly and at global scale, per capita water availability and water requirements for food production presently (1971-2000) and in the future given climate and population change (2070-99). A vegetation and hydrology model Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land (LPJmL) was

  17. 76 FR 64879 - Deduction for Qualified Film and Television Production Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... Deduction for Qualified Film and Television Production Costs AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... regulations relating to deductions for the costs of producing film and television productions. Those temporary... production costs. (a) * * * (1) * * * (ii) [The text of this proposed amendment to Sec. 1.181- 1(a)(1)(ii) is...

  18. Probabilistic Analysis of Electrical Energy Costs: Comparing Production Costs for Gas, Coal and Nuclear Power Plants. Annex III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    The increase in electricity demand is linked to the development of the economy and living standards in each country. This is especially true in those developing countries in which electricity consumption is far below the average of industrialized countries. To satisfy the increased demand for electricity, it is necessary to build new electrical power plants that could, in an optimum way, meet the imposed acceptability criteria. The main criteria are the potential to supply the required energy and to supply it with minimum or, at least, acceptable costs and environmental impacts, to satisfy the licensing requirements and be acceptable to the public. The main competitors for electricity production in the next few decades are fossil fuel power plants (coal and gas) and nuclear power plants. Power plants making use of renewables (solar, wind, biomass) are also important, but due to limited energy supply potential and high costs, can only be a supplement to the main generating units. Large hydropower plants would be competitive under the condition that suitable sites for the construction of such plants exist. Unfortunately, both in Croatia and in the rest of central Europe, such sites are scarce.

  19. REQUIREMENTS ON CLINICAL TRIALS FOR VETERINARY PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS FOR FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Sturzu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary pharmaceutical products intended for use in fish should comply with all usual requirements regarding approval for marketing, according to the Order of the President of the National Sanitary Veterinary Agency and for Food Safety No.187/2007, with subsequent amendments and additions. According to the legislation the technical file should containe documentation of quality, safety of animals, consumer, user and environment and demonstration of efficacy and tolerance in the target species. This paper provides the important information on requirements for demonstration on efficacy of pharmaceutical products indended for use in fish. The principal aim of the efficacy data is to prove the therapeutic value of pharmaceutical products and to establish an optimal dose and period of dose administration. In efficacity clinical trial is needed, also, to take into account, the various conditions such as climatic aspects, disease situation, water temperature and salinity, because these may influence the outcome and veracity of the studies.

  20. Reference costs of the electric power production; Couts de reference de la production electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This study periodically realized by the DGEMP aims to compare the competitiveness of the different channels of electric power production, for different utilization conditions. The first part ''reference costs of the 2003 electric power production'' examines the prices of the electric power produced by different channels in particular in the framework of the industrial implementing in 2015. The nuclear and thermal power plants are concerned. The second part is devoted to the decentralized production channels (wind energy, photovoltaic, cogeneration heat-electricity) is under construction and will be presented next year. (A.L.B.)

  1. Joint pricing and production management: a geometric programming approach with consideration of cubic production cost function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Hamidi Hesarsorkh, Aghil; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Bonyadi Naeini, Ali

    2015-06-01

    Coordination and harmony between different departments of a company can be an important factor in achieving competitive advantage if the company corrects alignment between strategies of different departments. This paper presents an integrated decision model based on recent advances of geometric programming technique. The demand of a product considers as a power function of factors such as product's price, marketing expenditures, and consumer service expenditures. Furthermore, production cost considers as a cubic power function of outputs. The model will be solved by recent advances in convex optimization tools. Finally, the solution procedure is illustrated by numerical example.

  2. Cost Analysis of an Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System in Selected Annual Production Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Pioneer Engineering and Manufacturing Company estimated the cost of manufacturing and Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System as designed by the AiResearch Division of the Garrett Corporation. Production costs were estimated at annual volumes of 100; 1,000; 5,000; 10,000; 50,000; 100,000 and 1,000,000 units. These costs included direct labor, direct material and manufacturing burden. A make or buy analysis was made of each part of each volume. At high volumes special fabrication concepts were used to reduce operation cycle times. All costs were estimated at an assumed 100% plant capacity. Economic feasibility determined the level of production at which special concepts were to be introduced. Estimated costs were based on the economics of the last half of 1980. Tooling and capital equipment costs were estimated for ach volume. Infrastructure and personnel requirements were also estimated.

  3. Hydrogen Production Costs of Various Primary Energy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Tak, Nam Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Won Seok

    2005-01-01

    The limited resource and environmental impacts of fossil fuels are becoming more and more serious problems in the world. Consequently, hydrogen is in the limelight as a future alternative energy due to its clean combustion and inexhaustibility and a transition from the traditional fossil fuel system to a hydrogen-based energy system is under considerations. Several countries are already gearing the industries to the hydrogen economy to cope with the limitations of the current fossil fuels. Unfortunately, hydrogen has to be chemically separated from the hydrogen compounds in nature such as water by using some energy sources. In this paper, the hydrogen production costs of major primary energy sources are compared in consideration of the Korean situations. The evaluation methodology is based on the report of the National Academy of Science (NAS) of U.S

  4. Thin film silicon modules: contributions to low cost industrial production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, A. [Universite de Neuchatel, Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the research work done during the two-year period 2003-04 at the Thin-Film Solar Cell Laboratory of the Institute of Microtechnology (IMT) at the University of Neuchatel in Switzerland. The transition from fundamental research work to concrete industrialisation issues, and changes within the research staff are discussed. The main results of the work done are presented, including basic techniques for the production of p-i-n solar cells on glass, new technologies for the deposition of n-i-p cells on low-cost flexible substrates and the optimisation of zinc oxide deposition methods. The key role played by substrate chemistry and roughness in the nucleation and growth of micro-crystalline silicon layers is looked at and diagnostic tools for the analysis of micro-crystalline solar cells are discussed.

  5. Breast and prostate cancer productivity costs: a comparison of the human capital approach and the friction cost approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Paul; Timmons, Aileen; Walsh, Paul M; Sharp, Linda

    2012-05-01

    Productivity costs constitute a substantial proportion of the total societal costs associated with cancer. We compared the results of applying two different analytical methods--the traditional human capital approach (HCA) and the emerging friction cost approach (FCA)--to estimate breast and prostate cancer productivity costs in Ireland in 2008. Data from a survey of breast and prostate cancer patients were combined with population-level survival estimates and a national wage data set to calculate costs of temporary disability (cancer-related work absence), permanent disability (workforce departure, reduced working hours), and premature mortality. For breast cancer, productivity costs per person using the HCA were € 193,425 and those per person using the FCA were € 8,103; for prostate cancer, the comparable estimates were € 109,154 and € 8,205, respectively. The HCA generated higher costs for younger patients (breast cancer) because of greater lifetime earning potential. In contrast, the FCA resulted in higher productivity costs for older male patients (prostate cancer) commensurate with higher earning capacity over a shorter time period. Reduced working hours postcancer was a key driver of total HCA productivity costs. HCA costs were sensitive to assumptions about discount and growth rates. FCA costs were sensitive to assumptions about the friction period. The magnitude of the estimates obtained in this study illustrates the importance of including productivity costs when considering the economic impact of illness. Vastly different results emerge from the application of the HCA and the FCA, and this finding emphasizes the importance of choosing the study perspective carefully and being explicit about assumptions that underpin the methods. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lowest cost due to highest productivity and highest quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    Since global purchasing in the automotive industry has been taken up all around the world there is one main key factor that makes a TB-supplier today successful: Producing highest quality at lowest cost. The fact that Tailored Blanks, which today may reach up to 1/3 of a car body weight, are purchased on the free market but from different steel suppliers, especially in Europe and NAFTA, the philosophy on OEM side has been changing gradually towards tough evaluation criteria. "No risk at the stamping side" calls for top quality Tailored- or Tubular Blank products. Outsourcing Tailored Blanks has been starting in Japan but up to now without any quality request from the OEM side like ISO 13919-1B (welding quality standard in Europe and USA). Increased competition will automatically push the quality level and the ongoing approach to combine high strength steel with Tailored- and Tubular Blanks will ask for even more reliable system concepts which enables to weld narrow seams at highest speed. Beside producing quality, which is the key to reduce one of the most important cost driver "material scrap," in-line quality systems with true and reliable evaluation is going to be a "must" on all weld systems. Traceability of all process related data submitted to interfaces according to customer request in combination with ghost-shift-operation of TB systems are tomorrow's state-of-the-art solutions of Tailored Blank-facilities.

  7. Applying CBR to machine tool product configuration design oriented to customer requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengjia; Gong, Yadong; Xie, Hualong; Liu, Yongxian; Nee, Andrew Yehching

    2017-01-01

    Product customization is a trend in the current market-oriented manufacturing environment. However, deduction from customer requirements to design results and evaluation of design alternatives are still heavily reliant on the designer's experience and knowledge. To solve the problem of fuzziness and uncertainty of customer requirements in product configuration, an analysis method based on the grey rough model is presented. The customer requirements can be converted into technical characteristics effectively. In addition, an optimization decision model for product planning is established to help the enterprises select the key technical characteristics under the constraints of cost and time to serve the customer to maximal satisfaction. A new case retrieval approach that combines the self-organizing map and fuzzy similarity priority ratio method is proposed in case-based design. The self-organizing map can reduce the retrieval range and increase the retrieval efficiency, and the fuzzy similarity priority ratio method can evaluate the similarity of cases comprehensively. To ensure that the final case has the best overall performance, an evaluation method of similar cases based on grey correlation analysis is proposed to evaluate similar cases to select the most suitable case. Furthermore, a computer-aided system is developed using MATLAB GUI to assist the product configuration design. The actual example and result on an ETC series machine tool product show that the proposed method is effective, rapid and accurate in the process of product configuration. The proposed methodology provides a detailed instruction for the product configuration design oriented to customer requirements.

  8. Estimating resource costs of compliance with EU WFD ecological status requirements at the river basin scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riegels, Niels; Jensen, Roar; Benasson, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Resource costs of meeting EU WFD ecological status requirements at the river basin scale are estimated by comparing net benefits of water use given ecological status constraints to baseline water use values. Resource costs are interpreted as opportunity costs of water use arising from water...... scarcity. An optimization approach is used to identify economically efficient ways to meet WFD requirements. The approach is implemented using a river basin simulation model coupled to an economic post-processor; the simulation model and post-processor are run from a central controller that iterates until...... an allocation is found that maximizes net benefits given WFD requirements. Water use values are estimated for urban/domestic, agricultural, industrial, livestock, and tourism water users. Ecological status is estimated using metrics that relate average monthly river flow volumes to the natural hydrologic regime...

  9. An assessment of monitoring requirements and costs of 'Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCallum Ian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negotiations on a future climate policy framework addressing Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD are ongoing. Regardless of how such a framework will be designed, many technical solutions of estimating forest cover and forest carbon stock change exist to support policy in monitoring and accounting. These technologies typically combine remotely sensed data with ground-based inventories. In this article we assess the costs of monitoring REDD based on available technologies and requirements associated with key elements of REDD policy. Results We find that the design of a REDD policy framework (and specifically its rules can have a significant impact on monitoring costs. Costs may vary from 0.5 to 550 US$ per square kilometre depending on the required precision of carbon stock and area change detection. Moreover, they follow economies of scale, i.e. single country or project solutions will face relatively higher monitoring costs. Conclusion Although monitoring costs are relatively small compared to other cost items within a REDD system, they should be shared not only among countries but also among sectors, because an integrated monitoring system would have multiple benefits for non-REDD management. Overcoming initialization costs and unequal access to monitoring technologies is crucial for implementation of an integrated monitoring system, and demands for international cooperation.

  10. Environmental impacts and cost estimation for electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the different sources of energy used for electricity production in the view of the impact on environment. Coal, gas, wind energy, nuclear energy and hydro-energy are considered. The comparison of environmental performances requires common methodologies, 2 methodologies have been used ACV (analysis of a complete life cycle) and IPM (impact pathway methodology), both study all the exchanges of a system with the outside. The environmental performance is quantified by a series of parameters which represent the degradation of ecosystems. These parameters are divided into 4 groups: i) impact on public health, ii) impact on staff health, iii) impact on regional environment (agriculture, landscape alteration...) and iv) global impact on environment (greenhouse effect, acid rain, waste production, reduction of resources...). (A.C.)

  11. Cost analysis of simulated base-catalyzed biodiesel production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasić, Marija B.; Stamenković, Olivera S.; Veljković, Vlada B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two semi-continuous biodiesel production processes from sunflower oil are simulated. • Simulations were based on the kinetics of base-catalyzed methanolysis reactions. • The total energy consumption was influenced by the kinetic model. • Heterogeneous base-catalyzed process is a preferable industrial technology. - Abstract: The simulation and economic feasibility evaluation of semi-continuous biodiesel production from sunflower oil were based on the kinetics of homogeneously (Process I) and heterogeneously (Process II) base-catalyzed methanolysis reactions. The annual plant’s capacity was determined to be 8356 tonnes of biodiesel. The total energy consumption was influenced by the unit model describing the methanolysis reaction kinetics. The energy consumption of the Process II was more than 2.5 times lower than that of the Process I. Also, the simulation showed the Process I had more and larger process equipment units, compared with the Process II. Based on lower total capital investment costs and biodiesel selling price, the Process II was economically more feasible than the Process I. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using variable sunflower oil and biodiesel prices. Using a biodiesel selling price of 0.990 $/kg, Processes I and II were shown to be economically profitable if the sunflower oil price was 0.525 $/kg and 0.696 $/kg, respectively

  12. System Evaluations and Life-Cycle Cost Analyses for High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O' Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-05-01

    This report presents results of system evaluations and lifecycle cost analyses performed for several different commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) hydrogen production concepts. The concepts presented in this report rely on grid electricity and non-nuclear high-temperature process heat sources for the required energy inputs. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate both central plant designs for large-scale hydrogen production (50,000 kg/day or larger) and forecourt plant designs for distributed production and delivery at about 1,500 kg/day. The HYSYS software inherently ensures mass and energy balances across all components and it includes thermodynamic data for all chemical species. The optimized designs described in this report are based on analyses of process flow diagrams that included realistic representations of fluid conditions and component efficiencies and operating parameters for each of the HTE hydrogen production configurations analyzed. As with previous HTE system analyses performed at the INL, a custom electrolyzer model was incorporated into the overall process flow sheet. This electrolyzer model allows for the determination of the average Nernst potential, cell operating voltage, gas outlet temperatures, and electrolyzer efficiency for any specified inlet steam, hydrogen, and sweep-gas flow rates, current density, cell active area, and external heat loss or gain. The lifecycle cost analyses were performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. There are standard default sets of assumptions that the methodology uses to ensure consistency when comparing the cost of different production or plant design options. However, these assumptions may also be varied within the

  13. Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) Status and Compliance Requirements for EM Consolidated Business Center Contracts - 13204

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, P.C.; Moe, M.A.; Hombach, W.G.; Urdangaray, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has developed a web-accessible database to collect actual cost data from completed EM projects to support cost estimating and analysis. This Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) database was initially deployed in early 2009 containing the cost and parametric data from 77 decommissioning, restoration, and waste management projects completed under the Rocky Flats Closure Project. In subsequent years we have added many more projects to ECAS and now have a total of 280 projects from 8 major DOE sites. This data is now accessible to DOE users through a web-based reporting tool that allows users to tailor report outputs to meet their specific needs. We are using it as a principal resource supporting the EM Consolidated Business Center (EMCBC) and the EM Applied Cost Engineering (ACE) team cost estimating and analysis efforts across the country. The database has received Government Accountability Office review as supporting its recommended improvements in DOE's cost estimating process, as well as review from the DOE Office of Acquisition and Project Management (APM). Moving forward, the EMCBC has developed a Special Contract Requirement clause or 'H-Clause' to be included in all current and future EMCBC procurements identifying the process that contractors will follow to provide DOE their historical project data in a format compatible with ECAS. Changes to DOE O 413.3B implementation are also in progress to capture historical costs as part of the Critical Decision project closeout process. (authors)

  14. CONSOLIDATED COST ACCOUNTING AT MEAT AND FAT PRODUCTION: METHODOLOGY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kushnir

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the article is to study and improve methods of consolidated cost accounting at meat and fat production to obtain detailed information about production costs and to find ways to reduce the cost of meat production. It is offered to account expenses at meat and fat department for individual production areas that will receive detailed information for the purposes of control, analysis, calculation and reporting. For expedient budgeting activities of each structural unit of meat and fat production and for needs to saving production is proposed to reflect the costs of each production plant to separate groups of analytical accounts. Key words: consolidated accounting, production costs of meat and fat production, cost accounting.

  15. REDUCTION OF THE PRODUCTION COST. EXPERIENCE OF THE COSTS REDUCTION AT RUP “BMZ”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Sereda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of the daily operative monitoring of the costs for reduction of net cost and reinforcement of control on the costs has been applied for the first time in 2003 in RB at RUP “BMZ”, that allowed for the enterprise to control the costs in regime of real time.

  16. Operational costs induced by fluctuating wind power production in Germany and Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Weber, C.; Barth, R.

    2009-01-01

    Adding wind power generation in a power system changes the operational patterns of the existing units due to the variability and partial predictability of wind power production. For large amounts of wind power production, the expectation is that the specific operational costs (fuel costs, start......-up costs, variable operation and maintenance costs, costs of consuming CO2 emission permits) of the other power plants will increase due to more operation time in part-load and more start-ups. The change in operational costs induced by the wind power production can only be calculated by comparing...... the operational costs in two power system configurations: with wind power production and with alternative wind production having properties such as conventional production, that is, being predictable and less variable. The choice of the characteristics of the alternative production is not straightforward...

  17. Historical plant cost and annual production expenses for selected electric plants, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a composite of the two prior publications, Hydroelectric Plant Construction Cost and Annual Production Expenses and Thermal-Electric Plant Construction Cost and Annual Production Expenses. Beginning in 1979, Thermal-Electric Plant Construction Cost and Annual Production Expenses contained information on both steam-electric and gas-turbine electric plant construction cost and annual production expenses. The summarized historical plant cost described under Historical Plant Cost in this report is the net cumulative-to-date actual outlays or expenditures for land, structures, and equipment to the utility. Historical plant cost is the initial investment in plant (cumulative to the date of initial commercial operation) plus the costs of all additions to the plant, less the value of retirements. Thus, historical plant cost includes expenditures made over several years, as modifications are made to the plant. Power Production Expenses is the reporting year's plant operation and maintenance expenses, including fuel expenses. These expenses do not include annual fixed charges on plant cost (capital costs) such as interest on debt, depreciation or amortization expenses, and taxes. Consequently, total production expenses and the derived unit costs are not the total cost of producing electric power at the various plants. This publication contains data on installed generating capacity, net generation, net capability, historical plant cost, production expenses, fuel consumption, physical and operating plant characteristics, and other relevant statistical information for selected plants

  18. Breaking Barriers to Low-Cost Modular Inverter Production & Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdan Borowy; Leo Casey; Jerry Foshage; Steve Nichols; Jim Perkinson

    2005-05-31

    The goal of this cost share contract is to advance key technologies to reduce size, weight and cost while enhancing performance and reliability of Modular Inverter Product for Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Efforts address technology development to meet technical needs of DER market protection, isolation, reliability, and quality. Program activities build on SatCon Technology Corporation inverter experience (e.g., AIPM, Starsine, PowerGate) for Photovoltaic, Fuel Cell, Energy Storage applications. Efforts focused four technical areas, Capacitors, Cooling, Voltage Sensing and Control of Parallel Inverters. Capacitor efforts developed a hybrid capacitor approach for conditioning SatCon's AIPM unit supply voltages by incorporating several types and sizes to store energy and filter at high, medium and low frequencies while minimizing parasitics (ESR and ESL). Cooling efforts converted the liquid cooled AIPM module to an air-cooled unit using augmented fin, impingement flow cooling. Voltage sensing efforts successfully modified the existing AIPM sensor board to allow several, application dependent configurations and enabling voltage sensor galvanic isolation. Parallel inverter control efforts realized a reliable technique to control individual inverters, connected in a parallel configuration, without a communication link. Individual inverter currents, AC and DC, were balanced in the paralleled modules by introducing a delay to the individual PWM gate pulses. The load current sharing is robust and independent of load types (i.e., linear and nonlinear, resistive and/or inductive). It is a simple yet powerful method for paralleling both individual devices dramatically improves reliability and fault tolerance of parallel inverter power systems. A patent application has been made based on this control technology.

  19. Economic impact of hand and wrist injuries: Health-care costs and productivity costs in a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E. de Putter (Dennis); R.W. Selles (Ruud); S. Polinder (Suzanne); M.J.M. Panneman (Martien); S.E.R. Hovius (Steven); E.F. van Beeck (Ed)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Injuries to the hand and wrist account for approximately 20% of patient visits to emergency departments and may impose a large economic burden. The purpose of this study was to estimate the total health-care costs and productivity costs of injuries to the hand and wrist and

  20. Cognate costs in bilingual speech production: Evidence from language switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Broersma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates cross-language lexical competition in the bilingual mental lexicon. It provides evidence for the occurrence of inhibition as well as the commonly reported facilitation during the production of cognates (words with similar phonological form and meaning in two languages in a mixed picture naming task by highly proficient Welsh-English bilinguals. Previous studies have typically found cognate facilitation. It has previously been proposed (with respect to non-cognates that cross-language inhibition is limited to low-proficient bilinguals; therefore, we tested highly proficient, early bilinguals. In a mixed naming experiment (i.e., picture naming with language switching, 48 highly proficient, early Welsh-English bilinguals named pictures in Welsh and English, including cognate and non-cognate targets. Participants were English-dominant, Welsh-dominant, or had equal language dominance. The results showed evidence for cognate inhibition in to ways. First, both facilitation and inhibition were found on the cognate trials themselves, compared to non-cognate controls, modulated by the participants’ language dominance. The English-dominant group showed cognate inhibition when naming in Welsh (and no difference between cognates and controls when naming in English, and the Welsh-dominant and equal dominance groups generally showed cognate facilitation. Second, cognate inhibition was found as a behavioral adaptation effect, with slower naming for non-cognate filler words in trials after cognates than after non-cognate controls. This effect was consistent across all language dominance groups and both target languages, suggesting that cognate production involved cognitive control even if this was not measurable in the cognate trials themselves. Finally, the results replicated patterns of symmetrical switch costs, as commonly reported for balanced bilinguals. We propose that cognate processing might be affected by two different

  1. What Do Products/Services Cost? How Do We Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingand, Darlene E.

    1995-01-01

    Price (cost) analysis provides the library manager with valuable data for decision making and developing marketing strategies. This article examines program budget, cost-finding methodologies that influence demand, the impact of technology, and budget presentation. (Author/AEF)

  2. Old waste products - new requirements. Preparations for the later repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, A.; Merx, H.

    2003-01-01

    For more than 30 years now, the Hauptabteilung Dekontaminationsbetriebe (HDB, Central Decontamination Department) of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe has been engaged in the management of radioactive wastes produced by the operation and decommissioning of research reactors and institutes of the Research Center, the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant, the European Institute for Transuranium Elements, and the Baden-Wuerttemberg state collection center. For this purpose, the wastes delivered to HDB have been conditioned at various facilities according to the requirements specified. These conditioning requirements, however, have changed in the course of time. In the past, only minimum declaration and conditioning requirements had to be fulfilled for the ASSE repository storage facility. Since 1994, the KONRAD repository storage conditions have been adopted. They comprise a variety of quality criteria. Judging from today, duration of interim storage until transfer to a repository storage facility will take another 30 years at least. In addition to the documentary qualification of the waste products, it is therefore required to take measures to ensure long-term safety of both the waste packages and their storage. This is why the HDB, in agreement with the supervisory authority, i.e. the Federal Radiation Protection Authority, and its experts, has decided to put the waste products into KONRAD containers in certified compliance with the repository storage conditions and to backfill these containers with concrete in accordance with approved procedures. Thus, waste packages suited for repository storage will be produced and corrosion processes and the possible release of radioactivity will be prevented. (orig.)

  3. Old waste products - new requirements. Preparations for the later repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, A.; Merx, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Hauptabteilung Dekontaminationsbetriebe

    2003-07-01

    For more than 30 years now, the Hauptabteilung Dekontaminationsbetriebe (HDB, Central Decontamination Department) of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe has been engaged in the management of radioactive wastes produced by the operation and decommissioning of research reactors and institutes of the Research Center, the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant, the European Institute for Transuranium Elements, and the Baden-Wuerttemberg state collection center. For this purpose, the wastes delivered to HDB have been conditioned at various facilities according to the requirements specified. These conditioning requirements, however, have changed in the course of time. In the past, only minimum declaration and conditioning requirements had to be fulfilled for the ASSE repository storage facility. Since 1994, the KONRAD repository storage conditions have been adopted. They comprise a variety of quality criteria. Judging from today, duration of interim storage until transfer to a repository storage facility will take another 30 years at least. In addition to the documentary qualification of the waste products, it is therefore required to take measures to ensure long-term safety of both the waste packages and their storage. This is why the HDB, in agreement with the supervisory authority, i.e. the Federal Radiation Protection Authority, and its experts, has decided to put the waste products into KONRAD containers in certified compliance with the repository storage conditions and to backfill these containers with concrete in accordance with approved procedures. Thus, waste packages suited for repository storage will be produced and corrosion processes and the possible release of radioactivity will be prevented. (orig.)

