WorldWideScience

Sample records for production oil refining

  1. Oil Production, Refining and Transportation in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igbal A. Guliyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with fuel and energy complex of Canada as one of the largest manufacturers of primary energy in the world, which provides up to 6 percent of the world energy supply. Only the Russian Federation, PRC, the United States of America and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have larger production volumes. However, oil plays the most significant role in Canada's energy exports. It is estimated that its proven reserves are sufficient to meet the demand for 140 years at current production rate. The relevance of the study, including the analysis of fuel and energy complex of Canada, is due to the fact that such comparison and synthesis of data on the amount of recoverable oil reserves, the volume of its production, imports, exports and transit of oil and oil products, the distribution of oil for transportation (via pipelines, rail, sea, road, strategic oil field, refining and transportation of oil and oil products development projects, as well as implementation of Canada's best practices in the Russian Federation, is being developed for the first time. In addition, the data given in previously published articles on the subject, due to the dynamic development of the industry, are obsolete and do not reflect the real situation.

  2. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II.

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10 degrees to 20 degrees API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state's total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation's energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska's 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources

  3. Panorama 2011: Water in fuel production Oil production and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabzar, L.

    2011-01-01

    Water plays a vital role in the production of fuels. Against a background of extremely high pressure to do with the need to protect the environment, better manage energy use and operate in a socially responsible manner - as well as the need to protect water as a resource and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, water management has become a major issue for the oil industry. These issues have all more or less been factored into the integrated water management programmes which have been introduced both in oil production and oil refining. These programmes have been designed to keep waste and emissions to a minimum, and to reduce the quantities of water required. (author)

  4. Refining of the cracked products of mineral oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelig, S

    1928-06-02

    A process is disclosed for the refining of the distilled or cracked products from mineral oil, shale oil, or brown-coal-tar oil, with the aid of alkali-plumbite solution, characterized by adding to the plumbite solution from oxide, iron hydroxide, basic oxide, or an iron salt.

  5. Production of biodiesel by transesterification of refined soybean oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on the production of biodiesel via transesterification of refined soybean oil obtained locally. Sodium hydroxide was used as the alkali catalyst and methanol (as alcohol) was used in the transesterification process due to its low cost. The methanol-to-oil molar ratio was maintained at 6:1. The effect of ...

  6. Oil refining and product marketing developments in southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Views on the future are based on supplies from a relatively stable Middle East and continued economic growth in the southeast Asian and Pacific countries. Under these circumstances the oil market for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) will expand considerably during the decade of the 90's. Pacific country demand, 5.92 MMB/D, in 1990 is likely to grow to 7.06 MMB/D in 2000. Regional production could supply about 40% of this. The Asia-Pacific shortage of refining capacity could lead to high regional refined product prices and health refining profit margins. (author)

  7. Oil refining and product marketing developments in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is estimated that the high growth rate in oil demand in the Asia-Pacific region (excluding Japan) will slow down slightly but still outperform the rest of the world during 1990-2000. This is expected to be true for southeast Asia as well, or more specifically the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The region's dependence on oil imports from the Middle East will continue for the foreseeable future. Asia-Pacific crude oil production is expected to grow to 6.8 million bbl/d by 1995 and to 7.3 million bbl/d by 2000, meaning that the region will import nearly 50% of its crude oil requirements at both 1995 and 2000. The participation of ASEAN in the production of indigenous crudes in the Asia-Pacific region will increase from 31% in the mid-1980s to 41% by 2000. The Asia-Pacific imbalance between refinery output or supplies and demand patterns will be accentuated during the decade, providing significant opportunities for investments and/or product trading. The region will require upgrading facilities to generate an additional 3.7 million bbl/d of light products in 1995. In the ASEAN countries, surpluses in refined products are expected for 1995. Environmental concerns are following similar trends in the Asia-Pacific region as in the rest of the world, and the proportion of high aromatics gasolines produced will increase as the proportion of leaded gasoline decreases. 6 tabs

  8. Linkages between the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didziulis, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    To understand the crude oil price determination process it is necessary to extend the analysis beyond the markets for petroleum. Crude oil prices are determined in two closely related markets: the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products. An econometric-linear programming model was developed to capture the linkages between the markets for crude oil and refined products. In the LP refiners maximize profits given crude oil supplies, refining capacities, and prices of refined products. The objective function is profit maximization net of crude oil prices. The shadow price on crude oil gives the netback price. Refined product prices are obtained from the econometric models. The model covers the free world divided in five regions. The model is used to analyze the impacts on the markets of policies that affect crude oil supplies, the demands for refined products, and the refining industry. For each scenario analyzed the demand for crude oil is derived from the equilibrium conditions in the markets for products. The demand curve is confronted with a supply curve which maximizes revenues providing an equilibrium solution for both crude oil and product markets. The model also captures crude oil price differentials by quality. The results show that the demands for crude oil are different across regions due to the structure of the refining industries and the characteristics of the demands for refined products. Changes in the demands for products have a larger impact on the markets than changes in the refining industry. Since markets for refined products and crude oil are interrelated they can't be analyzed individually if an accurate and complete assessment of a policy is to be made. Changes in only one product market in one region affect the other product markets and the prices of crude oil

  9. Refining oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1921-05-12

    The desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons, such as kerosene, ligroin, or shale oil, by treatment with alkaline hypochlorite, such as sodium hypochlorite with free alkali is preceded, followed or both preceded and followed by treatment with alkali. The treatment may be effected in a vessel in which brine is being electrolyzed for the production of sodium hypochlorite, and the temperature may be raised to say 120/sup 0/F. The product may be filtered through animal charcoal, fuller's earth, dehydrated alumina, or other adsorbent substance.

  10. Process technology for refining crude soybean oil – a product from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Process technology for refining crude soybean oil – a product from soycake meal production in Ghana. ... yield of 83.3 per cent was recorded. Results of quality assessment of the final laboratory refined oil compared favourably with Ghana Standards Board's specification for edible soybean oil. Ghana Journal of Science Vol.

  11. Side-stream products of edible oil refining as feedstocks in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Bojan S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, a diesel fuel alternative, is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats by the transesterification reaction of triacylglycerols and lower aliphatic alcohols. Beside number advantages related to fossil fuels, the main barrier to biodiesel wider commercial use is the high price of edible oils. Recently, the special attention was given to side-stream products of edible oil refining as low-cost triacylglycerol sources for biodiesel production because of their positive economic and ecological effects. In this paper, the different procedures for biodiesel production from side-stream refining products such as soapstock, spent bleaching earth and deodorizer distillate were analyzed. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the possibilities for reusing the by-products of edible oil refinement in the biodiesel production.

  12. Price Relationships in the Petroleum Market: An Analysis of Crude Oil and Refined Product Prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asche, Frank; Gjoelberg, Ole; Voelker, Teresa

    2001-08-01

    In this paper the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices are investigated in a multivariate framework. This allows us to test several (partly competing) assumptions of earlier studies. In particular, we find that the crude oil price is weakly exogenous and that the spread is constant in some but not all relationships. Moreover, the multivariate analysis shows that the link between crude oil prices and several refined product prices implies market integration for these refined products. This is an example of supply driven market integration and producers will change the output mix in response to price changes. (author)

  13. Price relationships in the petroleum market. An analysis of crude oil and refined product prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asche, Frank; Gjoelberg, Ole; Volker, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices are investigated in a multivariate framework. This allows us to test several (partly competing) assumptions of earlier studies. In particular, we find that the crude oil price is weakly exogenous and that the spread is constant in some but not all relationships. Moreover, the multivariate analysis shows that the link between crude oil prices and several refined product prices implies market integration for these refined products. This is an example of supply driven market integration and producers will change the output mix in response to price changes

  14. Price relationships in the petroleum market: an analysis of crude oil and refined product prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asche, F.; Gjoelberg, O.; Voelker, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices are investigated in a multivariate framework. This allows us to test several (partly competing) assumptions of earlier studies. In particular, we find that the crude oil price is weakly exogenous and that the spread is constant in some but not all relationships. Moreover, the multivariate analysis shows that the link between crude oil prices and several refined product prices implies market integration for these refined products. This is an example of supply driven market integration and producers will change the output mix in response to price changes. (author)

  15. Cleaning oil refining drainage waters out of emulsified oil products with thermic treated cedar nut shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatanova, P. A.; Adeeva, L. N.

    2017-08-01

    It was elaborated the ability of the sorbent produced by thermic treatment of cedar nut shell to destruct model and real first kind (direct) emulsions in static and dynamic conditions. In static conditions optimal ratio sorbent-emulsion with the original concentration of oil products 800 mg/l was in the range of 2.0 g per 100 ml of emulsion which corresponds to the level of treatment 94.9%. The time of emulsion destruction was 40 minutes. This sorbent is highly active in dynamic processes of oil-contaminated water treatment, the level of treatment 96.0% is being achieved. Full dynamic sorptive capacity of the sorbent is 0.85 g/g. Sorbent based on the thermic treated cedar nut shell can be elaborated as sorptive filter element of local treatment facilities of oil refining and petrochemical processes. After the treatment with this sorbent of drainage waters of oil refinery in dynamic conditions the concentration of oil products became less than mpc on oil products for waste waters coming to biological treatment.

  16. Oil refining and product market developments in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, P.

    1991-01-01

    One political development in Europe that will affect the petroleum refining industry is the opening of a single market among the European Commission countries. Although the single market officially opens on January 1, 1993, a single market for energy will not happen at that time. Most European countries feel that refining is a strategic industry and adopt some form of protectionism in this sector. Environmental policy in Europe tends to be separate from energy policy, making conflicts in setting standards for emissions and fuel composition somewhat inevitable. For example, both environmental and energy policies favor a carbon tax on fuels; the EC environmental commission does not want to be seen as favoring nuclear power, so it favors penalizing all fuels about the same amount, while the energy commission says the carbon tax should be related to the fuel carbon content. A measure affecting the refining industry is the proposal for reducing sulfur in diesel fuel. By 1994 EC countries will have a common 0.2% standard and by 1996 a 0.05% standard for automotive diesel. To meet the latter standard, refineries will need upgrading at an estimated cost of US$4 billion. Another political consideration for the refining industry is whether eastern Europe should be part of the EC energy community. However, if there is a reluctance in the western European countries for a single western market, there is even less enthusiasm for an energy market that includes eastern Europe as well. In addition, there is a reluctance to accept that there should be a free flow of petroleum products from east to west

  17. Causes for an asymmetric relation between the price of crude oil and refined petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.K.; Laskowski, C.

    2005-01-01

    We revisit the issue of asymmetries in the relation between the price of crude oil and refined petroleum products in the United States. An econometric analysis of monthly data indicates that the asymmetric relationship between the price of crude oil and motor gasoline is generated by refinery utilization rates and inventory behavior. The asymmetric relation between the price of crude oil and home heating oil probably is generated by contractual arrangements between retailers and consumers. Together, these results imply that price asymmetries may be generated by efficient markets. Under these conditions, there is little justification for policy interventions to reduce or eliminate price asymmetries in motor gasoline and home heating oil markets. (author)

  18. Latin American oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Obadia, C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the oil markets and refining in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela, and examines the production of crude oil in these countries. Details are given of Latin American refiners highlighting trends in crude distillation unit capacity, cracking to distillation ratios, and refining in the different countries. Latin American oil trade is discussed, and charts are presented illustrating crude production, oil consumption, crude refining capacity, cracking to distillation ratios, and oil imports and exports

  19. Nonlinear joint dynamics between prices of crude oil and refined products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Ma, Guofeng; Liu, Guangsheng

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices. We find that nonlinear correlations are stronger in the long-term than in the short-term. Crude oil and product prices are cointegrated and financial crisis in 2007-2008 caused a structural break of the cointegrating relationship. Moreover, different from the findings in most studies, we reveal that the relationships are almost symmetric based on a threshold error correction model. The so-called 'asymmetric relationships' are caused by some outliers and financial crisis. Most of the time, crude oil prices play the major role in the adjustment process of the long-term equilibrium. However, refined product prices dominated crude oil prices during the period of financial crisis. Important policy and risk management implications can be learned from the empirical findings.

  20. Production and characterization of refined oils obtained from Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Joseph, Deepu

    2015-01-28

    Crude Sardinella longiceps oil was refined in different stages such as degumming, neutralization, bleaching, and deodorization. The efficiency of these processes was evaluated on the basis of free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide (PV), p-anisidine (pAV), total oxidation (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) values, Lovibond CIE-L*a*b* color analyses, and (1)H NMR or GC-MS experiments. The utilities of NMR-based proton signal characteristics as new analytical tools to understand the signature peaks and relative abundance of different fatty acids and monitoring the refining process of fish oil have been demonstrated. Phosphoric acid (1%) was found to be an effective degumming reagent to obtain oil with the lowest FFA, PV, pAV, TOTOX, and TBARS values and highest color reduction. Significant reduction in the contents of hydrocarbon functionalities as shown by the decrease in proton integral in the characteristic (1)H NMR region was demonstrated by using 1% H3PO4 during the course of the degumming process. A combination (1.25:3.75%) of activated charcoal and Fuller's earth at 3% concentration for a stirring time of 40 min was found to be effective in bleaching the sardine oil. This study demonstrated that unfavorable odor-causing components, particularly low molecular weight carbonyl compounds, could successfully be removed by the refining process. The alkane-dienals/alkanes, which cause unfavorable fishy odors, were successfully removed by distillation (100 °C) under vacuum with aqueous acetic acid solution (0.25 N) to obtain greater quality of refined sardine oil, a rich source of essential fatty acids and improved oxidative stability. The present study demonstrated that the four-stage refinement process of sardine oil resulted in a significant improvement in quality characteristics and nutritional values, particularly n-3 PUFAs, with improved fish oil characteristics for use in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries.

  1. Refining mineral oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1946-07-05

    A process is described refining raw oils such as mineral oils, shale oils, tar, their fractions and derivatives, by extraction with a selected solvent or a mixture of solvents containing water, forming a solvent more favorable for the hydrocarbons poor in hydrogen than for hydrocarbons rich in hydrogen, this process is characterized by the addition of an aiding solvent for the water which can be mixed or dissolved in the water and the solvent or in the dissolving mixture and increasing in this way the solubility of the water in the solvent or the dissolving mixture.

