WorldWideScience

Sample records for production processing storage

  1. Modeling intermediate product selection under production and storage capacity limitations in food processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur Alper; Akkerman, Renzo; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In the food industry products are usually characterized by their recipes, which are specified by various quality attributes. For end products, this is given by customer requirements, but for intermediate products, the recipes can be chosen in such a way that raw material procurement costs and pro...... with production and inventory planning, thereby considering the production and storage capacity limitations. The resulting model can be used to solve an important practical problem typical for many food processing industries.......In the food industry products are usually characterized by their recipes, which are specified by various quality attributes. For end products, this is given by customer requirements, but for intermediate products, the recipes can be chosen in such a way that raw material procurement costs...... and processing costs are minimized. However, this product selection process is bound by production and storage capacity limitations, such as the number and size of storage tanks or silos. In this paper, we present a mathematical programming approach that combines decision making on product selection...

  2. Effect of processing and storage on the stability of flaxseed lignan added to bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvärinen, Helena K; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Hiidenhovi, Jaakko A; Hietaniemi, Veli; Korhonen, Hannu J T; Ryhänen, Eeva-Liisa

    2006-01-11

    The study focused on the effects of processing and storage on the stability of flaxseed-derived secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) added to various bakery products. The SDG concentration of doughs, baked rye breads, graham buns, and muffins was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection; the baked products were analyzed immediately after baking and upon storage at room temperature for 1 week and at -25 degrees C for 1 and 2 months, respectively. Added SDG was found to withstand normal baking temperatures in all bakery products. SDG also was a relatively stable compound during storage. Similarly, the content of SDG in flax buns containing fat-free flaxseed meal was unaffected by storage. We conclude that cereal-based bakery products can be supplemented with flaxseed-derived SDG.

  3. Process for ultimate storage of radioactive fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baukal, W.; Gruenthaler, K.H.; Neumann, K.

    1980-01-01

    In order to exclude cracking in the cooling phase during sealing of radioactive oxidic fission products in glass melts, metallic filling elements - e.g. wires, tissues - are proposed to be incorporated in the mould before the glass melt is poured in. Especially nickel alloys with corrosion proof surface layers, e.g. titanium nitride, silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminium oxide, suit best. These elements reduce thermal stresses and effect high thermal conductance towards the mould wall. (UWI) [de

  4. Contribution to the study of new hydrogen production, purification and storage processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaud, Jean-Pierre

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the various aspects of hydrogen production, purification and process within the scope of hydrogen-based energy production. Hydrogen production is achieved by water decomposition through a thermo-chemical process. The author reports the thermodynamic assessment of a water decomposition thermo-chemical cycle for chlorine and sulphur-related cycles. He reports the experimental investigation of hydrogen purification by selective diffusion, the study of contamination of a CeMg12 alloy by nitrogen, oxygen and water vapour with application to hydrogen storage under the form of hydrides [fr

  5. Study of cryoprotectors effect on oxidation processes at storage of frozen halffinished products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Glushkov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The publication presents data on the effect of polysaccharides as cryoprotectants on changes of the lipid fraction of quick-frozen semi-finished products during storage. Since the structure of minced systems is formed as a result of the destruction of the native structure of the meat and the formation of a new secondary structure, it is important to establish the effect of cryoprotectants on the key functional and technological properties of meat systems after freezing, and in the process of storage. Based on studies of the kinetics of the oxidation of fat and accumulation data on the accumulation of the primary and secondary products of oxidation inhibition of oxidative processes has been found.

  6. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Floating Production Storage and Offloading Facilities with Liquefaction Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Sánchez, Yamid Alberto Carranza; Junior, Silvio de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Floating, production, storage and offloading (FPSO) plants are facilities used in upstream petroleum processing.They have gained interest because they are more flexible than conventional plants and can be used for producingoil and gas in deep-water fields. In general, gas export is challenging...... because of the lack of infrastructure in remotelocations. The present work investigates the possibility of integrating liquefaction processes on such facilities, consideringfour possible petroleum compositions, which differ in their contents of carbon dioxide, light and heavy hydrocarbons.The performance...

  7. Optimization of the process of egg omelet production with fillings with extended storage period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sukmanov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Optimization of the egg omelets (EO production using high pressure (HP will allow to produce a minimum cost product during manufacturing and also to obtain a product with high consumer properties. Materialsand methods. The concerned product is -EO -a mixture of liquid egg with grated or chopped cheese, xanthan gum, water or milk and spices. The EO manufacturing process consisted of packing the mixture in an airtight container with heating and processing in the high pressure installation. The EO suitability for long-term storage was evaluated by the "water activity" term. The EO quality was evaluated by an expert. There was used the undetermined Lagrange multipliers method to obtain the optimal process parameters. Results. As a result of the central composite rotatabel plan there was developed optimization model allowed to obtain the optimal EO HP processing parameters: pressure – 690 МPа, temperature –1220С, treatment duration –7×60s, 14g of water on 100 g of melange, 13 g of dry milk on 100 g of melange, xanthan gum content -0,75% of the total mixture mass, 25 g of cheese on 100 g of melange. These indicators allow to obtain the EO process parameters with the next indicators: water activity -0.704 and comprehensive quality Score - 0.98 that characterize the product as a product with high quality indicators stable over a long period of storage. The developed model analysis with using of Student's t test, Fisher dyspepsia and predicted optimization values calculation errors confirmed the reliability of the optimization parameters obtained values and the optimization model reliability. The calculations results for the given optimization parameters are presented as confidence intervals, confirming that their experimental values do not exceed the respective intervals and thus confirm the results authenticity . Conclusions. These results have practical significance and were adopted as the basis for the technical documentation

  8. A preliminary analysis of floating production storage and offloading facilities with gas liquefaction processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Carranza-Sánchez, Yamid Alberto; Junior, Silvio de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Floating, production, storage and offloading (FPSO) plants are facilities used in upstream petroleum processing. They have gained interest because they are more flexible than conventional plants and can be used for producing oil and gas in deep-water fields. In general, gas export is challenging...... because of the lack of infrastructure in remote locations. The present work investigates the possibility of integrating liquefaction processes on such facilities, considering two mixed-refrigerant and two expansion-based processes suitable for offshore applications. Two FPSO configurations are considered...... in this work, and they were suggested by Brazilian operators for fields processing natural gas with moderate to high content of carbon dioxide. The performance of the combined systems is analysed by conducting energy and exergy analyses. The integration of gas liquefaction results in greater power consumption...

  9. Process for final storage of high level radioactive fission product solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.R.B.; Fries, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    In this process for the storage of an aqueous solution of radioactive nuclides, the solution is diluted with system water, which is obtained from a reservoir below the bottom of the sea in a porous geological stratum. After dilution, the diluted solution is injected into the same geological stratum under the bottom of the sea. (orig.) [de

  10. Storage capacity assessment of liquid fuels production by solar gasification in a packed bed reactor using a dynamic process model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniyal, Ashok A.; Eyk, Philip J. van; Nathan, Graham J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • First analysis to assess storage requirements of a stand-alone packed bed, batch process solar gasifier. • 35 days of storage required for stand-alone solar system, whereas 8 h of storage required for hybrid system. • Sensitivity of storage requirement to reactor operation, solar region and solar multiple evaluated. - Abstract: The first multi-day performance analysis of the feasibility of integrating a packed bed, indirectly irradiated solar gasification reactor with a downstream FT liquids production facility is reported. Two fuel-loading scenarios were assessed. In one, the residual unconverted fuel at the end of a day is reused, while in the second, the residual fuel is discarded. To estimate a full year time-series of operation, a simplified statistical model was developed from short-period simulations of the 1-D heat transfer, devolatilisation and gasification chemistry model of a 150 kW th packed bed reactor (based on the authors’ earlier work). The short time-series cover a variety of solar conditions to represent seasonal, diurnal and cloud-induced solar transience. Also assessed was the influence of increasing the solar flux incident at the emitter plate of the packed bed reactor on syngas production. The combination of the annual time-series and daily model of syngas production was found to represent reasonably the seasonal transience in syngas production. It was then used to estimate the minimum syngas storage volume required to maintain a stable flow-rate and composition of syngas to a FT reactor over a full year of operation. This found that, for an assumed heliostat field collection area of 1000 m 2 , at least 64 days of storage is required, under both the Residual Fuel Re-Use and Discard scenarios. This figure was not sensitive to the two solar sites assessed, Farmington, New Mexico or Tonopah Airport, Nevada. Increasing the heliostat field collection area from 1000 to 1500 m 2 , led to an increase in the calculated daily rate

  11. Long-term storage of irradiated potatoes for use in processed products, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shohei; Umeda, Keiji; Kameyama, Keiji.

    1982-01-01

    Effect of reconditioning of irradiated potatoes on the decrease of reducing sugar was studied. As a result, a suitable storage condition to maintain the desirable processing properties is proposed. The reducing sugar content was temporarily increased by irradiation at the early or last period of dormancy. The increase of reducing sugar was easily suppressed at the early period of dormancy by reconditioning immediately after irradiation. Reducing sugar did not decrease by the reconditioning when the irraditaion was carried out the early period of dormancy, but decreased when carried out at the last period of dormancy. A desirable procedure to maintain the processing properties of irradiated potatoes is as follows: Harvest the potatoes, store in bulk or containers and cure for 10 days at 10 0 C, RH90%. Irradiate the cured potatoes and recondition for 2 weeks under 15 0 C and RH80%. Long-term storage is then carried out at 7 - 8 0 C. Before processing, recondition the stored potatoes for 2 to 4 weeks at 15 0 C and RH 80%. (author)

  12. Role of Nitrite in Processed Meat Products and its Degradation during their Storage

    OpenAIRE

    ILIRJANA BOCI; ELDA ZIU; GENTJANA BARDHI

    2014-01-01

    This paper represents the analytical data of nitrite level obtained from the experimental work done on meat processed samples taken from a meat processing plant in Tirana. There has been a long debate and health concern about the nitrite content in meat products. Nitrite is added to e.g. sausages, and hams and other meat products to preserve these products and keep them free from dangerous bacteria. Among the aims are preventing botulism, a dangerous food poison. But also it’s important to us...

  13. Comparative risk assessments for the production and interim storage of glass and ceramic waste forms: defense waste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.C.; Wright, W.V.

    1982-04-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for immobilizing nuclear high level waste (HLW) is scheduled to be built at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). High level waste is produced when SRP reactor components are subjected to chemical separation operations. Two candidates for immobilizing this HLW are borosilicate glass and crystalline ceramic, either being contained in weld-sealed stainless steel canisters. A number of technical analyses are being conducted to support a selection between these two waste forms. The present document compares the risks associated with the manufacture and interim storage of these two forms in the DWPF. Process information used in the risk analysis was taken primarily from a DWPF processibility analysis. The DWPF environmental analysis provided much of the necessary environmental information. To perform the comparative risk assessments, consequences of the postulated accidents are calculated in terms of: (1) the maximum dose to an off-site individual; and (2) the dose to off-site population within 80 kilometers of the DWPF, both taken in terms of the 50-year inhalation dose commitment. The consequences are then multiplied by the estimated accident probabilities to obtain the risks. The analyses indicate that the maximum exposure risk to an individual resulting from the accidents postulated for both the production and interim storage of either waste form represents only an insignificant fraction of the natural background radiation of about 90 mrem per year per person in the local area. They also show that there is no disaster potential to the off-site population. Therefore, the risks from abnormal events in the production and the interim storage of the DWPF waste forms should not be considered as a dominant factor in the selection of the final waste form

  14. Influence of storage and heating on protein glycation levels of processed lactose-free and regular bovine milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkovska-Stamenova, Sanja; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2017-04-15

    Thermal treatment preserves the microbiological safety of milk, but also induces Maillard reactions modifying for example proteins. The purpose of this study was evaluating the influence of consumer behaviors (storage and heating) on protein glycation degrees in bovine milk products. Lactosylation and hexosylation sites were identified in ultra-high temperature (UHT), lactose-free pasteurized, and lactose-free UHT milk (ULF) and infant formula (IF) using tandem mass spectrometry (electron transfer dissociation). Overall, 303 lactosylated and 199 hexosylated peptides were identified corresponding to 170 lactosylation (31 proteins) and 117 hexosylation sites (25 proteins). In quantitative terms, storage increased lactosylation up to fourfold in UHT and IF and hexosylation up to elevenfold in ULF and threefold in IF. These levels increased additionally twofold when the stored samples were heated (40°C). In conclusion, storage and heating appear to influence protein glycation levels in milk at similar or even higher degrees than industrial processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PROCESS CONTROL STORAGE SMOKELESS TOBACCO (SNUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Don

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An important aim during smokeless tobacco product (snus storage is keeping its quantitative and qualitative properties. Another significant factor is its biological safety due to its oral way of consumption. The main factors affecting quality during storage are: temperature, relative humidity, air composition, ventilation rate, surrounding products and package. Snus consumption is growing, but till present it was slightly spread in Russia and as a result little studied, thus studying process of its storage is an actual question. The aims of the research were: studying terms and methods of storage that provide constant product’s quality. Samples with different composition were taken for carrying research. Quality evaluation was carried according to standard for tobacco branch methods and to new methods developed in the laboratory of technologies for manufacturing tobacco products. Products were stored at lowered and room temperatures. It is discovered that snus with herbs added can be stored at room temperature and humidity not more than three months. Snus with coffee added can be stored not more than four months without changing its taste. Adding honey to this product slightly decreases its score by sensory evaluation, but remains it possible for consumption. Sensory testing score after storage at lowered temperature has remained unchanged. Optimal terms of storage were found. For room temperature they are: temperature 17-25 °C, relative air humidity 65 – 75 %, for lowered temperature – 5 °C and relative air humidity 50 -60 %. It was discovered that composition of snus and environmental parameters affect its storage duration.

  16. Hydrogen - High pressure production and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauretta, J.R

    2005-01-01

    The development of simple, safe and more and more efficient technologies for the production and the storage of hydrogen is necessary condition for the transition towards the economy of hydrogen.In this work the hydrogen production studies experimentally to high pressure by electrolysis of alkaline solutions without the intervention of compressing systems and its direct storage in safe containers.The made tests show that the process of electrolysis to high pressure is feasible and has better yield than to low pressure, and that is possible to solve the operation problems, with relatively simple technology.The preliminary studies and tests indicate that the system container that studied is immune to the outbreak and can have forms and very different sizes, nevertheless, to reach or to surpass the efficiency of storage of the conventional systems the investments necessary will be due to make to be able to produce aluminum alloy tubes of high resistance

  17. Use of imitation mathematical model of phosphorus system for analysis of rates of production-destruction processes in reservoir of the Zagorsk pumped-storage plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonov, A.V.; Margolina, G.L.; Sokolov, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    The rates of production-destruction processes in water media are traditionally measured for investigation of the conditions of operation of water-ecology systems and to study the role of microorganisms in the transformation of substances of different origins. One possibility for investigation of the production-destruction process is the use of numerical analytic methods and, in particular, of imitation mathematical modeling. The task of this investigation consisted of evaluation, from observations carried out in 1989, of the rates of production-destruction processes in the water of the reservoir of the Zagorsk pumped-storage plant by means of an imitation mathematical model of a phosphorus system. The model was based on a study of the characteristics of transformation of phosphorus in the water media, as well as by comparison of evaluations of the rates of the above-mentioned processes by two methods -- an experimental one (a modification of the oxygen flask method) and an analytical one (an imitation model of a phosphorus system). 7 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  18. A liquefied energy chain for transport and utilization of natural gas for power production with CO2 capture and storage - Part 2: The offshore and the onshore processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspelund, Audun; Gundersen, Truls

    2009-01-01

    A novel energy and cost effective transport chain for stranded natural gas utilized for power production with CO 2 capture and storage is developed. It includes an offshore section, a combined gas carrier, and an integrated receiving terminal. In the offshore process, natural gas (NG) is liquefied to LNG by liquid carbon dioxide (LCO 2 ) and liquid inert nitrogen (LIN), which are used as cold carriers. The offshore process is self-supported with power, hot and cold utilities and can operate with little rotating equipment and without flammable refrigerants. In the onshore process, the cryogenic exergy in LNG is used to cool and liquefy the cold carriers, which reduces the power requirement to 319 kWh/tonne LNG. Pinch and exergy analyses are used to determine thermodynamically optimized offshore and onshore processes with exergy efficiencies of 87% and 71%, respectively. There are very low emissions from the processes. The estimated specific costs for the offshore and onshore process are 8.0 and 14.6 EUR per tonne LNG, respectively, excluding energy costs. With an electricity price of 100 EUR per MWh, the specific cost of energy in the onshore process is 31.9 EUR per tonne LNG

  19. Oxidative stability during storage of fish oil from filleting by-products of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is largely independent of the processing and production temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honold, Philipp; Nouard, Marie-Louise; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is the main fish species produced in Danish fresh water farming. Large amounts of fileting by-products like heads, bones, tails (HBT), and intestines are produced when rainbow trout is processed to smoked rainbow trout filets. The filleting by-products can...... be used to produce high quality fish oil. In this study, the oxidative stability of fish oil produced from filleting by-products was evaluated. The oil was produced from conventional or organic fish (low and high omega-3 fatty acid content) at different temperatures (70 and 90°C). The oxidative stability...

  20. Product prioritization in a two-stage food production system with intermediate storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, R.; van Donk, D.P.

    In the food-processing industry, usually a limited number of storage tanks for intermediate storage is available, which are used for different products. The market sometimes requires extremely short lead times for some products, leading to prioritization of these products, partly through the

  1. Energy production, conversion, storage, conservation, and coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yaşar

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sustainable use of energy in various processes is an integral part of engineering and scientific studies, which rely on a sound knowledge of energy systems. Whilst many institutions now offer degrees in energy-related programs, a comprehensive textbook, which introduces and explains sustainable energy systems and can be used across engineering and scientific fields, has been lacking. Energy: Production, Conversion, Storage, Conservation, and Coupling provides the reader with a practical understanding of these five main topic areas of energy including 130 examples and over 600 practice problems. Each chapter contains a range of supporting figures, tables, thermodynamic diagrams and charts, while the Appendix supplies the reader with all the necessary data including the steam tables. This new textbook presents a clear introduction of basic vocabulary, properties, forms, sources, and balances of energy before advancing to the main topic areas of: • Energy production and conversion in importa...

  2. Hydrogen Storage and Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Abhijit [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Biris, A. S. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Mazumder, M. K. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Karabacak, T. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Kannarpady, Ganesh [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Sharma, R. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-07-31

    This is the final technical report. This report is a summary of the project. The goal of our project is to improve solar-to-hydrogen generation efficiency of the PhotoElectroChemical (PEC) conversion process by developing photoanodes with high absorption efficiency in the visible region of the solar radiation spectrum and to increase photo-corrosion resistance of the electrode for generating hydrogen from water. To meet this goal, we synthesized nanostructured heterogeneous semiconducting photoanodes with a higher light absorption efficiency compared to that of TiO2 and used a corrosion protective layer of TiO2. While the advantages of photoelectrochemical (PEC) production of hydrogen have not yet been realized, the recent developments show emergence of new nanostructural designs of photoanodes and choices of materials with significant gains in photoconversion efficiency.

  3. Complex research and qualification methods of cement products for the processing, accumulation and storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalinska, T.; Ostapenko, I.; Sakhno, V.

    2015-01-01

    INR (Ukrainian Institute for Nuclear Research) has developed an installation to assess the degradation of cements and concretes over accelerated time and in hard operating conditions involving mechanical and chemical effects, radiation, high temperatures, electric fields...This testing installation is called a reactionary chamber. The experimental data obtained during these tests characterize the product functionality in the stationary, transitional and emergency modes. These data allow the solving of the equation system representing the state of a product at a current moment of time and to determine its reactions to various external influences. An example is given through the testing of concrete containers that are intended to store radioactive waste

  4. Fertilization effects on forest carbon storage and exchange, and net primary production: A new hybrid process model for stand management

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. A. Sampson; R. H. Waring; C. A. Maier; C. M. Gough; M. J. Ducey; K. H. Johnsen

    2006-01-01

    A critical ecological question in plantation management is whether fertilization, which generally increases yield, results in enhanced C sequestration over short rotations. We present a rotation-length hybrid process model (SECRETS-3PG) that was calibrated (using control treatments; CW) and verified (using fertilized treatments; FW) using daily estimates of H

  5. Product prioritization in a two-stage food production system with intermediate storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2007-01-01

    In the food-processing industry, usually a limited number of storage tanks for intermediate storage is available, which are used for different products. The market sometimes requires extremely short lead times for some products, leading to prioritization of these products, partly through...... the performance improvements for the prioritized product, as well as the negative effects for the other products. We also show how the effect decreases with more storage tanks, and increases with more products....... the dedication of a storage tank. This type of situation has hardly been investigated, although planners struggle with it in practice. This paper aims at investigating the fundamental effect of prioritization and dedicated storage in a two-stage production system, for various product mixes. We show...

  6. Food Products Procurement, Receiving and Storage Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas Association of School Business Officials, Haysville.

    This guide is intended as a resource document for the beginner in food services and food purchasing. The publication is divided topically by (1) purchasing procedures, (2) specifications and evaluation, (3) sources for purchasing food products, (4) storage of food products and inventory procedures, (5) type of food service management, and (6)…

  7. General requirements applicable to the production, inspection, processing, packaging and storage of various types of waste resulting from the reprocessing of fuels irradiated in pressurized light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The Fundamental Safety Rules applicable to certain types of nuclear installation are intended to clarify the conditions of which observance, for the type of installation concerned and for the subject that they deal with, is considered as equivalent to compliance with regulatory French technical practice. These Rules should facilitate safety analysises and the clear understanding between persons interested in matters related to nuclear safety. They in no way reduce the operator's liability and pose no obstacle to statutory provisions in force. For any installation to which a Fundamental Safety Rule applies according to the foregoing paragraph, the operator may be relieved from application of the Rule if he shows proof that the safety objectives set by the Rule are attained by other means that he proposes within the framework of statutory procedures. Furthermore, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations reserves the right at all times to alter any Fundamental Safety Rule, as required, should it deem this necessary, while specifying the applicability conditions. This rule is intended to define the general provisions applicable to the production, inspection, processing, packaging and storage of the different types of wastes resulting from the reprocessing of fuels irradiated in a PWR

  8. Gas storage and processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the gas solidification processing performance in a gas storing and processing device for solidifying treatment of radioactive gaseous wastes (krypton 85) by ion injection method. Constitution: The device according to the present invention is constituted by disposing a coil connected with a magnetic field power source to the outer circumference of an outer cathode vessel, so that axial magnetic fields are formed to the inside of the outer cathode vessel. With such a device, thermoelectrons released from the thermocathode downwardly collide against gaseous radioactive wastes at high probability while moving spirally by the magnetic fields. The thus formed gas ions are solidified by sputtering in the cathode in the vessel. (Horiuchi, T.)

  9. Changes in carbon storage and oxygen production in forest timber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... treaties and processes, has shown itself around the world and in our country as the concept of planning and ... Key words: Carbon storage, oxygen production, forest management, geographic information systems, land cover change. .... biomass transformation factors developed for the forests in Turkey are ...

  10. Storage process of large solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Bruno; Thiery, Daniel.

    1976-01-01

    Process for the storage of large size solid radioactive waste, consisting of contaminated objects such as cartridge filters, metal swarf, tools, etc, whereby such waste is incorporated in a thermohardening resin at room temperature, after prior addition of at least one inert charge to the resin. Cross-linking of the resin is then brought about [fr

  11. Products - transport - storage; Produits - transports - stockages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-04-15

    9 articles are gathered in this data-sheet; they deal with LPG products, transport and storage. Blackmer offers a full line of LPG equipment for the transfer of propane, butane and anhydrous ammonia. Clesse Industries and Gas Equipment Company equip luxury hotels in Dubai and Abu Dhabi. Since 1975 the company FAS Flussiggas-Anlagen Gmbh, Salzgitter - Germany is one of the leading manufacturers of LPG equipment and components for mobile and stationary bulk plants in Europe. The main products are dispensers, pumps, Auto-gas filling stations, vaporizers, loading arms, electronic cylinder filling scales, flanged valves and safety equipment. FAS is certified with 2 process orientated management systems according to DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 and to PED - Module H1 - Category IV. The company supplies all products and services according to the Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC with CE-mark as well according to regulations ATEX, OIML, TUV, PTB... ECII Engineered Controls International/Rego USA is well known as a worldwide leader and designer/manufacturer of LPG and anhydrous ammonia equipment. The 10. of January Per Sture Jenssen retired from Ragasco A.S. Managing Director after 6 years in the company. Oyvind Hamre who has taken over from Mr. Jenssen, is 39 years of age and he has been 10 years with Ragasco, most recently as R and D Manager. Per Sture Jenssen will still be present in the company until summer 2005 to support during the transition. Corken has put in the market two new products: a new valve and a new pump. Impco Technologies announces completion of BRC acquisition. VOC reduction is a common discussion issue in almost all sectors of the oil business and beyond. Each industry sector has a different strategy towards this issue according to its perceived impact on the business. Although largely motivated by the need to satisfy national and international emission standards, the move towards reduction has encouraged equipment manufacturers to develop advanced

  12. Congener Production in Blood Samples During Preparation and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Søren; Nielsen, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone......Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone...

  13. Entropy, pricing and productivity of pumped-storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Tyralis, Hristos; Tzouka, Katerina

    2016-04-01

    Pumped-storage constitutes today a mature method of bulk electricity storage in the form of hydropower. This bulk electricity storability upgrades the economic value of hydropower as it may mitigate -or even neutralize- stochastic effects deriving from various geophysical and socioeconomic factors, which produce numerous load balance inefficiencies due to increased uncertainty. Pumped-storage further holds a key role for unifying intermittent renewable (i.e. wind, solar) units with controllable non-renewable (i.e. nuclear, coal) fuel electricity generation plants into integrated energy systems. We develop a set of indicators for the measurement of performance of pumped-storage, in terms of the latter's energy and financial contribution to the energy system. More specifically, we use the concept of entropy in order to examine: (1) the statistical features -and correlations- of the energy system's intermittent components and (2) the statistical features of electricity demand prediction deviations. In this way, the macroeconomics of pumped-storage emerges naturally from its statistical features (Karakatsanis et al. 2014). In addition, these findings are combined to actual daily loads. Hence, not only the amount of energy harvested from the pumped-storage component is expected to be important, but the harvesting time as well, as the intraday price of electricity varies significantly. Additionally, the structure of the pumped-storage market proves to be a significant factor as well for the system's energy and financial performance (Paine et al. 2014). According to the above, we aim at postulating a set of general rules on the productivity of pumped-storage for (integrated) energy systems. Keywords: pumped-storage, storability, economic value of hydropower, stochastic effects, uncertainty, energy systems, entropy, intraday electricity price, productivity References 1. Karakatsanis, Georgios et al. (2014), Entropy, pricing and macroeconomics of pumped-storage systems

  14. Production process of VE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This book tells of synopsis of production process of VE(value engineering), object selection method and establishment of target, collection of object information, design of function, write improvement suggestion, evaluation of improvement suggestion, all sorts of worksheets of production process of VE, explanation of IE, explanation of PERT.

  15. CNAEM waste processing and storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmanlioglu, A.E.; Kahraman, A.; Altunkaya, M.

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive waste in Turkey is generated from various applications. Radioactive waste management activities are carried out in a facility at Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center (CNAEM). This facility has been assigned to take all low-level radioactive wastes generated by nuclear applications in Turkey. The wastes are generated from research and nuclear applications mainly in medicine, biology, agriculture, quality control in metal processing and construction industries. These wastes are classified as low- level radioactive wastes and their activities are up to 10 -3 Ci/m 3 (except spent sealed sources). Chemical treatment and cementation of liquid radwaste, segregation and compaction of solid wastes and conditioning of spent sources are the main processing activities of this facility. A.so, analyses, registration, quality control and interim storage of conditioned low-level wastes are the other related activities of this facility. Conditioned wastes are stored in an interim storage building. All waste management activities, which have been carried out in CNAEM, are generally described in this paper. (author)

  16. Processed Products Database System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection of annual data on processed seafood products. The Division provides authoritative advice, coordination and guidance on matters related to the collection,...

  17. Radiation processed polysaccharide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Quoc Hien

    2007-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking, degradation and grafting techniques for modification of polymeric materials including natural polysaccharides have been providing many unique products. In this communication, typical products from radiation processed polysaccharides particularly plant growth promoter from alginate, plant protector and elicitor from chitosan, super water absorbent containing starch, hydrogel sheet containing carrageenan/CM-chitosan as burn wound dressing, metal ion adsorbent from partially deacetylated chitin were described. The procedures for producing those above products were also outlined. Future development works on radiation processing of polysaccharides were briefly presented. (author)

  18. Product and Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian T.; Gani, Rafiqul

    . These approaches are put into the context of life cycle modelling, where multiscale and multiform modelling is increasingly prevalent in the 21st century. The book commences with a discussion of modern product and process modelling theory and practice followed by a series of case studies drawn from a variety......This book covers the area of product and process modelling via a case study approach. It addresses a wide range of modelling applications with emphasis on modelling methodology and the subsequent in-depth analysis of mathematical models to gain insight via structural aspects of the models...... to biotechnology applications, food, polymer and human health application areas. The book highlights to important nature of modern product and process modelling in the decision making processes across the life cycle. As such it provides an important resource for students, researchers and industrial practitioners....

  19. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) : production, storage and handling. 7. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalra, S; Jaron, K; Adragna, M; Coyle, S; Foley, C; Hawryn, S; Martin, A; McConnell, J [eds.

    2003-07-01

    This Canadian Standard on the production, storage and handling of liquefied natural gas (LNG) was prepared by the Technical Committee on Liquefied Natural Gas under the jurisdiction of the Steering Committee on Oil and Gas Industry Systems and Materials. It establishes the necessary requirements for the design, installation and safe operation of LNG facilities. The Standard applies to the design, location, construction, operation and maintenance of facilities at any location of the liquefaction of natural gas and for the storage, vaporization, transfer, handling and truck transport of LNG. The training of personnel involved is also included as well as containers for LNG storage, including insulated vacuum systems. It includes non-mandatory guidelines for small LNG facilities but does not apply to the transportation of refrigerants, LNG by rail, marine vessel or pipeline. This latest edition contains changes in working of seismic design requirements and minor editorial changes to several clauses to bring the Standard closer to the US National Fire Protection Association's Committee on Liquefied Natural Gas Standard while maintaining Canadian regulatory requirements. The document is divided into 12 sections including: general requirements; plant site provisions; process equipment; stationary LNG storage containers; vaporization facilities; piping system and components; instrumentation and electrical services; transfer of LNG and refrigerants; fire protection, safety and security; and, operating, maintenance and personnel training. This Standard, like all Canadian Standards, was subject to periodic review and was most recently reaffirmed in 2003. 6 tabs., 6 figs., 3 apps.

  20. Development of climate data storage and processing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okladnikov, I. G.; Gordov, E. P.; Titov, A. G.

    2016-11-01

    We present a storage and processing model for climate datasets elaborated in the framework of a virtual research environment (VRE) for climate and environmental monitoring and analysis of the impact of climate change on the socio-economic processes on local and regional scales. The model is based on a «shared nothings» distributed computing architecture and assumes using a computing network where each computing node is independent and selfsufficient. Each node holds a dedicated software for the processing and visualization of geospatial data providing programming interfaces to communicate with the other nodes. The nodes are interconnected by a local network or the Internet and exchange data and control instructions via SSH connections and web services. Geospatial data is represented by collections of netCDF files stored in a hierarchy of directories in the framework of a file system. To speed up data reading and processing, three approaches are proposed: a precalculation of intermediate products, a distribution of data across multiple storage systems (with or without redundancy), and caching and reuse of the previously obtained products. For a fast search and retrieval of the required data, according to the data storage and processing model, a metadata database is developed. It contains descriptions of the space-time features of the datasets available for processing, their locations, as well as descriptions and run options of the software components for data analysis and visualization. The model and the metadata database together will provide a reliable technological basis for development of a high- performance virtual research environment for climatic and environmental monitoring.

  1. Production, storage, transporation and utilization of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, E.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is produced from water and it can be used for fuel. Water is formed again by combustion of hydrogen with oxygen in the air. Hydrogen is an ideal fuel because hydrogen itself and gases formed by the combustion of hydrogen are not greenhouse and ozone layer damaging gases. Therefore, hydrogen is the most environmental friendly fuel that we have ever had. Hydrogen gas does not naturally exist. Therefore, hydrogen must be produced from hydrogen containing compounds such as water and hydrocarbons by adding energy. At present, hydrogen is produced in large scale as a raw material for the synthesis of ammonia, methanol and other chemicals but not for fuel. In other words, hydrogen fuel has not been realized but will be actualized in the near future. In this paper hydrogen will be discussed as fuel which will be used for aircraft, space application, power generation, combustion, etc. Especially, production of hydrogen is a very important technology for achieving hydrogen energy systems. Storage, transportation and utilization of hydrogen fuel will also be discussed in this paper

  2. Plant storage proteins – the main nourisching products – from biosynthesis to cellular storage depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Chmielnicka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Storage proteins of legumes are one of the main components of the human and animal diet. The substances collected in their seeds have the pro-health values, supporting the prevention of many civilization diseases. However, there are still many uncertainties about the mechanisms leading to the production of nutritious seeds. It is also difficult to identify which of their constituents and in what final form are responsible for the observed protective effects in vivo. In this work, on the background of different types of storage proteins, these deposited mainly in legumes were in the focus of interest. They were characterized on the example of pea (Pisum sativum proteins. Mechanisms associated with their biosynthesis and transport to specific cellular compartments was presented. Ways of their post-translational processing, segregation and storage in the specific vacuoles were also discussed. Therefore, the paper presents the state-of-the-art knowledge concerning the processes making the accumulated protein deposits ready to use by plants, animals and humans.

  3. Hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this first Gedepeon workshop on hydrogen production processes are: to stimulate the information exchange about research programs and research advances in the domain of hydrogen production processes, to indicate the domains of interest of these processes and the potentialities linked with the coupling of a nuclear reactor, to establish the actions of common interest for the CEA, the CNRS, and eventually EDF, that can be funded in the framework of the Gedepeon research group. This document gathers the slides of the 17 presentations given at this workshop and dealing with: the H 2 question and the international research programs (Lucchese P.); the CEA's research program (Lucchese P., Anzieu P.); processes based on the iodine/sulfur cycle: efficiency of a facility - flow-sheets, efficiencies, hard points (Borgard J.M.), R and D about the I/S cycle: Bunsen reaction (Colette S.), R and D about the I/S cycle: the HI/I 2 /H 2 O system (Doizi D.), demonstration loop/chemical engineering (Duhamet J.), materials and corrosion (Terlain A.); other processes under study: the Westinghouse cycle (Eysseric C.), other processes under study at the CEA (UT3, plasma,...) (Lemort F.), database about thermochemical cycles (Abanades S.), Zn/ZnO cycle (Broust F.), H 2 production by cracking, high temperature reforming with carbon trapping (Flamant G.), membrane technology (De Lamare J.); high-temperature electrolysis: SOFC used as electrolyzers (Grastien R.); generic aspects linked with hydrogen production: technical-economical evaluation of processes (Werkoff F.), thermodynamic tools (Neveu P.), the reactor-process coupling (Aujollet P.). (J.S.)

  4. Storage effects on anthocyanins, phenolics and antioxidant activity of thermally processed conventional and organic blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamaladevi, Roopesh M; Andrews, Preston K; Davies, Neal M; Walters, Thomas; Sablani, Shyam S

    2012-03-15

    Consumer demand for products rich in phytochemicals is increasing as a result of greater awareness of their potential health benefits. However, processed products are stored for long-term and the phytochemicals are susceptible to degradation during storage. The objective of this study was to assess the storage effects on phytochemicals in thermally processed blueberries. Thermally processed canned berries and juice/puree were analysed for phytochemicals during their long-term storage. The phytochemical retention of thermally processed blueberries during storage was not influenced by production system (conventional versus organic). During 13 months of storage, total anthocyanins, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity in canned blueberry solids decreased by up to 86, 69 and 52% respectively. In canned blueberry syrup, total anthocyanins and total antioxidant activity decreased by up to 68 and 15% respectively, while total phenolic content increased by up to 117%. Similar trends in phytochemical content were observed in juice/puree stored for 4 months. The extent of changes in phytochemicals of thermally processed blueberries during storage was significantly influenced by blanching. Long-term storage of thermally processed blueberries had varying degrees of influence on degradation of total anthocyanins, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity. Blanching before thermal processing helped to preserve the phytochemicals during storage of blueberries. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Storage and executive processes in the frontal lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E E; Jonides, J

    1999-03-12

    The human frontal cortex helps mediate working memory, a system that is used for temporary storage and manipulation of information and that is involved in many higher cognitive functions. Working memory includes two components: short-term storage (on the order of seconds) and executive processes that operate on the contents of storage. Recently, these two components have been investigated in functional neuroimaging studies. Studies of storage indicate that different frontal regions are activated for different kinds of information: storage for verbal materials activates Broca's area and left-hemisphere supplementary and premotor areas; storage of spatial information activates the right-hemisphere premotor cortex; and storage of object information activates other areas of the prefrontal cortex. Two of the fundamental executive processes are selective attention and task management. Both processes activate the anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

  6. Radiation processing of food and allied products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

  7. Changes in carotenoids during processing and storage of pumpkin puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provesi, João Gustavo; Dias, Carolinne Odebrecht; Amante, Edna Regina

    2011-09-01

    Changes in the contents of carotenoids and their true retentions (% TR) during the production of puree of Cucurbita moschata 'Menina Brasileira' and of Cucurbita maxima 'Exposição' pumpkins and the stability of such compounds during 180days of storage were monitored by liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. Cooking caused higher losses than commercial sterilisation. High losses of xanthophylls such as lutein and violaxanthin were noted during processing and storage of pumpkin puree. Such losses show the low stability of these compounds. The major carotenoids, pro-vitamin A carotenes, namely, α-carotene and all-trans-β-carotene for C. moschata 'Menina Brasileira' and all-trans-β-carotene for C. maxima 'Exposição' obtained high retentions (>75%) after processing. A slight degree of isomerisation of β-carotene was noted in the puree samples, but with low concentrations of cis-isomers. Storage for 180days did not significantly affect (P⩽0.05) the concentrations of these carotenoids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. GAT 4 production and storage of hydrogen. Report July 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This paper concerns two aspects of the hydrogen: the production and the storage. For both parts the challenges and a state of the art are presented. It discusses also the hydrogen production by renewable energies, by solar energy, the hydrogen of hydrocarbons reforming purification, active phases development, thermal transfer simulation. Concerning the hydrogen storage the hydrogen adsorption by large surface solid, the storage by metallic hydrides, the alanates and light hydrides, the adsorption on carbon nano-tubes, the storage in nano-structures, the thermal and mechanical simulation of the hydrogen are presented. (A.L.B.)

  9. The Impact Of Optical Storage Technology On Image Processing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garges, Daniel T.; Durbin, Gerald T.

    1984-09-01

    The recent announcement of commercially available high density optical storage devices will have a profound impact on the information processing industry. Just as the initial introduction of random access storage created entirely new processing strategies, optical technology will allow dramatic changes in the storage, retrieval, and dissemination of engineering drawings and other pictorial or text-based documents. Storage Technology Corporation has assumed a leading role in this arena with the introduction of the 7600 Optical Storage Subsystem, and the formation of StorageTek Integrated Systems, a subsidiary chartered to incorporate this new technology into deliverable total systems. This paper explores the impact of optical storage technology from the perspective of a leading-edge manufacturer and integrator.

  10. Shipment and Storage Containers for Tritium Production Transportation Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, W.M.

    1998-04-01

    The need for a shipping and storage container for the Tritium production transportation casks is addressed in this report. It is concluded that a shipping and storage container is not required. A recommendation is made to eliminate the requirement for this container because structural support and inerting requirements can be satisfied completely by the cask with a removable basket

  11. Quality control in the storage of potatoes for industrial processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdijck, G.J.C.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2003-01-01

    A novel control structure for a potato storage facility is presented that is directly geared at the optimal preservation of product quality. The quality of the stored potatoes is defined as frying colour that depends on sugar concentration. The optimal storage conditions are estimated using models

  12. [Storage of plant protection products in farms: minimum safety requirements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, Moreno; Alfonzo, Santo; Rubbiani, Maristella

    2012-01-01

    Failure to comply with requirements for proper storage and use of pesticides in farms can be extremely hazardous and the risk of accidents involving farm workers, other persons and even animals is high. There are still wide differences in the interpretation of the concept of "securing or making safe", by workers in this sector. One of the critical points detected, particularly in the fruit sector, is the establishment of an adequate storage site for plant protection products. The definition of "safe storage of pesticides" is still unclear despite the recent enactment of Legislative Decree 81/2008 regulating health and work safety in Italy. In addition, there are no national guidelines setting clear minimum criteria for storage of plant protection products in farms. The authors, on the basis of their professional experience and through analysis of recent legislation, establish certain minimum safety standards for storage of pesticides in farms.

  13. Development of volatile compounds in processed cheese during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; Lund, Pia; Sørensen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work teas to study tire impact of storage conditions, such as light and temperature, on the development of volatile compounds to processed cheese. Cheese in glass containers was stored at 5, 20 or 37 degreesC in light or darkness for up to 1 yr. Dynamic headspace and gas...... chromatography/mass spectrometry leas used for quantifying 28 volatile organic compounds at eight stages during tree storage period. Through principal component analysis, three important storage parameters could be identified. Principal components 1, 2 and 3 reflected storage tinge, conditions of light...

  14. Enhancement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracheva, A. Yu.; Zav’yalov, M. A.; Ilyukhina, N. V.; Kukhto, V. A.; Tarasyuk, V. T.; Filippovich, V. P. [All-Russia Research Institute of Preservation Technology (Russian Federation); Egorkin, A. V.; Chasovskikh, A. V. [Research Institute of Technical Physics and Automation (Russian Federation); Pavlov, Yu. S., E-mail: rad05@bk.ru [Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Prokopenko, A. V., E-mail: pav14@mail.ru [National Research Nuclear University (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation); Strokova, N. E. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Artem’ev, S. A. [Russian Research Institute of Baking Industry (Russian Federation); Polyakova, S. P. [Russian Research Institute of Confectionery Industry (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The work is dedicated to improvement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies. International practice of radiation processing of food raw materials is presented and an increase in the consumption of irradiated food products is shown. The prospects of using radiation technologies for the processing of food products in Russia are discussed. The results of studies of radiation effects on various food products and packaging film by γ radiation and accelerated electrons are presented.

  15. Enhancement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracheva, A. Yu.; Zav’yalov, M. A.; Ilyukhina, N. V.; Kukhto, V. A.; Tarasyuk, V. T.; Filippovich, V. P.; Egorkin, A. V.; Chasovskikh, A. V.; Pavlov, Yu. S.; Prokopenko, A. V.; Strokova, N. E.; Artem’ev, S. A.; Polyakova, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    The work is dedicated to improvement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies. International practice of radiation processing of food raw materials is presented and an increase in the consumption of irradiated food products is shown. The prospects of using radiation technologies for the processing of food products in Russia are discussed. The results of studies of radiation effects on various food products and packaging film by γ radiation and accelerated electrons are presented.

  16. Advanced Photonic Processes for Photovoltaic and Energy Storage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygletou, Maria; Petridis, Constantinos; Kymakis, Emmanuel; Stratakis, Emmanuel

    2017-10-01

    Solar-energy harvesting through photovoltaic (PV) conversion is the most promising technology for long-term renewable energy production. At the same time, significant progress has been made in the development of energy-storage (ES) systems, which are essential components within the cycle of energy generation, transmission, and usage. Toward commercial applications, the enhancement of the performance and competitiveness of PV and ES systems requires the adoption of precise, but simple and low-cost manufacturing solutions, compatible with large-scale and high-throughput production lines. Photonic processes enable cost-efficient, noncontact, highly precise, and selective engineering of materials via photothermal, photochemical, or photophysical routes. Laser-based processes, in particular, provide access to a plethora of processing parameters that can be tuned with a remarkably high degree of precision to enable innovative processing routes that cannot be attained by conventional approaches. The focus here is on the application of advanced light-driven approaches for the fabrication, as well as the synthesis, of materials and components relevant to PV and ES systems. Besides presenting recent advances on recent achievements, the existing limitations are outlined and future possibilities and emerging prospects discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Petroleum product deparaffination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martynenko, A.G.; Dorodnova, V.S.; Korzhov, Yu.A.

    1980-12-23

    In the process for deparaffination of petroleum products (NP) by treatment of them with carbamide (KA) in the presence of an activator (AK) and solvent with subsequent separation of the forming paraffin-carbamide complex (PKC) the NP is mixed with the AK at a temperature of 5-40/sup 0/ in an NP:AK ratio of 1:0.01-0.03 with subsequent addition of portions of KA at a temperature of 5-20/sup 0/. The advantages of the process in comparison with the known one consists in the fact that the process of complex formation is realized practically without an induction period, and paraffin yield is increased by 27% on the potential with a simultaneous decrease in reagent consumption: KA by 20% and MeOH by 35%. Example -- 100 g of diesel fuel (a 200-360/sup 0/ fraction) is mixed with MeOH (1.3% on the feedstock), which in the obtained mixture is found in a liquid droplet state. To the mixture 40 g KA is added (2/3 of the total amount of KA to be added). The complex formation temperature is held at 35/sup 0/. To the PKC practically forming at once 260 g of solvent (an 85-120/sup 0/ gasoline fraction) and then 20 g KA are added. The temperature is held at 20/sup 0/. The forming suspension of the complex is distinguished by uniformity and the absence of coarse conglomerates. The paraffin yield amounts to 11.8% on the feedstock or 74% on the potential. The melting point of the paraffin is 22/sup 0/. In the described deparaffination scheme according to the proposed process complex formation is carried out in two steps; in a third step the suspension of KA and centrifuged paraffin is separated; the KA is returned to the complex formation reactor, and the centrifuged paraffin --- for solvent regeneration.

  18. Exergy efficient production, storage and distribution of solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandnes, Bjoernar

    2003-07-01

    There are two main themes in this thesis. 1) Exergy efficient utilization of solar energy, where the introduction of alternative technologies such as photovoltaic/thermal collectors and phase change energy storage in a low temperature solar system is investigated. 2) The possibility of storing thermal energy in supercooled liquids is investigated. The introductory chapters introduce the concept of exergy, and focus on the use of solar heat as an inherently low quality source for covering low quality demands associated with space heating and hot water. The different stages of solar energy production, storage, and distribution of heat is discussed, with emphasis on exergy relevant issues. With the low temperature solar heating system as background, the introduction of some additional technologies that are investigated. A section of this thesis presents a study of a small scale PV/T collector as a possible component in a low temperature system. In another section the instrumentation that has been built for studies of full-size PV and thermal systems is described, and the possibility of using the PV unit outputs as parameters for controlling the thermal system operation is briefly discussed. It is suggested that the design of the PV/T unit in terms of whether priority should be given to electricity or heat production should be based on how consumption of high quality auxiliary energy is minimized, and not on adding up the combined exergy which is being produced. Solar combisystems require larger heat storage capacities compared to the more common solar hot water systems. Increased volumetric heat storage capacity can be achieved by latent heat storage systems where thermal energy is stored as heat of fusion in phase change materials (PCMs). A section presents a study where spherically encapsulated PCM is incorporated in a solar heat store. Solar combisystems are often complex, and have a relatively large number of interacting components. Another section describes a

  19. Technoeconomic analysis of renewable hydrogen production, storage, and detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.; Kadam, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Technical and economic feasibility studies of different degrees of completeness and detail have been performed on several projects being funded by the Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. Work this year focused on projects at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, although analyses of projects at other institutions are underway or planned. Highly detailed analyses were completed on a fiber optic hydrogen leak detector and a process to produce hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis followed by steam reforming of the pyrolysis oil. Less detailed economic assessments of solar and biologically-based hydrogen production processes have been performed and focused on the steps that need to be taken to improve the competitive position of these technologies. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on all analyses to reveal the degree to which the cost results are affected by market changes and technological advances. For hydrogen storage by carbon nanotubes, a survey of the competing storage technologies was made in order to set a baseline for cost goals. A determination of the likelihood of commercialization was made for nearly all systems examined. Hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis and steam reforming was found to have significant economic potential if a coproduct option could be co-commercialized. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production may have economic potential, but only if low-cost cells can be modified to split water and to avoid surface oxidation. The use of bacteria to convert the carbon monoxide in biomass syngas to hydrogen was found to be slightly more expensive than the high end of currently commercial hydrogen, although there are significant opportunities to reduce costs. Finally, the cost of installing a fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detection system in passenger vehicles was found to be very low and competitive with alternative sensor systems.

  20. Effect of Processing and Storage on RBC function in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Allan; Spinella, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Red Blood Cell (RBC) transfusion is indicated to improve oxygen delivery to tissue, and for no other purpose. We have come to appreciate that donor RBCs are fundamentally altered during processing and storage, in a fashion that both impairs oxygen transport efficacy and introduces additional risk by perturbing both immune and coagulation systems. The protean biophysical and physiologic changes in RBC function arising from storage are termed the ‘storage lesion’; many have been understood for some time; for example, we know that the oxygen affinity of stored blood rises during the storage period1 and that intracellular allosteric regulators, notably 2,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid (DPG) and ATP, are depleted during storage. Our appreciation of other storage lesion features has emerged with improved understanding of coagulation, immune and vascular signaling systems. Herein we review key features of the ‘storage lesion’. Additionally, we call particular attention to the newly appreciated role of RBCs in regulating linkage between regional blood flow and regional O2 consumption by regulating the bioavailability of key vasoactive mediators in plasma, as well as discuss how processing and storage disturbs this key signaling function and impairs transfusion efficacy. PMID:22818545

  1. Capabilities for processing shipping casks at spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.H.; Arnett, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    Spent fuel is received at a storage facility in heavily shielded casks transported either by rail or truck. The casks are inspected, cooled, emptied, decontaminated, and reshipped. The spent fuel is transferred to storage. The number of locations or space inside the building provided to perform each function in cask processing will determine the rate at which the facility can process shipping casks and transfer spent fuel to storage. Because of the high cost of construction of licensed spent fuel handling and storage facilities and the difficulty in retrofitting, it is desirable to correctly specify the space required. In this paper, the size of the cask handling facilities is specified as a function of rate at which spent fuel is received for storage. The minimum number of handling locations to achieve a given throughput of shipping casks has been determined by computer simulation of the process. The simulation program uses a Monte Carlo technique in which a large number of casks are received at a facility with a fixed number of handling locations in each process area. As a cask enters a handling location, the time to process the cask at that location is selected at random from the distribution of process time. Shipping cask handling times are based on experience at the General Electric Storage Facility, Morris, Illinois. Shipping cask capacity is based on the most recent survey available of the expected capability of reactors to handle existing rail or truck casks

  2. The availability of processed fruit products and their contents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fruit, poverty and post-harvest losses due to lack of skills for processing and storage. The objectives of this research were to survey household consumption of foods especially processed fruit products in Nairobi, and analyze nutritional quality of processed fruit products. Three estates representing different income groups ...

  3. Corrosion in systems for storage and transportation of petroleum products and biofuels identification, monitoring and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Groysman, Alec

    2014-01-01

    This book treats corrosion as it occurs and affects processes in real-world situations, and thus points the way to practical solutions. Topics described include the conditions in which petroleum products are corrosive to metals; corrosion mechanisms of petroleum products; which parts of storage tanks containing crude oils and petroleum products undergo corrosion; dependence of corrosion in tanks on type of petroleum products; aggressiveness of petroleum products to polymeric material; how microorganisms take part in corrosion of tanks and pipes containing petroleum products; which corrosion monitoring methods are used in systems for storage and transportation of petroleum products; what corrosion control measures should be chosen; how to choose coatings for inner and outer surfaces of tanks containing petroleum products; and how different additives (oxygenates, aromatic solvents) to petroleum products and biofuels influence metallic and polymeric materials. The book is of interest to corrosion engineers, mat...

  4. Challenges of Women in Cassava Production and Processing: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information about cassava was sourced from friends (40.0%) often and they hardly use or see extension agent (70%) for research information on cassava production and processing. Despite the poor storage life of cassava, 80.5% of the respondents reported a poor knowledge on the possible ways of storage. The study ...

  5. Storage Process Improvement and An Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Özyörük, Bahar; Arslan, Gözde

    2015-01-01

    Abstract- The basic function of storehouses is volume and time management. Under present market conditions, businesses minimize cost and maximize profit by developing efficient material transportation methods. At a time when an infinite number of goods is produced and marketed, every second is valuable; especially in today’s economy and industry, the main goal is to minimize obstacles in production and management to increase profits, and to keep time losses and related financial    losses to ...

  6. General requirements applicable to the production, inspection, processing, packaging and storage of high activity wastes packed in glass form and resulting from the reprocessing of fuels irradiated in pressurized light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The Fundamental Safety Rules applicable to certain types of nuclear installation are intended to clarify the conditions of which observance, for the type of installation concerned and for the subject that they deal with, is considered as equivalent to compliance with regulatory French technical practice. These Rules should facilitate safety analysises and the clear understanding between persons interested in matters related to nuclear safety. They in no way reduce the operator's liability and pose no obstacle to statutory provisions in force. For any installation to which a Fundamental Safety Rule applies according to the foregoing paragraph, the operator may be relieved from application of the Rule if he shows proof that the safety objectives set by the Rule are attained by other means that he proposes within the framework of statutory procedures. Furthermore, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations reserves the right at all times to alter any Fundamental Safety Rule, as required, should it deem this necessary, while specifying the applicability conditions. This rule is intended to define the general provisions applicable to the production, inspection, processing, packaging and storage of wastes, resulting from the reprocessing of fuels irradiated in a PWR, packaged in the form of glass

  7. Spent fuel storage process equipment development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Jae Sol; Yoo, Jae Hyung

    1990-02-01

    Nuclear energy which is a major energy source of national energy supply entails spent fuels. Spent fuels which are high level radioactive meterials, are tricky to manage and need high technology. The objectives of this study are to establish and develop key elements of spent fuel management technologies: handling equipment and maintenance, process automation technology, colling system, and cleanup system. (author)

  8. Products by Glycation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Ortega

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of sweet and acid whey products were incremented by polymerization of their proteins by glycation of whey protein concentrates (WPC and their hydrolyzates (WPCH with ribose and glucose in individual experiments under similar concentration. Heating at 50°C during 20 h maximum and pH 7 and pH 9 were used in all tests. The higher activity was found in WPC glycosylates products with ribose at pH 7 and heating during 10–15 h. In comparable form, antioxidant activity in WPCH was incremented by prior hydrolysis to glycation with 25–45% of hydrolysis degree. Further functional properties of whey proteins (solubility, emulsion, and foam were also improved by the polymerization with ribose. The color of polymerized products due to Maillard reactions was associated with antioxidant activity of each compound; however comparative color in glycosylates products with glucose and ribose did not show this effect.