  4. Y-12 product improvements expected to reduce metal production costs and decrease fabrication losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassler, Morris E.

    2005-01-01

    The Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) supplies uranium metal and uranium oxide feed material for fabrication into fuel for research reactors around the world. Over the past few years, Y-12 has continued to improve its Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) product. The LEU is produced by taking U.S. surplus Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and blending it with depleted or natural uranium. The surplus HEU comes from dismantled U.S. weapons parts. Those research reactors that use LEU from Y-12 are making important contributions to international nuclear nonproliferation by using LEU rather than HEU, and helping to disposition former U.S. weapons material. It is clearly understood that the research reactor community must keep fuel costs as low as possible and Y-12 is making every effort to improve efficiencies in producing the uranium through standardizing the chemical specifications as well as the product mass and dimensional qualities. These production cost reductions allows for the U.S. to keep the LEU product price low even with the dramatic increase in the uranium enrichment and feed component market prices in the last few years. This paper will discuss a new standard specification that has been proposed to existing LEU metal customers and fuel fabricators. It will also cover Y-12's progress on a new mold-design that will result in a more uniform, higher quality product and eliminates two steps of the production process. This new product is expected to decrease fabrication losses by 5-10%, depending on the fabricator's process. The paper will include planned activities and the schedule associated with implementation of the new specification and product form. (author)

  5. Factorial estimation of energy requirement for egg production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André

    1992-01-01

    Based on balance and respiration measurements with 60 White Leghorns during the laying period from 27 to 48 wk of age, a factorial method for estimating the energy requirement for egg production is proposed. The present experiment showed that the deposition of fat and energy increased during...... the laying period, but protein deposition slightly decreased. It has been shown that the efficiency of ME utilization for fat energy deposition is higher than for protein energy deposition in the egg. Because the proportions of protein and fat differ during the laying period, and because energy utilization...... is different between protein and fat, the ME requirement was calculated as the sum of ME for maintenance and the partial requirements for protein, fat, and carbohydrate deposition. For practical applications, functions for prediction of protein (OP), fat (OF), and energy (OE) in eggs during the laying period...

  6. 34 CFR 658.41 - What are the cost-sharing requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the cost-sharing requirements? 658.41 Section 658.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE...

  7. The Impact of Debt Limitations and Referenda Requirements on the Cost of School District Bond Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary H.; Munley, Vincent G.

    2011-01-01

    One distinction between the markets for corporate and municipal bonds involves institutional constraints that apply to some municipal bond issues. This research focuses on how public finance institutions, in particular explicit debt limits and referenda requirements, affect the borrowing cost of individual school district bond issues. The…

  8. Activity-based costing evaluation of [F-18]-fludeoxyglucose production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krug, Bruno; Van Zanten, Annie; Pirson, Anne-Sophie; Crott, Ralph; Borght, Thierry Vander

    Introduction As healthcare expenses are escalating in many countries, the sector faces a new challenge of becoming more cost efficient. There is an urgent need for more accurate data on the costs of healthcare procedures. The cost of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [F-18]-fludeoxyglucose

  9. Cost sharing in production situations and network exploitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, M.A.L.

    1999-01-01

    In many real-life situations where individuals work together in a joint project, joint costs (or profits) occur which have to be shared. The central problem of cost sharing is the allocation of costs in a 'just' way among the participants. Examples are numerous and range from setting fees for the

  10. 26 CFR 1.181-1T - Deduction for qualified film and television production costs (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... incurred to distribute or exploit a production (including advertising and print costs). (iii) Production costs do not include the costs to prepare a new release or new broadcast of an existing film or video after the initial release or initial broadcast of the film or video (for instance, the preparation of a...

  11. Status and opportunities associated with product costing strategies in wood component manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jan Wiedenbeck; Steve Lawser

    2013-01-01

    Product costing systems are critically important for businesses because they help reduce costs, price products at competitive prices, and enable strategic decisionmaking. This article reports the results of a survey designed to collect information about practices used by the North American hardwood dimension and components industry to calculate the cost of their...

  12. Operational costs induced by fluctuating wind power production in Germany and Scandinavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meibom, P. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, System Analysis Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Weber, C. [Univ. Duisburg-Essen, Chai og Energy Management (Germany); Barth, R.; Brand, H. [Univ. of Stuttgart, Inst. of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Adding wind power generation in a power system changes the operational patterns of the existing units due to the variability and unpredictability of wind power production. For large amounts of wind power production the expectation is that the operational costs of the other power plants will increase due to more operation time in part-load and more start-ups. The change in operational costs induced by the wind power production can only be calculated by comparing the operational costs in two power system configurations: with wind power production and with alternative production having properties like conventional production, i.e. being predictable and less variable. The choice of the characteristics of the alternative production is not straight forward and will therefore influence the operational costs induced by wind power production. This paper presents a method for calculating the change in operational costs due to wind power production using a stochastic optimization model covering the power systems in Germany and the Nordic countries. Two cases of alternative production are used to calculate the change in operational costs namely perfectly predictable wind power production enabling calculation of the costs connected to unpredictability, and constant wind power production enabling calculation of the operational costs connected to variability of wind power production. A 2010 case with three different wind power production penetration levels is analysed in the paper. (au)

  13. Cost function approach for estimating derived demand for composite wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. C. Marcin

    1991-01-01

    A cost function approach was examined for using the concept of duality between production and input factor demands. A translog cost function was used to represent residential construction costs and derived conditional factor demand equations. Alternative models were derived from the translog cost function by imposing parameter restrictions.

  14. Analysis of near-term spent fuel transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Engel, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A computer model was developed to quantify the transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs associated with shipping spent fuel in the commercial nucler fuel cycle in the near future. Results from this study indicate that alternative spent fuel shipping systems (consolidated or disassembled fuel elements and new casks designed for older fuel) will significantly reduce the transportation hardware requirements and costs for shipping spent fuel in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle, if there is no significant change in their operating/handling characteristics. It was also found that a more modest cost reduction results from increasing the fraction of spent fuel shipped by truck from 25% to 50%. Larger transportation cost reductions could be realized with further increases in the truck shipping fraction. Using the given set of assumptions, it was found that the existing spent fuel cask fleet size is generally adequate to perform the needed transportation services until a fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) begins to receive fuel (assumed in 1987). Once the FRP opens, up to 7 additional truck systems and 16 additional rail systems are required at the reference truck shipping fraction of 25%. For the 50% truck shipping fraction, 17 additional truck systems and 9 additional rail systems are required. If consolidated fuel only is shipped (25% by truck), 5 additional rail casks are required and the current truck cask fleet is more than adequate until at least 1995. Changes in assumptions could affect the results. Transportation costs for a federal interim storage program could total about $25M if the FRP begins receiving fuel in 1987 or about $95M if the FRP is delayed until 1989. This is due to an increased utilization of federal interim storage facility from 350 MTU for the reference scenario to about 750 MTU if reprocessing is delayed by two years

  15. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 2: System requirements and conceptual description

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    In the development of the business system for the SRB automated production control system, special attention had to be paid to the unique environment posed by the space shuttle. The issues posed by this environment, and the means by which they were addressed, are reviewed. The change in management philosphy which will be required as NASA switches from one-of-a-kind launches to multiple launches is discussed. The implications of the assembly process on the business system are described. These issues include multiple missions, multiple locations and facilities, maintenance and refurbishment, multiple sources, and multiple contractors. The implications of these aspects on the automated production control system are reviewed including an assessment of the six major subsystems, as well as four other subsystem. Some general system requirements which flow through the entire business system are described.

  16. 76 FR 36078 - Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ...] Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for... to quality and sanitation requirements for the production and processing of manufacturing grade milk... Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Recommended Requirements for Adoption by State...

  17. 48 CFR 22.1503 - Procedures for acquiring end products on the List of Products Requiring Contractor Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... end products on the List of Products Requiring Contractor Certification as to Forced or Indentured... products on the List of Products Requiring Contractor Certification as to Forced or Indentured Child Labor... contracting officer must check the List of Products Requiring Contractor Certification as to Forced or...

  18. Effects and costs of requiring child-restraint systems for young children traveling on commercial airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Thomas B; Johnston, Brian D; Grossman, David C

    2003-10-01

    The US Federal Aviation Administration is planning a new regulation requiring children younger than 2 years to ride in approved child-restraint seats on airplanes. To estimate the annual number of child air crash deaths that might be prevented by the proposed regulation, the threshold proportion of families switching from air to car travel above which the risks of the policy would exceed its benefits, and the cost per death prevented. Risk and economic analyses. Child-restraint seat use could prevent about 0.4 child air crash deaths per year in the United States. Increased deaths as a result of car travel could exceed deaths prevented by restraint seat use if the proportion of families switching from air to car travel exceeded about 5% to 10%. The estimate for this proportion varied with assumptions about trip distance, driver characteristics, and the effectiveness of child-restraint seats but is unlikely to exceed 15%. Assuming no increase in car travel, for each dollar increase in the cost of implementing the regulation per round trip per family, the cost per death prevented would increase by about $6.4 million. Unless space for young children in restraint seats can be provided at low cost to families, with little or no diversion to automobile travel, a policy requiring restraint seat use could cause a net increase in deaths. Even excluding this possibility, the cost of the proposed policy per death prevented is high.

  19. Productivity costs and determinants of productivity in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendi, Pedram; Schellenberg, Fabian; Ungsedhapand, Chaiwat; Kaufmann, Gilbert R; Bucher, Heiner C; Weber, Rainer; Battegay, Manuel

    2004-05-01

    In HIV-infected patients, reduced ability to work may be an important component of the societal costs of this disease. Few data about productivity costs in HIV-infected patients are available. The goals of this study were to estimate productivity costs in the HIV-infected population in Switzerland and to identify characteristics that may influence patient productivity. This cross-sectional study included all patients younger than retirement age (65 years for men and 62 years for women) who were enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study in 2002. Measures of productivity losses in this population were based on patients' ability to work and the median monthly wage rates adjusted for age, sex, and educational level in Switzerland. Factors associated with ability to work were analyzed in a multivariate ordinary logistic regression (proportional odds) model. As of July 1, 2002, the exchange rate for US dollars to Swiss francs (CHF) was US $1.00 approximately equal to CHF 1.48. A total of 5319 HIV-infected patients (3665 men [68.9%] and 1655 women [31.1%]; mean [SD] age, 40.6 [8.4] years; range, 17-64 years) were included in the study. The mean annual productivity loss per patient was estimated at CHF 22,910 (95% CI, CHF 22,064-CHF 23, 756). Ability to work was independently associated with the following (P increase: odds ratio [OR], 0.60 [95% CI, 0.54-0.62]), sex (female/male: OR, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.63-0.84]), history of IV drug use (OR, 0.22 [95% CI, 0.19-0.26]), time since first positive HIV test (>10 years vs or =501 vs 0-200 cells/microL: OR, 2.01 [95%, CI, 1.64-2.46]), history of AIDS-indicator disease (OR, 0.47 [95% CI, 0.41-0.55]), stable partnership during the last 6 months (OR, 1.63 [95% CI, 1.43-1.86]), and educational level (higher vs basic: OR, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.45-1.95]). Productivity losses to society for the HIV-infected population appeared to be substantial in this analysis. Given a patient's clinical health status, a higher education level and a stable

  20. Understanding the reductions in US corn ethanol production costs: An experience curve approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettinga, W.G.; Junginger, H.M.; Dekker, S.C.; Hoogwijk, M.; McAloon, A.J.; Hicks, K.B.

    2009-01-01

    The US is currently the world's largest ethanol producer. An increasing percentage is used as transportation fuel, but debates continue on its costs competitiveness and energy balance. In this study, technological development of ethanol production and resulting cost reductions are investigated by using the experience curve approach, scrutinizing costs of dry grind ethanol production over the timeframe 1980-2005. Cost reductions are differentiated between feedstock (corn) production and industrial (ethanol) processing. Corn production costs in the US have declined by 62% over 30 years, down to 100$ 2005 /tonne in 2005, while corn production volumes almost doubled since 1975. A progress ratio (PR) of 0.55 is calculated indicating a 45% cost decline over each doubling in cumulative production. Higher corn yields and increasing farm sizes are the most important drivers behind this cost decline. Industrial processing costs of ethanol have declined by 45% since 1983, to below 130$ 2005 /m 3 in 2005 (excluding costs for corn and capital), equivalent to a PR of 0.87. Total ethanol production costs (including capital and net corn costs) have declined approximately 60% from 800$ 2005 /m 3 in the early 1980s, to 300$ 2005 /m 3 in 2005. Higher ethanol yields, lower energy use and the replacement of beverage alcohol-based production technologies have mostly contributed to this substantial cost decline. In addition, the average size of dry grind ethanol plants increased by 235% since 1990. For the future it is estimated that solely due to technological learning, production costs of ethanol may decline 28-44%, though this excludes effects of the current rising corn and fossil fuel costs. It is also concluded that experience curves are a valuable tool to describe both past and potential future cost reductions in US corn-based ethanol production

  1. A new approach for product cost estimation using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Salam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cost estimation of new products has always been difficult as only few design, manufacturing and operational features will be known. In these situations, parametric or non-parametric methods are commonly used to estimate the cost of a product given the corresponding cost drivers. The parametric models use priori determined cost function where the parameters of the function are evaluated from historical data. Non-parametric methods, on the other hand, attempt to fit curves to the historic data without predetermined function. In both methods, it is assumed that the historic data used in the analysis is a true representation of the relation between the cost drivers and the corresponding costs. However, because of efficiency variations of the manufacturers and suppliers, changes in supplier selections, market fluctuations, and several other reasons, certain costs in the historic data may be too high whereas other costs may represent better deals for their corresponding cost drivers. Thus, it may be important to rank the historic data and identify benchmarks and estimate the target costs of the product based on these benchmarks. In this paper, a novel adaptation of cost drivers and cost data is introduced in order to use data envelopment analysis for the purpose of ranking cost data and identify benchmarks, and then estimate the target costs of a new product based on these benchmarks. An illustrative case study has been presented for the cost estimation of landing gears of an aircraft manufactured by an aerospace company located in Montreal, CANADA.

  2. Cost optimization of biofuel production – The impact of scale, integration, transport and supply chain configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, S.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41200836X; Hoefnagels, E.T.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313935998; Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Pettersson, Karin; Faaij, André; Junginger, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703

    2017-01-01

    This study uses a geographically-explicit cost optimization model to analyze the impact of and interrelation between four cost reduction strategies for biofuel production: economies of scale, intermodal transport, integration with existing industries, and distributed supply chain configurations

  3. Attention and Implicit Memory: Priming-Induced Benefits and Costs Have Distinct Attentional Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Margaret M.; Cruz, Matt E.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    Attention at encoding plays a critical and ubiquitous role in explicit memory performance, but its role in implicit memory performance (i.e., priming) is more variable: Some, but not all, priming effects are reduced by division of attention at encoding. A wealth of empirical and theoretical work has aimed to define the critical features of priming effects that do or do not require attention at encoding. This work, however, has focused exclusively on priming effects that are beneficial in nature (wherein performance is enhanced by prior exposure to task stimuli), and has overlooked priming effects that are costly in nature (wherein performance is harmed by prior exposure to task stimuli). The present study takes up this question by examining the effect of divided attention on priming-induced costs and benefits in a speeded picture-naming task. Experiment 1 shows that the costs, but not the benefits, are eliminated by division of attention at encoding. Experiment 2 shows that the costs (as well as the benefits) in this task are intact in amnesic participants, demonstrating that the elimination of the cost in the divided attention condition in Experiment 1 was not an artifact of the reduced availability of explicit memory in that condition. We suggest that the differential role of attention in priming-induced performance costs and benefits is linked to differences in response competition associated with these effects. This interpretation situates the present findings within a theoretical framework that has been applied to a broad range of facilitatory priming effects. PMID:25257650

  4. Attention and implicit memory: priming-induced benefits and costs have distinct attentional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Margaret M; Cruz, Matt E; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-02-01

    Attention at encoding plays a critical and ubiquitous role in explicit memory performance, but its role in implicit memory performance (i.e., priming) is more variable: some, but not all, priming effects are reduced by division of attention at encoding. A wealth of empirical and theoretical work has aimed to define the critical features of priming effects that do or do not require attention at encoding. This work, however, has focused exclusively on priming effects that are beneficial in nature (wherein performance is enhanced by prior exposure to task stimuli), and has overlooked priming effects that are costly in nature (wherein performance is harmed by prior exposure to task stimuli). The present study takes up this question by examining the effect of divided attention on priming-induced costs and benefits in a speeded picture-naming task. Experiment 1 shows that the costs, but not the benefits, are eliminated by division of attention at encoding. Experiment 2 shows that the costs (as well as the benefits) in this task are intact in amnesic participants, demonstrating that the elimination of the cost in the divided attention condition in Experiment 1 was not an artifact of the reduced availability of explicit memory in that condition. We suggest that the differential role of attention in priming-induced performance costs and benefits is linked to differences in response competition associated with these effects. This interpretation situates the present findings within a theoretical framework that has been applied to a broad range of facilitatory priming effects.

  5. Nuclear power production: The financial costs. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, P.

    1993-11-01

    For many years, the Canadian nuclear industry has priced itself on its ability to provide safe, reliable and low-cost electricity to consumers. While nuclear power has indeed proved to be a relatively safe generator of electricity, its performance with respect to reliability and cost has declined noticeably in recent years. This paper documents the deteriorating cost performance of the industry, in comparison with that of its traditional competitor in power generation. It also breaks down the total costs into its component parts, assessing the key factors underlying the trends that are worsening the competitive position of the industry: a rise in initial capital costs, unanticipated technical difficulties resulting in additional capital costs, and the increasing operating expenses associated with poorer-than-expected reactor performance. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  6. [Storage of plant protection products in farms: minimum safety requirements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, Moreno; Alfonzo, Santo; Rubbiani, Maristella

    2012-01-01

    Failure to comply with requirements for proper storage and use of pesticides in farms can be extremely hazardous and the risk of accidents involving farm workers, other persons and even animals is high. There are still wide differences in the interpretation of the concept of "securing or making safe", by workers in this sector. One of the critical points detected, particularly in the fruit sector, is the establishment of an adequate storage site for plant protection products. The definition of "safe storage of pesticides" is still unclear despite the recent enactment of Legislative Decree 81/2008 regulating health and work safety in Italy. In addition, there are no national guidelines setting clear minimum criteria for storage of plant protection products in farms. The authors, on the basis of their professional experience and through analysis of recent legislation, establish certain minimum safety standards for storage of pesticides in farms.

  7. Increasing Air Compressor Productivity While Reducing Maintenance and Repair Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foss, R. S

    1993-01-01

    .... When this vital utility is put into this perspective we can start to deal with the considerations of systems engineering, planning, performance evaluation, cost control and preventive maintenance...

  8. Study to establish cost projections for production of Redox chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, J. F.; Greco, C. C.; Rusinko, R. N.; Wadsworth, A. L., III

    1982-01-01

    A cost study of four proposed manufacturing processes for redox chemicals for the NASA REDOX Energy Storage System yielded favorable selling prices in the range $0.99 to $1.91/kg of chromic chloride, anhydrous basis, including ferrous chloride. The prices corresponded to specific energy storage costs from under $9 to $17/kWh. A refined and expanded cost analysis of the most favored process yielded a price estimate corresponding to a storage cost of $11/kWh. The findings supported the potential economic viability of the NASA REDOX system.

  9. THE APPLICATION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING ARE: ELIMINATION IN THE CALCULATION OF COST OF PRODUCTION PT SEMEN TONASA (PERSERO, PANGKEP REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firman Menne

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic conditions should be viewed as the catalyst for developing the ability to intelligently manage resources so that the people of Indonesia can be out of the condition. Effective management and efficiency is reflected in good planning and good planning requires good information. In order to plan well the utilization of company resources to fold the duplicate spiders, company management requires system information revealed by clearly and precisely the facts relating to the activity. PT Semen Tonasa is a fabrication company doing business in the field of cement industry and produces two types of cement, cement or Portland cement type 1 can (OPC and Portland cement (PPC Pazzolan. The benefits that can be gained if the company implemented the system of Activity-Based Costing are: elimination is obtained more accurate information, among others, to improve the quality of decision making. In the ABC product only burdened costs of resources and activities that are used and does not burdened by the cost of the resources and activities. This method causes the cost per unit of a more stable and consistent with the purposes of the imposition of costs to the product result in activity.

  10. Forecast of wind energy production and ensuring required balancing power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulov, M.

    2010-01-01

    The wind energy is gaining larger part of the energy mix around the world as well as in Bulgaria. Having in mind the irregularity of the wind, we are in front of a challenge for management of the power grid in new unknown conditions. The world's experience has proven that there could be no effective management of the grid without forecasting tools, even with small scale of wind power penetration. Application of such tools promotes simple management of large wind energy production and reduction of the quantities of required balancing powers. The share of the expenses and efforts for forecasting of the wind energy is incomparably small in comparison with expenses for keeping additional powers in readiness. The recent computers potential allow simple and rapid processing of large quantities of data from different sources, which provides required conditions for modeling the world's climate and producing sophisticated forecast. (author)

  11. Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) Status and Compliance Requirements for EM Consolidated Business Center Contracts - 13204

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, P.C. [Consultant, 11221 E. Cimmarron Dr., Englewood, CO 80111 (United States); Moe, M.A. [EMCBC Office of Cost Estimating and Analysis, United States Department of Energy, 250 E. 5th Street, Suite 500, Cincinnati, OH 45202 (United States); Hombach, W.G. [Team Analysis, Inc., 2 Cardinal Park Drive, Suite 105A, Leesburg, VA 20175 (United States); Urdangaray, R. [Project Performance Corporation, 1760 Old Meadow Road, McLean, VA 22102 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has developed a web-accessible database to collect actual cost data from completed EM projects to support cost estimating and analysis. This Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) database was initially deployed in early 2009 containing the cost and parametric data from 77 decommissioning, restoration, and waste management projects completed under the Rocky Flats Closure Project. In subsequent years we have added many more projects to ECAS and now have a total of 280 projects from 8 major DOE sites. This data is now accessible to DOE users through a web-based reporting tool that allows users to tailor report outputs to meet their specific needs. We are using it as a principal resource supporting the EM Consolidated Business Center (EMCBC) and the EM Applied Cost Engineering (ACE) team cost estimating and analysis efforts across the country. The database has received Government Accountability Office review as supporting its recommended improvements in DOE's cost estimating process, as well as review from the DOE Office of Acquisition and Project Management (APM). Moving forward, the EMCBC has developed a Special Contract Requirement clause or 'H-Clause' to be included in all current and future EMCBC procurements identifying the process that contractors will follow to provide DOE their historical project data in a format compatible with ECAS. Changes to DOE O 413.3B implementation are also in progress to capture historical costs as part of the Critical Decision project closeout process. (authors)

  12. Sunk cost and work ethic effects reflect suboptimal choice between different work requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Paula; White, K Geoffrey

    2013-03-01

    We investigated suboptimal choice between different work requirements in pigeons (Columba livia), namely the sunk cost effect, an irrational tendency to persist with an initial investment, despite the availability of a better option. Pigeons chose between two keys, one with a fixed work requirement to food of 20 pecks (left key), and the other with a work requirement to food which varied across conditions (center key). On some trials within each session, such choices were preceded by an investment of 35 pecks on the center key, whereas on others they were not. On choice trials preceded by the investment, the pigeons tended to stay and complete the schedule associated with the center key, even when the number of pecks to obtain reward was greater than for the concurrently available left key. This result indicates that pigeons, like humans, commit the sunk cost effect. With higher work requirements, this preference was extended to trials where there was no initial investment, so an overall preference for the key associated with more work was evident, consistent with the work ethic effect. We conclude that a more general work ethic effect is amplified by the effect of the prior investment, that is, the sunk cost effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A study in cost analysis of aggregate production as depending on drilling and blasting design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilim, Niyazi; Çelik, Arif; Kekeç, Bilgehan

    2017-10-01

    Since aggregate production has vital importance for many engineering projects-such as construction, highway and plant-mixed concrete production-this study was undertaken to determine how the costs for such production are affected by the design of drilling and blasting processes used. Aggregates are used in the production of concrete and asphalt, which are critical resources for the construction sector. The ongoing population increase and the growth of living standards around the world drive the increasing demand for these products. As demand grows, competition has naturally arisen among producers in the industry. Competition in the market has directly affected prices, which leads to the need for new measures and cost analysis on production costs. The cost calculation is one of the most important parameters in mining activities. Aggregate production operations include drilling, blasting, secondary crushing (if necessary), loading, hauling and crushing-screening, and each of these factors affects cost. In this study, drilling and blasting design parameters (such as hole diameter, hole depth, hole distance and burden) were investigated and evaluated for their effect on the total cost of quarrying these products, based on a particular quarry selected for this research. As the result of evaluation, the parameters actually driving costs have been identified, and their effects on the cost have been determined. In addition, some suggestions are presented regarding production design which may lead to avoiding increased production costs.