  2. Oil refining in South Asia and Australasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the oil markets of Southeast Asia and Australasia is presented focussing on oil refining. Key statistics of both areas are tabulated, and figures providing information on GDP/capita, crude production, comparison of demand barrels, and product demand are provided. Crude oil production and supply, oil product demand, and the refining industries are examined with details given of evolution of capacity and cracking to distillation ratios

  3. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D. [FACTS, Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii (United States)

    1999-09-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade.

  4. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade

  5. Reform of refined oil product pricing mechanism and energy rebound effect for passenger transportation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Liu, Xia

    2013-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency is the primary method adopted by the Chinese government in an effort to achieve energy conservation target in the transport sector. However, the offsetting effect of energy rebound would greatly reduce its real energy-saving potentials. We set up a Linear Approximation of the Almost Ideal Demand System Model (LA-AIDS model) to estimate the rebound effect for passenger transportation in China. Real energy conservation effect of improving energy efficiency can also be obtained in the process. The result shows that the rebound effect is approximately 107.2%. This figure signifies the existence of ‘backfire effect’, indicating that efficiency improvement in practice does not always lead to energy-saving. We conclude that one important factor leading to the rebound effect, is the refined oil pricing mechanism. China's refined oil pricing mechanism has been subjected to criticism in recent years. The results of simulation analysis show that the rebound could be reduced to approximately 90.7% if the refined oil pricing mechanism is reformed. In this regard, we suggest further reforms in the current refined oil pricing mechanism. - Highlights: ► We set up the LA-AIDS model to estimate traffic service demand for urban residents. ► The size of the rebound effect for passenger transportation in China is evaluated. ► The rebound effect for passenger transportation in China is 107.2%. ► Reform of oil pricing could reduced the rebound to 90.7%. ► Reform of oil pricing might be an effective method for mitigating rebound effect

  6. Price implications for Russia's oil refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, Eugene M.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past several years, Russia's oil industry has undergone its radical transformation from a wholly state-run and generously subsidized oil distribution system toward a substantially privatized, cash-strapped, and quasi-market ''petropreneurship''. This fully applies to the industry's downstream sector. Still unlike more dynamic E and C operations, the country's refining has turned out better fenced off competitive market forces and is less capable to respond to market imperatives. Consequently, jammed between depressed product prices and persistent feedstock costs, Russian refiners were badly hit by the world oil glut - which has made a radical modernization of the obsolete refining sector clearly a must. (author)

  7. Refining shale-oil distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altpeter, J

    1952-03-17

    A process is described for refining distillates from shale oil, brown coal, tar, and other tar products by extraction with selective solvents, such as lower alcohols, halogen-hydrins, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, and so forth, as well as treating with alkali solution, characterized in that the distillate is first treated with completely or almost completely recovered phenol or cresotate solution, the oil is separated from the phenolate with solvent, for example concentrated or adjusted to a determined water content of lower alcohol, furfural, halogen-hydrin, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, or the like, extracted, and the raffinate separated from the extract layer, if necessary after distillation or washing out of solvent, and freeing with alkali solution from residual phenol or creosol.

  8. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, M.E.E.; Szklo, A.S.; Machado, G.V.; Schaeffer, R.; Mariano, J.B.; Sala, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks. (author)

  9. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Marina Elisabete Espinho; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Machado, Giovani Vitoria; Schaeffer, Roberto; Mariano, Jacqueline Barboza; Sala, Janaina Francisco

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks

  10. The evolution of oil refining in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, A. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    Back in 1963 when CONCAWE was founded, the world looked very different from what it is today, and so did the global and European refining industry. Oil product markets were expanding fast and new refineries were being built at a steady rate. The oil crisis of the 1970s brought an abrupt end to this, heralding a long era of consolidation and stepwise adaptation. At the same time the nature of the global oil business shifted from fully integrated companies producing, transporting and refining their own oil to a much more diversified situation where oil production ('upstream') and refining/distribution ('downstream') gradually became two essentially separate businesses. From being purely a 'cost centre' in an integrated chain, refining has become a separate activity in its own right, operating as a 'profit centre' between two global markets - crude oil and products - which, although not entirely independent, have their own dynamics and influences. In addition demand gradually shifted towards lighter products while the quality requirements on all products were considerably tightened. This article explores the new challenges that these changes have imposed on EU refiners, and describes CONCAWE's contributions to understanding their impact on refinery production and investments.

  11. Physicochemical and sensory characterization of refined and deodorized tuna (Thunnus albacares) by-product oil obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Dayse A S B; Minozzo, Marcelo G; Licodiedoff, Silvana; Waszczynskyj, Nina

    2016-09-15

    In this study, the effects of chemical refining and deodorization on fatty acid profiles and physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the tuna by-product oil obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis were evaluated. Enzymatic extraction was conducted for 120 min at 60 °C and pH 6.5 using Alcalase at an enzyme-substrate ratio of 1:200 w/w. The chemical refining of crude oil consisted of degumming, neutralization, washing, drying, bleaching, and deodorization; deodorization was conducted at different temperatures and processing times. Although chemical refining was successful, temperature and chemical reagents favored the removal of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from the oil. Aroma attributes of fishy odor, frying odor, and rancid odor predominantly contributed to the sensory evaluation of the product. Deodorization conditions of 160 °C for 1h and 200 °C for 1h were recommended for the tuna by-product oil, which is rich in PUFA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chinese refining capacity for Canadian heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, G.W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed China's refining capacity in relation to exports of Canadian heavy oil. Demand for oil is increasing throughout the world, and China is expected to consume 25 per cent of the projected yearly oil supplies. Alberta currently has an estimated 174 billion barrels of recoverable bitumen, and produces 1.06 million barrels per day. Production is expected to increase to 4.5 million barrels per day by the year 2020. Currently bitumen blends are refined and diluted with naphtha and sweet synthetic crude oil. Bitumen is a challenging feedstock for refineries, and requires thermal production methods or gasification processes. Primary conversion into sour synthetic crude is typically followed by hydrocracking and further refining into finished petroleum products. There are currently 50 refineries in China with a 7.4 million barrel per day capacity. Coastal refineries using imported crude oil have a 4 million barrel per day capacity. New facilities are being constructed and existing plants are being upgraded in order to process heavier and more sour crude oils. However, current refining capabilities in Chinese refineries have a limited ability for resid conversion. It was concluded that while China has a refining infrastructure, only refineries on the coast will use oil sands-derived feedstocks. However, there are currently opportunities to design refineries to match future feedstocks. tabs., figs

  13. Optimization of biodiesel production from refined cotton seed oil and its characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Okechukwu Onukwuli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel was produced through transesterification of refined cotton seed oil with methanol and potassium hydroxide (KOH as a catalyst using batch mode. The physicochemical properties of cotton seed oil and biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engine was characterized through ASTM standards for fuel tests. The functional groups of the biodiesel were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Influence of key parameters like reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst concentration and methanol/oil molar ratio were determined using batch mode. These process parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM and analysis of variance (ANOVA. The significance of the different process parameters and their combined effects on the transesterification efficiency were established through a full factorial central composite design. The results obtained are in good agreement with published data for other vegetable oil biodiesel as well as various international standards for biodiesel fuel. An optimum yield of 96% was achieved with optimal conditions of methanol/oil molar ratio, 6:1; temperature, 55 °C; time, 60 min; and catalyst concentration, 0.6%. This investigation has shown that cotton seed oil from Nigeria can be used to produce biodiesel.

  14. Proceedings of the 3. NCUT meeting on upgrading and refining of heavy oil, bitumen and synthetic crude oil and the 2. symposium on stability and compatibility during the production, transportation and refining of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This conference highlights new developments in refining processes for heavy oil, bitumen, and synthetic crudes. The oil sands/heavy oil industry in Canada has grown significantly in the last decade and could triple by 2012 to reach 2.6 million barrels per day. Experts from the petroleum industry, government organizations and technology providers attended this conference which identified technology gaps and areas where improvements are needed. The presentations demonstrated that many new technologies associated with heavy oil bitumen upgrading and refining have posed compatibility and stability challenges for pipeliners, upgraders and refiners. One of the issues addressed at the conference was the effect of upgrading technologies on market price due to the expected increase in production. Another important issue is how production of bitumen can be increased without significantly increasing greenhouse gas emissions from the refineries and upgrading facilities. The sessions of the conference were entitled: new technology developments in bitumen upgrading; secondary upgrading developments and expanded product opportunities; environmental issues and expanded oil sands development; and, stability and compatibility during the production, transportation and refining of petroleum. Twenty six presentations were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  15. Preparation of refined oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-02-03

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of refined sulfur-containing oils from sulfur-containing crude oils obtained by distillation of bituminous limestone, characterized by this crude oil being first subjected to a purification by distillation with steam in the known way, then treated with lime and chloride of lime and distilled preferably in the presence of zinc powder, whereby in this purification a rectification can be added for the purpose of recovering definite fractions.

  16. Production of alkyl-aromatics from light oxygenates over zeolite catalysts for bio-oil refining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Trung Q.

    in aromatic yield. Further improvement of aromatization and catalyst lifetime was also found with ZnHZSM-5 wherein the Zn evidently modifies the acidity. These model compound results show that the optimized use of zeolites for production of alkyl aromatics from light oxygenates at mild conditions may be effective for bio-oil refining.

  17. Preparation of furfural from local waste agricultural products and its use to refine lube oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marei, A.

    1971-01-01

    This article discusses the evaluation of some United Arab Republic waste agricultural products as raw materials for the production of furfural. Batch scale preparations from corn cobs and bagasse were carried out and the furfural produced was used to extract aromatics from two waxy oil distillates. The effect of variations in extraction temperature, solvent, and addition of water to the solvent was studied. High grade lube oils were obtained by this technique. Data and tables are provided.

  18. Projections of the impact of expansion of domestic heavy oil production on the U.S. refining industry from 1990 to 2010. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Strycker, A.R. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States). ITT Research Institute; Guariguata, G.; Salmen, F.G. [Bonner and Moore Management Science, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production. This report provides a compendium of the United States refining industry and analyzes the industry by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) and by ten smaller refining areas. The refining capacity, oil source and oil quality are analyzed, and projections are made for the U.S. refining industry for the years 1990 to 2010. The study used publicly available data as background. A linear program model of the U.S. refining industry was constructed and validated using 1990 U.S. refinery performance. Projections of domestic oil production (decline) and import of crude oil (increases) were balanced to meet anticipated demand to establish a base case for years 1990 through 2010. The impact of additional domestic heavy oil production, (300 MB/D to 900 MB/D, originating in select areas of the U.S.) on the U.S. refining complex was evaluated. This heavy oil could reduce the import rate and the balance of payments by displacing some imported, principally Mid-east, medium crude. The construction cost for refining units to accommodate this additional domestic heavy oil production in both the low and high volume scenarios is about 7 billion dollars for bottoms conversion capacity (delayed coking) with about 50% of the cost attributed to compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990.

  19. Effect of crude oil and refined petroleum product imports on the national security. Critical technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report contains the results of an investigation requested under Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act to study the effect of oil imports on the domestic petroleum industry and on United States energy security. It reviews previous energy security assessments and resulting initiatives, assesses current US energy security, and studies emergency petroleum requirements. The report finds that there have been substantial improvements in US energy security since the last Section 232 Petroleum finding in 1979. However, declining domestic oil production, rising oil imports, and growing dependence on potentially insecure sources of supply raise concerns of vulnerability to a major supply disruption

  20. Effect of the addition of fatty by-products from the refining of vegetable oil on methane production in co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrijos, M; Sousbie, P; Badey, L; Bosque, F; Steyer, J P

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effects of the addition of by-products from the refining of vegetable oil on the behavior of co-digestion reactors treating a mixture of grass, cow dung and fruit and vegetable waste. Three by-products were used: one soapstock, one used winterization earth and one skimming of aeroflotation of the effluents. Three 15 l reactors were run in parallel and fed five times a week. In a first phase of 4 weeks, the three reactors were fed with the co-digestion substrates alone (grass, cow dung and fruit and vegetable waste) at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 g VS/kg d (VS: volatile solids). Then, a different by-product from the refining of oil was added to the feed of each reactor at an OLR of 0.5 g VS/kg d, generating a 33% increase in the OLR. The results show that the addition of by-products from the refining of oil is an efficient way of increasing the methane production of co-digestion reactors thanks to high methane yield of such by-products (0.69-0.77 l CH(4)/g VS loaded). In fact, in this work, it was possible to raise the methane production of the reactors by about 60% through a 33% increase in the OLR thanks to the addition of the by-products from the refining of vegetable oil.

  1. Oil industry consolidation and refined product prices. Evidence from US wholesale gasoline terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendix, Michael; Walls, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    Our objective in this paper is to quantify the impact of petroleum industry consolidation on refined product prices, controlling for other important factors that could also impact prices. Our empirical analysis focuses on the US petroleum refining industry using data on industry consolidation and wholesale gasoline prices collected over the interval 2000-2008. We match refinery units to wholesale city-terminal gasoline markets, and then estimate pooled cross-section time-series regressions to quantify the impact of petroleum industry consolidation on wholesale gasoline prices at city-specific terminals. The results of the empirical analysis of mergers are mixed, showing that some petroleum industry mergers resulted in statistically significant increases in refined product prices; others resulted in statistically significant declines and still others had no statistical impact at all. Our analysis of the effects of measures of market concentration - one at the level of city-specific wholesale terminals and another at the level of regional spot markets - found evidence that less concentrated markets are associated with lower price levels. (author)

  2. Effect of fertilizer formulation and bioaugmentation on biodegradation and leaching of crude oils and refined products in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, F; Brassington, K J; Bazin, R; Linnet, P E; Thomas, K A; Mitchell, T R; Lethbridge, G; Smith, J W N; Pollarda, S J T

    2012-09-01

    The effects of soil characteristics and oil types as well as the efficacy of two fertilizer formulations and three bioaugmentation packages in improving the bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils were assessed as a means of ex situ treatment selection and optimization through seven laboratory microcosm studies. The influence of bioremediation on leaching of oil from the soil was also investigated. The studies demonstrated the benefits ofbiostimulation to overcome nutrient limitation, as most of the soils were nutrient depleted. The application of both liquid and pelleted slow-release N and P fertilizers increased both the hydrocarbon biodegradation rates (by a factor of 1.4 to 2.9) and the percentage of hydrocarbon mass degraded (by > 30% after 12 weeks and 80% after 37 weeks), when compared with the unamended soils. Slow-release fertilizers can be particularly useful when multiple liquid applications are not practical or cost-effective. Bioaugmentation products containing inoculum plus fertilizer also increased biodegradation by 20% to 37% compared with unamended biotic controls; however, there was no clear evidence of additional benefits due to the inocula, compared with fertilizer alone. Therefore biostimulation is seen as the most cost-effective bioremediation strategy for contaminated soils with the levels of crude oil and refined products used in this study. However, site-specific considerations remain essential for establishing the treatability of oil-contaminated soils.