  9. The production and storage of ultracold neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiki, Hajime [Kure University, Hiroshima (Japan); Shimizu, Hirohiko; Sakai, Kenji [and others

    1998-01-01

    The electric dipole measurement done on the ultracold neutron till now shows that its quantity is minute, not more than 10{sup -25}e.cm. It is purpose of this particular research program to produce such very slow neutrons, or so-cold ultracold neutrons in great quantity. Then, it was investigated what was the ultracold neutron important for, how is the ultracold neutron made, and how is very pure superfluid liquid helium made. As a result of these investigations, it was found that the validity of ultracold neutron production by superfluid liquid helium was established, that its efficiency is high enough to improve the neutron electric dipole moment detection sensitivity by at least one order of magnitude, and so forth. (G.K.)

  10. Acrylamide in processed potato products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace amounts of acrylamide are found in many foods cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide in processed potato products is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine and is a product of the Maillard reaction. Processed potato products including fries and chips are relatively high in acrylamide comp...

  11. A method to determine stratification efficiency of thermal energy storage processes independently from storage heat losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haller, M.Y.; Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Andersen, Elsa

    2010-01-01

    process is in agreement with the first law of thermodynamics. A comparison of the stratification efficiencies obtained from experimental results of charging, standby, and discharging processes gives meaningful insights into the different mixing behaviors of a storage tank that is charged and discharged......A new method for the calculation of a stratification efficiency of thermal energy storages based on the second law of thermodynamics is presented. The biasing influence of heat losses is studied theoretically and experimentally. Theoretically, it does not make a difference if the stratification...

  12. On the Law Relating Processing to Storage in Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Portrat, Sophie; Camos, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    "Working memory" is usually defined in cognitive psychology as a system devoted to the simultaneous processing and maintenance of information. However, although many models of working memory have been put forward during the last decades, they often leave underspecified the dynamic interplay between processing and storage. Moreover, the account of…

  13. In-Storage Embedded Accelerator for Sparse Pattern Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Sang-Woo; Nguyen, Huy T.; Gadepally, Vijay N.; Arvind

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel architecture for sparse pattern processing, using flash storage with embedded accelerators. Sparse pattern processing on large data sets is the essence of applications such as document search, natural language processing, bioinformatics, subgraph matching, machine learning, and graph processing. One slice of our prototype accelerator is capable of handling up to 1TB of data, and experiments show that it can outperform C/C++ software solutions on a 16-core system at a fracti...

  14. Implementation of heat production and storage technology and devices in power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovsky, G.; Mutale, J.

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of heat storage devices and technologies at power generation plants is a promising way to provide more efficient use of natural energy resources. Heat storage devices can partly replace conventional heating technologies (such as direct use of fossil fuels) during peak energy demand or in the situations where heat and electricity supply and demand do not coincide and to obtain low cost heat energy which can be further transmitted to industrial, commercial and domestic consumers. This paper presents the innovative Heat Production and Storage Device and its application at conventional, nuclear and renewable power generation plants for optimization and balancing of electricity grids. The Heat Production and Storage Device is a vessel type induction-immersion heat production and storage device which produces pre-heated water under pressure for heat energy conservation. Operation of this device is based on simultaneous and/or sequential action of an inductor and an immersion heater and can be easily connected to the electricity network as a single or a three phase unit. Heat energy accumulated by the Heat Production and Storage Device can be utilized in different industrial technological processes during periods of high energy prices. - Highlights: ► Heat Production and Storage Device for energy conservation within low load hours. ► Simultaneous and/or sequential operation of the inductor and immersion heater. ► Transform the energy of low frequency electrical current (50 Hz) into heat energy. ► Connection to the electricity network either in single or three phase unit. ► Heat Production and Storage Device will enhance the economic value of the system.

  15. Production of heterologous storage polysaccharides in potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.; Vincken, J.P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Trindade, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Starch is the most important storage polysaccharide in higher plants. This polysaccharide is used in many industrial applications as it is abundant, renewable and biodegradable and it can be modified into a wide range of products used in food, animal feed, pharmaceuticals and industry. With the

  16. Shipment and Storage Containers for Tritium Production Transportation Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, W.M.

    1998-01-01

    A shipping and storage container for the Tritium production transportation casks may be required but requirements for protection of the irradiated rods and radioactive contamination have not been finalized. This report documents the various possibilities for the container depending on the final requirements

  17. Sensible production processes with electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eerola, P.; Annala, T.; Wickstroem, T. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    Small and medium-sized industrial enterprises use electricity increasingly for both heating and production, as electricity offers easy adjustability and has little need for maintenance. In production processes, the advantages of electricity also include uniform quality, automation and cleanness

  18. Establishing a central waste processing and storage facility in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, E.T.; Fletcher, J.J.; Darko, E.O.

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive waste and spent sealed sources in Ghana are generated from various nuclear applications - diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in medicine, measurement and processing techniques in industry, irradiation techniques for food preservation and sterilization of medical products and a research reactor for research and teaching. Statistics available indicate that over 15 institutions in Ghana are authorized to handle radiation sources. At present radioactive waste and spent sealed sources are collected and stored in the interim facility without conditioning. With the increasing use of radioactive sources in the industry, medicine for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose and research and teaching, the volume of waste is expected to increase. The radioactive waste expected include spent ion exchange resins from the nuclear reactor water purification system, incompactible solid waste from mechanical filter, liquid and organic waste and spent sealed sources. It is estimated that four 200L drums will be needed annually to condition the waste to be generated. The National Radioactive Waste Management Centre (NRWMC) was therefore established to carry radioactive waste safety operations in Ghana and research to ensure that each waste type is managed in the most appropriate manner. Its main task includes development and establishment of the radioactive waste management infrastructure with a capacity considering the future nuclear technology development in Ghana. The first phase covers the establishment of administrative structure, development of basic regulations and construction of the radioactive waste processing and storage facility. The Ghana Radioactive Waste Management regulation has been presented to the Parliament of Ghana for consideration. The initial draft was reviewed by the RPB. A 3-day national seminar on the Understanding and Implementation of the Regulation on Radioactive Waste Management in Ghana was held to discuss and educate the general public on the

  19. Automation in a material processing/storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, K.; Gordon, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently developing a new facility, the Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility (APSF), to process and store legacy materials from the United States nuclear stockpile. A variety of materials, with a variety of properties, packaging and handling/storage requirements, will be processed and stored at the facility. Since these materials are hazardous and radioactive, automation will be used to minimize worker exposure. Other benefits derived from automation of the facility include increased throughput capacity and enhanced security. The diversity of materials and packaging geometries to be handled poses challenges to the automation of facility processes. In addition, the nature of the materials to be processed underscores the need for safety, reliability and serviceability. The application of automation in this facility must, therefore, be accomplished in a rational and disciplined manner to satisfy the strict operational requirements of the facility. Among the functions to be automated are the transport of containers between process and storage areas via an Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV), and various processes in the Shipping Package Unpackaging (SPU) area, the Accountability Measurements (AM) area, the Special Isotope Storage (SIS) vault and the Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) vault. Other areas of the facility are also being automated, but are outside the scope of this paper

  20. Crystallization study of a glass used for fission product storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morlevat, J.-P.; Uny, Gisele; Jacquet-Francillon, Noel.

    1981-06-01

    The vitreous matrix used in France is a borosilicate glass of low melting point allowing introduction of volatil fission products and of good chemical stability. However, like any glass, if storage temperature is higher than transformation temperature a partial crystallization can occur. Before final storage, it is important to determine of leaching by water eventually occuring on the choosen site is modified by crystalline phases. The aim of this study is the determination of the leaching rate and the identification of crystalline phases formed during thermal treatment and evaluation of its volumic fraction [fr

  1. Proteolysis in salmon ( Salmo salar ) during cold storage : Effects of storage time and smoking process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, K.E.; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2001-01-01

    Changes in free amino acids (FAAs), small peptides and myofibrillar proteins were investigated in salmon (Salmo salar) muscle stored at OC for up to 23 days and after the stored salmon was smoked. Storage time and smoking process did not increase the formation of FAAs and small peptides indicating...

  2. Assessing Process and Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The final assessment of a course must reflect its goals, and contents. An important goal of our introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach for the development of computer programs. Having the programming process as learning objective naturally raises the ques...

  3. Hydrogen production and storage: R & D priorities and gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-04

    This review of priorities and gaps in hydrogen production and storage R & D has been prepared by the IEA Hydrogen Implementing Agreement in the context of the activities of the IEA Hydrogen Co-ordination Group. It includes two papers. The first is by Trygve Riis, Elisabet F. Hagen, Preben J.S. Vie and Oeystein Ulleberg. This offers an overview of the technologies for hydrogen production. The technologies discussed are reforming of natural gas; gasification of coal and biomass; and the splitting of water by water-electrolysis, photo-electrolysis, photo-biological production and high-temperature decomposition. The second paper is by Trygve Riis, Gary Sandrock, Oeystein Ulleberg and Preben J.S. Vie. The objective of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the possible hydrogen storage options available today and in the foreseeable future. Hydrogen storage can be considered for onboard vehicular, portable, stationary, bulk, and transport applications, but the main focus of this paper is on vehicular storage, namely fuel cell or ICE/electric hybrid vehicles. 7 refs., 24 figs., 14 tabs.

  4. Impact of bioenergy production on carbon storage and soil functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prays, Nadia; Franko, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    An important renewable energy source is methane produced in biogas plants (BGPs) that convert plant material and animal excrements to biogas and a residue (BGR). If the plant material stems from crops produced specifically for that purpose, a BGP have a 'footprint' that is defined by the area of arable land needed for the production of these energy crops and the area for distributing the BGRs. The BGR can be used to fertilize these lands (reducing the need for carbon and nitrogen fertilizers), and the crop land can be managed to serve as a carbon sink, capturing atmospheric CO2. We focus on the ecological impact of different BGPs in Central Germany, with a specific interest in the long-term effect of BGR-fertilization on carbon storage within the footprint of a BGP. We therefore studied nutrient fluxes using the CANDY (CArbon and Nitrogen Dynamics) model, which processes site-specific information on soils, crops, weather, and land management to compute stocks and fluxes of carbon and nitrogen for agricultural fields. We used CANDY to calculated matter fluxes within the footprints of BGPs of different sizes, and studied the effect of the substrate mix for the BGP on the carbon dynamics of the soil. This included the land requirement of the BGR recycling when used as a fertilizer: the footprint of a BGP required for the production of the energy crop generally differs from its footprint required to take up its BGR. We demonstrate how these findings can be used to find optimal cropping choices and land management for sustainable soil use, maintaining soil fertility and other soil functions. Furthermore, site specific potentials and limitations for agricultural biogas production can be identified and applied in land-use planning.

  5. Algae biotechnology: products and processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bux, F; Chisti, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    This book examines the utilization of algae for the development of useful products and processes with the emphasis towards green technologies and processes, and the requirements to make these viable...

  6. Production of aflatoxins during storage of gamma-irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behere, A.G.; Sharma, A.; Padwaldesai, S.R.; Nadkarni, G.B.

    1978-01-01

    A correlation between relative humidity (RH) during storage and moisture content was obtained in wheat subjected to gamma irradiation at 20 krad. The samples were assessed for storage up to 6 months with and without artificial loading of grains with conidia of Aspergillus flavus. The mycotoxin production seemed to be determined by a critical level of moisture in the grain (13%) at RH over 80% at 28 0 +- 2 0 C. The total aflatoxin produced in the irradiated grains was observed to be lower than in the unirradiated controls. The amount of toxin contained in grains, artificially infected with A. flavus before or after irradiation, did not show appreciable differences. The results, while defining the storage conditions with reference to humidity, did not indicate any alterations in wheat relating to aflatoxin producing potential

  7. Comparison of biohydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manish, S.; Banerjee, Rangan

    2008-01-01

    For hydrogen to be a viable energy carrier, it is important to develop hydrogen generation routes that are renewable like biohydrogen. Hydrogen can be produced biologically by biophotolysis (direct and indirect), photo-fermentation and dark-fermentation or by combination of these processes (such as integration of dark- and photo-fermentation (two-stage process), or biocatalyzed electrolysis, etc.). However, production of hydrogen by these methods at commercial level is not reported in the literature and challenges regarding the process scale up remain. In this scenario net energy analysis (NEA) can provide a tool for establishing the viability of different methods before scaling up. The analysis can also be used to set targets for various process and design parameters for bio-hydrogen production. In this paper, four biohydrogen production processes (dark-fermentation, photo-fermentation, two-stage process and biocatalyzed electrolysis) utilizing sugarcane juice as the carbon source, are compared with base case method steam methane reforming (SMR) on the basis of net energy ratio, energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It was found that when by-products are not considered, the efficiencies of biological hydrogen processes are lower than that of SMR. However, these processes reduce GHG emissions and non-renewable energy use by 57-73% and 65-79%, respectively, as compared to the SMR process. Efficiencies of biohydrogen processes increase significantly when by-products are considered hence by-products removal and utilization is an important issue in biological hydrogen production. (author)

  8. Electricity storage by gas pumping. An introduction to thermodynamic storage processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruer, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    To date, Pumped Hydro Storage (PHS) is practically the only technology used to store large quantities of electricity. There are however other ways to achieve the same goal. There are not yet well known, because the interest for large scale storage is quite new A complete family of storage technologies can be defined as 'Thermodynamic Storage Systems'. Their only common factor is that a gas is pumped and expanded in the process. If the gas is air taken from the atmosphere and discharged to it, the system is said 'an open system'. This is already developed in the form of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). Different embodiments are possible, following the way the heat gene - rated during the compression stage is conserved. The compressed air is generally stored in underground caverns created in deep salt formations. 2 installations are presently operating and many projects are envisaged. if the gas circulates in closed loop within the plant, the system is said 'a closed system' In this case, the energy is stored as heat and/or cold at different temperature levels. A great variety of technologies can be imagined and are under development, using different gases (e.g. argon, CO 2 ) and different temperature ranges. PHS and CAES require specific sites for water reservoirs or underground caverns. The dosed systems can be installed basically anywhere. (author)

  9. NASA Product Peer Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's product peer review process. The contents include: 1) Inspection/Peer Review at NASA; 2) Reasons for product peer reviews; 3) Different types of peer reviews; and 4) NASA requirements for peer reviews. This presentation also includes a demonstration of an actual product peer review.

  10. 21 CFR 864.9900 - Cord blood processing system and storage container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cord blood processing system and storage container. 864.9900 Section 864.9900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That...

  11. Development of optimum process for electron beam cross-linking of high density polyethylene thermal energy storage pellets, process scale-up and production of application qualities of material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, I. O.

    1980-01-01

    The electron irradiation conditions required to prepare thermally from stable high density polyethylene (HDPE) were defined. The conditions were defined by evaluating the heat of fusion and the melting temperature of several HDPE specimens. The performance tests conducted on the specimens, including the thermal cycling tests in the thermal energy storage unit are described. The electron beam irradiation tests performed on the specimens, in which the total radiation dose received by the pellets, the electron beam current, the accelerating potential, and the atmospheres were varied, are discussed.

  12. Petroleum storage tank cleaning using commercial microbial culture products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, D.R.; Entzeroth, L.C.; Timmis, A.; Whiteside, A.; Hoskins, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    The removal of paraffinic bottom accumulations from refinery storage tanks represents an increasingly costly area of petroleum storage management. Microorganisms can be used to reduce paraffinic bottoms by increasing the solubility of bottom material and by increasing the wax-carrying capacity of carrier oil used in the cleaning process. The economic savings of such treatments are considerable. The process is also intrinsically safer than alternative methods, as it reduces and even eliminates the need for personnel to enter the tank during the cleaning process. Both laboratory and field sample analyses can be used to document changes in tank material during the treatment process. These changes include increases in volatile content and changes in wax distribution. Several case histories illustrating these physical and chemical changes are presented along with the economics of treatment.

  13. Very-long-term storage of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.; Pradel, J.; Cousin, O.

    The large majority of the fission products, with 99.9 percent of the radioactivity content, do not pose actual problems in storage in a geological formation for which we can guarantee total confinement. Safety of storage in a geological formation for the radionuclides of long half-life is based in particular on the absorption capacity of the geological formations and the example of the Oklo fossil reactor and the retention of Pu which is produced is a striking example. But the problems are not the same, and the properties that we look for in the terrain are not the same. We could thus be led to storage in different geological formations for the fission products and the long-half-life emitters. Their separation is interesting from this point of view, but the date at which the separation is made will not be necessarily that of reprocessing. But there is a question of one or the other, and these storages will offer a very high level of insurance and will present only the potential hazards that are very comparable with those presented by natural conditions

  14. Simulation of Mechanical Processes in Gas Storage Caverns for Short-Term Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Norbert; Nagel, Thomas; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, Germany's energy management has started to be transferred from fossil fuels to renewable and sustainable energy carriers. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power are subjected by fluctuations, thus the development and extension of energy storage capacities is a priority in German R&D programs. This work is a part of the ANGUS+ Project, funded by the federal ministry of education and research, which investigates the influence of subsurface energy storage on the underground. The utilization of subsurface salt caverns as a long-term storage reservoir for fossil fuels is a common method, since the construction of caverns in salt rock is inexpensive in comparison to solid rock formations due to solution mining. Another advantage of evaporate as host material is the self-healing behaviour of salt rock, thus the cavity can be assumed to be impermeable. In the framework of short-term energy storage (hours to days), caverns can be used as gas storage reservoirs for natural or artificial fuel gases, such as hydrogen, methane, or compressed air, where the operation pressures inside the caverns will fluctuate more frequently. This work investigates the influence of changing operation pressures at high frequencies on the stability of the host rock of gas storage caverns utilizing numerical models. Therefore, we developed a coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) model based on the finite element method utilizing the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. The salt behaviour is described by well-known constitutive material models which are capable of predicting creep, self-healing, and dilatancy processes. Our simulations include the thermodynamic behaviour of gas storage process, temperature development and distribution on the cavern boundary, the deformation of the cavern geometry, and the prediction of the dilatancy zone. Based on the numerical results, optimal operation modes can be found for individual caverns, so the risk of host rock damage

  15. Description of a Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex for the Hanford Site's radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, D.H.; Wolfe, B.A.; Hoertkorn, T.R.

    1993-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site has changed from defense nuclear materials production to that of waste management/disposal and environmental restoration. ne Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex (MPSC) is being designed to process discarded waste tank internal hardware contaminated with mixed wastes, failed melters from the vitrification plant, and other Hanford Site high-level solid waste. The MPSC also will provide interim storage of other radioactive materials (irradiated fuel, canisters of vitrified high-level waste [HLW], special nuclear material [SNM], and other designated radioactive materials)

  16. Hydrogen production using plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.; Whidden, T.K.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma processing is a promising method of extracting hydrogen from natural gas while avoiding the greenhouse gas (GHG) production typical of other methods such as steam methane reforming. This presentation describes a plasma discharge process based that, in a single reactor pass, can yield hydrogen concentrations of up to 50 % by volume in the product gas mixture. The process is free of GHG's, does not require catalysts and is easily scalable. Chemical and morphological analyses of the gaseous and solid products of the process by gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry, microscopic Raman analyses and electron microscopy respectively are reviewed. The direct production of hydrogen-enriched natural gas (HENG) as a fuel for low pollution internal combustion engines and its purification to high-purity hydrogen (99.99%) from the product gas by pressure swing adsorption (PSA) purifier beds are reviewed. The presentation reviews potential commercial applications for the technology

  17. PIMS: Memristor-Based Processing-in-Memory-and-Storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeanine

    2018-02-01

    Continued progress in computing has augmented the quest for higher performance with a new quest for higher energy efficiency. This has led to the re-emergence of Processing-In-Memory (PIM) ar- chitectures that offer higher density and performance with some boost in energy efficiency. Past PIM work either integrated a standard CPU with a conventional DRAM to improve the CPU- memory link, or used a bit-level processor with Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) control, but neither matched the energy consumption of the memory to the computation. We originally proposed to develop a new architecture derived from PIM that more effectively addressed energy efficiency for high performance scientific, data analytics, and neuromorphic applications. We also originally planned to implement a von Neumann architecture with arithmetic/logic units (ALUs) that matched the power consumption of an advanced storage array to maximize energy efficiency. Implementing this architecture in storage was our original idea, since by augmenting storage (in- stead of memory), the system could address both in-memory computation and applications that accessed larger data sets directly from storage, hence Processing-in-Memory-and-Storage (PIMS). However, as our research matured, we discovered several things that changed our original direc- tion, the most important being that a PIM that implements a standard von Neumann-type archi- tecture results in significant energy efficiency improvement, but only about a O(10) performance improvement. In addition to this, the emergence of new memory technologies moved us to propos- ing a non-von Neumann architecture, called Superstrider, implemented not in storage, but in a new DRAM technology called High Bandwidth Memory (HBM). HBM is a stacked DRAM tech- nology that includes a logic layer where an architecture such as Superstrider could potentially be implemented.

  18. New energy storage systems for photovoltaic supplied consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burges, K.; Blok, K.

    1993-12-01

    In a previous study attention was paid to the possibility of reducing battery wastes in the Netherlands by means of integration of photovoltaic (PV) cells in small, electric consumer products. The result of that study was that only two environment-friendly applications could be used: capacitors in calculators or watches. However, new types of energy storage systems have been developed and commercialized, so that the above-mentioned study is updated. First, the technical, economic and environmental parameters of several energy storage systems are compared. Next, a number of products, in which PV-cells can be integrated, has been selected and the economic and environmental effects are calculated and analyzed. The energy storage systems discussed are primary alkaline batteries, NiCd batteries, Ni-Metal-Hydride (NiMH) batteries, Li-Solid-State (LiSS) batteries, and capacitors. It is estimated that by means of the proposed integration of PV-cells in specific consumer products the amount of battery wastes can be reduced by 50%. 33 tabs., 1 appendix, 50 refs

  19. Storage and production of hydrogen for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Rita

    The increased utilization of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as an alternative to internal combustion engines is expected to increase the demand for hydrogen, which is used as the energy source in these systems. The objective of this work is to develop and test new methods for the storage and production of hydrogen for fuel cells. Six ligand-stabilized hydrides were synthesized and tested as hydrogen storage media for use in portable fuel cells. These novel compounds are more stable than classical hydrides (e.g., NaBH4, LiAlH4) and react to release hydrogen less exothermically upon hydrolysis with water. Three of the compounds produced hydrogen in high yield (88 to 100 percent of the theoretical) and at significantly lower temperatures than those required for the hydrolysis of NaBH4 and LiAlH4. However, a large excess of water and acid were required to completely wet the hydride and keep the pH of the reaction medium neutral. The hydrolysis of the classical hydrides with steam can overcome these limitations. This reaction was studied in a flow reactor and the results indicate that classical hydrides can be hydrolyzed with steam in high yields at low temperatures (110 to 123°C) and in the absence of acid. Although excess steam was required, the pH of the condensed steam was neutral. Consequently, steam could be recycled back to the reactor. Production of hydrogen for large-scale transportation fuel cells is primarily achieved via the steam reforming, partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of natural gas or the steam reforming of methanol. However, in all of these processes CO is a by-product that must be subsequently removed because the Pt-based electrocatalyst used in the fuel cells is poisoned by its presence. The direct cracking of methane over a Ni/SiO2 catalyst can produce CO-free hydrogen. In addition to hydrogen, filamentous carbon is also produced. This material accumulates on the catalyst and eventually deactivates it. The Ni/SiO2 catalyst

  20. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  1. Process for synthesis of ammonia borane for bulk hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autrey, S Thomas [West Richland, WA; Heldebrant, David J [Richland, WA; Linehan, John C [Richland, WA; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J [Richland, WA; Zheng, Feng [Richland, WA

    2011-03-01

    The present invention discloses new methods for synthesizing ammonia borane (NH.sub.3BH.sub.3, or AB). Ammonium borohydride (NH.sub.4BH.sub.4) is formed from the reaction of borohydride salts and ammonium salts in liquid ammonia. Ammonium borohydride is decomposed in an ether-based solvent that yields AB at a near quantitative yield. The AB product shows promise as a chemical hydrogen storage material for fuel cell powered applications.

  2. Development of Processed Products from Guapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita Acevedo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to develop processed products from guapple. Characterization of the guapple fruit was intially conducted before proceeding to formulation studies.The following characteristics of the guapple fruit were observed: color of outer skin - yellow green with Munsell notation of 10 Y7/6, color of inner flesh - off white with Munsell notation of 7.5Y 8/2; texture, 20.4-37.1 mm; average weight per piece, from 219 to 420 gms; ph, 3.7; titrable acidity (citric acid, 0.34%, and soluble solids, 2.6° Brix.The identified processed products from guapple were puree, pickles, and preserves. Standardized processes and formulations for each of these products were developed in semi-pilot scale. Removal of the skin for the guapple preserves and pickles was facilitated using 5% brine-l % CaCI2.Suitable packaging materials were also identified. Flexible films were used for guapple puree while glass jars and flexible films were found to be satisfactory both for guapple pickles and preserves.Physico-chemical, microbiological, and sensory evaluation were done after two months of storage. Based on these tests, the pasteurization process of 180° F for 20 minutes for puree and 10 minutes for preserves and pickles, was found to make the products commercially sterile.

  3. Mycoflora and mycotoxin production in oilseed cakes during farm storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Caroline; Heutte, Natacha; Richard, Estelle; Bouchart, Valerie; Lebailly, Pierre; Garon, David

    2009-02-25

    Agricultural activities involve the use of oilseed cakes as a source of proteins for livestock. Because the storage of oilseed cakes could induce the development of molds and the production of mycotoxins, a survey was conducted during the 5 months of farm storage. Mycoflora was studied by microscopic examinations, and the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. A multimycotoxin method was developed to quantify seven mycotoxins (aflatoxin B(1), alternariol, fumonisin B(1), gliotoxin, ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone) in oilseed cakes by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Among 34 fungal species identified, A. fumigatus and Aspergillus repens were observed during 5 and 4 months, respectively. Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was quantified in oilseed cakes up to 45 microg/kg, which was associated with the presence of toxigenic isolates of A. fumigatus.

  4. Production and storage stability of non alcoholic banana beverage powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugula, J K; Lyimo, M H; Kessy, F L

    1994-02-01

    Powder for an instant, non-alcoholic beverage formulation was manufactured by sundrying and ovendrying of a popular dessert ('silk') banana variety. The reconstituted beverage was organoleptically acceptable. The effect of traditional sundrying on mats and ovendrying methods on product quality was investigated. Sundrying resulted in losses of Vitamin A, C and total sugar contents by 74, 91 and 63%, while ovendrying losses were 73, 90 and 62%, respectively. Nutrient losses during storage for three months in transparent polythene bags reached 93, 93 and 70% in sundried samples and 84, 99 and 55% in ovendried samples, respectively. The moisture content of sundried and ovendried samples increased by 12 and 17%, respectively, during storage. The increase in microbial load in this period was higher in sundried samples.

  5. Engineering study: disposition of terminal liquors for interim storage. [Eight alternative processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1975-02-01

    Eight alternative processes were chosen as being technologically feasible within the time frame dictated by budgeting procedures and terminal liquor availability. Solidified waste products acceptable for single-shell tank storage were assumed to be placed in available single-shell tanks. Double-shell tanks were used only for the more mobile terminal liquors or semi-solid mush products. The mush, chemical neutralization, and clay in-tank processes offer potential savings of tens of millions of dollars over double-shell tank storage of terminal liquors. In order to achieve this cost savings, the process development and demonstration must be completed prior to the beginning of double-shell tank construction (Dec. 1976) expected to be funded from a fiscal year 1977 line item. Budgeting for these additional double-shell tanks must proceed since the processing options discussed here are not yet available and may not prove to be available at the required time. This study indicates the following topics for additional study: Process technology development to achieve interim storage of terminal liquor products receives the greatest emphasis as a means of reducing capital expenditures. Interim storage product criteria, waste inventory, and conversion to final form require definition to allow comparison of the alternatives for disposition of terminal liquors. The pseudotechnical nature of product acceptability criteria is important to the evaluation of the partial neutralization and aluminum removal alternatives. More accurate estimates of terminal liquor quantity and composition are required to give a sound technical basis for choosing the appropriate processing alternative. Retrieval and reprocessing operations may affect the comparisons presented by this study. (DLC)

  6. Seasonal energy storage using bioenergy production from abandoned croplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott Campbell, J; Zumkehr, Andrew; Lobell, David B; Genova, Robert C; Field, Christopher B

    2013-01-01

    Bioenergy has the unique potential to provide a dispatchable and carbon-negative component to renewable energy portfolios. However, the sustainability, spatial distribution, and capacity for bioenergy are critically dependent on highly uncertain land-use impacts of biomass agriculture. Biomass cultivation on abandoned agriculture lands is thought to reduce land-use impacts relative to biomass production on currently used croplands. While coarse global estimates of abandoned agriculture lands have been used for large-scale bioenergy assessments, more practical technological and policy applications will require regional, high-resolution information on land availability. Here, we present US county-level estimates of the magnitude and distribution of abandoned cropland and potential bioenergy production on this land using remote sensing data, agriculture inventories, and land-use modeling. These abandoned land estimates are 61% larger than previous estimates for the US, mainly due to the coarse resolution of data applied in previous studies. We apply the land availability results to consider the capacity of biomass electricity to meet the seasonal energy storage requirement in a national energy system that is dominated by wind and solar electricity production. Bioenergy from abandoned croplands can supply most of the seasonal storage needs for a range of energy production scenarios, regions, and biomass yield estimates. These data provide the basis for further down-scaling using models of spatially gridded land-use areas as well as a range of applications for the exploration of bioenergy sustainability. (letter)

  7. Storage temperature: A factor of shelf life of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memiši Nurgin R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was designed to monitor the durability of certain dairy products stored at proper temperatures (8°C and elevated temperatures (14°C within their shelf life. Samples of fermented milk products were tested during 25 days, samples of cheese spread products over 80 days, while soft white cheese samples were analyzed during a storage period of 100 days. In the defined study periods, depending on the type of product, pH and aw value of the product, as well as sensory analysis (odor, taste, color and consistency, along with microbiological safety, were investigated. The investigations were performed in accordance with national legislation. The results indicate that the products stored at 14°C showed significant acidity (lower pH value, changed sensory properties, and had an increased number of aerobic bacteria. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009: Improvement and development of hygienic and technological procedures in production of foodstuffs of animal origin with the aim of producing high-quality and safe products competitive on the global market

  8. Effect of Processing and Subsequent Storage on Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation includes the following objectives: 1) To determine the effects of thermal processing, freeze drying, irradiation, and storage time on the nutritional content of food; 2) To evaluate the nutritional content of the food items currently used on the International Space Station and Shuttle; and 3) To determine if there is a need to institute countermeasures. (This study does not seek to address the effect of processing on nutrients in detail, but rather aims to place in context the overall nutritional status at the time of consumption).

  9. Solutions to commercializing metal hydride hydrogen storage products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, J.J.; Belanger, R.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Whilst the concept of a Hydrogen economy in the broad sense may for some analysts and Fuel Cell technology developers be an ever moving target the use of hydrogen exists and is growing in other markets today. The use of hydrogen is increasing. Who are the users? What are their unique needs? How can they better be served? As the use of hydrogen increases there are things we can do to improve the perception and handling of hydrogen as an industrial gas that will impact the future issues of hydrogen as a fuel thereby assisting the mainstream availability of hydrogen fuel a reality. Factors that will induce change in the way hydrogen is used, handled, transported and stored are the factors to concentrate development efforts on. Other factors include: cost; availability; safety; codes and standards; and regulatory authorities acceptance of new codes and standards. New methods of storage and new devices in which the hydrogen is stored will influence and bring about change and increased use. New innovative products based on Metal Hydride hydrogen storage will address some of the barriers to widely distributed hydrogen as a fuel or energy carrier to which successful fuel cell product commercialization is subject. Palcan has developed innovative products based on it's Rare Earth Metal Hydride alloy. Some of these innovations will aid the distribution of hydrogen as a fuel and offer alternatives to the existing hydrogen user and to the Fuel Cell product developer. An overview of the products and how these products will affect the distribution and use of hydrogen as an industrial gas and fuel is presented. (author)

  10. All-optical signal processing data communication and storage applications

    CERN Document Server

    Eggleton, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the art of optical signal processing technologies and devices. It presents breakthrough solutions for enabling a pervasive use of optics in data communication and signal storage applications. It presents presents optical signal processing as solution to overcome the capacity crunch in communication networks. The book content ranges from the development of innovative materials and devices, such as graphene and slow light structures, to the use of nonlinear optics for secure quantum information processing and overcoming the classical Shannon limit on channel capacity and microwave signal processing. Although it holds the promise for a substantial speed improvement, today’s communication infrastructure optics remains largely confined to the signal transport layer, as it lags behind electronics as far as signal processing is concerned. This situation will change in the near future as the tremendous growth of data traffic requires energy efficient and ful...

  11. INFLUENCE OF SOFT MEAT PRODUCTS STORAGE ON THEIR MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kopčeková

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the topic was to analyze the microbiological quality of soft meat products (ham sausage in relation to the retention period. We focused on the determination of total count of microorganisms, Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms. The results shown that the strongest growth of microorganisms was recorded at the 21st storage day of ham at 2 to 6 °C. It is essential to keep the cold chain and to comply with the requirements set by the manufacturer.  doi:10.5219/20

  12. INFLUENCE OF SOFT MEAT PRODUCTS STORAGE ON THEIR MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Kopčeková; Kristína Kulichová; Lucia Zeleňáková

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the topic was to analyze the microbiological quality of soft meat products (ham sausage) in relation to the retention period. We focused on the determination of total count of microorganisms, Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms. The results shown that the strongest growth of microorganisms was recorded at the 21st storage day of ham at 2 to 6 °C. It is essential to keep the cold chain and to comply with the requirements set by the manufacturer.  doi:10.5219/20

  13. Power Ultrasound to Process Dairy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V.

    Conventional methods of pasteurizing milk involve the use of heat regardless of treatment (batch, high temperature short time - HTST or ultra high temperature - UHT sterilization), and the quality of the milk is affected because of the use of high temperatures. Consequences of thermal treatment are a decrease in nutritional properties through the destruction of vitamins or denaturation of proteins, and sometimes the flavor of milk is undesirably changed. These changes are produced at the same time that the goal of the pasteurization process is achieved, which is to have a microbiological safe product, free of pathogenic bacteria, and to reduce the load of deteriorative microorganisms and enzymes, resulting in a product with a longer storage life.

  14. Salmonella survival during thermal dehydration of fresh garlic and storage of dehydrated garlic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Qi, Yan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Shaokang; Deng, Xiangyu

    2017-12-18

    Salmonella survival was characterized and modeled during thermal dehydration of fresh garlic and storage of dehydrated garlic products. In our experiments that simulated commercial dehydration processing at 80±5°C, moderate level of Salmonella contamination (4-5logCFU/g) on fresh garlic was reduced below the enumeration limit (1.7logCFU/g) after 4.5h of dehydration and not detectable by culture enrichment after 7h. With high level of contamination (7-8logCFU/g), the Salmonella population persisted at 3.6logCFU/g after 8h of processing. By increasing the dehydration temperature to 90±5°C, the moderate and high levels of initial Salmonella load on fresh garlic dropped below the enumeration limit after 1.5 and 3.75h of processing and became undetectable by culture enrichment after 2.5 and 6h, respectively. During the storage of dried garlic products, Salmonella was not able to grow under all tested combinations of temperature (25 and 35°C) and water activity (0.56-0.98) levels, suggesting active inhibition. Storage temperature played a primary role in determining Salmonella survival on dehydrated garlic flakes. Under a typical storage condition at 25°C and ambient relative humidity, Salmonella could persist over months with the population gradually declining (4.3 log reduction over 88days). Granular size of dehydrated garlic had an impact on Salmonella survival, with better survival of the pathogen observed in bigger granules. At the early stage of dehydrated garlic storage (until 7days), rising water activity appeared to initially promote but then inhibited Salmonella survival, resulting in a water activity threshold at 0.73 where Salmonella displayed strongest persistence. However, this phenomenon was less apparent during extended storage (after 14days). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanisms of multiple production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dremin, I.M.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to multiple production processes are discussed. A large number of models proceeds from the notion about common excited system produced by colliding hadrons. This class of models includes the hydrodynamical, statistical, thermodynamical and statistical bootstrap models. Sometimes the production process is due to excitation and decay of two colliding particles. The fragmentation bremsstrahlung and inelastic diffraction models belong to this group. The largest group of models describes the multiple production process as a result of formation of many excited centers. The typical example is the multiperipheral model. An interesting direction is given by the attempts to interrelate the mechanism of multiple production with internal structure of particles that is with their constituents (C-group)'-quarks, gluons, etc. Besides the models there are phenomenological (p group) attempts to connect different features of multiple production. Experimental data indicate the existence of leading and pionization particles thus giving an evidence for applications of different models. The data about increase of total and inclusive cross sections, the behaviour of the mean multiplicity and correlations at high energies provide a clue for further development of multiple production theory

  16. On the law relating processing to storage in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Portrat, Sophie; Camos, Valérie

    2011-04-01

    Working memory is usually defined in cognitive psychology as a system devoted to the simultaneous processing and maintenance of information. However, although many models of working memory have been put forward during the last decades, they often leave underspecified the dynamic interplay between processing and storage. Moreover, the account of their interaction proposed by the most popular A. D. Baddeley and G. Hitch's (1974) multiple-component model is contradicted by facts, leaving unresolved one of the main issues of cognitive functioning. In this article, the author derive from the time-based resource-sharing model of working memory a mathematical function relating the cognitive load involved by concurrent processing to the amount of information that can be simultaneously maintained active in working memory. A meta-analysis from several experiments testing the effects of processing on storage corroborates the parameters of the predicted function, suggesting that it properly reflects the law relating the 2 functions of working memory. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  17. A review of case histories of induced seismicity caused by hydrocarbon production and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadillo Fernández, L.; Fernández Naranjo, F.J.; Rodríguez Gómez, V.; López Gutiérrez, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this article we review the stress-strain relationships that take place in the crust during some of the main hydrocarbon production and storage processes: gas extraction; water injection in wells to stimulate the extraction of oil (EOR); unconventional hydrocarbon production by hydraulic fracturing (fracking); disposal of wastewater (saline water) from the extraction of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbons such as saline water return (flowback) of hydraulic fracturing, both with TDS higher than 40000 mg/L. In addition, the type of faults that are more likely to slip and the induced seismicity related to the production and extraction of hydrocarbons are analysed. [es

  18. Californium production at the transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) at ORNL, which is the production, storage, and distribution center for the ERDA heavy element research program, is described. About 0.5 percent of 252 Cf is currently being produced. TRU is a hot-cell, chemical processing facility of advanced design. New concepts have been incorporated into the facility for absolute containment, remote operation, remote equipment installation, and remote maintenance. The facilities include a battery of nine heavily shielded process cells served by master-slave manipulators and eight laboratories, four on each of two floors. Processing includes chemical dissolution of the targets followed by a series of solvent extraction, ion exchange, and precipitation steps to separate and purify the transuranium elements. The transcurium elements Bk, Cf, Es, and Fm are distributed to users. Remote techniques are used to fabricate the Am and Cm into target rods for reirradiation in the HFIR. Californium-252 that is in excess of the needs of the heavy element research program and the Cf sales program is stored at TRU and processed repeatedly to recover the daughter product 248 Cm, which is a highly desirable research material

  19. Alternative designs for petroleum product storage tanks for groundwater protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke Adeleke, Samson

    In developing countries, there are numerous occurrences of petroleum product spillage in groundwater. The current practice of burying storage tanks beneath the surface without adequate safety devices facilitates this phenomenon. Underground tanks rust and leak, and spilled petroleum products migrate downward. The movement of the oil in the soil depends on its viscosity and quantity, the permeability of the soil/rock, and the presence of fractures within the rock. The oil spreads laterally in the form of a thin pancake due to its lower specific gravity, and soluble components dissolve in water. The pollution plume of petroleum products and dissolved phases moves in the direction of groundwater flow in the aquifer within the pores of soil and sediments or along fractures in basement complex areas. Most communities reply heavily on groundwater for potable and industrial supplies. However, the sustainability of this resource is under threat in areas where there are filling stations as a result of significant groundwater contamination from petroleum product spillage. Drinking water becomes unpalatable when it contains petroleum products in low concentrations, and small quantities may contaminate large volumes of water. Considering the losses incurred from spillage, the cost of cleaning the aquifer, and the fact that total cleansing and attenuation is impossible, the need to prevent spillage and if it happens to prevent it from getting into the groundwater system is of paramount importance. This paper proposes alternative design procedures with a view to achieving these objectives.

  20. Fate of Salmonella throughout Production and Refrigerated Storage of Tahini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yangjunna; Keller, Susanne E; Grasso-Kelley, Elizabeth M

    2017-06-01

    Tahini, a low-moisture food that is made from sesame seeds, has been implicated in outbreaks of salmonellosis. In this study, the fate of Salmonella was determined through an entire process for the manufacture of tahini, including a 24-h seed soaking period before roasting, subsequent grinding, and storage at refrigeration temperature. Salmonella populations increased by more than 3 log CFU/g during a 24-h soaking period, reaching more than 7 log CFU/g. Survival of Salmonella during roasting at three temperatures, 95, 110, and 130°C, was assessed using seeds on which Salmonella was grown. Salmonella survival was impacted both by temperature and the water activity (a w ) at the beginning of the roasting period. When roasted at 130°C with a high initial a w (≥0.90) and starting Salmonella populations of ∼8.5 log CFU/g, populations quickly decreased below detection limits within the first 10 min. However, when the seeds were reduced to an a w of 0.45 before roasting at the same temperature, 3.5 log CFU/g remained on the seeds after 60 min. In subsequent storage studies, seeds were roasted at 130°C for 15 min before processing into tahini. For the storage studies, tahini was inoculated using two methods. The first method used seeds on which Salmonella was first grown before roasting. In the second method, Salmonella was inoculated into the tahini after manufacture. All tahini was stored for 119 days at 4°C. No change in Salmonella populations was recorded for tahini throughout the entire 119 days regardless of the inoculation method used. These combined results indicate the critical importance of a w during a roasting step during tahini manufacture. Salmonella that survive roasting will likely remain viable throughout the normal shelf life of tahini.

  1. Lactose in dairy ingredients: Effect on processing and storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Thom; Gazi, Inge

    2016-08-01

    Lactose is the main carbohydrate in the milk of most species. It is present in virtually all dry dairy ingredients, with levels ranging from lactose powders. The presence of lactose has a strong effect on ingredient processing and stability. Lactose can negatively influence powder properties and lead to undesirable effects, such as the stickiness of powder resulting in fouling during drying, or caking and related phenomena during storage. In addition, being a reducing carbohydrate, lactose can also participate in the Maillard reaction with free amino groups of proteins, peptides, and free AA. In this review, the influence of the presence (or absence) of lactose on physiochemical properties of dairy ingredients is reviewed, with particular emphasis on behavior during processing and storage. Particularly important features in this respect are whether lactose is in the (glassy) amorphous phase or in the crystalline phase, which is strongly affected by precrystallization conditions (e.g., in lactose, permeate, and whey powders) and by drying conditions. Furthermore, the moisture content and water activity of the ingredients are important parameters to consider, as they determine both mobility and reactivity, influencing Maillard reactions and concomitant browning, the crystallization of amorphous lactose during storage of dairy ingredients, glass transitions temperatures, and associated stickiness and caking phenomena. For the stickiness and caking, a crucial aspect to take into account is powder particle surface composition in relation to the bulk powder. Lactose is typically underrepresented at the powder surface, as a result of which deviations between observed lactose-induced caking and stickiness temperatures, and determined glass transition temperatures arise. By considering lactose as an integral part of ingredient composition along with all other compositional and environmental properties, lactose behavior in dairy ingredients can be understood, controlled, and

  2. Responses of fresh-cut products of four mango cultivars under two different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sonu; Rao, Tadapaneni Venkata Ramana

    2017-05-01

    Due to availability of minimally processed products, the consumption of fresh produce has increased over recent years. The present study has been undertaken with the objective of screening of four mango cultivars ('Kesar', 'Rajapuri', 'Totapuri' and 'Ladvo') for evaluating the consequences of minimal processing on their quality attributes under storage at two different temperatures (5 ± 1 °C, 95% RH and 10 ± 1 °C, 87% RH) up to 12 days. The result of the study revealed significant impacts of low temperature storage on the quality parameters of fresh-cut mango cultivars. The evaluated bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, vitamin C and carotenoids were better retained in the samples stored at 5 °C as compared with that of 10 °C. Moreover, the storage of fresh-cut mango cultivars at 5 °C showed lower water loss and microbial contamination. Sensory analyses revealed that the storage of fresh-cut mango cultivars at 10 °C influenced overall acceptability due to changes in their visual perception, though taste, odor and firmness were less affected. This study revealed a significant variation in the storability of fresh-cut mango cultivars with respect to the storage temperature. Among currently studied four cultivars of mango, slices of 'Totapuri' showed comparatively the least change in color, firmness and sensory properties during storage at 5 and 10 °C and it can be a potential cultivar for fresh-cut processing.

  3. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

  4. Reducing capital and operating costs in gas processing, liquefaction, and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krusen, III, L C [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States). Research Div.

    1997-06-01

    The LNG industry is unanimous that capital costs must be reduced throughout the chain, and especially at the liquefaction facility including associated gas processing and LNG storage. The Ken ai LNG plant provides an example of how both reduced capital and operating costs were attained. This paper will cover cost production strategies that can be applied to liquefaction processes in general, and will than focus on their realization in the Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG process. The paper concludes that reduced LNG plant costs are attainable. (Author).

  5. Reducing capital and operating costs in gas processing, liquefaction, and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krusen, L.C. III

    1997-01-01

    The LNG industry is unanimous that capital costs must be reduced throughout the chain, and especially at the liquefaction facility including associated gas processing and LNG storage. The Ken ai LNG plant provides an example of how both reduced capital and operating costs were attained. This paper will cover cost production strategies that can be applied to liquefaction processes in general, and will than focus on their realization in the Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG process. The paper concludes that reduced LNG plant costs are attainable. (Author)

  6. Microbial degradation processes in radioactive waste repository and in nuclear fuel storage areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.; Gazso, L.G.

    1997-01-01

    The intent of the workshop organizers was to convene experts in the fields of corrosion and spent nuclear fuels. The major points which evolved from the interaction of microbiologists, material scientists, and fuel storage experts are as follows: Corrosion of basin components as well as fuel containers or cladding is occurring; Water chemistry monitoring, if done in the storage facility does not take into account the microbial component; Microbial influenced corrosion is an area that many have not considered to be an important contributor in the aging of metallurgical materials especially those exposed to a radiation field; Many observations indicate that there is a microbial or biological presence in the storage facilities but these observations have not been correlated with any deterioration or aging phenomena taking place in the storage facility; The sessions on the fundamentals of microbial influenced corrosion and biofilm pointed out that these phenomena are real, occurring on similar materials in other industries and probably are occurring in the wet storage of spent fuel; All agreed that more monitoring, testing, and education in the field of biological mediate processes be performed and financially supported; Loosing the integrity of fuel assemblies can only cause problems, relating to the future disposition of the fuel, safety concerns, and environmental issues; In other rad waste scenarios, biological processes may be playing a role, for instance in the mobility of radionuclides in soil, decomposition of organic materials of the rad waste, gas production, etc. The fundamental scientific presentations discussed the full gamut of microbial processes that relate to biological mediated effects on metallic and non-metallic materials used in the storage and containment of radioactive materials

  7. Production, detection, storage and release of spin currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quantum rings connected to ballistic circuits couple strongly to external magnetic fields if the connection is not symmetric. Moreover, properly connected rings can be used to pump currents in the wires giving raise to a number of interesting new phenomena. At half filling using a time-dependent magnetic field in the plane of the ring one can pump a pure spin current, excited by the the spin–orbit interaction in the ring.Results: Such a magnetic current is even under time reversal and produces an electric field instead of the usual magnetic field. Numerical simulations show that one can use magnetizable bodies as storage units to concentrate and save the magnetization in much the same way as capacitors operating with charge currents store electric charge. The polarization obtained in this way can then be used on command to produce spin currents in a wire. These currents show interesting oscillations while the storage units exchange their polarizations.Conclusion: The magnetic production of spin currents can be a useful alternative to optical excitation and electric field methods.

  8. Simulation of salt production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraveva, E. A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper an approach to the use of simulation software iThink to simulate the salt production system has been proposed. The dynamic processes of the original system are substituted by processes simulated in the abstract model, but in compliance with the basic rules of the original system, which allows one to accelerate and reduce the cost of the research. As a result, a stable workable simulation model was obtained that can display the rate of the salt exhaustion and many other parameters which are important for business planning.

  9. Carbon dioxide and ethylene gas in the potato storage atmosphere and their combined effect on processing colour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels-Lake, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: Solanum tuberosum L., carbon dioxide, ethylene, storage, processing, fry colour, chip colour, 1-methylcyclopropene

    The finished colour of processed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) products is a very important quality characteristic which is attributable to the

  10. Relevance of deep-subsurface microbiology for underground gas storage and geothermal energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniese, Claudia; Bombach, Petra; Rakoczy, Jana; Hoth, Nils; Schlömann, Michael; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader an introduction into the microbiology of deep geological systems with a special focus on potential geobiotechnological applications and respective risk assessments. It has been known for decades that microbial activity is responsible for the degradation or conversion of hydrocarbons in oil, gas, and coal reservoirs. These processes occur in the absence of oxygen, a typical characteristic of such deep ecosystems. The understanding of the responsible microbial processes and their environmental regulation is not only of great scientific interest. It also has substantial economic and social relevance, inasmuch as these processes directly or indirectly affect the quantity and quality of the stored oil or gas. As outlined in the following chapter, in addition to the conventional hydrocarbons, new interest in such deep subsurface systems is rising for different technological developments. These are introduced together with related geomicrobiological topics. The capture and long-termed storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide, carbon capture and storage (CCS), for example, in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, is considered to be an important options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. On the other hand, the increasing contribution of energy from natural and renewable sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal energy, or biogas production leads to an increasing interest in underground storage of renewable energies. Energy carriers, that is, biogas, methane, or hydrogen, are often produced in a nonconstant manner and renewable energy may be produced at some distance from the place where it is needed. Therefore, storing the energy after its conversion to methane or hydrogen in porous reservoirs or salt caverns is extensively discussed. All these developments create new research fields and challenges for microbiologists and geobiotechnologists. As a basis for respective future work, we introduce the three major topics, that is

  11. Simulation of the saturation process of a radwaste storage cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbe, M.F.; Clouard, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation of the saturation of the barrier and the plug of a storage cell by the surrounding host rock. Generally speaking, the unsaturated barrier and plug start saturating immediately in the vicinity of the quasi-saturated host rock. Then the saturation front propagates towards the canisters and the symmetry axis. Apart from the part in contact with the plug, the barrier is saturated at about 30 years. The part of the barrier near the plug is saturated around 80 years. If the top of the plug is saturated very soon, the part in the corner near the gallery and the symmetry axis is not completely saturated after 100 years. In the site, we observe a small desaturation during the first month, at the limit with the plug and the barrier, and especially in the corner limited by both FoCa clay pieces. This transient phenomenon may be assigned to the time difference between the immediate suction of water by the unsaturated materials and the delayed water flows coming from the saturated host rock to compensate the water suction. The purpose of this computation was at once to estimate the time necessary for the saturation of the clay layers surrounding the radwaste canisters and to evaluate the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the storage cell during the saturation process. Therefore a mechanical simulation was performed using the present hydraulic results to initiate the mechanical computation. (authors)

  12. A Classification Scheme for Production System Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Daniel Grud Hellerup; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2018-01-01

    Manufacturing companies often have difficulties developing production platforms, partly due to the complexity of many production systems and difficulty determining which processes constitute a platform. Understanding production processes is an important step to identifying candidate processes...... for a production platform based on existing production systems. Reviewing a number of existing classifications and taxonomies, a consolidated classification scheme for processes in production of discrete products has been outlined. The classification scheme helps ensure consistency during mapping of existing...

  13. Candidate thermal energy storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A number of candidate thermal energy storage system elements were identified as having the potential for the successful application of solar industrial process heat. These elements which include storage media, containment and heat exchange are shown.

  14. Liquid waste processing from TRIGA spent fuel storage pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchtela, Karl

    1988-01-01

    At the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities and also at other facilities running TRIGA reactors, storage pits for spent fuel elements are installed. During the last revision procedure, the reactor group of the Atominstitute decided to refill the storage pits and to get rid of any contaminated storage pit water. The liquid radioactive waste had been pumped to polyethylene vessels for intermediate storage before decontamination and release. The activity concentration of the storage pit water at the Aominstitute after a storage period of several years was about 40 kBq/l, the total amount of liquid in the storage pits was about 0.25 m 3 . It was attempted to find a simple and inexpensive method to remove especially the radioactive Cesium from the waste solution. Different methods for decontamination like distillation, precipitation and ion exchange are discussed

  15. 9 CFR 381.203 - Products offered for entry; charges for storage, cartage, and labor with respect to products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.203 Products offered for... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products offered for entry; charges for storage, cartage, and labor with respect to products which are refused entry. 381.203 Section 381...