  14. Proposal for the creation of an inquiry commission to investigate the reality of electricity production costs in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After EDF's president has asked for a 20 percent rise for retail electricity prices in France, a group of members of the French Parliament has proposed the creation of an inquiry commission to investigate the costs of electricity production and transport in France (depending on production mode), evaluate the investments required to ensure a safe and reliable operation of nuclear plants, compare the investments needed depending on various electricity production modes for the next ten years in France, study various scenarios including the shutdown of all nuclear plants in the country, and therefore be able to evaluate the tariff evolutions that are required for the future

  15. Trends in real costs of crude oil production: the Middle East vs its competitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    ''Costs'' reflect all exploration and development outlays and include a 15% real rate of return. Costs in itself is generally not a barrier to new developments in OPEC countries. Costs are notably higher for most non-OPEC countries where they do inhibit developments. Mexico and Russia are potentially low cost producers. In the North Sea the cost-price squeeze is crucial. Low prices have forestalled net increases in new non-OPEC production. (author)

  16. INDIRECT COSTS ALLOCATION AND DECISION MAKING IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karić

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a research on the changes occurred inside the accounting system of agricultural organisations in the transitional period. Changes of structure and accounting information system being results of privatisation processes were analysed. The introduction of modern methods in the preparation of relevant management information represents one of the preconditions for development of the privatised agricultural organisation during the transition period. Information prepared by the accounting, especially adapted to management requirements, is essential for rational decision making. Modern management system of reporting is fundamental task of management and a precondition for securing competitive production in agricultural industry. For this reason, it is necessary to define areas of responsibility and to enable application of a modern techniques for calculating expenses. The purpose of this paper is to emphasise the specialised use of accounting information by managers and to develop methods of management reporting in agricultural organisations. We propose an emphasis upon the application of modern management accounting techniques rather than financial accounting reporting approach. We support the contention that the need for high-quality management accounting is not debatable and tend to explain how and why accounting information is developed for the individual parts of a business entity, that is for each department or enterprise of an agricultural organisation. The responsibility accounting system should be introduced in agricultural business entities within our conditions, especially in larger organisations, as a measure of securing competitive production. We emphasise the importance of distinguishing between direct and indirect expenses and of using appropriate methods to allocate expenses among departments or enterprises. The research is based on information directly received from the largest agricultural companies in the area of

  17. Renewable electricity production costs-A framework to assist policy-makers' decisions on price support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinica, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent progress, the production costs for renewable electricity remain above those for conventional power. Expectations of continuous reductions in production costs, typically underpin governments' policies for financial support. They often draw on the technology-focused versions of the Experience Curve model. This paper discusses how national-contextual factors also have a strong influence on production costs, such as geographic, infrastructural, institutional, and resource factors. As technologies mature, and as they reach significant levels of diffusion nationally, sustained increases in production costs might be recorded, due to these nationally contextual factors, poorly accounted for in policy-making decisions for price support. The paper suggests an analytical framework for a more comprehensive understanding of production costs. Based on this, it recommends that the evolution of specific cost levels and factors be monitored to locate 'sources of changes'. The paper also suggests policy instruments that governments may use to facilitate cost decreases, whenever possible. The application of the framework is illustrated for the diffusion of wind power in Spain during the past three decades. - Highlights: → Models, frameworks for policy-making on price support for renewable electricity production costs. → Policy instruments to help reduce production costs. → Limits to the influence of policies of production costs reductions.

  18. Waste management facilities cost information: System cost model product description. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundeen, A.S.; Hsu, K.M.; Shropshire, D.E.

    1996-02-01

    In May of 1994, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) in Idaho Falls, Idaho and subcontractors developed the System Cost Model (SCM) application. The SCM estimates life-cycle costs of the entire US Department of Energy (DOE) complex for designing; constructing; operating; and decommissioning treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities for mixed low-level, low-level, transuranic, and mixed transuranic waste. The SCM uses parametric cost functions to estimate life-cycle costs for various treatment, storage, and disposal modules which reflect planned and existing facilities at DOE installations. In addition, SCM can model new facilities based on capacity needs over the program life cycle. The SCM also provides transportation costs for DOE wastes. Transportation costs are provided for truck and rail and include transport of contact-handled, remote-handled, and alpha (transuranic) wastes. The user can provide input data (default data is included in the SCM) including the volume and nature of waste to be managed, the time period over which the waste is to be managed, and the configuration of the waste management complex (i.e., where each installation's generated waste will be treated, stored, and disposed). Then the SCM uses parametric cost equations to estimate the costs of pre-operations (designing), construction costs, operation management, and decommissioning these waste management facilities

  19. European Utility Requirements (EUR) - the organisation and its products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingemarsson, K.F.

    2007-01-01

    The idea of a common specification for the development and construction of new nuclear power plants appeared in Usa in the eighties in the framework of the ALWR program (Advanced Light Water Reactors). Several European electricity producers had participated in the writing of the EPRI -Utility Requirement Document (URD)- together with a group of American and Asian companies, but in the early nineties, they also agreed to produce a European document. The point was to write a more open specification (open to non-US designs) that would take into account specific European requirements, in nuclear safety in particular, while still keeping strong references to the EPRI URD. In late 1991, five of the major European electricity producers set up an organisation to develop the EUR document. Their primary objective was to produce a common set of requirements that could be endorsed by the major European electricity producers and that would provide clear guidance to the designers. The EUR document (EUR stands for European Utility Requirements) was born. Building new nuclear plants would require undisputable competitiveness vs. alternate production sources. For that only standardisation could bring an adequate answer in the coming years. Standardisation of the designs call for harmonization of the design rules, especially the ones related to nuclear safety. The EUR utilities support the initiatives that would pave the way to harmonization of the safety design rules at European level. They nevertheless think that it may be needed to go further and eventually consider an overall re-optimisation of the safety design rules. All these developments shall be organised at European level, keeping strong connections with the other methodological works undertaken outside Europe. The European utilities and the vendors have now an updated and well-tuned tool that allows them to develop, to assess and to order modern LWR designs well fitted to their actual needs. It has been used as the base

  20. Y-12 product improvements expected to reduce metal production costs and decrease fabrication losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Elaine; Hassler, Morris

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The Y-12 National Security Complex supplies uranium metal and uranium oxide feed material that is then fabricated into fuel for research reactors around the world. Over the past two to three years, Y-12 has learned a great deal about its Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) product. The LEU is produced by taking U.S. surplus Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and blending it with depleted or natural uranium. The surplus HEU comes from dismantled U.S. weapons parts that have been declared as surplus. Those research reactors that use LEU from Y-12 are making important contributions to international nuclear non-proliferation by using LEU rather than HEU, and by helping to disposition former weapons material. We clearly understand that our customers want to keep fuel costs as low as possible. We at Y-12 are making every effort to improve efficiencies in producing the uranium through standardizing the chemical specifications as well as the product mass and dimensional qualities. This paper will discuss the new standard specification that we have proposed to existing LEU metal customers and fuel fabricators. It will also cover Y-12's progress on a new mold-design that will result in a more uniform, higher quality product that is less expensive to produce. This new product is expected to decrease overall fabrication losses by 5-10%, depending on the fabricator's process. The paper will include planned activities and the schedule associated with implementation of the new specification and product form. (author)

  1. Calculation of Complexity Costs – An Approach for Rationalizing a Product Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an operational method for rationalizing a product program based on the calculation of complexity costs. The method takes its starting point in the calculation of complexity costs on a product program level. This is done throughout the value chain ranging from component invento...... of a product program. These findings represent an improved decision basis for the planning of reactive and proactive initiatives of rationalizing a product program.......This paper proposes an operational method for rationalizing a product program based on the calculation of complexity costs. The method takes its starting point in the calculation of complexity costs on a product program level. This is done throughout the value chain ranging from component...... inventories at the factory sites, all the way to the distribution of finished goods from distribution centers to the customers. The method proposes a step-wise approach including the analysis, quantification and allocation of product program complexity costs by the means of identifying of a number...

  2. The costs of seasonality and expansion in Ireland’s milk production and processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinschink K.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ireland’s milk production sector relies on grass-based spring-calving systems, which facilitates cost advantages in milk production but entails a high degree of supply seasonality. Among other implications, this supply seasonality involves extra costs in the processing sector including elevated plant capacities and varying levels of resource utilisation throughout the year. If both the national raw milk production increased substantially (e.g. post-milk quota and a high degree of seasonality persisted, extra processing capacities would be required to cope with peak supplies. Alternatively, existing capacities could be used more efficiently by distributing the milk volume more evenly during the year. In this analysis, an optimisation model was applied to analyse the costs and economies arising to an average Irish milk-processing business due to changes to the monthly distribution of milk deliveries and/or the total annual milk pool. Of the situations examined, changing from a seasonal supply prior to expansion to a smoother pattern combined with an increased milk pool emerged as the most beneficial option to the processor because both the processor’s gross surplus and the marginal producer milk price increased. In practice, it may however be the case that the extra costs arising to the producer from smoothing the milk intake distribution exceed the processor’s benefit. The interlinkages between the stages of the dairy supply chain mean that nationally, the seasonality trade-offs are complex and equivocal. Moreover, the prospective financial implications of such strategies will be dependent on the evolving and uncertain nature of international dairy markets in the post-quota environment.

  3. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled...

  4. Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of renewable energies and required subsidies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Xiaoling; Lin, Boqiang

    2014-01-01

    The development and utilization of renewable energy (RE), a strategic choice for energy structural adjustment, is an important measure of carbon emissions reduction in China. High cost is a main restriction element for large-scale development of RE, and accurate cost estimation of renewable power generation is urgently necessary. This is the first systemic study on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of RE in China. Results indicate that feed-in-tariff (FIT) of RE should be improved and dynamically adjusted based on the LCOE to provide a better support of the development of RE. The current FIT in China can only cover the LCOE of wind (onshore) and solar photovoltaic energy (PV) at a discount rate of 5%. Subsidies to renewables-based electricity generation, except biomass energy, still need to be increased at higher discount rates. Main conclusions are drawn as follows: (1) Government policy should focus on solving the financing problem of RE projects because fixed capital investment exerts considerable influence over the LCOE; and (2) the problem of high cost could be solved by providing subsidies in the short term and more importantly, by reforming electricity price in the mid-and long-term to make the RE competitive. - Highlights: • Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of renewable energies is systemically studied. • Renewable power generation costs are estimated based on data of 17 power plants. • Required subsidies for renewable power generation are calculated. • Electricity price reform is the long-term strategy for solving problem of high cost

  5. PML tumor suppressor protein is required for HCV production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroki, Misao; Ariumi, Yasuo; Hijikata, Makoto; Ikeda, Masanori; Dansako, Hiromichi; Wakita, Takaji; Shimotohno, Kunitada; Kato, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► PML tumor suppressor protein is required for HCV production. ► PML is dispensable for HCV RNA replication. ► HCV could not alter formation of PML-NBs. ► INI1 and DDX5, PML-related proteins, are involved in HCV life cycle. -- Abstract: PML tumor suppressor protein, which forms discrete nuclear structures termed PML-nuclear bodies, has been associated with several cellular functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis and antiviral defense. Recently, it was reported that the HCV core protein colocalizes with PML in PML-NBs and abrogates the PML function through interaction with PML. However, role(s) of PML in HCV life cycle is unknown. To test whether or not PML affects HCV life cycle, we examined the level of secreted HCV core and the infectivity of HCV in the culture supernatants as well as the level of HCV RNA in HuH-7-derived RSc cells, in which HCV-JFH1 can infect and efficiently replicate, stably expressing short hairpin RNA targeted to PML. In this context, the level of secreted HCV core and the infectivity in the supernatants from PML knockdown cells was remarkably reduced, whereas the level of HCV RNA in the PML knockdown cells was not significantly affected in spite of very effective knockdown of PML. In fact, we showed that PML is unrelated to HCV RNA replication using the subgenomic HCV-JFH1 replicon RNA, JRN/3-5B. Furthermore, the infectivity of HCV-like particle in the culture supernatants was significantly reduced in PML knockdown JRN/3-5B cells expressing core to NS2 coding region of HCV-JFH1 genome using the trans-packaging system. Finally, we also demonstrated that INI1 and DDX5, the PML-related proteins, are involved in HCV production. Taken together, these findings suggest that PML is required for HCV production.

  6. METHODOLOGICAL BASES OF PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF PRODUCTION COSTS MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AT OIL AND FAT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mykhalska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementing of models of production costs management accounting in response to responsibility centers into Ukrainian oil and fat enterprises is the aim of their full optimization in terms of current competitive market. Setting production costs as an object of every single responsibility center will enable to update the whole range of accounting operations on costs paperwork, used raw and other materials assessment, cost recovery from labour costs with benefits-related deduction, depreciation recovery due to season production variability, services distribution of auxiliary and service departments and general production costs. In this regard, referring to the current costs accounting at oil and fat enterprises of Ukraine it should be admitted that the main purpose of the article is to explore the above-mentioned issues.

  7. TYPES OF BANAT RURAL TOURIST PRODUCTS REQUIRED BY INTERNATIONAL TOURISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Touristproducts express the training way and content of tourism offer, being a sum ofmaterial goods and services designed to meet the requirements and motivationsof tourists. Tourist services are individualized through a lot ofcharacteristics: elasticity of consumption, the material or immaterialexistence, the impossibility of storing, the simultaneity of consumption withthe production one, the impossibility of avoiding some differences. Thestructure of Banat tourist products focuses on several essential componentsbecause of the multiculturalism of this area, but also specific entrophic andnatural resources, natural reservations, historic sites, great diversity offlora and fauna due temperate or sub-Mediterranean climate subtypes. Economicactivities as support of agricultural occupations have trends of orientationtowards the tertiary sector stimulating the growth of niche tourism, ofmultiethnic space and multi confessional, being the supporting element oftourist services offered and through and through multilingualism increase theidentity of culture and civilization. The economic rural activities, populationand territory offers to Banat rural tourist product a note of originality,authenticity and attractiveness, the novelty of Banat village consisting frommanufacturing activities, habits and popular, the traditions archaicmulinologic installations and technical oil extraction, gastronomy, naturalmonuments, monastic religious services, diversity of hilly and steppe landscape.

  8. Requirement of argininosuccinate lyase for systemic nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erez, Ayelet; Nagamani, Sandesh C S; Shchelochkov, Oleg A; Premkumar, Muralidhar H; Campeau, Philippe M; Chen, Yuqing; Garg, Harsha K; Li, Li; Mian, Asad; Bertin, Terry K; Black, Jennifer O; Zeng, Heng; Tang, Yaoping; Reddy, Anilkumar K; Summar, Marshall; O'Brien, William E; Harrison, David G; Mitch, William E; Marini, Juan C; Aschner, Judy L; Bryan, Nathan S; Lee, Brendan

    2011-11-13

    Nitric oxide (NO) is crucial in diverse physiological and pathological processes. We show that a hypomorphic mouse model of argininosuccinate lyase (encoded by Asl) deficiency has a distinct phenotype of multiorgan dysfunction and NO deficiency. Loss of Asl in both humans and mice leads to reduced NO synthesis, owing to both decreased endogenous arginine synthesis and an impaired ability to use extracellular arginine for NO production. Administration of nitrite, which can be converted into NO in vivo, rescued the manifestations of NO deficiency in hypomorphic Asl mice, and a nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-independent NO donor restored NO-dependent vascular reactivity in humans with ASL deficiency. Mechanistic studies showed that ASL has a structural function in addition to its catalytic activity, by which it contributes to the formation of a multiprotein complex required for NO production. Our data demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for ASL in NOS function and NO homeostasis. Hence, ASL may serve as a target for manipulating NO production in experimental models, as well as for the treatment of NO-related diseases.

  9. Modelling the Costs and Benefits of Delayed Product Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hau L. Lee; Christopher S. Tang

    1997-01-01

    Expanding product variety and high customer service provision are both major challenges for manufacturers to compete in the global market. In addition to many ongoing programs, such as lead-time reduction, redesigning products and processes so as to delay the point of product differentiation is becoming an emerging means to address these challenges. Such a strategy calls for redesigning products and processes so that the stages of the production process in which a common process is used are p...

  10. The cost of electricity production from nuclear energy in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report is an updated version of the report ''The costs of nuclear power in the Netherlands'' published in 1978. The calculations are based on light water reactors and, as required, more specifically on a boiling water reactor. In Chapter 2 the following components of the total costs are considered: i) investment and associated factors, ii) operation and further exploitation, iii) the fission-cycle. This last item includes the costs of the uranium ore, the enrichment, the manufacture of the fission elements, the use of the reactor and the reprocessing and storage of the waste products. The starting points for all these costs, the factors which affect them and the variations and/or uncertainties associated with them are given. Based on this argumentation, Chapter 3 presents the results of the calculations in Dutch cents per kWh for a ficticious nuclear power plant that commenced operation on 1st January 1982. Two reactor models are used operating at 930 and 600 MWe respectively. (C.F.)

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of algae energy production in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacevic, Vujadin; Wesseler, Justus

    2010-01-01

    Today's society relies heavily on fossil fuels as a main energy source. Global energy demand increase, energy security and climate change are the main drivers of the transition towards alternative energy sources. This paper analyses algal biodiesel production for the EU road transportation and compares it to the fossil fuels and 1st generation biofuels. A cost-effectiveness analysis was used to aggregate private and external costs and derive the social cost of each fuel. The following externalities were internalized: emissions (GHG and non-GHG), food prices impact, pesticides/fertilizers use and security of supply. Currently the social cost of producing algal biodiesel at 52.3 EUR GJ -1 is higher than rapeseed biodiesel (36.0 EUR GJ -1 ) and fossil fuels (15.8 EUR GJ -1 ). Biotechnology development, high crude oil prices and high carbon value are the key features of the scenario where algal biodiesel outcompetes all other fuels. A substantial investment into the biotechnology sector and comprehensive environmental research and policy are required to make that scenario a reality. (author)

  12. 48 CFR 622.1503 - Procedures for acquiring end products on the List of Products Requiring Contractor Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... end products on the List of Products Requiring Contractor Certification as to Forced or Indentured... List of Products Requiring Contractor Certification as to Forced or Indentured Child Labor. (e) The... manufacture an end product furnished pursuant to a contract awarded subject to the certification required in...

  13. Space system production cost benefits from contemporary philosophies in management and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmait, Russell L.

    1991-01-01

    The cost of manufacturing space system hardware has always been expensive. The Engineering Cost Group of the Program Planning office at Marshall is attempting to account for cost savings that result from new technologies in manufacturing and management. The objective is to identify and define contemporary philosophies in manufacturing and management. The seven broad categories that make up the areas where technological advances can assist in reducing space system costs are illustrated. Included within these broad categories is a list of the processes or techniques that specifically provide the cost savings within todays design, test, production and operations environments. The processes and techniques listed achieve savings in the following manner: increased productivity; reduced down time; reduced scrap; reduced rework; reduced man hours; and reduced material costs. In addition, it should be noted that cost savings from production and processing improvements effect 20 to 40 pct. of production costs whereas savings from management improvements effects 60 to 80 of production cost. This is important because most efforts in reducing costs are spent trying to reduce cost in the production.

  14. Current production costs in various power plant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weible, H.

    1977-01-01

    The costs of producing electric power were evaluated for flowing water power plants, storage and pumped storage power plants, bituminous coal power plants, heating oil power plants (fired with heavy heating oil), natural gas-fired power plants, gas turbines, pressurized water reactors, and boiling water reactors. The calculational methods used for evaluating costs and the input data for methods used for the KOSKON and KOSKERN computer programs are described. It is emphasized that the calculations are examples to indicate the possible effects of the cost program and are only as valid as the input data. (JSR)

  15. Lead Coolant Test Facility Technical and Functional Requirements, Conceptual Design, Cost and Construction Schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soli T. Khericha

    2006-01-01

    This report presents preliminary technical and functional requirements (T and FR), thermal hydraulic design and cost estimate for a lead coolant test facility. The purpose of this small scale facility is to simulate lead coolant fast reactor (LFR) coolant flow in an open lattice geometry core using seven electrical rods and liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic. Based on review of current world lead or lead-bismuth test facilities and research need listed in the Generation IV Roadmap, five broad areas of requirements of basis are identified: Develop and Demonstrate Prototype Lead/Lead-Bismuth Liquid Metal Flow Loop Develop and Demonstrate Feasibility of Submerged Heat Exchanger Develop and Demonstrate Open-lattice Flow in Electrically Heated Core Develop and Demonstrate Chemistry Control Demonstrate Safe Operation and Provision for Future Testing. These five broad areas are divided into twenty-one (21) specific requirements ranging from coolant temperature to design lifetime. An overview of project engineering requirements, design requirements, QA and environmental requirements are also presented. The purpose of this T and FRs is to focus the lead fast reactor community domestically on the requirements for the next unique state of the art test facility. The facility thermal hydraulic design is based on the maximum simulated core power using seven electrical heater rods of 420 kW; average linear heat generation rate of 300 W/cm. The core inlet temperature for liquid lead or Pb/Bi eutectic is 420 C. The design includes approximately seventy-five data measurements such as pressure, temperature, and flow rates. The preliminary estimated cost of construction of the facility is $3.7M. It is also estimated that the facility will require two years to be constructed and ready for operation

  16. Calcium requirements from dairy foods in France can be met at low energy and monetary cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Tang, Wesley; Brazeilles, Rémi

    2015-12-14

    Inadequate Ca intakes are a concern for global public health. In France, most dietary Ca is provided by dairy products: milks, fermented milks (mostly yogurts), dairy desserts and cheeses. The present dairy database (n 837) included milks (n 101), fermented milks, yogurts and other fresh dairy products (n 326), desserts (n 162) and a wide variety of cheeses (n 248). Energy and nutrient values were obtained from industry sources and the French national nutrient composition database. Retail prices were from Paris supermarkets. Products in each group were aggregated into twenty-one categories using clustering analyses. The costs in energy (kJ (kcal)), euros (€), and in SFA, added sugar and Na (defined here as nutrients to LIMit) associated with providing 120 mg of Ca (equivalent to 15 % daily value (15 % DV)) were calculated for each product group and category. The milk group supplied Ca at the lowest energy, monetary and LIM cost. Fresh plain and 'light' yogurts and fermented milks were next, followed by sweetened yogurts and flavoured milks. Light dairy desserts provided Ca with relatively few energy but were more expensive. Cheeses were a heterogeneous group. Hard cheeses (Comté) provided the most Ca per serving. Semi-hard cheeses (Camembert) and cream and blue cheeses (Roquefort) provided Ca at a cost comparable with sweetened yogurts and flavoured milks. Double cream, soft and goat cheeses were not optimal Ca sources. New value metrics can help identify affordable dairy foods that provide Ca without excessive energy or nutrients to limit. These conditions were satisfied by a wide variety of dairy products in France.

  17. SEA-MAP: A cost effective method for production from deepwater reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wybro, P.G.; Chaisson, M.

    1994-01-01

    SEA Engineering Marginal field Autonomous Production (SEAMAP) based on a small tension leg platform is a concept for commercially viable production from deepwater reservoirs. Considerable engineering effort has and is still being made to find ways of commercially developing the deepwater Gulf of Mexico reserves. The limited number of actual deepwater developments would appear to indicate the energy industry at present remains reluctant to proceed with the development of many of the known discoveries. The major deterrents have been the major investment required in order to implement the development plans combined with uncertainties regarding reservoir performance. Mindful of this situation, SEA-MAP evolved from a perceived need for a low cost deepwater production system viable for relatively small reserves. The capital risk exposure is more sustainable and the major part of the facilities can be relocated to another site. Conversely, field production can be increased at a later stage with additional SEA-MAP platforms SEA-MAP offers a potential means, with minimum capital expenditure, of initiating production autonomously from a deepwater field, obtaining reservoir data and thereafter producing and performing workover activities during the field life. After producing from the field for a period, it may be determined that additional wells are needed. Such a situation leads into a logical phased development comprising more than one small platform or the relocation of an existing structure. Deepwater development can thus be approached cautiously, with minimized capital risk, minimal start-up investment and subsequent self-financing phased production

  18. Reference costs for power generation; Couts de reference de la production electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    methods. Two hypotheses are considered in terms of CO{sub 2} costs over the life span of the oil- and coal-fired power plants: 4 euro/t CO{sub 2} and 20 euro/t CO{sub 2}. The hypothesis of 4 euro/t CO{sub 2} can be considered as very low - it will be significantly more expensive in 2015 and beyond (post-Kyoto period). The choice of a discount rate respectively lower or higher than the baseline hypothesis of 8% will increase, or decrease, the competitiveness of nuclear-based power production compared to fossil- fuel methods of power production because the investment load, which is higher for nuclear than for the other methods, decreases or, conversely, increases. The 8% discount rate adopted here was the rate used by the French Planning Office and is compatible with the profitability requirements currently noted in the electricity sector. The different variants do not bring into question the order of competitiveness of the production methods. 3. Plant operating on a half-time basis (less than 5000 hours/year): Considering the size of the initial investment, a nuclear power plant's competitiveness requires that it operate all year round. Should the nuclear power plant be operational for a shorter duration, then its competitiveness fades in favour of gas-fired power plants. More specifically, gas is more competitive than nuclear power (excluding externalities) for operating periods of less than 5000 hours. - 4. Plant operating on a minimum basis (less than 3000 hours/year): For short periods, the gas turbine is more competitive than the oil-fired turbine. The oil-fired turbine, however, is competitive for durations of less than 250 hours.