  3. A method for refining oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruskin, Yu.A.; Gorokhov, V.V.; Kotler, L.D.; Kovalenko, N.F.; Spasskiy, Yu.B.; Titov, A.M.; Vlasenko, V.Ye.; Vytnov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    In the method for refining oil through its distillation with the isolation of directly distilled gases and a benzine fraction (BS) with the use of a benzine fraction pyrolysis, in order to increase the output of the lower olefines and to reduce the energy expenditures, the distillation is conducted with the isolation of 10 to 40 percent of the benzine fraction from its potential content along with the directly distilled gases. The obtained mixture of the remaining part of the benzine fraction is absorbed at a pressure of 1.5 to 6 atmospheres with the feeding of the obtained saturated absorbent to pyrolysis and subsequent mixing of the obtained pyrolysis gas with the unabsorbed product and their joint gas division. As compared to the known method, the proposed method makes it possible to reduce the energy expenditures which is achieved through a reduction in the volume of irrigation in the tower, and to increase the output of the olefines through processing of the steam and gas mixture of the benzine and the directly distilled gases.

  4. Anaerobic digestion of residues from production and refining of vegetable oils as an alternative to conventional solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrijos, M; Thalla, Arun Kumar; Sousbie, P; Bosque, F; Delgenès, J P

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the anaerobic digestion of by-products generated during the production and refining of oil with the objective of proposing an alternative solution (methanisation) to the conventional solutions while reducing the energy consumption of fossil origin on refinery sites. The production of sunflower oil was taken as example. Glycerine from the production of biodiesel was also included in this study. The results show that glycerine has a high potential for methanisation because of its high methane potential (465 ml CH4/g VS) and high metabolization rates (0.42 g VS/g VSS.d). The use of oil cake as substrate for anaerobic digestion is not interesting because it has a low methane potential of 215 ml CH4/g VS only and because it is easily recovered in animal feed. Six residues have quite a high methane potential (465 to 850 ml CH4/g VS) indicating a good potential for anaerobic digestion. However, they contain a mixture of rapidly and slowly biodegradable organic matter and the loading rates must remain quite low (0.03 to 0.09 g VS/g VSS.d) to prevent any accumulation of slowly biodegradable solids in the digesters. IWA Publishing 2008.

  5. China's oil market and refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Fridley, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    The article assesses the future for China's oil industry as the country makes the transition from a command economy to an international market. China has one of the world's biggest oil industries and recent years have seen much growth in exploration and development, refining capacity and trade. China is more and more dependent on oil imports and is now a major international player; it has attracted much outside investment. Diagrams show (i) how coal dominates other sources of energy in China; (ii) crude production 1977-1998; (iii) how Middle East crudes now dominate Chinese crude imports; (iv) the growth of petroleum demand in China; (v) the Chinese demand for petroleum products; (vi) the growth in transport fuels; (vii) Chinese product imports: import ban targeted diesel; (viii) crude imports favoured over product imports and (ix) refinery capacity and throughput. The changes are expected to result in further integration into international markets, increased transparency and a healthier oil business

  6. Solvent-free lipase-catalyzed preparation of diglycerides from co-products of vegetable oil refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangkam, Kamol

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-products of vegetable oil refining such as a mixed deodorizer distillate resulting from the refining of various vegetable oils, a crude distillate resulting from the physical refining of coconut oil and commercial mixtures of distilled sunflower and coconut fatty acids were used as starting materials for the enzymatic preparation of diglycerides. Reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, molar ratio for the formation of diglycerides by lipase-catalyzed esterification/transesterification were studied using the mixed deodorizer distillate and glycerol as starting materials. The best results were obtained with the immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435 in vacuo at 60 °C leading to moderate proportions (~52% of diglycerides. The proportion of diglycerides increased when residual acylglycerides of the co-products of vegetable oil refining were hydrolyzed prior to esterification. Thus, the esterification of hydrolyzed co-products of vegetable oil refining with glycerol led to high formation (62-72% of diglycerides. Short-path vacuum distillation of the esterification products yielded distillation residues containing from 70% to 94% diglycerides. The proportions of fatty acids and monoglycerides in the distilled residues were quite low (Subproductos del refinado de los aceites vegetales tales como el destilado obtenido en el desodorizador al refinar distintos aceites vegetales, el destilado crudo resultante de la refinación física del aceite de coco, y mezclas comerciales de los ácidos grasos obtenidos en la destilación de aceites de girasol y coco fueron utilizados como materiales de partida para la preparación enzimática de diglicéridos. Se estudiaron las condiciones de reacción (temperatura, presión, relación molar para la formación de diglicéridos mediante esterificación/ transesterificación catalizada por lipasas usando la mezcla obtenida del desodorizador y glicerol como materiales de partida. Los mejores

  7. Future prospects for palm oil refining and modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibon Véronique

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is rich in minor components that impart unique nutritional properties and need to be preserved. In this context, refining technologies have been improved, with the dual temperature deodorizer, the double condensing unit and the ice condensing system. The DOBI is a good tool to assess quality of the crude palm oil and its ability to be properly refined. Specially refined oils open a market for new high quality products (golden palm oil, red palm oil, white soaps, etc.. Palm oil is a good candidate for the multi-step dry fractionation process, aiming to the production of commodity oils and specialty fats (cocoa butter replacers. New technological developments allow quality and yield improvements. Palm oil and fractions are also valuable feedstock for enzymatic interesterification in which applications are for commodity oil (low-trans margarines and shortenings and for special products (cocoa butter equivalents, infant formulation, ….

  8. Refined reservoir description to maximize oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flewitt, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    To assure maximized oil recovery from older pools, reservoir description has been advanced by fully integrating original open-hole logs and the recently introduced interpretive techniques made available through cased-hole wireline saturation logs. A refined reservoir description utilizing normalized original wireline porosity logs has been completed in the Judy Creek Beaverhill Lake ''A'' Pool, a reefal carbonate pool with current potential productivity of 100,000 BOPD and 188 active wells. Continuous porosity was documented within a reef rim and cap while discontinuous porous lenses characterized an interior lagoon. With the use of pulsed neutron logs and production data a separate water front and pressure response was recognized within discrete environmental units. The refined reservoir description aided in reservoir simulation model studies and quantifying pool performance. A pattern water flood has now replaced the original peripheral bottom water drive to maximize oil recovery

  9. Continuous production of biofuel from refined and used palm olein oil with supercritical methanol at a low molar ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakdasri, Winatta; Sawangkeaw, Ruengwit; Ngamprasertsith, Somkiat

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Continuous production of biofuel in SCM at low molar ratio was studied. • The actual density of mixture was applied to calculate residence times. • The maximum FAME of 80–90% was observed for refined and used palm oils. • The glycerol–methanol reaction showed a positive effect in fuel yield. - Abstract: The high energy consumption and high environmental impact in the supercritical methanol (SCM) process primarily originates from the preheating of reactants and the recovery of excess alcohols. This work demonstrated the synthesis of biofuel using a lowered methanol to oil molar ratio of 12:1, instead of the 40:1–42:1 ratios that are commonly employed in conventional SCM. The apparent density of the reacting mixture was measured and applied to accurately calculate residence times in a continuous reactor. The effects of residence time were considered from 10 to 25 min. The results revealed that excessive residence times reduced the ester content, especially for unsaturated esters, in the resulting biofuel. A residence time of 20 min was recommended to simultaneously achieve a maximum ester content of 90% and a triglyceride conversion of up to 99%. Used palm olein oil with high free fatty acid (4.56 wt.%) can be employed as a feedstock and give a maximum ester content of 80%. In addition, the side reaction between glycerol and methanol at 400 °C and 15 MPa showed a positive effect in increasing fuel yield by 2%–7%

  10. Production and refining of Dacryodes edulis “native pear” seeds oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... ml/g). Bleaching of 0.2% Na2CO3 degummed oil resulted in oil with peroxide value of 20 mgEq/Kg which ... Nigeria, Liberia, Cameroons and Zaire (Boungou, et al., .... Hui YJ Ed., John Wiley and Sons ... Robert Maxwell, pp.

  11. Pacific Basin Heavy Oil Refining Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hackett

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The United States today is Canada’s largest customer for oil and refined oil products. However, this relationship may be strained due to physical, economic and political influences. Pipeline capacity is approaching its limits; Canadian oil is selling at substantive discounts to world market prices; and U.S. demand for crude oil and finished products (such as gasoline, has begun to flatten significantly relative to historical rates. Lower demand, combined with increased shale oil production, means U.S. demand for Canadian oil is expected to continue to decline. Under these circumstances, gaining access to new markets such as those in the Asia-Pacific region is becoming more and more important for the Canadian economy. However, expanding pipeline capacity to the Pacific via the proposed Northern Gateway pipeline and the planned Trans Mountain pipeline expansion is only feasible when there is sufficient demand and processing capacity to support Canadian crude blends. Canadian heavy oil requires more refining and produces less valuable end products than other lighter and sweeter blends. Canadian producers must compete with lighter, sweeter oils from the Middle East, and elsewhere, for a place in the Pacific Basin refineries built to handle heavy crude blends. Canadian oil sands producers are currently expanding production capacity. Once complete, the Northern Gateway pipeline and the Trans Mountain expansion are expected to deliver an additional 500,000 to 1.1 million barrels a day to tankers on the Pacific coast. Through this survey of the capacity of Pacific Basin refineries, including existing and proposed facilities, we have concluded that there is sufficient technical capacity in the Pacific Basin to refine the additional Canadian volume; however, there may be some modifications required to certain refineries to allow them to process Western Canadian crude. Any additional capacity for Canadian oil would require refinery modifications or

  12. Production and refining of Dacryodes edulis “native pear” seeds oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KOH/g, SN of 72.8. Degumming (with 0.2%Na2CO3 and 0.2%H3PO4) and bleaching gave oils with lower AV (7.45 mgKOH/gfat) and higher acid value (9.4 mgKOH/gfat), respectively. Iodine value (48.78 ml/g) of the 0.2% Na2CO3 degummed oil was higher than that of the seed oil degummed with 0.2% H3PO4 (25.35ml/g).

  13. Optimization of Refining Craft for Vegetable Insulating Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhu-Jun; Hu, Ting; Cheng, Lin; Tian, Kai; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Jun; Kong, Hai-Yang; Fang, Fu-Xin; Qian, Hang; Fu, Guang-Pan

    2016-05-01

    Vegetable insulating oil because of its environmental friendliness are considered as ideal material instead of mineral oil used for the insulation and the cooling of the transformer. The main steps of traditional refining process included alkali refining, bleaching and distillation. This kind of refining process used in small doses of insulating oil refining can get satisfactory effect, but can't be applied to the large capacity reaction kettle. This paper using rapeseed oil as crude oil, and the refining process has been optimized for large capacity reaction kettle. The optimized refining process increases the acid degumming process. The alkali compound adds the sodium silicate composition in the alkali refining process, and the ratio of each component is optimized. Add the amount of activated clay and activated carbon according to 10:1 proportion in the de-colorization process, which can effectively reduce the oil acid value and dielectric loss. Using vacuum pumping gas instead of distillation process can further reduce the acid value. Compared some part of the performance parameters of refined oil products with mineral insulating oil, the dielectric loss of vegetable insulating oil is still high and some measures are needed to take to further optimize in the future.

  14. Oil price scenarios and refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, B.

    1993-01-01

    Currently refining profitability is low because there has been an overbuilding of conversion capacity in Western Europe in the last round. Oil marketing, the chemicals business and the fundamental economy itself are at low points in their cycles which have not coincided, at least in the UK, since 1975. Against that gloomy background, it is predicted that downstream profitability will recover in the mid-1990s. Crude oil prices will remain low until the call on OPEC crude increases again and takes up the capacity which has been brought on stream in response to the Gulf War. When this happens, it is likely to trigger another price spike and another round of investment in production capacity. Environmentally driven investments in desulphurisation or emissions reduction will be poorly remunerated all the way through the value chain. Refining margins will recover when white oil demand growth tightens up the need for conversion capacity. Marketing will need to reduce the retail network overcapacity in the mature markets if it is to improve its profitability. In this period of low profitability, even with the light at the end of the tunnel for refiners in the middle of the decade, the industry structure is under threat. There is a strong argument for new modes of competitive behaviour which are backed by strong elements of cooperation. (author)

  15. Possibility of use of Azgir underground nuclear cavities for burial of sulfur and her toxic compounds - products of oil refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, E.Z.; Adymov, Zh.I.