  16. Storage of CO2 by mineral carbonation of olivine: Study of the global process for the recovery of the reaction products and the separation of chromite particles by flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turri, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This work deals with the study of direct carbonation of olivine in solution, for the chemical transformation of CO 2 emitted by the industries. The influence of operating conditions is evaluated in order to optimize the yield of the reaction. However, for environmental acceptability and economic viability of the project, the beneficiation of recoverable metals and products is considered. Chromite particles contained in olivine are unreactive during the carbonation reaction: the separation is developed by flotation upstream of the reaction. According to the results, the extraction of chromite by magnetic separation is also conceivable. Gravimetric separation by sedimentation is considered to recover residual olivine in the reaction products, in order to recycle them in the carbonation process. Products sieving allowed to concentrate carbonates (less than 40 μm) and silica (between 40 and 106 μm). However, the co-precipitation of mixed carbonates due to the presence of iron and nickel included in the magnesium matrix, compromises the purification and the optimal valorization of the solids. Moreover, the formation of a passivation layer on the particles surface limits the conversion of olivine. Pretreatment of olivine is envisaged for the leaching of nickel in ammoniac solution. Besides, preliminary dissolution of olivine and selective precipitation of species with pH control of the solution can be an interesting alternative for higher carbonation extent and more efficient purification of the products. (author)

  17. The influence of external conditions on the grain storage process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Orlovtseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available .High quality grain - a pledge of his safety, reduce losses and the costs of storage. Wheat is the main source of human nutrition. Elements contained in wheat perform a fundamental role in human life. Storing grain quality is an urgent task. One of the labor-intensive operations in this process is the correct placement of parties in wheat granary and timely monitoring of key parameters (humidity and temperature. In this regard, we consider methods for determining the intensity of the grain breathing method for determining the moisture content and temperature of the grain of wheat. Humidity was determined by electrical hygrometer. To measure the temperature of wheat used mercury thermometer. In analyzing the breathing wheat energy depending on the humidity it was found that the intensity of respiration increasingly affects humidity increase than an increase in temperature. As objects of study used wheat varieties: Hordeiforme 432 and Multiroom 321. According to the results obtained in the study plot the respiratory activity of the grain from moisture. According to the schedules we concluded that the sharp increase in wheat breathing energy occurs with increasing moisture content to a value of more than 15%. Just found out that in addition to breathing in highly humid grain appears vital functions of harmful microorganisms, which under the influence of grain rots and becomes stale. Thus, ho-well-organized and skilled observation, the correct analysis of the obtained data allow to bring the maximum reduction in spending of dry matter and therefore achieve lower grain weight loss during storage.

  18. Enhancement of refrigerated storage of fishery products using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, N.F.; Ghadi, S.V.; Doke, S.N.; Venugopal, V.; Alur, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    A processe combining gamma radiation treatment with refrigeration has been suggested for better utilization of sea-foods of which large quantities will be available for processing after the implementation of the expansion programme of the fishing industry in India and the present capacity of refrigeration industry may be found to be inadequate to meet the demands of the expanded fishing industry. Gamma irradiation in the range of 0.1-0.25 Mrad enhances 2-3 fold storage life of refrigerated sea-foods. Low dose radiation treatment inactivates the gram-negative bacteria, the main source of sea-food spoilage, but not C. botulinum the growth of which is inhibited by the gram-negative bacteria in unirradiated sea-foods. Care has, therefore, to be taken to use a radiation dose which does not totally eliminate these bacteria so that a small percentage which survives leads to terminal spoilage and rejection of sea-foods even before C. botulinum produces toxins thus avoiding food poisoning. (M.G.B.)

  19. Radiation processing for value addition in fish and fishery products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandekar, J.R.; Karani, M.; Kakatkar, A.S.; Sharma, A.

    2009-01-01

    Fish is highly nutritious as it contains easily digestible proteins and nutritionally important vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, due to high ambient temperature in tropical countries, fish is spoiled rapidly. Spoilage of fish during transportation and storage amounting to about 30% of the catch results in heavy economic losses. The microbiological hazard related to the presence of food-borne pathogens is also common in both marine and aqua-cultured fish and shellfish. In dried products (moisture content, < 20%) insects are mainly responsible for the loss of quality during storage. Radiation processing can play a major role in ensuring security and safety of fish and fishery products by reducing post-harvest losses and eliminating pathogenic microorganisms. Being a 'cold process' the technology helps in retaining the quality of fishery products in 'as is' condition. (author)

  20. Combination processes for improving storage of irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirsat, S.G.; Thomas, P.; Nair, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Various combined treatments of harvested potatoes to reduce microbial spoilage of irradiated potatoes in storage were studied. Treatments studied were irradiation in conjunction with hot water dip, cold or hot salicylic acid dip, dusting with salicylic acid powder, and sodium hypochlorite wash followed by storage in well aerated containers. Microbial spoilage in irradiated potatoes was found to be greatly reduced by storage at 10deg or 15degC in well aerated containers. (M.G.B.). 9 refs., 1 tab

  1. 29 CFR 780.209 - Packing, storage, warehousing, and sale of nursery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Packing, storage, warehousing, and sale of nursery products... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Nursery and Landscaping Operations § 780.209 Packing, storage, warehousing, and sale of nursery products. Employees of a grower of...

  2. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R J; Johnson, Jr, A B; Lund, A L; Gilbert, E R [and others

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  3. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, R.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Lund, A.L.; Gilbert, E.R.

    1994-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl x , UAl x -Al and U 3 O 8 -Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH x , UErZrH, UO 2 -stainless steel cermet, and U 3 O 8 -stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified

  4. Central processing and interim storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Within the ZWILAG project, the buildings for the temporary storage of all categories of radioactive wastes including the spent fuel elements are being readied at a central location. The intermediate storage installations are enhanced by a conditioning and burning plant for weak radioactive operating waste from the nuclear power plants and from the area of responsibility of the state. (author) 2 figs

  5. Influence of rural processing methods and postharvest storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 0.45 kg of kola nuts (coated and uncoated) numbering 20 nuts were put in each storage container. Sensory quality of the nuts after storage was determined with quantitative descriptive analysis in expert panel, using six quality attributes. Physical parameters measured were; weight loss, pest incidence and sprouting ...

  6. Optimization and characterization of a cemented ultimate-storage product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, H.

    1981-12-01

    The U- and Pu-containing packaging wastes can be homogeneously cemented after a washing and fragmentation process. Both finely crushed and coarsely fragmented raw wastes yield products with sufficient mechanical stability. The processability limit of the coarsely fragmented raw waste using cement paste or mortar is largely determined by the cellulose content, which is not to exceed 1.3% by weight in the end waste. Of 9 binders studied, the most corrosion-resistant products were obtained with blast-furnace slag cement, whereas poured concrete and Maxit are much less resistant in five-component brine. In the cemented product, hydrolysis of plasticizers (DOP) from plastics (PVC) occurs, leading to release of 2-ethyl-hexanol. This reaction occurs to a much lower degree with blast-furnace slag cement than with all other binders studied. The binder chosen for further tests consists of blast-furnace slag cement, concrete fluidizer and a stabilizer, and is processed at a W/C ratio of 0.43.

  7. Evaluation and analysis method for natural gas hydrate storage and transportation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Wenfeng; Wang Jinqu; Fan Shuanshi; Hao Wenbin

    2008-01-01

    An evaluation and analysis method is presented to investigate an approach to scale-up a hydration reactor and to solve some economic problems by looking at the natural gas hydrate storage and transportation process as a whole. Experiments with the methane hydration process are used to evaluate the whole natural gas hydrate storage and transportation process. The specific contents and conclusions are as follows: first, batch stirring effects and load coefficients are studied in a semi-continuous stirred-tank reactor. Results indicate that batch stirring and appropriate load coefficients are effective in improving hydrate storage capacity. In the experiments, appropriate values for stirring velocity, stirring time and load coefficient were found to be 320 rpm, 30 min and 0.289, respectively. Second, throughput and energy consumption of the reactor for producing methane hydrates are calculated by mass and energy balance. Results show that throughput of this is 1.06 kg/d, with a product containing 12.4% methane gas. Energy consumption is 0.19 kJ, while methane hydrates containing 1 kJ heat are produced. Third, an energy consumption evaluation parameter is introduced to provide a single energy consumption evaluation rule for different hydration reactors. Parameter analyses indicate that process simplicity or process integration can decrease energy consumption. If experimental gas comes from a small-scale natural gas field and the energy consumption is 0.02 kJ when methane hydrates containing 1 kJ heat are produced, then the decrease is 87.9%. Moreover, the energy consumption evaluation parameter used as an economic criterion is converted into a process evaluation parameter. Analyses indicate that the process evaluation parameter is relevant to technology level and resource consumption for a system, which can make it applicable to economic analysis and venture forecasting for optimal capital utilization

  8. Characterization and storage of liquid wastes containing 125Iodine in the laboratory for production of brachytherapy sources - IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Vitória S.; Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Barbosa, Nayane K.O.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Nogueira, Beatriz R.; Costa, Osvaldo L. da; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Vicente, Roberto; Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive sources of Iodine-125 for medical applications have been developed at the Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN) to meet the growing demand for medical applications such as brachytherapy. A dedicated laboratory is already being implemented at IPEN. Part of the processes involved in the production of sealed sources generate radioactive wastes that despite the short half-life (<100 days) have radioactive activity above the levels of exemption established by the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission. Therefore, these wastes should receive appropriate treatment and storage until they reach the levels of release into the environment. This work aims to determine the volumes of the liquid wastes generated during the production stages of the sources, as well as to propose a temporary storage system for such wastes. The applied methodology consisted in determining the volumes of wastes generated in each production cell according to the manufacturing steps. After that, activities and activity concentrations were calculated for each container used for temporary storage inside the production laboratory. The total volume stored for one year in the temporary storage, as well as the rate of entry and exit of the liquid wastes were calculated according to the source production demand and the decay time of the radionuclide, respectively. The main results showed that the time required to reach sanitary sewage disposal values is within the period of operation of the facility. The total volume generated is also within the facility's temporary storage capacity

  9. Influence of cooking methods and storage time on lipid and protein oxidation and heterocyclic aromatic amines production in bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soladoye, O P; Shand, P; Dugan, M E R; Gariépy, C; Aalhus, J L; Estévez, M; Juárez, M

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the influence of cooking methods and pre-determined refrigerated storage days on the production of lipid oxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (PROTOX) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) in bacon. Forty-four pork bellies selected from pigs varying in breed, sex and diets to introduce variability in composition were processed as bacon. Sliced-bacon was stored at 4°C either for 2 or 28days and these storage groups were cooked either with microwave or frying pan. Microwave led to significantly higher PROTOX (P0.05) by the cooking methods and storage times. Similarly, the fatty acid composition of pork belly did not significantly influence the production of HAA, TBARS and PROTOX produced in bacon during cooking. Overall, microwave cooking had lesser impact on the production of carcinogenic compounds in bacon with only minor impact on sensory attributes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effect of processing and storage time on the contents of organosulfur compounds in pickled blanched garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, Victor Manuel; Sánchez, Antonio Higinio; de Castro, Antonio; Montaño, Alfredo

    2012-04-04

    The influence of processing, with and without fermentation, on the contents of organosulfur compounds, namely, γ-glutamyl peptides, S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides (ACSOs), and S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC), in pickled blanched garlic was evaluated. For each processing type, the effect of the preservation method and storage time was also analyzed. Blanching in hot water (90 °C for 5 min) hardly affected the individual organosulfur compound content. The fermentation and packing steps negatively affected the levels of all compounds except for SAC. The content of this compound increased during storage at room temperature whereas γ-glutamyl peptides and ACSOs were degraded to various extents. The pasteurization treatment itself had no significant effect on the concentrations of organosulfur compounds. Use of the corresponding fermentation brine in the case of the fermented product in conjunction with refrigerated storage was found to be the best method to preserve the levels of organosulfur compounds in pickled garlic stored for up to one year.

  11. Optimizing the order processing of customized products using product configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Bonev, Martin; Denkena, B.

    2011-01-01

    . Product configuration based on integrated modular product structure and product family architecture has been recognized as an effective means for implementing mass customization. In order to evaluate the effects of product configuration on order processing, a study has been conducted by the Department...... and its benefits for the order processing have been evaluated....

  12. Evaluation of anthocynin changes in blueberries and in blueberry jam after the processing and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Czako

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. is worldwide famous as the healthy and desirable fruit. The most valuable nutritional components of fruits are polyphenols, which include anthocyanins. The aim of the study was to assess the content of anthocyanin dyes in selected varieties of blueberry fruit. We evaluated the changes in the content of colorants that occur after treatment for fruit jam and its subsequent storage at 21°C under the light. Varieties Ramcocas, Record, Iranka, Nelson, Pemberton, Jersey and Coville were observed. Content of anthocyanins was determined spectrophotometrically. In fresh fruits anthocyanin content ranged from 9.878 g kg-1 of dry matter (Jersey variety to 18.555 g kg-1 of dry matter (Nelson variety. After treatment there was found a decrease in the anthocyanins content, in the product's content were determined in the amount 1.645 g kg-1 of dry matter (Jersey variety to 3.476 g kg-1 of dry matter (variety Ramcocas. The decrease was due to decomposition of anthocyans at high temperatures in processed products and also by the replacement of dry matter by sucrose in the product. Mean color decrease in blueberry jam was 84.5%. After storage of the product, there were found further degradations of colorants, evaluated at 34.9%. The content of anthocyanin in jam was found to be 1.089 g kg-1 of dry matter (Jersey variety to 2.199 g kg-1 of dry matter (Ramcocas variety.

  13. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebilcox, G. J.; Lundberg, W. L.

    1981-03-01

    The canning segment of the food processing industry is a major energy user within that industry. Most of its energy demand is met by hot water and steam and those fluids, in addition to product cooling water, eventually flow from the processes as warm waste water. To minimize the possibility of product contamination, a large percentage of that waste water is sent directly to factory drains and sewer systems without being recycled and in many cases the thermal energy contained by the waste streams also goes unreclaimed and is lost from further use. Waste heat recovery in canning facilities can be performed economically using systems that employ thermal energy storage (TES). A project was proposed in which a demonstration waste heat recovery system, including a TES feature, would be designed, installed and operated.

  14. Quality control of static irradiation processing products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Jianzhong; Chen Xiulan; Cao Hong; Zhai Jianqing

    2002-01-01

    Based on the irradiation processing practice of the nuclear technique application laboratory of Yangzhou Institute of Agricultural Science, the quality control of irradiation processing products is discussed

  15. Traditional alcoholic beverages of Tanzania: production, quality and changes in quality attributes during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüsekwa, A B; Mosha, T C; Laswai, H S; Towo, E E

    2000-03-01

    Traditional alcoholic beverages of Tanzania play an important role in the daily social, economic, nutritional and cultural life of the people. Production, quality and changes in quality attributes during ambient temperature storage were investigated in traditional Tanzanian beers (Mbege and Komoni) and wines (Mnanasi, Wanzuki and Mofru). The quality attributes of the alcoholic beverages indicated that pH levels were in the range of 4.15-4.20 and 3.9-5.5 for the beers and wines respectively. Total, fixed and volatile acidity in the beers were in the range of 0.41-0.62, 0.28-0.38 and 0.06-0.09 g/100 mL respectively while in the wines acidity levels were in the range of 0.23-0.66, 0.13-0.33 and 0.05-0.06 g/100 mL for the total, fixed and volatile acidity respectively. Concentration of total solids in the beers ranged between 7.00 and 12.80 degrees Brix while in the wines ranged between 3.45 and 6.65 degrees Brix. Specific gravity of the beers ranged between 1.0097 and 1.0374 while for wines the specific gravity was lower, ranging between 0.9971 and 0.9989. Alcohol concentration was higher in wines (range 3.84-9.75 g/100 mL) than in beers (range 1.72-2.76 g/100 mL). Storage of the beverages under ambient temperatures for various lengths of time resulted in significant (P Wines were more stable during storage than beers, with Mofru wine being the most stable. The rates of total acid production per hour were Mnanasi (0.0196 g/100 mL), Wanzuki (0.0047 g/100 mL) and Mofru (0.0005 g/100 mL). Use of low brewing technologies involving uncontrolled fermentation, unsanitary conditions and use of rudimentary equipment for processing, packaging and storage resulted in beers and wines of low quality and short shelf-life. To foster commercial exploitation of the products, there is a need to develop appropriate small and medium-level brewing technologies that will improve the quality of the traditional alcoholic beverages and extend their shelf-life through hygienic and controlled

  16. Adsorption thermal energy storage for cogeneration in industrial batch processes: Experiment, dynamic modeling and system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, Heike; Graf, Stefan; Lanzerath, Franz; Bardow, André

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption thermal energy storage is investigated for heat supply with cogeneration in industrial batch processes. The feasibility of adsorption thermal energy storage is demonstrated with a lab-scale prototype. Based on these experiments, a dynamic model is developed and successfully calibrated to measurement data. Thereby, a reliable description of the dynamic behavior of the adsorption thermal energy storage unit is achieved. The model is used to study and benchmark the performance of adsorption thermal energy storage combined with cogeneration for batch process energy supply. As benchmark, we consider both a peak boiler and latent thermal energy storage based on a phase change material. Beer brewing is considered as an example of an industrial batch process. The study shows that adsorption thermal energy storage has the potential to increase energy efficiency significantly; primary energy consumption can be reduced by up to 25%. However, successful integration of adsorption thermal storage requires appropriate integration of low grade heat: Preferentially, low grade heat is available at times of discharging and in demand when charging the storage unit. Thus, adsorption thermal energy storage is most beneficial if applied to a batch process with heat demands on several temperature levels. - Highlights: • A highly efficient energy supply for industrial batch processes is presented. • Adsorption thermal energy storage (TES) is analyzed in experiment and simulation. • Adsorption TES can outperform both peak boilers and latent TES. • Performance of adsorption TES strongly depends on low grade heat temperature.

  17. Influence of rural processing methods and postharvest storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-02-11

    Feb 11, 2015 ... lower in white plastic storage container for coated kola nut while green plastic container reduced weight ... established and because of the high premium value attached to C. ..... non-availability of kola nut all the year round.

  18. Effect of Recipe and Production Technology of Chocolate Products on Their Quality During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Machálková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of four storage temperature modes (6, 12, 20 and 30 °C on sensory properties of chocolate products and their colour changes in the experiment over a period of 6 months. The results were evaluated with regard to the production technology and composition of chocolate products. The experiment was performed on filled milk chocolate product called Orion Pistachio made in four versions such as a standard containing cocoa mass of 35 % referred to retempered variant (RS and not treated by retempering (NS variant and with higher proportion of cocoa mass (45 % stated as retempered variant (R45 and not treated by retempering (N45 variant. Retempering means the exposure of products for 24 hours at 24 °C immediately after the production and packaging. The results show that the technology of retempering can effectively increase the resistance of chocolate products to the fat bloom as reflected in the improved colour stability. Sensory most acceptable products were stored at 6 and 12 °C throughout the experiment.

  19. Underwater Nuclear Fuel Disassembly and Rod Storage Process and Equipment Description. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viebrock, J.M.

    1981-09-01

    The process, equipment, and the demonstration of the Underwater Nuclear Fuel Disassembly and Rod Storage System are presented. The process was shown to be a viable means of increasing spent fuel pool storage density by taking apart fuel assemblies and storing the fuel rods in a denser fashion than in the original storage racks. The assembly's nonfuel-bearing waste is compacted and containerized. The report documents design criteria and analysis, fabrication, demonstration program results, and proposed enhancements to the system

  20. 21 CFR 211.110 - Sampling and testing of in-process materials and drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICALS Production and Process Controls § 211.110 Sampling and testing of in-process materials and drug... capsule weight variation; (2) Disintegration time; (3) Adequacy of mixing to assure uniformity and... production process, e.g., at commencement or completion of significant phases or after storage for long...

  1. PROPOSAL OF SPATIAL OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCTION PROCESS IN PROCESS DESIGNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Malega

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is focused on optimizing the use of space in the production process using software Process Designer. The aim of this contribution is to suggest possible improvements to the existing layout of the selected production process. Production process was analysed in terms of inputs, outputs and course of actions. Nowadays there are many software solutions aimed at optimizing the use of space. One of these software products is the Process Designer, which belongs to the product line Tecnomatix. This software is primarily aimed at production planning. With Process Designer is possible to design the layout of production and subsequently to analyse the production or to change according to the current needs of the company.

  2. Forests and ozone: productivity, carbon storage, and feedbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Shugart, Herman H; Shuman, Jacquelyn K; Lerdau, Manuel T

    2016-02-22

    Tropospheric ozone is a serious air-pollutant, with large impacts on plant function. This study demonstrates that tropospheric ozone, although it damages plant metabolism, does not necessarily reduce ecosystem processes such as productivity or carbon sequestration because of diversity change and compensatory processes at the community scale ameliorate negative impacts at the individual level. This study assesses the impact of ozone on forest composition and ecosystem dynamics with an individual-based gap model that includes basic physiology as well as species-specific metabolic properties. Elevated tropospheric ozone leads to no reduction of forest productivity and carbon stock and to increased isoprene emissions, which result from enhanced dominance by isoprene-emitting species (which tolerate ozone stress better than non-emitters). This study suggests that tropospheric ozone may not diminish forest carbon sequestration capacity. This study also suggests that, because of the often positive relationship between isoprene emission and ozone formation, there is a positive feedback loop between forest communities and ozone, which further aggravates ozone pollution.

  3. Processing and storage of blood components: strategies to improve patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietersz RNI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruby NI Pietersz, Pieter F van der Meer Department of Product and Process Development, Sanquin Blood Bank, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: This review focuses on safety improvements of blood processing of various blood components and their respective storage. A solid quality system to ensure safe and effective blood components that are traceable from a donor to the patient is the foundation of a safe blood supply. To stimulate and guide this process, National Health Authorities should develop guidelines for blood transfusion, including establishment of a quality system. Blood component therapy enabled treatment of patients with blood constituents that were missing, only thus preventing reactions to unnecessarily transfused elements. Leukoreduction prevents many adverse reactions and also improves the quality of the blood components during storage. The safety of red cells and platelets is improved by replacement of plasma with preservative solutions, which results in the reduction of isoantibodies and plasma proteins. Automation of blood collection, separation of whole blood into components, and consecutive processing steps, such as preparation of platelet concentrate from multiple donations, improves the consistent composition of blood components. Physicians can better prescribe the number of transfusions and therewith reduce donor exposure and/or the risk of pathogen transmission. Pathogen reduction in cellular blood components is the latest development in improving the safety of blood transfusions for patients. Keywords: blood components, red cell concentrates, platelet concentrates, plasma, transfusion, safety 

  4. Including product features in process redesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Hauksdóttir, Dagný; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2017-01-01

    do not take into account how the product features are applied throughout the process, which makes it difficult to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the activities in the processes and to generate significant improvements. The suggested approach models the product family using the so......This article suggests a visual modelling method for integrating models of product features with business process models for redesigning the business processes involving specifications of customer-tailored products and services. The current methods for redesigning these types of business processes......-called product variant master and the business process modelling notation for modelling the process flow. The product model is combined with the process map by identifying features used in each step of the process flow. Additionally, based on the information absorbed from the integrated model, the value stream...

  5. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Kevin; Linehan, Sue; Lipiecki, Frank; Aardahl, Christopher L.

    2008-08-24

    The DOE Hydrogen Storage Program is focused on identifying and developing viable hydrogen storage systems for onboard vehicular applications. The program funds exploratory research directed at identifying new materials and concepts for storage of hydrogen having high gravimetric and volumetric capacities that have the potential to meet long term technical targets for onboard storage. Approaches currently being examined are reversible metal hydride storage materials, reversible hydrogen sorption systems, and chemical hydrogen storage systems. The latter approach concerns materials that release hydrogen in endothermic or exothermic chemical bond-breaking processes. To regenerate the spent fuels arising from hydrogen release from such materials, chemical processes must be employed. These chemical regeneration processes are envisioned to occur offboard the vehicle.

  6. Fracture Dissolution of Carbonate Rock: An Innovative Process for Gas Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Castle; Ronald W. Falta; David Bruce; Larry Murdoch; Scott E. Brame; Donald Brooks

    2006-10-31

    The goal of the project is to develop and assess the feasibility and economic viability of an innovative concept that may lead to commercialization of new gas-storage capacity near major markets. The investigation involves a new approach to developing underground gas storage in carbonate rock, which is present near major markets in many areas of the United States. Because of the lack of conventional gas storage and the projected growth in demand for storage capacity, many of these areas are likely to experience shortfalls in gas deliverability. Since depleted gas reservoirs and salt formations are nearly non-existent in many areas, alternatives to conventional methods of gas storage are required. The need for improved methods of gas storage, particularly for ways to meet peak demand, is increasing. Gas-market conditions are driving the need for higher deliverability and more flexibility in injection/withdrawal cycling. In order to meet these needs, the project involves an innovative approach to developing underground storage capacity by creating caverns in carbonate rock formations by acid dissolution. The basic concept of the acid-dissolution method is to drill to depth, fracture the carbonate rock layer as needed, and then create a cavern using an aqueous acid to dissolve the carbonate rock. Assessing feasibility of the acid-dissolution method included a regional geologic investigation. Data were compiled and analyzed from carbonate formations in six states: Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and New York. To analyze the requirements for creating storage volume, the following aspects of the dissolution process were examined: weight and volume of rock to be dissolved; gas storage pressure, temperature, and volume at depth; rock solubility; and acid costs. Hydrochloric acid was determined to be the best acid to use because of low cost, high acid solubility, fast reaction rates with carbonate rock, and highly soluble products (calcium chloride

  7. Developing engineering processes through integrated modelling of product and process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe Bjerrum; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This article aims at developing an operational tool for integrated modelling of product assortments and engineering processes in companies making customer specific products. Integrating a product model in the design of engineering processes will provide a deeper understanding of the engineering...... activities as well as insight into how product features affect the engineering processes. The article suggests possible ways of integrating models of products with models of engineering processes. The models have been tested and further developed in an action research study carried out in collaboration...... with a major international engineering company....

  8. VALUE STREAM MAPPING AS LEAN PRODUCTION TOOL TO IMPROVE THE PRODUCTION PROCESS ORGANIZATION – CASE STUDY IN PACKAGING MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Klimecka-Tatar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the method of the production process improvement with the use of lean production tools has been presented. The Value Stream Mapping (VSM for the cardboard packaging produc-tion process has been presented. On the basis of the current state map (CSM, areas for improvement have been designated - 5 organizational changes of the process were marked out. To minimize the three basic losses excessive storage, unnecessary movement and delays, the changes were introduced in the method of inter-operative transport, supervision of the storage condition (input and output of the process, control at the processing operation and the use of a production loop. As a result of the changes, it is possible to shorten the process time, shorten the total time of operations adding value and reduce the number of non-compliant products.

  9. Influence of capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage in two-stage food production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Gaalman, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    In food processing, two-stage production systems with a batch processor in the first stage and packaging lines in the second stage are common and mostly separated by capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage. This combination of constraints is common in practice, but the literature hardly...... of systems like this. Contrary to the common sense in operations management, the LPT rule is able to maximize the total production volume per day. Furthermore, we show that adding one tank has considerable effects. Finally, we conclude that the optimal setup frequency for batches in the first stage...... pays any attention to this. In this paper, we show how various capacity and time constraints influence the performance of a specific two-stage system. We study the effects of several basic scheduling and sequencing rules in the presence of these constraints in order to learn the characteristics...

  10. Oxidative stability of rice bran, corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils d baking process and storage of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Jahani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of bread lipids during baking and storage reduces the nutritional value of the product and leads to the formation of off-flavors and off-odors. In this research, oxidative stability of rice bran, corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils during Brotchen bread baking process and storage was evaluated. Baking process caused a significant increase in oxidative indices such as peroxide, anisidine, Totox and thiobarbitoric acid values and free fatty acid content. However, storage of breads for 6 days in room temperature did not affect the value of the indices. Generaly, the value of the indices in bread containing rice bran oil was lower than those of the other breads, which indicated the higher oxidative stability of rice bran oil in baking process and storage. Pure oils treated in simulated baking process and storage had an oxidative quality similar to that of breads. This means that bread ingridients may not have an effect on oil oxidative stability. Bread containing rice bran oil gained also higher scores in sensory evaluation, which of course were in agree with its better oxidative status.

  11. Changes in carbon storage and oxygen production in forest timber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decrease in forest areas world wide and the damaging of its structures is hazardous to human health, hinders and dries up the spread of oxygen in the air and also destroys carbon storage. In recent years, global warming and changes in climates depending on the increase in the green house gases have been affecting the ...

  12. Food carotenoids: analysis, composition and alterations during storage and processing of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2003-01-01

    Substantial progress has been achieved in recent years in refining the analytical methods and evaluating the accuracy of carotenoid data. Although carotenoid analysis is inherently difficult and continues to be error prone, more complete and reliable data are now available. Rather than expressing the analytical results as retinol equivalents, there is a tendency to present the concentrations of individual carotenoids, particularly beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, carotenoids found in the human plasma and considered to be important to human health in terms of the provitamin A activity and/or reduction of the risk for developing degenerative diseases. With the considerable effort directed to carotenoid analysis, many food sources have now been analyzed in different countries. The carotenoid composition of foods vary qualitatively and quantitatively. Even in a given food, compositional variability occurs because of factors such as stage of maturity, variety or cultivar, climate or season, part of the plant consumed, production practices, post-harvest handling, processing and storage of food. During processing, isomerization of trans-carotenoids, the usual configuration in nature, to the cis-forms occurs, with consequent alteration of the carotenoids' bioavailability and biological activity. Isomerization is promoted by light, heat and acids. The principal cause of carotenoid loss during processing and storage of food is enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation of the highly unsaturated carotenoid molecules. The occurrence and extent of oxidation depends on the presence of oxygen, metals, enzymes, unsaturated lipids, prooxidants, antioxidants; exposure to light; type and physical state of the carotenoids present; severity and duration of processing; packaging material; storage conditions. Thus, retention of carotenoids has been the major concern in the preparation, processing and storage of foods. However, in recent years

  13. 33 CFR 147.847 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. 147.847 Section 147.847 Navigation and Navigable... ZONES § 147.847 Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. (a) Description. The BW PIONEER, a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system, is in...

  14. Microorganisms implication in the CO2 geologic storage processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupraz, S.

    2008-01-01

    A first result of this thesis is the building and validation of a circulation reactor named BCC (Bio-mineralization Control Cell). The reactor has the functionality of a biological reactor and allows a monitoring of physico-chemical characteristics such as Eh, pH, electrical conductivity, spectro-photochemical parameters. It also has a capability of percolation through rock cores. It is a first step toward an analogical modeling of interactions between injected CO 2 and deep bio-spheric components. Moreover, a new spectro-photochemical method for monitoring reduced sulfur species has been developed which allows efficient monitoring of sulfate-reducing metabolisms. In the thesis, we have tested four metabolisms relevant to bio-mineralisation or biological assimilation of CO 2 : a reference ureolytic aerobic strain, Bacillus pasteurii, a sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfovibrio longus, a sulfate-reducing consortium (DVcons) and an homoacetogenic bacterium, Acetobacterium carbinolicum. In the case of Bacillus pasteurii, which is considered as a model for non photosynthetic prokaryotic carbonate bio-mineralization, we have demonstrated that the biological basification and carbonate bio-mineralization processes can be modelled accurately both analogically and numerically under conditions relevant to deep CO 2 storage, using a synthetic saline groundwater. We have shown that salinity has a positive effect on CO 2 mineral trapping by this bacterium; we have measured the limits of the system in terms of CO 2 pressure and we have shown that the carbonates that nucleate on intracellular calcium phosphates have specific carbon isotope signatures. The studied deep-subsurface strains (Desulfovibrio longus and Acetobacterium carbinolicum) as well as the sulfate-reducing consortium also have capabilities of converting CO 2 into solid carbonates, much less efficient though than in the case of Bacillus pasteurii. However, once inoculated in synthetic saline groundwater and

  15. Microbiological changes occurring in trout fillets (Oncorhynchus mykiss W. 1792) salted and treated with potassium sorbate during production and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksüztepe, Gülsüm; Gürel Inanli, Ayşe

    2007-08-15

    In this study, microbiological changes during processing and storage of salted-cured trout fillets treated with potassium sorbate were investigated. For this purpose, 10 and 15% (w/w) NaCl and 1, 5 and 10% (w/v) potassium sorbate were applied to the fillets. The processed fillets were vacuum-packed and storage at 4 degrees C. The samples were analyzed in some periods of production and in the storage days of 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70 and 84 for numbers of total mesophilic aerob, psycrophylic, yeast and mould. In conclusion, the microbiological quality of all samples treated with 15% NaCl and potassium sorbate were found better. Consequently, it can be concluded that the usage of potassium sorbate may be useful and a synergistic effect between salt and potassium sorbate determined.

  16. Improving the quotation process with product configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Christensen, Simon Pape

    2006-01-01

    How can product configuration support the process of engineering highly complex industrial products? This article describes how an IT-based product configuration system was developed to support the process of mak-ing budget quotations. The article is based on a research project carried out...

  17. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing...... contaminants and factors that influence the occurrence are given as well as suggestions for mitigation....

  18. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    OpenAIRE

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid; Pedreschi, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing contaminants and factors that influence the occurrence are given as well as suggestions for mitigation.

  19. Plasma processing methods for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizeraczyk, J.; Jasinski, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the future a transfer from the fossil fuel-based economy to hydrogen-based economy is expected. Therefore the development of systems for efficient H_2 production becomes important. The several conventional methods of mass-scale (or central) H_2 production (methane, natural gas and higher hydrocarbons reforming, coal gasification reforming) are well developed and their costs of H_2 production are acceptable. However, due to the H_2 transport and storage problems the small-scale (distributed) technologies for H_2 production are demanded. However, these new technologies have to meet the requirement of producing H_2 at a production cost of $(1-2)/kg(H_2) (or 60 g(H_2)/kWh) by 2020 (the U.S. Department of Energy's target). Recently several plasma methods have been proposed for the small-scale H_2 production. The most promising plasmas for this purpose seems to be those generated by gliding, plasmatron and nozzle arcs, and microwave discharges. In this paper plasma methods proposed for H_2 production are briefly described and critically evaluated from the view point of H_2 production efficiency. The paper is aiming at answering a question if any plasma method for the small-scale H_2 production approaches such challenges as the production energy yield of 60 g(H_2)/kWh, high production rate, high reliability and low investment cost. (authors)

  20. Phenomenological rate process theory for the storage of atomic H in solid Hsub(2)sup(*)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, G.

    1976-01-01

    A phenomenological rate process theory is developed for the storage and rapid recombination of atomic hydrogen fuel radical in a crystalline molecular hydrogen solid at temperatures in the range o.1K(<=)T(<=K. It is shown that such a theory can account quantitatively for the recently observed dependence of the storage time on the storage temperature, for the maximum concentration of trapped H atom, and for the time duration of the energy release in the tritium decay experiments of Webeler

  1. Biorefineries--multi product processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm, B; Kamm, M

    2007-01-01

    The development of biorefineries represents the key for access to an integrated production of food, feed, chemicals, materials, goods, and fuels of the future [1]. Biorefineries combine the necessary technologies of the biogenic raw materials with those of intermediates and final products. The main focus is directed at the precursors carbohydrates, lignin, oils, and proteins and the combination between biotechnological and chemical conversion of substances. Currently the lignocellulosic feedstock biorefinery, green biorefinery, whole corn biorefinery, and the so-called two-platform concept are favored in research, development, and industrial implementation.

  2. Control of the dehydration process in production of intermediate-moisture meat products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S F; Huang, T C; Pearson, A M

    1996-01-01

    IM meat products are produced by lowering the aw to 0.90 to 0.60. Such products are stable at ambient temperature and humidity and are produced in nearly every country in the world, especially in developing areas where refrigeration is limited or unavailable. Traditionally IM meats use low cost sources of energy for drying, such as sun drying, addition of salt, or fermentation. Products produced by different processes are of interest since they do not require refrigeration during distribution and storage. Many different IM meat products can be produced by utilizing modern processing equipment and methods. Production can be achieved in a relatively short period of time and their advantages during marketing and distribution can be utilized. Nevertheless, a better understanding of the principles involved in heat transfer and efficiency of production are still needed to increase efficiency of processing. A basic understanding of the influence of water vapor pressure and sorption phenomena on water activity can materially improve the efficiency of drying of IM meats. Predrying treatments, such as fermentation and humidity control, can also be taken advantage of during the dehydration process. Such information can lead to process optimization and reduction of energy costs during production of IM meats. The development of sound science-based methods to assure the production of high-quality and nutritious IM meats is needed. Finally, such products also must be free of pathogenic microorganisms to assure their success in production and marketing.

  3. The antioxidant properties of functional food ingredients used in the production of bakery and dairy products, their impact on quality and storageability of the product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Potoroko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of antioxidant activity (AOA food ingredients (FI containing fucoidan used as dressers bakery and dairy products, and evaluate their impact on the quality and persistence of the products. The use of FI possessing AOA in food production will ensure their functionality from the point of view of increasing the resistance of the body to noninfectious diseases. Objects of research were fucoidan from different manufacturers, as well as experimental samples of bread wheat and yoghurt-based products restored dry milk. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of FI based on fucoidan showed that the total concentration of antioxidants varies in significant range from (43,32 ± 0,2 to (69,17 ± 0,2 mg of ascorbic acid per 100 g was Also determined the effect of any FI on the organoleptic and physico-chemical quality parameters of bread and yogurt product in storage. The use of FI in the technology of bread contributes to the prolongation of periods of storage. Thus the deviation values increased humidity decreases by 1.3%, porosity – by 1.4%. In addition, we studied the temperature stability of fucoidan after baking bread. The residual content of his made up 0,196 ± 0.0015 mg/g when introducing 0.2 g. study of the effect of FI with fucoidan on the inhibition of the processes of molding bread confirmed the strong bactericidal properties of fucoidans, due to the high AOA. During storage of yoghurt for 120 hours was observed decrease in the activity of capacity operated of acidity that may be due to the action of FI.

  4. A Product Line Enhanced Unified Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Kunz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Unified Process facilitates reuse for a single system, but falls short handling multiple similar products. In this paper we present an enhanced Unified Process, called UPEPL, integrating the product line technology in order to alleviate this problem. In UPEPL, the product line related activit...... activities are added and could be conducted side by side with other classical UP activities. In this way both the advantages of Unified Process and software product lines could co-exist in UPEPL. We show how to use UPEPL with an industrial mobile device product line in our case study....

  5. Modeling and analysing storage systems in agricultural biomass supply chain for cellulosic ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, Mahmood; Sowlati, Taraneh; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Townley-Smith, Lawrence; Stumborg, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Studied the agricultural biomass supply chain for cellulosic ethanol production. ► Evaluated the impact of storage systems on different supply chain actors. ► Developed a combined simulation/optimization model to evaluate storage systems. ► Compared two satellite storage systems with roadside storage in terms of costs and emitted CO 2 . ► SS would lead to a more cost-efficient supply chain compared to roadside storage. -- Abstract: In this paper, a combined simulation/optimization model is developed to better understand and evaluate the impact of the storage systems on the costs incurred by each actor in the agricultural biomass supply chain including farmers, hauling contractors and the cellulosic ethanol plant. The optimization model prescribes the optimum number and location of farms and storages. It also determines the supply radius, the number of farms required to secure the annual supply of biomass and also the assignment of farms to storage locations. Given the specific design of the supply chain determined by the optimization model, the simulation model determines the number of required machines for each operation, their daily working schedule and utilization rates, along with the capacities of storages. To evaluate the impact of the storage systems on the delivered costs, three storage systems are molded and compared: roadside storage (RS) system and two satellite storage (SS) systems including SS with fixed hauling distance (SF) and SS with variable hauling distance (SV). In all storage systems, it is assumed the loading equipment is dedicated to storage locations. The obtained results from a real case study provide detailed cost figures for each storage system since the developed model analyses the supply chain on an hourly basis and considers time-dependence and stochasticity of the supply chain. Comparison of the storage systems shows SV would outperform SF and RS by reducing the total delivered cost by 8% and 6%, respectively

  6. Effect of UHT processing and storage conditions on physico-chemical characteristics of buffalo skim milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.

    2011-01-01

    The obtained results indicated that physico-chemical and nutritional changes in UHT processed buffalo skimmed milk were more pronounced at 45 deg. C than 25 deg. C and 10 deg. C. Duration of storage adversely affected the chemical and nutritional quality of processed milk. A slight decrease in pH, total ash and lactose contents, was observed, whereas acidity was increased on the mentioned storage conditions. Total nitrogen and casein nitrogen contents gradually decreased during storage, whereas non-casein nitrogen (NCN) and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) increased to a great extent in samples stored at higher temperatures. A significant increase in hydroxyl methyl furfural (HMF) values occurred in UHT processed buffalo skim milk at 25 deg. C and 45 deg. C after of 90 days storage. Storage at high temperature (45 deg. C) caused undesirable effects on sensory properties, general quality characteristics and acceptability of UHT buffalo skimmed milk. (author)

  7. Chemical changes in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) minced muscle during frozen storage: Effect of a previous washing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgharzadeh, A.; Shabanpour, B.; Aubourg, S. P.; Hosseini, H.

    2010-07-01

    previous washing process Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) has acquired great attention because of its increasing farming production and application in the surimi-product commercialization. This work focuses on the effect of a washing process followed by frozen storage (6 months; -18 degree centigrade) on the quality of minced silver carp muscle. A previous washing step has led to a positive effect on fish quality according to marked content decreases in expressible moisture, volatile amines, free fatty acids and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; such quality performances were maintained throughout the frozen storage. On the other hand, most indexes tested showed quality losses throughout the frozen storage in both washed and unwashed fish material; however, water holding capacity (WHC) remained unchanged in washed fish throughout the frozen storage. Among quality indexes, a special attention should be given to the expressible moisture value and accordingly the WHC, as being closely related to the gel forming ability in order to obtain surimi-type commercial products. (Author) 46 refs.

  8. Material and process selection using product examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to suggest a different procedure for selecting materials and processes within the product development work. The procedure includes using product examples in order to increase the number of alternative materials and processes that is considered. Product examples can c...... a search engine, and through hyperlinks can relevant materials and processes be explored. Realising that designers are very sensitive to user interfaces do all descriptions of materials, processes and products include graphical descriptions, i.e. pictures or computer graphics....

  9. Material and process selection using product examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to suggest a different procedure for selecting materials and processes within the product development work. The procedure includes using product examples in order to increase the number of alternative materials and processes that is considered. Product examples can c...... a search engine, and through hyperlinks can relevant materials and processes be explored. Realising that designers are very sensitive to user interfaces do all descriptions of materials, processes and products include graphical descriptions, i.e. pictures or computer graphics....

  10. Apparatus and methods for recovery of lead oxide from production and application wastes of lead storage battery production or of lead storage batteries themselves. Verfahren und Anordnung zur Rueckgewinnung von Bleioxyd aus Produktions- und Anwendungsabfaellen der Bleiakkumulatorherstellung beziehungsweise der Bleiakkumulatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szalay, G; Gyoeroek, A; Orgovan, G

    1982-11-04

    For reasons of economy and pollution control, aqueous lead-oxide-containing wastes from the various steps of lead storage battery production are reprocessed involving e.g. a vibrating screen for separating foreign matter and particles larger than 0.2 mm, dewatering of the residual paste by centrifuging for recycling the thickened product to the production process at an H/sub 2/O content of some 20 wt%. Largish particles separated by the screen can be re-used after being finely ground; the water may be recycled just as well or be discharged following neutralisation.

  11. Stability of arsenic compounds in seafood samples during processing and storage by freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Lisbeth; Molin, Marianne; Amlund, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    was observed after processing or after storage by freezing. The content of tetramethylarsonium ion was generally low in all samples types, but increased significantly in all fried samples of both fresh and frozen seafood. Upon storage by freezing, the arsenobetaine content was reduced significantly, but only...

  12. Modeling of the process of moisture loss during the storage of dried apricots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, G; Berna, A; Bon, J; Mulet, A

    2011-10-01

    Moisture content is a reference parameter for dried food because the growth of most microorganisms is inhibited below certain water activity levels. In addition, it has a determining influence on the evolution of important parameters, such as color and flavor, and on other properties and deterioration reactions, such as texture, oxidation processes and nutritional value. During the storage of some dried fruits, moisture is produced due to Maillard reactions and exchanged with the surrounding environment through the packaging. The evolution of dried foods during their shelf life depends on the storage conditions. The aim of this study is to analyze the evolution of the moisture content in dried apricots packaged in different types of containers, namely glass and thermosealed polypropylene trays. The samples were stored at constant temperatures: 5, 15, 25 and 35 °C and were analyzed periodically over a period of 12 months. The sorption isotherms of apricots used in this study were also determined. In order to model how the moisture evolved, an empirical kinetic model was tested. This model considers both water transfer from the fruit and also water production as a result of the Maillard processes. The explained variance was higher than 95% in the samples stored in trays, which were thermosealed with film.

  13. Processing of basalt fiber production waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevostyanov, V. S.; Shatalov, A. V.; Shatalov, V. A.; Golubeva, U. V.

    2018-03-01

    The production of mineral rock wool forms a large proportion of off-test waste products. In addition to the cost of their production, there are costs for processing and utilization, such as transportation, disposal and preservation. Besides, wastes have harmful effect on the environment. This necessitates research aimed to study the stress-related characteristics of materials, their recyclability and use in the production of heat-saving products.

  14. Vitrification processes for fission product solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonniaud, R.; Jouan, A.; Moncouyoux, J.P.; Sombret, C.

    1982-10-01

    The different processes for fission product vitrification in the world are reviewed. Continuous or discontinuous processes, induction or arc heating, in can melting or casting, tests with radioactive or simulated wastes and industrial realizations are described [fr

  15. Influence of the xanthan gum addition on the technological and sensory quality of baking products during the freezing storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the 0.16% xanthan gum addition in the recipe of the bread production and its influence on the baking and sensory quality of products was monitored during the process of our research. Prepared dough was inserted in the freezing box directly (-18°C and it was stored for one, two, three, four, five and six months. When the baking process was finished, the products with xanthan gum and the products without it were compared and evaluated by both objective and subjective methods. It was found that freezing, cooling and storage of the products without xanthan gum addition influenced the volume, vaulting and general appearance of the products in a negative way and loaves of bread were evaluated as unacceptable after four months of freezing. The quality of experimental loaves of bread with xanthan gum was, even after six months of freezing storage, comparable with freshly baked products. Despite the freezing, the volume of the products had an increased value. After first month of freezing the volume increased by 28.6% and after two months of freezing it increased by 23.8% both compared to the control. The vaulting in products processed by freezing was in the required optimal level during the whole period of freezing. Sensory evaluation results of loaves of bread with xanthan gum were the best after three, four and five months of storage in a freezer, when 98 points were achieved. During the monitored period of freezing, the addition of 0.16% of xanthan gum markedly contributed to the preservation of sensory and baking quality of the frozen wheat dough.

  16. THE MODERN THEORY AND TECHNOLOGY OF PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND USE OF THE PRODUCTS OF COMPLEX PROCESSING OF WHEAT GERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Rodionova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The data and methods for the preparation of deep processing of wheat germ and their impact on the physical and chemical properties of the final products. It was found that for use in food technology is preferable to use a method is-cold-pressed wheat germ, under which the processed products do not present a residual amount of solvents and other non-food components. Given food and biological characteristics of wheat germ and products deep processing, it was found that they contain vitamin E, A, D, vitamin group В, more than 20 macro- and microelements. Methods of extracting oil from different types raw materials. Analyzed the functional role of ω-6 and ω -3 fatty acids for the human body and ways to maintain balance. A review of plant oils, the prospects of its use to create food systems balanced composition of fatty acids. It was found that the ratio of ω-6 and ω -3 fatty acids in wheat germ oil does not meet the recommended therefore to establish the necessary balance it is preferable to mix amaranth oil and pumpkin. Classified the factors affecting the quality parameters of wheat germ stored, evaluated the role of the enzyme complex during storage of wheat germ and their products deep processing. It was found that a significant effect on the damage of wheat germ has a dual action of lipase, lipoxygenase and catalase. Given the storage and stabilization of wheat germ, shows the potential use of stabilizers to increase the shelf life of wheat germ. As stabilizers, preference is given to compositions of organic acids: ascorbic, succinic and fumaric. It is proved that the composition of organic acids suppress the activity of lipase and lipoxygenase catalase by wheatgerm type noncompetitive inhibition. A review of the technologies used wheat germ and products of their complex processing in medical, cosmetic, feed and food industry. Evaluated the potential application of wheat germ and products deep processing industry of functional

  17. Evolutionary optimization of production materials workflow processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We present an evolutionary optimisation technique for stochastic production processes, which is able to find improved production materials workflow processes with respect to arbitrary combinations of numerical quantities associated with the production process. Working from a core fragment...... of the BPMN language, we employ an evolutionary algorithm where stochastic model checking is used as a fitness function to determine the degree of improvement of candidate processes derived from the original process through mutation and cross-over operations. We illustrate this technique using a case study...

  18. Design concept for maximized use of recycled scrap in the production of storage packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounin, D.; Kleinkroeger, W.; Schreiber, D.

    2004-01-01

    In the decommissioning of nuclear plants large quantities of radioactively contaminated waste metal have to be disposed of. An economic alternative to final storage is the recycling of the scrap metal in the production of transport and storage containers for low and medium active waste made of nodular graphite ductile cast iron. In the particular case of the CARLA plant operated by Siempelkamp, scrap metal with an activity of up to 200 Bq/g is accepted for processing. This covers the vast majority of the metals of a plant to be decommissioned. The composition of the waste metals varies greatly, depending on the different origins like structural or stainless steels After solidification of the high-carbon, high-silicon cast iron melt, the carbon has formed nodular graphite particles embedded in the metal matrix. Nodular cast iron has high strength and elongation. A further advantage of this material are its good radiation shielding properties. Fracture toughness is an important material property in the design of containers for final storage. In the particular case of containers that have to meet the specifications for final storage these must withstand accident loadings from a height of up 5 m at temperatures of -20 C without crack initiation. Containers for final storage do not have the benefit of impact limiters. The fracture toughness of cast iron depends primarily on the microstructure of the metal matrix. A ferritic microstructure has a higher fracture toughness than a pearlitic microstructure. Carbides in the matrix lead to further embrittlement. The metals to be recycled in the decommissioning of a nuclear installation have marked contents of elements like manganese (Mn) in structural steels, chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and molybdenum (Mo) in stainless steels and copper (Cu) in special steels. These elements lead to a pearlitic microstructure and to carbides, even at low contents in the melt. With a rising content of pearlite and carbides, the tensile and yield

  19. Atividade respiratória e produção de etileno em laranja ‘Pêra’ submetida a níveis de processamento mínimo e temperaturas de armazenamento Respiratory activity and ethylene production in ‘Pera’ orange submitted to different levels of processing and storage temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília de Arruda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de processamento e temperaturas de armazenamento na atividade respiratória e na produção de etileno de laranja 'Pêra' minimamente processada. O experimento foi realizado em duas etapas. Na primeira, as laranjas lavadas, sanificadas e resfriadas foram submetidas aos processamentos: a segmentos; b inteiras sem albedo; c inteiras com albedo; d intactas (controle. As laranjas minimamente processadas foram armazenadas a 6ºC. Na segunda etapa, as laranjas sem albedo foram armazenadas a 1; 11; 21 e 31ºC. A atividade respiratória e a produção de etileno eram determinadas imediatamente após o processamento; a cada hora, durante 10 horas, e a cada 24 horas, durante sete dias. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições por tratamento. O processamento interferiu na atividade respiratória, que foi maior imediatamente após o descascamento e a separação dos segmentos. O processamento das laranjas na forma inteira, com ou sem albedo, afetou a atividade respiratória das mesmas somente nas primeiras horas após o processamento. Durante todo período de armazenamento, a atividade respiratória das laranjas a 1º e 11ºC não diferiu entre si, sendo inferior à das laranjas a 21º e 31ºC. O etileno foi detectado apenas nos frutos mantidos a 21º e 31ºC. Os quocientes de temperatura, após a estabilização, eram 1,73 para 1-11ºC, 2,11 para 11-21ºC, e 1,54 para 21-31ºC. A atividade respiratória das laranjas foi influenciada pelos níveis de processamento e pela temperatura de armazenamento.The present work was aimed at evaluating the effect of different processing levels and storage temperatures on the respiratory activity and the ethylene production of minimally processed 'Pera' orange. The study was carried out in two stages. The first consisted of submitting the oranges previously washed, sanitized and chilled to the following processing

  20. Influence of storage duration and processing on chromatic attributes and flavonoid content of moxa floss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Min Yee; Huang, Jian; Zhao, Bai-xiao; Zou, Hui-qin; Yan, Yong-hong

    2016-01-01

    Moxibustion is an important traditional Chinese medicine therapy using heat from ignited moxa floss for disease treatment. The purpose of the present study is to establish a reproducible method to assess the color of moxa floss, discriminate the samples based on chromatic coordinates and explore the relationship between chromatic coordinates and total flavonoid content (TFC). Moxa floss samples of different storage years and production ratios were obtained from a moxa production factory in Henan Province, China. Chromatic coordinates (L*, a* and b*) were analyzed with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer and the chroma (C*) and hue angle (h°) values were calculated. TFC was determined by a colorimetric method. Data were analyzed with correlation, principal component analysis (PCA). Significant differences in the chromatic values and TFC were observed among samples of different storage years and production ratios. Samples of higher production ratio displayed higher chromatic characteristics and lower TFC. Samples of longer storage years contained higher TFC. Preliminary separation of moxa floss production ratio was obtained by means of color feature maps developed using L*-a* or L*-b* as coordinates. PCA allowed the separation of the samples from their storage years and production ratios based on their chromatic characteristics and TFC. The use of a colorimetric technique and CIELAB coordinates coupled with chemometrics can be practical and objective for discriminating moxa floss of different storage years and production ratios. The development of color feature maps could be used as a model for classifying the color grading of moxa floss.