  19. Reference costs for power generation; Couts de reference de la production electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    generation methods. Two hypotheses are considered in terms of CO{sub 2} costs over the life span of the oil- and coal-fired power plants: 4 euro/t CO{sub 2} and 20 euro/t CO{sub 2}. The hypothesis of 4 euro/t CO{sub 2} can be considered as very low - it will be significantly more expensive in 2015 and beyond (post-Kyoto period). The choice of a discount rate respectively lower or higher than the baseline hypothesis of 8% will increase, or decrease, the competitiveness of nuclear-based power production compared to fossil- fuel methods of power production because the investment load, which is higher for nuclear than for the other methods, decreases or, conversely, increases. The 8% discount rate adopted here was the rate used by the French Planning Office and is compatible with the profitability requirements currently noted in the electricity sector. The different variants do not bring into question the order of competitiveness of the production methods. 3. Plant operating on a half-time basis (less than 5000 hours/year): Considering the size of the initial investment, a nuclear power plant's competitiveness requires that it operate all year round. Should the nuclear power plant be operational for a shorter duration, then its competitiveness fades in favour of gas-fired power plants. More specifically, gas is more competitive than nuclear power (excluding externalities) for operating periods of less than 5000 hours. - 4. Plant operating on a minimum basis (less than 3000 hours/year): For short periods, the gas turbine is more competitive than the oil-fired turbine. The oil-fired turbine, however, is competitive for durations of less than 250 hours.

  20. Internalizing environmental costs: A survey of progress in estimating the external environmental costs of electricity production and a review of market-based policies to incorporate them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, J.H.; Helcke, G.

    1991-01-01

    The production of electricity creates environmental insults whose costs are not fully reflected in the prices paid by consumers for electricity services. Failure to incorporate these external costs leads to economically inefficient production and consumption decisions. The present work reviews two related efforts to address this market distortion. The first concerns progress in estimating the uninternalized environmental costs of electricity production. The second concerns market-based approaches to internalizing these costs in electricity production and consumption decisions. 10 tabs.; 41 refs

  1. System Evaluation and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of a Commercial-Scale High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O' Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-11-01

    Results of a system evaluation and lifecycle cost analysis are presented for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) central hydrogen production plant. The plant design relies on grid electricity to power the electrolysis process and system components, and industrial natural gas to provide process heat. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate the reference central plant design capable of producing 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen. The HYSYS software performs mass and energy balances across all components to allow optimization of the design using a detailed process flow sheet and realistic operating conditions specified by the analyst. The lifecycle cost analysis was performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes Microsoft Excel spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. The results of the lifecycle analyses indicate that for a 10% internal rate of return, a large central commercial-scale hydrogen production plant can produce 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen at an average cost of $2.68/kg. When the cost of carbon sequestration is taken into account, the average cost of hydrogen production increases by $0.40/kg to $3.08/kg.

  2. Production costs of the new French nuclear. SFEN contributions to Energy multi-year programming. Synthesis and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-03-01

    This publication reports an analysis of the different parameters which make the nuclear option available for France by 2050. It aims at identifying the production cost of new nuclear production means, at identifying levers for action regarding building and financing to reach a sustainable competitiveness of the sector. This note is based on returns on experience from other industries and also on current EPR constructions in France, Finland and China. Thus, it focuses on third generation EPR. It discusses difficulties met during the first projects, states that managing the production is possible through the development of an industrial program, outlines the role of the State. The second part proposes a technical note which discusses building costs and delays of third generation reactors, outlines the importance of the building cost in the total electric power generation cost, shows that (based on an analysis of past building costs for second generation reactors) building costs can be mastered, discusses the expected evolution of EPR costs, evokes other factors influencing the kWh price, discusses the burden of investment financing in front of risks, discusses how to reduce market risks in order to attract investors (reform of carbon price, long term contracts for low carbon projects), and finally comments the consequences for the future nuclear investment which is required to renew the fleet

  3. Multi-objective optimization approach for cost management during product design at the conceptual phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durga Prasad, K. G.; Venkata Subbaiah, K.; Narayana Rao, K.

    2014-03-01

    The effective cost management during the conceptual design phase of a product is essential to develop a product with minimum cost and desired quality. The integration of the methodologies of quality function deployment (QFD), value engineering (VE) and target costing (TC) could be applied to the continuous improvement of any product during product development. To optimize customer satisfaction and total cost of a product, a mathematical model is established in this paper. This model integrates QFD, VE and TC under multi-objective optimization frame work. A case study on domestic refrigerator is presented to show the performance of the proposed model. Goal programming is adopted to attain the goals of maximum customer satisfaction and minimum cost of the product.

  4. Enhancing efficiency of production cost on seafood process with activity based management method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, U.; Tarigan, U. P. P.

    2018-02-01

    The efficiency of production costs has an important impact maintaining company presence in the business world, as well as in the face of increasingly sharp global competition. It was done by identifying and reducing non-value-added activities to decrease production costs and increase profits. The study was conducted at a company engaged in the production of squid (seafood). It has a higher product price than the market as Rp 50,000 per kg while the market price of squid is only Rp 35,000 per kg. The price of the product to be more expensive compared with market price, and thereby a lot more consumers choose the lower market price. Based on the discussions conducted, the implementation of Activity Based Management was seen in the reduction of activities that are not added value in the production process. Since each activities consumers cost, the reduction of nonvalue-added activities has effects on the decline of production cost. The production’s decline costs mainly occur in the reduction of material transfer costs. The results showed that there was an increase after the improvement of 2.60%. Increased production cost efficiency causes decreased production costs and increased profits.

  5. Mathematical supply-chain modelling: Product analysis of cost and time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easters, D J

    2014-01-01

    Establishing a mathematical supply-chain model is a proposition that has received attention due to its inherent benefits of evolving global supply-chain efficiencies. This paper discusses the prevailing relationships found within apparel supply-chain environments, and contemplates the complex issues indicated for constituting a mathematical model. Principal results identified within the data suggest, that the multifarious nature of global supply-chain activities require a degree of simplification in order to fully dilate the necessary factors which affect, each sub-section of the chain. Subsequently, the research findings allowed the division of supply-chain components into sub-sections, which amassed a coherent method of product development activity. Concurrently, the supply-chain model was found to allow systematic mathematical formulae analysis, of cost and time, within the multiple contexts of each subsection encountered. The paper indicates the supply-chain model structure, the mathematics, and considers how product analysis of cost and time can improve the comprehension of product lifecycle management

  6. Mathematical supply-chain modelling: Product analysis of cost and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easters, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    Establishing a mathematical supply-chain model is a proposition that has received attention due to its inherent benefits of evolving global supply-chain efficiencies. This paper discusses the prevailing relationships found within apparel supply-chain environments, and contemplates the complex issues indicated for constituting a mathematical model. Principal results identified within the data suggest, that the multifarious nature of global supply-chain activities require a degree of simplification in order to fully dilate the necessary factors which affect, each sub-section of the chain. Subsequently, the research findings allowed the division of supply-chain components into sub-sections, which amassed a coherent method of product development activity. Concurrently, the supply-chain model was found to allow systematic mathematical formulae analysis, of cost and time, within the multiple contexts of each subsection encountered. The paper indicates the supply-chain model structure, the mathematics, and considers how product analysis of cost and time can improve the comprehension of product lifecycle management.

  7. An overview of fiber-to-the-premises (FTTP) product requirements and qualification programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebizlioglu, Osman S.; Gallo, Ernest J.

    2006-04-01

    downstream (from the CO to the customer) voice and data transmission is offered over 1490 nm, the video (analog, digital and HDTV) transmission will be offered over 1550-nm wavelength, and the 1625-nm will be reserved for overhead, surveillance, and management functions. This paper will cover some of the new products that will be needed and the requirements that would apply. The FTTP deployments require the placement of a number of new products in the FTTP network from the CO to the customer premises. These new products are designed to be installed in an efficient manner with acceptable cost to the service provider in the outside plant and to perform the required functions. One such new product is an HFOC (Hardened Fiber Optic Connector). The HFOC products provide drop connections to customers from fiber distribution networks. They may be placed in pedestal closures, aerial and buried closures, or equipment located at a Fiber Distribution Hub (FDH) enclosure or optical network termination (ONT) unit near customer premises. Current versions of this HFOC product have been based on a well-known and widely used SC fiber optic connector. Simply described, it consists of an SC connector in a protective shell made of a polymeric (plastic) material, and it allows highly efficient connections between the distribution cables from the FDH (Fiber Distribution Hub) where optical signal on a feeder cable from the CO is split for transmission over distribution cables and drop cables in locations near customer premises. In addition to the description of new products, the paper will review the environmental, mechanical and optical test criteria. Attendees would benefit from the knowledge of products and requirements needed to support FTTP deployment.

  8. Innovation in technology for the least product price and cost - a new minimum cost relation for reductions during technological learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    By analogy with the concepts of human learning, we show and introduce a new method to obtain least product cost and price that includes the effect of innovation and technological learning in manufacturing and production. This key result is a new paradigm instead of the usual economic 'power law' formulation. The new analysis is based on extensive analysis of many technological systems, and is directly related to the presence of learning as experience is accumulated. The results agree with the observed data. By using a consistent basis, the method replaces previous empirical 'power law' descriptions of the technological learning curve with a new 'marginal minimum cost equation' (MCE). (author)

  9. Epilepsy in Sweden: health care costs and loss of productivity--a register-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, Kristian; Lundgren, Anders; Berggren, Fredrik; Källén, Kristina

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to estimate health care costs and productivity losses due to epilepsy in Sweden and to compare these estimates to previously published estimates. Register data on health care utilisation, pharmaceutical sales, permanent disability and mortality were used to calculate health care costs and costs that accrue due to productivity losses. By linkage of register information, we were able to distinguish pharmaceuticals prescribed against epilepsy from prescriptions that were prompted by other indications. The estimated total cost of epilepsy in Sweden in 2009 was 441 million, which corresponds to an annual per-patient cost of 8,275. Health care accounted for about 16% of the estimated total cost, and drug costs accounted for about 7% of the total cost. The estimated health care cost corresponded to about 0.2% of the total health care cost in Sweden in 2009. Indirect costs were estimated at 370 million, 84% of which was due to sickness absenteeism. Costs resulting from epilepsy-attributable premature deaths or permanent disability to work accounted for about 1% of the total indirect cost in Sweden in 2009. The per-patient cost of epilepsy is substantial. Thus, even though the prevalence of the illness is relatively small, the aggregated cost that epilepsy incurs on society is significant.

  10. Microalgae Oil Production: A Downstream Approach to Energy Requirements for the Minamisoma Pilot Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhani S. Wibawa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the potential of microalgae oil production as an alternative renewable energy source, in a pilot project located at Minamisoma City in the Fukushima Prefecture of Japan. The algal communities used in this research were the locally mixed species, which were mainly composed of Desmodesmus collected from the Minamisoma pilot project. The microalgae oil-production processes in Minamisoma consisted of three stages: cultivation, dewatering, and extraction. The estimated theoretical input-energy requirement for extracting oil was 137.25 MJ to process 50 m3 of microalgae, which was divided into cultivation 15.40 MJ, centrifuge 13.39 MJ, drum filter 14.17 MJ, and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL 94.29 MJ. The energy profit ratio (EPR was 1.41. The total energy requirement was highest in the HTL process (68% followed by cultivation (11% and the drum filter (10%. The EPR value increased along with the yield in the cultivation process. Using HTL, the microalgae biomass could be converted to bio-crude oil to increase the oil yield in the extraction process. Therefore, in the long run, the HTL process could help lower production costs, due to the lack of chemical additions, for extracting oil in the downstream estimation of the energy requirements for microalgae oil production.

  11. Internalizing external environmental costs of agriculture into product prices, Case study for milk and potatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masselink, Dirk Jan

    2007-01-01

    Society has to pay large amounts of money to compensate for the environmental damages caused by farm emissions. These external costs are not fully accounted for in product prices and internalization of these external costs into the cost price of agricultu

  12. Calculating Optimum sowing factor: A tool to evaluate sowing strategies and minimize seedling production cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric van Steenis

    2013-01-01

    This paper illustrates how to use an excel spreadsheet as a decision-making tool to determine optimum sowing factor to minimize seedling production cost. Factors incorporated into the spreadsheet calculations include germination percentage, seeder accuracy, cost per seed, cavities per block, costs of handling, thinning, and transplanting labor, and more. In addition to...

  13. Expansion formulae for characteristics of cumulative cost in finite horizon production models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayhan, H.; Schlegel, S.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the expected value and the tail probability of cumulative shortage and holding cost (i.e. the probability that cumulative cost is more than a certain value) in finite horizon production models. An exact expression is provided for the expected value of the cumulative cost for general

  14. The average unit production cost of blood in Zimbabwe from a provider's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, N.; Nyoni, H.; Chikwereti, R.; Khoza, S.; Mvere, D.A.; Emmanuel, J.C.; Postma, M.J.; Van Hulst, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Case Studies: Blood utilization and blood transfusion costs are generally perceived to be increasing at a time when healthcare budgets continue being constricted. There is a paucity of published data on the production costs of blood and the costs of blood transfusion in sub-Saharan

  15. 75 FR 61418 - Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for Adoption by... sanitation requirements for the production and processing of manufacturing grade milk. These Recommended... comments. SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend the recommended manufacturing milk requirements...

  16. Fitness cost of pheromone production in signaling female moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Thiéry, Denis

    2011-06-01

    A secondary sexual character may act as an honest signal of the quality of the individual if the trait bears a cost and if its expression is phenotypically condition dependent. The cost of increasing the trait should be tolerable for individuals in good condition but not for those in a poor condition. The trait thus provides an honest signal of quality that enables the receiver to choose higher quality mates. Evidence for sex pheromones, which play a major role in shaping sexual evolution, inflicting a signaling cost is scarce. Here, we demonstrate that the amount of the major component of the pheromone in glands of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera) females at signaling time was significantly greater in large than in small females, that male moths preferred larger females as mates when responding to volatile signals, and small virgin females, but not large ones, exposed to conspecific pheromone, produced, when mated, significantly fewer eggs than nonexposed females. The latter indicates a condition-dependent cost of signaling. These results are in accordance with the predictions of condition-dependent honest signals. We therefore suggest that female signaling for males using sex pheromones bears a cost and thus calling may serve as honest advertisement for female quality. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Biofuel Crops Expansion: Evaluating the Impact on the Agricultural Water Scarcity Costs and Hydropower Production with Hydro Economic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, G.

    2015-12-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane remain an important element to help mitigate the impacts of fossil fuels on the atmosphere. However, meeting fuel demands with biofuels requires technological advancement for water productivity and scale of production. This may translate into increased water demands for biofuel crops and potential for conflicts with incumbent crops and other water uses including domestic, hydropower generation and environmental. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of increased biofuel production on the verge of water scarcity costs and hydropower production. The present research applies a hydro-economic optimization model to compare different scenarios of irrigated biofuel and hydropower production, and estimates the potential tradeoffs. A case study from the Araguari watershed in Brazil is provided. These results should be useful to (i) identify improved water allocation among competing economic demands, (ii) support water management and operations decisions in watersheds where biofuels are expected to increase, and (iii) identify the impact of bio fuel production in the water availability and economic value. Under optimized conditions, adoption of sugar cane for biofuel production heavily relies on the opportunity costs of other crops and hydropower generation. Areas with a lower value crop groups seem more suitable to adopt sugar cane for biofuel when the price of ethanol is sufficiently high and the opportunity costs of hydropower productions are not conflicting. The approach also highlights the potential for insights in water management from studying regional versus larger scales bundled systems involving water use, food production and power generation.

  18. Effect of increased regulation on capital costs and manual labor requirements of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, S.; Schriver, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the impact of increasing governmental regulation on capital costs and labor requirements for constructing light water reactor (LWR) electric power plants. The principal factors contributing to these increases are: (1) market conditions and (2) increased regulation. General market conditions include additional costs attributable to price inflation of equipment, material, labor, and the increased cost of money. The central objective of this work is to estimate the impact of increasing regulation on plant costs and, conversely, on output. To do this it is necessary to isolate two opposing sets of forces which have been in operation during the period of major regulatory expansion: learning based upon plant design experience and economies of scale with increasing size (generating capacity) of newer plants. Conceptual models are specified to capture the independent effects of increasing regulation, learning, and economies of scale. Empirical results were obtained by estimating the models on data collected from industry experience during the 1967-1980 period. 23 refs

  19. Working long hours: less productive but less costly? Firm-level evidence from Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    DELMEZ, Françoise; Vandenberghe, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    From the point of view of a profit-maximizing firm, the optimal number of working hours depends not only on the marginal productivity of hours but also on the marginal labour cost. This paper develops and assesses empirically a simple model of firms' decision making where productivity varies with hours and where the firm faces labour costs per worker that are invariant to the number of hours worked: i.e. quasi-fixed labour costs. Using Belgian firm-level data on production, labour costs, work...

  20. Dynamics of a Bertrand duopoly with differentiated products and nonlinear costs: Analysis, comparisons and new evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brianzoni, Serena; Gori, Luca; Michetti, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies mathematical properties and dynamics of a duopoly with price competition and horizontal product differentiation by introducing quadratic production costs (decreasing returns to scale), thus extending the model with linear costs (constant returns to scale) of Fanti et al. [11]. The economy is described by a two-dimensional non-invertible discrete time dynamic system. The paper first determines fixed points and other invariant sets, showing that synchronized dynamics can occur. Then, stability properties are compared in the cases of quadratic costs and linear costs by considering the degree of product differentiation and the speed of adjustment of prices as key parameters. It is also shown that synchronization takes place if products tend to be relatively complements and stressed similarities and differences between models with quadratic and linear costs. Finally, the paper focuses on the phenomenon of multistability thus underlying new evidences in comparison with the model with linear costs.

  1. 9 CFR 590.24 - Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products plants requiring..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.24 Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection. No plant in...

  2. PML tumor suppressor protein is required for HCV production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroki, Misao [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Ariumi, Yasuo, E-mail: ariumi@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Hijikata, Makoto [Department of Viral Oncology, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Ikeda, Masanori; Dansako, Hiromichi [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Wakita, Takaji [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo 162-8640 (Japan); Shimotohno, Kunitada [Research Center for Hepatitis and Immunology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Ichikawa, Chiba 272-8516 (Japan); Kato, Nobuyuki [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PML tumor suppressor protein is required for HCV production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PML is dispensable for HCV RNA replication. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCV could not alter formation of PML-NBs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer INI1 and DDX5, PML-related proteins, are involved in HCV life cycle. -- Abstract: PML tumor suppressor protein, which forms discrete nuclear structures termed PML-nuclear bodies, has been associated with several cellular functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis and antiviral defense. Recently, it was reported that the HCV core protein colocalizes with PML in PML-NBs and abrogates the PML function through interaction with PML. However, role(s) of PML in HCV life cycle is unknown. To test whether or not PML affects HCV life cycle, we examined the level of secreted HCV core and the infectivity of HCV in the culture supernatants as well as the level of HCV RNA in HuH-7-derived RSc cells, in which HCV-JFH1 can infect and efficiently replicate, stably expressing short hairpin RNA targeted to PML. In this context, the level of secreted HCV core and the infectivity in the supernatants from PML knockdown cells was remarkably reduced, whereas the level of HCV RNA in the PML knockdown cells was not significantly affected in spite of very effective knockdown of PML. In fact, we showed that PML is unrelated to HCV RNA replication using the subgenomic HCV-JFH1 replicon RNA, JRN/3-5B. Furthermore, the infectivity of HCV-like particle in the culture supernatants was significantly reduced in PML knockdown JRN/3-5B cells expressing core to NS2 coding region of HCV-JFH1 genome using the trans-packaging system. Finally, we also demonstrated that INI1 and DDX5, the PML-related proteins, are involved in HCV production. Taken together, these findings suggest that PML is required for HCV production.

  3. 78 FR 17648 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy'', dated April 26, 2012... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  4. Geographical analyses of wood chips potentials, cost and supply for sustainable energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production.......The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production....

  5. 76 FR 71450 - Deduction for Qualified Film and Television Production Costs; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... Deduction for Qualified Film and Television Production Costs; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... Register on Wednesday, October 19, 2011 (76 FR 64816) relating to deductions for the cost of producing film and television productions. DATES: This correction is effective on November 18, 2011, and is...

  6. Energy-dense fast food products cost less: an observational study of the energy density and energy cost of Australian fast foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Lyndal; Havill, Michelle; Hughes, Clare; Watson, Wendy L; Chapman, Kathy

    2015-12-01

    To examine the association between energy cost and energy density of fast food products. Twenty Sydney outlets of the five largest fast food chains were surveyed four times. Price and kilojoule data were collected for all limited-time-only menu items (n=54) and a sample of standard items (n=67). Energy cost ($/kilojoule) and energy density (kilojoules/gram) of menu items were calculated. There was a significant inverse relationship between menu item energy density and energy cost (pFast food chains could provide a wider range of affordable, lower-energy foods, use proportional pricing of larger serve sizes, or change defaults in meals to healthier options. More research is required to determine the most effective strategy to reduce the negative impact of fast food on the population's diet. Current pricing in the fast food environment may encourage unhealthier purchases. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  7. VARIANTS OF DETERMINING THE MANUFACTURING COST OF A PRODUCT IN A PRODUCTION UNIT IN THE LIGHT OF BALANCE SHEET LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena STROJEK‐FILUS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The category of the manufacturing cost of a product is one of the most important ones from the point of view of proper valuation of the assets of a production unit, costs of its operations as well as pricing decisions. This article presents the problem of determining the manufacturing cost of a product in terms of balance sheet law. It has been shown that in order to determine this value various methods and options are allowed by this law, by means of which different values of manufacturing cost of a product are obtained. The importance of a proper selection of an allocation key in setilement of indirect production costs has been highlighted as well as the results of using, in certain cases, approved simplifications in the balance sheet law when determining the manufacturing cost of products have been demonstrated. The problem presented in this article is crucial from the point of view of an organization and management of production as well as managerial decision‐making in a company in the area of design of products and processes.

  8. Production of synthetic methanol from air and water using controlled thermonuclear reactor power. 2. Capital investment and production costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, V D; Steinberg, M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, N.Y. (USA)

    1977-01-01

    Energy requirement and process development of methanol production from air and water using controlled thermonuclear fusion power was discussed in Part 1 (Steinberg et al., Energy conversion;17:97(1977)). This second part presents an economic analysis of the nine processes presented for obtaining carbon dioxide recovery from the atmosphere or the sea for methanol production. It is found that the most economical process of obtaining carbon dioxide is by stripping from sea water. The process of absorption/stripping by dilute potassium carbonate solution is found to be the most economical for the extraction of carbon dioxide from air at atmospheric pressure. The total energy required for methanol synthesis from these sources of carbon dioxide is 3.90 kWh(e)/lb methanol of which 90% is used for generation of hydrogen. The process which consumes the greatest amount of energy is the absorption/stripping of air by water at high pressure and amounts to 13.2 kWh(e)/lb methanol. With nuclear fusion power plants of 1000to 9000 MW(e), it is found that the cost of methanol using the extraction of carbon dioxide from air with dilute potassium carbonate solution is estimated to be in the range between Pound1.73 and Pound2.90/MMB.t.u. (energy equivalent - 1974 cost) for plant capacities of 21 400 to 193 000 bbl/day methanol. This methanol cost is competitive with gasoline in the range of 19 approximately equal to 33c/gallon. For the process of stripping of carbon dioxide from sea water, the cost is found to lie in the range of Pound1.65 to Pound2.71/MMB.t.u. (energy equivalent) for plant capacities of 21 700 to 195 000 bbl/day methanol which is competitive with gasoline in the range of 18 approximately equal to 30 c/gallon. Projection of methanol demand in the year 2020 is presented based on both its conventional use as chemicals and as a liquid fuel substituting for oil and gas.

  9. Rolling Stock Planning at DSB S-tog - Processes, Cost Structures and Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Per

    A central issue for operators of suburban passenger train transport systems is providing sufficient number of seats for the passengers while at the same time minimising operating costs. The process of providing this is called rolling stock planning. This technical report documents the terminology......, the processes, the cost structures and the requirements for rolling stock planning at DSB S-tog, the suburban passenger train operator of the City of Copenhagen. The focus of the technical report is directed at practical train operator oriented issues. The technical report is thought to serve as a basis...... for investigating better methods to perform the rolling stock planning (to be the topic of later papers). This technical report is produced as a part of the current industrial Ph. D. project to improve the rolling stock planning process of DSB S-tog....

  10. MINIMIZE ENERGY AND COSTS REQUIREMENT OF WEEDING AND FERTILIZING PROCESS FOR FIBER CROPS IN SMALL FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek FOUDA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The experimental work was carried out through agricultural summer season of 2014 at the experimental farm of Gemmiza Research Station, Gharbiya governorate to minimize energy and costs in weeding and fertilizing processes for fiber crops (Kenaf and Roselle in small farms. The manufactured multipurpose unit performance was studied as a function of change in machine forward speed (2.2, 2.8, 3.4 and 4 Km/h fertilizing rates (30,45 and 60 Kg.N.fed-1,and constant soil moisture content was 20%(d.b in average. Performance of the manufactured machine was evaluated in terms of fuel consumption, power and energy requirements, effective field capacity, theoretical field capacity, field efficiency, and operational costs as a machine measurements .The experiment results reveled that the manufactured machine decreased energy and increased effective field capacity and efficiency under the following conditions: -machine forward speed 2.2Kmlh. -moisture content average 20%.