    1998-01-01

    The intensive growth of production oil and gas in Western Kazakhstan increases ecological vulnerability of an environment and a fauna because of the pressure of negative consequences arising with production, refining and transportation of the oil raw material, and also because of pernicious influence of accompanying products and wastes of oil refining manufacture being chemically dangerous and toxic, requiring special conditions of the handling, warehousing and storage for provision of ecological safety. A problem of the reclamation, safe warehousing, storage and long-term disposal (burial) of such accompanying products and wastes, as for example, sulfur and its compounds till now is not solved. For example, the mass of the accumulated mountains of crystal sulfur makes on cautious calculations from 2 up to 3 million tonnes also creates real danger of the propagation and harmful influence on the environment. The neutralization of sulfur and its compounds means removal them from the active handling with an environment, i.e. creation of such conditions in which sulfur products for a long time cannot cause harm atmosphere, underground medium and waters, vegetative and animal world. For it is offered to use underground cavities in a salt dome raising Large Azgir and the funnel-shaped hollow in persalt rocks formed as a result of underground nuclear explosions, carried out in 1978-1979 years near village Azgir Atyrau province. The sulfur products is possible to place on a long safe storage in funnel-shaped hollow (the A9 platform) volume 1,5 million cubic meters, by keeping, if necessary, an possibility of their extraction for needs of the future generations or to remove in underground nuclear cavities in stone salt (the A8 and A11 platforms) total volume 330000 cubic meters, from which it is not provided in the future to take out the sulfur products. At this the sulfur is removed from an environment on a storage or burial in the inactive form, i.e. the sulfur products

  16. Japan's oil market and refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    The present economic situation in Japan is discussed. In particular, the focus is on fluctuations in oil product demand, imports of crude oil, and the refining industry. Throughout the 1990s, Japan was plagued by a volatile economy and the new millennium has shown no improvement. A prolonged recession means that the country now has little confidence in its leaders and its institutions, consumer confidence is low and asset values have deflated. Due to a low birth rate and long life expectancy, the population is aging and this means lower savings rates. The contrast between the present situation and the so-called economic miracle once enjoyed by the Japanese is hard to accept, but despite all this, the Japanese lifestyle and economy are to be envied

  17. South Korea - oil refining overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    1999-01-01

    Following the economic problems of the 1990s, the petroleum refining industry of South Korea underwent much involuntary restructuring in 1999 with respect to takeovers and mergers and these are discussed. The demand for petroleum has now pretty well recovered. The reasons for fluctuating prices in the 1990s, how the new structure should be cushioned against changes in the future, and the potential for South Korea to export refined petroleum, are all discussed

  18. Assessing food allergy risks from residual peanut protein in highly refined vegetable oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.M.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Rubingh, C.M.; Remington, B.C.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Houben, G.F.

    2017-01-01

    Refined vegetable oils including refined peanut oil are widely used in foods. Due to shared production processes, refined non-peanut vegetable oils can contain residual peanut proteins. We estimated the predicted number of allergic reactions to residual peanut proteins using probabilistic risk

  19. Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil | Mensah | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil. ... Abstract. A laboratory process for refining soybean has been scaled up to a 145 tonne per annum pilot plant to refine crude soybean oil. ... The quality of the refined oil was found to be within national and codex standard specifications for edible oil from vegetable sources.

  20. Directions in refining and upgrading of heavy oil and bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, B.; Parker, R. J.; Flint, L.

    1997-01-01

    The expansion of heavy oil transportation, marketing and refining facilities over the past two decades have been reviewed to show the strides that several Canadian refiners have taken to build up the facilities required to process synthetic crude oil (SCO). Key points made at a conference, convened by the National Centre for Upgrading Technology (NCUT), held in Edmonton during September 1997 to discuss current and future directions in the refining and marketing of heavy oil, bitumen and SCO, were summarized. Among the key points mentioned were: (1) the high entry barriers faced by centralized upgraders, (2) the advantages of integrating SCO or heavy oil production with downstream refining, (3) the stiff competition from Venezuela and Mexico that both SCO and heavy oil will face in the U.S. PADD II market, (4) the differences between Canadian refiners who have profited from hydrocracking and are better able to handle coker-based SCO, and American refiners who rely chiefly on catalytic cracking and are less able to process the highly aromatic SCO, and (5) the disproportionate cost in the upgrading process represented by the conversion of asphaltenes. Challenges and opportunities for key stakeholders, i.e. producers, refiners, marketers and technology licensors also received much attention at the Edmonton conference

  1. The use of the isotopic composition of individual compounds for correlating spilled oils and refined products in the environment with suspected sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philp, R.P.; Allen, J.; Kuder, T.

    2002-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (CGMS) are two methods generally used to correlate crude oils and refined products found in the environment with their suspected pollution sources. In certain cases, this can be done with bulk carbon isotope compositions, but with crude condensates, or refined products, the lack of biomarkers prohibits the successful use for making unique correlations. Such products can be correlated using an alternative method which makes use of combined gas chromatography-isotope ratio and mass spectrometry (GCIRMS). This method makes it possible to determine the carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition of individual compounds in crude oil, thus producing isotopic fingerprints that could be used in correlation studies. The feasibility of using of GCIRMS to correlate various spilled products in different environments was the main focus of this study. The authors are not proposing that this method will replace GC or GCMS, but are suggesting that it is a powerful tool that could be used in conjunction with the early methods. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic fractionation has been reported for light components such as benzene and toluene. Higher carbon numbered compounds do not seem to undergo major carbon isotopic fractionation as a result of weathering. Hydrogen variations are currently undergoing investigation for compounds with a carbon number greater than C10. Also, isotopic fractionation for refined products has the potential to attenuate naturally. 33 refs., 6 figs

  2. European oil refining: strategies for a competitive future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, James.

    1997-07-01

    European Oil Refining investigates how the industry came to be in crisis and what the future holds. As well as an extensive analysis of past and present market shifts, the report predicts likely future developments and their consequences for investors. The report reviews the European oil sector in a global context, calculates the cost to refiners of key environmental legislation, assesses the problems caused by changing product demand and crude supply, examines possible solutions to the problems of low margins and overcapacity, evaluates the key players' main strategies to increase their competitiveness, analyses the western European oil refining industry by country, details the refinery operations of the major countries of central and eastern Europe, profiles 15 of the major oil companies and estimates the increase in investment required as a result of legislative and demand changes. (author)

  3. Refining crude oils and gasolines, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-23

    A process of refining crude oils and gasolines distilled from shale and the like is described, consisting of submitting them to a prewash with soda, an oxidation preferably with hypochlorite solution, a hydrogenation with nascent hydrogen, and finally rectification and neutralization.

  4. English-Chinese oil refining dictionary. [English-Chinese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, P; Zing, Z [eds.

    1979-01-01

    The dictionary is a collection of many disciplines but specialized in the terminology related to petroleum refining. It contains terms in areas such as refining, factory equipment and installation, petroleum products and test analysis, and instrument automation. It also contains terms in areas of petrochemistry, oil storage and transport, computer technology, and environmental protection. The total number of terms collected was approximately 53,000.

  5. Asian oil refining. Demand growth and deregulation - an uncertain future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sameer Nawaz.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the report is to identify the most important features of the oil refining industry in Asia. Major developments in consumption patterns changes in regional importance of countries are discussed, highlighting potential future developments. The first chapter introduces the various refining processes and presents a simple model for the analysis of complex refineries. Chapter 2 examines the development of the Asian refining industry against a background of economic growth and analyses trends in consumption of all products in Asian countries. In Chapter 3, the key issues concerning the refining industry are examined, among them the forces driving consumption, including the importance of economic development, and electricity and transport demand. The importance of product imports and international trade is discussed, and the extent of government involvement and the effects of changing retail and market prices are analysed. Chapter 4 looks at the strategies that oil and gas companies are following in the Asian refining industry. Particular significance is attached to the vertical integration of the oil majors, Japanese and Middle Eastern oil companies. A brief overview of the importance of the petrochemical industry is presented. The countries of Asia that are involved in the refining industry are profiled in Chapter 5. The future trend in oil consumption is examined in Chapter 6. There follows a brief discussion of the plans to expand crude refining capacity in the various countries and a forecast of the state of overcapacity which will result. In the final chapter, brief profiles of some of the most important companies in the Asian refining industry are presented, discussing their major activities and future plans. (Author)

  6. Biodiesel obtained from soapstock originated in a refining oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobio Pérez, Indira; Díaz Domínguez, Yosvany; Piloto-Rodríguez, Ramón

    2017-01-01

    In the vegetable oil chemical refining process is obtained a by-product commonly named as soapstock, due to its physical and aspect properties. The soapstock free fatty acid content can reach to 50%. The present work shows a survey of researches focused on biodiesel obtaining from this by-product. The biodiesel is obtained following different routes and catalyzers features. A variety of reports shown the effectivity of the use of this by-product derived from vegetable oil refining industry to produce biodiesel. Several studies are addressed to the acid oil recovering involving processes without soapstock acidulation, with the aim of lowering costs and finding more attractive yields closing to the concept of zero wastes. (author)

  7. Neoplastic changes in freshwater fishes: Correlation with oil refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrander, G.K.

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally, oil pollution has been viewed as single event, large scale disasters such as the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that by products and anthropogenic contaminants resulting from oil exploration, extraction, recovery, refining, and the manufacture and use of oil and oil-based products are negatively impacting the environment. Potential problems of freshwater pollution by oil contaminants are increasing in many parts of the world from both active and abandoned oil production facilities. In the USA many ''Superfund'' sites have been designated for cleanup under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980; primarily because of waste discharged on to the sites by the oil industry. Pollution of surface and groundwater from these sites has already occurred and in some cases has led to deleterious effects on the complex aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems on and near these sites. The effect of oil and oil related products on aquatic organisms will be reviewed. Specifically, the discussion will focus on preneoplastic and neoplastic changes in fishes with a primary endpoint of cancer. Finally, a summary of current studies of feral fishes residing on and near an abandoned oil refinery in Oklahoma will be presented

  8. Investment in exploration-production and refining 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, G.; Hureau, G.; Serbutoviez, S.; Silva, C.

    2016-01-01

    IFPEN analyses in this study the 2015 evolution of global investment in the field of exploration-production and refining: - Changes in oil and gas prices; - Investment in Exploration/Production: the end of an upward cycle; - Drilling and the global drilling market, upstream activities and markets; - 2015, a breath of fresh air for refining

  9. Extraction and refining of essential oil from Australian tea tree, Melaleuca alterfornia, and the antimicrobial activity in cosmetic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Q.; Phan, T. D.; Thieu, V. Q. Q.; Tran, S. T.; Do, S. H.

    2012-03-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) comes from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifornia that belongs to the myrtle family (Myrtaceae). It is one of the most powerful immune system stimulants and sorts out most viral, bacterial and fungal infections in a snap, while it is great to heal wounds and acnes. In Vietnam, Melaleuca trees can grow on acid land that stretches in a large portion of lands in the Mekong Delta region. So, there are some Melaleuca plantations developed under the Vietnamese government plans of increasing plantation forests now. However, TTO contains various amounts of 1,8-cineole that causes skin irritant. So TTO purification is very necessary. In this study, the purification of TTO that meet International Standard ISO 4730 was carried out via two steps. The first step is steam distillation to obtain crude TTO (terpinen-4-ol 35% v/v) and the average productivity is among 2.37% (v/wet-wt) or 1.23% (v/dry-wt). In the second step, the cleaned TTO is collected by vacuum distillation column and extraction yield of the whole process is about 0.3% (w/w). Besides, high concentration essential oil was applied in the cosmetic products to increase its commercial value.

  10. Extraction and refining of essential oil from Australian tea tree, Melaleuca alterfornia, and the antimicrobial activity in cosmetic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, Q; Phan, T D; Thieu, V Q Q; Tran, S T; Do, S H

    2012-01-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) comes from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifornia that belongs to the myrtle family (Myrtaceae). It is one of the most powerful immune system stimulants and sorts out most viral, bacterial and fungal infections in a snap, while it is great to heal wounds and acnes. In Vietnam, Melaleuca trees can grow on acid land that stretches in a large portion of lands in the Mekong Delta region. So, there are some Melaleuca plantations developed under the Vietnamese government plans of increasing plantation forests now. However, TTO contains various amounts of 1,8-cineole that causes skin irritant. So TTO purification is very necessary. In this study, the purification of TTO that meet International Standard ISO 4730 was carried out via two steps. The first step is steam distillation to obtain crude TTO (terpinen-4-ol 35% v/v) and the average productivity is among 2.37% (v/wet-wt) or 1.23% (v/dry-wt). In the second step, the cleaned TTO is collected by vacuum distillation column and extraction yield of the whole process is about 0.3% (w/w). Besides, high concentration essential oil was applied in the cosmetic products to increase its commercial value.

  11. Life cycle assessment of the transesterification double step process for biodiesel production from refined soybean oil in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Monica; da Silva, Elson Santos; Andersen, Silvia L F; Abrahão, Raphael

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel has been attracting considerable attention as being a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic fuel that can contribute to the solution of some energy issues as it presents potential to help mitigate climate change. The Life Cycle Assessment of biodiesel from soybean oil (transesterification double step process) was carried out herein. A pilot plant was considered, designed to produce 72 L of biodiesel in daily continuous flow, throughout a lifetime of 15 years (8000 annual hours). The materials and equipment utilized in the construction of the plant were considered as well as the energy and substances required for the production of biodiesel. Environmental impact assessment method IPCC 2013 GWP 100a was utilized within the SimaPro software to express the final result in kg CO2-equivalent. The results quantified the CO2 emissions associated with biodiesel production throughout the lifetime of the production plant (15 years), resulting in a total value of 1,441,426.05 kg CO2-eq. (96,095.07 kg CO2-eq. per year), which was equivalent to 4.01 kg CO2-eq. per liter of biodiesel produced. Decrease of environmental loads associated with the production of biodiesel could include improvements on the handling of biomass agriculture and on the technology production of biodiesel.

  12. Method of refining mineral and shale oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1950-12-06

    A method is described for refining mineral oils, shale oils, tar oil. The oil is preferably treated with concentrated sulphuric acid, of not less than 90% by weight concentration or with chloro-sulphonic acid in order to extract the more reactive components of the oil. The solution (extract phase) is separated from the treated oil (raffinate phase) by centrifuging, characterised by centrifugally separating the extract phase from the raffinate phase before any noticeable chemical reaction with subsequent solution of acid reaction products in the raffinate phase has taken place. The acid remaining in the raffinate phase is allowed to react chemically with the more reactive constituents. The sludge formed is removed from the raffinate phase by centrifuging.

  13. Oxidative stability of refined olive and sunflower oils supplemented with lycopene-rich oleoresin from tomato peels industrial by-product, during accelerated shelf-life storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehili, Mouna; Choura, Sirine; Zammel, Ayachi; Allouche, Noureddine; Sayadi, Sami

    2018-04-25

    Tomato peels by-product from a Tunisian industry was used for the extraction of lycopene-rich oleoresin using hexane solvent maceration. Tomato peels oleoresin, TPO, exhibited competitive free radicals scavenging activity with synthetic antioxidants. The efficacy of TPO in stabilizing refined olive (ROO) and sunflower (RSO) oils was investigated for five months, under accelerated shelf-life, compared to the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). TPO was added to ROO and RSO at four different concentrations, namely 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 µg/g and BHT standard at 200 µg/g. Lipid oxidation was tracked by measuring the peroxide value, acidity, conjugated dienes and trienes. Results suggested the highest efficiency of 250 µg/g and 2000 µg/g of TPO, referring to 5 µg/g and 40 µg/g of lycopene, for the oxidative stabilization of ROO and RSO, respectively. The protective effect of TPO against the primary oxidation of these refined oils was significantly correlated to their lycopene contents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Types of Refined Petroleum Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    These are derived from crude oils through processes such as catalytic cracking and fractional distillation. Examples described here are gasoline, kerosene, no. 2 fuel oil, no. 4 fuel oil, no. 5 fuel oil, no. 6 fuel oil, and lubricating oil.