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE CONSERVATION OF NUTRITIONAL ELEMENTS OF PEAS FOR STORAGE AND FOOD PROCESSING I. NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA VIZIREANU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern food grains are nominated as the main sources of soluble fiber in time that vegetables are the main sources of insoluble fiber, among which are the peas. The Romanian market has been flooded with a wide range of plant products frozen or preserved by sterilizing, whose culinary use is growing. But the quality of these products has decreased, the material may be affected by the storage modules to suppliers or customers and product type. Our study followed the evolution of the nutritional characteristics of three varieties of peas grown in the Galati region subjected to freezing or sterilization, and their behavior during food processing.

  2. Narrative infrastructure in product creation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deuten, Jasper; Rip, Arie

    2000-01-01

    In product creation processes, perhaps even more than in organization processes in general, uncertainties are addressed and complexity is reduced. In retrospect, linearized success stories are told. The history of a product innovation in a biotechnology firm is used to show how actually, over time,

  3. PRODUCT TRIAL PROCESSING (PTP): A MODEL APPROACH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    This study is a theoretical approach to consumer's processing of product trail, and equally explored ... consumer's first usage experience with a company's brand or product that is most important in determining ... product, what it is really marketing is the expected ..... confidence, thus there is a positive relationship between ...

  4. Ensiling – Wet-storage method for lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2011-01-01

    , and consequently by lowing pH, inhibiting other microbes to degrade the polysaccharides. Following silage treatment, enzymatic convertibility tests showed that 51.5%, 36.5%, and 41.9% of the cellulose was converted by cellulytic enzymes in ensiled maize, rye, and clover grass, respectively. In addition, tests......Ensiling of humid biomass samples wrapped in plastic bales has been investigated as a wet-storage for bioethanol production from three lignocellulosic biomass samples i.e. maize, rye, and clover grass. During the silage process, lactic acid bacteria fermented free sugars to lactic acid.......5% (by S. cerevisiae); the yields significantly increased after hydrothermal pretreatment: 77.7%, 72.8%, 79.5% (by K. marxianus) and 72.0%, 80.7%, 75.7% (by S. cerevisiae) of the theoretical based on the C6 sugar contents in maize, rye, and clover grass, respectively....

  5. Managerial implications for improving continuous production processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capaci, Francesca; Vanhatalo, Erik; Bergquist, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    . In this article we highlight SPC and DoE implementation challenges described in the literature for managers, researchers and practitioners interested in continuous production process improvement. The results may help managers support the implementation of these methods and make researchers and practitioners aware......Data analytics remains essential for process improvement and optimization. Statistical process control and design of experiments are among the most powerful process and product improvement methods available. However, continuous process environments challenge the application of these methods...... of methodological challenges in continuous process environments...

  6. Quality Control in Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prístavka Miroslav

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The tools for quality management are used for quality improvement throughout the whole Europe and developed countries. Simple statistics are considered one of the most basic methods. The goal was to apply the simple statistical methods to practice and to solve problems by using them. Selected methods are used for processing the list of internal discrepancies within the organization, and for identification of the root cause of the problem and its appropriate solution. Seven basic quality tools are simple graphical tools, but very effective in solving problems related to quality. They are called essential because they are suitable for people with at least basic knowledge in statistics; therefore, they can be used to solve the vast majority of problems.

  7. Integrating ergonomics into the product development process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    1997-01-01

    and production engineers regarding information sources in problem solving, communication pattern, perception of ergonomics, motivation and requests to support tools and methods. These differences and the social and organizational contexts of the development process must be taken into account when considering......A cross-sectional case study was performed in a large company producing electro-mechanical products for industrial application. The purpose was to elucidate conditions and strategies for integrating ergonomics into the product development process thereby preventing ergonomic problems at the time...... of manufacture of new products. In reality the product development process is not a rational problem solving process and does not proceed in a sequential manner as decribed in engineering models. Instead it is a complex organizational process involving uncertainties, iterative elements and negotiation between...

  8. Traditional production, consumption and storage of Kunu--a non alcoholic cereal beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffa, T; Jideani, I A; Nkama, I

    2002-01-01

    A survey of the production, consumption and storage of Kunu was carried out. Some of the information included consumption rate, processing techniques and equipment, producer's status and grains used. About 73% consume Kunu daily, 26% occasionally; 1% know it is produced but may or may not be consuming it. Millet (Pennisetum typhoideum), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare), maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa) and acha (Digitalis exilis) were used in its production in decreasing order of preference. The grains were used singly or combined; sorghum/millet was the most common combination in a ratio of 1:2 (w/w). Steeping was done in ordinary water for 12-72 h, depending on the grain type, in local clay pots, plastic buckets, calabashes or basins or 5-7 h in warm water (60-70 degrees C). The grains were dry or wet milled with or without spices such as ginger, red pepper, black pepper, clove and garlic. Other ingredients introduced included: sweet potatoes, malted rice, malted sorghum and Cadaba farinosa crude extract. Both dry and wet milling was done with grinding mills, mill stones or mortar and pestle, depending on locality. The product was then cooked into a thin free flowing gruel. The various types of kunu were: Kunun zaki, Kunun gyada, Kunun akamu, Kunun tsamiya, Kunun baule, Kunun jiko, Amshau and Kunun gayamba. Kunun zaki was the most commonly consumed. Production and consumption cut across all social classes of the society.

  9. Behaviour of Salmonella Typhimurium during production and storage of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosmini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo mozzarella cheese (WBMC is a fresh pasta filata cheese produced from whole chilled buffalo milk. Although pasteurization of milk and the use of defined starter cultures are recommended, traditional technology involving the use of unpasteurized milk and natural whey cultures is still employed for WBMC production in Italy. The aim of this study were to assess the behaviour of Salmonella Typhimurium during the production of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese and during its shelf life under different temperature conditions. Raw milk was inoculated with S. Typhimurium and the evolution of S. Typhimurium count during production and shelf life was monitored. In artisan WBMC production technology S. Typhimurium multiplied in the curd during ripening, but its growth rate expressed in log CFU/g/h was lower than the growth rate reported by theoretical predictions. Stretching proved to be a process with good repeatability and able to reduce S. Typhimurium contamination by 5.5 Log CFU/g. The intrinsic characteristics of traditional WBMC proved to be unable to obstacolate the growth of S. Typhimurium during storage in the case of thermal abuse. Control of raw milk contamination and a proper refrigeration temperature are key factors in reducing the risk for consumers.

  10. Dosimetric aspects of radiation processing of food and allied products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, G.; Bhat, R.M.; Bhatt, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Gamma radiation processing in the last 4-5 decades is continuously gaining importance in processing of a wide variety of products, as it can modify physical, chemical and biological properties of the materials, including food and allied products on industrial scale due its inherent qualities like ease of processing in finally packaged form, eco-friendly nature and other obvious reasons over conventional means of processing. Food and allied products are either from agricultural produce or animal origin; they get easily contaminated from soil during harvesting, handling, processing, environment conditions, storage and transport from various types of micro-organisms including pathogens. In many countries it is mandatory to bring down the population of micro-organisms to an acceptable level and complete elimination of pathogens before such products are accepted for human or animal consumption. Processing of food and allied products by radiation has its own challenges due to wider public acceptance of irradiated food, a wide range, 0.25-50kGy, of absorbed dose requirements for different category of such products and purposes, use of a variety of packaging materials in different shapes and sizes and because of its perishable nature. More than 50 countries including India in the world have accepted radiation processing of food and allied products by radiation. Dosimetry is an important aspect of radiation processing, whether it is food or allied product. Uniformity in dose delivered to these products depends on several factors such as product carrier to source frame alignment, product carrier and product/tote box design, product loading pattern, attenuation due to product thickness, product bulk density that varies from 0.1-1.0 kg/l and the plant design whether during processing product overlaps the source or otherwise. In this presentation dosimetric aspects of radiation processing of food and allied products and problems associated with dosimetry of such

  11. Do Process Innovations Induce Product Ones?

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Rosa Battaggion; Piero Tedeschi

    2006-01-01

    We study the relationship between process and product innovations in vertically differentiated duopolies. A process innovation can lead two competing firms to improve the quality of their goods introducing a product innovation. In fact, a cost reducing innovation has two effects: it spurs production and it enhances price competition. The former effect induces both firms to increase quality. The latter encourages differentiation, inducing low quality firm to decrease it. Therefore, high qualit...

  12. ABOUT THE GENERAL CONCEPT OF THE UNIVERSAL STORAGE SYSTEM AND PRACTICE-ORIENTED DATA PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Rudikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Approaches evolution and concept of data accumulation in warehouse and subsequent Data Mining use is perspective due to the fact that, Belarusian segment of the same IT-developments is organizing. The article describes the general concept for creation a system of storage and practice-oriented data analysis, based on the data warehousing technology. The main aspect in universal system design on storage layer and working with data is approach uses extended data warehouse, based on universal platform of stored data, which grants access to storage and subsequent data analysis different structure and subject domains have compound’s points (nodes and extended functional with data structure choice option for data storage and subsequent intrasystem integration. Describe the universal system general architecture of storage and analysis practice-oriented data, structural elements. Main components of universal system for storage and processing practice-oriented data are: online data sources, ETL-process, data warehouse, subsystem of analysis, users. An important place in the system is analytical processing of data, information search, document’s storage and providing a software interface for accessing the functionality of the system from the outside. An universal system based on describing concept will allow collection information of different subject domains, get analytical summaries, do data processing and apply appropriate Data Mining methods and algorithms.

  13. Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Uday B.; Gazula, Gopala K. M.; Hasham, Ali

    1996-01-01

    A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements.

  14. Monitoring nitrite and nitrate residues in frankfurters during processing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, M L; Bosch-Bosch, N; Garciá-Mata, M

    1996-09-01

    Frankfurter-type sausages were prepared in a pilot plant with different concentrations of NaNO(2) (75, 125 or 250 ppm) combined or not with 200 ppm KNO(3). A meat system, free of curing agents, was also used as control. Nitrite and nitrate levels were tested in various processing steps and over 120 days storage at 3 °C of the vacuum-packaged frankfurters. Little influence of the originally added nitrite level on the amount of nitrate formed was observed. Important losses of nitrite and nitrate were due to cooking. Thereafter about 50% of the nitrite added initially remained in this form in all samples (39, 59 and 146 ppm, respectively) and between 10 and 15% as nitrate. When only nitrate was initially added, formation of nitrite after cooking was observed (maximum level 43 ppm NaNO(2)). Formulations prepared with both nitrate and nitrite showed no significant differences (p nitrite or nitrate counterparts. A good correlation among nitrite and nitrate levels and storage time was showed by multiple linear regression analysis. It is concluded that the use of nitrate in combination with nitrite in cooked meat products seems to have little technological significance and adds to the total body burden of nitrite.

  15. Multiple products management system with sensors array in automated storage and retrieval systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongbunyong, Supachai; Roengritronnachai, Perawat; Kongsanit, Savanut; Chanok-owat, Chawisa; Polchankajorn, Pongsakorn

    2018-01-01

    Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (AS/RS) have now been widely used in a number of industries due to its capability to automatically manage the storage of products in effective ways. One of the key features of AS/RS is that each rack is not assigned for a specific product resulting in the benefit of space utilization and logistics related issues. In this research, sensor arrays are equipped at each rack in order to enhance this feature. As a result, various products can be identified and mixed in each rack, so that the space utilization efficiency can be increased. To prove the concept, a prototype system consisting of a Cartesian robot that manages the storage and retrieval of products with 9 variations based on size and color. The concept of Cyber-Physical System and self-awareness of the system are also implemented in this concept prototype.

  16. Biomass storage for further energy use through biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atem, A.D. [Instituto CEDIAC, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Energia, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas - CONICET, Mendoza (Argentina); Indiveri, M.E. [Instituto de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Energia, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Llamas, S. [Instituto de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    The present work approaches the residual biomass conservation for later digestion in an anaerobic batch reactor. Twenty 4 L capacity PET reactors were used. A measuring device was constructed to quantify the biogas production. As substrate were used tomato wastes from local industry and rumen fluid as inoculum. Digestion start up was able to be controlled by varying the temperature, during a period of 118 days was not verified biogas production. After re-inoculated with rumen fluid stabilized for 34 days, biogas production was verified. They were obtained 0.10 m{sup 3} of biogas per kilogram of volatile solids, with 50% of methane content. (author)

  17. Future carbon storage in harvested wood products from Ontario's Crown forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaxin Chen; Stephen J. Colombo; Michael T. Ter-Mikaelian; Linda S. Heath

    2008-01-01

    This analysis quantifies projected carbon (C) storage in harvested wood products (HWP) from Ontario's Crown forests. The large-scale forest C budget model, FORCARB-ON, was applied to estimate HWP C stock changes using the production approach defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Harvested wood volume was converted to C mass and allocated to...

  18. Aerobic storage under dynamic conditions in activated sludge processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majone, M.; Dircks, K.

    1999-01-01

    In activated sludge processes, several plant configurations (like plug-flow configuration of the aeration tanks, systems with selectors, contact-stabilization processes or SBR processes) impose a concentration gradient of the carbon sources to the biomass. As a consequence, the biomass grows unde...

  19. Biomass production and carbon storage of Populus ×canadensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    euramericana (Dode) Guinier ex Piccarolo) clone I-214 have good potential for biomass production. The objective of the study was estimation of biomass using allometric equations and estimation of carbon allocation according to tree components.

  20. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be

  1. Lipid oxidation and vitamin D3 degradation in simulated whole milk powder as influenced by processing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodani, Fatemeh; Perera, Conrad O; Abernethy, Grant; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Chen, Hong

    2018-09-30

    Vitamin D3 levels are known to sometimes decline in fortified products, which could be due to its degradation, although the exact mechanism is unknown. In this study, the influence of processing and storage conditions on lipid oxidation and vitamin D3 degradation were studied. Simulated whole milk powders with and without heat treatment were stored for 12 months at two different storage temperatures (20 °C and 40 °C). Stored samples without heat treatment showed higher lipid oxidation products analyzed by PV and TBARS values compared to those with heat treatment. Higher storage temperature also resulted in higher levels of lipid oxidation products. The concentration of vitamin D3 was also analyzed using UHPLC-MS/MS after PTAD derivatization in stored samples. An inverse relationship was observed between lipid oxidation products and vitamin D3 content. Finally, previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 oxidation products were quantified in stored samples using MRM analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Process modeling of a reversible solid oxide cell (r-SOC) energy storage system utilizing commercially available SOC reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottaghizadeh, Pegah; Santhanam, Srikanth; Heddrich, Marc P.; Friedrich, K. Andreas; Rinaldi, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An electric energy storage system was developed based on a commercially available SOC reactor. • Heat generated in SOFC mode of r-SOC is utilized in SOEC operation of r-SOC using latent heat storage. • A round trip efficiency of 54.3% was reached for the reference system at atmospheric pressure. • An improved process system design achieved a round-trip efficiency of 60.4% at 25 bar. - Abstract: The increase of intermittent renewable energy contribution in power grids has urged us to seek means for temporal decoupling of electricity production and consumption. A reversible solid oxide cell (r-SOC) enables storage of surplus electricity through electrochemical reactions when it is in electrolysis mode. The reserved energy in form of chemical compounds is then converted to electricity when the cell operates as a fuel cell. A process system model was implemented using Aspen Plus® V8.8 based on a commercially available r-SOC reactor experimentally characterized at DLR. In this study a complete self-sustaining system configuration is designed by optimal thermal integration and balance of plant. Under reference conditions a round trip efficiency of 54.3% was achieved. Generated heat in fuel cell mode is exploited by latent heat storage tanks to enable endothermic operation of reactor in its electrolysis mode. In total, out of 100 units of thermal energy stored in heat storage tanks during fuel cell mode, 90% was utilized to offset heat demand of system in its electrolysis mode. Parametric analysis revealed the significance of heat storage tanks in thermal management even when reactor entered its exothermic mode of electrolysis. An improved process system design demonstrates a system round-trip efficiency of 60.4% at 25 bar.

  3. Process for the extraction of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anav, M.; Chesne, A.; Leseur, A.; Miquel, P.; Pascard, R.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for the extraction of fission products contained in irradiated nuclear fuel elements which have been subject to a temperature of at least 1200 0 C during their irradiation prior to dissolving the fuel by the wet process. After mechanically treating the elements in order to decan and/or cut them they are brought into contact with water in order to pass the fission products into aqueous solution. The treated elements are then separated from the thus obtained aqueous solution. At least one of the fission products is then recovered from the aqueous solution. The fission products are iodine, cesium, rubidium and tritium

  4. Integrated Monitoring System of Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oborski Przemysław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrated monitoring system for discrete manufacturing processes is presented in the paper. The multilayer hardware and software reference model was developed. Original research are an answer for industry needs of the integration of information flow in production process. Reference model corresponds with proposed data model based on multilayer data tree allowing to describe orders, products, processes and save monitoring data. Elaborated models were implemented in the integrated monitoring system demonstrator developed in the project. It was built on the base of multiagent technology to assure high flexibility and openness on applying intelligent algorithms for data processing. Currently on the base of achieved experience an application integrated monitoring system for real production system is developed. In the article the main problems of monitoring integration are presented, including specificity of discrete production, data processing and future application of Cyber-Physical-Systems. Development of manufacturing systems is based more and more on taking an advantage of applying intelligent solutions into machine and production process control and monitoring. Connection of technical systems, machine tools and manufacturing processes monitoring with advanced information processing seems to be one of the most important areas of near future development. It will play important role in efficient operation and competitiveness of the whole production system. It is also important area of applying in the future Cyber-Physical-Systems that can radically improve functionally of monitoring systems and reduce the cost of its implementation.

  5. Impact of food processing and storage conditions on nitrate content in canned vegetable-based infant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamme, T; Reinik, M; Roasto, M; Meremäe, K; Kiis, A

    2009-08-01

    The nitrate and nitrite contents were determined in canned vegetable-based infant foods of five varieties. Furthermore, changes in nitrate content during industrial processing were studied. Samples were taken from raw materials, homogenized mixtures, and final products after sterilization, and then analyzed for nitrate and nitrite content by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Processing steps preceding heat treatment, such as vegetable peeling and washing, decreased the nitrate concentrations in the range of 17 to 52%. During processing, the nitrate content in canned infant foods decreased 39 to 50%, compared with nitrate concentration in the raw-vegetable mixture. The final nitrate concentration in infant foods depends mainly on the initial nitrate content of the raw-vegetable mixture. The effect of storage time (24 and 48 h) and temperature (4 to 6 degrees C and 20 to 22 degrees C) on nitrate and nitrite content in opened canned infant-food samples was studied. After 24 h of storage at refrigerated and room temperatures, the mean nitrate content increased on average by 7 and 13%, and after 48 h of storage by 15 and 29%, respectively. The nitrite content in all analyzed samples was below the quantification limit. Storage requirements of industrial manufacturers must be followed strictly. Opened can foods, stored under refrigerated conditions, have to be consumed within 2 days, as recommended by manufacturers. The infant-food producers must pay more attention to the quality of raw materials. Nitrate content analyses should be added as compulsory tests to the quality assurance programs.

  6. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  7. Intensification of ethylene glycol production process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisutwattanaa, Apiwit; Frauzem, Rebecca; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to generate an alternative design for ethylene glycol production process focusing on a reduction of operating cost and emissions. To achieve this, the phenomena-based method for process intensification was applied. 3 stages of process intensification were performed. First, the base......-case design was obtained, resulting in the production of ethylene glycol via two steps: ethylene oxidation synthesis followed by ethylene oxide hydration to produce ethylene glycol. Feasibility of the design was verified and the process was rigorously designed using a computer process simulation program...... solutions. As the result of intensification method, membrane separation was suggested and applied to the design. With the operation of the new equipment, the ethylene glycol production process was improved for 54.51 percent in terms of energy consumption....

  8. A Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-08-01

    Biomass Torrefaction is gaining attention as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties and chemical composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of approximately 300 C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200-280 C. Thus, the process can be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, which produces a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. The present review work looks into (a) torrefaction process and different products produced during the process and (b) solid torrefied material properties which include: (i) physical properties like moisture content, density, grindability, particle size distribution and particle surface area and pelletability; (ii) chemical properties like proximate and ultimate composition; and (iii) storage properties like off-gassing and spontaneous combustion.

  9. Property impacts on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) processes: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yuting; Nookuea, Worrada; Li, Hailong; Thorin, Eva; Yan, Jinyue

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Property impacts on CCS processes have been reviewed. • Properties were ranked and priority of properties in model development was analyzed. • Relevant properties in the design and operation of CCS processes have been identified. • The studied CCS processes include CO_2 capture, conditioning, transport and storage. - Abstract: The knowledge of thermodynamic and transport properties of CO_2-mixtures is important for designing and operating different processes in carbon capture and storage systems. A literature survey was conducted to review the impact of uncertainty in thermos-physical properties on the design and operation of components and processes involved in CO_2 capture, conditioning, transport and storage. According to the existing studies on property impacts, liquid phase viscosity and diffusivity as well as gas phase diffusivity significantly impact the process simulation and absorber design for chemical absorption. Moreover, the phase equilibrium is important for regenerating energy estimation. For CO_2 compression and pumping processes, thermos-physical properties have more obvious impacts on pumps than on compressors. Heat capacity, density, enthalpy and entropy are the most important properties in the pumping process, whereas the compression process is more sensitive to heat capacity and compressibility. In the condensation and liquefaction process, the impacts of density, enthalpy and entropy are low on heat exchangers. For the transport process, existing studies mainly focused on property impacts on the performance of pipeline steady flow processes. Among the properties, density and heat capacity are most important. In the storage process, density and viscosity have received the most attention in property impact studies and were regarded as the most important properties in terms of storage capacity and enhanced oil recovery rate. However, for physical absorption, physical adsorption and membrane separation, there has been a

  10. APPLICATIONS OF THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE TO WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN THE FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, W. L.; Christenson, James A.

    1979-07-31

    A project is discussed in which the possibilities for economical waste heat recovery and utilization in the food industry were examined. Waste heat availability and applications surveys were performed at two manufacturing plants engaged in low temperature (freezing) and high temperature (cooking, sterilizing, etc.) food processing. The surveys indicate usable waste heat is available in significant quantities which could be applied to existing, on-site energy demands resulting in sizable reductions in factory fuel and energy usage. At the high temperature plant, the energy demands involve the heating of fresh water for boiler make-up, for the food processes and for the daily clean-up operation. Clean-up poses an opportunity for thermal energy storage since waste heat is produced during the one or two production shifts of each working day while the major clean-up effort does not occur until food production ends. At the frozen food facility, the clean-up water application again exists and, in addition, refrigeration waste heat could also be applied to warm the soil beneath the ground floor freezer space. Systems to recover and apply waste heat in these situations were developed conceptually and thermal/economic performance predictions were obtained. The results of those studies indicate the economics of waste heat recovery can be attractive for facilities with high energy demand levels. Small factories, however, with relatively low energy demands may find the economics marginal although, percentagewise, the fuel and energy savings are appreciable.

  11. Visual Working Memory Storage Recruits Sensory Processing Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gayet, Surya; Paffen, Chris L E; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    Human visual processing is subject to a dynamic influx of visual information. Visual working memory (VWM) allows for maintaining relevant visual information available for subsequent behavior. According to the dominating view, VWM recruits sensory processing areas to maintain this visual information

  12. Visual working memory storage recruits sensory processing areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gayet, S.; Paffen, C.L.E.; Stigchel, S. van der

    2018-01-01

    Human visual processing is subject to a dynamic influx of visual information. Visual working memory (VWM) allows for maintaining relevant visual information available for subsequent behavior. According to the dominating view, VWM recruits sensory processing areas to maintain this visual information

  13. Bulking sludge control. Kinetics, substrate storage, and process design aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, A.M.P.

    2004-01-01

    The activated sludge process is the preferred technology for biological wastewater treatment. Despite decades of progress and operation serious operating problems still occur with this process. One major problem is the regular occurrence of excessive growth of filamentous bacteria, phenomena known

  14. Verification of product quality from process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobot, A.; Bunnell, L.R.; Freeborn, W.P.; Macedo, P.B.; Mellinger, G.B.; Pegg, I.L.; Piepel, G.F.; Reimus, M.A.H.; Routt, K.R.; Saad, E.

    1989-01-01

    Process models were developed to characterize the waste vitrification at West Valley, in terms of process operating constraints and glass compositions achievable. The need for verification of compliance with the proposed Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification criteria led to development of product models, the most critical one being a glass durability model. Both process and product models were used in developing a target composition for the waste glass. This target composition designed to ensure that glasses made to this target will be of acceptable durability after all process variations have been accounted for. 4 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Innovative Canadian Process Technology For Biodiesel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johar, Sangat; Norton, Kevin

    2010-09-15

    The need for increasing renewable and alternative energy in the global energy mix has been well recognized by Governments and major scientific forums to reduce climate change impact for this living planet. Biodiesel has very high potential for GHG emission reduction. An innovative process developed in Canada provides solution to mitigate the feedstock, yield and quality issues impacting the industry. The Biox process uses a continuous process which reduces reaction times, provides > 99% yield of high quality biodiesel product. The process is feedstock flexible and can use cheaper higher FFA feedstock providing a sustainable approach for biodiesel production.

  16. Processes controlling the production of aromatic water-soluble organic matter during litter decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klotzbücher, T.; Kaiser, K.; Filley, T.R.; Kalbitz, K.

    2013-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a fundamental role for many soil processes. For instance, production, transport, and retention of DOM control properties and long-term storage of organic matter in mineral soils. Production of water-soluble compounds during the decomposition of plant litter is a

  17. Conception of a heat storage system for household applications. Category: New product innovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Thomas [Leuphana Univ. Lueneburg (Germany); Rammelberg, Holger U.; Roennebeck, Thomas [and others

    2012-07-01

    Almost 90% of the energy consumption of private households in Germany is used for heating. Thus, an efficient, sustainable and reliable heat management is one of the main challenges in the future. Heat storage will become a key technology when considering the daily, weekly, seasonal and unpredictable fluctuations of energy production with renewables. The storage of heat is much more volume- and energy-efficient as well as more economical than electricity storage. However, transport of heat over long distances is coupled with high losses, compared with electricity transport. Therefore, we propose the use of micro CHP in combination with volume-efficient and nearly loss-free heat storage to counteract electricity fluctuations. Focus of this contribution the conception of the large-scale project ''Thermal Battery'', funded by the European Union and the Federal State of Lower Saxony. The underlying principle is the utilization of reversible thermochemical reactions, such as dehydration and rehydration of salt hydrates for heat storage. The main goal is the development of a prototypical storage tank, which is capable of storing 80 kWh of heat with a system volume of less than 1 m{sup 3}. Importantly, the Vattenfall New Energy Services as a collaboration partner will support the development of an application-oriented heat storage device. This project is being carried out by an interdisciplinary team of engineers, chemists, physicists and environmental scientists.

  18. Changes in guava (Psidium guajava L. var. Paluma nectar volatile compounds concentration due to thermal processing and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ivaneide Coutinho Correa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Guava nectars were formulated for approximately 10, 12, or 14 ºBrix, with 40% guava pulp. Sodium benzoate, 500 mg.kg-1 was used as preservative. The Brix value was adjusted with saturated sucrose syrup. The guava nectar was pasteurized (85 ºC/42 seconds in tubular heat exchanger and then hot filled in 500 mL white glass bottles. The products were stored either at room temperature (25 ± 5 ºC or refrigerated (5 ± 2 ºC under fluorescent light exposure and analyzed on the day after processing (time zero and also 40, 80, and 120 days of storage. Eight compounds were identified and quantified by Gas Chromatography (GC -Mass Spectrometry (MS: hexanal, (E-hex-2-enal, 1-hexenol, (Z-hex-3-enol, (Z-hex-3-enyl acetate, phenyl-3-propyl acetate, cinnamyl acetate, and acetic acid. There was no significant effect of thermal treatment on the volatile compound concentrations, except for a significant decrease (p = 0.0001 in hexanal and (Z-hex-3-enyl acetate (p = 0.0029. As for the storage time, there was a much greater decrease in the esters contents, such as (Z-hex-3-enyl and phenyl-3-propyl acetates. Cinnamyl acetate had the greatest decrease over storage time. Refrigeration was better than room temperature for guava nectar volatile compounds stability over storage time, mainly for esters compounds, which are important for the product aroma and flavor

  19. Eco-efficiency assessment in apple production and storage in the northeast of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Feliciano, Manuel; Maia, Filipe; Rodrigues, Filipe; Gonçalves, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Cost reduction, product quality, and customer demands have been pressing the agro-industrial sector to adopt more sustainable practices. Assessing the environmental performance of the food sector worldwide is crucial to reduce the environmental impact of agricultural and industrial practices. This study focus on the assessment of the eco-efficiency of the apple production and storage in the northeastern region of Portugal, one of the largest production regions, using a set of environmental in...

  20. Microbiological aspects of processing and storage of edible insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klunder, H.C.; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.C.M.; Korpela, J.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Growing pressure on the worlds’ livestock production sector and enduring protein undernourishment, persuade the search for alternative protein sources. Insects are widely consumed in many parts of the world and are evaluated as food or supplement. Nevertheless, little attention has been given to the

  1. A design study for a fission product fixation plant and storage at Windscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, K.M.; Ridley, G.; Adler, D.G.

    1961-01-01

    A flowsheet for a production plant has been worked out and the problems of designing a reliable production plant utilising it have been assessed. The properties of current glass compositions have been considered in relation to problems of permanent storage for periods of 800 to 1000 years and various storage proposals assessed. The performance of the preferred type of storage, i.e. dry storage in natural draught air-cooled vaults, has been estimated and consideration given to a number of variables affecting the optimum design. The design problems of a storage of the required life have been investigated in relation to suitable types of site and proposals made as to the types of construction to be used. Design work on tunnel loading facilities has been carried to the state of demonstrating feasibility. The capital costs and the economics of this type of waste storage have been investigated for unalloyed Magnox fuel and brief consideration given to alloyed and cermet fuels. Attention has been given to development problems of the whole system where they arise. (author)

  2. RESEARCH CONCERNING INSTALATION OF ALTERATIVE PROCESSES IN COW AND BUFFALO BUTTER DURING FREEZING STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Lup Dragomir; Flavia Pop

    2009-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics and freshness indicators of cow and buffalo butter during freezing (-15 ... -18oC) storage were studied. Changes in freshness parameters and alterative processes installation, when butter becomes improperly for consumption were studied, inducing acidity, peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV) andthe presence of epyhidrinic aldehyde. There was an increase of titrable acidity during storage, cow butter hydrolysis was installed after 35 days and after 30 days for ...

  3. Small scale production and storage quality of drymilled degermed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One traditional soft cultivar was processed by the conventional method (direct grinding with disc mill) and was compared with flours obtained under various degerming and grinding intensities; two types of grinder (disc mill and hammer mill, already present on the market) were tested in parallel. Consumer satisfaction scores ...

  4. Process Integration Analysis of an Industrial Hydrogen Production Process

    OpenAIRE

    Stolten, Detlef; Grube, Thomas; Tock, Laurence; Maréchal, François; Metzger, Christian; Arpentinier, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    The energy efficiency of an industrial hydrogen production process using steam methane reforming (SMR) combined with the water gas shift reaction (WGS) is analyzed using process integration techniques based on heat cascade calculation and pinch analysis with the aim of identifying potential measures to enhance the process performance. The challenge is to satisfy the high temperature heat demand of the SMR reaction by minimizing the consumption of natural gas to feed the combustion and to expl...

  5. Progress in gamma processing of commercial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, F.M.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper the global outlook for gamma radiation processing of commercial products is discussed. Canada's contribution to the development of the industry is presented. New developments in the applications of the process and its marketing are discussed. (U.K.)

  6. Design cocoa processing towards healthy cocoa products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiroz-Reyes, Cinthya Nathaly; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2018-01-01

    Roasting and fermentation are key steps in cocoa processing that can be modulated to optimize the presence of health-promoting compounds in the final product. Roasting promote melanoidins formation and polyphenols depolymerization. Results of Forastero and Criollo cocoa beans were processed in

  7. Processes for manufacture of products from plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a process for inhibiting browning of plant material comprising adding a chelating agent to a disrupted plant material and adjusting the pH to a value of 2.0 to 4.5. Processes for manufacture of soluble and insoluble products from a plant material are also disclosed. Soluble...

  8. Effects of storage and processing on residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liuwei; Ge, Jing; Liu, Fengmao; Jiang, Naiwen

    2014-05-01

    The residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans during storage and processing were investigated. Soybeans were treated with chlorpyrifos aqueous solution and placed in a sealed plastic container. The residue of chlorpyrifos was determined in soybeans at six time points within 0 and 112days during storage and oil processing of the soybeans was conducted. The analysis of the residues of chlorpyrifos was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results show that the dissipation of chlorpyrifos in soybeans is about 62% during the storage period. Moreover, the carryover of the residues from soybeans into oil is found to be related to the processing methods. Processing factor, which is defined as the ratio of chlorpyrifos residue concentration in oil sample to that in the soybean samples, was 11 and 0.25 after cold and hot pressing, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dry storage of MTR spent fuel from the Argentine radioisotope production reactor RA-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marco, A.; Gillaume, E.J.; Ruggirello, G.; Zaweruchi, A.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear fuel elements of the RA-3 reactor consist in 19 rectangular fuel plates held in position by two lateral structural plates. The whole assembly is coupled to the lower nozzles that fits in the reactor core grid. The inner plates are 1.5 mm thick, 70.5 mm wide and 655 mm long and the outer plates are 100 mm longer. The fuel plates are formed by a core of an AI-U alloy co-laminated between two plates of Al. Enrichment is 90% 235 U. After being extracted from the reactor, the fuel elements have been let to cool down in the reactor storage pool and finally moved to the storage facility. This facility is a grid of vertical underground channels connected by a piping system. The system is filled with processed and controlled water. At the present the storage capacity of the facility is near to be depleted and some indications of deterioration of the fuel elements has been detected. Due to the present status of the facility and the spent fuel stored there, a decision has been taken to proceed to modify the present underwater storage to dry storage. The project consist in: a) Decontamination and conditioning of the storage channels to prepare them for dry storage. b) Disassembly of the fuel elements in hot cells in order to can only the active fuel plates in an adequate tight canister. c) The remnant structural pieces will be treated as low level waste. (author). 10 figs

  10. In-Storage Embedded Accelerator for Sparse Pattern Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-13

    learning, and graph processing. [5][6][7]. A recent effort, the GraphBLAS [8], aims to standardize some of these computational kernels in order to...to perform analysis of enterprise and research problems in such environments. We are also currently developing GraphBLAS compliant operations in our

  11. Hanford underground storage tank waste filtration process evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B.W.; McCabe, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this filter study was to evaluate cross-flow filtration as effective solid-liquid separation technology for treating Hanford wastes, outline operating conditions for equipment, examine the expected filter flow rates, and determine proper cleaning. Two Hanford waste processing applications have been identified as candidates for the use of cross-flow filtration. The first of the Hanford applications involves filtration of the decanted supernate from sludge leaching and washing operations. This process involves the concentration and removal of dilute (0.05 wt percent) fines from the bulk of the supernate. The second application involves filtration to wash and concentrate the sludge during out-of-tank processing. This process employs a relatively concentrated (8 wt percent) solids feed stream. Filter studies were conducted with simulants to evaluate whether 0.5 micron cross-flow sintered metal Mott filters and 0.1 micron cross-flow Graver filters can perform solid-liquid separation of the solid/liquid waste streams effectively. In cross-flow filtration the fluid to be filtered flows in parallel to the membrane surface and generates shearing forces and/or turbulence across the filter medium. This shearing influences formation of filter cake stabilizing the filtrate flow rate

  12. ATMOSPHERE POLLUTION AT STORAGE OF SLAGS OF ALUMINIUM SECONDARY PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Panasyugin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic probability of the processes of the formation of compounds of aluminum (which release in the environment by hydrolysis ammonia, acetylene, propane and hydrogen sulfide is determined. In the article the economic loss from irrecoverable waste of aluminum and fines for emissions of air pollutants is estimated.

  13. Serial changes in plasma K concentration during storage of irradiation blood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togashi, Kazue; Yamada, Keiko; Otake, Sachiko; Saito, Yukiko; Sugimura, Kazuhito; Takahashi, Hoyu

    1996-01-01

    Irradiation of blood products is highly effective in the prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In order to assess the safe storage period of irradiated blood products, serial changes in plasma K, red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and lactic acid concentrations of whole blood and M·A·P-added red cell concentrate (RC-M·A·P) during storage at 5degC were measured after irradiation with 137 Cs by IBL 437C (CIS bio international). Plasma K concentration did not change immediately after irradiation, but increased more rapidly and in a radiation dose-dependent manner in the irradiated products than nonirradiated products. The changes in red cell 2,3-DPG and lactic acid concentrations were not affected by irradiation but were rather dependent on the storage period after blood collection. Plasma K concentrations of whole blood and RC-M·A·P irradiated with 25 Gy increased at 5 and 3 days, respectively, to the K levels observed after the storage of nonirradiated products for 21 days. It is therefore recommended that whole blood be used within 5 days and RC-M·A·P within 3 days when stored after irradiation with 25 Gy. (author)

  14. THE PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS USING STYLISTIC SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Gita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing consumer requirements for the way what everyday use products look like, forces manufacturers to put more emphasis on product design. Constructors, apart from the functional aspects of the parts created, are forced to pay attention to the aesthetic aspects. Software for designing A-class surfaces is very helpful in this case. Extensive quality analysis modules facilitate the work and allow getting models with specific visual features. The authors present a design process of the product using stylistic surfaces based on the front panel of the moped casing. In addition, methods of analysis of the design surface and product technology are presented.

  15. Stability evaluation of quality parameters for palm oil products at low temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nur Aainaa Syahirah; Mohd Noor, Mohd Azmil; Musa, Hajar; Ghazali, Razmah

    2018-07-01

    Palm oil is one of the major oils and fats produced and traded worldwide. The value of palm oil products is mainly influenced by their quality. According to ISO 17025:2005, accredited laboratories require a quality control procedure with respect to monitoring the validity of tests for determination of quality parameters. This includes the regular use of internal quality control using secondary reference materials. Unfortunately, palm oil reference materials are not currently available. To establish internal quality control samples, the stability of quality parameters needs to be evaluated. In the present study, the stability of quality parameters for palm oil products was examined over 10 months at low temperature storage (6 ± 2 °C). The palm oil products tested included crude palm oil (CPO); refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm oil (RBDPO); RBD palm olein (RBDPOo); and RBD palm stearin (RBDPS). The quality parameters of the oils [i.e. moisture content, free fatty acid content (FFA), iodine value (IV), fatty acids composition (FAC) and slip melting point (SMP)] were determined prior to and throughout the storage period. The moisture, FFA, IV, FAC and SMP for palm oil products changed significantly (P  0.05). The stability study indicated that the quality of the palm oil products was stable within the specified limits throughout the storage period at low temperature. The storage conditions preserved the quality of palm oil products throughout the storage period. These findings qualify the use of the palm oil products CPO, RBDPO, RBDPOo and RBDPS as control samples in the validation of test results. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. IS process for thermochemical hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuki, Kaoru; Nakajima, Hayato; Ioka, Ikuo; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Shimizu, Saburo

    1994-11-01

    The state-of-the-art of thermochemical hydrogen production by IS process is reviewed including experimental data obtained at JAERI on the chemistry of the Bunsen reaction step and on the corrosion resistance of the structural materials. The present status of laboratory scale demonstration at JAERI is also included. The study on the chemistry of the chemical reactions and the products separations has identified feasible methods to function the process. The flowsheeting studies revealed a process thermal efficiency higher than 40% is achievable under efficient process conditions. The corrosion resistance of commercially available structural materials have been clarified under various process conditions. The basic scheme of the process has been realized in a laboratory scale apparatus. R and D requirements to proceed to the engineering demonstration coupled with HTTR are briefly discussed. (author)

  17. Geometric Process-Based Maintenance and Optimization Strategy for the Energy Storage Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is critical for improving energy structure and reducing environment pollution. But its strong fluctuation and randomness have a serious effect on the stability of the microgrid without the coordination of the energy storage batteries. The main factors that influence the development of the energy storage system are the lack of valid operation and maintenance management as well as the cost control. By analyzing the typical characteristics of the energy storage batteries in their life cycle, the geometric process-based model including the deteriorating system and the improving system is firstly built for describing the operation process, the preventive maintenance process, and the corrective maintenance process. In addition, this paper proposes an optimized management strategy, which aims to minimize the long-run average cost of the energy storage batteries by defining the time interval of the detection and preventive maintenance process as well as the optimal corrective maintenance times, subjected to the state of health and the reliability conditions. The simulation is taken under the built model by applying the proposed energy storage batteries’ optimized management strategy, which verifies the effectiveness and applicability of the management strategy, denoting its obvious practicality on the current application.

  18. Identification of sixteen peptides reflecting heat and/or storage induced processes by profiling of commercial milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Jennifer; Baum, Florian; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-09-16

    Peptide profiles of different drinking milk samples were examined to study how the peptide fingerprint of milk reflects processing conditions. The combination of a simple and fast method for peptide extraction using stage tips and MALDI-TOF-MS enabled the fast and easy generation and relative quantification of peptide fingerprints for high-temperature short-time (HTST), extended shelf life (ESL) and ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk of the same dairies. The relative quantity of 16 peptides changed as a function of increasing heat load. Additional heating experiments showed that among those, the intensity of peptide β-casein 196-209 (m/z 1460.9Da) was most heavily influenced by heat treatment indicating a putative marker peptide for milk processing conditions. Storage experiments with HTST- and UHT milk revealed that the differences between different types of milk samples were not only caused by the heating process. Relevant was also the proteolytic activity of enzymes during storage, which were differently influenced by the heat treatment. These results indicate that the peptide profile may be suitable to monitor processing as well as storage conditions of milk. In the present study, peptide profiling of different types of milk was carried out by MALDI-TOF-MS after stage-tip extraction and relative quantification using an internal reference peptide. Although MALDI-TOF-MS covers only part of the peptidome, the method is easy and quick and is, therefore, suited for routine analysis to address several aspects of food authenticity. Using this method, 16 native peptides were detected in milk that could be modulated by different industrial processes. Subsequent heating and storage experiments with pasteurized and UHT milk confirmed that these peptides are indeed related to the production or storage conditions of the respective products. Furthermore, the heating experiments revealed one peptide, namely the β-casein-derived sequence β-casein 196-209, which underwent

  19. Manual on safe production, transport, handling and storage of uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This document includes a description of the physical, chemical and radiological properties of UF 6 and related products, including information concerning their production, handling, storage and transportation and the management of the wastes which result. All the operations of UF 6 management are considered form a safety point of view. The IAEA organized a series of meetings to consider the hazards of UF 6 transport since considerable quantities of depleted, natural and enriched UF 6 are transported between nuclear fuel sites. Storage of depleted UF 6 is another important issue. Factors affecting long term storage are presented, especially site choice and cylinder corrosion. Other topics such as waste management, quality assurance and emergency preparedness which contribute to the overall safety of UF 6 handling, are included. The intention of this document is to provide analysis of the safety implications of all stages of UF 6 operations and to draw attention to specific features and properties of importance. 38 refs, figs, tabs

  20. A pre-research on GWAC massive catalog data storage and processing system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Wan (Meng); C. Wu (Chao); Y. Zhang (Ying); Y. Xu (Yang); J. Wei (Jianyan)

    2016-01-01

    htmlabstractGWAC (Ground Wide Angle Camera) poses huge challenges in large-scale catalogue storage and real-time processing of quick search of transients among wide field-of-view time-series data. Firstly, this paper proposes the concept of using databases’ capabilities of fast data processing and

  1. Optimization of Vacuum Impregnation with Calcium Lactate of Minimally Processed Melon and Shelf-Life Study in Real Storage Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappi, Silvia; Tylewicz, Urszula; Romani, Santina; Siroli, Lorenzo; Patrignani, Francesca; Dalla Rosa, Marco; Rocculi, Pietro

    2016-10-05

    Vacuum impregnation (VI) is a processing operation that permits the impregnation of fruit and vegetable porous tissues with a fast and more homogeneous penetration of active compounds compared to the classical diffusion processes. The objective of this research was to investigate the impact on VI treatment with the addition of calcium lactate on qualitative parameters of minimally processed melon during storage. For this aim, this work was divided in 2 parts. Initially, the optimization of process parameters was carried out in order to choose the optimal VI conditions for improving texture characteristics of minimally processed melon that were then used to impregnate melons for a shelf-life study in real storage conditions. On the basis of a 2 3 factorial design, the effect of Calcium lactate (CaLac) concentration between 0% and 5% and of minimum pressure (P) between 20 and 60 MPa were evaluated on color and texture. Processing parameters corresponding to 5% CaLac concentration and 60 MPa of minimum pressure were chosen for the storage study, during which the modifications of main qualitative parameters were evaluated. Despite of the high variability of the raw material, results showed that VI allowed a better maintenance of texture during storage. Nevertheless, other quality traits were negatively affected by the application of vacuum. Impregnated products showed a darker and more translucent appearance on the account of the alteration of the structural properties. Moreover microbial shelf-life was reduced to 4 d compared to the 7 obtained for control and dipped samples. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. NPOESS Interface Data Processing Segment Product Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The NPOESS design allows centralized mission management and delivers high quality environmental products to military, civil and scientific users. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. The IDPS will process environmental data products beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continuing through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. Within the overall NPOESS processing environment, the IDPS must process a data volume nearly 1000 times the size of current systems -- in one-quarter of the time. Further, it must support the calibration, validation, and data quality improvement initiatives of the NPOESS program to ensure the production of atmospheric and environmental products that meet strict requirements for accuracy and precision. This paper will describe the architecture approach that is necessary to meet these challenging, and seemingly exclusive, NPOESS IDPS design requirements, with a focus on the processing relationships required to generate the NPP products.

  3. Applications of thermal energy storage to process heat storage and recovery in the paper and pulp industry. Final report, September 1977--May 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, J.H.; Hurley, P.J.; Martin, P.J.

    1978-09-01

    Applications of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) in a paper and pulp mill power house were studied as one approach to the transfer of steam production from fossil fuel boilers to waste fuel (hog fuel) boilers. Data from specific mills were analyzed, and various TES concepts evaluated for application in the process steam supply system. Constant pressure and variable pressure steam accumulators were found to be the most attractive storage concepts for this application. Performance analyses based on the operation of a math model of the process steam supply system indicate potential substitution of waste wood fuel for 100,000 bbl oil per year per installation with the accumulator TES system. Based on an industry survey of potential TES application, which requires excess base steaming capability, the results from the individual installation were extrapolated to a near-term (1980's) fossil fuel savings in the paper and pulp industry of 3.2 x 10/sup 6/ bbl oil/year. Conceptual designs of mechanical equipment and control systems indicate installed cost estimates of about $560,000 per installation, indicating an after tax return on investment of over 30%.

  4. Topicality and possibilities for complete processing of red mud of aluminous production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Л. Трушко

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the aluminum industry, the largest amount of waste is red mud (RM. that is a solid bauxite residue after hydrochemical processing and extraction of alumina. The topicality of its processing was shown by the ecological catastrophe in Hungary (2010, where the bund wall of the slurry storage was destroyed and the viscous mass of fine red mud fell on thousands of hectares of land.The risks of a recurrence of such a catastrophe increase due to the increased natural disasters: earthquakes, torrential rains and floods, as well as terrorist attacks. Therefore, it is proposed to exclude the storage of red mud in sludge storages and organize its shipment in transportable form to processing complexes.The article presents the results of scientific research and the experience of complex processing of red sludge on an industrial scale with the production of new types of marketable products.

  5. Possibilities of Production and Storage of Hydrogen in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmet Haklidir; Fusun Servin Tut; Sule Kapkin

    2006-01-01

    Black Sea, a highly-isolated inland sea, is the largest anoxic zone in the world. Since the hydrogen sulphide zone was discovered in early 19. century in the Black Sea, it has been adopted that there is no life in the depths of the Black Sea and there are only bacteria live in the hydrogen sulphide layer. High content of organic matter, with maximum processes of bacterial sulfate reduction is the major source of this hydrogen sulphide zone. Hydrogen sulphide is one of the most poisonous gases in the world but it has great economic value to obtain hydrogen via dissociated into hydrogen and sulphur. Thus the Black Sea is not only has a serious environmental contamination but also has potential source of hydrogen energy, if a decomposition process can be developed. In this study, the sources of hydrogen sulphide, environmental impact of hydrogen sulphide in the Black Sea, the available techniques of hydrogen production from hydrogen sulphide and the possibilities of hydrogen storage by the natural sources in the Black Sea have been investigated. (authors)

  6. Optimized collection, storage and measurement of radon and radon decay products - school experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipsborn, H. von; Geipel, R.; Just, G.

    1998-01-01

    Schools are expected more than ever to teach in physics and chemistry an understanding of radioactivity in its many aspects. Simple experiments on the occurrence, the measurement and the properties of radionuclides are necessary for true understanding. Such experiments are now possible with novel methods of collection and storage of ubiquitous radon and radon decay products from air, water and solids. (orig.) [de

  7. Development of technical design for waste processing and storage facilities for Novi Han repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizares, J.; Benitez, J.C.; Asuar, O.; Yordanova, O.; Demireva, E.; Stefanova, I.

    2005-01-01

    Empresarion Agrupados Internacional S.A. (Spain) and ENPRO Consult Ltd. (Bulgaria) were awarded a contract by the Central Finance and Contracts Unit to develop the technical design of the waste processing and storage facilities at the Novi Han repository. At present conceptual design phase is finished. This conceptual design covers the definition of the basic design requirements to be applied to the installations defined above, following both European and Bulgarian legislation. In this paper the following items are considered: 1) Basic criteria for the layout and sizing of buildings; 2) Processing of radioactive waste, including: treatment and conditioning of disused sealed sources; treatment of liquid radioactive wastes; treatment of solid radioactive waste; conditioning of liquid and solid radioactive waste; 3) Control of waste packages and 4) Storage of radioactive waste, including storage facility and waste packages. An analysis of inventories of stored and estimated future wastes and its subsequent processes is also presented and the waste streams are illustrated

  8. Engineering product storage under the advanced fuel cycle initiative. Part I: An iterative thermal transport modeling scheme for high-heat-generating radioactive storage forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an integrated nuclear fuel cycle technology under its Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Under the AFCI, waste minimization is stressed. Engineered product storage materials will be required to store concentrated radioactive cesium, strontium, americium, and curium for periods of tens to hundreds of years. The fabrication of such engineered products has some precedence but the concept is largely novel. We thus present a theoretical model used to calculate the maximum radial dimensions of right cylinder storage forms under several scenarios. Maximum dimensions are small, comparable to nuclear fuel pins in some cases, to avoid centerline melting temperatures; this highlights the need for a careful strategy for engineered product storage fabrication and storage

  9. Patient preferences in the treatment of hemophilia A: impact of storage conditions on product choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tischer B

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bernd Tischer,1 Renato Marino,2 Mariasanta Napolitano3 1Kantar Health, Munich, Germany; 2Haemophilia and Thrombosis Centre, University Hospital of Bari, Apulia, Italy; 3University of Palermo, Reference Regional Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis Hematology Unit, Palermo, Italy Objectives: To gain insights into the usage of factor VIII (FVIII products by patients diagnosed with moderate/severe hemophilia A, and to assess the impact and perceived importance of product storage.Methods: In this study, 200 patients diagnosed with moderate or severe hemophilia A across seven countries participated. Data were collected via a 30-minute, face-to-face interview in six countries and via a web-based survey in the seventh country. The questionnaire evaluated the effect of six features associated with FVIII products on the choice of the product; the structure and flow of data collection was designed to eliminate potential bias.Results: Two-thirds of the respondents were using recombinant FVIII products. Only 17% were generally dissatisfied with current FVIII products, whereas >40% of the respondents were dissatisfied with frequency of administration and storage issues when traveling. The majority noted restrictions in their daily activities, particularly travel and sports. Most of them (85%, stored their product in the refrigerator and of these, 88% believed that it should always be stored there. These patients were also less satisfied with the product overall, more concerned about storage temperature, more restricted in daily activities, and spent more time on preparation and injection compared with patients who stored their product at room temperature. Conjoint analysis revealed that origin of FVIII (plasma-derived vs recombinant was the strongest driver of product choice among all respondents, followed by storage flexibility (temperature, reconstitution device, and administration frequency. In this study, we did not investigate the efficacy and safety of

  10. Carotenoid stability during production and storage of tomato juice made from tomatoes with diverse pigment profiles measured by infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Diaz, Daniel E; Santos, Alejandra; Francis, David M; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2010-08-11

    Chemical changes in carotenoids and lipids were studied during production and storage of canned tomato juice using ATR infrared spectroscopy and HPLC. Samples from 10 groups of tomatoes with different carotenoid profiles were analyzed fresh, after hot-break and screening, after canning, and at five different time points during 1 year of storage. An apparent increase of carotenoids was observed after hot-break due to improved extraction efficiency. This increase was accompanied by some degree of lipid oxidation and carotenoid isomerization. Canning produced the most intense changes in the lipid profile with breakdown of triglycerides ( approximately 1743 cm(-1)), formation of fatty acids ( approximately 1712 cm(-1)), and degradation and isomerization of trans-carotenoids ( approximately 960 and approximately 3006 cm(-1)). Isomerization was corroborated by the relative increase of HPLC areas corresponding to carotenoid cis isomers. Canning reduced trans-lycopene, trans-delta-carotene, trans-beta-carotene, and trans-lutein by 30, 34, 43, and 67%, respectively. HPLC data indicate that canning causes a drastic reduction of tetra-cis-lycopene and promotes its isomerization to other geometric forms, including all-trans-lycopene. Infrared spectra of tomato juice lipid fractions correlated well with the number of days in storage (SECV 0.99), demonstrating continuous degradation of lipids. Results demonstrated that individual carotenoids and their isomeric forms behave differently during production and storage of canned tomato juice. Information collected by infrared spectroscopy complemented well that of HPLC, providing marker bands to further the understanding of chemical changes taking place during processing and storage of tomato juice.