  11. Biological waste by-production costs in forest management and possibilities for their reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kadlec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastes in forestry were observed from view of their by-production in silvicultural and logging operations. There were identified points where biological waste was produced in this paper, waste costs ratio for silvicultural and logging operations and were made suggestions for reduction of these costs. Biological waste costs give 34.4% of total costs of silvicultural operations and 30% of total costs of logging operations. Natural regeneration and minor forest produce operations are opportunities for reduction of these costs.

  12. The influence of lunar propellant production on the cost-effectiveness of cislunar transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, H. H.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that propellants produced at the points of destination such as the Moon or Mars will help the economy of space transportation, particularly if round trips with a crew are involved. The construction and operation of a lunar base shortly after the turn of the century is one of the space programs under serious consideration at the present time. Space transportation is one of the major cost drivers. With present technology, if expendable launchers were employed, the specific transportation costs of one-way cargo flights would be approximately 10,000 dollars/kg (1985) at life-cycle cumulative 100,000 ton payload to the lunar surface. A fully reusable space transportation system using lunar oxygen and Earth-produced liquid hydrogen (LH2) would reduce the specific transportation costs by one order of magnitude to less than 1000 dollars/kg at the same payload volume. Another case of primary interest is the delivery of construction material and consumables from the lunar surface to the assembly site of space solar power plants in geostationary orbit (GEO). If such a system were technically and economically feasible, a cumulative payload of about 1 million tons or more would be required. At this level a space freighter system could deliver this material from Earth for about 300 dollars/kg (1985) to GEO. A lunar space transportation system using lunar oxygen and a fuel mixture of 50 percent Al and 50 percent LH2 (that has to come from Earth) could reduce the specific transportation costs to less than half, approximately 150 dollars/kg. If only lunar oxygen were available, these costs would come down to 200 dollars/kg. This analysis indicates a sizable reduction of the transportation burden on this type of mission. It should not be overlooked, however, that there are several uncertainties in such calculations. It is quite difficult at this point to calculate the cost of lunar-produced O and/or Al. This will be a function of production rate and life

  13. Algae Production from Wastewater Resources: An Engineering and Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan [Longitude 122 West, Inc.; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL

    2018-03-01

    Co-locating algae cultivation ponds near municipal wastewater (MWW) facilities provides the opportunity to make use of the nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in the wastewater as nutrient sources for the algae. This use benefits MWW facilities, the algae biomass and biofuel or bioproduct industry, and the users of streams where treated or untreated waste would be discharged. Nutrient compounds can lead to eutrophication, hypoxia, and adverse effects to some organisms if released downstream. This analysis presents an estimate of the cost savings made possible to cultivation facilities by using the nutrients from wastewater for algae growth rather than purchase of the nutrients. The analysis takes into consideration the cost of pipe transport from the wastewater facility to the algae ponds, a cost factor that has not been publicly documented in the past. The results show that the savings in nutrient costs can support a wastewater transport distance up to 10 miles for a 1000-acre-pond facility, with potential adjustments for different operating assumptions.

  14. Parametric optimization for the low cost production of nanostructure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years, nanocrystalline materials have drawn the attention of researchers in the field of materials science engineering due to its enhanced mechanical properties such as high strength and high hardness. However, the cost of nanocrystalline materials is prohibitively high, primarily due to the expensive equipments ...

  15. Cost-Effective Mass Production of Mono Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gres, Szymon; Nielsen, Søren Andreas; Fejerskov, Morten

    2015-01-01

    for innovative and cost-effective design of Mono Bucket foundations. Established approach merges wind and wave load models, soil/structure interaction topics, structural optimization and installation/fabrication aspects, into software package with ability to perform optimal design of the individual foundations...

  16. Breaking down the Bilingual Cost in Speech Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, Jasmin; Martin, Clara D.; Magnuson, James S.; Alario, François-Xavier; Costa, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Bilinguals have been shown to perform worse than monolinguals in a variety of verbal tasks. This study investigated this bilingual verbal cost in a large-scale picture-naming study conducted in Spanish. We explored how individual characteristics of the participants and the linguistic properties of the words being spoken influence this performance…

  17. Large area, low cost solar cell development and production readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, D.

    1982-01-01

    A process sequence for a large area ( or = 25 sq. cm) silicon solar cell was investigated. Generic cell choice was guided by the expected electron fluence, by the packing factors of various cell envelope designs onto each panel to provide needed voltage as well as current, by the weight constraints on the system, and by the cost goals of the contract.

  18. Health care and lost productivity costs of overweight and obesity in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Anita; Moodie, Marj; Ashton, Toni; Siahpush, Mohammad; Swinburn, Boyd

    2012-12-01

    To estimate the costs of health care and lost productivity attributable to overweight and obesity in New Zealand (NZ) in 2006. A prevalence-based approach to costing was used in which costs were calculated for all cases of disease in the year 2006. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated based on the relative risks obtained from large cohort studies and the prevalence of overweight and obesity. For each disease, the PAF was multiplied by the total health care cost. The costs of lost productivity associated with premature mortality were estimated using both the Human Capital approach (HCA) and Friction Cost approach (FCA). Health care costs attributable to overweight and obesity were estimated to be NZ$686m or 4.5% of New Zealand's total health care expenditure in 2006. The costs of lost productivity using the FCA were estimated to be NZ$98m and NZ$225m using the HCA. The combined costs of health care and lost productivity using the FCA were $784m and $911m using the HCA. The cost burden of overweight and obesity in NZ is considerable. Policies and interventions are urgently needed to reduce the prevalence of obesity thereby decreasing these substantial costs. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  19. Impact of extreme load requirements and quality assurance on nuclear power plant costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Definitive costs, applicable to nuclear power plant concrete structures, as a function of National Regulatory Requirements, standardization, the effect of extreme load design associated with both design basis accidents and extreme external events and quality assurance are difficult to develop since such effects are interrelated and not only differ widely from country to country, project to project but also vary in time. Table 1 shows an estimate of the of the overall plant cost effects of external event extreme load design on nuclear power plant design for the U.S -and selected foreign countries for which experience with LWRs exist- Germany is the most expensive primarily due to a military aircraft crash resistance. However, the German requirement for 4 safeguards trains rather than 2 and the containment design requirement to consider one Steam Generator blowdown concurrent with a RCS blowdown. This presentation will concentrate on the direct current impact extreme load design and quality assurance have on concrete structures, systems and components for nuclear plants. This presentation is considered timely due to the increased interest in the c potential backfit of Eastern European nuclear power stations of the WWER 440 and WWER 1000 types which typically did not consider the extreme loads identified in Table 1 and accident loads in Table 3 and quality assurance in Table 5 in their original design. Concrete structures in particular are highlighted because they typically form the last barrier to radioactive release from the containment and other Safety Related Structures

  20. Improvement of uranium production efficiency to meet China's nuclear power requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R.

    1997-01-01

    Recently China put the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, with an installed capacity of 300 MW, in the province of Zhejiang and the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant, with a total installed capacity of 2 x 900 MW, in commercial operation. China plans a rapid growth in nuclear power from 1995 to 2010. China's uranium production will therefore also enter a new period with nuclear power increasing. In order to meet the demand of nuclear power for uranium special attention has been paid to both technical progress improvement using management with the aim of reducing the cost of uranium production. The application of the trackless mining technique has enhanced the uranium mining productivity significantly. China has produced a radiometric sorter, model 5421-2 for pre-concentrating uranium run-of-mine ore. This effectively increases the uranium content in mill feed and decreases the operating cost of hydrometallurgical treatment. The in situ leach technique after blasting is applied underground in the Lantian Mine, in addition to the surface heap leaching, and has obtained a perfect result. The concentrated acid-curing, and ferric sulphate trickle leaching process, will soon be used in commercial operation for treating uranium ore grading -5 to -7 mm in size. The annual production capability of the Yining Mine will be extended to 100 tonnes U using improving in situ leaching technology. For the purpose of improving the uranium production efficiency much work has been done optimizing the distribution of production centres. China plans to expand its uranium production to meet the uranium requirements of the developing nuclear power plants. (author). 4 tabs

  1. 73 Activity Based Costing and Product Pricing Decision: the Nigerian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebipanipre Gabriel Mieseigha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined activity based costing and product pricing decisions in Nigeria so as to ascertain whether activity based costing have the ability to enhance profitability and control cost of manufacturing firms. Towards this end, a multiple correlation and regression estimation technique was used in analyzing the data obtained in the study. The study found that activity based costing affects product costing and pricing decision. In addition, the results showed that improved profitability and cost control can be achieved by implementing activity based costing approach by manufacturing firms. The implication is that traditional costing approach fails in many pricing situations by arbitrarily allocating indirect cost and activity based costing helps in allocating indirect cost accurately. Thus, it was recommended amongst others that activity based costing need to be practiced, maintained and implemented by manufacturing firms since it has a broad range of uses for a wide variety of company functions and operations in the area of process analysis, strategy support, time-based accounting, monitoring wastage, as well as quality and productivity management.

  2. PVD and gas production: consider local resource access requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafosse, E.

    1993-01-01

    The history of the natural gas industry worldwide teaches us that its development has sprung mainly from two sources: favorable contingent conditions, such as in the United States, where the discovery of large gas fields coincided favorably with technological progress and the already existing city gas distribution networks, as also happened in Italy and France; and political prodding, as in the Eastern European countries, in Japan, and certain countries of Western Europe too. Today, while natural gas is winning over more and more consumers and the infrastructures now exist, the rise in consumption is being held back by supply-related constraints, and namely the problem of adjusting to the rise in gas prices in the United States, and the distancing of the resources from Europe. In this context, the development of new gas markets in the developing countries could contribute to the continuous growth of the world natural gas industry. The resources do exist, and the possibility of generating electricity with them opens the way to creating or developing this industry in some twenty developing countries, to begin with, and a greater number later. For these countries, this perspective is highly enticing, economically; but development is slow, partly due to the fact that the specific requirements of gas production projects are not satisfied. The contractual and tax structure governing their implementation does not reflect the fact that, in contrast to the petroleum industry, the producer does not have access to a true market, and he is in fact only one of the wheels in an integrated production mechanism bent specifically on putting electrical power on the market. It is easy to see the difficulties that arise from such a situation, since the indispensable steps in the process, performed successively by producer, transporter, and electric company, use two interfaces with fields of business that are in close bilateral dependency. This leads to upstream inefficiency in

  3. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... information is contained in the Board's June 14, 2010 decision, which is available on our website at http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the office of Public... Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. [[Page 33380

  4. Airport costs and production technology : a translog cost function analysis with implications for economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Based upon 50 large and medium hub airports over a 13 year period, this research estimates one and two : output translog models of airport short run operating costs. Output is passengers transported on non-stop : segments and pounds of cargo shipped....

  5. Machinery and labour force requirements for forest chip production in Finland in 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, K.; Strandsroem, M. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi, Email: markus.strandstrom@metsateho.fi; Lahtinen, P.; Elo, J. (Poeyry Energy Oy, Espoo (Finland)), Email: perttu.lahtinen@poyry.com, Email: juha.elo@poyry.com

    2009-07-01

    The research carried out by Metsaeteho Oy and Poeyry Energy Oy estimated how much machinery and labour would be needed for large-scale forest chip production if the use of forest chips increases extensively in Finland during the coming decade. If the production and consumption of forest chips are 25 to 30 TWh in Finland 2020, then 1,900 to 2,200 machinery units, i.e. machines and trucks, would be needed. This would mean total investments in production machinery of 530 to 630 million euro (VAT 0 %). The labour demand would be 3,400 to 4,000 machine operators and drivers, and 4,200 to 5,100 labour years including indirect labour. Respectively, if the production and consumption of forest chips is 15 to 20 TWh in Finland in 2020, then the production machinery requirement would be 1,100 to 1,500 machines and trucks. The total machinery investment cost would be 320 to 420 million euro (VAT 0 %) and the calculated labour demand 2,000 to 2,700 machine operators and drivers (2,500 to 3,400 labour years). The results of the study indicated that forest chip production resources will be a major bottleneck in reaching the consumption target of 12 million m3, i.e. around 24 TWh of forest chips in Finland by 2020. (orig.)

  6. Fixed Costs and the Product Market Treatment of Preference Minorities

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Berry; Alon Eizenberg; Joel Waldfogel

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented that, in the presence of substantial fixed costs, markets offer preference majorities more variety than preference minorities. This fact alone, however, does not demonstrate the market outcome is in any way biased against preference minorities. In this paper, we clarify the sense in which the market outcome may in fact be biased against preference minorities, and we provide some conditions for such bias to occur. We then estimate the degree of bias in a particular indust...

  7. Production cost structure in US outpatient physical therapy health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubiani, Gregory G; Okunade, Albert A

    2013-02-01

    This paper investigates the technology cost structure in US physical therapy care. We exploit formal economic theories and a rich national data of providers to tease out implications for operational cost efficiencies. The 2008-2009 dataset comprising over 19 000 bi-weekly, site-specific physical therapy center observations across 28 US states and Occupational Employment Statistics data (Bureau of Labor Statistics) includes measures of output, three labor types (clinical, support, and administrative), and facilities (capital). We discuss findings from the iterative seemingly unrelated regression estimation system model. The generalized translog cost estimates indicate a well-behaved underlying technology structure. We also find the following: (i) factor demands are downwardly sloped; (ii) pair-wise factor relationships largely reflect substitutions; (iii) factor demand for physical therapists is more inelastic compared with that for administrative staff; and (iv) diminishing scale economies exist at the 25%, 50%, and 75% output (patient visits) levels. Our findings advance the timely economic understanding of operations in an increasingly important segment of the medical care sector that has, up-to-now (because of data paucity), been missing from healthcare efficiency analysis. Our work further provides baseline estimates for comparing operational efficiencies in physical therapy care after implementations of the 2010 US healthcare reforms. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Collaborative Monitoring of Production and Costs of Timber Harvest Operations in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno Pokorny

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Timber companies and policy makers in the Brazilian Amazon urgently need financial information on forest management. Results from a few experiments, case studies, and surveys have been groundbreaking, but are insufficient. A strategic partnership between timber companies and research organizations is needed to generate additional information. This paper presents a tool for monitoring production and costs of forest operations to facilitate such collaboration. The tool provides useful information for companies and, at the same time, generates reliable data for research. Selected results are presented on production, capacity, and costs to demonstrate the usefulness of the information that can be generated. These results are based on the first 2 years of implementation by a company in the State of Pará, Brazil. This pilot project confirmed that the tool is simple and relevant. Its successful implementation requires significant investment, and will be applicable only to companies interested in changing from conventional logging to reduced-impact logging, especially those seeking Forest Stewardship Council certification. Successful implementation of the tool will also depend on it generating readily understood and highly relevant results for the companies, and receiving extensive support during the first 2 years.

  9. a cost-benefit analysis of farmer based seed production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    of farmer based common bean seed production in Kenya. The study used .... this limited our ability to assess the impact of management and other ... traditional method of broad casting seed rather than following the .... Handbook 1. Network on ...

  10. Life cycle costs for the optimized production of hydrogen and biogas from microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Markus A.; Weiss, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Despite the known advantages of microalgae compared with other biomass providers or fossil fuels, microalgae are predominately produced for high-value products. Economic constraints might limit the commercial energetic use of microalgae. Therefore, we identify the LCCs (life cycle costs) and economic hot spots for photoautotrophic hydrogen generation from photoautotrophically grown Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in a novel staggered PBR (photobioreactor) and the anaerobic digestion of the residual biomass to obtain biogas. The novel PBR aims at minimizing energy consumption for mixing and aeration and at optimizing the light conditions for algal growth. The LCCs per MJ amounted to 12.17 Euro for hydrogen and 0.99 Euro for biogas in 2011 for Germany. Market prices per MJ of 0.02 Euro for biogas and 0.04 Euro for hydrogen are considerably exceeded. Major contributors to operating costs, about 70% of total LCCs, are personnel and overhead costs. The investment costs consist to about 92% of those for the PBR with a share of 61% membrane costs. The choice of Madrid as another production location with higher incident solar irradiation and lower personnel costs reduces LCCs by about 40%. Projecting LCCs to 2030 with experience curves, the LCCs still exceed future market prices. - Highlights: • Life cycle cost assessment of hydrogen and biogas from microalgae in a novel photobioreactor. • Current and future (2030) economically viable production unlikely in Germany. • Personnel and photobioreactor costs are major cost drivers. • Changing the production location may significantly reduce the life cycle costs

  11. Spatial and temporal aspects of grain accumulation costs for ethanol production: An Australian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderton, Nikki; Kingwell, Ross

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol production is increasingly commonplace in many grain-producing regions. This paper uses the grain-producing region of south-western Australia to illustrate spatial and temporal aspects of grain accumulation costs for ethanol production. Specifically, this study examines how price variability of various wheat grades, combined with spatial and temporal variability in production of those grades, affects the costs of grain accumulation. These costs are the main components of an ethanol plant's operating costs so lessening these costs can offer a comparative advantage for a plant owner. Logistics models based on mathematical programming are constructed for a range of plant sizes and locations for ethanol production. Modelling results identify low-cost sites that generate cost savings, in present value terms, of between 5 and 7.5 per cent, depending on plant size, over the 9-year study period. At all locations, small to medium-sized plants offer advantages of lower and less variable costs of grain accumulation. Yet, all locations and all plant sizes are characterised by marked volatility in the cost of grain accumulation. The profitability of ethanol production based on wheat in this region of Australia is particularly exposed to any prolonged period of high grain prices relative to petroleum prices, given current biofuel-policy settings in Australia. (author)

  12. Comparison and Cost Analysis of Drinking Water Quality Monitoring Requirements versus Practice in Seven Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Crocker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water quality monitoring programs aim to support provision of safe drinking water by informing water quality management. Little evidence or guidance exists on best monitoring practices for low resource settings. Lack of financial, human, and technological resources reduce a country’s ability to monitor water supply. Monitoring activities were characterized in Cambodia, Colombia, India (three states, Jordan, Peru, South Africa, and Uganda according to water sector responsibilities, monitoring approaches, and marginal cost. The seven study countries were selected to represent a range of low resource settings. The focus was on monitoring of microbiological parameters, such as E. coli, coliforms, and H2S-producing microorganisms. Data collection involved qualitative and quantitative methods. Across seven study countries, few distinct approaches to monitoring were observed, and in all but one country all monitoring relied on fixed laboratories for sample analysis. Compliance with monitoring requirements was highest for operational monitoring of large water supplies in urban areas. Sample transport and labor for sample collection and analysis together constitute approximately 75% of marginal costs, which exclude capital costs. There is potential for substantive optimization of monitoring programs by considering field-based testing and by fundamentally reconsidering monitoring approaches for non-piped supplies. This is the first study to look quantitatively at water quality monitoring practices in multiple developing countries.

  13. Comparison and cost analysis of drinking water quality monitoring requirements versus practice in seven developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jonny; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-07-18

    Drinking water quality monitoring programs aim to support provision of safe drinking water by informing water quality management. Little evidence or guidance exists on best monitoring practices for low resource settings. Lack of financial, human, and technological resources reduce a country's ability to monitor water supply. Monitoring activities were characterized in Cambodia, Colombia, India (three states), Jordan, Peru, South Africa, and Uganda according to water sector responsibilities, monitoring approaches, and marginal cost. The seven study countries were selected to represent a range of low resource settings. The focus was on monitoring of microbiological parameters, such as E. coli, coliforms, and H2S-producing microorganisms. Data collection involved qualitative and quantitative methods. Across seven study countries, few distinct approaches to monitoring were observed, and in all but one country all monitoring relied on fixed laboratories for sample analysis. Compliance with monitoring requirements was highest for operational monitoring of large water supplies in urban areas. Sample transport and labor for sample collection and analysis together constitute approximately 75% of marginal costs, which exclude capital costs. There is potential for substantive optimization of monitoring programs by considering field-based testing and by fundamentally reconsidering monitoring approaches for non-piped supplies. This is the first study to look quantitatively at water quality monitoring practices in multiple developing countries.

  14. Tributyltin-induced apoptosis requires glycolytic adenosine trisphosphate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stridh, H; Fava, E; Single, B; Nicotera, P; Orrenius, S; Leist, M

    1999-10-01

    The toxicity of tributyltin chloride (TBT) involves Ca(2+) overload, cytoskeletal damage, and mitochondrial failure leading to cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. Here, we examined whether the intracellular ATP level modulates the mode of cell death after exposure to TBT. When Jurkat cells were energized by the mitochondrial substrate, pyruvate, low concentrations of TBT (1-2 microM) triggered an immediate depletion of intracellular ATP followed by necrotic death. When ATP levels were maintained by the addition of glucose, the mode of cell death was typically apoptotic. Glycolytic ATP production was required for apoptosis at two distinct steps. First, maintenance of adequate ATP levels accelerated the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, and the release of the intermembrane proteins adenylate kinase and cytochrome c from mitochondria. A possible role of the adenine nucleotide exchanger in this first ATP-dependent step is suggested by experiments performed with the specific inhibitor, bongkrekic acid. This substance delayed cytochrome c release in a manner similar to that caused by ATP depletion. Second, caspase activation following cytochrome c release was only observed in ATP-containing cells. Bcl-2 had only a minor effect on TBT-triggered caspase activation or cell death. We conclude that intracellular ATP concentrations control the mode of cell death in TBT-treated Jurkat cells at both the mitochondrial and caspase activation levels.

  15. FDA's requirements for radiation dosimetry of radiopharmaceutical drug products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    The primary concern of the Office of Drug Research and Review of the Food and Drug Administration in the field of radiation dosimetry is to ensure that radiopharmaceutical drug products are safe when used as investigational drugs (INDs) and are both safe and effective when a new drug application (NDA) is approved. In order to accomplish this, the sponsor of either an IND or applicant in the case of NDA must provide information that clearly describes the radiation dose that a patient will receive from the administration of the drug. The submitted numerical estimates of the radiation dose should be based on an absorbed fraction method of radiation dose calculation, such as the system set forth by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine or the system set forth by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This presentation will describe in detail the data that a sponsor of an IND needs to submit to satisfy the regulatory requirements. Examples will be given of common mistakes and omissions by sponsors in their presentation of data

  16. Reduction in requirements for allogeneic blood products: nonpharmacologic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, J F; Bélisle, S; Janvier, G; Samama, M

    1996-12-01

    Various strategies have been proposed to decrease bleeding and allogeneic transfusion requirements during and after cardiac operations. This article attempts to document the usefulness, or lack thereof, of the nonpharmacologic methods available in clinical practice. Blood conservation methods were reviewed in chronologic order, as they become available to patients during the perisurgical period. The literature in support of or against each strategy was reexamined critically. Avoidance of preoperative anemia and adherence to published guidelines for the practice of transfusion are of paramount importance. Intraoperatively, tolerance of low hemoglobin concentrations and use of autologous blood (predonated or harvested before bypass) will reduce allogeneic transfusions. The usefulness of plateletpheresis and retransfusion of shed mediastinal fluid remains controversial. Intraoperatively and postoperatively, maintenance of normothermia contributes to improved hemostasis. Several approaches have been shown to be effective. An efficient combination of methods can reduce, and sometimes abolish, the need for allogeneic blood products after cardiac operations, inasmuch as all those involved in the care of cardiac surgical patients adhere thoughtfully to existing transfusion guidelines.

  17. Comparing costs of power and heat production by prospective and present sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, S.

    1979-01-01

    Capital and running costs are compared of power and heat production from different sources. The lowest capital costs were found for coal-fired power plants followed by light water reactor power plants. The capital costs of other types of power plants, such as wind, geothermal, solar, thermonuclear power plants are significantly higher. The estimated specific cost for electric power production in 1985 for a nuclear power plant is lower than for a fossil-fuel power plant. It is estimated that in 1985 coal will be the cheapest heat source. (Ha)

  18. A Comparison of Carbon Footprint and Production Cost of Different Pasta Products Based on Whole Egg and Pea Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Nette

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed and food production are inter alia reasons for high greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by the replacement of animal components with plant components in processed food products, such as pasta. The main components currently used for pasta are semolina, and water, as well as additional egg. The hypothesis of this paper is that the substitution of whole egg with plant-based ingredients, for example from peas, in such a product might lead to reduced greenhouse gas emissions (GHG and thus a reduced carbon footprint at economically reasonable costs. The costs and carbon footprints of two pasta types, produced with egg or pea protein, are calculated. Plant protein–based pasta products proved to cause 0.57 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2eq (31% per kg pasta less greenhouse gas emissions than animal-based pasta, while the cost of production increases by 10% to 3.00 €/kg pasta.

  19. A Comparison of Carbon Footprint and Production Cost of Different Pasta Products Based on Whole Egg and Pea Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nette, Antonia; Wolf, Patricia; Schlüter, Oliver; Meyer-Aurich, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Feed and food production are inter alia reasons for high greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by the replacement of animal components with plant components in processed food products, such as pasta. The main components currently used for pasta are semolina, and water, as well as additional egg. The hypothesis of this paper is that the substitution of whole egg with plant-based ingredients, for example from peas, in such a product might lead to reduced greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and thus a reduced carbon footprint at economically reasonable costs. The costs and carbon footprints of two pasta types, produced with egg or pea protein, are calculated. Plant protein–based pasta products proved to cause 0.57 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2eq) (31%) per kg pasta less greenhouse gas emissions than animal-based pasta, while the cost of production increases by 10% to 3.00 €/kg pasta. PMID:28231112

  20. A Comparison of Carbon Footprint and Production Cost of Different Pasta Products Based on Whole Egg and Pea Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nette, Antonia; Wolf, Patricia; Schlüter, Oliver; Meyer-Aurich, Andreas

    2016-03-04

    Feed and food production are inter alia reasons for high greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by the replacement of animal components with plant components in processed food products, such as pasta. The main components currently used for pasta are semolina, and water, as well as additional egg. The hypothesis of this paper is that the substitution of whole egg with plant-based ingredients, for example from peas, in such a product might lead to reduced greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and thus a reduced carbon footprint at economically reasonable costs. The costs and carbon footprints of two pasta types, produced with egg or pea protein, are calculated. Plant protein-based pasta products proved to cause 0.57 kg CO₂ equivalents (CO₂eq) (31%) per kg pasta less greenhouse gas emissions than animal-based pasta, while the cost of production increases by 10% to 3.00 €/kg pasta.