  15. The heavy oil refiners needs in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the 1970s oil crisis, the high price differential that developed between heavy and light crude led to an expansion in heavy crude processing geared to producing light oil products. The subsequent collapse in prices meant that heavy crudes with low netbacks were shut in, heavy crude refining capacity exceeded the restrained production of heavy crudes, and refineries were operating at losses. However, the low prices for oil rekindled demand and spare production capacity has been absorbed. The crude oil price is forecast to rise to ca $27/bbl by the late 1990s, which is favorable for heavy crude oil production. Nevertheless, investments in heavy crude production are exposed to a high degree of risk. A strategy for dealing with this risk is to integrate into downstream, which makes more sense for heavy crude producers than for conventional producers. On the other hand, such integration is capital-intensive, and light oils will likely be favored in crude oil production developments for the next several years. Low prices for natural gas will make it hard to find markets for residual fuel made from heavy crudes. 8 figs

  16. Impact of Crude Oil Quality on the Refining Conditions and Composition of Nutraceuticals in Refined Palm Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Klicia A; Ayala, Jose Vila; Van Hoed, Vera; Monteiro, Simone; Ceriani, Roberta; Verhé, Roland; Meirelles, Antonio J A

    2017-08-01

    Palm oil is the major vegetable oil used worldwide due to its unique properties. The effect of crude palm oil acidity on the final free fatty acids (FFA) content, neutral oil loss (NOL), and nutraceutical compounds, such as carotenes, total tocols (tocopherols and tocotrienols), squalene, and phytosterols was investigated. A central composite design was employed to study the influence of the refining conditions: temperature (200 to 260 °C), steam percentage (0.5% to 3.5%), and initial FFA content (2.2% to 6.0%) on the quality of the refined product. The results revealed that initial palm oil acidity is a statistically important parameter to obtain commercially acceptable values for final FFA content. The increase of temperature presented the most important effect on the reduction of all nutraceutical compounds. The highest tocopherols (88%), phytosterols (98%), and squalene retention (84%) was obtained when applying the mildest temperature (200 °C). From the experimental results, 3 equations were generated enabling the prediction of the free fatty acids content, the tocols content, and the losses of neutral oil. Therefore, this work contributes to the understanding and optimization of the process for the production of palm oil with high nutraceutical quality and low free fatty acid contents. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Bitumen to refined products and petrochemicals : a preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.

    2004-01-01

    Purvin and Gertz is an energy consulting firm that provides advise to the energy sector. A review of western Canadian crude oil supply suggests that oil sands production will surpass declining conventional production. Oil sands supply includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), bitumen and diluent. It is expected that oil sands will increase from 42 per cent of western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. This presentation reviewed the potential of Alberta's oil sands and presented a recent study of refined products and petrochemicals from bitumen. Upgrading, refining and petrochemical case studies were presented. In particular, the author examined if a Canadian oil sands upgrading project with high capital costs can be competitive with competing projects in the United States and internationally. In addition to supply and demand issues, the presentation examined infrastructure capability and market potential in the United States. The economic potential and risks of preferred business cases compared to upgrading to SCO were also evaluated. tabs., figs

  18. Stigmastadiene and specific extitntion (270 nm) to evaluate the presence of refined oils in virgin olive oil commercialized in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Aued-Pimentel,Sabria; Silva,Simone Alves Da; Takemoto,Emy; Cano,Cristiane Bonaldi

    2013-01-01

    The increased marketing of olive oil in Brazil has intensified legal requirements to ensure regulation of this product. The measurement of the specific extinction at 270 nm (E 270) and content of stigmastadiene can be used to assess the presence of refined oils in virgin olive oil. During the vegetable oil refining process, compounds with conjugated double bonds are generated from unsaturated fatty acids that absorb at 270 nm and sterols, such as stigmasta-3,5-diene. To compare these paramete...

  19. Round table discussion on used oil recycling and re-refined base oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The re-refining of use d engine oils into marketable fuels and lubricants has received xxx recent attention inlight of proposed Federal legislation mandating collection and recycling of used oils. In this paper the current technologies employed to process used oils into new fuseless and lubricants will be outlined and the performance features of these products compared to virgin materials. Attention will be focused on the environmental and health-related issues of used oil recycling with some emphasis on how processing influences the chemical composition of recycled products

  20. The refining industry and the future of the fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleille, S.

    2004-01-01

    The fuel oils consumption decrease in France since 1970, because of the two petroleum crisis, the nuclear energy competition and the air pollution. The fuel oils industry is then looking other export possibilities. This report aims to offer a first approach of the problem and presents the main challenges. The first part is devoted to the technical context (definition, production and outlet. The second part presents the environmental context and the fuel oils market. In the third part the market is studied at the world scale, in the fourth at the french scale and in the fifth at the scale of other countries as United States, Japan and european Union. A synthesis tables is given in the last part to compare and propose some hypothesis concerning the future of fuel oils and the french refining industry. (A.L.B.)

  1. US refining capacity for Canadian heavy oil : current overview and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paget, S.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation provided an overview of the Canadian oil sands industry and investigated the potential heavy oil refining capacity of the United States. An outline of the first commercial developments of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) in Alberta's oil sands was provided. Canada's reserves were compared with oil shale and heavy oil reserves in the United States and Venezuela. Influences of Canadian developments from western Canadian conventional crude oil were reviewed, and an oil sands production forecast was provided. Recent refining developments in the United States include delayed coking; catalytic cracking; fluid coking; flexicoking; and LC-fining. However, many oil sand producers are now choosing to upgrade oil, and producers are currently saturating United States markets with heavy crude oil. Canadian crude prices reached $90 per barrel in 2006. Heavy oil pipelines are now being constructed and existing heavy oil pipelines are being expanded. ConocoPhillips is planning to invest $1 billion for a new heavy oil coker, while BP is investing $3 billion for a heavy oil refinery in Indiana which plans to refine Canadian crude oil supplies. However, bitumens from Alberta are volatile in price, and excess Canadian production must be exported. Less than 10 per cent of western Canadian crude has tidewater access, and capital providers are concerned about cost over-runs. In order for the Canadian oil sands industry to succeed, refining capacity in the United States must be expanded, and open access must be provided to the Gulf coast as well as to the Pacific Ocean. tabs., figs

  2. Investment in Exploration-Production and Refining - 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, Guy; Hureau, Geoffroy; Serbutoviez, Sylvain; Silva, Constancio

    2017-03-01

    IFPEN analyses in this study the 2016 evolution of global investment in the field of exploration-production and refining: - Trends in oil and gas prices; - Investment in exploration/production: in sharp decline for the second consecutive year - the first time this has happened since 1986; - The global drilling market; - Geophysical: global activity and markets; - Offshore construction: market and business; - A significant reduction in refining projects (atmospheric distillation and conversion)

  3. Using atomic energy in the oil refining and petrochemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feigin, E.A.; Barashkov, R.Ia.; Raud, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    A short description of the basic large scale processes for oil refining and petrochemistry in which nuclear reactors can be used is given. The possible industrial plans for using nuclear reactors are examined together with the problems in using the advances in atomic technology in oil refining and petrochemical processes.

  4. Challenges and technological opportunities for the oil refining industry: A Brazilian refinery case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelo Branco, David A.; Gomes, Gabriel L.; Szklo, Alexandre S.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide oil refining industry currently faces strong challenges related to uncertainties about future feedstock and characteristics of oil products. These challenges favor two main strategies for the sector: the first strategy is increasing refinery complexity and versatility; the second is integrating the refining and petrochemical industries, adding value to the crude oil while guaranteeing market share to premium oil products. Both strategies aim at increasing production of highly specified oil products, simultaneously reducing the environmental impacts of the refining industry. This paper analyses the case of a Brazilian refinery, Gabriel Passos Refinery (REGAP), by proposing additional investments to alter and/or expand its current production scheme. All the proposed options present relatively low investment rates of return. However, investments in a hydrocracking based configuration with a gasification unit providing hydrogen and power can further improve the operational profitability, due to reduced natural gas consumption.

  5. Market risks and oilfield ownership - Refining oil and gas disclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, Gavin L.; Hatherly, David; Misund, Bard

    2007-01-01

    Market risk exposures of balance sheet asset values are becoming an increasingly important accounting issue. In oil and gas, oilfield exposures to oil prices are specific and contractual, presenting a contingency problem for investors, financial analysts, standard setting bodies and government agencies. Our paper uses an extensive sample of 292 oilfields to provide evidence that the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) supplementary disclosures do not capture the price sensitivities of oil and gas disclosures implicit in the two main forms of oilfield ownership, concession and production sharing contracts (PSCs). Current asset disclosures neither distinguish between global variations in oilfield ownership terms, nor on market risk implications for the value of oilfield assets. Importantly, we show that unlike concessions, reserve and production disclosures vary in response to oil price movements for PSC regimes. Our results highlight the need to differentiate PSC disclosures from concession fields, and to fully reflect price risks implicit in oilfield ownership contracts. We extend findings by Rajgopal [1999. Early evidence on the informativeness of the SEC's market risk disclosures: the case of commodity price risk exposure of oil and gas producers. The Accounting Review 74, 251-280] and propose refinements to capture market risk in financial reporting. (author)

  6. Changes in the world market in oil and oil refinements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristik, Julija

    1996-01-01

    Since 1980's the world market for crude oil and oil products has faced significant changes that are going to have a grate influence on the supply and consumption of crude oil derivatives in Macedonia. The knowledge of these changes would have a grate contribution in planning the future development of this part of the energetic system of Macedonia. The purpose of this paper (which is a short version of the introductory report for the ZEMAK session with a theme 'Energetic policy and development of energetics in Macedonia') is to present the actual situation on the market for crude oil products, as well as to give the main factors that would have influence on this market in the future. (author). 4 refs., 3 ills

  7. Effect of oil refining processes on 14 C-tetrachlorvinphos residues in soya bean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, M.; Zayed, S.M.A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Crude soya bean oil extracted from grains treated with 14 C-tetrachlorvinphos and stored for 30 weeks was subjected to different refining processes. The effect of commercial refining processes, namely: alkali treatment, bleaching, winterization and deodorization on the nature and magnitude of the originally present residues was investigated. A high percentage (52%) of the residues was eliminated during alkali neutralization. No potentially toxic materials were detected among the identified degradation products. The obtained data showed that the ultimate degradation products were dimethyl phosphate and mono methyl phosphate.2 tab.,2 scheme

  8. Stigmastadiene and specific extitntion (270 nm to evaluate the presence of refined oils in virgin olive oil commercialized in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabria Aued-Pimentel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased marketing of olive oil in Brazil has intensified legal requirements to ensure regulation of this product. The measurement of the specific extinction at 270 nm (E 270 and content of stigmastadiene can be used to assess the presence of refined oils in virgin olive oil. During the vegetable oil refining process, compounds with conjugated double bonds are generated from unsaturated fatty acids that absorb at 270 nm and sterols, such as stigmasta-3,5-diene. To compare these parameters, seven samples of extra virgin olive oil and three samples of olive oil (blend of virgin and refined were analyzed. Among the samples analyzed, four extra virgin samples had levels of stigmastadiene and E 270 higher than expected, among which two were adulterated with seed oil (rich in linoleic acid and the other two with olive pomace oil. The results demonstrate the higher sensitivity of stigmastadiene to determine the presence of the refined oil in virgin olive oil and good agreement with determining E 270. The latter technique is a simple, quick, and low cost method of determination that can be easily implemented in laboratories to assist in the screening and regulation of olive oils sold in Brazil.

  9. Stability studies on refined soybean oil stored in various conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arawande, J.O.; Amoo, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    The 12 months stability study of freshly produced refined soybean oil revealed that refined soybean oil stored in plastic containers in dark was more hydrolytically and oxidatively stable than that stored in other containers in light condition. There was no significant difference at P < 0.05 in free fatty acids and acid value of oil stored under light and dark conditions in tin and glass containers but there was significant difference at P < 0.05 in peroxide value of oil stored in light and dark conditions in all the storage containers. Light increased the degree of oxidative rancidity of refined soybean oil, the most in tin containers, followed by glass containers and the least in plastic containers. (author)

  10. Oil refining in U.S. foreign-trade zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, S.J.; Potter, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    With the crude-oil import supply being as inexpensive as it is today, relative to domestic supply, many independents have been sourcing their crude-oil needs from abroad and have found it an opportune time to step up their level of refining activity. To further enhance their competitive position with respect to foreign refineries, certain domestic refiners have discovered the operational benefits and savings that result from having a refinery designated as a foreign-trade zone (FTZ) under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of 1934, as amended. This paper examines the history and use of foreign-trade subzones for refining activities

  11. Fortum Oil and Gas 2000: Exceptionally high price of crude oil and strong refining margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropponen, V.-M.

    2001-01-01

    Fortum intends to be an active player in the structural reorganization of the oil business by utilizing its niche position in oil refining. Fortum produces sophisticated motor fuel components, which it uses in its reformulated gasolines and sells and exports to other oil companies, even to highly demanding markets in California. The increase in the price of crude oil considerably improved the results of Oil and Gas Upstream. Similarly, an improvement in the refining margin, as well as profitable shipping operations and a strong demand for gasoline components, boosted the results of Oil Refining and Marketing. (orig.)