  11. Advances in postharvest technologies to extend the storage life of minimally processed fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asgar; Yeoh, Wei Keat; Forney, Charles; Siddiqui, Mohammed Wasim

    2017-10-26

    Minimally processed fresh produce is one of the fastest growing segments of the food industry due to consumer demand for fresh, healthy, and convenient foods. However, mechanical operations of cutting and peeling induce the liberation of cellular contents at the site of wounding that can promote the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. In addition, rates of tissue senescence can be enhanced resulting in reduced storage life of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Chlorine has been widely adopted in the disinfection and washing procedures of fresh-cut produce due to its low cost and efficacy against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. Continuous replenishment of chlorine in high organic wash water can promote the formation of carcinogenic compounds such as trihalomethanes, which threaten human and environmental health. Alternative green and innovative chemical and physical postharvest treatments such as ozone, electrolyzed water, hydrogen peroxide, ultraviolet radiation, high pressure processing, and ultrasound can achieve similar reduction of microorganisms as chlorine without the production of harmful compounds or compromising the quality of fresh-cut produce.

  12. Cryogenic thermal storage system for discontinuous industrial vacuum processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scaringella M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Phase Change Materials are proposed for refrigerating systems in discontinuous industrial vacuum processes where temperatures as low as −140 ÷ −100°C are necessary within time-frames representing 10÷20% of total operating time. An application is proposed for cooling systems used in a Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD apparatus. A prototype has been manufactured which couples a cryopump with a reservoir filled with MethylCycloPentane (MCP-C6H12 and a distribution line where nitrogen in the gaseous state is flowing. Preliminary tests show that temperatures of about −120°C are actually achieved within time windows compatible with PVD applications.

  13. MODERN PROCESSES AND EQUIPMENT FOR BEER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Sidorov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern progress trends of processes of brewing and fermenters for their realization are considered. It is rotined that the today most widespread method of production are speed-up processes on the method of Nathan in one technological stage in one vehicle –cylinder-conical tank — CCT. The next stage of development must be passing to the continuous methods, however these, known enough methods, so far did not find realization. The second directions of development of brewing is distribution of minibrewerys, including restaurant complexes. The basic stimulus of development of this direction is possibility of receipt of the so-called «living» beer — the high-quality unfiltered product, however today large competition make mass productions which mastered the technique of production of «living» beer at industrial level.

  14. Integrated durability process in product development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompetzki, M.; Saadetian, H.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation describes the integrated durability process in product development. Each of the major components of the integrated process are described along with a number of examples of how integrated durability assessment has been used in the ground vehicle industry. The durability process starts with the acquisition of loading information, either physically through loads measurement or virtually through multibody dynamics. The loading information is then processed and characterized for further analysis. Durability assessment was historically test based and completed through field or laboratory evaluation. Today, it is common that both the test and CAE environments are used together in durability assessment. Test based durability assessment is used for final design sign-off but is also critically important for correlating CAE models, in order to investigate design alternatives. There is also a major initiative today to integrate the individual components into a process, by linking applications and providing a framework to communicate information as well as manage all the data involved in the entire process. Although a single process is presented, the details of the process can vary significantly for different products and applications. Recent applications that highlight different parts of the durability process are given. As well as an example of how integration of software tools between different disciplines (MBD, FE and fatigue) not only simplifies the process, but also significantly improves it. (author)

  15. Stability Analysis of Buffer Storage Large Basket and Temporary Storage Pre-packaging Basket Used in the Type B Radwaste Process Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Kyun; Lee, Kune Woo; Moon, Jei Kwon

    2011-01-01

    The ITER radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment and storage systems are currently being designed to manage Type B, Type A and dust radwastes generated during the ITER machine operation. The Type B management system is to be in the hot cell building basement with temporary storage and the modular type storages outside the hot cell building for the pre-packed Type B radwaste during the ITER operation of 20 years. In order to store Type B radwaste components in onsite storage, the waste treatment chain process for Type B radwastes was developed as follows. First, Type B full components filled in a large basket are imported from Tokamak to the hot cell basement and they are stored in the buffer storage before treatment. Second, they are cut properly with a laser cutting machine or band saw machine and sliced waste parts are filled in a pre-packaging basket. Third, the sampling of Type B components is performed and then the tritium removal treatment is done in an oven to remove tritium from the waste surface and then the sampling is performed again. Forth, the characterization is performed by using a gamma spectrometry. Fifth, the pre-packaging operation is done to ensure the final packaging of the radwaste. Sixth, the pre-packaging baskets are stored in the temporary storage for 6 months and then they are sent to the extension storage and stored until export to host country. One of issues in the waste treatment scheme is to analyze the stacking stability of a stack of large baskets and pre-packaging baskets in the storage system. The baseline plan is to stack the large baskets in two layers in the buffer storage and to stack the pre-packaging baskets in three layers in the temporary storage and extension storage. In this study, the stacking stability analysis for the buffer storage large basket and temporary storage pre-packaging basket was performed for various stack failure modes

  16. Hydrogen production processes; Procedes de production d'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The goals of this first Gedepeon workshop on hydrogen production processes are: to stimulate the information exchange about research programs and research advances in the domain of hydrogen production processes, to indicate the domains of interest of these processes and the potentialities linked with the coupling of a nuclear reactor, to establish the actions of common interest for the CEA, the CNRS, and eventually EDF, that can be funded in the framework of the Gedepeon research group. This document gathers the slides of the 17 presentations given at this workshop and dealing with: the H{sub 2} question and the international research programs (Lucchese P.); the CEA's research program (Lucchese P., Anzieu P.); processes based on the iodine/sulfur cycle: efficiency of a facility - flow-sheets, efficiencies, hard points (Borgard J.M.), R and D about the I/S cycle: Bunsen reaction (Colette S.), R and D about the I/S cycle: the HI/I{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system (Doizi D.), demonstration loop/chemical engineering (Duhamet J.), materials and corrosion (Terlain A.); other processes under study: the Westinghouse cycle (Eysseric C.), other processes under study at the CEA (UT3, plasma,...) (Lemort F.), database about thermochemical cycles (Abanades S.), Zn/ZnO cycle (Broust F.), H{sub 2} production by cracking, high temperature reforming with carbon trapping (Flamant G.), membrane technology (De Lamare J.); high-temperature electrolysis: SOFC used as electrolyzers (Grastien R.); generic aspects linked with hydrogen production: technical-economical evaluation of processes (Werkoff F.), thermodynamic tools (Neveu P.), the reactor-process coupling (Aujollet P.). (J.S.)

  17. Sustainability evaluation of nanotechnology processing and production

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa M. Mata; Nídia de Sá Caetano; António A. Martins

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the current situation and challenges posed by nanotechnology from a sustainability point of view. It presents an objective methodology to evaluate the sustainability of nanotechnology products, based on a life cycle thinking approach, a framework particularly suited to assess all current and future relevant economic, societal and environmental impacts products and processes. It is grounded on a hierarchical definition of indicators, starting from 3D indicators that take...

  18. The Relationship between Processing and Storage in Working Memory Span: Not Two Sides of the Same Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehara, Yukio; Saito, Satoru

    2007-01-01

    In working memory (WM) span tests, participants maintain memory items while performing processing tasks. In this study, we examined the impact of task processing requirements on memory-storage activities, looking at the stimulus order effect and the impact of storage requirements on processing activities, testing the processing time effect in WM…

  19. Cluster processing for 16Mb DRAM production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergendahl, A.; Horak, D.

    1989-01-01

    Multichamber and in-situ technology are used to meet the challenge of manufacturing 16-Mb cost/performance DRAMs. The 16-Mb fabrication process is more complex than earlier 1-Mb and 4-Mb chips. Clustering of sequential process steps effectively compensates for both manufacturing complexity and foreign-material (FM) related defect densities. The development time of clusters combining new processes and equipment in multiple automated steps is nearly as long as the product development cycle. This necessitates codevelopment of manufacturing process cluster with technology integration while addressing the factors influencing FM defect generation, processing turnaround time (TAT), manufacturing costs, yield and array cell and support device designs. The advantages of multichamber and in situ processing have resulted in their application throughout the entire 16-Mb DRAM process as appropriate equipment becomes available

  20. New facility for processing and storage of radioactive and toxic chemical waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, F.E. III

    1976-01-01

    A new facility for the processing and storage of radioactive and toxic chemical waste is described. The facility is located in the science and engineering complex of the Santa Barbara campus of the University of California, near the Pacific Ocean. It is designed to provide a safe and secure processing and storage area for hazardous wastes, while meeting the high aesthetic standards and ecological requirements of campus and community regulatory boards. The ventilation system and fire prevention features will be described in detail. During the design phase, a small laboratory was added to provide an area for the radiation protection and industrial hygiene programs. Operational experience with this new facility is discussed

  1. PHANTOMS: Nanotechnology network for information processing and storage*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Antonio

    2001-06-01

    It is now accepted that nanotechnology is one of the key enabling technologies for sustainable and competitive growth in Europe. Nanoelectronics is certainly the branch with the most significant commercial impact and covers a huge range of interdisciplinary areas of research and development such as molecular electronics, bioelectronics, spintronics, nanoimprint, nanoscale optics, lithography, architecture and nanoprobes. It is also accepted that a significant investment will be required to ensure Europe's competitiveness in nanotechnology. At this stage it is impossible to predict the exact course that the nanoelectronics revolution will take and, therefore, its effect on our daily lives. We can, however, be resonably sure that nanotechnology will have a profound impact on the future development of many commercial sectors. The greatest impact is likely to be in the electronics sector, where the demand for technologies permitting faster processing of data at lower costs will remain undiminished. In order to avoid European industry and R & D being left behind the United States and Japan in this fast emerging nanoelectronics field, the PHANTOMS Network Scheme will promote European science and research through a pluri-national networking action, put together research capacities present in the various European regions and stimulate commercial nanoelectronic applications.

  2. Quality costs in the production process

    OpenAIRE

    J. Michalska

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is showing the relationship of the quality costs with a production process. In this paper it was worked out and introduced the way of marking the documents with regard to the quality costs.Design/methodology/approach: In the frames of own research it has been analysed the quality costs in the production process from the documents marked using the worked out way of marking.Findings: On the basis of the own research it can be stated, that the majority of the eleme...

  3. Process for production of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1947-03-14

    The process comprises continually passing a current of carbonaceous material, finely divided in a vertical zone of reaction, finely divided carbonaceous material raised to a fluidized state dispersed in gas flowing from the bottom to the top carrying into the zone of reaction an oxidizing gas in sufficient quantity to supply the heat for combustion by burning part of the carbonaceous material withdrawing from the zone of reaction the products of the combustible fluids, withdrawing from the zone the solid carbonaceous products of the reaction and reacting a part of the lesser products left in a second zone of reaction by means of steam to produce oxides of carbon and hydrogen.

  4. The management and development of the chopped firewood production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouhiaho, A.; Kouki, J.; Kara, K.; Mutikainen, A.; Oksanen, E.; Seppaenen, A.; Vuorio, K.

    2005-01-01

    The main aim of the project was to improve competitiveness of chopped firewood by producing information that can help to reduce production and distribution costs as well as increase the quality of chopped firewood produced. The aim was to attain the goal through four subprojects: 1. Productivity, Costs and Development Targets of New Firewood Machines, 2. The Artificial Drying and Storage Management of Chopped Firewood, 3. New Logistics Solutions for the Chopped Firewood Production Process, and 4. The Current Situation of the Firewood Trade in Europe. The research project covered an analysis of the productivity of new firewood machines, and the costs and quality of produced chopped firewood. Suggestions were made to firewood machine manufacturers for developing firewood machines. Also, the cost-effectiveness of current chopped firewood production and distribution chains was studied. Field tests were carried out on different types of cold and warm air dryers being used by chopped firewood entrepreneurs. In addition, the suitability of resistance based electronic wood moisture meter for measuring the moisture content of single chopped firewood pieces was also studied. Furthermore, a survey was carried out on the volume of firewood sales and the firewood production equipment available for sale in Europe, and European firewood merchants' methods of operation was studied. (orig.)

  5. Modern control of mineral wool production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Stanko P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the control of the plant for mineral wool production consisting of a number of the technological units of different sizes and complexity is considered. The application of modern equipment based on PLC (Programmable Logic Controller and SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition configuration provides optimal control of technological process. Described supervisory and control system is consisting of a number of units doing decentralized distributed control of technological entities where all possible situation are considered during work of machines and devices, which are installed in electric drive and are protected from technological and electrical accident. Transformer station and diesel engine, raw materials transport and dosage, processes in dome oven, centrifuges, polycondensation (PC chamber, burners, compressor station, binder preparation and dosage, wool cutting, completed panel packing and their transport to storehouse are controlled. Process variables and parameters like as level, flow, velocity, temperature, pressure, etc. are controlled. Control system is doing identification of process states changes, diagnostic and prediction of errors and provides prediction of behavior of control objects when input flows of materials and generates optimal values of control variables due to decreasing downtime and technic - economical requires connected to wool quality to be achieved. Supervisory and control system either eliminates unwanted changes in the production line or restricts them within the allowable limits according to the technology. In this way, the optimization of energy and raw materials consumption and appropriate products quality is achieved, where requirements are satisfied in accordance with process safety and environmental standards. SCADA provides a visual representation of controlled and uncontrolled parts of the technological process, processing alarms and events, monitoring of the changes of relevant

  6. Development of an Engineered Product Storage Concept for the UREX+1 Combined Transuranic/Lanthanide Product Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDeavitt, Sean M.; Downar, Thomas J.; Taiwo, Temitope A.; Williamson, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is developing next generation processing methods to recycle uranium and transuranic (TRU) isotopes from spent nuclear fuel. The objective of the 3-year project described in this report was to develop near-term options for storing TRU oxides isolated through the uranium extraction (UREX+) process. More specifically, a Zircaloy matrix cermet was developed as a storage form for transuranics with the understanding that the cermet also has the ability to serve as a inert matrix fuel form for TRU burning after intermediate storage. The goals of this research projects were: (1) to develop the processing steps required to transform the effluent TRU nitrate solutions and the spent Xircaloy cladding into a zireonium matrix cermet storage form; and (2) to evaluate the impact of phenomena that govern durability of the storage form, material processing, and TRU utilization in fast reactor fuel. This report represents a compilation of the results generated under this program. The information is presented as a brief technical narrative in the following sections with appended papers, presentations and academic theses to provide a detailed review of the project's accomplishments

  7. Construction apparatus for thermochemical hydrogen production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, S.; Nakajima, H.; Higashi, S.; Onuki, K.; Akino, S.S.N. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki-ken (Japan). Nuclear Heat Utilization Engineering Lab

    2001-06-01

    Studies have been carried out at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) on hydrogen production through thermochemical processes such as water-splitting. These studies are classified with iodine-sulphur cycle studies using heat from high temperature gas-cooled reactors. An experimental apparatus was constructed with fluorine resin, glass and quartz. It can produce hydrogen at a rate of 50 litres per hour. Electricity provides the heat required for the operation. The closed chemical process requires special control techniques. The process flow diagram for the apparatus was designed based on the results of previous studies including one where hydrogen production was successfully achieved at a rate of one liter per hour for 48 hours. Experimental operations under atmospheric pressure will be carried out for the next four years to develop the process. The data will be used in the next research and development programs aimed at designing a bench-scale apparatus. 7 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  8. Pilot production system cost/benefit analysis: Digital document storage project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The Digital Document Storage (DDS)/Pilot Production System (PPS) will provide cost effective electronic document storage, retrieval, hard copy reproduction, and remote access for users of NASA Technical Reports. The DDS/PPS will result in major benefits, such as improved document reproduction quality within a shorter time frame than is currently possible. In addition, the DDS/PPS will provide an important strategic value through the construction of a digital document archive. It is highly recommended that NASA proceed with the DDS Prototype System and a rapid prototyping development methodology in order to validate recent working assumptions upon which the success of the DDS/PPS is dependent.

  9. Colliding beam physics at Fermilab: interaction regions, beam storage, antiproton cooling, production, and colliding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.K. (ed.)

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the colliding beams experment department at Fermilab was to bring about collisions of the stored beams in the energy doubler/saver and main ring, and construct experimental areas with appropriate detectors. To explore the feasibility of using the main ring as a storage device, several studies were carried out to investigate beam growth, loss, and the backgrounds in detectors at possible intersection regions. This range of developments constituted the major topics at the 1977 Summer Study reported here. Emphasis in part one is on interaction regions, beam storage, antiproton cooling, production, and colliding. 40 papers from this part are included in the data base. (GHT)

  10. Fast pion production in exclusive neutrino processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershtein, S.S.; Komachenko, Yu.Ya.; Khlopov, M.Yu.

    1980-01-01

    Single pion production in exclusive neutrino reactions with small momentum transfer to nucleon, induced by neutrino scattering on virtual mesons (reggeons), is considered. The estimation of the contributions to process νA → μπA where A is a nucleon or the target nucleus made by various virtual mesons is presented. In the experimental investigation of such processes the contributions of different mesons may be singled out, thus providing information on the weak; meson-pion (reggeon-pion) transitions

  11. Nutritional Potential and Functionality of Whey Powder Influenced by Different Processing Temperature and Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Zarmina Gillani; Nuzhat Huma; Aysha Sameen; Mulazim Hussain Bukhari

    2017-01-01

    Whey is an excellent food ingredient owing to its high nutritive value and its functional properties. However, composition of whey varies depending on composition of milk, processing conditions, processing method, and its whey protein content. The aim of this study was to prepare a whey powder from raw whey and to determine the influence of different processing temperatures (160 and 180 °C) on the physicochemical, functional properties during storage of 180 days and on whey protein denaturati...

  12. Process for adapting a heat source and a thermal machine by temporary heat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahn, R.P.; Nicholson, E.W.

    1975-01-01

    The process described is intended to ensure the efficient use of the heat from a nuclear reactor or from a furnace burning fossil fuel at constant power, and of a boiler in a power station comprising a multi-stage steam turbine, the steam extracted from the turbine being used for pre-heating the boiler feed water. This process is most flexible with a varying load. It includes the high temperature storage of the excess heat energy in a low vapor pressure storage liquid (hydrocarbon oils, molten salts or liquid metals) at atmospheric pressure when the demand is low; then, when the energy demand is at its height, the reduction of steam extraction from the turbine with simultaneous utilisation of the hot heat storage liquid for the various maintenance heating functions of the power station by heat exchange, so that the heat can expand totally in the turbine with generation of energy [fr

  13. Processing routes evaluation of severely deformed Mg-Fe alloys for hydrogen storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antiqueira, F.J.; Leiva, D.R.; Ishikawa, T.T.; Jorge Junior, A.M.; Botta, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    MgH 2 is considered an interesting material for safe hydrogen storage in the solid state, due to its high gravimetric nominal capacity of 7,6%, and the relative low cost of magnesium. In this study, we attempted to improve the performance of the MgH 2 in the hydrogen storage. Different processing routes for Mg and Mg-Fe by severe plastic deformation were evaluated. The prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hydrogen storage properties were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and the Sievert's method. The results indicate superior properties to materials catalyzed with iron, as well as a high dependence of hydrogen absorption / desorption kinetic in accordance with the microstructures obtained through the various processing routes. (author)

  14. Selection of efficient options for processing and storage of radioactive waste in countries with small amounts of waste generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The report is intended to assist decision makers in countries using nuclear energy for non-power applications to organize their waste management practices. It describes methodologies, criteria and options for the selection of appropriate technologies for processing and storage of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from different nuclear applications. The report reviews both technical and non-technical factors important for decision making and planning, and for implementation of waste management activities at the country and facility levels. It makes practical recommendations for the selection of particular technologies for different scales of waste generation. These wastes may arise from production of radionuclides and their application in industry, agriculture, medicine, education and research. The report also considers waste generated at research reactors, research centers and research laboratories using radioisotopes, as well as waste from decommissioning of research reactors and small nuclear facilities such as hot cells, laboratories and irradiation facilities. Management of uranium mining and milling waste and management of spent fuel from research reactors are not considered in this report. Discussed in detail are: the basic legal, regulatory, administrative and technical requirements set up in a national waste management system and review of the factors and components affecting the selection of an appropriate national waste management system. the origins and characteristics of radioactive waste from different nuclear applications. the technical factors that might affect the selection of waste processing and storage technologies, the main waste management steps, information on available technologies, the basis for planning of waste processing and storage and the selection of a particular option for radioactive waste processing and storage in countries with a different scale of nuclear applications

  15. Selection of efficient options for processing and storage of radioactive waste in countries with small amounts of waste generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    The report is intended to assist decision makers in countries using nuclear energy for non-power applications to organize their waste management practices. It describes methodologies, criteria and options for the selection of appropriate technologies for processing and storage of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from different nuclear applications. The report reviews both technical and non-technical factors important for decision making and planning, and for implementation of waste management activities at the country and facility levels. It makes practical recommendations for the selection of particular technologies for different scales of waste generation. These wastes may arise from production of radionuclides and their application in industry, agriculture, medicine, education and research. The report also considers waste generated at research reactors, research centers and research laboratories using radioisotopes, as well as waste from decommissioning of research reactors and small nuclear facilities such as hot cells, laboratories and irradiation facilities. Management of uranium mining and milling waste and management of spent fuel from research reactors are not considered in this report. Discussed in detail are: the basic legal, regulatory, administrative and technical requirements set up in a national waste management system and review of the factors and components affecting the selection of an appropriate national waste management system. the origins and characteristics of radioactive waste from different nuclear applications. the technical factors that might affect the selection of waste processing and storage technologies, the main waste management steps, information on available technologies, the basis for planning of waste processing and storage and the selection of a particular option for radioactive waste processing and storage in countries with a different scale of nuclear applications.

  16. Processing Optimization of Typed Resources with Synchronized Storage and Computation Adaptation in Fog Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyang Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide application of the Internet of Things (IoT system has been increasingly demanding more hardware facilities for processing various resources including data, information, and knowledge. With the rapid growth of generated resource quantity, it is difficult to adapt to this situation by using traditional cloud computing models. Fog computing enables storage and computing services to perform at the edge of the network to extend cloud computing. However, there are some problems such as restricted computation, limited storage, and expensive network bandwidth in Fog computing applications. It is a challenge to balance the distribution of network resources. We propose a processing optimization mechanism of typed resources with synchronized storage and computation adaptation in Fog computing. In this mechanism, we process typed resources in a wireless-network-based three-tier architecture consisting of Data Graph, Information Graph, and Knowledge Graph. The proposed mechanism aims to minimize processing cost over network, computation, and storage while maximizing the performance of processing in a business value driven manner. Simulation results show that the proposed approach improves the ratio of performance over user investment. Meanwhile, conversions between resource types deliver support for dynamically allocating network resources.

  17. QUALITY OF MINIMALLY PROCESSED ‘FUJI’ APPLE UNDER REFRIGERATED STORAGE AND TREATMENT WITH ADDITIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINES BATALHA MORENO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability to prolong the useful life of the minimally processed ‘Fuji’ apple by applying the individual or combined additives (L-cysteine chloride, L-ascorbic acid and calcium chloride and to determine the appropriate period of storage of the whole fruit to perform the minimum processing. The experimental design was completely randomized in three-factor design with three replications. Factor A was composed of storage periods of whole apples, pre-processing, in cold chambers (20, 78, 138 and 188 days; the factor B was represented by storage periods minimum post-processing, simulating shelf life (3, 6, 9 and 12 days, and factor C was represented by chemical additives (distilled water, as control, 0.5% L-cysteine chloride, 1% L-ascorbic acid, 0.5% L-cysteine chloride along with 1% calcium chloride and 1% L-ascorbic acid together with 1% calcium chloride. The evaluated dependent variables were pulp color (L* and hº, soluble solids, titratable acidity, content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and quantification of polyphenol oxidase. In addition, was analyzed the presence or absence of Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli. The prolongation of the storage time of ‘Fuji’ apples in a refrigerated atmosphere promotes increased susceptibility to browning and softening after processing from 78 days of storage. The use of additives in the process, helps prevent these problems, especially when combined 0.5% L-cysteine chloride with 1% calcium chloride, achieving an excellent conservation in refrigerated shelf up to 6 days. From a microbiological aspect, minimally processed apples are toxicologically safe.

  18. Carbon dioxide capture, storage and production of biofuel and biomaterials by bacteria: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Sundaram, Smita; Gnansounou, Edgard; Larroche, Christian; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2018-01-01

    Due to industrialization and urbanization, as humans continue to rely on fossil fuels, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) will inevitably be generated and result in an increase of Global Warming Gases (GWGs). However, their prospect is misted up because of the environmental and economic intimidation posed by probable climate shift, generally called it as the "green house effect". Among all GWGs, the major contributor in greenhouse effect is CO 2 . Mitigation strategies that include capture and storage of CO 2 by biological means may reduce the impact of CO 2 emissions on environment. The biological CO 2 sequestration has significant advantage, since increasing atmospheric CO 2 level supports productivity and overall storage capacity of the natural system. This paper reviews CO 2 sequestration mechanism in bacteria and their pathways for production of value added products such as, biodiesel, bioplastics, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), biosurfactants and other related biomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Clean energy systems in the subsurface. Production, storage and conversion. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Zhengmeng Michael; Were, Patrick (eds.) [Clausthal Univ. of Technology, Goslar (Germany). Energie-Forschungszentrum Niedersachsen (EFZN); Xie, Heping [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China)

    2013-04-01

    Recent research on Integrated Energy and Environmental Utilization of Deep Underground Space. Results of the 3{sup rd} Sino-German Conference ''Underground Storage of CO{sub 2} and Energy'', held at Goslar, Germany, 21-23 May 2013. Researchers and professionals from academia and industry discuss the future of deep underground space technologies for an integrated energy and environmental utilization. Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, energy security and sustainability are three of the greatest contemporary global challenges today. This year the Sino-German Cooperation Group ''Underground Storage of CO{sub 2} and Energy'', is meeting on the 21-23 May 2013 for the second time in Goslar, Germany, to convene its 3{sup rd} Sino-German conference on the theme ''Clean Energy Systems in the Subsurface: Production, Storage and Conversion''.

  20. Effects of Formation Damage on Productivity of Underground Gas Storage Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I.C. Anyadiegwu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the effects of formation damage on the productivity of gas storage reservoirs was performed with depleted oil reservoir (OB-02, located onshore, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Information on the reservoir and the fluids from OB-02 were collected and used to evaluate the deliverabilities of the gas storage reservoir over a 10-year period of operation. The results obtained were used to plot graphs of deliverability against permeability and skin respectively. The graphs revealed that as the permeability decreased, the skin increased, and hence a decrease in deliverability of gas from the reservoir during gas withdrawal. Over the ten years of operating the reservoir for gas storage, the deliverability and permeability which were initially 2.7 MMscf/d and 50 mD, with a skin of 0.2, changed to new values of 0.88 MMscf/d and 24 mD with the skin as 4.1 at the tenth year.

  1. Production of strange particles in hadronization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.

    1987-08-01

    Strange particles provide an important tool for the study of the color confinement mechanisms involved in hadronization processes. We review data on inclusive strange-particle production and on correlations between strange particles in high-energy reactions, and discuss phenomenological models for parton fragmentation. 58 refs., 24 figs

  2. Scleroglucan: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant A. Survase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides produced by a variety of microorganisms find multifarious industrial applications in foods, pharmaceutical and other industries as emulsifiers, stabilizers, binders, gelling agents, lubricants, and thickening agents. One such exopolysaccharide is scleroglucan, produced by pure culture fermentation from filamentous fungi of genus Sclerotium. The review discusses the properties, fermentative production, downstream processing and applications of scleroglucan.

  3. Antioxidant properties of differently processed spinach products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Heinonen, I.M.; Hopia, A.I.; Schwarz, K.; Hollman, P.C.H.; West, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of variously processed spinach products (whole-leaf, minced and enzymatically liquefied spinach) on lipid oxidation was determined. In an autoxidative methyl linoleate (MeLo) system the inhibition of hydroperoxide formation, measured by HPLC after three days of oxidation, was in

  4. Process for production of an alkyl methacrylate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eastham, Graham Ronald; Johnson, David William; Fraaije, Marco; Winter, Remko

    2015-01-01

    A process for the production of an alkyl methacrylate, particularly methyl methacrylate, is provided, in which a Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenase enzyme is used to convert an alkylisopropenylketone substrate to the relevant alkyl methacrylate by abnormal asymmetric oxygen insertion. The invention

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS PRODUCTION PROCESSES ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mally poor competitors. Hence Baltzer (1969) maintains ... pork, russian and vienna sausages were included in this survey. An investigation of the possible influence of microbial levels of nteat products on shelf life and con- sumer health should .... Results and Discussion. A survey of the slaughter process at a bacon fac-.

  6. The impact of dry matter loss during herbaceous biomass storage on net greenhouse gas emissions from biofuels production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, Isaac R.; Mosier, Nathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle inventory models of greenhouse gas emissions from biofuel production have become tightly integrated into government mandates and other policies to encourage biofuel production. Current models do not include life cycle impacts of biomass storage or reflect current literature on emissions from soil and biomass decomposition. In this study, the GREET model framework was used to determine net greenhouse gas emissions during ethanol production from corn and switchgrass via three biomass storage systems: wet ensiling of whole corn, and indoor and outdoor dry bale storage of corn stover and switchgrass. Dry matter losses during storage were estimated from the literature and used to modify GREET inventory analysis. Results showed that biomass stability is a key parameter affecting fuel production per farmed hectare and life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. Corn silage may generate 5358 L/ha of ethanol at 26.5 g CO 2 eq/MJ, relative to 5654 L/ha at 52.3 g CO 2 eq/MJ from combined corn stover and conventional grain corn ethanol production, or 3919 L/ha at 21.3 g CO 2 eq/MJ from switchgrass. Dry matter losses can increase net emissions by 3–25% (ensiling), 5–53% (bales outdoors), or 1–12% (bales indoors), decreasing the net GHG reduction of ethanol over gasoline by up to 10.9%. Greater understanding of biomass storage losses and greenhouse gas fluxes during storage is necessary to accurately assess biomass storage options to ensure that the design of biomass supply logistics systems meet GHG reduction mandates for biofuel production. -- Highlights: ► Analyzed the impact of biomass loss during storage. ► Probable dry matter losses strongly depend on storage method and infrastructure. ► Assessed impact of storage losses on LCA for cellulosic ethanol production. ► Storage losses increase GHG emissions by 1–53% depending upon storage conditions.

  7. Production processes at extremely high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Gastmans, R; Wu, Tai Tsun

    2013-01-01

    The production processes are identified that contribute to the rise of the total cross section in proton-proton scattering at extremely high energies, s->~. At such energies, the scattering can be described by a black disk (completely absorptive) with a radius expanding logarithmically with energy surrounded by a gray fringe (partially absorptive). For the leading term of (lns)^2 in the increasing total cross section, the gray fringe is neglected, and geometrical optics is generalized to production processes. It is known that half of the rise in the total cross section is due to elastic scattering. The other half is found to originate from the production of jets with relatively small momenta in the center-of-mass system.

  8. Patient preferences in the treatment of hemophilia A: impact of storage conditions on product choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, Bernd; Marino, Renato; Napolitano, Mariasanta

    2018-01-01

    To gain insights into the usage of factor VIII (FVIII) products by patients diagnosed with moderate/severe hemophilia A, and to assess the impact and perceived importance of product storage. In this study, 200 patients diagnosed with moderate or severe hemophilia A across seven countries participated. Data were collected via a 30-minute, face-to-face interview in six countries and via a web-based survey in the seventh country. The questionnaire evaluated the effect of six features associated with FVIII products on the choice of the product; the structure and flow of data collection was designed to eliminate potential bias. Two-thirds of the respondents were using recombinant FVIII products. Only 17% were generally dissatisfied with current FVIII products, whereas >40% of the respondents were dissatisfied with frequency of administration and storage issues when traveling. The majority noted restrictions in their daily activities, particularly travel and sports. Most of them (85%), stored their product in the refrigerator and of these, 88% believed that it should always be stored there. These patients were also less satisfied with the product overall, more concerned about storage temperature, more restricted in daily activities, and spent more time on preparation and injection compared with patients who stored their product at room temperature. Conjoint analysis revealed that origin of FVIII (plasma-derived vs recombinant) was the strongest driver of product choice among all respondents, followed by storage flexibility (temperature), reconstitution device, and administration frequency. In this study, we did not investigate the efficacy and safety of the product. Not refrigerating FVIII products was associated with greater patient satisfaction and less restriction on daily activities. If efficacy and safety are unaffected, then storing FVIII at room temperature might have a positive impact on product choice. Few patients were aware that FVIII can be stored without

  9. Peace Journalism and the news production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Bläsi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years various models of „peace journalism“ or „constructive conflict coverage“ have been proposed. These models suggest alternative ways of conflict reporting in order to contribute to processes of de-escalation, peacebuilding and reconciliation instead of escalating, exaggerating or neglecting conflicts. However, these models will remain irrelevant for the practical work of journalists unless they are connected to the reality of today’s media. Therefore it is of great importance to also direct our attention to the news production process. At the same time, studying the factors that influence the production of journalistic reporting in times of conflict and war means learning about the actual preconditions for any effort of constructive conflict coverage. Based on qualitative expert interviews with German journalists, this paper presents a model of the production process of conflict coverage. According to this model, the production process can be described as a complex interaction of six factors: (1 structural aspects of the media, (2 conflict situation on-site, (3 personal features of the individual journalist, (4 the political climate, (5 lobbies, (6 the audience. After presenting the general model and the discussion of its limitations and possible benefits, the influence of the „political climate“ factor is explored in more detail and illustrated with the experience of German journalists in the aftermath of 9/11. The author argues that peace journalism can only attract the critical number of journalists needed for a noticeable change in conflict coverage, if there are realizable suggestions for how to meet the obstacles journalists face in their daily work. The model of influencing factors affecting conflict coverage could be a good starting point for this undertaking, as it enables us, on the one hand, to systematize and specify attempts to implement peace journalism and, on the other hand, to develop a more

  10. Maintenance planning for a deteriorating production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Reza; Fouladirad, Mitra

    2017-01-01

    We consider a system subject to degradation, more precisely a production process with three quality states evolving according to a homogeneous Markov process. The degradation decreases the income generated by the system. To maintain revenue stream and prevent the loss of revenue, the system is inspected according to a Markov-modulated Poisson process. It is assumed that each inspection at time t incurs a time dependent cost. Each inspection improves the system health and therefore the degradation level jumps to a less deteriorated state. In absence of inspections, the system state is prone to shift to a more deteriorated state with a constant rate. The problem is to determine an optimal operating (stopping) time which truly balances some flow of income and increasing costs due to inspections, and so maximizes the expected gain of the proposed policy. To demonstrate the applicability of the explored approach and its effectiveness, some numerical results are provided. - Highlights: • An integrated model based on a quality state-dependent reward structure is explored. • The model allows the revenue stream responds to variation in the quality state. • The production process is inspected according to a Markovmodulated Poisson process. • Assuming a Markovian structure, we predict the quality state behavior. • We determine an optimal production run length based on a stopping decision rule.

  11. A risk analysis for production processes with disposable bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merseburger, Tobias; Pahl, Ina; Müller, Daniel; Tanner, Markus

    2014-01-01

    : Quality management systems are, as a rule, tightly defined systems that conserve existing processes and therefore guarantee compliance with quality standards. But maintaining quality also includes introducing new enhanced production methods and making use of the latest findings of bioscience. The advances in biotechnology and single-use manufacturing methods for producing new drugs especially impose new challenges on quality management, as quality standards have not yet been set. New methods to ensure patient safety have to be established, as it is insufficient to rely only on current rules. A concept of qualification, validation, and manufacturing procedures based on risk management needs to be established and realized in pharmaceutical production. The chapter starts with an introduction to the regulatory background of the manufacture of medicinal products. It then continues with key methods of risk management. Hazards associated with the production of medicinal products with single-use equipment are described with a focus on bioreactors, storage containers, and connecting devices. The hazards are subsequently evaluated and criteria for risk evaluation are presented. This chapter concludes with aspects of industrial application of quality risk management.

  12. Effect of processing and storage methods on the shelf life and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These samples were packed in different packaging materials; polythene, aluminium foil, plastic container, and carton and stored at low (refrigeration) and ambient temperatures. For the period of 90 days of storage, the sample that was processed in the laboratory did not show any pest infestation, while the already smoked ...

  13. Review on processing of metal-organic framework (MOF) materials towards system integration for hydrogen storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available materials to form part of a practical hydrogen storage system, knowledge of the ‘processing’ techniques to improve the properties of the powders is essential. However, the processing routes of MOF materials towards system integration are rarely reviewed...

  14. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram Mass Balance Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KLEM, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of these calculations is to develop the material balances for documentation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and future reference. The attached mass balances were prepared to support revision two of the PFD for the CSB. The calculations refer to diagram H-2-825869

  15. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Melton Valley Storage Tanks Waste Filtration Process Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    Cross-flow filtration is being evaluated as a pretreatment in the proposed treatment processes for aqueous high-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to separate insoluble solids from aqueous waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST)

  16. Application opportunities of systems of control and monitoring for engineering processes fading by JSC 'Instrumental plant 'Tenzor', for utilization and storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbitsky, V.J.; Esaulkov, R.O.; Maslova, M.V.; Kujil, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Use of unique automated technological process control systems (ATPCS) on objects of storage of radiation hazardous and nuclear materials is offered. The application opportunity of diagnostic complex consisting of specialized software 'Cruise' and infra-red detection system for control and diagnostics of utilization of nuclear waste products in subcritical thermonuclear equipment is considered

  17. Capitalizing on new opportunities in Canada's emerging midstream : processing, transportation, marketing, NGL, storage : proceedings of a Canadian Institute conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Text or speaking notes used at a conference to examine the challenges and opportunities facing Canada's midstream petroleum and natural gas industry are contained in this volume. A total of eight 8 papers were presented, focusing on the wide range of business opportunities that do not fit into the core functions of the upstream business (exploration and production), or into the core functions of the downstream business (distribution and retail marketing). One of the biggest opportunities lies in the development of storage facilities for the natural gas industry. Other aspects of the midstream business addressed included processing, transportation, marketing, and natural gas liquids. tabs., figs

  18. Deformation Recording Process In Polymer-Metal Bilayers And Its Use For Optical Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Jean A.

    1983-11-01

    A non-antireflective polymer-metal bilayer structure, encapsulated inside a closed cons-truction/is used for digital data storage in the Thomson-CSF Gigadisc. In this paper, a simple model is presented for microdeformation recording in the medium. This model enables a good understanding of the readout signal as a function of the recording power and leads to some practical consequences. Useful polymers and metallic layers are identified and the disc performance is reported. It is shown that recording using laser diodes can be performed at bit rate up to 14 Mbits.s-1 with a laser power of 7 mW at the disc entry face, in case of a 1200 rpm disc speed. Moreover a working range of 4 mW, as defined by a 3 dB attenuation, is demonstrated. Discs from pilot production exhibit raw bit error rates at the level of 2.10-5. For usual environmental conditions, the disc behaviour is compatible with shelf-and archival life at scale of 10 years. Finally, the processes for both layers deposition and disc construction are easy and cost effective. It is concluded that Giaadisc can successfully enter today the market place.

  19. Energy production and storage inorganic chemical strategies for a warming world

    CERN Document Server

    Crabtree, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    Energy production and storage are central problems for our time. In principle, abundant energy is available from the sun to run the earth in a sustainable way. Solar energy can be directly harnessed by agricultural and photovoltaic means, but the sheer scale of the energy demand poses severe challenges, for example any major competition between biomass production and food production would simply transfer scarcity from energy to food. Indirect use of solar energy in the form of wind looks also promising, especially for those regions not blessed with abundant sunlight. Other modes such as tidal

  20. The Impact of Harvesting, Storage and Processing Factors on Health-Promoting Phytochemicals in Berries and Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kårlund

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing epidemiological and experimental data now emphasize that a diet rich in vegetables and fruits confers many health benefits. Functional products containing elevated levels of bioactive compounds are attracting considerable attention due to their potential to lower the risk of chronic diseases and their associated huge healthcare costs. On a global scale, there is an increasing demand for berries and fruits, since they are natural polyphenol-rich raw material to be incorporated into functional foods, nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. This is a major challenge for both industry and horticultural experts, because the content of health-promoting compounds in plants varies widely not only in different plant species, but also between cultivars. The content is also significantly affected by harvesting, storage and processing factors. This review summarizes the recent data and clarifies the main contributors of harvesting time, various storage conditions and post-harvest procedures, such as temperature management, controlled atmosphere, 1-MCP, calcium and plant activators, as ways to influence health-promoting compounds in fruits. Furthermore, the ways processing factors, e.g., enzymatic treatment, pressing, clarification, temperature, pressure and fermentation, can influence the levels of polyphenols and vitamins in berries and soft fruits will be discussed. Finally, strategies for preventing the decline of health-promoting compounds in fruits during long-term storage will be assessed in light of recent scientific progress and modern methods, which preserve the levels of polyphenols, will be highlighted.

  1. Technology for organization of the onboard system for processing and storage of ERS data for ultrasmall spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotov, Valery V.; Taganov, Alexander I.; Konkin, Yuriy V.; Kolesenkov, Aleksandr N.

    2017-10-01

    Task of processing and analysis of obtained Earth remote sensing data on ultra-small spacecraft board is actual taking into consideration significant expenditures of energy for data transfer and low productivity of computers. Thereby, there is an issue of effective and reliable storage of the general information flow obtained from onboard systems of information collection, including Earth remote sensing data, into a specialized data base. The paper has considered peculiarities of database management system operation with the multilevel memory structure. For storage of data in data base the format has been developed that describes a data base physical structure which contains required parameters for information loading. Such structure allows reducing a memory size occupied by data base because it is not necessary to store values of keys separately. The paper has shown architecture of the relational database management system oriented into embedment into the onboard ultra-small spacecraft software. Data base for storage of different information, including Earth remote sensing data, can be developed by means of such database management system for its following processing. Suggested database management system architecture has low requirements to power of the computer systems and memory resources on the ultra-small spacecraft board. Data integrity is ensured under input and change of the structured information.

  2. An Integrated Membrane Process for Butenes Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Melone

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Iso-butene is an important material for the production of chemicals and polymers. It can take part in various chemical reactions, such as hydrogenation, oxidation and other additions owing to the presence of a reactive double bond. It is usually obtained as a by-product of a petroleum refinery, by Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC of naphtha or gas-oil. However, an interesting alternative to iso-butene production is n-butane dehydroisomerization, which allows the direct conversion of n-butane via dehydrogenation and successive isomerization. In this work, a simulation analysis of an integrated membrane system is proposed for the production and recovery of butenes. The dehydroisomerization of n-butane to iso-butene takes place in a membrane reactor where the hydrogen is removed from the reaction side with a Pd/Ag alloys membrane. Afterwards, the retentate and permeate post-processing is performed in membrane separation units for butenes concentration and recovery. Four different process schemes are developed. The performance of each membrane unit is analyzed by appropriately developed performance maps, to identify the operating conditions windows and the membrane permeation properties required to maximize the recovery of the iso-butene produced. An analysis of integrated systems showed a yield of butenes higher than the other reaction products with high butenes recovery in the gas separation section, with values of molar concentration between 75% and 80%.

  3. IMPACT OF AMARANTH (AMARANTH SP. ON TECHNOLOGICAL QUALITY OF BAKERY PRODUCTS DURING FROZEN STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Frozen baking semi-finished meals and dough bring to consumer daily fresh products with the added value from the point of view of comfort and storage, as well as fresh products of comparable quality with baking yeasts products. The aim of this study was to observe the impact of adding 30% of flour from amaranth to the wheat flour T 650 on the quality of immediately baked products stored one, three and six months in a freezer at the temperature of -18°. The overall quality of baked loaves from frozen dough was declining gradually depending on the length of storage in the freezing box, while the highest decline in quality was recorded after three and six months of storage. Specifically, after one month there was a decline in the loaf volume - the one of the most important indicators for bakery quality - by 10.5% and after three and six months by 26.3% in comparison to fresh loaves. The decline in bakery quality was caused mainly by decreasing activity of yeast cells which were damaged by crystals of ice, by the afterward loss of their ability to yeast and by gradual decrease of dough firmness.

  4. Production and storage of biohydrogen during sequential batch fermentation of Spirogyra hydrolyzate by Clostridium butyricum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortigueira, Joana; Pinto, Tiago; Gouveia, Luísa; Moura, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    The biological hydrogen production from Spirogyra sp. biomass was studied in a SBR (sequential batch reactor) equipped with a biogas collecting and storage system. Two acid hydrolysis pre-treatments (1N and 2N H 2 SO 4 ) were applied to the Spirogyra biomass and the subsequent fermentation by Clostridium butyricum DSM 10702 was compared. The 1N and 2N hydrolyzates contained 37.2 and 40.8 g/L of total sugars, respectively, and small amounts of furfural and HMF (hydroxymethylfurfural). These compounds did not inhibit the hydrogen production from crude Spirogyra hydrolyzates. The fermentation was scaled up to a batch operated bioreactor coupled with a collecting system that enabled the subsequent characterization and storage of the biogas produced. The cumulative hydrogen production was similar for both 1N and 2N hydrolyzate, but the hydrogen production rates were 438 and 288 mL/L.h, respectively, suggesting that the 1N hydrolyzate was more suitable for sequential batch fermentation. The SBR with 1N hydrolyzate was operated continuously for 13.5 h in three consecutive batches and the overall hydrogen production rate and yield reached 324 mL/L.h and 2.59 mol/mol, respectively. This corresponds to a potential daily production of 10.4 L H 2 /L Spirogyra hydrolyzate, demonstrating the excellent capability of C. butyricum to produce hydrogen from microalgal biomass. - Highlights: • Production of biohydrogen from crude Spirogyra hydrolyzates. • Set-up of a collecting and storage system for continuous biogas sampling. • The hydrogen production rate is 324 mL/L.h in the SBR (sequential batch reactor). • The SBR produces daily an equivalent to 10.4 L H 2 /L of crude Spirogyra hydrolyzate

  5. Consumer preferences in respect of processed fruit and berry products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribova N. А.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays fruits, berries and processed products are an indispensable component of the human diet throughout the year. Frozen fruits and berries are widely distributed on the Russian market and are part of the food industry worldwide. Frozen products become popular among consumers for home use due to the minimal cooking time. Consumer evaluation is the most relevant and significant for identifying preferences and evaluating quality products in Russian markets. In this regard, a qualitative analysis of marketing research has been carried out and preferences have been identified according to which criteria consumers buy quick-frozen products. Some methods of sensory analysis have been used (consumer evaluation, the profile method, and pairwise comparison method. The dominant factor in choosing a brand of quick-frozen products is the combination of an acceptable price and quality, and to a lesser extent, the recommendation of acquaintances, the type of packaging and advertising of products. The research is aimed at identifying organoleptic properties that affect the consumer evaluation of the quality of frozen, thawed grapes in comparison with the reference product. Fruits and berries freeze for hours and even minutes, but are stored for a long time. The problem arises in rehydration – the return of the product to its original state, close to fresh natural raw material. The main goal of the research is aimed at identifying some rational method of defrosting, corresponding to organoleptic and consumer properties. With the help of organoleptic evaluation the best ways of defrosting have been identified – the microwave oven and the freezer. These methods allow obtaining thawed foods with the finest quality and identical to natural raw materials. The storage time after defrosting has been revealed: in the microwave oven – 60 min; at the room temperature – 80 min; in the coldstore – 100 min. The obtained information can be useful for consumers

  6. Generation, on-site storage; handling and processing of industrial waste of Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abduli, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes out the present status of generation, on-site handling, processing and storage of industrial waste in Tehran. In this investigation, 67 large scale factories of different industrial groups were randomly selected. Above cited functional elements of these factories were surveyed. In this investigation a close contact with each factory was required, thus a questionnaire was prepared and distributed among these factories. The relationship between daily weight of the industrial waste (Y) and number of employer of each factory (x) is found to be Y=547.4 + 0.58 x. The relationship between daily volume of industrial waste (V), and daily weight of waste generated in each factory (Y) can be described by V=1.56 + 0.00078 Y. About 68% of the factories have their own interim storage site and the rest of the factories do not possess any on-site storage facility

  7. Safety of parsley intended for processing depending on the cultivation technology and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pobereżny Jarosław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The factors that affect the value of parsley for consumption include its taste, flavour and dietary utility (vitamins C and E, β-carotene, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and iron, raw fibre, proteins as well as the content of hazardous substances, especially nitrogen compounds. A study was carried out in 2013–2015 to determine the effect of the cultivation technology and storage on the safety of parsley intended for processing. The study material was taken from an experiment where the following fertilisers were applied to the ground: nitrogen (0, 40, 80, 120 kg N∙ha−1 and magnesium (0; 30 kg Mg∙ha−1. Parsley roots were stored for six months in a storage room at +1°C and RH 95%. The content of nitrates (V and (III was determined by the ion selective method immediately after the harvest and after storage in parsley roots.

  8. Hydration of Magnesium Carbonate in a Thermal Energy Storage Process and Its Heating Application Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickard Erlund

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available First ideas of applications design using magnesium (hydro carbonates mixed with silica gel for day/night and seasonal thermal energy storage are presented. The application implies using solar (or another heat source for heating up the thermal energy storage (dehydration unit during daytime or summertime, of which energy can be discharged (hydration during night-time or winter. The applications can be used in small houses or bigger buildings. Experimental data are presented, determining and analysing kinetics and operating temperatures for the applications. In this paper the focus is on the hydration part of the process, which is the more challenging part, considering conversion and kinetics. Various operating temperatures for both the reactor and the water (storage tank are tested and the favourable temperatures are presented and discussed. Applications both using ground heat for water vapour generation and using water vapour from indoor air are presented. The thermal energy storage system with mixed nesquehonite (NQ and silica gel (SG can use both low (25–50% and high (75% relative humidity (RH air for hydration. The hydration at 40% RH gives a thermal storage capacity of 0.32 MJ/kg while 75% RH gives a capacity of 0.68 MJ/kg.

  9. Novel bamboo structured TiO2 nanotubes for energy storage/production applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, J. J.; Beh, K. P.; Cheong, Y. L.; Yusuf, W. A. A.; Yam, F. K.

    2018-04-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 received much attention owing to its high surface-to-volume ratio, which can be advantageous in energy storage and production applications. However, the increase in energy consumption at present and possibly the foreseeable future has demanded energy storage and production devices of even higher performance. A direct approach would be manipulating the physical aspects of TiO2 nanostructures, particularly, nanotubes. In this work, dual voltage anodization system has been implemented to fabricate bamboo shaped TiO2 nanotubes, which offers even greater surface area. This unique nanostructure would be used in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) fabrication and its performance will be evaluated and compared along other forms of TiO2 nanotubes. The results showed that bamboo shaped nanotubes indeed are superior morphologically, with an increase of efficiency of 107% at 1.130% efficiency when compared to smooth walled nanotubes at 0.546% efficiency.

  10. Design of production process main shaft process with lean manufacturing to improve productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, I.; Nasution, A. A.; Andayani, U.; Anizar; Syahputri, K.

    2018-02-01

    This object research is one of manufacturing companies that produce oil palm machinery parts. In the production process there is delay in the completion of the Main shaft order. Delays in the completion of the order indicate the low productivity of the company in terms of resource utilization. This study aimed to obtain a draft improvement of production processes that can improve productivity by identifying and eliminating activities that do not add value (non-value added activity). One approach that can be used to reduce and eliminate non-value added activity is Lean Manufacturing. This study focuses on the identification of non-value added activity with value stream mapping analysis tools, while the elimination of non-value added activity is done with tools 5 whys and implementation of pull demand system. Based on the research known that non-value added activity on the production process of the main shaft is 9,509.51 minutes of total lead time 10,804.59 minutes. This shows the level of efficiency (Process Cycle Efficiency) in the production process of the main shaft is still very low by 11.89%. Estimation results of improvement showed a decrease in total lead time became 4,355.08 minutes and greater process cycle efficiency that is equal to 29.73%, which indicates that the process was nearing the concept of lean production.

  11. Occurrence and growth of yeasts in processed meat products - implications for potential spoilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Jacobsen, Tomas; Jespersen, Lene

    2008-01-01

    of the processed meat products. The yeast microflora was complex with 4-12 different species isolated from the different production sites. In general, Candida zeylanoides, Debaryomyces hansenii and the newly described Candida alimentaria were found to be the dominant yeast species. In addition, three putatively......Spoilage of meat products is in general attributed to bacteria but new processing and storage techniques inhibiting growth of bacteria may provide opportunities for yeasts to dominate the microflora and cause spoilage of the product. With the aim of obtaining a deeper understanding of the potential...... role of yeast in spoilage of five different processed meat products (bacon, ham, salami and two different liver patés), yeasts were isolated, enumerated and identified during processing, in the final product and in the final product at the end of shelf life. Yeasts were isolated along the bacon...

  12. TBP production plant effluent treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriniwas, C.; Sugilal, G.; Wattal, P.K.