  1. Hospital payroll costs, productivity, and employment under prospective reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, D; Sullivan, D

    1982-12-01

    This paper reports preliminary findings from the National Hospital Rate-Setting Study regarding the effects of State prospective reimbursement (PR) programs on measures of payroll costs and employment in hospitals. PR effects were estimated through reduced-form equations, using American Hospital Association Annual Survey data on over 2,700 hospitals from 1969 through 1978. These tests suggest that hospitals responded to PR by lowering payroll expenditures. PR also seems to have been associated with reductions in full-time equivalent staff per adjusted inpatient day. However, tests did not confirm the hypothesis that hospitals reduce payroll per full-time equivalent staff as a result of PR.

  2. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    OpenAIRE

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    The high cost of power from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels has been a major deterrent to the technology’s market penetration. Proponents have argued, however, that typical analyses overlook many of the benefits of solar PV. Some of those benefits are in the realm of environmental and security externalities, but others occur within the electricity markets. In this paper, I attempt to do a more complete market valuation of solar PV. I incorporate the fact that power from solar PV panels is gene...

  3. How wing kinematics affect power requirements and aerodynamic force production in a robotic bat wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahlman, Joseph W; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S

    2014-01-01

    Bats display a wide variety of behaviors that require different amounts of aerodynamic force. To control and modulate aerodynamic force, bats change wing kinematics, which, in turn, may change the power required for wing motion. There are many kinematic mechanisms that bats, and other flapping animals, can use to increase aerodynamic force, e.g. increasing wingbeat frequency or amplitude. However, we do not know if there is a difference in energetic cost between these different kinematic mechanisms. To assess the relationship between mechanical power input and aerodynamic force output across different isolated kinematic parameters, we programmed a robotic bat wing to flap over a range of kinematic parameters and measured aerodynamic force and mechanical power. We systematically varied five kinematic parameters: wingbeat frequency, wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane angle, downstroke ratio, and wing folding. Kinematic values were based on observed values from free flying Cynopterus brachyotis, the species on which the robot was based. We describe how lift, thrust, and power change with increases in each kinematic variable. We compare the power costs associated with generating additional force through the four kinematic mechanisms controlled at the shoulder, and show that all four mechanisms require approximately the same power to generate a given force. This result suggests that no single parameter offers an energetic advantage over the others. Finally, we show that retracting the wing during upstroke reduces power requirements for flapping and increases net lift production, but decreases net thrust production. These results compare well with studies performed on C. brachyotis, offering insight into natural flight kinematics. (paper)

  4. Effects of housing system on the costs of commercial egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, W A; Sumner, D A

    2015-03-01

    This article reports the first publicly available egg production costs compared across 3 hen-housing systems. We collected detailed data from 2 flock cycles from a commercial egg farm operating a conventional barn, an aviary, and an enriched colony system at the same location. The farm employed the same operational and accounting procedures for each housing system. Results provide clear evidence that egg production costs are much higher for the aviary system than the other 2 housing systems. Feed costs per dozen eggs are somewhat higher for the aviary and lower for the enriched house compared with the conventional house. Labor costs are much lower for the conventional house than the other 2, and pullet costs are much higher for the aviary. Energy and miscellaneous costs are a minimal part of total operating costs and do not differ by housing system. Total capital investments per hen-capacity are much higher for the aviary and the enriched house. Capital costs per dozen eggs depend on assumptions about appropriate interest and depreciation rates. Using the same 10% rate for each housing system shows capital costs per dozen for the aviary and the enriched housing system are much higher than capital costs per dozen for the conventional house. The aviary has average operating costs (feed, labor, pullet, energy, and miscellaneous costs that recur for each flock and vary with egg production) about 23% higher and average total costs about 36% higher compared with the conventional house. The enriched housing system has average operating costs only about 4% higher compared with the conventional house, but average total costs are 13% higher than for the conventional house. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  5. Effects of housing system on the costs of commercial egg production1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, W. A.; Sumner, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the first publicly available egg production costs compared across 3 hen-housing systems. We collected detailed data from 2 flock cycles from a commercial egg farm operating a conventional barn, an aviary, and an enriched colony system at the same location. The farm employed the same operational and accounting procedures for each housing system. Results provide clear evidence that egg production costs are much higher for the aviary system than the other 2 housing systems. Feed costs per dozen eggs are somewhat higher for the aviary and lower for the enriched house compared with the conventional house. Labor costs are much lower for the conventional house than the other 2, and pullet costs are much higher for the aviary. Energy and miscellaneous costs are a minimal part of total operating costs and do not differ by housing system. Total capital investments per hen-capacity are much higher for the aviary and the enriched house. Capital costs per dozen eggs depend on assumptions about appropriate interest and depreciation rates. Using the same 10% rate for each housing system shows capital costs per dozen for the aviary and the enriched housing system are much higher than capital costs per dozen for the conventional house. The aviary has average operating costs (feed, labor, pullet, energy, and miscellaneous costs that recur for each flock and vary with egg production) about 23% higher and average total costs about 36% higher compared with the conventional house. The enriched housing system has average operating costs only about 4% higher compared with the conventional house, but average total costs are 13% higher than for the conventional house. PMID:25480736

  6. ISO 9000. Guidelines to increased costs and reduced product quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    Many US companies are considering being registered to the provisions of ISO 9000, International Standards for Quality Management. One important problem with the document is that ISO 9000 is not focused on control of product quality. The quality assurance rules established in ISO 9000 have been used in the US for more than 25 years with disastrous financial consequences and little, if any, improvement in quality and safety. These rules are so reliant on documentation and strict compliance that ensuring products comply with specifications has become a secondary issues. That is not what was intended, but it is the result. ISO 9000 program can work effectively only when the top executive responsible for engineering or production takes full responsibility for interpretation and implementation of the quality assurance program. 3 refs., 1 tab

  7. Cost of energy from utility-owned solar electric systems. A required revenue method for ERDA/EPRI evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    This methodology calculates the electric energy busbar cost from a utility-owned solar electric system. This approach is applicable to both publicly- and privately-owned utilities. Busbar cost represents the minimum price per unit of energy consistent with producing system-resultant revenues equal to the sum of system-resultant costs. This equality is expressed in present value terms, where the discount rate used reflects the rate of return required on invested capital. Major input variables describe the output capabilities and capital cost of the energy system, the cash flows required for system operation and maintenance, and the financial structure and tax environment of the utility.

  8. AN ECONOMIC STUDY OF ESTIMATING COST FUNCTION DATES PRODUCTION IN MURZUQ, SOUTHWESTERN LIBYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad ARIDAH

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The results showed that fixed cost represented (41% of the total cost of Murzuq, also the variable cost amounted toapproximately (59% the total cost of Murzuq, and that the optimal size of the production of dates amounted toapproximately (2.01 tons per hectare for Murzuq ,and that production was more than the average actualproduction of dates for the Murzuq by nearly (0.37 tons per hectare , while reported results that the production thatmaximize profit of dates have hit (4.25 tons per hectare for Murzuq , and for community sample as a whole andthat production is more than the actual production of dates by (2.61 tons per hectare. It also showed the results ofthe field study that the average price per ton of harvest dates had been hit (1293.50 dinars for the total samplerespectively.

  9. Structuring requirements as necessary premise for customer-oriented development of complex products: A generic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Klute

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Complex products like for example intra-logistical facilities make high demands on developers and producers and involve high investment and operating costs. When planning and developing and also making buying decisions the facility utilization and the thus ensuing requirements on the facility and its components are inadequately considered to date. Nevertheless, with regard to customer-directed product design, these requirements must all be taken into account – especially as they can contribute to possible savings. In this context, it is necessary to survey and systematically regard requirements from a large number of areas like for example the operator, the facility producer and also requirements of external parties such as the law and to implement into adequate product characteristics to produce customer-oriented products. This is, however, a difficult task because of the diversity of stakeholders involved and their numerous and often divergent requirements. Therefore, it is essential to structure the requirements, so that planners and developers are able to manage the large amount of information. Structure models can be used in this context to cluster requirements. Within the German Collaborative Research Centre 696 a 10-dimensional model has been developed. This model allows structuring of all requirements on intra-logistical facilities or respectively complex products in general. In the context of dealing with hundreds of data records, structuring requirements is mandatory to achieve accuracy, clarity and consequently satisfactory results when transforming requirements into product characteristics which fit customer needs. In the paper an excerpt of this model is presented. Design/methodology/approach: In literature a multitude of methods which deal with the topic of structuring exist. The methods have been analysed regarding their purpose and their level of specification, i.e. the number of differentiated categories, to check if

  10. Labor market productivity costs for caregivers of children with spina bifida: a population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, John M; Grosse, Scott D; Goodman, Allen C; Li, Kemeng

    2009-01-01

    Caregiver productivity costs are an important component of the overall cost of care for individuals with birth defects and developmental disabilities, yet few studies provide estimates for use in economic evaluations. This study estimates labor market productivity costs for caregivers of children and adolescents with spina bifida. Case families were recruited from a state birth defects registry in Arkansas. Primary caregivers of children with spina bifida (N = 98) reported their employment status in the past year and demographic characteristics. Controls were abstracted from the Current Population Survey covering the state of Arkansas for the same time period (N = 416). Estimates from regression analyses of labor market outcomes were used to calculate differences in hours worked per week and lifetime costs. Caregivers of children with spina bifida worked an annual average of 7.5 to 11.3 hours less per week depending on the disability severity. Differences in work hours by caregivers of children with spina bifida translated into lifetime costs of $133,755 in 2002 dollars using a 3% discount rate and an age- and sex-adjusted earnings profile. Including caregivers' labor market productivity costs in prevention effectiveness estimates raises the net cost savings per averted case of spina bifida by 48% over the medical care costs alone. Information on labor market productivity costs for caregivers can be used to better inform economic evaluations of prevention and treatment strategies for spina bifida. Cost-effectiveness calculations that omit caregiver productivity costs substantially overstate the net costs of the intervention and underestimate societal value.

  11. Alternative wind power modeling methods using chronological and load duration curve production cost models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M R

    1996-04-01

    As an intermittent resource, capturing the temporal variation in windpower is an important issue in the context of utility production cost modeling. Many of the production cost models use a method that creates a cumulative probability distribution that is outside the time domain. The purpose of this report is to examine two production cost models that represent the two major model types: chronological and load duration cure models. This report is part of the ongoing research undertaken by the Wind Technology Division of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in utility modeling and wind system integration.

  12. Impact on cost accuracy and profitability from implementing product configuration system – A case-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrodia, Anna; Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Hvam, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at analyzing the impacts from implementing a product configuration system (PCS) on company profitability and improved cost estimations in the sales phase. Companies that have implemented PCSs have achieved substantial benefits in terms of being more in control of their product...... assortment, making the right decisions in the sales phase and increased sales of optimal products. Those benefits should have direct impact on improved profitability in terms of increased contribution ratios and more accurate cost estimations used to determine the price in the budgetary quotations...... and accuracy of the cost estimation in the sales phase can be achieved from implementing a PCS....

  13. The Impact of Supply Chain Cost on the Price of the Final Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrė Lapinskaitė

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, as consumption and production are growing enormously fast, companies are seeking for costs reduction aimed at ensuring competitiveness. In manufacturing companies, supply chain expenses play a colossal role in the cost of the final product. This paper focuses on the main processes in the logistics chain and their components. The authors analyse the relationship between the sup- ply chain expenses and the price of the final product, the classification of logistics chain costs and their minimization as an assumption for the competitiveness of the final price.

  14. Guidelines for target costing adoption in the development of products for the residential real estate market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reymard Savio Sampaio de Melo

    Full Text Available Abstract This study focuses on the problems associated with the traditional practice of reducing costs in construction and the need to increase business competitiveness in the residential real estate sector. In this context, target costing is a promising approach to improve the competitiveness of companies by ensuring that the products launched on the market do not jeopardize the company's results and value delivery to customers. However, far too little attention is paid to target costing implementation by companies that develop residential real state products for sale and face strong market competition. Thus, this paper seeks to investigate whether the standard framework of target costing in the literature applies - with or without adjustments - to real estate developers. Case study was the research strategy adopted. Guidelines are proposed for the introduction of target costing in the development process of residential real estate products. The proposed guidelines are related to the three main sections of the target costing process: market-driven costing, product-level target costing and component-level target costing.

  15. Cost-productivity analysis of South African pine sawtimber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding the productivity of these systems, for which data is currently limited for South Africa, is an important step to maximise the utilisation of machines being used. A time study of a mechanised cut-to-length system was conducted in Pinus elliottii sawtimber plantations in the Southern Cape forestry region of South ...

  16. Production costs of the Mexican poultry and pig sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van Peter; Hoste, Robert; Wagenberg, van Coen

    2018-01-01

    Wageningen Economic Research conducted a study on the potential consequences of a free trade agreement between Mexico and the EU. The Dutch government is concerned that giving access to products from countries with a lower level of animal welfare could undermine the EU welfare standard. This study

  17. ENERGY PRODUCTION AND RESIDENTIAL HEATING: TAXATION, SUBSIDIES, AND COMPARATIVE COSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This analysis is in support of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It examines the effect of economic incentives on public and private decisions affecting energy production and us...

  18. 46 CFR 164.019-13 - Production quality control requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... establish procedures for maintaining quality control of the materials used in production, manufacturing... place of manufacture unless alternate procedures have been accepted by the Commandant. (c) Production... manufactured. A new lot must be started whenever any change is made in materials, design, or production method...

  19. PRODUCTIVITY AND COSTS OF PROCESSOR WORKING IN STANDS OF Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Carlos Tarnowski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a time study was conducted with the objective of adjusting equations to estimate the time of activities, productivity, operational costs and the production of the processor used in a harvest operation of stands of Eucalyptus grandis in plain topography in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The operational cycle of the processor consisted of the time spent to process a tree, and was divided in to stages, which were assessed using the methotodology of single activity times. The sampling unit was the operational cycle of the machine. The statistical analysis was based on regression analysis considering the selection procedure “stepwise”. With the adjusted equations it was possible to estimate the productivity of the machine taking into account the of tree diameter. Considering an operational efficiency of 70 % under the circumstances of the study, the productivity of the processor was 25,8 m3 cc/h, the operational costs 47,90 US$/h and the production costs 1,86 US$/m3 cc. On the basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that the time of tree processing has varied directly according to the diameter increase diameter; the preparation time, contrary to the processing time, only shows a weak correlation with tree diameter; productivity of the processor is directly proportional to tree diameter, when expressed in volume and inversely proportional when expressed in tree number; the costs per cubic meter of wood processed varies inversely with of increased diameter; from the operational costs, fixed costs had the highest proportion followed by the variable costs, administrative costs and costs for manpower; the production costs of the processor decreased exponentially with increasing tree diameter.

  20. Cost of fuel cell systems on a mass basis as a function of production volume; Kosten von Brennstoffzellensystemen auf Massenbasis in Abhaengigkeit von der Absatzmenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werhahn, Johannes

    2009-07-01

    The currently high cost of fuel cells is determined by expensive materials and low production volume. A detailed understanding of the cost structures reveals unexploited potential that can reduce costs in future. However, this requires a method of predicting costs that can be applied with little effort and which offers both a sufficient degree of detail and also good accuracy. Existing forecasting methods do not, however, fulfil these requirements. The major objective of the present work was to apply mass-specific cost forecasting to fuel cell systems for the first time and to modify the approach for this application. In this method, the cost of an object is estimated solely by means of the object mass with the aid of empirical values (Euro/kg). The advantages of the method are its simple application and the accuracy of the forecast. Due to the considerable complexity of the fuel cell and the heterogeneity of the materials used, the application of mass-specific cost forecasting does not provide the desired benefits on the level of the aggregated system. The mass-specific cost forecast approach was therefore expanded and optimized. Instead of determining costs on the level of the aggregated system, the cost forecast was applied directly to the individual components. Cost parameters were also embedded in the method in order to include component-internal cost-relevant differences. Due to the great influence of the production rate on the manufacturing costs, an additional dependence on number of units was also integrated. Expanding the empirical values from discrete values to distribution functions enabled a detailed error analysis to be performed and also a statistical localization of the predicted production costs. Empirical values are necessary in order to implement the modified method and therefore an extensive data search was performed. To this end, a methodology was developed which comprehensively described the data acquisition and the required data evaluation on

  1. Guidelines and cost analysis for catalyst production in biocatalytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufvesson, Pär; Lima Ramos, Joana; Nordblad, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    Biocatalysis is an emerging area of technology, and to date few reports have documented the economics of such processes. As it is a relatively new technology, many processes do not immediately fulfill the economic requirements for commercial operation. Hence, early-stage economic assessment could...

  2. Parametric optimization for the low cost production of nanostructure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    These SPD methods possess some limitations such as multiple passes are required ... available depending on the type of characteristic i.e. Higher the better (HB), lower the ... For characterization using SEM (JEOL – 6701F Field emission electron ..... for encouraging me to continue the research work in the Nanomaterials.

  3. Quality, energy requirement and costs of drying tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, A.A.A.

    2005-11-07

    in The Netherlands and Iran were applied for various drying scenarios. The simulation model was run at selected ranges of temperature, humidity ratio, air speed and bed heights, with and without recirculation of the drying air. Considering the quality of dried material and costs, a temperature of 50C was found as the optimal temperature for drying tarragon. The costs per kg dried product was about three times higher for The Netherlands compared to Iran. The recirculation is less important in Iran because the ambient air has a higher drying potential and energy prices are lower.

  4. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John R

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies.

  5. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations, 1992--1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This report presents estimated costs and cost indices for domestic oil and natural gas field equipment and production operations for 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995. The costs of all equipment and services are those in effect during June of each year. The sum (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measured do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of the total number of oil wells to the total number of gas wells. The detail provided in this report is unavailable elsewhere. The body of this report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables

  6. An Assessment of Technical and Production Risks of Candidate Low-Cost Attitude/Heading Reference Systems(AHRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuchnovicz, Daniel; Burgess, Malcolm; Hammers, William

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of technical and production risks of candidate low-cost attitude/heading reference systems (AHRS) for use in the Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) airplanes. A low-cost AHRS is a key component of modem "glass cockpit" flight displays for General Aviation (GA) aircraft. The technical capabilities of several candidate low-cost AHRS were examined and described along with the technical issues involved with using all solid-state components for attitude measurement. An economic model was developed which describes the expected profit, rate of return, and volume requirements for the manufacture of low-cost AHRS for GA aircraft in the 2000 to 2020 time frame. The model is the result of interviews with GA airframe manufacturers, avionics manufacturers and historical analysis of avionics of similar complexity. The model shows that a manufacturer will break even after three years of AHRS production, realizing an 18 percent rate of return (23 percent profit) on an investment of $3.5M over the 20 year period. A start-up production estimate showed costs of $6-12M for a new company to build and certify an AHRS from scratch, considered to be a high-risk proposition, versus $0.25-0.75M for an experienced avionics manufacturer to manufacture a design under license, a low-risk proposition.

  7. Cost analysis for application of solidified waste fission product canisters in U.S. Army steam plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sande, W.E.; Bjorklund, W.J.; Brooks, N.A.

    1977-04-01

    The main objectives of the present study are to design steam plants using projected waste fission product canister characteristics, to analyze the overall impact and cost/benefit to the nuclear fuel cycle associated with these plants, and to develop plans for this application if the cost analysis so warrants it. The construction and operation of a steam plant fueled with waste fission product canisters would require the involvement and cooperation of various government agencies and private industry; thus the philosophies of these groups were studied. These philosophies are discussed, followed by a forecast of canister supply, canister characteristics, and strategies for Army canister use. Another section describes the safety and licensing of these steam plants since this affects design and capital costs. The discussion of steam plant design includes boiler concepts, boiler heat transfer, canister temperature distributions, steam plant size, and steam plant operation. Also, canister transportation is discussed since this influences operating costs. Details of economics of Army steam plants are provided including steam plant capital costs, operating costs, fuel reprocessor savings due to Army canister storage, and overall economics. Recommendations are made in the final section

  8. Tractor-logging costs and production in old-growth redwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth N. Boe

    1963-01-01

    A cost accounting analysis of full-scale logging operations in old-growth redwood during 2 years revealed that it cost $12.24 per M bd. ft. (gross Scribner log scale) to get logs on trucks. Road development costs averaged another $5.19 per M bd. ft. Felling-bucking production was calculated by average tree d.b.h. Both skidding and loading outputs per hour were...

  9. Cost-effective production of bacterial cellulose using acidic food industry by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revin, Victor; Liyaskina, Elena; Nazarkina, Maria; Bogatyreva, Alena; Shchankin, Mikhail

    2018-03-13

    To reduce the cost of obtaining bacterial cellulose, acidic by-products of the alcohol and dairy industries were used without any pretreatment or addition of other nitrogen sources. Studies have shown that the greatest accumulation of bacterial cellulose (6.19g/L) occurs on wheat thin stillage for 3 days of cultivation under dynamic conditions, which is almost 3 times higher than on standard Hestrin and Schramm medium (2.14g/L). The use of whey as a nutrient medium makes it possible to obtain 5.45g/L bacterial cellulose under similar conditions of cultivation. It is established that the pH of the medium during the growth of Gluconacetobacter sucrofermentans B-11267 depends on the feedstock used and its initial value. By culturing the bacterium on thin stillage and whey, there is a decrease in the acidity of the waste. It is shown that the infrared spectra of bacterial cellulose obtained in a variety of environments have a similar character, but we found differences in the micromorphology and crystallinity of the resulting biopolymer. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Production of durable and cost effective sewer pipes using petroleum and industrial waste by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Gamal Maisa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gulf environment has an adverse impact on concrete structures because of the high ambient temperature, humidity, salt contaminated dust, sea water and underground salts. As an innovative solution, reinforced modified sulfur concrete (MSC pipes are recognized as a durable and economical solution for deterioration of pipelines. This work describes the manufacture and characterization of new MSC based on a cost effective sulfur modification process. Bitumen, a by-product from crude oil refining process was used to modify elemental sulfur and enhance its physical, mechanical properties, and mostly to increase its corrosive resistivity. The study has focused on optimizing the proportions of an offered MSC mixes that are composed of modified sulfur (MS as a binder, crushed sand, dune sand and ladle furnace (LF slag as aggregates, and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGFBS as a filler. To maximize the physical and mechanical properties of MSC sewer pipes, different mixtures were prepared and investigated. The optimum mix of MSC has a maximum compressive strength of 64 MPa, maximum splitting tensile strength of 4.5 MPa, maximum flexural strength of 21 MP, with a high corrosion resistance in acidic and salty environments.

  11. 77 FR 20051 - Notice of Final Determination Revising the List of Products Requiring Federal Contractor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... Products Requiring Federal Contractor Certification as to Forced or Indentured Child Labor Pursuant to... ``Procedural Guidelines for the Maintenance of the List of Products Requiring Federal Contractor Certification... List of Products Requiring Federal Contractor Certification as to Forced or Indentured Child Labor...

  12. On information and communication technology and production cost in construction industry: evidence from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vlist, A.J; Vrolijk, M.H.; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.

    2014-01-01

    The interplay between information and communication technology (ICT) and the competitiveness of construction firms is considered. More specifically, the question is whether firms that invest in information and communication technology have a production cost advantage. The economics literature

  13. Main means for reducing the production costs in process of leaching uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lang

    2000-01-01

    The production costs in process of leaching uranium have been reduced by controlling mixture ratio of crudes, milling particle size, liquid/solid mass ratio of leaching pulp, potential and residue acidity, and improving power equipment

  14. Establishment of design and performance requirements using cost and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waganer, L.M.; Carosella, L.A.; Defreece, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The current uncertainty in design approach and performance requirements for a commercial fusion power plant poses a problem for the designer in configuring the plant and for the utilities in analyzing the attractiveness of a future fusion power plant. To provide direction and insight in this area, a systems analysis model was constructed at McDonnell Douglas, utilizing fusion subsystem algorithms with subsystem cost estimating relationships into a self-consistent computerized model for several fusion reactor concepts. Cost estimating data has been compiled by utilizing McDonnell Douglas' experience in fabricating large, complex metal assemblies and soliciting the accumulated store of knowledge in existing power plants and new emerging technologies such as the Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Using the computer model, sensitivities to plasma, reactor and plant parameters are a few of the options that have been evaluated to yield recommended concepts/techniques/solutions. This is a very beneficial tool in assessing the impact of the fusion reactor on the electrical power community and charting the optimum developmental approach

  15. Low Cost Environmental Sensors for Spaceflight: NMP Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Buehler, Martin G.; Brinza, D.; Patel, J. U.