  12. European oil product supply modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Antonin, V.

    1998-01-01

    Over the last few years, trends in European oil product consumption (in terms of level as structure and quality) has important implications of the refining industry. In this context, the purpose of this thesis consists in building a mathematical programming model applied to the European refineries in order to determine oil product supply prices, European refining industry investments and oil product exchanges of the European Union. The first part presents the reason for our choice for a long-term aggregate multi-refineries linear programming model, based on European refineries characteristics and the objectives of our model. Its dual properties are studied in detail and we focus particularly on the European exchange modelling. In the second part, an analysis of the European refining trends leads us to identify parameters and variables of the model that are essential to the aggregate representation of the European oil product supply. The third part is devoted to the use of this model, regarding two scenarios of increasingly stringent specifications for gasoline and diesel oil. Our interest for these products is due to their important share of the European oil product consumption and the not insignificant responsibility of the transport sector for atmospheric pollution. Finally, in order to have the use of an overall picture of the European refining industry, we build a regression model summarizing, though a few equations, the main relations between the major endogenous and exogenous variables o the LP model. Based on pseudo-data, this kind of model provides a simple and robust representation of the oil product supply. But a more specialized analysis of the refining industry operations, turning on a technical assessment of processing units, is reliant on the use of an optimization model such as the model we have built. (author)

  13. National oil companies' presence to hike US refining competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the downstream segment of the U.S. petroleum business is virtually certain to become more competitive because of the growing presence of national oil companies in the country's refining industry. That's a forecast by New York investment firm Kidder Peabody. It cites a plan by Mexico's Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) to form a joint venture with Shell Oil Co. covering Shell's 225,000 b/d Deer Park, Tex., refinery as the latest example of national oil companies' movement into U.S. refining

  14. Refining fuels of the heavy gas--oil type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzac, J F.A.

    1930-01-28

    This invention has for its object the production of a new type of gas-oil fuel, obtained from crude petroleum, shale oil, and peat oil, according to the method of treatment mentioned, by means of which is obtained from gas oil, shale oil, lignite oil, and peat oil (deprived of asphaltic, and bituminous, resinous, and sulfur compounds), a fuel suitable for running Diesel, Junkers, and Clerget motors and all others of the same kind, by diminishing considerably the fouling and attack on the metal.

  15. Ultrasonic characterization of vegetable oil product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidek Hj Abd Aziz; Chow Sai Pew; Abdul Halim Shaari; Nor Azizah Shaari

    1992-01-01

    The ultrasonic wave velocity and attenuation of a number vegetable oil products were measured using an ultrasonic pulse echo overlap technique from room temperature up to 90 0 C. Among the liquid samples studied were refined bleach deodorized (RED) palm oil, palm olein, coconut oil, corn oil and soya bean oil. The velocity of sound in vegetable oil products varies from about 1200 to 200 ms-1 and decrease linearly as the temperature increases. The ultrasonic properties of the oil are much dependent on their viscosity, density, relaxation effect and vibrational anharmonicity

  16. Assessing corrosion in oil refining and petrochemical processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy C. John

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the development of an information system used to manage corrosion of metals and alloys by high temperature gases found in many different oil refining, petrochemical, power generation, and chemical processes. The database currently represents about 7.9 million h of exposure time for about 5,500 tests with 89 commercial alloys for a temperature range of 200 - 1,200°C. The system manages corrosion data from well-defined exposures and determines corrosion product stabilities. New models used in the analysis of thermochemical data for the Fe-Ni-Cr-Co-C-O-S-N-H system are being compiled. All known phases based upon combinations of the elements have been analyzed to allow complete assessments of corrosion product stabilities. Use of these data allows prediction of stable corrosion products and hence identification of the possible dominant corrosion mechanisms. The system has the potential to be used in corrosion research, alloy development, failure analysis, lifetime prediction, and process operations evaluations. The corrosion mechanisms emphasized are oxidation, sulfidation, sulfidation/oxidation, and carburization.

  17. Production and refining. Increase of Chinese petroleum imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    China produced 156.5 Mt of petroleum in 1996, from which 56 Mt were extracted from the Daqing oil field, exploited since 1960. About 10% of the crude oil comes from offshore fields. Over the 100 Mt refined in 1996, 20 Mt were imported. The Chinese petroleum products demand should increase to 200 Mt/y by the end of the century with respect to 150 Mt/y in 1997. The Dalian refinery, the first Chinese-foreign joint venture, started to work in November 1996 and should reached its full capacity of 100000 b/day in the first quarter of 1997. The Chinese refining activity has now an excess capacity of 206 Mt/y. Several other joint venture projects in petrochemistry are planned in China. Short paper. (J.S.)

  18. Investment in exploration-production and refining 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hureau, Geoffroy; Serbutoviez, Sylvain; Silva, Constancio; Maisonnier, Guy

    2014-11-01

    IFPEN analyses in this study the 2014 evolution of global investment in the field of exploration-production and refining: 1 - Changes in oil and gas prices: General background: weak economy and global disorder, Oil prices: fundamentals that could help to relax oil prices?, Gas prices: fall in Europe, stability in Japan, increase in the US; 2 - Exploration and production - Slowdown in growth: moderate rise in investment in 2014, exploration - Discoveries in 2014, Russia: sanctions will have limited short term impact, implications of the reforms to the Mexican energy sector; 3 - Drilling activity and market throughout the world: onshore and offshore drilling (Number of wells drilled throughout the world, Number of onshore wells, Number of offshore wells, Drilling, equipment and well services markets, Onshore drilling market, Offshore drilling market, Fracking market), Geophysical activity and the geophysical market, Offshore construction activity and the offshore construction market (Offshore construction activities, Rig construction activity, Floating Platform Systems (FPS), Sub-sea constructions, Offshore construction market); 4 - Refining - Significant increase in spending: increase in industrial costs, a slowdown in the increase in excess capacity in the future?, A bleak future for the european refining sector

  19. The refining of soybean oil to optimum quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusell, J.

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of the American Soybean Association is to improve the quality of soybean and related products in Turkey. In order to achieve this, a number of extraction plants and refineries were visited to enable first hand information to be obtained on the type of equipment used in all unit processes, the methodology employed, quality standards and levels of efficiency. The culmination of the visit was a seminar organised jointly by the American Soybean Association and the Turkish Vegetable Oil Association in Istanbul on 22nd September 1989, at which a paper with the above title was presented. A reproduction of this paper is attached which briefly describes the critical areas of soybean oil processing and includes recommendations for quality improvements. It concludes with the comment that provided proper care is taken and optimum refining processes employed, including hydrogenation where appropriate, an impressive range of oils, margarines and shortenings of high quality can ben produced. The author would like to record his grateful thanks to Dr. R. Leysen of the American Soybean Association for all his help and guidance, to Mr. Kenon Marasoglu, Chairman of the Turkish Vegetable Oil Association and to the management and staff of all the factories visited. Acknowledgement is also made to Dr. D. R. Arickson and Mr. L. H. Wiedermann of the American Soybean Association for the use of some technical information from a paper entitled «Soybean Oil-Modern Processing and Utilisation» which is to be published shortly.

    Uno de los objetivos de la Asociación Americana de Soja en Turquía es mejorar la calidad de la soja y de los productos relacionados. En orden a conseguir esto, diversas plantas de extracción y refinerías fueron visitadas para permitir obtener de primera mano información sobre el tipo de equipo usado en todas las unidades de proceso, la metodología empleada, los estándar de calidad y los niveles de eficacia. La

  20. The energy efficiency of crude oil refining in Brazil: A Brazilian refinery plant case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Romulo S. de; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    This article evaluates energy efficiency in Brazilian crude oil refining in comparison with the crude oil refining in the United States between 1930 and 2008. It aims to show that increased refinery complexity reduces the energy consumption of products of high value added. Moreover, the article shows that improvements in energy efficiency result in higher quality products and increased processing of oil. A Brazilian refinery with a capacity of 157,000 barrels per day (kbpd) was modernized in 2008 at a cost of US $1.3 billion. As a result, its capacity increased by 17%, from 157 to 189 kbpd. Its complexity index also rose from 3.2 to 6.8, allowing an improvement in the EII (energy intensity index) from 110% to 93%. In relation to the crude oil processed before being modernized, energy consumption fell from 0.75 to 0.52 MBtu (million British thermal units) per barrel processed. These proceedings show that increases in complexity reduce the energy consumed in the production of final products with high value added, such as gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. -- Highlights: → Increased refinery complexity reduces the energy consumption of products of high value added. → Improvements in refinery energy efficiency result in higher quality products and increased processing of oil. → Brazilian refineries were not affected significantly in the 2008 crisis, such as the US refineries, due to many factors. → The EII of Brazilian refining presents real opportunities for gains through changes in the profile of energy consumed.

  1. Refinery production planning and scheduling: the refining core business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Joly

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent production planning and scheduling are of paramount importance to ensure refinery profitability, logistic reliability and safety at the local and corporate levels. In Brazil, such activities play a particularly critical role, since the Brazilian downstream model is moving towards a demand-driven model rather than a supply-driven one. Moreover, new and specialized non-linear constraints are continuously being incorporated into these large-scale problems: increases in oil prices implying the need for processing poor quality crudes, increasing demand and new demand patterns for petroleum products, new stringent environmental regulations related to clean fuels and start-up of new production technologies embedded into more complex refining schemes. This paper aims at clarifying the central role of refinery planning and scheduling activities in the Petrobras refining business. Major past and present results are outlined and corporate long-term strategies to deal with present and future challenges are presented.

  2. Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oil by Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the potential techniques. The advantages of solvent extraction technique practically offers from environmental and economic points of view have received due attention. In this paper selection of composite solvent and technique to upgrade the used lubricant oil into base oil has been made. The composite solvent 2-propanol, 1-butanol and butanone have two alcohols that make a binary system reasonably effective. This work also attempts to study the performance of the composite solvent in the extraction process for recovering waste lubricating oil. The key parameters considered were vacuum pressure, temperature and the weight ratio of solvent to waste lubricating oil. The performance was investigated on the PSR (Percentage Sludge Removal and POL (Percent Oil Loss. The best results were obtained using composite solvent 25% 2-propanol, 37% 1-butanol and 38% butanone by a solvent to oil ratio of 6:1 at vacuum pressure 600mmHg and distillation temperature 250oC. The vacuum distilled oil pretreated with the composite solvents was matched to the standard base oil 500N and 150N, found in close agreement and could be used for similar purpose.

  3. Developing new markets for oil sands products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a review by Purvin and Gertz of western Canadian crude oil supply. This energy consulting firm provides advise to the energy sector. It suggests that oil sands production will surpass declining conventional production. Oil sands supply includes bitumen, synthetic crude oil (SCO), and diluent. It is forecasted that oil sands will increase from 42 per cent of western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. The potential of Alberta's oil sands was discussed along with a recent study of refined products and petrochemicals from bitumen. Upgrading, refining and petrochemical case studies were presented. The author examined if a Canadian oil sands upgrading project with high capital costs can be competitive with competing projects in the United States and internationally. In addition to supply and demand issues, the presentation examined infrastructure capability and market potential in the United States. The economic potential and risks of preferred business cases compared to upgrading to SCO were also evaluated. 15 figs

  4. Chromatography Analysis of Jatropha Curcas L Oil Raw and Refined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitue de Assuncao Nascimento, Juliano; Lafargue Perez, Francisco; Diaz Velazquez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The chromatography of gases is one of the most versatile methods utilized in the chemical laboratory, which permits the determinations of the percentages and types of fatty acids present in vegetable oils. The objective of this work was to carry out a comparative study of the composition of the fatty acids, of the mechanically extracted oil from the seed of the Jatropha curcas L plant in the raw and refined state, using the data obtained by gas chromatography. The fatty acids of the oil were determined as methylic esteres. The analyst was carried out in a gas chromatographer, with a detector of ionization by way of flame (FID), Agilent 7890A (Agilent, USA) coupled to HP Pentium 4 computer, with a data processing program. The temperatures of the injector and of the detector were 250 °C and 260 °C respectively. The data obtained chromatographically of the oil of Jatropha curcas L, raw and refined indicates that the refinery process did not vary the composition of the fatty acid, because there are no significant differences between them. Also, the results obtained by other investigators, showed that the predominant fatty acids obtained from the oil of the Jatropha curcas L were palmitic and stearic in the saturated fatty acids, and oleic and linoleic in the unsaturated fatty acids

  5. Chromatography analysis of Jatropha Curcas L oil raw and refined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitue de Assuncao Nascimento, Juliano; Lafargue Perez, Francisco; Diaz Velazquez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The chromatography of gases is one of the most versatile methods utilized in the chemical laboratory, which permits the determinations of the percentages and types of fatty acids present in vegetable oils. The objective of this work was to carry out a comparative study of the composition of the fatty acids, of the mechanically extracted oil from the seed of the Jatropha curcas L plant in the raw and refined state, using the data obtained by gas chromatography. The fatty acids of the oil were determined as methylic esteres. The analyst was carried out in a gas chromatographer, with a detector of ionization by way of flame (FID), Agilent 7890A (Agilent, USA) coupled to HP Pentium 4 computer, with a data processing program. The temperatures of the injector and of the detector were 250℃ and 260℃ respectively. The data obtained chromatographically of the oil of Jatropha curcas L, raw and refined indicates that the refinery process did not vary the composition of the fatty acid, because there are no significant differences between them. Also, the results obtained by other investigators, showed that the predominant fatty acids obtained from the oil of the Jatropha curcas L were palmitic and stearic in the saturated fatty acids, and oleic and linoleic in the unsaturated fatty acids

  6. Corrosion problems and solutions in oil refining and petrochemical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Groysman, Alec

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses corrosion problems and their solutions at facilities in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, including cooling water and boiler feed water units. Further, it describes and analyzes corrosion control actions, corrosion monitoring, and corrosion management. Corrosion problems are a perennial issue in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, as they lead to a deterioration of the functional properties of metallic equipment and harm the environment – both of which need to be protected for the sake of current and future generations. Accordingly, this book examines and analyzes typical and atypical corrosion failure cases and their prevention at refineries and petrochemical facilities, including problems with: pipelines, tanks, furnaces, distillation columns, absorbers, heat exchangers, and pumps. In addition, it describes naphthenic acid corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen damages, sulfidic corrosion, microbiologically induced corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion...