    2004-06-01

    TBP production facility at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher generates about 2000 litres of effluent per 200 kg batch. The effluent is basically an aqueous solution containing dissolved and dispersed organics such as dibutyl phosphate, butanol etc. The effluent has high salinity, chemical oxygen demand (30-80 g/L) and pungent odour. It requires treatment before discharge. A chemical precipitation process using ferric chloride was developed for quantitative separation of organics from the aqueous part of the effluent. This process facilitates the discharge of the aqueous effluent. Results of the laboratory and bench scale experiments on actual effluent samples are presented in this report. (author)

  13. Development of Souvenir Production Transaction Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumambi, H.; Kaparang, R.; Lintong, J.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to design a souvenir production transaction processing system for the craftsmen in North Sulawesi. The craftsmen make very simple recordings about souvenir production transactions and use documents that are not in accordance with the generally accepted accounting practices. This research uses qualitative method. The data is collected through interviews, observations, documents and literatures studies. The research stages are conducted in preliminary studies, data collection, data analyzed and system design. The design of system is built from chart of account, accounting cycle and documents as input and get processed in accounting recording. The outputs are financial statements. The system design provides benefits for the craftsmen in assessing the financial performance and getting financing from bank.

  14. How green are the hydrogen production processes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miele, Ph.; Demirci, U.B.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen is recognised as being one of the most promising fuels alternate to fossil fuels. Unfortunately it only exists combined with other elements like e.g. oxygen in the case of water and therefore has to be produced. Today various methods for producing molecular hydrogen are being investigated. Besides its energy potential, molecular hydrogen is regarded as being a green energy carrier because it can be produced from renewable sources and its combustion/oxidation generates water. However as it has to be produced its greenness merits a deeper discussion especially stressing on its production routes. The goal of the present article is to discuss the relative greenness of the various hydrogen production processes on the basis of the twelve principles of green chemistry. It is mainly showed that the combination 'renewable raw materials, biological or electrochemical methods, and renewable energies (e.g. solar or wind)' undeniably makes the hydrogen production green. (authors)

  15. Radiation methods in dairy production and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguli, N.C.

    1975-01-01

    Various uses of radiotracers and radiation in dairy technology are described. In dairy production, radiotracers are used for studying: (1) rumen metabolism leading to protein synthesis (2) total body water, blood volume and sodium (3) minerals metabolism (4) relation between climatic stress and thyroid functioning of dairy animals (5) volume of milk in mammary glands (6) hormone level in dairy animals and (7) spermatozoa metabolism. In dairy processing, radiotracers are used for studying: (1) compositional analysis of milk and milk products and (2) efficiency of cleaning agents for cleaning dairy equipment. Ionizing radiation is used for: (1) preservation of milk and milk products and (2) sterilization of packaging materials. Radiation source has been used to monitor the over-run in ice-cream and the fill control for fluid in papar cartons. (M.G.B.)

  16. UO2 production process with methanol washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sondermann, T.

    1978-01-01

    The invention refers to a process for the recovery of methanol used for washing the ammonium uranyl carbonate obtained during UO 2 production. The methanol contains about 50% H 2 O, about 10% (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 , and is radioactive. According to the invention the methanol is purified at reduced pressure in a distillation unit and then led back to the washing unit. (UWI) 891 HP/UWI 892 MBE [de

  17. Seaweed Extracts as Edible Coatings for Minimally Processed Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Augusto

    2014-05-01

    The EC containing Codium tomentosum seaweed extract showed the better performance by minimizing physical and chemical changes in RTE apples, namely: minor changes of moisture, total soluble solids and firmness values. In relation to the browning index, after 20 days of storage, RTE apples coated with EC containing Codium tomentosum seaweed extract showed the lowest values, also the results of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase showed lower activity compared with the EC containing Fucus spirals, Bifurcaria bifurcate and Codium vermilara seaweed extracts, citric acid EC and the control. These results also allowed a pending patent application nº 107369 “Revestimento de origem marinha para aplicação em produtos minimamente processados ou de quarta gama” which is related with an edible coating with the incorporation of bioactive compounds from macroalgae for minimally processed products.

  18. Characterization of volatile production during storage of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Sara; González-Benito, M Elena; Hill, Lisa M; Walters, Christina

    2010-09-01

    The duration that seeds stay vigorous during storage is difficult to predict but critical to seed industry and conservation communities. Production of volatile compounds from lettuce seeds during storage was investigated as a non-invasive and early detection method of seed ageing rates. Over 30 volatile compounds were detected from lettuce seeds during storage at 35 degrees C at water contents ranging from 0.03 to 0.09 g H(2)O g(-1) dw. Both qualitative and quantitative differences in volatile composition were noted as a function of water content, and these differences were apparent before signs of deterioration were visible. Seeds stored at high water content (L >or=0.06 g H(2)O g(-1) dw) emitted molecular species indicative of glycolysis (methanol+ethanol), and evidence of peroxidation was apparent subsequent to viability loss. Seeds containing less water (0.03-0.05 g H(2)O g(-1) dw) produced volatiles indicative of peroxidation and survived longer compared with seeds stored under more humid conditions. Production of glycolysis-related by-products correlated strongly with deterioration rate when measured as a function of water content. This correlation may provide a valuable non-invasive means to predict the duration of the early, asymptomatic stage of seed deterioration.

  19. Red mud flocculation process in alumina production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, E. R.; Firsov, A. Yu

    2018-05-01

    The process of thickening and washing red mud is a gooseneck of alumina production. The existing automated systems of the thickening process control involve stabilizing the parameters of the primary technological circuits of the thickener. The actual direction of scientific research is the creation and improvement of models and systems of the thickening process control by model. But the known models do not fully consider the presence of perturbing effects, in particular the particle size distribution in the feed process, distribution of floccules by size after the aggregation process in the feed barrel. The article is devoted to the basic concepts and terms used in writing the population balance algorithm. The population balance model is implemented in the MatLab environment. The result of the simulation is the particle size distribution after the flocculation process. This model allows one to foreseen the distribution range of floccules after the process of aggregation of red mud in the feed barrel. The mud of Jamaican bauxite was acting as an industrial sample of red mud; Cytec Industries of HX-3000 series with a concentration of 0.5% was acting as a flocculant. When simulating, model constants obtained in a tubular tank in the laboratories of CSIRO (Australia) were used.

  20. Assessing the processing quality of different potato cultivars during storage at various temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, A.; Randhawa, M.A.; Butt, M.S.; Asghar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Processing industry needs continuous supply of tubers for fries/chips preparation throughout the year. Storage is obligatory to meet the increasing demand of population. Objective of this study was to evaluate the processing and quality characteristics of different potato cultivars (Lady Rosetta, Sante, Hermes, Crozo, Kuroda and Asterix) during storage with 75-80 percent relative humidity for the period of 160 days at various temperatures (3 degree C, 7 degree C, 11 degree C). Quality parameters such as specific gravity, sprouting, weight loss, dry matter, starch content, ascorbic acid, sugar content and invertase enzyme activity were determined to estimate the processing potential of each cultivar. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) equipped with amino (NH2) column and Refractive Index Detector (RID) was used for the identification and quantification of sugars. The findings of the present work showed that temperature significantly (p Hermes > Crozo > Sante > Asterix > Kuroda. (author)

  1. The contribution of temporary storage and executive processes to category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tengfei; Ren, Xuezhu; Schweizer, Karl

    2015-09-01

    Three distinctly different working memory processes, temporary storage, mental shifting and inhibition, were proposed to account for individual differences in category learning. A sample of 213 participants completed a classic category learning task and two working memory tasks that were experimentally manipulated for tapping specific working memory processes. Fixed-links models were used to decompose data of the category learning task into two independent components representing basic performance and improvement in performance in category learning. Processes of working memory were also represented by fixed-links models. In a next step the three working memory processes were linked to components of category learning. Results from modeling analyses indicated that temporary storage had a significant effect on basic performance and shifting had a moderate effect on improvement in performance. In contrast, inhibition showed no effect on any component of the category learning task. These results suggest that temporary storage and the shifting process play different roles in the course of acquiring new categories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbial dynamics during industrial rearing, processing, and storage of the tropical house cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus) for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweyer, Dries; Wynants, Enya; Crauwels, Sam; Verreth, Christel; Viaene, Nikolaas; Claes, Johan; Lievens, Bart; Van Campenhout, Leen

    2018-04-06

    In this study, the microbiota during industrial rearing, processing, and storage of the edible tropical house cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus , was investigated. To this end, samples were analyzed of the cricket feed, before feeding as well as taken from the cages, and the crickets during rearing, after harvest, and after processing into frozen, oven-dried, and smoked and subsequently oven-dried end products. Although the feed contained lower microbial numbers than the crickets, both were dominated by the same species-level operational taxonomic units as determined by Illumina Miseq sequencing. They corresponded, among others, to members of Porphyromonadaceae, Fusobacterium , Parabacteroides and Erwinia The harvested crickets contained high microbial numbers, but none of the investigated food pathogens Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes , Bacillus cereus , and coagulase-positive staphylococci. However, some possible mycotoxin-producing fungi were isolated from the crickets. A post-harvest heat treatment, shortly boiling the crickets, reduced microbial numbers, but an endospore load of 2.4 log cfu/g remained. After processing, an increase in microbial counts was observed for dried and smoked plus dried crickets. Additionally, in the smoked plus dried crickets, a high abundance of a Bacillus sp. was observed. Considering the possible occurrence of food-pathogenic species from this genus, it is advised to apply a heat treatment which is sufficient to eliminate spores. Nevertheless, the microbial numbers remained constant over a six-month storage period, frozen (frozen end product) or at ambient temperature (oven-dried and smoked plus dried end products). Importance. The need for sustainable protein sources has led to the emergence of a new food sector, producing and processing edible insects into foods. However, insight into the microbial quality of this new food and into the microbial dynamics during rearing, processing and storage of edible insects is still

  3. The UK Biobank sample handling and storage protocol for the collection, processing and archiving of human blood and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Peakman, Tim C

    2008-04-01

    UK Biobank is a large prospective study in the UK to investigate the role of genetic factors, environmental exposures and lifestyle in the causes of major diseases of late and middle age. Extensive data and biological samples are being collected from 500,000 participants aged between 40 and 69 years. The biological samples that are collected and how they are processed and stored will have a major impact on the future scientific usefulness of the UK Biobank resource. The aim of the UK Biobank sample handling and storage protocol is to specify methods for the collection and storage of participant samples that give maximum scientific return within the available budget. Processing or storage methods that, as far as can be predicted, will preclude current or future assays have been avoided. The protocol was developed through a review of the literature on sample handling and processing, wide consultation within the academic community and peer review. Protocol development addressed which samples should be collected, how and when they should be processed and how the processed samples should be stored to ensure their long-term integrity. The recommended protocol was extensively tested in a series of validation studies. UK Biobank collects about 45 ml blood and 9 ml of urine with minimal local processing from each participant using the vacutainer system. A variety of preservatives, anti-coagulants and clot accelerators is used appropriate to the expected end use of the samples. Collection of other material (hair, nails, saliva and faeces) was also considered but rejected for the full cohort. Blood and urine samples from participants are transported overnight by commercial courier to a central laboratory where they are processed and aliquots of urine, plasma, serum, white cells and red cells stored in ultra-low temperature archives. Aliquots of whole blood are also stored for potential future production of immortalized cell lines. A standard panel of haematology assays is

  4. Hydrolysis and regeneration of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) - A combination of hydrogen production and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Ouyang, L. Z.; Liu, J. W.; Yao, X. D.; Wang, H.; Liu, Z. W.; Zhu, M.

    2017-08-01

    Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) hydrolysis is a promising approach for hydrogen generation, but it is limited by high costs, low efficiency of recycling the by-product, and a lack of effective gravimetric storage methods. Here we demonstrate the regeneration of NaBH4 by ball milling the by-product, NaBO2·2H2O or NaBO2·4H2O, with MgH2 at room temperature and atmospheric pressure without any further post-treatment. Record yields of NaBH4 at 90.0% for NaBO2·2H2O and 88.3% for NaBO2·4H2O are achieved. This process also produces hydrogen from the splitting of coordinate water in hydrated sodium metaborate. This compensates the need for extra hydrogen for generating MgH2. Accordingly, we conclude that our unique approach realizes an efficient and cost-effective closed loop system for hydrogen production and storage.

  5. Study of chi production properties at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourkoumelis, C.; Resvanis, L.K.; Filippas, T.A.; Fokitis, E.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fields, T.; Fowler, E.; Lissauer, D.; Mannelli, I.; Mouzourakis, P.; Nappi, A.; Willis, W.J.; Goldberg, M.

    1979-01-01

    The inclusive production of electron pairs with and without additional photons was measured at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR). The investigation of J/psi particles with associated photons indicated that 47 +- 8% of the J/psi were produced via the photonic decay of one of the chi(3.5) states. The upper limit of the production cross-section ratio times the branching ratio into electron pairs of psi' relative to J/psi was found to be 2% at centre-of-mass energy of √s = 62 GeV. (Auth.)

  6. Influence of postharvest processing and storage conditions on key antioxidants in pūhā (Sonchus oleraceus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Zong-Quan; Schmierer, David M; Strachan, Clare J

    2014-01-01

    To investigate effects of different postharvest drying processes and storage conditions on key antioxidants in Sonchus oleraceus L. leaves.......To investigate effects of different postharvest drying processes and storage conditions on key antioxidants in Sonchus oleraceus L. leaves....

  7. World Endometriosis Research Foundation Endometriosis Phenome and Biobanking Harmonization Project: III. Fluid biospecimen collection, processing, and storage in endometriosis research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahmioglu, Nilufer; Fassbender, Amelie; Vitonis, Allison F.

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo harmonize standard operating procedures (SOPs) and standardize the recording of associated data for collection, processing, and storage of fluid biospecimens relevant to endometriosis.......ObjectiveTo harmonize standard operating procedures (SOPs) and standardize the recording of associated data for collection, processing, and storage of fluid biospecimens relevant to endometriosis....

  8. World Endometriosis Research Foundation Endometriosis Phenome and Biobanking Harmonisation Project: IV. Tissue collection, processing, and storage in endometriosis research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fassbender, Amelie; Rahmioglu, Nilufer; Vitonis, Allison F.

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo harmonize standard operating procedures (SOPs) and standardize the recording of associated data for collection, processing, and storage of human tissues relevant to endometriosis.......ObjectiveTo harmonize standard operating procedures (SOPs) and standardize the recording of associated data for collection, processing, and storage of human tissues relevant to endometriosis....

  9. Recent changes in terrestrial water storage in the Upper Nile Basin: an evaluation of commonly used gridded GRACE products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shamsudduha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite data monitor large-scale changes in total terrestrial water storage (ΔTWS, providing an invaluable tool where in situ observations are limited. Substantial uncertainty remains, however, in the amplitude of GRACE gravity signals and the disaggregation of TWS into individual terrestrial water stores (e.g. groundwater storage. Here, we test the phase and amplitude of three GRACE ΔTWS signals from five commonly used gridded products (i.e. NASA's GRCTellus: CSR, JPL, GFZ; JPL-Mascons; GRGS GRACE using in situ data and modelled soil moisture from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS in two sub-basins (LVB: Lake Victoria Basin; LKB: Lake Kyoga Basin of the Upper Nile Basin. The analysis extends from January 2003 to December 2012, but focuses on a large and accurately observed reduction in ΔTWS of 83 km3 from 2003 to 2006 in the Lake Victoria Basin. We reveal substantial variability in current GRACE products to quantify the reduction of ΔTWS in Lake Victoria that ranges from 80 km3 (JPL-Mascons to 69 and 31 km3 for GRGS and GRCTellus respectively. Representation of the phase in TWS in the Upper Nile Basin by GRACE products varies but is generally robust with GRGS, JPL-Mascons, and GRCTellus (ensemble mean of CSR, JPL, and GFZ time-series data, explaining 90, 84, and 75 % of the variance respectively in "in situ" or "bottom-up" ΔTWS in the LVB. Resolution of changes in groundwater storage (ΔGWS from GRACE ΔTWS is greatly constrained by both uncertainty in changes in soil-moisture storage (ΔSMS modelled by GLDAS LSMs (CLM, NOAH, VIC and the low annual amplitudes in ΔGWS (e.g. 1.8–4.9 cm observed in deeply weathered crystalline rocks underlying the Upper Nile Basin. Our study highlights the substantial uncertainty in the amplitude of ΔTWS that can result from different data-processing strategies in commonly used, gridded GRACE products; this uncertainty is

  10. Recent changes in terrestrial water storage in the Upper Nile Basin: an evaluation of commonly used gridded GRACE products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Taylor, Richard G.; Jones, Darren; Longuevergne, Laurent; Owor, Michael; Tindimugaya, Callist

    2017-09-01

    GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite data monitor large-scale changes in total terrestrial water storage (ΔTWS), providing an invaluable tool where in situ observations are limited. Substantial uncertainty remains, however, in the amplitude of GRACE gravity signals and the disaggregation of TWS into individual terrestrial water stores (e.g. groundwater storage). Here, we test the phase and amplitude of three GRACE ΔTWS signals from five commonly used gridded products (i.e. NASA's GRCTellus: CSR, JPL, GFZ; JPL-Mascons; GRGS GRACE) using in situ data and modelled soil moisture from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) in two sub-basins (LVB: Lake Victoria Basin; LKB: Lake Kyoga Basin) of the Upper Nile Basin. The analysis extends from January 2003 to December 2012, but focuses on a large and accurately observed reduction in ΔTWS of 83 km3 from 2003 to 2006 in the Lake Victoria Basin. We reveal substantial variability in current GRACE products to quantify the reduction of ΔTWS in Lake Victoria that ranges from 80 km3 (JPL-Mascons) to 69 and 31 km3 for GRGS and GRCTellus respectively. Representation of the phase in TWS in the Upper Nile Basin by GRACE products varies but is generally robust with GRGS, JPL-Mascons, and GRCTellus (ensemble mean of CSR, JPL, and GFZ time-series data), explaining 90, 84, and 75 % of the variance respectively in "in situ" or "bottom-up" ΔTWS in the LVB. Resolution of changes in groundwater storage (ΔGWS) from GRACE ΔTWS is greatly constrained by both uncertainty in changes in soil-moisture storage (ΔSMS) modelled by GLDAS LSMs (CLM, NOAH, VIC) and the low annual amplitudes in ΔGWS (e.g. 1.8-4.9 cm) observed in deeply weathered crystalline rocks underlying the Upper Nile Basin. Our study highlights the substantial uncertainty in the amplitude of ΔTWS that can result from different data-processing strategies in commonly used, gridded GRACE products; this uncertainty is disregarded in analyses of

  11. Improved processes of molybdenum-99 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadachova, K.; La Riviere, K.; Anderon, P.

    1997-01-01

    Two improved processes of Molybdenum-99 production have been developed at ANSTO on laboratory scale. The first one allows to purify Mo of natural isotopic composition from tungsten impurities by using preferential adsorption of tungsten on hydrated tin(IV) oxide SnO 2 x nH 2 O before irradiation in the nuclear reactor. Mo-99 obtained via this route can be used for production of i nstant Tc-99m. As the starting material MoO 3 contains considerable amounts of tungsten impurity (W > 60 ppm), 5-7 days irradiation results in generation of W-188 in amounts sufficient to contaminate the final Tc-99m product with rhenium-188 (Re-188, 16.8 h half-life) - radioactive daughter of W-188. To overcome this problem, a method of MoO 3 purification from W, based on preferential adsorption of W by hydrated tin (IV) oxide has been developed. The contents of W in MoO 3 purified by this technique became 3 and retaining of Mo-99 on a large alumina column. Mo-99 is stripped off the column with 200 mL 1M NH 4 OH followed by loading this solution onto the AG 1x8 column. The next steps are different for each version of separation process

  12. Methods for maintaining a record of waste packages during waste processing and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    During processing, radioactive waste is converted into waste packages, and then sent for storage and ultimately for disposal. A principal condition for acceptance of a waste package is its full compliance with waste acceptance criteria for disposal or storage. These criteria define the radiological, mechanical, physical, chemical and biological properties of radioactive waste that can, in principle, be changed during waste processing. To declare compliance of a waste package with waste acceptance criteria, a system for generating and maintaining records should be established to record and track all relevant information, from raw waste characteristics, through changes related to waste processing, to final checking and verification of waste package parameters. In parallel, records on processing technology and the operational parameters of technological facilities should adhere to established and approved quality assurance systems. A records system for waste management should be in place, defining the data to be collected and stored at each step of waste processing and using a reliable selection process carried over into the individual steps of the waste processing flow stream. The waste management records system must at the same time ensure selection and maintenance of all the main information, not only providing evidence of compliance of waste package parameters with waste acceptance criteria but also serving as an information source in the case of any future operations involving the stored or disposed waste. Records generated during waste processing are a constituent part of the more complex system of waste management record keeping, covering the entire life cycle of radioactive waste from generation to disposal and even the post-closure period of a disposal facility. The IAEA is systematically working on the preparation of a set of publications to assist its Member States in the development and implementation of such a system. This report covers all the principal

  13. 40 CFR 63.1295 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels. 63.1295 Section 63.1295 Protection of Environment... production—HAP ABA storage vessels. Each owner or operator of a new or existing slabstock affected source complying with the emission point specific limitation option provided in § 63.1293(a) shall control HAP ABA...

  14. In situ vitrification: Process and products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindle, C.; Koegler, S.

    1991-06-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is an electrically powered thermal treatment process that converts soil into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. It is similar in concept to bringing a simplified glass manufacturing process to a site and operating it in the ground, using the soil as a glass feed stock. Gaseous emissions are contained, scrubbed, and filtered. When the process is completed, the molten volume cools producing a block of glass and crystalline material that resembles natural obsidian commingled with crystalline phases. The product passes US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) leach resistance tests, and it can be classified as nonhazardous from a chemical hazard perspective. ISV was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) for application to contaminated soils. It is also being adapted for applications to buried waste, underground tanks, and liquid seepage sites. ISV's then-year development period has included tests on many different site conditions. As of January 1991 there have been 74 tests using PNL's ISV equipment; these tests have ranged from technology development tests using nonhazardous conditions to hazardous and radioactive tests. 2 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Large Scale Production of Densified Hydrogen Using Integrated Refrigeration and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, William U.; Swanger, Adam Michael; Jumper, Kevin M.; Fesmire, James E.; Tomsik, Thomas M.; Johnson, Wesley L.

    2017-01-01

    Recent demonstration of advanced liquid hydrogen storage techniques using Integrated Refrigeration and Storage (IRAS) technology at NASA Kennedy Space Center led to the production of large quantities of solid densified liquid and slush hydrogen in a 125,000 L tank. Production of densified hydrogen was performed at three different liquid levels and LH2 temperatures were measured by twenty silicon diode temperature sensors. System energy balances and solid mass fractions are calculated. Experimental data reveal hydrogen temperatures dropped well below the triple point during testing (up to 1 K), and were continuing to trend downward prior to system shutdown. Sub-triple point temperatures were seen to evolve in a time dependent manner along the length of the horizontal, cylindrical vessel. Twenty silicon diode temperature sensors were recorded over approximately one month for testing at two different fill levels (33 67). The phenomenon, observed at both two fill levels, is described and presented detailed and explained herein., and The implications of using IRAS for energy storage, propellant densification, and future cryofuel systems are discussed.

  16. Manual on safe production, transport, handling and storage of uranium hexafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    This document includes a description of the physical, chemical and radiological properties of UF{sub 6} and related products, including information concerning their production, handling, storage and transportation and the management of the wastes which result. All the operations of UF{sub 6} management are considered form a safety point of view. The IAEA organized a series of meetings to consider the hazards of UF{sub 6} transport since considerable quantities of depleted, natural and enriched UF{sub 6} are transported between nuclear fuel sites. Storage of depleted UF{sub 6} is another important issue. Factors affecting long term storage are presented, especially site choice and cylinder corrosion. Other topics such as waste management, quality assurance and emergency preparedness which contribute to the overall safety of UF{sub 6} handling, are included. The intention of this document is to provide analysis of the safety implications of all stages of UF{sub 6} operations and to draw attention to specific features and properties of importance. 38 refs, figs, tabs.

  17. Viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei in fermented milk products during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nighswonger, B D; Brashears, M M; Gilliland, S E

    1996-02-01

    The viability was investigated of five strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and one strain of Lactobacillus casei that were added as adjuncts to yogurt and cultured buttermilk during 28 d of refrigerated storage at 5 to 7 degrees C. A modification of LBS (Lactobacillus selection) agar was used for the enumeration of L. acidophilus and L. casei. The medium allowed the colony formation of the adjunct bacteria while preventing colony formation of the traditional yogurt or buttermilk starter cultures. At each sampling period, colonies from the selective agar medium were isolated for confirmation of identity to confirm that only L. acidophilus and L. casei were enumerated, that their characteristics did not change during storage, or both. The strains of L. acidophilus varied in both cultured products. In buttermilk, L. acidophilus MUH-41, O-16, and L-1 exhibited no significant loss in viability, but strains 43121 and La-5 did. No significant loss in viability of L. acidophilus MUH-41 and L-1 occurred in yogurt prepared using culture CM2; however, strains 43121, O-16, and La-5 lost viability. In the yogurt prepared using culture YC-4, L. acidophilus 43121 exhibited no significant loss in viability, but MUH-41, O-16, L-1, and La-5 did. There was no loss in viability of L. casei GG during storage of any of the cultured products.

  18. Testing Open-Air Storage of Stumps to Provide Clean Biomass for Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Pari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available When orchards reach the end of the productive cycle, the stumps removal becomes a mandatory operation to allow new soil preparation and to establish new cultivations. The exploitation of the removed stump biomass seems a valuable option, especially in the growing energy market of the biofuels; however, the scarce quality of the material obtained after the extraction compromises its marketability, making this product a costly waste to be disposed. In this regard, the identification of affordable strategies for the extraction and the cleaning of the material will be crucial in order to provide to plantation owners the chance to sell the biomass and offset the extraction costs. Mechanical extraction and cleaning technologies have been already tested on forest stumps, but these systems work on the singular piece and would be inefficient in the conditions of an intensive orchard, where stumps are small and numerous. The objective of this study was to test the possibility to exploit a natural stumps cleaning system through open-air storage. The tested stumps were obtained from two different vineyards, extracted with an innovative stump puller specifically designed for continuous stump removal in intensively-planted orchards. The effects of weathering were evaluated to determine the fuel quality immediately after the extraction and after a storage period of six months with respect to moisture content, ash content, and heating value. Results indicated interesting storage performance, showing also different dynamics depending on the stumps utilized.

  19. Handling process disturbances in petroleum production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sten, T; Bodsberg, L; Ingstad, O; Ulleberg, T

    1988-06-01

    Factors of importance in successful handling of major disturbances and crisis situations in petroleum production are discussed. Case studies based on interviews, questionnaires and systematic observations have been undertaken to identify critical factors in human computer design, in operator competence and attitudes and in work organization. It is shown that certain features of the humancomputer interaction become critical when serious disturbances are encountered. Likewise focusing on requirements during disturbances in particular has highlighted some new aspects of operator competence and of the work organization. The results are considered to be useful input to safety management in petroleum process plants, in formation of design specifications and in identifying need for further research regarding safety in offshore production.

  20. Development of the vacuum drying process for the PWR spent nuclear fuel dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeg, Chagn Yeal; Cho, Chun Hyung [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This paper describes the development of a dry operation process for PWR spent nuclear fuel, which is currently stored in the domestic NPP's storage pool, using a dual purpose metal cask. Domestic NNPs have had experience with wet type transportation of PWR spent nuclear fuel between neighboring NPPs since the early 1990s, but no experience with dry type operation. For this reason, we developed a specific operation process and also confirmed the safety of the major cask components and its spent nuclear fuel during the dual purpose metal cask operation process. We also describe the short term operation process that was established to be completed within 21 hours and propose the allowable working time for each step (15 hours for wet process, 3 hours for drain process and 3 hours for vacuum drying process)

  1. Development of synthetic gasoline production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, T; Fujita, H; Yamada, K; Suzuki, T; Tsuchida, Y

    1986-01-01

    As oil deposits are limited, it is very important to develop techniques for manufacturing petroleum alternatives as substitute energy sources to brighten the outlook for the future. The Research Association for Petroleum Alternatives Development (RAPAD) in Japan is engaged in the research and development of production techniques for light hydrocarbon oils such as gasoline, kerosene, and light oil from synthesis gas (CO, H/sub 2/) obtained from the raw materials of natural gas, coal, etc. Regarding the MTG process of synthesizing gasoline via methanol from synthesis gas and the STG process of directly synthesizing gasoline from synthesis gas, Cosmo Oil Co., Ltd. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., members of RAPAD, have sought jointly to develop catalysts and processes. As a result of this co-operation, the authors have recently succeeded in developing a new catalyst with a long life span capable of providing a high yield and high selectivity. Additionally, the authors are currently on the verge of putting into effect a unique two-step STG process of synthesizing high octane gasoline via dimethyl ether, referred to as the AMSTG process.

  2. Process configuration of Liquid-nitrogen Energy Storage System (LESS) for maximum turnaround efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Rohan; Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2017-12-01

    Diverse power generation sector requires energy storage due to penetration of variable renewable energy sources and use of CO2 capture plants with fossil fuel based power plants. Cryogenic energy storage being large-scale, decoupled system with capability of producing large power in the range of MWs is one of the options. The drawback of these systems is low turnaround efficiencies due to liquefaction processes being highly energy intensive. In this paper, the scopes of improving the turnaround efficiency of such a plant based on liquid Nitrogen were identified and some of them were addressed. A method using multiple stages of reheat and expansion was proposed for improved turnaround efficiency from 22% to 47% using four such stages in the cycle. The novelty here is the application of reheating in a cryogenic system and utilization of waste heat for that purpose. Based on the study, process conditions for a laboratory-scale setup were determined and presented here.

  3. Biodegradation of bituminous products from processing liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibensky, L.; Krejci, F.; Hladky, E.; Halama, D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the possible ways of disturbing the stability of bituminous products from liquid radioactive waste processing, is biodegradation caused by common microorganisms. Pseudomonas bacteria and a Bacillus cereus culture were selected for experimental study of cultivation of microorganisms. Experiments with mixed cultures were also performed. Pitches, ajatin and imidazoline were used as inhibitors. The thin layer and the emulsion methods were used in assessing biological corrosion. The results of the experiments are discussed with respect to the dependence of bacterial growth on bitumen biodegradation, the effect of pH on bitumen degradation and the effect of inhibitors on bitumen biodegradation. The salts contained in bituminous products were not found to significantly affect the rate of destruction. The degree of degradation was found to mainly depend on the bitumen, its chemical composition, and on the conditions of storage. It was also found that inhibitor additions in some cases modified the properties of the matrix such that it became more liquid. The coefficient of extractibility thus increased of matrix salts. The recultivation of bacteria on a full-value medium resulted in the loss of the inhibitory effect. In some cases, the inhibitor even stimulated the growth of microorganisms. The use of inhibitors in an effort to achieve biostability of bituminous products thus did not solve the problem. (Z.M.). 2 tabs., 9 refs

  4. A process of spent nuclear fuel treatment with the interim storage of TRU by use amidic extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachimori, Shoichi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Sasaki, Yuji

    2001-01-01

    A new chemical process, ARTIST process, is proposed for the treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The main concept of the ARTIST process is to recover and stock separately all actinides, uranium and a mixture of transuranics, and to dispose fission products. The process composed of two main steps, a uranium exclusive isolation and a total recovery of transuranium elements (TRU); which copes with the nuclear non-proliferation measures, and additional processes. Both actinide products are solidified by calcination and allowed to the interim storage for future utilization. These separations are achieved by use of amidic extractants in accord with the CHON principle. The technical feasibility of the ARTIST process was explained by the experimental results of both the branched-alkyl monoamides in extracting uranium and suppressing the extraction of tetravalent actinides due to the steric effect and the diglycolic amide in thorough extraction of all TRU by tridentate coordination. When these TRU are requested to put into reactors, LWR or FBR, for power generation or the Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) for transmutation, lanthanides are to be removed from TRU by utilizing a soft nitrogen donor ligand. (author)

  5. Glucose production and storage in hepatocytes isolated from normal versus diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivieri, M.C.; Dragland-Meserve, C.J.; Parker Botelho, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    The rates of glucose production and storage were compared in hepatocytes isolated from normal versus insulin-resistant diabetic rats. A single low-dose (40 mg/kg) IV injection of streptozotocin to 250 g rats resulted in a Type II diabetic animal model which was hyperglycemic with normal insulin levels. Addition of 8 mM 14 C-lactate and 2 mM pyruvate to hepatocytes resulted in a linear increase in total glucose production ( 14 C-glucose and unlabeled glucose) and incorporation into glycogen measured over 120 min. The rate of gluconeogenesis was estimated from the production of 14 C-glucose and the rate of glycogenolysis was estimated from the production of unlabeled glucose in cells incubated in the presence or absence of 14 C-labelled substrate. There was not significant difference in total glucose production in hepatocytes isolated from normal versus diabetic rats, however, the contribution from gluconeogenesis versus glycogenolysis was significantly different. Following a 1 h incubation of cells from normal rats, 42% of the total glucose production was due to gluconeogenesis and 58% was due to glycogenolysis. In cells from diabetic rats, 83% of total glucose production was from gluconeogenesis and 17% from glycogenolysis. Also, incubation with 14 C-lactate/pyruvate resulted in a 3.3-fold increase in 14 C-glucose incorporation into glycogen in hepatocytes isolated from normal rats compared to diabetic rats. These data suggest that alterations occur in the rate-limiting enzymes responsible for glucose production and storage in hepatocytes isolated from a rat model of insulin-resistant Type II diabetes

  6. Numerical simulation of seasonal heat storage in a contaminated shallow aquifer - Temperature influence on flow, transport and reaction processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Steffi; Beyer, Christof; Dahmke, Andreas; Bauer, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The energy market in Germany currently faces a rapid transition from nuclear power and fossil fuels towards an increased production of energy from renewable resources like wind or solar power. In this context, seasonal heat storage in the shallow subsurface is becoming more and more important, particularly in urban regions with high population densities and thus high energy and heat demand. Besides the effects of increased or decreased groundwater and sediment temperatures on local and large-scale groundwater flow, transport, geochemistry and microbiology, an influence on subsurface contaminations, which may be present in the urban surbsurface, can be expected. Currently, concerns about negative impacts of temperature changes on groundwater quality are the main barrier for the approval of heat storage at or close to contaminated sites. The possible impacts of heat storage on subsurface contamination, however, have not been investigated in detail yet. Therefore, this work investigates the effects of a shallow seasonal heat storage on subsurface groundwater flow, transport and reaction processes in the presence of an organic contamination using numerical scenario simulations. A shallow groundwater aquifer is assumed, which consists of Pleistoscene sandy sediments typical for Northern Germany. The seasonal heat storage in these scenarios is performed through arrays of borehole heat exchangers (BHE), where different setups with 6 and 72 BHE, and temperatures during storage between 2°C and 70°C are analyzed. The developing heat plume in the aquifer interacts with a residual phase of a trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. The plume of dissolved TCE emitted from this source zone is degraded by reductive dechlorination through microbes present in the aquifer, which degrade TCE under anaerobic redox conditions to the degradation products dichloroethene, vinyl chloride and ethene. The temperature dependence of the microbial degradation activity of each degradation step is

  7. Glow discharge processing vs bakeout for aluminum storage ring vacuum chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, N.R.; Hoyt, E.W.; Palrang, M.T.; Walker, B.G.

    1977-11-01

    Experiments were carried out on laboratory and prototype scale systems in order to establish the feasibility of argon discharge processing the PEP storage ring aluminum vacuum chambers. Electron-induced desorption rates showed significant reductions following bakeout and/or argon glow discharge treatment (>10 19 ions cm -1 ). Data are presented and discussed in relation to advantages and problems associated with: water removal, argon trapping and subsequent release, electron energy dependence, discharge distribution, and surface plasma chemical effects

  8. Storage and Processing Working Memory Functions in Alzheimer-Type Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Vecchi, T.; Saveriano, V.; Paciaroni, L.

    1999-01-01

    A selective deterioration of working memory functions has been suggested as an explanation of the cognitive decay occurring in normal ageing as well as in Alzheimer-type dementia. Recent studies have highlighted that elderly people’s limitations in working memory functions may be better interpreted when analysing the specific characteristics of the cognitive process (i.e., passive storage or active manipulation of information). In the present study, we have adapted a procedure used to investi...

  9. Process and device for controling lateral wall of fuel assembly storage cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, B.

    1989-01-01

    The inspection procedure involves moving a detection system along the length of the wall of a cell in the fuel storage rack immersed in water. The detection system has at least one probe for determining the wall thickness. The probe signal is received above the pond and compared against a reference signal. This process allows to verify the presence of neutron absorbing material in the side walls of the cell [fr

  10. Investigation of innovative thermochemical energy storage processes and materials for building applications

    OpenAIRE

    Aydin, Devrim

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it is aimed to develop an innovative thermochemical energy storage system through material, reactor and process based investigations for building space heating applications. The developed system could be integrated with solar thermal collectors, photovoltaic panels or heat pumps to store any excess energy in the form of heat for later use. Thereby, it is proposed to address the problem of high operational costs and CO2 emissions released by currently used fossil fuel based heat...

  11. Power ion beam production in an accelerator with inductive microsecond storage and plasmaerosion switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesyats, G.A.; Didenko, A.N.; Abdullin, Eh.N.; Tomskij Politekhnicheskij Inst.

    1986-01-01

    Results of investigations into powerful ion beam (PIB) production in an accelerator with inductive microsecond storage and plasmaerosion switch (PES) are given. The storage consists of the 100 kJ high-voltage pulse generator, the inductive load as a vacuum coaxial line. Coaxial line was divided into two regions with PES plasma guns. Generation of converging PIB on switching of energy flux from the first region to the second was performed in the PES area itself as well as in an additional diode during its placing at different distances from PES. The investigations have shown that microsecond PES is an effective element providing PIB eneration with durations of an order of tens of nanoseconds. Total PIB energy contribution is in the range of 3-6 kJ which constitutes 40-50% of total energy release in PES

  12. In-bed accountability of tritium in production scale metal hydride storage beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    An ''in-bed accountability'' (IBA) flowing gas calorimetric measurement method has been developed and implemented to eliminate the need to remove tritium from production scale metal hydride storage beds for inventory measurement purposes. Six-point tritium IBA calibration curves have been completed for two, 390 gram tritium metal hydride storage beds. The calibration curves for the two tritium beds are similar to those obtained from the ''cold'' test program. Tritium inventory errors at the 95 percent confidence level ranged from ± 7.3 to 8.6 grams for the cold test results compared to ± 4.2 to 7.5 grams obtained for the two tritium calibrated beds

  13. Hydrogen storage by adsorption on activated carbon: investigation of the thermal effects during the charging process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermosilla-Lara, G.

    2007-02-01

    This work presents an experimental and numerical investigation of the thermal effects occurring during the charge of adsorbent fixed bed tank. The influence of these thermal effects, which result from the exothermal character of the adsorption process and the pressure forces work, on the storage capacity is specially analysed. An experimental setup allowing the dynamic measurements of the temperature and pressure profiles has been used. Then the numerical protocol with the Fluent software, has been validated by comparison of the simulated pressure, flow rate and temperature fields in the tank with the results obtained from an experimental investigation carried out the dynamic storage. Several predictive simulations have been carried out in order to study the effect of the boundary conditions, as the wall temperature or effective thermal conductivity of the porous bed, on the storage capacity of the reservoir. We searched the optimal geometry of an interbed thermal dissipator for a given industrial tank. To do this we made vary the H/L ratio, which represents the ratio of the height of an elementary stage and the total length of the tank. We could determine an optimal geometry which corresponds to the value 1/3 of the ratio H/L. From this optimum we studied the effect of five additional cooling tubes on the tank storage capacity. The stored mass is 15 % higher than that obtained without these tubes. (author)

  14. Use of triphenyl phosphate as risk mitigant for metal amide hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Concepcion, Jose A.; Anton, Donald L.

    2016-04-26

    A process in a resulting product of the process in which a hydrogen storage metal amide is modified by a ball milling process using an additive of TPP. The resulting product provides for a hydrogen storage metal amide having a coating that renders the hydrogen storage metal amide resistant to air, ambient moisture, and liquid water while improving useful hydrogen storage and release kinetics.

  15. Process for production of a metal hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Millar, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2014-08-12

    A process for production of a metal hydride compound MH.sub.x, wherein x is one or two and M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg. The process comprises combining a compound of formula (R.sup.1O).sub.xM with aluminum, hydrogen and at least one metal selected from among titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum and iron to produce a compound of formula MH.sub.x. R.sup.1 is phenyl or phenyl substituted by at least one alkyl or alkoxy group. A mole ratio of aluminum to (R.sup.1O).sub.xM is from 0.1:1 to 1:1. The catalyst is present at a level of at least 200 ppm based on weight of aluminum.

  16. Effects of frozen storage on survival of Staphylococcus aureus and enterotoxin production in precooked tuna meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xulei; Su, Yi-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the survival of Staphylococcus aureus in precooked tuna meat for producing canned products during frozen storage (-20 ± 2 °C) as well as its growth and enterotoxin production at 35 to 37 °C after the storage. Samples (50 ± 5 g) of precooked albacore (loin, chunk, and flake) and skipjack (chunk and flake) tuna were inoculated with 5 enterotoxin-producing strains of S. aureus at a level of approximately 3.5 log CFU/g and individually packed in a vacuum bag after 3 h incubation at 35 to 37 °C. Vacuum-packed samples were stored in a freezer (-20 ± 2 °C) for 4 wk. The frozen samples were then thawed in 37 °C circulating water for 2 h and incubated at 35 to 37 °C for 22 h. Populations of S. aureus in all precooked tuna samples decreased slightly (canned tuna within 6 to 8 h of thawing to avoid product spoilage and potential enterotoxin production by S. aureus in contaminated precooked tuna meat. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Development of the thermal denitration in-storage-can step in the CEUSP process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedder, R.J.; Collins, E.D.; Haas, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    A thermal denitration in-the-storage-can process has been developed for use in the Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Program Facility. This process is being used to convert approx.1000 kg of highly fissile and radioactive uranium to a solid form for safe long-term storage. The material being solidified also contains approx.300 kg of cadmium and approx.40 kg of gadolinium which had been combined with the uranium to provide criticality safety. The unique thermal denitration process was found to be extremely susceptible to entrainment of solids by splattering, foaming, or expulsion actions. The process connection nozzle, through which the feed solution and purging air are supplied and the emerging off-gases are discharged, and the off-gas handling system were modified extensively to permit operation without development of nozzle or line pluggage due to accumulation of solid deposits. A process study was made to determine the effects of feed components and process variables on the tendency of the reacting mixture to splatter, foam, or be expelled. Because of the equipment modifications and the selection of appropriate processing conditions, the feed material is being denitrated without significant problems

  18. Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maya R.; Douglas, Grace L.

    2015-01-01

    The food systems slated for future NASA missions must meet crew nutritional needs, be acceptable for consumption, and use resources efficiently. Although the current food system of prepackaged, moderately stabilized food items works well for International Space Station (ISS) missions, many of the current space menu items do not maintain acceptability and/or nutritive value beyond 2 years. Longer space missions require that the food system can sustain the crew for 3 to 5 years without replenishment. The task "Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization" has the objective of optimizing food-product shelf life for the space-food system through product recipe adjustments, new packaging and processing technologies, and modified storage conditions. Two emergent food processing technologies were examined to identify a pathway to stable, wet-pack foods without the detrimental color and texture effects. Both microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) and pressure-assisted thermal stabilization (PATS) were evaluated against traditional retort processing to determine if lower heat inputs during processing would produce a product with higher micronutrient quality and longer shelf life. While MATS products did have brighter color and better texture initially, the advantages were not sustained. The non-metallized packaging film used in the process likely provided inadequate oxygen barrier. No difference in vitamin stability was evident between MATS and retort processed foods. Similarly, fruit products produced using PATS showed improved color and texture through 3 years of storage compared to retort fruit, but the vitamin stability was not improved. The final processing study involved freeze drying. Five processing factors were tested in factorial design to assess potential impact of each to the quality of freeze-dried food, including the integrity of the microstructure. The initial freezing rate and primary freeze drying

  19. Microbial production of scleroglucan and downstream processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Alejandra Castillo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic petroleum-based polymers and natural plant polymers have the disadvantage of restricted sources, in addition to the non-biodegradability of the former ones. In contrast, eco-sustainable microbial polysaccharides, of low-cost and standardized production, represent an alternative to address this situation. With a strong global market, they attracted worldwide attention because of their novel and unique physico-chemical properties as well as varied industrial applications, and many of them are promptly becoming economically competitive. Scleroglucan, a beta-1,3-beta-1,6-glucan secreted by Sclerotium fungi, exhibits high potential for commercialization and may show different branching frequency, side-chain length and/or molecular weight depending on the producing strain or culture conditions. Water-solubility, viscosifying ability and wide stability over temperature, pH and salinity make scleroglucan useful for different biotechnological (enhanced oil recovery, food additives, drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, biocompatible materials, etc., and biomedical (immunoceutical, antitumor, etc. applications. It can be copiously produced at bioreactor scale under standardized conditions, where a high EPS concentration normally governs the process optimization. Operative and nutritional conditions, as well as the incidence of scleroglucan downstream processing will be discussed in this chapter. The relevance of using standardized inocula from selected strains and experiences concerning the intricate scleroglucan scaling-up will be also herein outlined.

  20. Magma genesis, storage and eruption processes at Aluto volcano, Ethiopia: lessons from remote sensing, gas emissions and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, William; Biggs, Juliet; Mather, Tamsin; Pyle, David; Gleeson, Matthew; Lewi, Elias; Yirgu, Gezahgen; Caliro, Stefano; Chiodini, Giovanni; Fischer, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    One of the most intriguing aspects of magmatism during the transition from continental rifting to sea-floor spreading is that large silicic magmatic systems develop within the rift zone. In the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) these silicic volcanoes not only pose a significant hazard to local populations but they also sustain major geothermal resources. Understanding the journey magma takes from source to surface beneath these volcanoes is vital for determining its eruption style and for better evaluating the geothermal resources that these complexes host. We investigate Aluto, a restless silicic volcano in the MER, and combine a wide range of geochemical and geophysical techniques to constrain magma genesis, storage and eruption processes and shed light on magmatic-hydrothermal-tectonic interactions. Magma genesis and storage processes at Aluto were evaluated using new whole-rock geochemical data from recent eruptive products. Geochemical modelling confirms that Aluto's peralkaline rhyolites, that constitute the bulk of recent erupted products, are generated from protracted fractionation (>80 %) of basalt that is compositionally similar to rift-related basalts found on the margins of the complex. Crustal melting did not play a significant role in rhyolite genesis and melt storage depths of ~5 km can reproduce almost all aspects of their geochemistry. InSAR methods were then used to investigate magma storage and fluid movement at Aluto during an episode of ground deformation that took place between 2008 and 2010. Combining new SAR imagery from different viewing geometries we identified an accelerating uplift pulse and found that source models support depths of magmatic and/or fluid intrusion at ~5 km for the uplift and shallower depths of ~4 km for the subsidence. Finally, gas samples collected on Aluto in 2014 were used to evaluate magma and fluid transport processes. Our results show that gases are predominantly emanating from major fault zones on Aluto and that they

  1. The Earthscope USArray Array Network Facility (ANF): Evolution of Data Acquisition, Processing, and Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G. A.; Battistuz, B.; Foley, S.; Vernon, F. L.; Eakins, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Since April 2004 the Earthscope USArray Transportable Array (TA) network has grown to over 400 broadband seismic stations that stream multi-channel data in near real-time to the Array Network Facility in San Diego. In total, over 1.7 terabytes per year of 24-bit, 40 samples-per-second seismic and state of health data is recorded from the stations. The ANF provides analysts access to real-time and archived data, as well as state-of-health data, metadata, and interactive tools for station engineers and the public via a website. Additional processing and recovery of missing data from on-site recorders (balers) at the stations is performed before the final data is transmitted to the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC). Assembly of the final data set requires additional storage and processing capabilities to combine the real-time data with baler data. The infrastructure supporting these diverse computational and storage needs currently consists of twelve virtualized Sun Solaris Zones executing on nine physical server systems. The servers are protected against failure by redundant power, storage, and networking connections. Storage needs are provided by a hybrid iSCSI and Fiber Channel Storage Area Network (SAN) with access to over 40 terabytes of RAID 5 and 6 storage. Processing tasks are assigned to systems based on parallelization and floating-point calculation needs. On-site buffering at the data-loggers provide protection in case of short-term network or hardware problems, while backup acquisition systems at the San Diego Supercomputer Center and the DMC protect against catastrophic failure of the primary site. Configuration management and monitoring of these systems is accomplished with open-source (Cfengine, Nagios, Solaris Community Software) and commercial tools (Intermapper). In the evolution from a single server to multiple virtualized server instances, Sun Cluster software was evaluated and found to be unstable in our environment. Shared filesystem

  2. LEAN PRACTICES FOR PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Luz Tortorella

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lean product development (LPD is an approach that comprises lean principles and management practices that aim to reduce waste and improve operational effectiveness throughout the entire value stream in continuous improvement endless journey. Due to that, the ability to innovate, change and learn continuously is a key element in order to minimize product development problems. Several LPD techniques are presented in the literature as possible enablers for lean implementation. However, little has been known about the impact of these enablers on the problems related to product development processes. Thus, this paper aims to examine the relationship between five LPD practices’ constructs and the occurrence frequency of eleven LPD problems’ constructs in companies that are implementing lean. Moreover, the identification of relevant relationships between LPD practices’ and problems’ constructs may contribute to specify the contexts in which problems are expected to occur. The study sample comprises sixty four companies already undergoing lean implementation both in shop floor and offices area. The results indicate that the same practices’ constructs, which are deemed as influential for minimizing LPD problems, present different relationship intensities among them.

  3. Pinellas Plant facts. [Products, processes, laboratory facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant.

  4. Downstream Processing of Synechocystis for Biofuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jie

    Lipids and free fatty acids (FFA) from cyanobacterium Synechocystis can be used for biofuel (e.g. biodiesel or renewable diesel) production. In order to utilize and scale up this technique, downstream processes including culturing and harvest, cell disruption, and extraction were studied. Several solvents/solvent systems were screened for lipid extraction from Synechocystis. Chloroform + methanol-based Folch and Bligh & Dyer methods were proved to be "gold standard" for small-scale analysis due to their highest lipid recoveries that were confirmed by their penetration of the cell membranes, higher polarity, and stronger interaction with hydrogen bonds. Less toxic solvents, such as methanol and MTBE, or direct transesterification of biomass (without preextraction step) gave only slightly lower lipid-extraction yields and can be considered for large-scale application. Sustained exposure to high and low temperature extremes severely lowered the biomass and lipid productivity. Temperature stress also triggered changes of lipid quality such as the degree of unsaturation; thus, it affected the productivities and quality of Synechocystis-derived biofuel. Pulsed electric field (PEF) was evaluated for cell disruption prior to lipid extraction. A treatment intensity > 35 kWh/m3 caused significant damage to the plasma membrane, cell wall, and thylakoid membrane, and it even led to complete disruption of some cells into fragments. Treatment by PEF enhanced the potential for the low-toxicity solvent isopropanol to access lipid molecules during subsequent solvent extraction, leading to lower usage of isopropanol for the same extraction efficiency. Other cell-disruption methods also were tested. Distinct disruption effects to the cell envelope, plasma membrane, and thylakoid membranes were observed that were related to extraction efficiency. Microwave and ultrasound had significant enhancement of lipid extraction. Autoclaving, ultrasound, and French press caused significant

  5. A comparative study of gas-gas miscibility processes in underground gas storage reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiee, M.M.; Schmitz, S. [DBI - Gastechnologisches Institut gGmbH, Freiberg (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Intermixture of gases in underground gas reservoirs have had great weight for natural gas storage in UGS projects with substitution of cushion gas by inert gases or changing the stored gas quality or origin, as for the replacement of town gas by natural gas. It was also investigated during the last years for Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) projects. The actual importance of its mechanisms is discussed for the H{sub 2} storage in Power to Gas to Power projects (PGP). In these approaches miscibility of the injected gas with the gas in place in the reservoir plays an important role in the displacement process. The conditions and parameters for the gas-gas displacement and mixing have been investigated in previous projects, as e.g. the miscibility of CO{sub 2} with natural gas (CLEAN). Furthermore the miscibility process of town gas with natural gas and sauer gas with sweet gas were also previously measured and compared in laboratory. The objective of this work is to investigate the miscibility of H{sub 2} injection into natural gas reservoirs using a compositional and a black oil reservoir simulator. Three processes of convection, dispersion and diffusion are considered precisely. The effect of gas miscibility is studied for both simulators and the results are compared to find optimum miscibility parameters. The findings of this work could be helpful for further pilot and field case studies to predict and monitor the changes in gas composition and quality. In future this monitoring might become more important when PGP together with H{sub 2}-UGS, as storage technology, will help to successfully implement the change to an energy supply from more renewable sources. Similarly the method confirms the use of the black oil simulator as an alternative for gas-gas displacement and sequestration reservoir simulation in comparison to the compositional simulator. (orig.)

  6. New efficient hydrogen process production from organosilane hydrogen carriers derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunel, Jean Michel [Unite URMITE, UMR 6236 CNRS, Faculte de Medecine et de Pharmacie, Universite de la Mediterranee, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille 05 (France)

    2010-04-15

    While the source of hydrogen constitutes a significant scientific challenge, addressing issues of hydrogen storage, transport, and delivery is equally important. None of the current hydrogen storage options, liquefied or high pressure H{sub 2} gas, metal hydrides, etc.. satisfy criteria of size, costs, kinetics, and safety for use in transportation. In this context, we have discovered a methodology for the production of hydrogen on demand, in high yield, under kinetic control, from organosilane hydrogen carriers derivatives and methanol as co-reagent under mild conditions catalyzed by a cheap ammonium fluoride salt. Finally, the silicon by-products can be efficiently recycle leading to an environmentally friendly source of energy. (author)

  7. Marine Lipids (Omega-3 Oil) - Stability of Oil and Enriched Products During Production and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2015-01-01

    The awareness of health benefits of marine lipids with a high content of omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids from fish and algae oil has led to an increased intake as oil and in products. However, these lipids are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation, which results in the formation of undesirable...... off-flavours and gives rise to unhealthy compounds such as free radicals and reactive aldehydes. Necessary prerequisites for successful development of omega-3 enriched products are that the oil used for enrichment is of a high quality and low in oxidation products and that oxidation of the lipids...