    2005-01-01

    An outstanding problem in spaceflight is the lack of adequate sensors for monitoring the space environment and its effects on engineering systems. By adequate, we mean low cost in terms of mission impact (e.g., low price, low mass/size, low power, low data rate, and low design impact). The New Millennium Program (NMP) is investigating the development of such a low-cost Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) package for inclusion on its technology validation flights. This effort follows from the need by NMP to characterize the space environment during testing so that potential users can extrapolate the test results to end-use conditions. The immediate objective of this effort is to develop a small diagnostic sensor package that could be obtained from commercial sources. Environments being considered are: contamination, atomic oxygen, ionizing radiation, cosmic radiation, EMI, and temperature. This talk describes the requirements and rational for selecting these environments and reviews a preliminary design that includes a micro-controller data logger with data storage and interfaces to the sensors and spacecraft. If successful, such a sensor package could be the basis of a unique, long term program for monitoring the effects of the space environment on spacecraft systems.

  16. 76 FR 13168 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... average unit costs of residential energy in a Federal Register notice entitled, ``Energy Conservation... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  17. Understanding the reductions in US corn ethanol production costs: an experience curve approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, W.; Junginger, H.M.; Dekker, S.C.; Hoogwijk, M.; McAloon, A.; Hicks, K.

    2009-01-01

    The US is currently the world's largest ethanol producer. An increasing percentage is used as transportation fuel, but debates continue on its costs competitiveness and energy balance. In this study, technological development of ethanol production and resulting cost reductions are investigated by

  18. 19 CFR 351.407 - Calculation of constructed value and cost of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.407 Calculation of constructed value and cost of production. (a) Introduction. This... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of constructed value and cost of...

  19. The production costs of the French nuclear fleet. Synthesis and conclusions. Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    Whereas the French Energy Multi-year Programming (PPE) notably aims at preserving the purchasing power of consumers and the competitiveness of energy prices, this note aims at reporting an assessment of the production cost of the French present nuclear fleet, i.e. the electric power cost at the output of the production installation. The authors first discuss the choice for the methodology of 'cash costs' for the decision to continue of not the exploitation of existing units. They propose a mean assessment of about 33 euro/MWh, state that the present nuclear-based power production in France is profitable, and consider that there is no 'investment wall' to be faced in the near future. They also state that nuclear costs are hardly supposed to increase because they are little sensitive to uranium prices. They consider that dismantling and waste costs are covered at more than 100 per cent by dedicated assets. A technical note comes with this discussion. It discusses cost calculation methods, the assessment of the production cost of French existing reactors (second generation), and some additional elements regarding some cost components

  20. Interfirm and intrafirm switching costs in a vertical differentiation setting : Green versus non-green products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema-Veldman, Linda

    2009-01-01

    In a vertical differentiation model where both duopolists supply the same two qualities of an otherwise homogeneous product, we derive the critical level of the interfirm switching cost needed to sustain monopoly pricing. In particular, we show how a decrease in the intrafirm switching cost may

  1. Marginal cost calculation of energy production in hydro thermoelectric systems considering the transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M.V.F.; Gorenstin, B.G.; Alvarenga Filho, S.

    1989-01-01

    The alternatives for calculation of energy marginal cost in hydroelectric systems, considering the transmission one, was analysed, including fundamental concepts; generation/transmission systems, represented by linear power flow model; production marginal costs in hydrothermal systems and computation aspects. (C.G.C.). 11 refs, 5 figs

  2. Production rates and costs of cable yarding wood residue from clearcut units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1984-01-01

    Wood residue is a little used source of fiber, chips, and fuel because harvest costs are largely unknown. This study calculates incremental production rates and costs for yarding and loading logging residue in clearcut old-growth Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests. Harvest operations were observed for two timber sales in western Oregon. Three different cable yarding...

  3. An Instructional Exercise in Cost-Raising Strategies, and Perfect Complements Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Dennis L.

    2007-01-01

    The author presents an account of the 1993 contract negotiations between the United Auto Workers (UAW) and Ford Motor Company to assist students in developing facility with perfect complements production and cost functions and cost-raising strategies. The author seeks an answer to why the UAW targeted Ford for contract negotiations to establish a…

  4. Production cost comparisons of hydrogen from fossil and nuclear fuel and water decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, K. R.

    1981-01-01

    The comparative costs entailed in producing hydrogen by major technologies that rely on petroleum, natural gas, coal, thermochemical cycles, and electrolysis are examined. Techniques were developed for comparing these processes by formulating the process data and economic assessments on a uniform and consistent basis. These data were normalized to permit a meaningful comparative analysis of product costs of these processes.

  5. Synthetic fuel production costs by means of solid oxide electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of fuel production costs for two types of synthetic fuels – methanol and methane, along with comparable costs for first and second generation biodiesel, two types of second generation bioethanol, and biogas. When analysing 100% renewable systems...

  6. Setting the holding cost rates in a multi-product system with remanufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Corbacı oğ lu; E.A. van der Laan (Erwin)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe Net Present Value (NPV) approach is considered to be the right approach to study inventory and production systems. But, approximate average cost (AC) approach is widely used in both practice and theory. However, the opportunity cost interpretation of AC framework is not that

  7. Economic requirements for competitive laser fusion power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    An economic model of a laser fusion commercial power plant is used to identify the design and operating regimes of the driver, target and reaction chamber that will result in economic competitiveness with future fission and coal plants. The authors find that, for a plant with a net power of 1 GW/sub e/, the cost of the driver must be less than $0.4 to 0.6 B, and the recirculating power fraction must be less than 25%. Target gain improvements at low driver energy are the most beneficial but also the most difficult to achieve. The optimal driver energy decreases with increasing target technology. The sensitivity of the cost of electricity to variations in cost and performance parameters decreases with increasing target technology. If chamber pulse rates of a few Hz can be achieved, then gains of 80-100 are sufficient, and higher pulse rates do not help much. Economic competitiveness becomes more difficult with decreasing plant size. Finally, decreasing the cost of the balance of plant has the greatest beneficial effect on economic competitiveness

  8. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1994 through 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This report presents estimated costs and cost indices for domestic oil and natural gas field equipment and production operations for 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997. The costs of all equipment and services are those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of the total number of oil wells to the total number of gas wells. The detail provided in this report is unavailable elsewhere. The body of this report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (compliance costs and lease availability) have a significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas equipment and production operations

  9. Cost of paricá wood production in Paragominas region, Para State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela da Silveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The silvicultural and economic potential of paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum has encouraged the expansion of this crop, mainly in the northern region of the country, provoking the need for studies on the species. The objective of this study was to estimate paricá production in Paragominas region, Para State, Brazil, at 5, 6 and 7 years, in three classes of productivity considering five plant arrangements, being identified the main costs of production, in addition to those most affected by plant arrangements. The volumetric estimation was obtained by modeling in population level and the analysis of the costs, through the methodology of the operational cost. It was possible to infer that the arrangement of plants 3 m x 2 m was superior in volume, compared to the other analyzed plant arrangements. The effective operating cost represented on average 65% of the total production costs. Transport was the most significant individual cost, in all analyzed plant arrangements. The maintenance, among the set of activities, was the most significant in planting, fact that may be related to the number and the long period for the activities execution. Smaller plant arrangements presented the higher total costs of production, depending or not on the remuneration for the use of the permanent and current capital.

  10. Health care costs, work productivity and activity impairment in non-malignant chronic pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Christian; Handberg, Gitte; Axelsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the costs of non-malignant chronic pain in patients awaiting treatment in a multidisciplinary pain clinic in a hospital setting. Health care costs due to chronic pain are particular high during the first year after pain onset, and remain high compared with health care costs be...... before pain onset. The majority of chronic pain patients incur the costs of alternative treatments. Chronic pain causes production losses at work, as well as impairment of non-work activities.......This study explores the costs of non-malignant chronic pain in patients awaiting treatment in a multidisciplinary pain clinic in a hospital setting. Health care costs due to chronic pain are particular high during the first year after pain onset, and remain high compared with health care costs...

  11. Production costs: U.S. hydroelectric power plants, 4th Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The book provides 1991 operation and maintenance expenses for over 800 conventional and pumped-storage hydroelectric power plants. Report shows operator and plant name, plant year-in-service, installed capacity, 1991 net generation, O ampersand M expenses, total production costs and current plant capitalization. Fifty eight percent of the utility-owned hydroelectric plants in the US are covered by this report. Data diskette provides additional capital and production cost accounts and number of employees for each plant

  12. THE PRODUCTION COSTS OF CONVENTIONAL AND ORGANIC APPLE ORCHARDS IN THE VENETO REGION (ITALY)

    OpenAIRE

    CIMPAN Oana; BEGALLI Diego; CODURRI Stefano

    2012-01-01

    In times of crisis people are thinking how to make the best choice to be more profitable. Both the manufacturers and the consumers must choose the best solutions for them and their businesses. Making a choice between organic and conventional methods in times of crisis is even more difficult considering production costs and consumption patterns. What is the composition of production costs for an apple orchard, how they can be divided into homogeneous categories and why to choose green are the ...

  13. Public synthesis of the reference costs study of the electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Every 3 or 5 years, the DGEC published the reference costs study of the electric power production which evaluates, in a theoretical framework, the total cost of an electrical MWh, from different production ways. These studies bring information for the definition of the energy policy and the elaboration of the investments program. because of the great competition of the market, it was decided not to publish the absolute value of the hypothesis and the results but under indexed form. (A.L.B.)

  14. 9 CFR 113.100 - General requirements for inactivated bacterial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... instances, the guinea pig safety test provided in § 113.38 shall be conducted in place of the mouse safety... Outline of Production, an inactivated bacterial product shall meet the applicable requirements in this... in poultry as defined in the specific Standard Requirement or Outline of Production for the product...

  15. 40 CFR 158.400 - Product performance data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... associated with human and animal wastes NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR CR NR EP 1 91-8 Products for treating water... vertebrates (such as rodents, birds, bats, canids, and skunks) that may directly or indirectly transmit diseases to humans. However each registrant must ensure through testing that his product is efficacious...

  16. 9 CFR 113.450 - General requirements for antibody products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Rivanol or card tests. Reactors to these supplemental tests shall not be used for production. Nonreactors... Rivanol or card tests. Reactors to these supplemental tests shall not be used for production. Nonreactors... bacterial count. One milliliter of each rehydrated sample, undiluted or diluted as prescribed in the Outline...

  17. Are Skill Requirements Rising? Evidence from Production and Clerical Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Examination of production jobs in 93 manufacturing firms (1978-86) and clerical jobs in 211 firms (1978-88) suggests (1) significant upskilling within most production jobs; (2) in clerical jobs, an even split between raised and lowered skill levels; and (3) decreasing skill levels associated with office automation. (SK)

  18. Effects of Variable Production Rate and Time-Dependent Holding Cost for Complementary Products in Supply Chain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali Sarkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a major trend is going to redesign a production system by controlling or making variable the production rate within some fixed interval to maintain the optimal level. This strategy is more effective when the holding cost is time-dependent as it is interrelated with holding duration of products and rate of production. An effort is made to make a supply chain model (SCM to show the joint effect of variable production rate and time-varying holding cost for specific type of complementary products, where those products are made by two different manufacturers and a common retailer makes them bundle and sells bundles to end customers. Demand of each product is specified by stochastic reservation prices with a known potential market size. Those players of the SCM are considered with unequal power. Stackelberg game approach is employed to obtain global optimum solution of the model. An illustrative numerical example, graphical representation, and managerial insights are given to illustrate the model. Results prove that variable production rate and time-dependent holding cost save more than existing literature.

  19. Analysis of the production and transaction costs of forest carbon offset projects in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galik, Christopher S; Cooley, David M; Baker, Justin S

    2012-12-15

    Forest carbon offset project implementation costs, comprised of both production and transaction costs, could present an important barrier to private landowner participation in carbon offset markets. These costs likewise represent a largely undocumented component of forest carbon offset potential. Using a custom spreadsheet model and accounting tool, this study examines the implementation costs of different forest offset project types operating in different forest types under different accounting and sampling methodologies. Sensitivity results are summarized concisely through response surface regression analysis to illustrate the relative effect of project-specific variables on total implementation costs. Results suggest that transaction costs may represent a relatively small percentage of total project implementation costs - generally less than 25% of the total. Results also show that carbon accounting methods, specifically the method used to establish project baseline, may be among the most important factors in driving implementation costs on a per-ton-of-carbon-sequestered basis, dramatically increasing variability in both transaction and production costs. This suggests that accounting could be a large driver in the financial viability of forest offset projects, with transaction costs likely being of largest concern to those projects at the margin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Innovation in Agriculture - a Way for Romanian Farmers to Adjust Production to Market Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Dora Orboi

    2017-11-01

    produced products, to adapt production to market requirements, have better access to inputs, equipment, credit and marketing, to optimize their production costs, create short supply chains and handle with various market challenges.

  1. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    1999-09-01

    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  2. Water requirements for livestock production: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlink, A C; Nguyen, M L; Viljoen, G J

    2010-12-01

    Water is a vital but poorly studied component of livestock production. It is estimated that livestock industries consume 8% of the global water supply, with most of that water being used for intensive, feed-based production. This study takes a broad perspective of livestock production as a component of the human food chain, and considers the efficiency of its water use. Global models are in the early stages of development and do not distinguish between developing and developed countries, or the production systems within them. However, preliminary indications are that, when protein production is adjusted for biological value in the human diet, no plant protein is significantly more efficient at using water than protein produced from eggs, and only soybean is more water efficient than milk and goat and chicken meat. In some regions, especially developing countries, animals are not used solely for food production but also provide draught power, fibre and fertiliser for crops. In addition, animals make use of crop by-products that would otherwise go to waste. The livestock sector is the fastest-growing agricultural sector, which has led to increasing industrialisation and, in some cases, reduced environmental constraints. In emerging economies, increasing involvement in livestock is related to improving rural wealth and increasing consumption of animal protein. Water usage for livestock production should be considered an integral part of agricultural water resource management, taking into account the type of production system (e.g. grain-fed or mixed crop-livestock) and scale (intensive or extensive), the species and breeds of livestock, and the social and cultural aspects of livestock farming in various countries.

  3. Cheese whey: A cost-effective alternative for hyaluronic acid production by Streptococcus zooepidemicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Isabel R; Vázquez, José A; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Teixeira, José A

    2016-05-01

    This study focuses on the optimisation of cheese whey formulated media for the production of hyaluronic acid (HA) by Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Culture media containing whey (W; 2.1g/L) or whey hydrolysate (WH; 2.4 g/L) gave the highest HA productions. Both W and WH produced high yields on protein consumed, suggesting cheese whey is a good nitrogen source for S. zooepidemicus production of HA. Polysaccharide concentrations of 4.0 g/L and 3.2g/L were produced in W and WH in a further scale-up to 5L bioreactors, confirming the suitability of the low-cost nitrogen source. Cheese whey culture media provided high molecular weight (>3000 kDa) HA products. This study revealed replacing the commercial peptone by the low-cost alternative could reduce HA production costs by up to a 70% compared to synthetic media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cost-effective IMTA: a comparison of the production efficiencies of mussels and seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Edwards, M. D.

    results compared to production cost of €209-672 kg-1 N removed and €1,013 kg-1 N removed for respectively Laminaria digitata and Alaria esculenta from extrapolated laboratory and field trials. However, a commercial seaweed (Saccharina latissima) producer claims that production costs are less than €10 kg-1...... N removed. This up-scaled and commercial figure makes the seaweed cost competitive to mussels for removal of nitrogen. Disadvantages such as predators (e.g. eider ducks) and bio-fouling should also be taken into account before choice of biofilter is made. These drawbacks can reduce overall biofilter...

  5. Energy balance and cost analysis for raisin production in Aegean Region in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uysal Hülya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine energy consumption of input and output used in raisin production and making a cost analysis in Aegean Region. Energy output-input analysis is generally done to determine the scope of environment and energy efficiency of agricultural production. In this study the cost of raisin production was calculated by Manisa Viticulture Research Institute's records in 2015. Costs of inputs and prices of raisin were obtained from various sources such as Turkish Statistical Institute, Aegean Exporters' Association and Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock. The total energy input necessity for raisin production was 39,066.91 MJ/ha. The research results indicated that the total energy input used for raisin was mainly dependent on non-renewable energy forms (%97. The high ratio of non-renewable energy in the total used energy inputs causes negative effects on the sustainability in agricultural production. Among input energy sources, diesel oil, chemical fertilizers and electricity contained highest energy shares with 34.30%, 26.96%, and 22.50% respectively. The energy ratio and energy productivity were found to be 6.04 and 0.51 kg/MJ. Gross production value and total variable costs for raisin were $ 8,600 and $ 4,528.25, respectively. As a result of cost analysis, gross margin was calculated as $ 4,071.75.

  6. 40 CFR 161.640 - Product performance data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or indirectly transmit diseases to humans. However, each registrant must ensure through testing that... microbial pests associated with human and animal wastes (1) CR EP* 91-7 Products for treating water systems...

  7. Internalization of external cost for the production and distribution of electricity in Flanders, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torfs, R.; De Nocker, L.; Schrooten, L.; Aernouts, K.; Liekens, I.

    2005-04-01

    This report elaborates the external costs of electricity production and distribution in Flanders, Belgium, and tests them against prices and taxes for electricity use. The authors examined whether these external costs decrease in time and whether such a decrease leads to internalization in the price for the users through taxes, levies or other economic instruments. The external costs mainly include external environmental costs caused by air pollution and greenhouse gases, but also damage caused by accidents, hindrance and radioactive substances that may be released. [nl

  8. Productivity Costs Associated With Breast Cancer Among Survivors Aged 18-44 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwueme, Donatus U; Trogdon, Justin G; Khavjou, Olga A; Guy, Gery P

    2016-02-01

    No study has quantified productivity losses associated with breast cancer in younger women aged 18-44 years. This study estimated productivity costs, including work and home productivity losses, among younger women who reported ever receiving a breast cancer diagnosis. A two-part regression model and 2000-2010 National Health Interview Survey data were used to estimate the number of work and home productivity days missed because of breast cancer, adjusted for socioeconomic characteristics and comorbidities. Estimates for younger women were compared with those for women aged 45-64 years. Data were analyzed in 2013-2014. Per capita, younger women with breast cancer had annual losses of $2,293 (95% CI=$1,069, $3,518) from missed work and $442 (95% CI=$161, $723) from missed home productivity. Total annual breast cancer-associated productivity costs for younger women were $344 million (95% CI=$154 million, $535 million). Older women with breast cancer had lower per capita work loss productivity costs of $1,407 (95% CI=$899, $1,915) but higher total work loss productivity costs estimated at $1,072 million (95% CI=$685 million, $1,460 million) than younger women. Younger women with a history of breast cancer face a disproportionate share of work and home productivity losses. Although older women have lower per capita costs, total productivity costs were higher for older women because the number of older women with breast cancer is higher. The results underscore the importance of continued efforts by the public health community to promote and support the unique needs of younger breast cancer survivors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1990 through 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report presents estimated costs and indice for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations for 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993. The costs of all equipment and serives were those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of oil wells to gas wells. The body of the report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (costs and lease availability) have significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas production equipment and operations

  10. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1990 through 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-08

    This report presents estimated costs and indice for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations for 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993. The costs of all equipment and serives were those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of oil wells to gas wells. The body of the report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (costs and lease availability) have significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas production equipment and operations.

  11. The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Productivity-Related Costs: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Amélie E; Coffeng, Jennifer K; Boot, Cécile R L; van der Beek, Allard J; van Tulder, Maurits W; Nieboer, Dagmar; van Dongen, Johanna M

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationship between job satisfaction and total productivity-related costs, and between job satisfaction and absenteeism and presenteeism costs separately. A secondary aim was to explore whether these relationships differed across job types. Linear generalized estimating equation analyses were used to explore the longitudinal relationships. To explore whether the relationships differed across job types, stratified analyses were performed. A significant relationship was found between job satisfaction and total productivity-related costs [β = &OV0556;-273; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): -407 to -200] and between job satisfaction and presenteeism costs (β = &OV0556;-276; 95% CI: -367 to -235), but not between job satisfaction and absenteeism costs. These relationships differed across job types. Higher levels of job satisfaction were longitudinally related to lower total productivity-related costs and presenteeism costs, but not to lower absenteeism costs. These relationships seem to differ across job types.

  12. Impact cost of the product on the effectiveness of business organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Senin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key elements of managing the operations of the organization - management costs, as the costs, representing the payment that needs to be done to attract and retain economic resources, are one of the main factors determining the size of the financial results of the organization, return on invested capital, and, ultimately, the value of the business.Objectives. The aim of this work is to study the influence of the structure of production costs on the profitability of products.Method’s. To complete this article were used such methods of analysis as legal, comparative, economic-statistical and correlation.Conclusions / significance. The practical value of this work lies in the fact that in the article the notion and cogs, equations of linear regression between the proportion of costs in the cost and profitability of products by types of economic activity in the Russian Federation in 2012, the Obtained models allow knowing the share of costs in the cost structure for different types of economic activities in the Russian Federation in 2012 to estimate the average level of profitability of production.

  13. Logistics cost analysis of rice residues for second generation bioenergy production in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay Ramamurthi, Pooja; Cristina Fernandes, Maria; Sieverts Nielsen, Per; Pedro Nunes, Clemente

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the techno-economic potential of rice residues as a bioenergy resource to meet Ghana's energy demands. Major rice growing regions of Ghana have 70-90% of residues available for bioenergy production. To ensure cost-effective biomass logistics, a thorough cost analysis was made for two bioenergy routes. Logistics costs for a 5 MWe straw combustion plant were 39.01, 47.52 and 47.89 USD/t for Northern, Ashanti and Volta regions respectively. Logistics cost for a 0.25 MWe husk gasification plant (with roundtrip distance 10 km) was 2.64 USD/t in all regions. Capital cost (66-72%) contributes significantly to total logistics costs of straw, however for husk logistics, staff (40%) and operation and maintenance costs (46%) dominate. Baling is the major processing logistic cost for straw, contributing to 46-48% of total costs. Scale of straw unit does not have a large impact on logistic costs. Transport distance of husks has considerable impact on logistic costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Guidelines for the Deployment of Product-Related Environmental Legislation into Requirements for the Product Development Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraz, Mariana; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; Teixeira, Cláudia Echevenguá

    2013-01-01

    Environmental legislation is increasingly changing its focus from end-of-pipe approaches to a life cycle perspective. Therefore, manufacturing companies are increasingly identifying the need of deploying and incorporating product-related environmental requirements into the product development...... process. This paper presents twelve guidelines, clustered into three groups, to support companies in the identification, analysis and deployment of product requirements from product-related environmental legislation....

  15. Analysis of the influence of advanced materials for aerospace products R and D and manufacturing cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, A W; Guo, J L; Wang, Z J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we pointed out the deficiency of traditional cost estimation model about aerospace products Research and Development (R and D) and manufacturing based on analyzing the widely use of advanced materials in aviation products. Then we put up with the estimating formulas of cost factor, which representing the influences of advanced materials on the labor cost rate and manufacturing materials cost rate. The values ranges of the common advanced materials such as composite materials, titanium alloy are present in the labor and materials two aspects. Finally, we estimate the R and D and manufacturing cost of F/A-18, F/A- 22, B-1B and B-2 aircraft based on the common DAPCA IV model and the modified model proposed by this paper. The calculation results show that the calculation precision improved greatly by the proposed method which considering advanced materials. So we can know the proposed method is scientific and reasonable. (paper)

  16. Analysis of the influence of advanced materials for aerospace products R&D and manufacturing cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, A. W.; Guo, J. L.; Wang, Z. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we pointed out the deficiency of traditional cost estimation model about aerospace products Research & Development (R&D) and manufacturing based on analyzing the widely use of advanced materials in aviation products. Then we put up with the estimating formulas of cost factor, which representing the influences of advanced materials on the labor cost rate and manufacturing materials cost rate. The values ranges of the common advanced materials such as composite materials, titanium alloy are present in the labor and materials two aspects. Finally, we estimate the R&D and manufacturing cost of F/A-18, F/A- 22, B-1B and B-2 aircraft based on the common DAPCA IV model and the modified model proposed by this paper. The calculation results show that the calculation precision improved greatly by the proposed method which considering advanced materials. So we can know the proposed method is scientific and reasonable.

  17. Structure of production costs of different energy sources (fossile fuels and nuclear energy) (group 11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    This article is the work of a group of students from the ''Ecole Nationale d'Administration'', they had to study the structure of the costs of the different energy sources. This analysis shows some common features between the energy sources. The cost is very dependent on the partial costs of technological constraints due to exploration, production, transport and distribution. For primary energies the market appears to be not very competitive, the price depends strongly on the market power of the operator and benefits are generally important. In France, taxes play a role to assure competitiveness of gas and coal against oil. Uranium fuel presents the lowest production and transformation costs at the same energy content. Transport costs are important for natural gas which implies a strong mutual dependence between gas producers and consumers. The irreplaceable use of oil in transport assures regular high revenues for oil companies. (A.C.)