  7. Investment in exploration-production and refining 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hureau, Geoffroy; Serbutoviez, Sylvain; Silva, Constancio; Maisonnier, Guy

    2013-10-01

    IFPEN analyses in this study the 2013 evolution of global investment in the field of exploration-production and refining. 1 - Changes in oil and gas prices; 2 - Exploration production: a new year of growth: the increase in investments continues into 2013, exploration - Discoveries in 2013, 1978 - 2012: Investments - Production - Price; 3 - Main markets in the upstream oil equipment and services sector: introduction, drilling (Drilling activity, Number of wells drilled throughout the world, Number of onshore wells, Number of offshore wells, Drilling markets, equipment and services for wells, Onshore drilling market, Offshore drilling market, Fracking market); Geophysical market (Geophysical activity, Geophysical market); Offshore construction (Offshore construction activities, Fixed platforms (Jack-ups), Floating Platform Systems (FPS), Sub-sea constructions, Offshore construction market); Conclusion; 4 - Refining: looking for new equilibriums: falling excess capacity and regional disparities, recovery in capital spending in emerging countries, Asia is still the eldorado for investment in the downstream oil Sector (Continuing overcapacity in the medium-term, Differing investment strategies)

  8. Identification of key oil refining technologies for China National Petroleum Co. (CNPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haiyan; Yu Jianning; Xu Jian; Fan Yu; Bao Xiaojun

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the project 'Vision of the Key Petroleum Refining Technologies for China National Petroleum Co. (CNPC) in the Early 21st Century' undertaken by the Department of R and D Administration, CNPC, and its affiliate key laboratory, The Key Laboratory of Catalysis operated by China University of Petroleum, Beijing. The objective of the project was to identify the challenges and opportunities of CNPC's petroleum refining business given increasing economy globalization and stricter environmental regulations. Using the modified Delphi method, four key technologies for CNPC's oil refining industry were identified. They are: integrated fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), hydroprocessing, residue hydrocracking, and high-grade lubricant production. The most significant technology will be the integrated FCC technology that can economically increase the yield of light fractions as well as upgrade transportation fuels. In China, FCC units produce about 80% and 30% commercial gasoline and diesel, respectively. To ensure compliance with future environmental legislation, hydroprocessing technologies, including those related to petroleum product hydrorefining and distillate hydrocracking, should be developed. By combining residue hydrocracking and FCC technologies, poorer quality residua can be processed. Supplying high-grade lube oils is one of the main tasks for CNPC's oil refining industry. Development of hydrodewaxing technologies to manufacture API group II/III base oil is the main direction for CNPC's lubricant production business

  9. 30 CFR 208.4 - Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners. 208.4... MANAGEMENT SALE OF FEDERAL ROYALTY OIL General Provisions § 208.4 Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners. (a... and defense. The Secretary will review these items and will determine whether eligible refiners have...

  10. Economics of Russian oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubenko, I.

    1993-01-01

    The main technical indicators of oil production in Russia are presented from the year 1988, when the current decline in oil production started. In 1992, only 9 new oil deposits were put into production, and average well productivity dropped to 12.4 tonnes/d. The number of idle wells reached 31,934 as compared to 8,714 in 1988. The share of low productivity deposits in 1993 was 49.7%. In the first five months of 1993, the number of new wells put into operation failed to offset the shutdown of old wells. Although the number of workovers grew by 32%, this work was insufficient to stabilize oil production. The decline in production is due to the general state of economic stability and endless reorganizations in the economy, and to the lack of sufficient investment in the industry. Oil-producing enterprises have lacked funds due to systematic and growing indebtedness of buyers of crude. This overdue indebtedness reached 393 billion rubles by the beginning of 1993. Although domestic oil prices increased sharply in 1991-92, the volume of production in real terms has dropped by nearly a third. Oil is sold at different prices to different categories of buyers. Prices include expenses, profit from which a 32% profits tax is paid, excise taxes, and payments to a centralized price-regulation fund. From the industry point of view, certain reforms are necessary to reconstruct and develop the industry. These include ensuring payments to oil producers, gradual transfer of Russian prices to world levels, lowering taxes, and adoption and refinement of a law on oil. 1 fig., 7 tabs

  11. Simulation of thin-film deodorizers in palm oil refining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceriani, Roberta; Meirelles, Antonio J.A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    As the need for healthier fats and oils (natural vitamin and trans fat contents) and interest in biofuels are growing, many changes in the world's vegetable oil market are driving the oil industry to developing new technologies and recycling traditional ones. Computational simulation is widely used...... in the chemical and petrochemical industries as a tool for optimization and design of (new) processes, but that is not the case for the edible oil industry. Thin-film deodorizers are novel equipment developed for steam deacidification of vegetable oils, and no work on the simulation of this type of equipment...... could be found in the open literature. This paper tries to fill this gap by presenting results from the study of the effect of processing variables, such as temperature, pressure and percentage of stripping steam, in the final quality of product (deacidified palm oil) in terms of final oil acidity...

  12. Recent developments, new trends in seed crushing and oil refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kővári Katalin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil processing was considered as slowly changing “traditional” industry but the recent decades’ developments and trends resulted in a lot of changes initiated by market, industry, environment protection and consumer needs. Driving force of the developments were centralization of the industry, more and more concerns on environmental impact, increased importance of food-feed safety, and last but not least research and development activity together with improved analytical capabilities. The presentation gives an overview on the results achieved on the field of the following areas: the criteria of applicability of physical refining of seed oils, solutions for proper degumming, the effect of seed pretreatment and crushing conditions on the crude oil quality, the importance and role of bleaching and active carbon treatment, the proper practice of deacidification/deodorization.

  13. Recovery of Spent Bleaching Earth From Palm Oil Refining Using Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Azillah Fatimah Othman; Tuan Amran Tuan Abdullah; Nor Azillah Fatimah Othman; Nor Azwin Shukri; Selambakkanu, S.; Siti Fatahiyah Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Acid activated calcium montmorillonite clay or commonly referred to as bleaching clays is one type of clay used in physical refining of palm oil and it is prioritized in removing a variety of undesirable impurities which would otherwise impart colour, odour and taste to the refined product. Used-up bleaching clays or known as Spent Bleaching Earth (SBE) is considered as industrial waste and commonly dispose without any pretreatment. SBE usually contains considerable quantities of entrained oil that is quantified approximately to 30 to 40 %. The residual oil in these principal solid waste products can rapidly oxidize to the point of spontaneous ignition as a result of clay-catalyzed auto-oxidation reactions. Due to this fact, the disposal of SBE has become an environmental problem and pretreatment of SBE is very important. There are several studies on the residual oil removal from the SBE using heat treatment. Radiation generated from electron beam accelerator can supply high energy to break the C-C and C-H bond. It is expected that the removal of hydrocarbon will occurs at high rate compared to conventional heating. This research proposes the use of radiation on the recovery of SBE from palm oil refining waste. Evaluation of radiation effect on properties of SBE will be conducted to study the effectiveness of using radiation in the purification process. Finally, the material produced will be evaluated and characterized for regeneration and reuse purpose. (author)

  14. The effect of refining step on the changes in viscosity values of vegetable oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergonul, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the viscosity values of chemically refined vegetable oils (sunflower, corn, soybean and rapeseed) and physically refined vegetable oils (olive and palm) were determined during refining processes. At this point of view, fatty acid compositions and viscosity values of oil samples were determined. The edible vegetable oils presented Newtonian behavior in shear rates at ranges 6.28-20.93 s/sup -1/. It was observed that palm oil is more viscous than the others. During physical refining, the effect of both oil type and refining steps were significantly important, whereas in chemical refining only the effect of oil type was found statistically important (p<0.01). It was observed that correlation among fatty acid compositions and viscosity values of the samples showed differences according to oil type. (author)

  15. Science, technology and environmental demands: innovations in oil refining process; Ciencia, tecnologia e demandas ambientais: inovacoes nos processos de refino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Adalberto Mantovani Martiniano de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Programa de Pos-graduacao do Departamento de Politica Cientifica e Tecnologica

    2003-07-01

    This paper consists in a survey about changes in oil refining technologies caused by an increase of external environmental restrictions, that create demands for innovations related to the reduction of environmental impacts in refining processes and products. The environmental restrictions considered in this paper include state regulation, like the control over solid and gas wastes and the control over levels of air pollutants on refined products. Another group of restrictions include market restrictions, mainly the restrictions for obtaining 'green' quality labels, like ISO 14000. The paper will show the main environmental restrictions for the Paulinia Refinery (REPLAN), and its reaction in introducing innovations in refining processes. Some aspects of the innovations observed will be described, like the kind of innovation (process or product), the institutions that created innovations and their resources, the knowledge fields applied, and another characteristics for the evaluation of environmental influence over the development on oil refining innovations. (author)

  16. Procurement planning in oil refining industries considering blending operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddsdottir, Thordis Anna; Grunow, Martin; Akkerman, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses procurement planning in oil refining, which has until now only had limited attention in the literature. We introduce a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model and develop a novel two-stage solution approach, which aims at computational efficiency while addressing...... parameters than in previous literature. The developed approach is tested using historical data from Statoil A/S as well as through a comprehensive numerical analysis. The approach generates a feasible procurement plan within acceptable computation time, is able to quickly adjust an existing plan to take...

  17. Thermal properties and burning efficiency of crude oils and refined fuel oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Alva, Wilson Ulises Rojas; Mindykowski, Pierrick Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The thermal properties and burning efficiencies of fresh and weathered crude oils and a refined fuel oil were studied in order to improve the available input data for field ignition systems for the in-situ burning of crude oil on water. The time to ignition, surface temperature upon ignition, heat......-cooled holder for a cone calorimeter under incident heat fluxes of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kW/m2. The results clearly showed that the weathered oils were the hardest to ignite, with increased ignition times and critical heat fluxes of 5-10 kW/m2. Evaporation and emulsification were shown...

  18. Unilever food safety assurance system for refined vegetable oils and fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Duijn Gerrit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Unilever Food Safety Assurance system for refined oils and fats is based on risk assessments for the presence of contaminants or pesticide residues in crude oils, and refining process studies to validate the removal of these components. Crude oil risk assessments were carried out by combining supply chain visits, and analyses of the contaminant and pesticide residue levels in a large number of crude oil samples. Contaminants like poly-aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons of mineral origin, and pesticide residues can largely be removed by refining. For many years, this Food Safety Assurance System has proven to be effective in controlling contaminant levels in refined vegetable oils and fats.

  19. 78 FR 20176 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... renewable electricity production, refined coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45... resources, and to 2013 sales of refined coal and Indian coal produced in the United States or a possession...

  20. 77 FR 21835 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... electricity production, refined coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45. DATES: The 2012... sales of refined coal and Indian coal produced in the United States or a possession thereof. Inflation...

  1. Penetuan Bilangan Iodin pada Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (HPKO) dan Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (RBDPKO)

    OpenAIRE

    Sitompul, Monica Angelina

    2015-01-01

    Have been conducted Determination of Iodin Value by method titration to some Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (HPKO) and Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (RBDPKO). The result of analysis obtained the Iodin Value in Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (A) = 0,16 gr I2/100gr, Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (B) = 0,20 gr I2/100gr, Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (C) = 0,24 gr I2/100gr. And in Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (A) = 17,51 gr I2/100gr, Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel ...

  2. Methods of refining natural oils, and methods of producing fuel compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.

    2015-10-27

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent that comprises nitric acid; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  3. China expands refining sector to handle booming oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    China's refining sector is in the midst of a major expansion and reorganization in response to booming domestic demand for petroleum products. Plans call for hiking crude processing capacity to 3.9 million b/d in 1995 from the current 3.085 million b/d. Much of that 26% increase will come where the products demand growth is the strongest: China's coastal provinces, notably those in the southeast. Despite the demand surge, China's refineries operated at only 74% of capacity in 1991, and projections for 1992 weren't much better. Domestic crude supply is limited because of Beijing's insistence on maintaining crude export levels, a major source of hard currency foreign exchange. The paper discusses the superheated demand; exports and imports; the refining infrastructure; the Shenzhen refinery; Hong Kong demand; southeast coast demand; 1993 plans; and foreign investment

  4. Asia-Pacific region's oil demand growth strains refining capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The rapidly industrializing Asia-Pacific region has become a stand-alone economic force and the world's growth market for oil. Japan remains the region's premier economic powerhouse but no longer its only one. And Asia-Pacific economic fortunes have decoupled from the more-mature economies of Europe and the U.S. The East-West Center, Honolulu, in January projected Asia-Pacific average oil demand growth of 3.6%/year through 1999, nearly double what most economists expect for oil demand growth worldwide. Demand reached 14.5 million b/d in 1992, up 862,000 b/d from 1991. East-West Center analysts project demand of 16.4 million b/d in 1995 and 19.1 million b/d by 2000. Not all analysts expect such rapid growth for the region. Edward N. Krapels, president of Energy Security Analysis Inc., Washington, D.C., told a seminar in Houston during March that demand in Southeast Asia will grow at an average of 500,000 b/d/year. The paper discusses economic strength; regional demand; the pressure on refining; the shortfall seen; an opposing view from the Energy Security Analysis; and construction activity

  5. Middle East oil refining in the World context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Gilbert

    1998-01-01

    The building of new refining capacity in the Middle East which will operate in the early part of the next century will be the decision of just a few men. They will include the heads of the state petroleum agencies in Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia and the CEOs of BP, Exxon and Shell. They will not want for advice from their corporate planners and external consultants, but the key decisions will be in the hands of just a few people. There is nothing new in this decision-making process. The oil consuming countries will react in a similar way to their common environment. In a paper such as this, it is possible to examine the present environment and to extrapolate that environment into the next decade. This is what planners and forecasters are doing everywhere in the petroleum industry. (author)

  6. Local Refinement of the Super Element Model of Oil Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Mazo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a two-stage method for petroleum reservoir simulation. The method uses two models with different degrees of detailing to describe hydrodynamic processes of different space-time scales. At the first stage, the global dynamics of the energy state of the deposit and reserves is modeled (characteristic scale of such changes is km / year. The two-phase flow equations in the model of global dynamics operate with smooth averaged pressure and saturation fields, and they are solved numerically on a large computational grid of super-elements with a characteristic cell size of 200-500 m. The tensor coefficients of the super-element model are calculated using special procedures of upscaling of absolute and relative phase permeabilities. At the second stage, a local refinement of the super-element model is constructed for calculating small-scale processes (with a scale of m / day, which take place, for example, during various geological and technical measures aimed at increasing the oil recovery of a reservoir. Then we solve the two-phase flow problem in the selected area of the measure exposure on a detailed three-dimensional grid, which resolves the geological structure of the reservoir, and with a time step sufficient for describing fast-flowing processes. The initial and boundary conditions of the local problem are formulated on the basis of the super-element solution. This approach allows us to reduce the computational costs in order to solve the problems of designing and monitoring the oil reservoir. To demonstrate the proposed approach, we give an example of the two-stage modeling of the development of a layered reservoir with a local refinement of the model during the isolation of a water-saturated high-permeability interlayer. We show a good compliance between the locally refined solution of the super-element model in the area of measure exposure and the results of numerical modeling of the whole history of reservoir

  7. Effect of Refining Processes on Magnitude and Nature of Malathion and Carbofuran Residues in Cotton Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Farghaly, M.; Mahdy, F.