  8. Cascaded processing in written compound word production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eBertram

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the intricate interplay between central linguistic processing and peripheral motor processes during typewriting. Participants had to typewrite two-constituent (noun-noun Finnish compounds in response to picture presentation while their typing behavior was registered. As dependent measures we used writing onset time to assess what processes were completed before writing and inter-key intervals to assess what processes were going on during writing. It was found that writing onset time was determined by whole word frequency rather than constituent frequencies, indicating that compound words are retrieved as whole orthographic units before writing is initiated. In addition, we found that the length of the first syllable also affects writing onset time, indicating that the first syllable is fully prepared before writing commences. The inter-key interval results showed that linguistic planning is not fully ready before writing, but cascades into the motor execution phase. More specifically, inter-key intervals were largest at syllable and morpheme boundaries, supporting the view that additional linguistic planning takes place at these boundaries. Bigram and trigram frequency also affected inter-key intervals with shorter intervals corresponding to higher frequencies. This can be explained by stronger memory traces for frequently co-occurring letter sequences in the motor memory for typewriting. These frequency effects were even larger in the second than in the first constituent, indicating that low-level motor memory starts to become more important during the course of writing compound words. We discuss our results in the light of current models of morphological processing and written word production.

  9. Cascaded processing in written compound word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Raymond; Tønnessen, Finn Egil; Strömqvist, Sven; Hyönä, Jukka; Niemi, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the intricate interplay between central linguistic processing and peripheral motor processes during typewriting. Participants had to typewrite two-constituent (noun-noun) Finnish compounds in response to picture presentation while their typing behavior was registered. As dependent measures we used writing onset time to assess what processes were completed before writing and inter-key intervals to assess what processes were going on during writing. It was found that writing onset time was determined by whole word frequency rather than constituent frequencies, indicating that compound words are retrieved as whole orthographic units before writing is initiated. In addition, we found that the length of the first syllable also affects writing onset time, indicating that the first syllable is fully prepared before writing commences. The inter-key interval results showed that linguistic planning is not fully ready before writing, but cascades into the motor execution phase. More specifically, inter-key intervals were largest at syllable and morpheme boundaries, supporting the view that additional linguistic planning takes place at these boundaries. Bigram and trigram frequency also affected inter-key intervals with shorter intervals corresponding to higher frequencies. This can be explained by stronger memory traces for frequently co-occurring letter sequences in the motor memory for typewriting. These frequency effects were even larger in the second than in the first constituent, indicating that low-level motor memory starts to become more important during the course of writing compound words. We discuss our results in the light of current models of morphological processing and written word production.

  10. Review of Palm Kernel Oil Processing And Storage Techniques In South East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeke CG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of palm kernel processing and storage in South-Eastern Nigeria was carried out by investigative survey approach. The survey basically ascertained the extent of mechanization applicable in the area to enable the palm kernel processors and agricultural policy makers, device the modalities for improving palm kernel processing in the area. According to the results obtained from the study, in Abia state, 85% of the respondents use mechanical method while 15% use manual method in cracking their kernels. In Imo state, 83% of the processors use mechanical method while 17% use manual method. In Enugu and Ebonyi state, 70% and 50% of the processors respectively use mechanical method. It is only in Anambra state that greater number of the processors (50% use manual method while 45% use mechanical means. It is observable from the results that palm kernel oil extraction has not received much attention in mechanization. The ANOVA of the palm kernel oil extraction technique in South- East Nigeria showed significant difference in both the study area and oil extraction techniques at 5% level of probability. Results further revealed that in Abia State, 70% of the processors use complete fractional process in refining the palm kernel oil; 25% and 5% respectively use incomplete fractional process and zero refining process. In Anambra, 60% of the processors use complete fractional process and 40% use incomplete fractional process. Zero refining method is not applicable in Anambra state. In Enugu sate, 53% use complete fractional process while 25% and 22% respectively use zero refining and incomplete fractional process in refining the palm kernel oil. Imo state, mostly use complete fractional process (85% in refining palm kernel oil. About 10% use zero refining method while 5% of the processors use incomplete fractional process. Plastic containers and metal drums are dominantly used in most areas in south-east Nigeria for the storage of palm kernel oil.

  11. Oxidative stability of pork emulsion containing tomato products and pink guava pulp during refrigerated aerobic storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K; Sahoo, Jhari

    2014-11-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant potential of tomato puree (10 %; T-1), tomato pulp (12.5 %; T-2), lyophilized tomato peel (6 %; T-3), and pink guava pulp (10 %; T-4) was evaluated in raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage for 9 days under aerobic packaging. The lycopene and β-carotene content varied in pork emulsion as T-3 > T-1 > T-2 > T-4 and decreased (P emulsions than in control. Overall, incorporation of tomato products and pink guava pulp improved the visual colour and odour scores of raw pork emulsion. These results indicated that tomato products and guava pulp can be utilized as sources of natural antioxidants in raw pork products to minimize lipid oxidation, off-odour development, and surface discolouration.

  12. Opportunities to integrate solar technologies into the Chilean lithium mining industry - reducing process related GHG emissions of a strategic storage resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telsnig, Thomas; Potz, Christian; Haas, Jannik; Eltrop, Ludger; Palma-Behnke, Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    The arid northern regions of Chile are characterized by an intensive mineral mining industry and high solar irradiance levels. Besides Chile's main mining products, copper, molybdenum and iron, the production of lithium carbonate from lithium containing brines has become strategically important due to the rising demand for battery technologies worldwide. Its energy-intensive production may affect the ecological footprint of the product and the country's climate targets. Thus, the use of solar technologies for electricity and heat production might constitute an interesting option for CO2 mitigation. This study aims to quantify the impacts of the lithium carbonate production processes in Chile on climate change, and to identify site-specific integration options of solar energy technologies to reduce GHG life-cycle emissions. The considered solar integration options include a parabolic trough power plant with a molten salt storage, a solar tower power plant with molten salt receiver and molten salt storage, a one-axis tracking photovoltaic energy system for electricity, and two solar thermal power plants with Ruths storage (steam accumulator) for thermal heat production. CSP plants were identified as measures with the highest GHG mitigation potential reducing the CO2 emissions for the entire production chain and the lithium production between 16% and 33%. In a scenario that combines solar technologies for electricity and thermal energy generation, up to 59% of the CO2 emissions at the lithium production sites in Chile can be avoided. A comparison of the GHG abatement costs of the proposed solar integration options indicates that the photovoltaic system, the solar thermal plant with limited storage and the solar tower power plant are the most cost effective options.

  13. Lessons learned from the Siting Process of an Interim Storage Facility in Spain - 12024

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamolla, Meritxell Martell [MERIENCE Strategic Thinking, 08734 Olerdola, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    On 29 December 2009, the Spanish government launched a site selection process to host a centralised interim storage facility for spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. It was an unprecedented call for voluntarism among Spanish municipalities to site a controversial facility. Two nuclear municipalities, amongst a total of thirteen municipalities from five different regions, presented their candidatures to host the facility in their territories. For two years the government did not make a decision. Only in November 30, 2011, the new government elected on 20 November 2011 officially selected a non-nuclear municipality, Villar de Canas, for hosting this facility. This paper focuses on analysing the factors facilitating and hindering the siting of controversial facilities, in particular the interim storage facility in Spain. It demonstrates that involving all stakeholders in the decision-making process should not be underestimated. In the case of Spain, all regional governments where there were candidate municipalities willing to host the centralised interim storage facility, publicly opposed to the siting of the facility. (author)

  14. Development of a revolving drum reactor for open-sorption heat storage processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zettl, Bernhard; Englmair, Gerald; Steinmaurer, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the potential of an open sorption storage process using molecular sieves to provide thermal energy for space heating and hot water, an experimental study of adsorption heat generation in a rotating reactor is presented. Dehydrated zeolite of the type 4A and MSX were used in form of spherical grains and humidified room air was blown through the rotating bed. Zeolite batches of about 50 kg were able to generate an adsorption heat up to 12 kWh and temperature shifts of the process air up to 36 K depending on the inlet air water content and the state of dehydration of the storage materials. A detailed study of the heat transfer effects, the generated adsorption heat, and the evolving temperatures show the applicability of the reactor and storage concept. - Highlights: • Use of an open adsorption concept for domestic heat supply was proved. • A rotating heat drum reactor concept was successfully applied. • Zeolite batches of 50 kg generated up to 12 kWh adsorption heat (580 kJ/kg). • Temperature shift in the rotating material bed was up to 60 K during adsorption

  15. Optics for Processes, Products and Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, George

    1999-04-01

    Optical physics has a variety of applications in industry, including process inspection, coatings development, vision instrumentation, spectroscopy, and many others. Optics has been used extensively in the design of solar energy collection systems and coatings, for example. Also, with the availability of good CCD cameras and fast computers, it has become possible to develop real-time inspection and metrology devices that can accommodate the high throughputs encountered in modern production processes. More recently, developments in moiré interferometry show great promise for applications in the basic metals and electronics industries. The talk will illustrate applications of optics by discussing process inspection techniques for defect detection, part dimensioning, birefringence measurement, and the analysis of optical coatings in the automotive, glass, and optical disc industries. In particular, examples of optical techniques for the quality control of CD-R, MO, and CD-RW discs will be presented. In addition, the application of optical concepts to solar energy collector design and to metrology by moiré techniques will be discussed. Finally, some of the modern techniques and instruments used for qualitative and quantitative material analysis will be presented.

  16. Nitrogen sources affect productivity, desiccation tolerance and storage stability of Beauveria bassiana blastospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarin, G M; Kobori, N N; Jackson, M A; Dunlap, C A; Delalibera, Í

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen is a critical element in industrial fermentation media. This study investigated the influence of various nitrogen sources on blastospore production, desiccation tolerance and storage stability using two strains of the cosmopolitan insect-pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. Complex organic sources of nitrogen such as soy flour, autolysed yeast and cottonseed flour induced great numbers of blastospores after 2-3 days of fermentation, which also survived drying and remained viable (32-56% survival) after 9 months storage at 4°C, although variations were found between strains. Nitrogen availability in the form of free amino acids directly influenced blastospore production and resistance to desiccation. Increasing glucose and nitrogen concentrations up to 120 and 30 g l -1 , respectively, did not improve blastospore production but enhanced desiccation tolerance. Cell viability after drying and upon fast-rehydration was increased when ≥25 g acid-hydrolysed casein per litre was supplemented in the liquid culture medium. These findings indicate that low-cost complex nitrogen compounds are suitable to enhance yeast-like growth by B. bassiana with good desiccation tolerance and therefore support its further scale-up production as a mycoinsecticide. Nitrogen is the most expensive nutrient in liquid media composition, but this study underscores the feasibility of using low-cost nitrogen compounds composed mainly of agro-industrial by-products for rapid production of desiccation-tolerant B. bassiana blastospores by liquid culture fermentation. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. New infrared-sensitive photopolymer materials for information storage and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagtegaele, Patrice; Galstian, Tigran V.

    2001-11-01

    In response to the increasing demand of information systems, we need new materials with high performance for storage and processing applications. Available on the market optical storage materials present very useful characteristics but are still limited in the visible spectrum and are expansive. Recently, we have developed holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) materials sensitive in the near infrared region (800 nm to 850 nm). These compounds are based on acrylate monomers and different liquid crystals (LC) and allow highly efficient in-situ recording of holographic optical elements using infra red lasers. Diffraction efficiency above 95% is demonstrated. Photosensitivity of the material, its dark ­development and photochemical stability of recorded gratings are investigated. The angular and spectral selectivities of gratings, recorded in these films are examined for recovering the refractive index modulation profile.

  18. Outlook of the process of storage of oncology drugs from the logistic operator in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vicente Sánchez-Calvera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article mainly on the problem of  storage of oncology drugs, which is an important element in the supply chain, applied in the context of warehouse management of oncology drugs, in the logistics operator and providers of health services institutions (IPS for its acronym in Spanish of Bogotá DC and in the contex of a macro project "Methodological proposal for the definition of policies , rules of negotation and coordination in supply management of oncology drugs in Colombia," funded by Colciencias and the Universidad Nacional of Colombia. This article presents the current situation of oncology drugs, marking a characterization, diagnosis and identification and startegies evaluated under different scenarios. Finally, it is presented a proposal of improvement applied tranversely to storage processes including labels such as just in Time and the application of information and communication technologies (ICT.

  19. Solid waste and the water environment in the new European Union perspective. Process analysis related to storage and final disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Marcia [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2000-11-01

    Processes that occur during storage and final disposal of solid waste were studied, with emphasis on physical and chemical aspects and their effects on the water environment, within the New European Union perspective for landfilling (Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999). In the new scenario, landfilling is largely restricted; waste treatments such as incineration, composting, recycling, storage and transportation of materials are intensified. Landfill sites are seen as industrial facilities rather than merely final disposal sites. Four main issues were investigated within this new scenario, in field- and full-scale, mostly at Spillepeng site, southern Sweden. (1) Adequacy of storage piles: Regarding the increasing demand for waste storage as fuel, the adequacy of storage in piles was investigated by monitoring industrial waste (IND) fuel compacted piles. Intense biodegradation activity, which raised the temperature into the optimum range for chemical oxidation reactions, was noticed during the first weeks. After about six months of storage, self-ignition occurred in one IND pile and one refuse derived fuel (RDF) pile. Heat, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} distribution at different depths of the monitored IND pile suggested that natural convection plays an important role in the degradation process by supplying oxygen and releasing heat. Storage techniques that achieve a higher degree of compaction, such as baling, are preferable to storage in piles. ( 2) Discharge from landfill for special waste: Regarding changes in the composition of the waste sent to landfills and the consequences for its hydrological performance in active and capped landfills, discharge from a full-scale landfill for special/hazardous waste (predominantly fly ash from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration) was modelled using the U.S. EPA HELP model. Hydraulic properties of the special waste were compared with those from MSW. Lower practical field capacity and higher hydraulic conductivity at

  20. Solid waste and the water environment in the new European Union perspective. Process analysis related to storage and final disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Marcia [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2000-11-01

    Processes that occur during storage and final disposal of solid waste were studied, with emphasis on physical and chemical aspects and their effects on the water environment, within the New European Union perspective for landfilling (Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999). In the new scenario, landfilling is largely restricted; waste treatments such as incineration, composting, recycling, storage and transportation of materials are intensified. Landfill sites are seen as industrial facilities rather than merely final disposal sites. Four main issues were investigated within this new scenario, in field- and full-scale, mostly at Spillepeng site, southern Sweden. (1) Adequacy of storage piles: Regarding the increasing demand for waste storage as fuel, the adequacy of storage in piles was investigated by monitoring industrial waste (IND) fuel compacted piles. Intense biodegradation activity, which raised the temperature into the optimum range for chemical oxidation reactions, was noticed during the first weeks. After about six months of storage, self-ignition occurred in one IND pile and one refuse derived fuel (RDF) pile. Heat, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} distribution at different depths of the monitored IND pile suggested that natural convection plays an important role in the degradation process by supplying oxygen and releasing heat. Storage techniques that achieve a higher degree of compaction, such as baling, are preferable to storage in piles. ( 2) Discharge from landfill for special waste: Regarding changes in the composition of the waste sent to landfills and the consequences for its hydrological performance in active and capped landfills, discharge from a full-scale landfill for special/hazardous waste (predominantly fly ash from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration) was modelled using the U.S. EPA HELP model. Hydraulic properties of the special waste were compared with those from MSW. Lower practical field capacity and higher hydraulic conductivity at

  1. Design of hydroforming processes for metallic liners used in high pressure hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelin, J.C.; Labergere, C.; Thibaud, S.; Boudeau, N.

    2005-01-01

    Within the framework of an European project concerning hydrogen storage, one analyze the way to manufacture high pressure tanks (700bars) for hydrogen storage, intended to be embarked for using in motor vehicles. These tanks consist of a metallic liner, which ensure a barrier role compared to the hydrogen atoms as well as a part of the mechanical resistance, and of a composite envelope built by filament rolling up which ensures the complementary part of the mechanical resistance. The paper describes the work completed within this framework, on the basis of the simulation of the hydroforming process thanks to the complete control of the process, in volume of fluid injected. One was thus brought to develop an optimization module based on finite element calculations. This optimization module includes MPI library in order to launch several calculations in parallel on a Linux cluster. It consists in seeking the optimal evolution of the fluid volume injected vs. time to obtain a good quality component. In our case, the optimization criterion is based on the variation thickness of the tube and the possible appearance of necking. It is shown that such a way for controlling the process provide the way to get minimal thickness variation, comparatively to standard optimization approaches where the process parameters are discretized through processing time in a more standard way

  2. Storage of intact heads prior to processing limits the shelf-life of fresh-cut Lactuca sativa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkowska, I.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Harvested lettuce heads are usually transported and stored for some period of time under a variety of conditions prior to processing. During storage, especially under suboptimal conditions, nutritional composition of the harvested produce continues to change. The possible impact of prior storage of

  3. 40 CFR 60.254 - Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. 60.254... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal Preparation...

  4. Microbiological and chemical characteristics of Brazilian kefir during fermentation and storage processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, A M O; Leite, D C A; Del Aguila, E M; Alvares, T S; Peixoto, R S; Miguel, M A L; Silva, J T; Paschoalin, V M F

    2013-07-01

    The microbial community composition and chemical characteristics of a Brazilian milk kefir sample produced during its manufacturing and refrigerated storage were investigated by culture-dependent and -independent methods and HPLC. Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris and ssp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Acetobacter lovaniensis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated, whereas the detected bands on denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis corresponded to Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactobacillus kefiri, Lactobacillus parakefiri, and S. cerevisiae. After fermentation, lactic acid bacteria were present at levels of 10 log units, whereas acetic acid bacteria and yeast were present at levels of 7.8 and 6 log units, respectively. The lactic acid bacteria and yeast counts remained constant, whereas acetic acid bacteria counts decreased to 7.2 log units during storage. From fermentation to final storage, the pH, lactose content and citric acid of the kefir beverage decreased, followed by an increase in the concentrations of glucose, galactose, ethanol, and lactic, acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. These microbiological and chemical characteristics contribute to the unique taste and aroma of kefir. This research may serve as a basis for the future industrial production of this beverage in Brazil. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of chemical composition, and storage on dried fermented goat milk product (Oggtt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badriah O. Al-Abdulkarim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A sample of dried fermented goat milk product (Oggtt obtained from the local market of Riyadh city in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, was stored for 6 months at 4 °C and subjected to chemical composition analysis before and after storage. The result showed that the sample moisture increased significantly (P ⩽ 0.05 after storage from 7% to 10%, total ash decreased non-significantly (P ⩽ 0.05 from 8% to 7.6%, total carbohydrates decreased non-significantly (P ⩽ 0.05 from 35.5% to 33.8%, protein increased non-significantly (P ⩽ 0.05 from 16 to 16.1 g/l, fat content was found to have the same values in all samples before and after storage at 5%, lactose increased (P ⩽ 0.05 non-significantly from 28.4% to 29%, acidity decreased (P ⩽ 0.05 significantly from 0.45% to 0.39%, and pH decreased (P ⩽ 0.05 non-significantly from 4.3% to 4%. On the other hand, mineral composition showed (P ⩽ 0.05 non-significant results before and after storage. Ca concentration decreased from 118 to 1149 mg/kg and K concentration increased from 185.8 to 1888 mg/kg. While Mg increased from 105 to 123 mg/kg, Zn increased from 8.3 to 8.6 mg/kg, Mn and Fe were found to have the same values of concentrations before and after storage which were 0.2 and 0.1 mg/kg, respectively. Accordingly, we can conclude that Oggtt is a stable product and have a good nutritional value in comparison to daily required amounts for healthy human life.

  6. Estimation of evaporative losses during storage of crude oil and petroleum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Marina A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage of crude oil and petroleum products inevitably leads to evaporative losses. Those losses are important for the industrial plants mass balances, as well as for the environmental protection. In this paper, estimation of evaporative losses was performed using software program TANKS 409d which was developed by the Agency for Environmental Protection of the United States - US EPA. Emissions were estimated for the following types of storage tanks: fixed conical roof tank, fixed dome roof tank, external floating roof tank, internal floating roof tank and domed external floating roof tank. Obtained results show quantities of evaporated losses per tone of stored liquid. Crude oil fixed roof storage tank losses are cca 0.5 kg per tone of crude oil. For floating roof, crude oil losses are 0.001 kg/t. Fuel oil (diesel fuel and heating oil have the smallest evaporation losses, which are in order of magnitude 10-3 kg/tone. Liquids with higher Reid Vapour Pressure have very high evaporative losses for tanks with fixed roof, up to 2.07 kg/tone. In case of external floating roof tank, losses are 0.32 kg/tone. The smallest losses are for internal floating roof tank and domed external floating roof tank: 0.072 and 0.044, respectively. Finally, it can be concluded that the liquid with low volatility of low BTEX amount can be stored in tanks with fixed roof. In this case, the prevailing economic aspect, because the total amount of evaporative loss does not significantly affect the environment. On the other hand, storage of volatile derivatives with high levels of BTEX is not justified from the economic point of view or from the standpoint of the environment protection.

  7. Chemical changes in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix minced muscle during frozen storage: Effect of a previous washing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini, Hedayat

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix has acquired great attention because of its increasing farming production and application in the surimi-product commercialization. This work focuses on the effect of a washing process followed by frozen storage (6 months; -18 °C on the quality of minced silver carp muscle. A previous washing step has led to a positive effect on fish quality according to marked content decreases in expressible moisture, volatile amines, free fatty acids and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; such quality performances were maintained throughout the frozen storage. On the other hand, most indexes tested showed quality losses throughout the frozen storage in both washed and unwashed fish material; however, water holding capacity (WHC remained unchanged in washed fish throughout the frozen storage. Among quality indexes, a special attention should be given to the expressible moisture value and accordingly the WHC, as being closely related to the gelforming ability in order to obtain surimi-type commercial products.La carpa plateada (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ha adquirido un gran interés debido a su creciente producción acuícola y a su empleo en la elaboración de surimi. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo el estudio del efecto que sobre la calidad de músculo de carpa plateada desmenuzada puede tener un proceso de lavado seguido de conservación en congelación (6 meses; -18 °C. Así, se observó un efecto positivo del lavado sobre la calidad de acuerdo con un descenso en los contenidos de humedad exprimible, aminas volátiles, ácidos grasos libres y sustancias reactivas con el ácido tiobarbitúrico; esta mejora de calidad se mantuvo durante la conservación en congelación. Asimismo, la mayoría de los índices de calidad estudiados reflejaron pérdidas de calidad durante la conservación en congelación independientemente del tratamiento previo; sin embargo, la capacidad de retención de agua permaneci

  8. High moisture airtight storage of barley and triticale: Effect of moisture level and grain processing on nitrogen and phosphorus solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of storage time, grain processing (whole vs. rolled) and the combination of phytase, xylanase, β-glucanase and protease on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) solubility during high moisture airtight (HMA) storage of barley and triticale at various...... moisture levels (20, 23, 26 and 29% moisture) and to compare HMA storage of cereals with dry storage for 49 days. Dry stored barley and triticale (10 and 13% moisture, respectively) were kept in 10 L plastic buckets for 0 and 49 days. HMA stored cereals were kept in airtight bags (400 g per bag) at 15 °C......) in HMA storage at 29% moisture to a greater extent compared with dry storage (P levels increased P solubility (rolled barley, whole and rolled triticale) and N solubility (whole and rolled triticale) linearly and decreased Phytate P:Total P (rolled barley) linearly...

  9. Methylated liquor treatment process in caffeine production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junbo; Yang, Mingyang; Huang, Wenjia; Cui, Shenglu; Gao, Liping

    2018-02-01

    The caffeine production process produces a large amount of sodium methyl sulphate in the methylated mother liquor. In order to recycle this part of ingredient, we use the mother liquid of Shijiazhuang Xin Nuowei Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. as the object of study, the use of “nanofiltration (NF) - Dish Type Reverse Osmosis (DTRO) “combination of membrane technology for desalination and concentration. The experimental results show that the concentration of sodium sulfate in the nanofiltration solution is 0.37 g • L -1, the rejection rate is 98%, and the concentration of sodium methyl sulfate in DTRO concentrated solution is 453.80 g • L -1, which meets the requirements of the enterprise.

  10. Kanban simulation model for production process optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golchev Riste

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A long time has passed since the KANBAN system has been established as an efficient method for coping with the excessive inventory. Still, the possibilities for its improvement through its integration with other different approaches should be investigated further. The basic research challenge of this paper is to present benefits of KANBAN implementation supported with Discrete Event Simulation (DES. In that direction, at the beginning, the basics of KANBAN system are presented with emphasis on the information and material flow, together with a methodology for implementation of KANBAN system. Certain analysis on combining the simulation with this methodology is presented. The paper is concluded with a practical example which shows that through understanding the philosophy of the implementation methodology of KANBAN system and the simulation methodology, a simulation model can be created which can serve as a basis for a variety of experiments that can be conducted within a short period of time, resulting with production process optimization.

  11. 21 CFR 820.70 - Production and process controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Production and Process Controls § 820.70 Production and process... used as part of production or the quality system, the manufacturer shall validate computer software for... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production and process controls. 820.70 Section...

  12. [Optimization of the pertussis vaccine production process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germán Santiago, J; Zamora, N; de la Rosa, E; Alba Carrión, C; Padrón, P; Hernández, M; Betancourt, M; Moretti, N

    1995-01-01

    The production of Pertussis Vaccine was reevaluated at the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" in order to optimise it in terms of vaccine yield, potency, specific toxicity and efficiency (cost per doses). Four different processes, using two culture media (Cohen-Wheeler and Fermentación Glutamato Prolina-1) and two types of bioreactors (25 L Fermentador Caracas and a 450 L industrial fermentor) were compared. Runs were started from freeze-dried strains (134 or 509) and continued until the obtention of the maximal yield. It was found that the combination Fermentación Glutamato Prolina-1/industrial fermentor, shortened the process to 40 hours while consistently yielding a vaccine of higher potency (7.91 +/- 2.56 IU/human dose) and lower specific toxicity in a mice bioassay. In addition, the physical aspect of the preparation was rather homogeneous and free of dark aggregates. Most importantly, the biomass yield more than doubled those of the Fermentador Caracas using the two different media and that in the industrial fermentor with the Cohen-Wheeler medium. Therefore, the cost per doses was substantially decreased.

  13. Process for production of a borohydride compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Millar, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2014-08-19

    A process for production of a borohydride compound M(BH.sub.4).sub.y. The process has three steps. The first step combines a compound of formula (R.sup.1O).sub.yM with aluminum, hydrogen and a metallic catalyst containing at least one metal selected from the group consisting of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum and iron to produce a compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y, wherein R.sup.1 is phenyl or phenyl substituted by at least one alkyl or alkoxy group; M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg; and y is one or two; wherein the catalyst is present at a level of at least 200 ppm based on weight of aluminum. The second step combines the compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y with a borate, boroxine or borazine compound to produce M(BH.sub.4).sub.y and a byproduct mixture containing alkali metal and aluminum aryloxides. The third step separates M(BH.sub.4).sub.y from the byproduct mixture.

  14. The role of reconsolidation and the dynamic process of long-term memory formation and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M Alberini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that the processes of memory formation and storage are exquisitely dynamic. Elucidating the nature and temporal evolution of the biological changes that accompany encoding, storage and retrieval is key to understand memory formation. For explicit or medial temporal lobe-dependent memories that form after a discrete event and are stored for a long time, the physical changes underlying the encoding and processing of the information (memory trace or engram remain in a fragile state for some time. However, over time, the new memory becomes increasingly resistant to disruption until it is consolidated. Retrieval or reactivation of an apparently consolidated memory can render the memory labile again, and reconsolidation is the process that occurs to mediate its restabilization. Reconsolidation also evolves with the age of the memory: Young memories are sensitive to postreactivation disruption, but older memories are more resistant. Why does a memory become labile again if it is retrieved or reactivated? Here I suggest that the main function of reconsolidation is to contribute to the lingering consolidation process and mediate memory strengthening. I also discuss the literature and results regarding the influence of the passage of time on the reconsolidation of memory. These points have important implications for the use of reconsolidation in therapeutic settings.

  15. Combined modified atmosphere packaging and low temperature storage delay lignification and improve the defense response of minimally processed water bamboo shoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lili; Chen, Hangjun; Gao, Haiyan; Fang, Xiangjun; Mu, Honglei; Yuan, Ya; Yang, Qian; Jiang, Yueming

    2013-09-04

    Minimally processed water bamboo shoot (WBS) lignifies and deteriorates rapidly at room temperature, which limits greatly its marketability. This study was to investigate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the sensory quality index, lignin formation, production of radical oxygen species (ROS) and activities of scavenging enzymes, membrane integrity and energy status of minimally processed WBS when packaged with or without the sealed low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags, and then stored at 20°C for 9 days or 2°C for 60 days. The sensory quality of minimally processed WBS decreased quickly after 6 days of storage at 20°C. Low temperature storage maintained a higher sensory quality index within the first 30 days, but exhibited higher contents of lignin and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as compared with non-MAP shoots at 20°C. Combined MAP and low temperature storage not only maintained good sensory quality after 30 days, but also reduced significantly the increases in lignin content, superoxide anion (O2.-) production rate, H2O2 content and membrane permeability, maintained high activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and reduced the increase in activities of lipase, phospholipase D (PLD) and lipoxygenase (LOX). Furthermore, the minimally processed WBS under MAP condition exhibited higher energy charge (EC) and lower adenosine monophosphate (AMP) content by the end of storage (60 days) at 2°C than those without MAP or stored for 9 days at 20°C. These results indicated that MAP in combination with low temperature storage reduced lignification of minimally processed WBS, which was closely associated with maintenance of energy status and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes, as well as reduced alleviation of membrane damage caused by ROS.

  16. Impact of sample processing on the measurement of circulating microparticles: storage and centrifugation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Liante, Virtudes; Sánchez-López, Verónica; Martínez-Sales, Vicenta; Ramón-Nuñez, Luis A; Arellano-Orden, Elena; Cano-Ruiz, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Martorell, Francisco J; Gao, Lin; Otero-Candelera, Remedios

    2016-11-01

    Microparticles (MPs) have been shown to be markers of cellular activation and interactions. Pre-analytical conditions such as the centrifugation protocol and sample storage conditions represent an important source of variability in determining MPs values. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of sample storage conditions and centrifugation speed and temperature on the determination of MPs in plasma. Citrate-anticoagulated blood samples obtained from 21 healthy subjects were centrifuged under four different protocols involving different speeds (2500 g or 1500 g) and temperatures (4 °C or 20 °C) to isolate platelet-poor plasma (PPP). The number of MPs in fresh and frozen-thawed PPP were analyzed by flow cytometry, and MPs-mediated procoagulant activity was determined by a thrombin generation test and phospholipid-dependent procoagulant tests. The number of MPs and their procoagulant activity were affected by freeze-thaw cycling and centrifugation speed but not by centrifugation temperature. Sample freezing increased MPs number (six-fold) and thrombin generation (four-fold), and decreased clotting time (two-fold). Low centrifugation speed caused an increase in MPs number and a parallel increase in MP-mediated procoagulant activity. Sample storage conditions and centrifugation speed are important processing conditions affecting MPs number and activity. Before any study, the protocol for MPs isolation should be optimized to ensure a reliable characterization of MPs, which could provide important information for diagnostic purposes and for understanding the pathogenesis of diseases.

  17. Folates stability in two types of rye breads during processing and frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujska, Elzbieta; Michalak, Joanna; Klepacka, Joanna

    2009-06-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography was used to study the stability of folate vitamers in two types of rye breads after baking and 16 weeks of frozen storage. Bread made using sourdough seeds contained less total folate (74.6 microg/100 g dry basis, expressed as folic acid) than the whole rye flour (79.8 microg/100 g dry basis) and bread leavened only with baker's yeast (82.8 microg/100 g dry basis). Most importantly, it was generated by a significant decrease in 5-CH3-H4folate form. The baking process caused some changes in folate distribution. Storage of breads at -18 degrees C for 2 weeks did not have a significant effect (p type of breads. After a longer period of storage (16 weeks), a 25% loss of folates in the bread made with baker's yeast and a 38% loss in the bread fermented with sourdough seeds was found. Retention of 5-CH3-H4folate and 10-HCO-H2folate forms were much lower in the bread made with a sourdough addition than with baker's yeast only.

  18. Long-term storage of irradiated potatoes for processing use, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shohei; Umeda, Keiji; Kameyama, Kenji.

    1984-01-01

    In order to develop suitable storage conditions in potatoes for processing use, non-irradiated and irradiated potatoes var. Norin No. 1 were stored in containers and in bulk. The contents of reducing sugars were determined and the properties of potato chips were analysed. Reconditioning at 10 deg C and RH 90 % for 4 weeks during an early period of dormancy lowered the content of reducing sugars remarkably in both the non-irradiated and irradiated potatoes which were either stored in containers or in bulk. The optimum conditions for the storage of potatoes were 8 deg C and RH 90 %, which enabled the potatoes to retain their hardness while the content reducing sugars decreased. The potatoes stored under the above conditions gave chips with a fairly good color. In contrast, the non-irradiated potatoes stored for a period of 6 months or longer sprouted and aged, resulting in chips with unsatisfactory color. It was found necessary to use potatoes with low contents of both amino acids and reducing sugars to avoid the browning of chips. Bulk storage which was found to be effective for air circulation through potatoes caused creeping phenomenon. (author)

  19. High density plasma productions by hydrogen storage electrode in the Tohoku University Heliac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utoh, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Takenaga, M.; Ogawa, M.; Shinde, J.; Iwazaki, K.; Shinto, K.; Kitajima, S.; Sasao, M.; Nishimura, K.; Inagaki, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the Tohoku University Heliac (TU-Heliac), the influence of a radial electric field on improved modes has been investigated by an electrode biasing. In both positive and negative biasing experiments by the stainless steel (SUS) electrode (cold-electron or ion collection), the improvement of plasma confinement was clearly observed. Furthermore, by negative biasing with a hot cathode (electron injection), the radial electric fields can be actively controlled as a consequence of the control of the electrode current I E . By using the electrode made of a hydrogen storage metal, for example Titanium (Ti) or Vanadium (V), the following possibility can be expected: (1) ions accelerated from the positive biased electrode allow the simulation for the orbit loss of high-energy particles, (2) the electrons/neutral- particles injected from the negative biased electrode provide the production of the high- density plasma, if hydrogen are successfully stored in the electrode. In this present work, several methods were tried as the treatment for hydrogen storage. In the case of the Ti electrode biased positively after the treatment, the improvement of plasma confinement was observed in He plasma, which were same as the experimental results of the SUS electrode. However, in the electron density profiles inside the electrode position there was difference between the biased plasma by the Ti electrode and that by the SUS electrode. In some of Ar discharges biased negatively with the Ti electrode after the treatment, the electron density and the line intensity of H α increased about 10 times of those before biasing. This phenomenon has not been observed in the Ar plasma biased by the SUS electrode. This result suggested that the Ti electrode injected electrons/neutral-hydrogen into the plasma. This high-density plasma productions were observed only 1 ∼ 3 times in the one treatment for hydrogen storage. By using a Vanadium (V) electrode, productions of the high-density plasma

  20. Regulation of the wind power production. Contribution of the electric vehicles and other energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateus, Carlos B. [Instituto de Meteorologia, Lisboa (Portugal); Estanqueiro, Ana [INETI/LNEG - National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2012-07-01

    The increase in penetration of variable renewable energy sources (RES) introduced additional difficulties regarding the management of the Portuguese Power System. This is mainly due to the high temporal variability and low controllability, characteristics of these kinds of sources. There is a real need to reduce the impact of non-dispatchable RES sources; maximizing their penetration and minimizing curtailment. This is especially true for wind power and run-of-the-river hydro (ROR); as it appears beneficial to combine their variable production with added capacity of energy storage and demand side management; thereby increasing the flexibility of the power system as a whole. This paper aims to assess the excess wind generation (and other non-dispatchable sources); this for periods of production's excess in a 2020 timeframe, and assuming different weather scenarios. The adjustment of wind power generation (WPG) profile to the load profile is also addressed; the result is computed in the form of the value of the energy temporally deferred, using Pumped Hydro Storage (PHS) power plants as well as electric Vehicles (EVs). (orig.)

  1. Future carbon storage in harvested wood products from Ontario's Crown forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Colombo, S.J.; Ter-Mikaelian, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon (C) storage in harvested wood products (HWP) from Ontario's Crown forests were analyzed using a large-scale forest C budget model. The model was used to estimate HWP C stock changes as defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The harvested C mass was then allocated to 4 HWP end-use categories, notably (1) in use; (2) landfill; (3) energy; and (4) emissions. C mass redistribution among HWP end-use categories was calculated using an age-based C distribution matrix. Emissions for harvest, transport, and manufacturing were accounted for as well as emission reductions gained by using the HWP in place of other construction materials and fossil fuels. Results of the study showed that C storage in HWP is projected to increase by 3.6 Mt per year. The projections indicated that the harvest of wood products in Ontario will result in a steadily increasing C sink in HWP and forests. 51 refs., 8 tabs., 4 figs

  2. Fungi in cake production chain: Occurrence and evaluation of growth potential in different cake formulations during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morassi, Letícia L P; Bernardi, Angélica O; Amaral, Alexandra L P M; Chaves, Rafael D; Santos, Juliana L P; Copetti, Marina V; Sant'Ana, Anderson S

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence and populations of fungi in cake production chain. Besides, the growth potential of twelve fungal strains in different cake formulations was evaluated. Raw materials from two different batches (n=143), chocolate cakes (n=30), orange cakes (n=20), and processing environment air samples (n=147) were analyzed. Among the raw materials, wheat flour (3.2±0.3 log CFU per g) and corn meal (3.8±0.8 log CFU per g) belonging to batch #1 showed significant higher fungal counts (pcakes were Aspergillus flavus (28.15%), Penicillium citrinum (18.45%), Penicillium paxilli (14.56%), and Aspergillus niger (6.8%), which were also detected in the raw materials and processing environment air. Only Penicillium glabrum and Penicillium citrinum showed visible mycelium (>3mm) in the free of preservative cake formulation at 19th and 44th days of storage at 25°C, respectively. Revealing the biodiversity of fungi in ingredients, air and final products, as well as challenging final products with representative fungal strains may assist to implement effective controlling measures as well as to gather data for the development of more robust cake formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Product quality driven food process design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadiyanto, M.

    2007-01-01

    Consumers evaluate food products on their quality, and thus the product quality is a main target in industrial food production. In the last decade there has been a remarkable increase of interest of the food industry to put food product quality central in innovation. However, quality itself is

  4. Structuring user-centred product development processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoolhorst, F.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Within the last decades, product development industry has found itself facing a general increase in product use problems. These problems originate from a mismatch between the actual functionality that the product provides and the afforded product-user interaction versus the user’s expectations

  5. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... products. (3) Frozen bakery products. (b) All procured frozen processed food products that contain meat... frozen bakery products that ship products in interstate commerce are required to comply with the Federal... products. 870.111-5 Section 870.111-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS...

  6. Effect of Processing Delay and Storage Conditions on Urine Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, William; Illingworth, Nicola; Staplin, Natalie; Kumar, Aishwarya; Storey, Ben; Hrusecka, Renata; Judge, Parminder; Mahmood, Maria; Parish, Sarah; Landray, Martin; Haynes, Richard; Baigent, Colin; Hill, Michael; Clark, Sarah

    2016-10-07

    Because there is substantial biologic intraindividual variation in albumin excretion, randomized trials of albuminuria-reducing therapies may need multiple urine samples to estimate daily urinary albumin excretion. Mailing spot urine samples could offer a convenient and cost-effective method to collect multiple samples, but urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio stability in samples stored at ambient temperatures for several days is unknown. Patients with kidney disease provided fresh urine samples in two tubes (with and without boric acid preservative). Reference aliquots from each participant were analyzed immediately, whereas remaining aliquots were subject to different handling/storage conditions before analysis, including delayed processing for up to 7 days at three different storage temperatures (4°C, 18°C, and 30°C), multiple freeze-thaw cycles, and long-term frozen storage at -80°C, -40°C, and -20°C. We calculated the mean percentage change in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio for each condition, and we considered samples stable if the 95% confidence interval was within a ±5% threshold. Ninety-three patients provided samples with detectable albuminuria in the reference aliquot. Median (interquartile range) urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was 87 (20-499) mg/g. The inclusion of preservative had minimal effect on fresh urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio measurements but reduced the changes in albumin and creatinine in samples subject to processing delay and storage conditions. The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was stable for 7 days in samples containing preservative at 4°C and 18°C and 2 days when stored at 30°C. It was also stable in samples with preservative after three freeze-thaw cycles and in frozen storage for 6 months at -80°C or -40°C but not at -20°C. Mailed urine samples collected with preservative and received within 7 days if ambient temperature is ≤18°C, or within 2 days if the temperature is higher but does not exceed 30°C, are

  7. Effect of Processing Delay and Storage Conditions on Urine Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Nicola; Staplin, Natalie; Kumar, Aishwarya; Storey, Ben; Hrusecka, Renata; Judge, Parminder; Mahmood, Maria; Parish, Sarah; Landray, Martin; Haynes, Richard; Baigent, Colin; Hill, Michael; Clark, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Because there is substantial biologic intraindividual variation in albumin excretion, randomized trials of albuminuria-reducing therapies may need multiple urine samples to estimate daily urinary albumin excretion. Mailing spot urine samples could offer a convenient and cost-effective method to collect multiple samples, but urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio stability in samples stored at ambient temperatures for several days is unknown. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Patients with kidney disease provided fresh urine samples in two tubes (with and without boric acid preservative). Reference aliquots from each participant were analyzed immediately, whereas remaining aliquots were subject to different handling/storage conditions before analysis, including delayed processing for up to 7 days at three different storage temperatures (4°C, 18°C, and 30°C), multiple freeze-thaw cycles, and long–term frozen storage at −80°C, −40°C, and −20°C. We calculated the mean percentage change in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio for each condition, and we considered samples stable if the 95% confidence interval was within a ±5% threshold. Results Ninety-three patients provided samples with detectable albuminuria in the reference aliquot. Median (interquartile range) urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was 87 (20–499) mg/g. The inclusion of preservative had minimal effect on fresh urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio measurements but reduced the changes in albumin and creatinine in samples subject to processing delay and storage conditions. The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was stable for 7 days in samples containing preservative at 4°C and 18°C and 2 days when stored at 30°C. It was also stable in samples with preservative after three freeze-thaw cycles and in frozen storage for 6 months at −80°C or −40°C but not at −20°C. Conclusions Mailed urine samples collected with preservative and received within 7 days if

  8. Single-catalyst high-weight% hydrogen storage in an N-heterocycle synthesized from lignin hydrogenolysis products and ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forberg, Daniel; Schwob, Tobias; Zaheer, Muhammad; Friedrich, Martin; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Kempe, Rhett

    2016-10-20

    Large-scale energy storage and the utilization of biomass as a sustainable carbon source are global challenges of this century. The reversible storage of hydrogen covalently bound in chemical compounds is a particularly promising energy storage technology. For this, compounds that can be sustainably synthesized and that permit high-weight% hydrogen storage would be highly desirable. Herein, we report that catalytically modified lignin, an indigestible, abundantly available and hitherto barely used biomass, can be harnessed to reversibly store hydrogen. A novel reusable bimetallic catalyst has been developed, which is able to hydrogenate and dehydrogenate N-heterocycles most efficiently. Furthermore, a particular N-heterocycle has been identified that can be synthesized catalytically in one step from the main lignin hydrogenolysis product and ammonia, and in which the new bimetallic catalyst allows multiple cycles of high-weight% hydrogen storage.

  9. Tailoring the Glasgow University diagnostic aid for the product storage facilities at TRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, J.; Miller, E

    2001-02-01

    This report concludes the work carried out under Task D2(d)/UK D00912: Development of Anomaly Diagnosis Algorithms for a Plutonium Tank Monitoring System, which was the companion to Task D2(c)/UK D00913: Analysis and Diagnosis of Anomalies at Bulk-Handling Nuclear Materials Facilities: Benchmarking and Optimisation. Between them these tasks produced a computer software package that could diagnose anomalies in plant data pertaining to solutions of nuclear materials stored and transported around reprocessing plants. The final goal of Task UK D00912 was to demonstrate to the Agency that the software could be applied to the product storage area at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant in Japan. The University of Glasgow does not produce software to any recognisable standard, so this was not an acceptance trial, but a demonstration. It was recognised that further software development would be required before the package could be accepted as a safeguards tool. Being the final report, the report focuses on the issues that are still outstanding so those who choose to continue with this work have a clear understanding of the status of the software. It is taken for granted that the reader appreciates that the package should be able to explain relatively small anomalies (> 0.1 SQ) and has numerous features to estimate evaporation rates, pipe hold-up and so on. Here the focus is on the minor gremlins that are still to be resolved. The report first explains how the software package would be tailored so that it could be implemented at TRP. Of key importance is the fact that the plant uses scanivalves, which multiplex pressure lines from various dip-tubes onto the same pressure transducer. Although suitable for the measurement of a number of signals that are always steady, these devices are less suited to situations where tanks are frequently sparged and where the anomalies of interest inherently relate to changes in data and hence to non-steady operation. This affects the way the data

  10. Synthesis of functional boron or aluminium nitride materials for energy applications (production and storage of hydrogen)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salameh, Chrystelle

    2014-01-01

    Porous inorganic materials are of great interest owing to their potential in energy applications. The general objective of the present thesis concerns the development of functional (carbon)nitrides for hydrogen generation and storage (material design, elaboration, properties and applications). The PDCs route, which offers a large number of opportunities in chemistry and ceramic sciences, has been applied to produce functional (carbon)nitrides materials. Firstly, we prepared porous binary systems such as AlN and BN by replicating the structure of CMK-3 and that of activated carbon. After pyrolysis and removal of the template, we demonstrated the feasibility of producing nitrides with tailored porosity. Moreover, by coupling the PDCs route with the aerogel technology, we succeeded in preparing polymer-derived AlN and BN aerogels. We assessed the potential of these porous AlN and BN materials in nano-confinement of two chemical hydrides, namely sodium alanate and ammonia borane, respectively. In both cases, the nano-confinement destabilized the network of the hydride and favored the release of H 2 at low temperature. Besides, in the case of nano-confined ammonia borane, no evolution of undesired gaseous by-products was observed, which means that pure hydrogen was produced in our conditions. Secondly, we prepared porous quaternary systems through the association of AlN/BN with Si-based ceramics. In particular, we investigated the preparation of SiAlCN with tailored porosity by using two approaches: the 'molecular building block' and 'single-source precursor' approaches. Concerning the former, we investigated the preparation of ordered meso-porous materials to be used as catalytic supports for hydrolysis of alkaline solution of sodium borohydride. We succeeded in generating high amounts of H 2 with attractive kinetics. Concerning the latter approach, the work was focused on the investigation of the chemistry of SiAlCN and SiBCN materials with a

  11. Pollutant in palm oil production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Abdul Wahid, Mazlan

    2015-07-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a by-product of the palm industry and it releases large amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Water systems are also contaminated by POME if it is released into nonstandard ponds or rivers where it endangers the lives of fish and water fowl. In this paper, the environmental bottlenecks faced by palm oil production were investigated by analyzing the data collected from wet extraction palm oil mills (POMs) located in Malaysia. Strategies for reducing pollution and technologies for GHG reduction from the wet extraction POMs were also proposed. Average GHG emissions produced from processing 1 ton of crude palm oil (CPO) was 1100 kg CO2eq. This amount can be reduced to 200 kg CO2eq by capturing biogases. The amount of GHG emissions from open ponds could be decreased from 225 to 25 kg CO2eq/MT CPO by covering the ponds. Installation of biogas capturing system can decrease the average of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to about 17,100 mg/L and stabilizing ponds in the final step could decrease COD to 5220 mg/L. Using a biogas capturing system allows for the reduction of COD by 80% and simultaneously using a biogas capturing system and by stabilizing ponds can mitigate COD by 96%. Other ways to reduce the pollution caused by POME, including the installation of wet scrubber vessels and increasing the performance of biogas recovery and biogas upgrading systems, are studied in this paper. Around 0.87 m3 POME is produced per 1 ton palm fruit milled. POME consists of around 2% oil, 2-4% suspended solid, 94-96% water. In palm oil mills, more than 90% of GHGs were emitted from POME. From 1 ton crude palm oil, 1100 kg CO2eq GHGs are generated, which can be reduced to 200 kg CO2eq by installation of biogas capturing equipment.

  12. Role of relative humidity in processing and storage of seeds and assessment of variability in storage behaviour in Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, A; Sreenivasan, Kalyani; Singh, A K; Radhamani, J

    2013-01-01

    The role of relative humidity (RH) while processing and storing seeds of Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa was investigated by creating different levels of relative humidity, namely, 75%, 50%, 32%, and 11% using different saturated salt solutions and 1% RH using concentrated sulphuric acid. The variability in seed storage behaviour of different species of Brassica was also evaluated. The samples were stored at 40 ± 2°C in sealed containers and various physiological parameters were assessed at different intervals up to three months. The seed viability and seedling vigour parameters were considerably reduced in all accessions at high relative humidity irrespective of the species. Storage at intermediate relative humidities caused minimal decline in viability. All the accessions performed better at relative humidity level of 32% maintaining seed moisture content of 3%. On analyzing the variability in storage behaviour, B. rapa and B. juncea were better performers than B. napus and Eruca sativa.

  13. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County

  14. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  15. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county`s future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  16. Multi-fuel multi-product operation of IGCC power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormos, Ana-Maria; Dinca, Cristian; Cormos, Calin-Cristian

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates multi-fuel multi-product operation of IGCC plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS). The investigated plant designs co-process coal with different sorts of biomass (e.g. sawdust) and solid wastes, through gasification, leading to different decarbonised energy vectors (power, hydrogen, heat, substitute natural gas etc.) simultaneous with carbon capture. Co-gasification of coal with different renewable energy sources coupled with carbon capture will pave the way towards zero emissions power plants. The energy conversions investigated in the paper were simulated using commercial process flow modelling package (ChemCAD) in order to produce mass and energy balances necessary for the proposed evaluation. As illustrative cases, hydrogen and power co-generation and Fischer–Tropsch fuel synthesis (both with carbon capture), were presented. The case studies investigated in the paper produce a flexible ratio between power and hydrogen (in the range of 400–600 MW net electricity and 0–200 MW th hydrogen considering the lower heating value) with at least 90% carbon capture rate. Special emphasis were given to fuel selection criteria for optimisation of gasification performances (fuel blending), to the selection criteria for gasification reactor in a multi-fuel multi-product operation scenario, modelling and simulation of whole process, to thermal and power integration of processes, flexibility analysis of the energy conversion processes, in-depth techno-economic and environmental assessment etc. - Highlights: • Assessment of IGCC-based energy vectors poly-generation systems with CCS. • Optimisation of gasification performances and CO 2 emissions by fuel blending. • Multi-fuel multi-product operation of gasification plants

  17. Qualidade do abacaxi cv Smooth Cayenne minimamente processado Storage of pineapple minimally processed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Santesso Bonnas

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a qualidade e o tempo de conservação de abacaxis minimamente processados, sob armazenamento a 8ºC e 85% U.R., influenciados pelo tipo de corte, o uso ou não de sanificação com hipoclorito de sódio e o tipo de embalagem. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros: acidez titulável total, sólidos solúveis totais, pH, aparência, fungos e leveduras, coliformes totais e fecais. Concluiu-se que: a o tipo de corte não influenciou nas características físico-químicas e químicas do abacaxi durante o armazenamento; b o baixo pH, a sanificação e o uso de Boas Práticas de Fabricação inibiram o crescimento de bactérias do grupo coliforme; c a sanificação com hipoclorito não foi eficiente no controle de fungos e leveduras; d os produtos tiveram uma vida útil de prateleira de 6 dias, sob as condições oferecidas.The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality and shelf life of pineapple minimally processed, stored at 8ºC and 85% R.H., influenced by the kind of cutting, sanitization with sodium hipochlorite and packaging. It was analyzed the following parameters: the total titrable acidity, the total soluble solids, pH, the appearance, molds and yeasts, total and fecal coliforms. The conclusions were: a the kind of cutting had not influenced the chemical and physical-chemical characteristics of fruit during storage; b low pH associated with sanitization and the use of good manufacturing practices (GMP's reduced bacterial growth; c the sanitization with sodium hipochlorite was not effective against moulds and yeasts; d the product had a shelf life of 6 days according to the conditions offered.

  18. Flexibility Study of a Liquid Food Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Applying process engineering simulation method to model the processing of liquid food can provide a way to build a flexible food factory that can efficiently offer a wide range of tailored products in short delivery time. A milk production process, as an example, is simulated using a process...... engineering software to investigate the process operation conditions and flexibility. The established simulation method can be adapted to simulate similar liquid food production processes through suitable modifications....

  19. Thermophysical Properties and Phase Behavior of Fluids for Application in Carbon Capture and Storage Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusler, J P Martin

    2017-06-07

    Phase behavior and thermophysical properties of mixtures of carbon dioxide with various other substances are very important for the design and operation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) processes. The available empirical data are reviewed, together with some models for the calculation of these properties. The systems considered in detail are, first, mixtures of carbon dioxide, water, and salts; second, carbon dioxide-rich nonelectrolyte mixtures; and third, mixtures of carbon dioxide with water and amines. The empirical data and the plethora of available models permit the estimation of key fluid properties required in the design and operation of CCS processes. The engineering community would benefit from the further development, and delivery in convenient form, of a small number of these models sufficient to encompass the component slate and operating conditions of CCS processes.