  18. Optimal replacement policy of products with repair-cost threshold after the extended warranty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun Shang; Zhiqiang Cai

    2017-01-01

    The reliability of the product sold under a warranty is usually maintained by the manufacturer during the warranty period. After the expiry of the warranty, however, the consumer confronts a problem about how to maintain the reliability of the product. This paper proposes, from the consumer's perspective, a replace-ment policy after the extended warranty, under the assumption that the product is sold under the renewable free replacement warranty (RFRW) policy in which the replacement is dependent on the repair-cost threshold. The proposed replacement policy is the replacement after the extended warranty is performed by the consumer based on the repair-cost threshold or preventive replacement (PR) age, which are decision variables. The expected cost rate model is derived from the consumer's perspective. The existence and uniqueness of the optimal solution that minimizes the expected cost rate per unit time are offered. Finally, a numeri-cal example is presented to exemplify the proposed model.

  19. A probabilistic production costing analysis of SO2 emissions reduction strategies for Ohio: emissions, costs and employment tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heslin, J.S.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach for state- and utility-level analysis of the cost and regional economic impacts of strategies for reducing utility SO 2 emissions is summarized and applied to Ohio. The methodology is based upon probabilistic production costing and economic input-output analysis. It is an improvement over previous approaches because it: (1) accurately models random outages of generating units, 'must-run' constraints on unit output, and the distribution of power demands; and (2) runs quickly on a microcomputer and yet considers the entire range of potential control strategies from a systems perspective. The input-output analysis considers not only the economic effects of utility fuel use and capital investment, but also those of increased electric rates. Two distinct strategies are found to be most attractive for Ohio. The first, more flexible one, consists of emissions dispatching (ED) alone to meet short run emissions reduction targets. A 75 percent reduction can then be achieved by the turn of the century by combining ED and fuel switching (FS) with flue gas desulfurization, limestone injection multistage burners, and physical coal cleaning at selected plants. The second is a scrubber-based strategy which includes ED. By the year 2000, energy conservation becomes a cost effective component of these strategies. In order to minimize compliance costs, acid rain legislation which facilitates emission trading and places regional tonnage limits on emissions is desirable

  20. 24 CFR 200.955 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standard and certification program for fenestration products (windows and... Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification program for... testing for a product shall be described in the specific building product certification program. In the...

  1. Costs and Returns of Yam/Maize Production in Bosso Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, yam is the most important stable food crop while maize is the third most important cereal crop. However, small scale farmers do not always realize appreciable net returns from their combined production. Therefore, this study examined the costs and returns of yam/maize (mixed cropping) production in Bosso ...

  2. Analyzing cost efficient production behavior under economies of scope : A nonparametric methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; de Rock, B.; Vermeulen, F.M.P.

    2008-01-01

    In designing a production model for firms that generate multiple outputs, we take as a starting point that such multioutput production refers to economies of scope, which in turn originate from joint input use and input externalities. We provide a nonparametric characterization of cost-efficient

  3. Analyzing Cost Efficient Production Behavior Under Economies of Scope : A Nonparametric Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; de Rock, B.; Vermeulen, F.M.P.

    2006-01-01

    In designing a production model for firms that generate multiple outputs, we take as a starting point that such multi-output production refers to economies of scope, which in turn originate from joint input use and input externalities. We provide a nonparametric characterization of cost efficient

  4. Investment in cocoa production in Nigeria: A cost and return analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined costs and returns in cocoa production in Cross River State by comparing three identified management systems of cocoa production in the area. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select a hundred and fifty cocoa farmers for the study. Data used in the study were collected using structured ...

  5. The cost analysis of material handling in Chinese traditional praying paper production plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, H.; Budiman, I.; Salim, A.

    2018-02-01

    Chinese traditional praying paper industry is an industry which produced Chinese traditional religion praying paper. This kind of industry is rarely examined since it was only in Small and Medium Enterprise (SME’s- form). This industry produced various kinds of Chinese traditional paper products. The purpose of this research is to increase the amount of production, reduce waiting time and moving time, and reduce material handling cost. The research was conducted at prime production activities, consists of: calculate the capacity of the material handler, the frequency of movement, cost of material handling, and total cost of material handling. This displacement condition leads to an ineffective and inefficient production process. The alternative was developed using production judgment and aisle standard. Based on the observation results, it is possible to reduce displacement in the production. Using alternative which by-passed displacement from a rolled paper in the temporary warehouse to cutting and printing workstation, it can reduce material handling cost from 2.26 million rupiahs to 2.00 million rupiahs only for each batch of production. This result leads to increasing of production quantity, reducing waiting and moving time about 10% from the current condition.

  6. Felling and skidding productivity and harvesting cost in southern pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Kluender; B.J. Stokes

    1996-01-01

    Sixteen stands were harvested at various levels of basal area removed (intensity). Chainsaw felling productivity was more sensitive to stem diameter than harvest intensity. Skidding productivity was highest when removing large trees at high intensity. Harvesting cost was more sensitive to stem size than harvest intensity, although harvest intensity was a very important...

  7. Comparative study of the variables for determining unit processing cost of irradiated food products in developing countries : case study of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banini, G.K; Emi-Reynolds, G.; Kassapu, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    A method for estimating unit cost of gamma treated food products in a developing country like Ghana is presented. The method employs the cost of cobalt source requirement, capital and operating costs, dose requirements etc. and relates these variables to various annual throughput at a gamma processing facility. In situations where the cost of foreign components or devices are required, the assumptions have been based on those of Kunstadt and Steeves. Otherwise, the prevailing conditions existing in Ghana have been used. The study reveals that the unit processing cost for gamma treatment foods in such a facility is between 8.0 to 147.2 US dollars per tonne. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs

  8. ‘FLEXIBLE’ BUDGETS ARE ALREADY BUDGETING PROCESS ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION COSTS FOR OIL AND FAT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shvetz’

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems of methodological fundamentals of managerial accounting of manufacturing costs in information provision for budgeting, not only at the enterprise level, but also as it is required by current conditions of advanced control, in the context of structural production units of “responsibility centers” using “flexible” budgets, which are prepared during the manufacturing process are examined. Unlike a simple comparison of the regular budgets (scheduled amount of work divided by regulatory costs per unit, “flexible” budget makes adjustments to the planned budget because it represents the actual amount of work divided by regulatory costs, which is included with the comparison of the amount of work that are not fulfilled, or carried to a greater or lesser extent compared with the expected budget. Thus, “Flexible” budgets reveal the actual extent of the changes compared with the expected budget.

  9. Estimated costs of Sustaining Agricultural Production Through Erosional Control and Replenishment of Nutrient Losses in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyango, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Soil erosion is one of the major causes of nutrient depletion in sub-Saharan Africa. Highlights of losses from erosion can be used to explain why agricultural production in this region is not sustainable. annual macronutrient losses were calculated from experimental results at 8 sites in Kenya between 1986 and 1990. these losses were used along with the current local prices of fertiliser to estimate the annual national budget required for there replenishment. On average, 5.72, 29.3 and 0.82 kg ha -1 yr -1 of N, P and K, respectively, were lost annually. These losses are determined by soil types, slope, crop cover characteristics and rainfall amounts. soil losses can be reduced by terracing, contour farming and intercropping to improve crop cover. These efforts reduce the adverse effects of sporadic rainfall on fragile soil types. in order to ensure sustainability however, control measures have to be supplemented by national additions of 64 000 t, 323 000 t and 10 000 t of N, P and K respectively per year. The equivalent costs of these fertilisers will be Ksh 1,408 Ksh 8721 Ksh 220 million for the respective nutrients. This would require a total of some US$256 million (Ksh 10 349 million) annually from the national budget

  10. Economic feasibility of invesment alternatives for reducing torula yeast' production cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Fernández, Alfredo; Díaz de los Ríos, Manuel; Saura Laria, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The prices of ammonium salts which are used in the torula yeast production technology are very high nowadays. In the other hand, this technology has very high energy costs which are consumed by blowers in fermentation, separators machines and in the concentration and drying of yeast. In this paper, different technical alternatives are analyzed for reducing the production cost of torula yeast, through changes in production inputs, electric motors and the replacement of a portion of the fuel used for drying by biogas. Then, the economic feasibility in both currencies is evaluated for practical application. (author)

  11. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF INVESMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR REDUCING TORULA YEAST' PRODUCTION COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Torres Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prices of ammonium salts which are used in the torula yeast production technology are very high nowadays. In the other hand, this technology has very high energy costs which are consumed by blowers in fermentation, separators machines and in the concentration and drying of yeast. In this paper, different technical alternatives are analyzed for reducing the production cost of torula yeast, through changes in production inputs, electric motors and the replacement of a portion of the fuel used for drying by biogas. Then, the economic feasibility in both currencies is evaluated for practical application.

  12. Determination of the fuel component in the cost price of the energy production in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakov, M.; Velev, V.

    1997-01-01

    An approach is proposed for the determination of the fuel component in the cost price of the nuclear units production with regards of the difference between the time of the fuel consumption and the energy production. This method gives the opportunity for fuel consumption prognostication, as well as an optimization of both short and long term fueling regimes. This approach permits current update of the economic conditions and the pre-history of the investments. It can be used both for the determination of the fuel component and the full cost price of the energy production in NPPs.(author)

  13. THE IMPACT OF THE BASIC ASSETS EFFICIENCY ON THE OF CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS COST PRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. Zeynalov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In article are considered problems of the analysis of the influence mode to usages and conditions of the building technology and facilities to mechanizations on prime cost produced building product. It is offered original scheme intercropping the factors, in accordance with influence of the working expenses of the facilities of the lab our on prime cost of the building product. The offered methods of the estimation physical wear-out level of the building technology and competitiveness of the active part of production assets of the building enterprise.

  14. Electric energy costs and firm productivity in the countries of the Pacific Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Anamaria

    This paper explores the relation between energy as an input of production and firm-level productivity for Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, all country members of the Pacific Alliance economic bloc. The empirical literature, has explored the impact of infrastructure on productivity; however there is limited analysis on the impact of particular infrastructure variables, such as energy, on productivity at the firm level in Latin America. Therefore, this study conducts a quantitative assessment of the responsiveness of productivity to energy cost and quality for Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. For this, the empirical strategy is to estimate a Cobb-Douglas production function using the World Bank's Enterprise Survey to obtain comparable measures of output and inputs of production. This approach provides estimates of input factor elasticities for all of the factors of production including energy. The results indicate that electric energy costs explain cross-country differences in firm level productivity. For the particular case of Colombia, the country exhibits the lowest capital and labor productivity of the PA, and firm output is highly responsive to changes in energy use. As a result, the evidence suggests that policies reducing electric energy costs are an efficient alternative to increase firm performance, particularly in the case of Colombia.

  15. Strategies for cost-effective and enhanced production of bacterial cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mazhar Ul; Ullah, Muhammad Wajid; Khan, Shaukat; Shah, Nasrullah; Park, Joong Kon

    2017-09-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) has received substantial attention because of its high purity, mechanical strength, crystallinity, liquid-absorbing capabilities, biocompatibility, and biodegradability etc. These properties allow BC to be used in various fields, especially in industries producing medical, electronic, and food products etc. A major discrepancy associated with BC is its high production cost, usually much higher than the plant cellulose. To address this limitations, researchers have developed several strategies for enhanced production of BC including the designing of advanced reactors and utilization of various carbon sources. Another promising approach is the production of BC from waste materials such as food, industrial, agricultural, and brewery wastes etc. which not only reduces the overall BC production cost but is also environment-friendly. Besides, exploration of novel and efficient BC producing microbial strains provides impressive boost to the BC production processes. To this end, development of genetically engineered microbial strains has proven useful for enhanced BC production. In this review, we have summarized major efforts to enhance BC production in order to make it a cost-effective biopolymer. This review can be of interest to researchers investigating strategies for enhanced BC production, as well as companies exploring pilot projects to scale up BC production for industrial applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Considerations Concerning the Application of Target Costing Method in the Industry of Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortură Laura Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present conditions of the market economy, which is in full process of globalization, theadaptation of the more complex and diverse needs of the final consumers, leads to a permanentcreation and development of new products and services by the entities in order to satisfy theseneeds. Thus, the entities must apply efficient and tested methods for determining and provisioningthe costs which will result from launching new products on the market, methods which wouldsupport and ensure the best quality – price report, and which are to reduce the production costs upto a level of not affecting the quality of the final product. Such a method, according to specialtyliterature is the modern method of Target Costing.

  17. Resolving Semantic Interference during Word Production Requires Central Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The semantic picture-word interference task has been used to diagnose how speakers resolve competition while selecting words for production. The attentional demands of this resolution process were assessed in 2 dual-task experiments (tone classification followed by picture naming). In Experiment 1, when pictures and distractor words were presented…

  18. 76 FR 737 - Tobacco Products, Exemptions From Substantial Equivalence Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... exemptions would be requested for an unknown number of the remaining products. Although in theory the maximum... place, only 50 exemption requests will be submitted per year. This may increase over time as learning..., and social science occupations ($30.91), architecture and engineering occupations ($40.93), and legal...

  19. 19 CFR 10.1 - Domestic products; requirements on entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTSUS): (1) A declaration by the foreign shipper in... and/or the reason for the exportation of the articles. (c) A certificate from the master of a vessel... or production of other evidence, that the articles are imported in circumstances meeting the...

  20. 9 CFR 327.4 - Imported products; foreign certificates required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... products have been handled in a sanitary manner in this country and are otherwise in compliance with... handled in a sanitary manner, and were prepared under the continuous supervision of an inspector under... delivered by the consignee, or his agent, in the United States to the Program import inspector at the place...

  1. Manufacturing cost analysis of a parabolic dish concentrator (General Electric design) for solar thermal electric power systems in selected production volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The manufacturing cost of a General Electric 12 meter diameter concentrator was estimated. This parabolic dish concentrator for solar thermal system was costed in annual production volumes of 100 - 1,000 - 5,000 - 10,000 - 50,000 100,000 - 400,000 and 1,000,000 units. Presented for each volume are the costs of direct labor, material, burden, tooling, capital equipment and buildings. Also presented is the direct labor personnel and factory space requirements. All costs are based on early 1981 economics.

  2. The costs of the different pathways of electricity production and saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.

    2012-01-01

    The author discusses the content and methodology of a report published by the French Court of Audit on the assessment of the costs of the nuclear sector. He briefly recalls the principle adopted by the Court, i.e. the method of the economic current cost which calculates a global MWh cost on the whole operation duration of the selected production tool. The author discusses the application of this method to different electricity production and consumption sectors: ground-based wind energy, the Flamanville EPR, use of low-energy bulbs, air-air heat pumps, a refrigerator. He compares and discusses the results obtained for different electricity production sectors (EPR, ground-based wind energy, and gas combined cycle technology) and their sensitivity to adopted hypotheses. He comments the evolution of the investment cost of nuclear reactors in France, the economic current costs of offshore wind energy and small photovoltaic production. He finally discusses the economic current costs of the different ways of energy saving and their sensitivity to the adopted hypotheses

  3. [Costs with personnel and productivity analysis of family health program teams in Fortaleza, Ceará].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha Filho, Fernando dos Santos; da Silva, Marcelo Gurgel Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The research verified the productivity and the operational personnel costs of eight teams of the Family Health Program (PSF) of two Basic Units of Family Health (UBASF) in Fortaleza, Ceará, through the methodology of costs by absorption, in 2004. The largest expenses were with personnel (75%), mainly with the PSF teams, and medicines (18%). The federal allocations received in September, 2004, by each PSF team, were R$ 9,543.33. The total cost by team was R$ 15,719.00. Some professionals of various PSF teams showed productivity above the set objectives, but the average productivity by doctor and nurse was below fifty per cent of objectives, with high idle time making the work onerous. The unity cost of home visits by doctor and prenatal attendance by nurses were checked, and, would be less expensive if the idle time were reduced. Various alternatives of cost reduction were observed, such as scale savings of some resources and services and re-negotiation of contracts with suppliers and cooperatives. The data obtained will contribute to more accurate planning for the installation and maintenance of PSF teams as well as alternatives of cost reductions, higher productivity, and better quality.

  4. Product costing and activity-based costing/management in Bacalhôa Vinhos de Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Carlota

    2016-01-01

    The present Work Project introduces a case study addressing the adoption of an ABC/M system in a winemaking company. The system was implemented in only one area of the company, and its adoption allows the company to perform ABM analysis resorting to the ABC information. A mixed approach is used to cost the products: both traditional and ABC systems are used although in different areas of the company. ABC/M implementation was perceived as ‘successful’ despite not following recommendations pres...

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF TIMES AND COSTS OF PROJECT OF HORIZONTAL LAMINATOR PRODUCTION USING PERT/CPM TECHNICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henrique Lermen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The PERT/CPM is a technique widely used in both the scheduling and in the project feasibility in terms of cost control and time.  In order to optimize time and costs involved in production, the work presented here aims to apply the PERT/CPM technique in the production project of the Horizontal Laminator, a machine used to cut polyurethane foam blocks in the mattresses industries. For the application of PERT/CPM technique in the project of Horizontal Laminator production were identified the activities that compose the project, the dependence between them, the normal and accelerated durations and the normal and accelerated costs. In this study, deterministic estimates for the duration of the activities were considered. The results show that the project can be completed in 520 hours at a total cost of R$7,042.50, when all activities are performed in their normal durations.  When all the activities that compose the critical path are accelerated, the project can be completed in 333.3 hours at a total cost of R$9,263.01. If the activities slacks have been exploited, it can obtain a final total cost of R$6,157.8, without changing the new duration of the project. It is noteworthy that the final total cost of the project if the slacks are used, will be lower than the initial cost. Regarding the initial cost of the project, after the application of the PERT/CPM technique, it presents a decrease of 12.56% of the total project cost.

  6. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14

    The DOE has set aggressive goals for solid state lighting (SSL) adoption, which require manufacturing and quality improvements for virtually all process steps leading to an LED luminaire product. The goals pertinent to this proposed project are to reduce the cost and improve the quality of the epitaxial growth processes used to build LED structures. The objectives outlined in this proposal focus on achieving cost reduction and performance improvements over state-of-the-art, using technologies that are low in cost and amenable to high efficiency manufacturing. The objectives of the outlined proposal focus on cost reductions in epitaxial growth by reducing epitaxy layer thickness and hetero-epitaxial strain, and by enabling the use of larger, less expensive silicon substrates and would be accomplished through the introduction of a high productivity reactive sputtering system and an effective sputtered aluminum-nitride (AlN) buffer/nucleation layer process. Success of the proposed project could enable efficient adoption of GaN on-silicon (GaN/Si) epitaxial technology on 150mm silicon substrates. The reduction in epitaxy cost per cm{sup 2} using 150mm GaN-on-Si technology derives from (1) a reduction in cost of ownership and increase in throughput for the buffer deposition process via the elimination of MOCVD buffer layers and other throughput and CoO enhancements, (2) improvement in brightness through reductions in defect density, (3) reduction in substrate cost through the replacement of sapphire with silicon, and (4) reduction in non-ESD yield loss through reductions in wafer bow and temperature variation. The adoption of 150mm GaN/Si processing will also facilitate significant cost reductions in subsequent wafer fabrication manufacturing costs. There were three phases to this project. These three phases overlap in order to aggressively facilitate a commercially available production GaN/Si capability. In Phase I of the project, the repeatability of the performance

  7. Productivity costs decrease after endoscopic sinus surgery for refractory chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke; Smith, Timothy L; Mace, Jess C; Schlosser, Rodney J; Hwang, Peter H; Soler, Zachary M

    2016-03-01

    The primary objective of this pilot study was to define the change in productivity costs following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Secondary objectives were to identify CRS-related characteristics that may influence the degree of productivity improvement after ESS. Prospective, multi-institutional, observational cohort study. The human capital approach was used to define productivity costs. Annual absenteeism, presenteeism, and lost leisure time were quantified to define annual lost productive time (LPT). LPT was monetized using the annual daily wage rates obtained from the 2012 US Census and the 2013 US Department of Labor statistics. Twenty-seven patients with refractory CRS who underwent ESS were followed for a mean of 15 months (range, 8-25 months). Following ESS, there were improvements in annual absenteeism (22 days reduced to 3 days), annual presenteeism (41 days reduced to 19 days), and annual household days lost (12 days reduced to 6 days). Overall, the preoperative productivity costs were reduced after ESS ($9,190 vs. $3,373, respectively; P productivity is negatively impacted by the presence of CRS. The outcomes from this study provide the first insights into the reduced productivity costs associated with receiving ESS for refractory CRS. Future studies with larger sample sizes will need to validate the results from this pilot study. 2c Laryngoscope, 126:570-574, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Productivity loss due to overweight and obesity: a systematic review of indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettler, Andrea; Grosse, Anna; Sonntag, Diana

    2017-10-05

    The increasingly high levels of overweight and obesity among the workforce are accompanied by a hidden cost burden due to losses in productivity. This study reviews the extent of indirect cost of overweight and obesity. A systematic search was conducted in eight electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science Core Collection, PsychInfo, Cinahl, EconLit and ClinicalTrial.gov). Additional studies were added from reference lists of original studies and reviews. Studies were eligible if they were published between January 2000 and June 2017 and included monetary estimates of indirect costs of overweight and obesity. The authors reviewed studies independently and assessed their quality. Of the 3626 search results, 50 studies met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis of the reviewed studies revealed substantial costs due to lost productivity among workers with obesity. Especially absenteeism and presenteeism contribute to high indirect costs. However, the methodologies and results vary greatly, especially regarding the cost of overweight, which was even associated with lower indirect costs than normal weight in three studies. The evidence predominantly confirms substantial short-term and long-term indirect costs of overweight and obesity in the absence of effective customised prevention programmes and thus demonstrates the extent of the burden of obesity beyond the healthcare sector. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. 75 FR 78755 - Notice of Initial Determination Revising the List of Products Requiring Federal Contractor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Products Requiring Federal Contractor Certification as to Forced/Indentured Child Labor Pursuant to... products requiring federal contractor certification as to the use of forced or indentured child labor. To.... 13126 (``Prohibition of Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor''), in...

  10. 76 FR 31365 - Notice of Final Determination Revising the List of Products Requiring Federal Contractor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... List of Products Requiring Federal Contractor Certification as to Forced or Indentured Child Labor... Contractor Certification as to Forced or Indentured Child Labor.'' This notice adds a product, hand-woven... of the List of Products Requiring Federal Contractor Certification as to Forced or Indentured Child...

  11. 46 CFR 50.25-5 - Products requiring manufacturer or mill certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Products requiring manufacturer or mill certification... manufacturer or mill certification. (a) Products required to be certified by a manufacturer or by mill... accepted without referring to its manufacturer or mill certification, if: (1) The product is marked in...

  12. 75 FR 42164 - Notice of Final Determination Updating the List of Products Requiring Federal Contractor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... List of Products Requiring Federal Contractor Certification as to Forced or Indentured Child Labor... Guidelines for Maintenance of the List of Products Requiring Federal Contractor Certification as to Forced or.... 13126 (``Prohibition of Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor''), in...

  13. 24 CFR 200.936 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building products certification program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements under HUD building products certification program for solid fuel type room heaters and fireplace... Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building products certification program for solid fuel... fireplace stoves certified under the HUD Building Products Certification Program shall be designed...

  14. 42 CFR 3.210 - Required disclosure of patient safety work product to the Secretary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required disclosure of patient safety work product... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Confidentiality and Privilege Protections of Patient Safety Work Product § 3.210 Required disclosure of patient...

  15. 30 CFR 250.195 - What notification does MMS require on the production status of wells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the well in a production status. You must confirm oral notification by telefax or e-mail within those... production status of wells? 250.195 Section 250.195 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Information and Reporting Requirements § 250.195 What notification does MMS require on the production status...

  16. 40 CFR 158.2160 - Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2160 Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed for...

  17. 21 CFR 700.25 - Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.25 Section 700.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.25 Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products. (a) General. Because most cosmetic liquid...

  18. 40 CFR 158.210 - Experimental use permit data requirements for product chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Experimental use permit data requirements for product chemistry. 158.210 Section 158.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Experimental use permit data requirements for product chemistry. All product chemistry data, as described in...

  19. Efficient protein production by yeast requires global tuning of metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Mingtao; Bao, Jichen; Hallstrom, Bjorn M.

    2017-01-01

    The biotech industry relies on cell factories for production of pharmaceutical proteins, of which several are among the top-selling medicines. There is, therefore, considerable interest in improving the efficiency of protein production by cell factories. Protein secretion involves numerous...... intracellular processes with many underlying mechanisms still remaining unclear. Here, we use RNA-seq to study the genome-wide transcriptional response to protein secretion in mutant yeast strains. We find that many cellular processes have to be attuned to support efficient protein secretion. In particular...... that by tuning metabolism cells are able to efficiently secrete recombinant proteins. Our findings provide increased understanding of which cellular regulations and pathways are associated with efficient protein secretion....

  20. Legume Seed Production Meeting Market Requirements and Economic Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Julier, Bernadette; Karagić, Đura

    2015-01-01

    The seed is the carrier of the genetic improvements brought about by modern plant breeding, and seed production is carried out in accordance with certification systems to guarantee consistent high quality. In forage legumes, breeding efforts are primarily related to the vegetative development...... of the plant, although the commercial success of an agronomically superior cultivar is dependent on a reliable supply of competitively priced seed. In seed production of the three most important forage legumes, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), and red clover (Trifolium pratense......-pollinated forage legumes it is further highly influenced by environmental conditions and crop management factors. Further investigations into the use of plant growth regulators and an improved understanding of the interaction between pollinators and the seed crop might improve future seed yields. There is likely...