  20. [Impact of specimen collection and storage consumable products on trace element quantitative analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan-shuang; Gu, Yong-en; Ba, Te; Zhai, Min; Pu, Ji; Shen, Zhen-lin; Tang, Shi-chuan; Jia, Guang

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to explore the impact of specimen collection and storage consumable products on trace element quantitative analysis. Devices and consumable products of different brands used in specimen collection or storage were selected and treated separately as below:urine collection and storage tubes (Brand A, B, C and D, 2 samples for each brand) were treated with 1% of HNO(3) volume fraction for 2 - 4 h; blood taking device (Brand O, P and Q, 3 samples for each brand) were used for ultra-pure water samples collecting as simulation of blood sampling;dust sampling filters (Brand X, Y and Z, 2 samples for each brand) were cold digested by nitric acid for 12 h, followed by microwave digestion. Then cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, selenium, stannum, titanium, vanadium and zinc concentrations in the solutions obtained during the course of collect or storage were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. For the urine collection and storage consumable products, background values of elements were described as mean of parellel samples. The consentration of 14 quantified elements were relatively low for 5 ml cryogenic vials (brand B) with background values range of 0.001 - 0.350 ng/ml. The background values of copper of 50 ml centrifuge tubes (brand A), chromium of 5 ml cryogenic vials (brand C) and zinc of 1.5 ml centrifuge tubes (brand D) were relatively high, which were 1.900, 1.095 and 1.368 ng/ml, respectively. Background values of elements in blood sampling devices were described as x(-) ± s. Background values of chromium for brand O, P and Q were (0.120 ± 0.017), (0.337 ± 0.093) and (0.360 ± 0.035) ng/ml; for copper were (0.050 ± 0.001), (0.017 ± 0.012) and (0.103 ± 0.015) ng/ml; for lead were (0.057 ± 0.072), (0.183 ± 0.118) and (0.347 ± 0.006) ng/ml; for titanium were (7.883 ± 0.145), (8.863 ± 0.190) and (8.613 ± 0.274) ng/ml; zinc were (2.240 ± 0.573), (42.140 ± 22.756) and (8

  1. Biogenic amine formation and nitrite reactions in meat batter as affected by high-pressure processing and chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Capillas, C; Aller-Guiote, P; Carballo, J; Colmenero, F Jiménez

    2006-12-27

    Changes in biogenic amine formation and nitrite depletion in meat batters as affected by pressure-temperature combinations (300 MPa/30 min/7, 20, and 40 degrees C), cooking process (70 degrees C/30 min), and storage (54 days/2 degrees C) were studied. Changes in residual nitrite concentration in raw meat batters were conditioned by the temperature and not by the pressure applied. Cooking process decreased (P nitrite concentration in all samples. High-pressure processing and cooking treatment increased (P nitrite concentration decreased with pressure processing, no effect was observed with the heating process of meat batters. High-pressure processing conditions had no effect on the rate of residual nitrite loss throughout the storage. The application of high pressure decreased (P processing conditions, generally, throughout storage biogenic amine levels did not change or increased, although quantitatively this effect was not very important.

  2. Writing in dyslexia: product and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morken, Frøydis; Helland, Turid

    2013-08-01

    Research on dyslexia has largely centred on reading. The aim of this study was to assess the writing of 13 children with and 28 without dyslexia at age 11 years. A programme for keystroke logging was used to allow recording of typing activity as the children performed a sentence dictation task. Five sentences were read aloud twice each. The task was to type the sentence as correctly as possible, with no time constraints. The data were analysed from a product (spelling, grammar and semantics) and process (transcription fluency and revisions) perspective, using repeated measures ANOVA and t-tests to investigate group differences. Furthermore, the data were correlated with measures of rapid automatic naming and working memory. Results showed that the group with dyslexia revised their texts as much as the typical group, but they used more time, and the result was poorer. Moreover, rapid automatic naming correlated with transcription fluency, and working memory correlated with the number of semantic errors. This shows that dyslexia is generally not an issue of effort and that cognitive skills that are known to be important for reading also affect writing. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Some intriguing aspects of multiparticle production processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Grzegorz; Włodarczyk, Zbigniew

    2018-04-01

    Multiparticle production processes provide valuable information about the mechanism of the conversion of the initial energy of projectiles into a number of secondaries by measuring their multiplicity distributions and their distributions in phase space. They therefore serve as a reference point for more involved measurements. Distributions in phase space are usually investigated using the statistical approach, very successful in general but failing in cases of small colliding systems, small multiplicities, and at the edges of the allowed phase space, in which cases the underlying dynamical effects competing with the statistical distributions take over. We discuss an alternative approach, which applies to the whole phase space without detailed knowledge of dynamics. It is based on a modification of the usual statistics by generalizing it to a superstatistical form. We stress particularly the scaling and self-similar properties of such an approach manifesting themselves as the phenomena of the log-periodic oscillations and oscillations of temperature caused by sound waves in hadronic matter. Concerning the multiplicity distributions we discuss in detail the phenomenon of the oscillatory behavior of the modified combinants apparently observed in experimental data.

  4. Product mix variability with correlated demand in two-stage food manufacturing with intermediate storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2009-01-01

    In food processing, market demands are increasingly important, resulting in regular introductions of new products, or special offers. Often, such all introduction or promotional effort affects demand of other products or packaging types. Here we study the effect of such correlated demand. More

  5. Description of Latvian Metal Production and Processing Enterprises' Air Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Pubule, J; Zahare, D; Blumberga, D

    2010-01-01

    The metal production and processing sector in Latvia has acquired a stable position in the national economy. Smelting of ferrous and nonferrous metals, production of metalware, galvanisation, etc. are developed in Latvia. The metal production and processing sector has an impact on air quality due to polluting substances which are released in the air from metal treatment processes. Therefore it is necessary to determine the total volume of emissions produced by the metal production and process...

  6. Discharging process of a finned heat pipe–assisted thermal energy storage system with high temperature phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiari, Saeed; Qiu, Songgang; Mahdavi, Mahboobe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The discharging process of a latent heat thermal energy storage system is studied. • The thermal energy storage system is assisted by finned heat pipes. • The influences of heat pipe spacing and fins geometrical features are studied. • Smaller heat pipe spacing enhances the solidification rate. • Better heat pipe and fin arrangements are determined. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of a numerical study conducted to investigate the discharging process of a latent heat thermal energy storage system assisted by finned heat pipes. A two-dimensional finite volume based numerical model along with enthalpy-porosity technique is employed to simulate the phase change of storage media during the discharging mode. The thermal energy storage system in this study consists of a square container, finned heat pipes, and potassium nitrate (KNO 3 ) as the phase change material. The charging process of the same thermal energy storage system was reported in an early paper by the authors. This paper reports the results of discharging process of the thermal energy storage system. The influences of heat pipe spacing, fin geometry and quantities as well as the effects of natural convection heat transfer on the thermal performance of the storage system were studied. The results indicate that the phase change material solidification process is hardly affected by the natural convection. Decreasing the heat pipe spacing results in faster discharging process and higher container base wall temperature. Increasing the fins length does not change the discharging time but yields higher base wall temperature. Using more fins also accelerates the discharging process and increases the container base wall temperature.

  7. 9 CFR 318.306 - Processing and production records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....306 Section 318.306 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Canning and Canned Products § 318.306 Processing and production records. At least the following processing...

  8. Operational impact of product variety in the process industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseley, Alexandria Lee; Hvam, Lars; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research article is to examine the impact of product variety on production performance in the process industry. As the number of product variants sold by a process company typically impacts the run length, production data from a mineral wool insulation manufacturer is analyzed...

  9. Learning and improvement in product innovation processes: Enabling behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieskes, J.F.B.; Langenberg, Ilse

    2001-01-01

    Product Innovation is described as a continuous and cross-functional process involving all stages in the product life cycle. This approach gives way to study product innovation processes from a continuous improvement and learning viewpoint. The Continuous Improvement in the global product MAnagement

  10. Development of shelf stable, processed, low acid food products using heat-irradiation combination treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnaar, A.

    1998-01-01

    The amount of ionizing irradiation needed to sterilize low acid vegetable and starch products (with and without sauces) commercially impairs their sensorial and nutritive qualities, and use of thermal processes for the same purpose may also have an adverse effect on the product quality. A systematic approach to the establishment of optimized combination parameters was developed for heat-irradiation processing to produce high quality, shelf stable, low acid food products. The effects of selected heat, heat-irradiation combination and irradiation treatments on the quality of shelf stable mushrooms in brine and rice, stored at ambient temperature, were studied. From a quality viewpoint, use of heat-irradiation combination treatments favouring low irradiation dose levels offered a feasible alternative to thermally processed or radappertized mushrooms in brine. However, shelf stable rice produced by heat-irradiation combination treatments offered a feasible alternative only to radappertized rice from the standpoint of quality. The technical requirements for the heat and irradiation processing of a long grain rice cultivar from the United States of America oppose each other directly, thereby reducing the feasibility of using heat-irradiation combination processing to produce shelf stable rice. The stability of starch thickened white sauces was found to be affected severely during high dose irradiation and subsequent storage at ambient temperature. However, use of pea protein isolate as a thickener in white sauces was found to have the potential to maintain the viscosity of sauces for irradiated meat and sauce products throughout processing and storage. (author)

  11. Experimental Investigation on CO2 Methanation Process for Solar Energy Storage Compared to CO2-Based Methanol Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellani, Beatrice; Gambelli, Alberto Maria; Morini, Elena; Nastasi, B.; Presciutti, Andrea; Filipponi, Mirko; Nicolini, Andrea; Rossi, Federico

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of the captured CO2 as a carbon source for the production of energy storage media offers a technological solution for overcoming crucial issues in current energy systems. Solar energy production generally does not match with energy demand because of its intermittent and

  12. Processes for production of alternative waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Rusin, J.M.; McElroy, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    During the past 20 years, numerous waste forms and processes have been proposed for solidification of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). The number has increased significantly during the past 3 to 4 years. At least five factors must be considered in selecting the waste form and process method: 1) processing flexibility, 2) waste loading, 3) canister size and stability, 4) waste form inertness and stability, and 5) processing complexity. This paper describes various waste form processes and operations, and a simple system is proposed for making comparisons. This system suggests that one goal for processes would be to reduce the number of process steps, thereby providing less complex processing systems

  13. Influence of Chemical, Mechanical, and Transport Processes on Wellbore Leakage from Geologic CO2 Storage Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Susan A; Iyer, Jaisree; Walsh, Stuart D C

    2017-08-15

    Wells are considered to be high-risk pathways for fluid leakage from geologic CO 2 storage reservoirs, because breaches in this engineered system have the potential to connect the reservoir to groundwater resources and the atmosphere. Given these concerns, a few studies have assessed leakage risk by evaluating regulatory records, often self-reported, documenting leakage in gas fields. Leakage is thought to be governed largely by initial well-construction quality and the method of well abandonment. The geologic carbon storage community has raised further concerns because acidic fluids in the CO 2 storage reservoir, alkaline cement meant to isolate the reservoir fluids from the overlying strata, and steel casings in wells are inherently reactive systems. This is of particular concern for storage of CO 2 in depleted oil and gas reservoirs with numerous legacy wells engineered to variable standards. Research suggests that leakage risks are not as great as initially perceived because chemical and mechanical alteration of cement has the capacity to seal damaged zones. Our work centers on defining the coupled chemical and mechanical processes governing flow in damaged zones in wells. We have developed process-based models, constrained by experiments, to better understand and forecast leakage risk. Leakage pathways can be sealed by precipitation of carbonate minerals in the fractures and deformation of the reacted cement. High reactivity of cement hydroxides releases excess calcium that can precipitate as carbonate solids in the fracture network under low brine flow rates. If the flow is fast, then the brine remains undersaturated with respect to the solubility of calcium carbonate minerals, and zones depleted in calcium hydroxides, enriched in calcium carbonate precipitates, and made of amorphous silicates leached of original cement minerals are formed. Under confining pressure, the reacted cement is compressed, which reduces permeability and lowers leakage risks. The

  14. THE DEFINITION OF GEL “ALGOZAN” STABILITY IN THE PROCESS OF STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Pulyaev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Stability is the main qualitative index of any medicine as it secures the storage of medicine therapeutic features during several years in the process of usage and keeping, so special attention has to be paid on the stage of working out and technology. The investigations of the stability research should have the definitions of those soft medical form indices which can influence its quality, safety, efficiency and include physical, chemical, microbiological gel parameters and the stabilizers contents. The aim of the work. The main aim of the work is the definition of gel “Algozan” stability which is intended to be used for locomotorium and phlebitis treatment. The object of the research is gel “Algozan” on the basis of carbomer which includes Diclofenac Diethylamine, dry extract of horse chestnut seeds. To establish the term of validity the classical method of the stability determination with the periodical analysis of medical forms patterns in35 gmaluminium tubes with varnish inner covering has been used (TY Y25463020-01-98. The research has been carried out using five gel series at two temperature conditions – 8-15º C and 15-25º C. The control has been done in terms which corresponded to every 6 months period within two years. Results and discussions. On the basis of organoleptic (form, colour, smell and physical-chemical (colloid and termostability; pH research it has been established that the medicine is not susceptible to external factors affect in the process of storage. The index “Particle Size” has been proposed for homogeneity control in the process of gel manufacturing and storage. According to microscopic analysis data all gel patterns are monodispersive systems with the dispersive phase particles from 1 to 2 mkm. The research of the mass tube loss within the period of storage has defined that the mass of the tube contents is stable within the term and is in the limits from 33,6 to36,4 gm. Anti

  15. Benefits of production extension and shifting with thermal storage for a 1MW CSP-ORC plant in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennouna, El Ghali; Mimet, Abdelaziz; Frej, Hicham

    2016-05-01

    The importance of thermal storage for commercial CSP (concentrated Solar Power) plants has now become obvious, this regardless of the solar technology used and the power cycle. The availability of a storage system to a plant operator brings a lot of possibilities for production management, cash flow optimization and grid stabilizing. In particular, and depending on plant location and local grid strategy, thermal storage can contribute, when wisely used, to control production and adapt it to the demand and / or power unbalances and varying prices. Storage systems design, sizing and configuration are proper to each power plant, hence systems that are now widely installed within large commercial solar plants are not necessarily suited for small scale decentralized production, and will not have the same effects. In this paper the benefits of thermal storage are studied for a 1MWe CSP plant with an ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle), this plant has many specific features which call for a detail analysis about the appropriate storage design and optimum operating strategies for decentralized solutions.

  16. Storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Even if the best waste minimization measures are undertaken throughout radioisotope production or usage, significant radioactive wastes arise to make management measures essential. For developing countries with low isotope usage and little or no generation of nuclear materials, it may be possible to handle the generated waste by simply practicing decay storage for several half-lives of the radionuclides involved, followed by discharge or disposal without further processing. For those countries with much larger facilities, longer lived isotopes are produced and used. In this situation, storage is used not only for decay storage but also for in-process retention steps and for the key stage of interim storage of conditioned wastes pending final disposal. The report will serve as a technical manual providing reference material and direct step-by-step know-how to staff in radioisotope user establishments and research centres in the developing Member States without nuclear power generation. Considerations are limited to the simpler storage facilities. The restricted quantities and low activity associated with the relevant wastes will generally permit contact-handling and avoid the need for shielding requirements in the storage facilities or equipment used for handling. A small quantity of wastes from some radioisotope production cells and from reactor cooling water treatment may contain sufficient short lived activity from activated corrosion products to require some separate decay storage before contact-handling is suitable. 16 refs, 12 figs, 8 tabs

  17. Effect of gamma radiation and storage on cholesterol oxidative stability of raw and processed eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Marliz Klaumann Julca

    2005-01-01

    The egg have being studied due its nutritional wealth, for show industrial interest as a raw material, e due its higher cholesterol content. At the same time, due its susceptibility to contamination mainly with salmonella, it is being proposed the ionizing radiation as a hygienic measure. Cholesterol is subject to oxidation, that it is facilitated by several factors, among them ionizing radiation. Formed cholesterol oxides, by its turn, show harmful biological properties to human health, as atherogenicity, cytotoxicity, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity, among others. The objectives of this work were evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation over pH, viscosity and color, besides the oxidative stability of cholesterol, in stored and processed crude eggs. With the increase of used doses (1, 2 and 3 KGy), there was an reduction in the viscosity of the egg white and in the color yolk egg, besides the increase in lipidic oxidation, measured through tiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). Specifications as humidity, total lipids and egg yolk cholesterol were not influenced. In the subject of humidity and of cholesterol, there was an meaningful alteration due storage (30 days in 4 deg C). The sum of the analyzed oxides didn't variate with the irradiation, only individually, although it did vary with storage. The thermal processing caused an meaningful increase of TBARS, but despite this, the oxides sum didn't differed between treatments. (author)

  18. Hydrogen in motor car engineering. Production, storage, uses; Wasserstoff in der Fahrzeugtechnik. Erzeugung, Speicherung, Anwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichlseder, H.; Klell, M.

    2008-07-01

    The book presents a general outline of the various aspects of properties, production, storage and application of hydrogen at university level. The focus is on the thermodynamic aspects of hydrogen storage andon its applications in transportation and power supply. In particular, car engines and fuel cells are gone into, and the state of the art is outlined with reference to research projects of TU Graz university and HyCentA. Apart from the technical aspects, also the history and possible future trends are presented. [German] Dieses Buch bietet einen allgemeinen Ueberblick ueber die verschiedenen Aspekte von Eigenschaften, Erzeugung, Speicherung und Anwendung von Wasserstoff auf Hochschulniveau. Schwerpunkte liegen auf der Thermodynamik der Speicherung von Wasserstoff sowie auf der Anwendung in der Verkehrstechnik und in der Energietechnik. Speziell wird die Anwendung in der Verbrennungskraftmaschine und in der Brennstoffzelle behandelt, wobei mit Bezug auf Forschungsvorhaben an der TU Graz und dem HyCentA der aktuelle Stand der Technik fundiert dargestellt wird. Neben einer technischen Vertiefung werden auch die geschichtliche und die moegliche kuenftige Entwicklung angesprochen.

  19. Natural gas storage in microporous carbon obtained from waste of the olive oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Solar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of activated carbons (AC were prepared from waste of the olive oil production in the Cuyo Region, Argentine by two standard methods: a physical activation by steam and b chemical activation with ZnCl2. The AC samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K and evaluated for natural gas storage purposes through the adsorption of methane at high pressures. The activated carbons showed micropore volumes up to 0.50 cm³.g-1 and total pore volumes as high as 0.9 cm³.g-1. The BET surface areas reached, in some cases, more than 1000 m².g-1. The methane adsorption -measured in the range of 1-35 bar- attained values up to 59 V CH4/V AC and total uptakes of more than 120 cm³.g-1 (STP. These preliminary results suggest that Cuyo's olive oil waste is appropriate for obtaining activated carbons for the storage of natural gas.

  20. Radiolytic gas production during long-term storage of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.

    1976-01-01

    Gases produced by in situ radiolysis of sealed solidified nuclear wastes during long-term storage could conceivably breach containment. Therefore, candidate waste forms (matrices containing simulated nuclear wastes) were irradiated with 60 Co-γ and 244 Cm-α radiation. These forms were: cement containing simulated fission product sludges, vermiculite containing organic liquids, and cellulosics contaminated with α-emitting transuranic isotopes. For cement waste forms exposed to γ-radiolysis, an equilibrium hydrogen pressure was reached that was dose rate dependent. For α-radiolysis, equilibrium was not reached. With organic wastes (n-octane on vermiculite), H 2 and traces of CO 2 and CH 4 were produced, and O 2 was consumed with both radiations. Only energy absorbed by the organic material was effective in producing H 2 . At low dose rates with both α- and γ-irradiations, G(H 2 ) was 4.5 and G(-O 2 ) was 5.0. Also, equilibrium was not obtained. For cellulosic material, H 2 , CO 2 , and CO were produced in the ratio of 1.0:0.7:0.3, and O 2 was consumed. With α-radiolysis, G(gas) was dose dependent; measured values ranged from 2.2 to 0.6 as the dose increased. Implications of all these results on long-term storage of radioactive waste are discussed. Some data from an actual nuclear wasteform are also presented

  1. From Sentence Production to Text Production: Investigating Fundamental Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, Michel

    1991-01-01

    Presents a review of cognitive psychology research dealing with the organization and functioning of oral and written language production mechanisms. Discusses works dealing with the microstructural aspects of language, primarily oral production. Describes how the research perspective has evolved from modular to connectionist models. Examines the…

  2. Report from SG 1.2: use of 3-D seismic data in exploration, production and underground storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the experience gained from using 3D and 4D techniques in exploration, production and underground storage. The use of 3D seismic data is increasing and considerable progress in the application of such data has been achieved in recent years. 3D is now in extensive use in exploration, field and storage development planning and reservoir management. By using 4D (or time-lapse) seismic data from a given producing area, it is also possible to monitor gas movement as a function of time in a gas field or storage. This emerging technique is therefore very useful in reservoir management, in order to obtain increased recovery, higher production, and to reduce the risk of infill wells. These techniques can also be used for monitoring underground gas storage. The study gives recommendations on the use of 3D and 4D seismic in the gas industry. For this purpose, three specific questionnaires were proposed: the first one dedicated to exploration, development and production of gas fields (Production questionnaire), the second one dedicated to gas storages (Storage questionnaire) and the third one dedicated to the servicing companies. The main results are: - The benefit from 3D is clear for both producing and storage operators in improving structural shape, fault pattern and reservoir knowledge. The method usually saves wells and improve gas volume management. - 4D seismic is an emerging technique with high potential benefits for producers. Research in 4D must focus on the integration of seismic methodology and interpretation of results with production measurements in reservoir models. (author)

  3. Process performance and product quality in an integrated continuous antibody production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst, Daniel J; Steinebach, Fabian; Soos, Miroslav; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2017-02-01

    Continuous manufacturing is currently being seriously considered in the biopharmaceutical industry as the possible new paradigm for producing therapeutic proteins, due to production cost and product quality related benefits. In this study, a monoclonal antibody producing CHO cell line was cultured in perfusion mode and connected to a continuous affinity capture step. The reliable and stable integration of the two systems was enabled by suitable control loops, regulating the continuous volumetric flow and adapting the operating conditions of the capture process. For the latter, an at-line HPLC measurement of the harvest concentration subsequent to the bioreactor was combined with a mechanistic model of the capture chromatographic unit. Thereby, optimal buffer consumption and productivity throughout the process was realized while always maintaining a yield above the target value of 99%. Stable operation was achieved at three consecutive viable cell density set points (20, 60, and 40 × 10 6 cells/mL), together with consistent product quality in terms of aggregates, fragments, charge isoforms, and N-linked glycosylation. In addition, different values for these product quality attributes such as N-linked glycosylation, charge variants, and aggregate content were measured at the different steady states. As expected, the amount of released DNA and HCP was significantly reduced by the capture step for all considered upstream operating conditions. This study is exemplary for the potential of enhancing product quality control and modulation by integrated continuous manufacturing. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 298-307. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effect of curing ingredients and vacuum packaging on the physicochemical and storage quality of ready-to-eat Vawksa rep (smoked pork product during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepshikha Deuri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted for the development of ready-to-eat Vawksa rep (smoked pork product and to study the synergistic effect of curing ingredients and vacuum packaging on the physico-chemical and storage quality during refrigerated storage at (4°C±1°C for 15 days. Materials and Methods: Four different batches of Vawksa rep samples were prepared, i.e., T-1 (uncured, first cooked at 121°C for 15 min, and then smoked at 120°C for 30 min, T-2 (uncured, cooked, and smoked simultaneously at 120°C for 45 min, T-3 (cured, first cooked at 121°C for 15 min, and then smoked at 120°C for 30 min, and T-4 (cured, cooked, and smoked simultaneously at 120°C for 45 min. Results: Cooking yield was significantly higher (p<0.05 for the T-4. The pH of T-3 and T-4 samples was significantly higher (p<0.05 on day 15. The tyrosine value of all the samples increased significantly (p<0.05 among the different days of analysis. Thiobarbituric acid value was significantly (p<0.05 lower in T-3 sample both at the beginning and at the end of storage period. In microbiological profile, total plate count was lower in T-3 and T-4 than T-1 and T-2. However, Escherichia coli count was negative for T-3 and T-4 samples throughout the storage period. Among sensory attributes, T-3 and T-4 samples registered superior scores for color, flavor, texture, juiciness, and overall acceptability. Conclusion: Furthermore, Vawksa rep (smoked pork product could be prepared easily with little technology up-gradation and with a negligible escalation of production cost.

  5. Hydrothermally Processed Oxide Nanostructures and Their Lithium–ion Storage Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Yong-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Y- and Si-based oxide nanopowders were synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction of Y or Si powders with NaOH or LiOH aqueous solution. Nanoparticles with different morphology such as elongated nanospheres, flower-like nanoparticles and nanowires were produced by a control of processing parameters, in particular, the starting composition of solution. The preliminary result of electrochemical examination showed that the hydrothermally processed nanowires exhibit high initial capacities of Li-ion storage: 653 mAh/g for Y2O3 nanowires as anode materials and 186 mAh/g for Li2Si2O5 nanowires as cathode materials in a Li secondary cell. Compared to the powder with elongated sphere or flower-like shapes, the nanowires showed a higher Li-ion capacity and a better cycle property.

  6. Winery wastewater treatment by a combined process: long term aerated storage and Fenton's reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marco S; Mouta, Maria; Pirra, António; Peres, José A

    2009-01-01

    The degradation of the organic pollutants present in winery wastewater was carried out by the combination of two successive steps: an aerobic biological process followed by a chemical oxidation process using Fenton's reagent. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the temporal characteristics of solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD) present in winery wastewater in a long term aerated storage bioreactor. The performance of different air dosage daily supplied to the biologic reactor, in laboratory and pilot scale, were examined. The long term hydraulic retention time, 11 weeks, contributed remarkably to the reduction of COD (about 90%) and the combination with the Fenton's reagent led to a high overall COD reduction that reached 99.5% when the mass ratio (R = H(2)O(2)/COD) used was equal to 2.5, maintaining constant the molar ratio H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+)=15.

  7. 9 CFR 381.306 - Processing and production records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.306... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing and production records. 381.306 Section 381.306 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. Natural Gas Hydrate as a Storage Mechanism for Safe, Sustainable and Economical Production from Offshore Petroleum Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Kezirian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Century Fathom presents an innovative process to utilize clathrate hydrates for the production, storage and transportation of natural gas from off-shore energy reserves in deep ocean environments. The production scheme was developed by considering the preferred state of natural gas in the deep ocean and addressing the hazards associated with conventional techniques to transport natural gas. It also is designed to mitigate the significant shipping cost inherent with all methods. The resulting proposed scheme restrains transport in the hydrate form to the ocean and does not attempt to supply energy to the residential consumer. Instead; the target recipients are industrial operations. The resulting operational concept is intrinsically safer by design; environmentally sustainable and significantly cost-effective compared with currently proposed schemes for the use of natural gas hydrates and has the potential to be the optimal solution for new production of reserves; depending on the distance to shore and capacity of the petroleum reserve. A potential additional benefit is the byproduct of desalinated water.

  9. Conceptual design report of hot cell modification and process for fission Mo-99 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Ho; Choung, W. M.; Lee, K. I.; Hwang, D. S.; Kim, Y. K.; Park, K. B.; Jung, Y. J.; Kim, D. S.; Park, Y. C.

    2001-05-01

    In this conceptual design report, the basic data and design guides for detail design of fission Mo-99 production process and hot cell modification are included.The basic data and design guides for detail design of fission Mo-99 production process contains following contents. -design capacity, the basic process, process flow diagram, process material balance, process data. The basic data and design guides for modification of existing hot cell contains following contents. - plot plan of hot cell facility, the plan for shield reinforcement of hot cell, the plan for management and storage of high level liquid wastes, the plan of ventilation system, the plan for modification of auxiliary facilities. And also, the results of preliminary safety analysis(normal operation and accidents) and criticality analysis are included in this conceptual design report

  10. Conceptual design report of hot cell modification and process for fission Mo-99 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho; Choung, W. M.; Lee, K. I.; Hwang, D. S.; Kim, Y. K.; Park, K. B.; Jung, Y. J.; Kim, D. S.; Park, Y. C

    2001-05-01

    In this conceptual design report, the basic data and design guides for detail design of fission Mo-99 production process and hot cell modification are included.The basic data and design guides for detail design of fission Mo-99 production process contains following contents. -design capacity, the basic process, process flow diagram, process material balance, process data. The basic data and design guides for modification of existing hot cell contains following contents. - plot plan of hot cell facility, the plan for shield reinforcement of hot cell, the plan for management and storage of high level liquid wastes, the plan of ventilation system, the plan for modification of auxiliary facilities. And also, the results of preliminary safety analysis(normal operation and accidents) and criticality analysis are included in this conceptual design report.

  11. Improvements in or relating to the preparation for storage of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bacci, M.; Price, M.S.T.

    1976-01-01

    The described method of preparing waste fission products for storage comprises forming the liquid waste into solid particles and then coating the particles with an impervious, heat conducting and mechanically strong material. The coating is preferably formed by at least one layer of silicon carbide, silicon nitride, germanium nitride, tungsten carbide, zirconium carbide or alumina. It may be necessary to provide an initial layer of a material that will adhere to the particle and to the coating, for example pyrolytic carbon. An example of application of the method is described. The coated particles may be subsequently dispersed in a matrix of a thermal conducting material, which may be a carbonaceous material, silicon carbide or stainless steel. (U.K.)

  12. Simulation-based optimization for product and process design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, L.

    2006-01-01

    The design of products and processes has gradually shifted from a purely physical process towards a process that heavily relies on computer simulations (virtual prototyping). To optimize this virtual design process in terms of speed and final product quality, statistical methods and mathematical

  13. Microbial production of bulk chemicals: development of anaerobic processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weusthuis, R.A.; Lamot, I.; Oost, van der J.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    nnovative fermentation processes are necessary for the cost-effective production of bulk chemicals from renewable resources. Current microbial processes are either anaerobic processes, with high yield and productivity, or less-efficient aerobic processes. Oxygen utilization plays an important role

  14. Mycotoxins in Meat and Processed Meat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Jean-Denis; Guerre, Philippe

    Mycotoxins are toxic substances elaborated by fungi. They constitute a heterogeneous group of secondary metabolites with diverse potent pharmacological and toxic effects in humans and animals. More than 300 secondary metabolites have been identified but around 30 are of real concern for human and animal health (for review, see Bennett & Klich, 2003). These molecules are produced during mould development on plants in the field or during storage period. They can be found as natural contaminants of many vegetal foods or feeds, mainly cereals, but also fruits, nuts, grains, forage as well as compound foods intended for human or animal consumption. Most important mycotoxins are produced by moulds belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium genus (Bhatnagar, Yu, & Ehrlich, 2002; Conkova, Laciakova, Kovac, & Seidel, 2003; Pitt, 2002). These molecules are usually classified depending on the fungal species that produce them (Table 4.1)

  15. Simulation and Flexibility Analysis of Milk Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    . Such flexible dairy production line can adjust its production pace in manufacturing different products without replacing existing equipment in the production line. In this work, the dairy process simulator is applied to study the flexibility of milk production line. In the same production line, various......In this work, process simulation method is used to simulate pasteurised market milk production line. A commercial process simulation tool - Pro/II from Simulation Science Inc. is used in the simulation work. In the simulation, a new model is used to calculate the thermal property of milk....... In this work, a simulator is obtained for the milk production line. Using the simulator, different milk processing situation can be quantitatively simulated investigated, such as different products production, capacity changes, fat content changes in raw milk, energy cost at different operation conditions etc...

  16. Decomposition and carbon storage of selected paper products in laboratory-scale landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoming; De la Cruz, Florentino B.; Ximenes, Fabiano; Barlaz, Morton A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the anaerobic biodegradation of different types of paper products in laboratory-scale landfill reactors. The study included (a) measurement of the loss of cellulose, hemicellulose, organic carbon, and (b) measurement of the methane yields for each paper product. The test materials included two samples each of newsprint (NP), copy paper (CP), and magazine paper (MG), and one sample of diaper (DP). The methane yields, carbon storage factors and the extent of cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition all consistently show that papers made from mechanical pulps (e.g., NPs) are less degradable than those made from chemical pulps where essentially all lignin was chemically removed (e.g., CPs). The diaper, which is not only made from chemical pulp but also contains some gel and plastic, exhibited limited biodegradability. The extent of biogenic carbon conversion varied from 21 to 96% among papers, which contrasts with the uniform assumption of 50% by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for all degradable materials discarded in landfills. Biochemical methane potential tests also showed that the solids to liquid ratio used in the test can influence the results. - Highlights: • Decomposition of major paper products measured under simulated landfill conditions • Varied decomposition behaviors across paper types governed by pulp types • A copy paper made from eucalyptus exhibited inhibited decomposition

  17. Decomposition and carbon storage of selected paper products in laboratory-scale landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoming, E-mail: wangxiaoming_cqu@163.com [Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, National Center for International Research of Low-Carbon and Green Buildings, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); De la Cruz, Florentino B. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Ximenes, Fabiano [Department of Primary Industries, New South Wales (Australia); Barlaz, Morton A. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the anaerobic biodegradation of different types of paper products in laboratory-scale landfill reactors. The study included (a) measurement of the loss of cellulose, hemicellulose, organic carbon, and (b) measurement of the methane yields for each paper product. The test materials included two samples each of newsprint (NP), copy paper (CP), and magazine paper (MG), and one sample of diaper (DP). The methane yields, carbon storage factors and the extent of cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition all consistently show that papers made from mechanical pulps (e.g., NPs) are less degradable than those made from chemical pulps where essentially all lignin was chemically removed (e.g., CPs). The diaper, which is not only made from chemical pulp but also contains some gel and plastic, exhibited limited biodegradability. The extent of biogenic carbon conversion varied from 21 to 96% among papers, which contrasts with the uniform assumption of 50% by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for all degradable materials discarded in landfills. Biochemical methane potential tests also showed that the solids to liquid ratio used in the test can influence the results. - Highlights: • Decomposition of major paper products measured under simulated landfill conditions • Varied decomposition behaviors across paper types governed by pulp types • A copy paper made from eucalyptus exhibited inhibited decomposition.

  18. Process simulation for advanced composites production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, M.D.; Ferko, S.M.; Griffiths, S. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the efficiency and lower the cost of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes used to manufacture advanced ceramics by providing the physical and chemical understanding necessary to optimize and control these processes. Project deliverables include: numerical process models; databases of thermodynamic and kinetic information related to the deposition process; and process sensors and software algorithms that can be used for process control. Target manufacturing techniques include CVD fiber coating technologies (used to deposit interfacial coatings on continuous fiber ceramic preforms), chemical vapor infiltration, thin-film deposition processes used in the glass industry, and coating techniques used to deposit wear-, abrasion-, and corrosion-resistant coatings for use in the pulp and paper, metals processing, and aluminum industries.

  19. Methodology of evaluation of value created in the productive processes

    OpenAIRE

    M.T. Roszak

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Of this paper was to present the methodology of analysis of the productive processes with applicationof value analysis and multi-criterion-analysis which allow to evaluate the technology and organization of theproductive processes.Design/methodology/approach: Presented in the paper methodology of evaluation of the productive processesis based on analysis of activities in the productive processes and their characteristics with reference to createdvalue in the productive chain.Findings...

  20. Powder-Metallurgy Process And Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Henry G.

    1988-01-01

    Rapid-solidification processing yields alloys with improved properties. Study undertaken to extend favorable property combinations of I/M 2XXX alloys through recently developed technique of rapid-solidification processing using powder metallurgy(P/M). Rapid-solidification processing involves impingement of molten metal stream onto rapidly-spinning chill block or through gas medium using gas atomization technique.

  1. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After having outlined the importance of energy storage in the present context, this document outlines that it is an answer to economic, environmental and technological issues. It proposes a brief overview of the various techniques of energy storage: under the form of chemical energy (hydrocarbons, biomass, hydrogen production), thermal energy (sensitive or latent heat storage), mechanical energy (potential energy by hydraulic or compressed air storage, kinetic energy with flywheels), electrochemical energy (in batteries), electric energy (super-capacitors, superconductor magnetic energy storage). Perspectives are briefly evoked

  2. Nanoscale Chemical Processes Affecting Storage Capacities and Seals during Geologic CO2 Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Young-Shin; Zhang, Lijie; Min, Yujia; Li, Qingyun

    2017-07-18

    Geologic CO 2 sequestration (GCS) is a promising strategy to mitigate anthropogenic CO 2 emission to the atmosphere. Suitable geologic storage sites should have a porous reservoir rock zone where injected CO 2 can displace brine and be stored in pores, and an impermeable zone on top of reservoir rocks to hinder upward movement of buoyant CO 2 . The injection wells (steel casings encased in concrete) pass through these geologic zones and lead CO 2 to the desired zones. In subsurface environments, CO 2 is reactive as both a supercritical (sc) phase and aqueous (aq) species. Its nanoscale chemical reactions with geomedia and wellbores are closely related to the safety and efficiency of CO 2 storage. For example, the injection pressure is determined by the wettability and permeability of geomedia, which can be sensitive to nanoscale mineral-fluid interactions; the sealing safety of the injection sites is affected by the opening and closing of fractures in caprocks and the alteration of wellbore integrity caused by nanoscale chemical reactions; and the time scale for CO 2 mineralization is also largely dependent on the chemical reactivities of the reservoir rocks. Therefore, nanoscale chemical processes can influence the hydrogeological and mechanical properties of geomedia, such as their wettability, permeability, mechanical strength, and fracturing. This Account reviews our group's work on nanoscale chemical reactions and their qualitative impacts on seal integrity and storage capacity at GCS sites from four points of view. First, studies on dissolution of feldspar, an important reservoir rock constituent, and subsequent secondary mineral precipitation are discussed, focusing on the effects of feldspar crystallography, cations, and sulfate anions. Second, interfacial reactions between caprock and brine are introduced using model clay minerals, with focuses on the effects of water chemistries (salinity and organic ligands) and water content on mineral dissolution and

  3. DOE underground storage tank waste remediation chemical processing hazards. Part I: Technology dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMuth, S.F.

    1996-10-01

    This document has been prepared to aid in the development of Regulating guidelines for the Privatization of Hanford underground storage tank waste remediation. The document has been prepared it two parts to facilitate their preparation. Part II is the primary focus of this effort in that it describes the technical basis for established and potential chemical processing hazards associated with Underground Storage Tank (UST) nuclear waste remediation across the DOE complex. The established hazards involve those at Sites for which Safety Analysis Reviews (SARs) have already been prepared. Potential hazards are those involving technologies currently being developed for future applications. Part I of this document outlines the scope of Part II by briefly describing the established and potential technologies. In addition to providing the scope, Part I can be used as a technical introduction and bibliography for Regulatory personnel new to the UST waste remediation, and in particular Privatization effort. Part II of this document is not intended to provide examples of a SAR Hazards Analysis, but rather provide an intelligence gathering source for Regulatory personnel who must eventually evaluate the Privatization SAR Hazards Analysis

  4. A novel design for storage of inner stress by colloidal processing on rock-like materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weichang; Wang, Sijing; Lekan Olatayo, Afolagboye; Fu, Huanran

    2018-06-01

    Inner stress exists in rocks, affecting rock engineering, yet has received very little attention and quantitative investigation because of uncertainty about its characteristics. Previous studies have suggested that the inner stresses of rock materials are closely related to their physical state variation. In this work, a novel mold was designed to simulate the storage process of inner stress in specimens composed of quartz sands and epoxy. Then, thermal tests were carried out to change the physical state of the specimens, and expansion of the specimens was monitored. The results indicated that inner stress could be partly locked by the mold and it could also be released by heating. It can be inferred from the analysis that one necessary condition of storage and release of inner stress is physical state variation. Additionally, by using an XRD method, the variations in the interplanar spacing of the quartz sands were detected, and the results reflect that inner stress could be locked-in aggregates (quartz sands) by a cement constraint (solid epoxy). The inner stress stored in quartz sands was calculated using height and interplanar spacing variations.

  5. Integrated data acquisition, storage, retrieval and processing using the COMPASS DataBase (CDB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, J., E-mail: urban@ipp.cas.cz [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Pipek, J.; Hron, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Janky, F.; Papřok, R.; Peterka, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Duarte, A.S. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • CDB is used as a new data storage solution for the COMPASS tokamak. • The software is light weight, open, fast and easily extensible and scalable. • CDB seamlessly integrates with any data acquisition system. • Rich metadata are stored for physics signals. • Data can be processed automatically, based on dependence rules. - Abstract: We present a complex data handling system for the COMPASS tokamak, operated by IPP ASCR Prague, Czech Republic [1]. The system, called CDB (COMPASS DataBase), integrates different data sources as an assortment of data acquisition hardware and software from different vendors is used. Based on widely available open source technologies wherever possible, CDB is vendor and platform independent and it can be easily scaled and distributed. The data is directly stored and retrieved using a standard NAS (Network Attached Storage), hence independent of the particular technology; the description of the data (the metadata) is recorded in a relational database. Database structure is general and enables the inclusion of multi-dimensional data signals in multiple revisions (no data is overwritten). This design is inherently distributed as the work is off-loaded to the clients. Both NAS and database can be implemented and optimized for fast local access as well as secure remote access. CDB is implemented in Python language; bindings for Java, C/C++, IDL and Matlab are provided. Independent data acquisitions systems as well as nodes managed by FireSignal [2] are all integrated using CDB. An automated data post-processing server is a part of CDB. Based on dependency rules, the server executes, in parallel if possible, prescribed post-processing tasks.

  6. The effects of age on processing and storage in working memory span tasks and reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Declines in verbal working memory span task performance have been associated with deficits in the language processing abilities of healthy older adults, but it is unclear how storage and processing contribute to this relationship. Moreover, recent studies of the psychometric properties of span measures in the general cognitive literature highlight the need for a critical reassessment of age-related differences in working memory task performance. Forty-two young (Mage = 19.45 years) and 42 older participants (Mage = 73.00 years) completed a series of neuropsychological screening measures, four memory span tasks (one-syllable word span, three-syllable word span, reading span, and sentence span), and a measure of reading comprehension. Each span measure was completed under self-paced and timed encoding conditions. A 2 (age) × 2 (task type) × 2 (encoding conditions) mixed-model design was used. (1) Age effects were reliable for both simple and complex span task performance; (2) limiting the available encoding time yielded lower recall scores across tasks and exacerbated age differences in simple span performance; and (3) both encoding condition and age affected the relationship between each of the span measures and the relationship between span and reading comprehension. Declines in both storage and processing abilities contributed to age differences in span task performance and the relationship between span and reading comprehension. Although older people appear to benefit from task administration protocols that promote successful memory encoding, researchers should be aware of the potential risks to validity posed by such accommodations.

  7. Innovative Processes and Products for Mass Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blecker, Thorsten; Edwards, Kasper; Hvam, Lars

    solution. The first part of the paper describes the product configuration software and service platform KoViP, developed by the CAD software provider ISD, Dortmund, in cooperation with the ITM chair of the University of Bochum and funded by the EU and the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The main...... goal of KoViP was to create a modular, easy configurable, standard software platform and a suite of standard services for the knowledge acquisition and maintenance as well as for the implementation of product configurators in SMEs producing mass customized products. The second part of the contribution...

  8. Process for the manufacture of whey products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanie, P

    1980-01-01

    Whey is subjected to ultrafiltration to retain about 10% of the T5, whilst the permeate is demineralized to 7% or less ash in the final product and dried to 3% moisture. The product, containing (in DM) 75% or more lactose, 6% or less protein and 8% or less minerals, is hydrolysed, e.g. with beta-galactosidase. It may be used for replacing sucrose, in the manufacture of a range of foods. Applications include chewing gum, fondants, nougats, chocolate, bakery and confectionery products as well as cream and yoghurt.

  9. Biotechnological Processes in Microbial Amylase Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Subash C B; Anbu, Periasamy; Arshad, M K Md; Lakshmipriya, Thangavel; Voon, Chun Hong; Hashim, Uda; Chinni, Suresh V

    2017-01-01

    Amylase is an important and indispensable enzyme that plays a pivotal role in the field of biotechnology. It is produced mainly from microbial sources and is used in many industries. Industrial sectors with top-down and bottom-up approaches are currently focusing on improving microbial amylase production levels by implementing bioengineering technologies. The further support of energy consumption studies, such as those on thermodynamics, pinch technology, and environment-friendly technologies, has hastened the large-scale production of the enzyme. Herein, the importance of microbial (bacteria and fungi) amylase is discussed along with its production methods from the laboratory to industrial scales.

  10. Biotechnological Processes in Microbial Amylase Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash C. B. Gopinath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amylase is an important and indispensable enzyme that plays a pivotal role in the field of biotechnology. It is produced mainly from microbial sources and is used in many industries. Industrial sectors with top-down and bottom-up approaches are currently focusing on improving microbial amylase production levels by implementing bioengineering technologies. The further support of energy consumption studies, such as those on thermodynamics, pinch technology, and environment-friendly technologies, has hastened the large-scale production of the enzyme. Herein, the importance of microbial (bacteria and fungi amylase is discussed along with its production methods from the laboratory to industrial scales.

  11. Behavior of flavonols and carotenoids of minimally processed kale leaves during storage in passive modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobori, C N; Huber, L S; Sarantópoulos, C I G L; Rodriguez-Amaya, D B

    2011-03-01

    Minimally processed kale leaves were packed in passive modified atmosphere and stored at 3 conditions: 1 °C in the dark and 11 °C with or without light exposure. The products were evaluated during storage in terms of headspace gas composition, sensory attributes, flavonol, and carotenoid contents. The sensory quality decreased slightly during 17 d at 1 °C in the dark. At 11 °C, the vegetable shelf life was predicted to be 6 d in the dark and 3 d with light. Quercetin and kaempferol were stable during storage for 15 d at 1 °C in the absence of light. At 11 °C in the dark, quercetin was stable during 10 d, increasing slightly on the 8th day. Kaempferol decreased up to the 5th day but increased on the 8th day, decreasing again on the 10th day. After 5 d at 11 °C under light, the flavonol levels were significantly higher than those of the initial values. Neoxanthin and violaxanthin did not change significantly after 15 d at 1 °C in the dark. Lutein and β-carotene, however, decreased 7.1% and 11.3%, respectively. At 11 °C in the dark, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, and β-carotene decreased 16.1%, 13.2%, 24.1%, and 23.7% after 10 d, respectively. At 11 °C under light, neoxanthin and lutein had a slight increase while violaxanthin and β-carotene decreased 23.1% and 16.5% after 5 d. Practical Application:  Passive modified atmosphere packaging together with refrigeration can extend the shelf life of minimally processed kale, retaining the health-promoting compounds, flavonols and carotenoids. Quercetin, kaempferol, neoxanthin, and violaxanthin are stable and lutein and β-carotene slightly reduced.

  12. Assessment of changes in plasma hemoglobin and potassium levels in red cell units during processing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Nishant; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Ravneet; Kaur, Jasbinder

    2015-06-01

    Red cell units undergo changes during storage and processing. The study was planned to assess plasma potassium, plasma hemoglobin, percentage hemolysis during storage and to determine the effects of outdoor blood collection and processing on those parameters. Blood collection in three types of blood storage bags was done - single CPDA bag (40 outdoor and 40 in-house collection), triple CPD + SAGM bag (40 in-house collection) and quadruple CPD + SAGM bag with integral leukoreduction filter (40 in-house collection). All bags were sampled on day 0 (day of collection), day 1 (after processing), day 7, day 14 and day 28 for measurement of percentage hemolysis and potassium levels in the plasma of bag contents. There was significant increase in percentage hemolysis, plasma hemoglobin and plasma potassium level in all the groups during storage (p levels during the storage of red blood cells. Blood collection can be safely undertaken in outdoor blood donation camps even in hot summer months in monitored blood transport boxes. SAGM additive solution decreases the red cell hemolysis and allows extended storage of red cells. Prestorage leukoreduction decreases the red cell hemolysis and improves the quality of blood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product......, its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design....... Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack...

  14. Bio-oil Production - Process Optimization and Product Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica

    , fossil fuels still accounted for 87% of global and 81% of EU primary energy consumption. In an effort to reduce the carbon footprint of a continued supply of liquid fuels, processes utilizing biomass in general, and lignocellulosic biomass in particular, are being developed to replace their fossil...... such candidate is hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), a thermochemical process that converts low-value biomass feedstocks to a high-value bio-through the use of hot compressed water and catalysts. As there is typically residual oxygen left in the bio-crude from HTL, further processing involves upgrading in order...

  15. Nuclear reactor plant for production process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.

    1979-01-01

    The high temperature reactor is suitable as a heat source for carrying out endothermal chemical processes. A heat exchanger is required for separating the reactor coolant gases and the process medium. The heat of the reactor is transferred at a temperature lower than the process temperature to a secondary gas and is compressed to give the required temperature. The compression energy is obtained from the same reactor. (RW) [de

  16. Milk processed by pulsed electric fields: evaluation of microbial quality, physicochemical characteristics, and selected nutrients at different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela; Fernández, Sulmer; Esquivel, Heracleo; Dunne, Patrick C; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) technology was used to pasteurize raw milk under selected treatments. Processing conditions were: temperature 20, 30, and 40 °C, electric field 30.76 to 53.84 kV/cm, and pulse numbers 12, 24, and 30 for skim milk (SM), and 12, 21, and 30 for whole milk (WM) (2 μs pulse width, monopolar). Physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, density, color, solids nonfat [SNF]) and composition (protein and fat content) were measured after processing. Shelf life of SM and WM was assessed after processing at 46.15 kV/cm, combined with temperature (20 to 60 °C) and 30 pulses. Mesophilic and psychrophilic loads and pH were evaluated during storage at 4 and 21 °C. Results showed minor variations in physicochemical properties after processing. There was an interesting trend in SM in SNF, which decreased as treatment became stronger; similar behavior was observed for fat and protein, showing a 0.18% and 0.17% decrease, respectively, under the strongest conditions. Protein and fat content decreased in WM samples treated at 40 °C, showing a decrease in protein (0.11%), and an even higher decrease in fat content. During storage, PEF-treated milk samples showed higher stability at 4 °C with minor variations in pH; after 33 d, pH was higher than 6. However samples at 21 °C showed faster spoilage and pH dropped to 4 after 5 d. Growth of mesophilic bacteria was delayed in both milks after PEF processing, showing a 6- and 7-log cycles for SM and WM, respectively, after day 25 (4 °C); however, psychrophilic bacteria grew faster in both cases. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) technology in the pasteurization of liquid food products has shown positive results. Processing times can be reduced considerably, which in turn reduces the loss of nutrients and offers important savings in energy. PEF has been used successfully to pasteurize some liquid foods, but it is still not used commercially in milk pasteurization, although several trials have shown

  17. On Tour... Primary Hardwood Processing, Products and Recycling Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1995-01-01

    Housed within the Department of Wood Science and Forest Products at Virginia Polytechnic Institute is a three-person USDA Forest Service research work unit (with one vacancy) devoted to hardwood processing and recycling research. Phil Araman is the project leader of this truly unique and productive unit, titled ãPrimary Hardwood Processing, Products and Recycling.ä The...

  18. Using product driven process synthesis in the biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiskini, A.; Zondervan, E.; Wierenga, P.A.; Poiesz, E.; Gruppen, H.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose the use of the product-driven process synthesis (PDPS) methodology for the product and process design stage in biorefinery. The aim of the biorefinery is to optimize the total use of the whole feedstock – with focus being on various products simultaneously – rather than to

  19. Effect of irradiation on Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine and Nε-carboxyethyl-lysine formation in cooked meat products during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ligang; He, Zhiyong; Zeng, Maomao; Zheng, Zongping; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of irradiation on N ε -carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and N ε -carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL) formation in cooked red and white meats during storage. The results showed that irradiation did not affect CML/CEL formation (0 weeks). After 6 weeks, CML/CEL contents in the irradiated samples exhibited a higher growth rate than the non-irradiated samples, especially the red meat. The results of electron spin resonance spectrometry and 2-Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances suggested irradiation had induced free-radical reactions and accelerated lipid oxidation during storage. A linear correlation (r=0.810–0.906, p<0.01) was found between the loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids content and increase of CML/CEL content in the irradiated samples after 0 and 6 weeks of storage. The results indicate that irradiation-induced lipid oxidation promotes CML/CEL formation, and CML/CEL formation by the lipid oxidation pathways may be an important pathway for CML/CEL accumulation in irradiated meat products during storage. - Highlights: • The effect of irradiation on CML and CEL formation in meat products is investigated. • CML and CEL contents in irradiated meat products exhibit a higher growth rate than non-irradiated samples. • PUFAs oxidation induced by irradiation promotes CML and CEL formation. • Lipid oxidation pathways are an important pathway for CML and CEL accumulation in irradiated samples during storage.

  20. Characterization of Emissions from Building Products: Selection Criteria, Storage and Handling of Indoor Materials for Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Ulla Dorte; Nielsen, Peter A.; Marcussen, Lis

    1996-01-01

    In research projects it is usually impossible to study more than a very limited aount of different products. Care and consideration must therefore be taken in the selection. The following criteria were used to select five products for chemical and sensory emission testing: The products should...... be indoor climate relevant, meaning that they should be in direct contact with indoor air when used in buildings, and their emission should contribute significantly to the indoor air concentrations for instance due to a large surface area. They should be representative in terms of being widely used, now...... that the emission mechanisms do not change as a consequence of physical processes or chemical reactions. The five products selected were PVC flooring, waterborne varnish on beechwood parquet, carpet, sealant, and waterborne paint on gypsum board. The products were brought to the laboratory immediately after...