    2005-01-01

    Cotton seeds obtained from 14 C-carbofuran or 14 C-malathion-treated plants contained 0.25% and 0.11% of the originally applied radioactivity, respectively. The concentration of malathion residues in oil, methanol soluble and in the seed cake amounted to 0.94, 2.6 and 1.7 ppm, respectively. Commercial processing procedures led to a gradual decrease in the total amount of 14 C-residues in oils with aged residues as well as in oil fortified with the radiolabelled insecticides. The refined oil contained only about 20% of the 14 C-residues originally present. The major residue in processed oil contained malathion, malathion monocarboxylic acid and alpha-(O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithio)-propionic acid. The concentration of 14 C-carbofuran residues in cotton seed oil, methanol extract and cake was 1.7, 12.3 and 2.4 ppm, respectively. The main residues in the oil were carbofuran and its phenol. The methanol solubles contained conjugated metabolites, which upon hydrolysis gave 3-hydroxy-carbofuran as a major product. Refinement reduced the residue in oil to 0.26 ppm. The residue in refined oil contained carbofuran and carbofuran phenol as main constituents together with smaller amounts of 3-hydroxy- and 3-keto carbofuran

  8. Creating a simplified model of oil refining and solution of the model using a linear programming method. Part 1, Model presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duric, M; Novakovic, M; Stojkanovic, L

    1983-01-01

    Based on a detailed analysis of technological limitations in oil refining at an oil refinery (NPZ) in the separation of petroleum products, specifications with regard to quality and market limitations, a general model is created of oil refining. The number of actual variables is reduced to a minimum, while the number of linear limitations is adapted to the selected technology and raw material quality. The nonlinearity of certain characteristics is overcome using the so called movement factor.

  9. Investment in Exploration-Production and Refining - 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, Guy; Hureau, Geoffroy; Serbutoviez, Sylvain; Silva, Constancio

    2018-01-01

    more accessible multi-client surveys. This environment forced a reconfiguration of the sector through mergers and acquisitions. Will refining projects start to increase, and halt the declines seen over the past four years? This is a question worth asking. Factors that favor investment in new projects include (1) the growing demand for oil products, whose center of gravity has shifted in recent years from industrialized countries to emerging markets, (2) margins that remain solid, (3) low industrial costs, and lastly (4) a reviving global economy. Tightening fuel standards, various rehabilitation programs, modernization and growth within the sector also create opportunities for investment, especially in regions with high demand. Despite the uncertainties - changing demand for oil products, margin volatility, rising industrial costs - the investment outlook remains intriguing

  10. Enzymatic Biodiesel Synthesis Using a Byproduct Obtained from Palm Oil Refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Nascentes dos Santos Corrêa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative route to produce biodiesel is based on esterification of free fatty acids present in byproducts obtained from vegetable oil refining, such as palm oil fatty acid distillate (PFAD. PFAD is a byproduct of the production of edible palm oil, which contains 96 wt.% of free fatty acids. The purpose of this work was to study biodiesel synthesis via esterification of PFAD with methanol and ethanol, catalyzed by commercial immobilized lipases (Novozym 435, Lipozyme RM-IM, and Lipozyme TL-IM, in a solvent-free system. The effects of reaction parameters such as type of lipase, enzyme amount, type of alcohol, alcohol amount, and enzyme reuse were studied. Fatty acid conversion of 93% was obtained after 2.5 h of esterification reaction between PFAD and ethanol using 1.0 wt.% of Novozym 435 at 60°C.

  11. Cold pressed versus refined winterized corn oils: quality, composition and aroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydeniz Güneşer, B.; Yılmaz, E.; Ok, S.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize and compare cold pressed and fully refined winterized corn oils. Free fatty acidity (FFA), peroxide (PV) and p-anisidin (p-AV) values, saponification number, total carotenoid and phenolic contents of cold pressed corn oils were higher than that of the refined winterized corn oils. Linoleic and oleic acids (approximately 53-54% and 30-31%, respectively) were detected as the major fatty acids in both oil samples. Fifteen different sterols with a majority of β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol were quantified in both oil samples. Although phenolic compounds were not quantified in the refined winterized oil samples, some flavonoids (hesperidin, rutin) and phenolic acids (gallic, syringic, rosmaniric and trans-ferulic) were detected in the cold pressed oil samples. This study concludes that cold pressed corn oils could be superior in terms of bioactive compounds but still need some quality improvements for sensory attributes. [es

  12. Bioremediation of petroleum wastes from the refining of lubricant oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, M.; Sambasivam, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The results of an initial feasibility study on the bioremediation of sludge are presented. The sludge used in the study was taken from a site containing waste produced during the refining of lubricant oils to which sulfuric acid had been added. The effectiveness of bioremediation was examined using shake flask experiments with indigenous and other bacteria sources and nutrient supplementation. The initial results show limited effectiveness of biological treatment at conditions employing indigenous bacteria and low (2%) sludge concentrations in Bushnell-Haas media. In addition, the indigenous bacteria were seen to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons naphthalene, penanthrene and pyrene which are present at some locations at the site. No apparent degradation of material was seen using conditions of high (30%) sludge concentrations in Bushnell-Haas medium under a variety of conditions. In addition, nutrients were rapidly depleted at these sludge concentrations, with the exception of sulfates which were produced when high sludge concentrations were used. 23 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Nanotechnologies in oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alieva, M.K; Kazimov, F.K.; Ismailov, E.

    2010-01-01

    Extraction of remaining, laboriously developed oil reserves at the last stage of development of deposits require drastically improved methods of oil recovery. From this point of view it is more expedient to apply high-tech nanotechnologies. Application of metal nanoparticles in solutions consisting of conventional reagents (deemulgators, SAA and etc.) allows to improve their rheology considerably to increase permaibility and washing of highly viscous components from the smallest pores. Thus, nanofluids influence layer system on atomic-molecular-ionic level which will lead to a complex synergetic effect from the application of nanotechnologies in oil and gas production.

  14. Aviation fuel and future oil production scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, Emma; Aleklett, Kjell; Hoeoek, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    Most aviation fuels are jet fuels originating from crude oil. Crude oil must be refined to be useful and jet fuel is only one of many products that can be derived from crude oil. Jet fuel is extracted from the middle distillates fraction and competes, for example, with the production of diesel. Crude oil is a limited natural resource subject to depletion and several reports indicate that the world's crude oil production is close to the maximum level and that it will start to decrease after reaching this maximum. A post-Kyoto political agenda to reduce oil consumption will have the same effect on aviation fuel production as a natural decline in the crude oil production. On the other hand, it is predicted by the aviation industry that aviation traffic will keep on increasing. The industry has put ambitious goals on increases in fuel efficiency for the aviation fleet. Traffic is predicted to grow by 5% per year to 2026, fuel demand by about 3% per year. At the same time, aviation fuel production is predicted to decrease by several percent each year after the crude oil production peak is reached resulting in a substantial shortage of jet fuel by 2026. The aviation industry will have a hard time replacing this with fuel from other sources, even if air traffic remains at current levels.

  15. Efficiency of the refining processes in removing 14C-dichlorvos residues in soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Crude soybean oil extracted from grains treated with 14 C-dichlorvos at a dose 24 mg insecticide / kg seeds and stored for 30 weeks was subjected to different refining processes such as alkali treatment, bleaching, winterization and deodorization. The effect of the refining processes on the nature and magnitude of the originally present residues was investigated. The insecticide residues in crude oil and cake amounted to 9.5% and 55% , respectively, of original residues inside the seeds. Extraction of the seeds with hexane gave crude oil with 9.5 % of original residues in seeds. The l4 C-activity in the crude stored Soya beans oil could be reduced by about 82% of radioactivity originally present in crude oil eliminated by simulated commercial processes locally used for oil refining. A high percentage of the residues (50-55%) were eliminated during alkali treatment and bleaching. Refining of soybeans oil fortified with '1 4 C-dichlorovos. The final refined oil had only 13% of the radioactivity originally present, mainly in the form of dichlorvos, dimethyl and monomethyl phosphate in addition to desmethyl dichlorvos in oil with aged residues

  16. Proceedings of the 5. NCUT upgrading and refining conference 2009 : bitumen, synthetic crude oil and heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This conference examined various upgrading technologies related to bitumen production. It provided a forum to review new developments to exploit oil sands bitumen and extra heavy crudes in terms of production, upgrading and environmental issues facing the industry. This 2009 conference focused on the many existing and emerging technical solutions that will help consolidate the position of the vast reserves in Western Canada as a sustainable source of crudes for North America and other selected markets. Some of the technical challenges that have an effect on upgrading include poor quality bitumen and heavy oils; bitumen and diluent blending; pipeline issues; desalting; fouling and corrosion; high costs; dependence on natural gas for energy; poor middle distillates; and greenhouse gas emissions. The sessions of the conference were entitled: heavy oil and bitumen upgrading technologies; secondary upgrading and refining technologies; bitumen transportation; and bitumen and heavy oil processability. The conference featured a total of 50 presentations and posters, of which 43 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  17. Carcinogenicity of petroleum lubricating oil distillates: effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, and blending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, C A; Warne, T M; Little, R Q; Garvin, P J

    1984-01-01

    Certain refining processes were investigated to determine their influence on the dermal carcinogenic activity of petroleum-derived lubricating oil distillates. Specifically, the effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, a combination of both processes, and the blending of oils processed using each technique were evaluated in standard mouse skin-painting bioassays. The refining process used as well as the level or severity of treatment greatly influenced the carcinogenic outcome of processed lubricating oils. Solvent refining at severities normally used appeared to eliminate carcinogenicity. In contrast, hydroprocessing alone at mild levels of treatment was successful only in reducing the carcinogenic potency; severe hydroprocessing conditions were necessary to eliminate carcinogenic activity without the use of additional refining processes. Carcinogenic activity could also be eliminated by following moderate solvent refining with mild hydroprocessing. Blending of hydroprocessed oils with solvent-refined oils resulted in a substantial reduction or even elimination of carcinogenic activity. However, the degree of protection obtained varied with the particular distillates used and appeared largely dependent on the inherent biological activity of the hydroprocessed oil.

  18. Bioremediation of petrochemical sludge from oil refining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, M.J.; Sambasivam, Yasodha

    1991-01-01

    Petroleum refineries have historically produced large quantities of hydrocarbon sludge as a waste product. A common past practice for disposal of this material was to deposit it in open pits. These hazardous waste sites now require remediation to meet current environmental regulations. This report will present data from a feasibility study on bioremediation for one such site. Data will be presented on the characteristics and composition of the crude sludge including organic analysis by GC/MS techniques, loss on ignition, TOC pH, oil and grease levels, metals content by atomic adsorption and bacteria plate counts. The effectiveness of bioremediation will be examined using data from shaker flask studies with indigenous and other bacteria sources. Key parameters being monitored will include toxicity using a Microtox assay, oil and grease levels, and the concentration of individual chemical species using GC/MS analysis. Biological data such as bacteria growth rates and nutrient uptake rates will also be presented and compared to biodegradation rates

  19. Investment in exploration-production and refining 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hureau, Geoffroy; Serbutoviez, Sylvain; Silva, Constancio; Maisonnier, Guy

    2012-10-01

    2012 has been marked by uncertainty and contrasts. In Europe, the debt crisis has threatened the economic stability of the entire Euro-zone. This has had consequences for other countries in the European Union as well. World economic growth is increasingly sluggish. This is affecting industrialised countries first and foremost, as well as a number of emerging countries - albeit to a lesser degree. Political and social stability has not yet returned to those countries that were affected by the Arab spring, with the region covered by North Africa and the Middle East still very vulnerable. The wave of revolutions in this region has been followed by international tension over Iran's growing nuclear capability, and its regular threats to blockade the Strait of Hormuz - through which a significant percentage of the world's petroleum passes. Economic, financial and geopolitical uncertainty has a tendency to drive oil prices up or push them down, creating a highly fluctuating oil market. Prices remain high overall, because of all the geopolitical uncertainty. The exponential growth of shale gas initially, and then tight oil over the last few years in the US, are dramatically transforming the landscape and have significantly changed our way of thinking about the oil and gas sector in the medium term. The increasing use of shale gas is accentuating the contrast between the world's three main gas markets - North America, Europe and Asia - and is challenging received wisdom about how international gas flows are changing. The word 'contrast' also springs to mind when looking into how investment in hydrocarbons has changed, with an upstream sector that is flourishing and a downstream sector that is treading water. In spite of the uncertain economic context, investment in exploration-production is still increasing at a healthy rate, with activity reaching record levels in all areas. The decline in activity of 2009/2010 now seems a long way off. As far as

  20. Glycidyl fatty acid esters in refined edible oils: A review on formation, occurrence, analysis, and elimination methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glycidyl fatty acid esters (GEs), one of the main contaminants in processed oil, are mainly formed during the deodorization step in the oil refining process of edible oils and therefore occur in almost all refined edible oils. GEs are potential carcinogens, due to the fact that they hydrolyze into t...

  1. Palm oil based polyols for acrylated polyurethane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Mek Zah Salleh; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Rosley Che Ismail

    2006-01-01

    Palm oil becomes important renewable resources for the production of polyols for the polyurethane manufacturing industry. The main raw materials used for the production of acrylated polyurethane are polyols, isocyanates and hydroxyl terminated acrylate compounds. In these studies, polyurethane based natural polymer (palm oil), i.e., POBUA (Palm Oil Based Urethane Acrylate) were prepared from three different types of palm oil based polyols i.e., epoxidised palm oil (EPOP), palm oil oleic acid and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein based polyols. The performances of these three acrylated polyurethanes when used for coatings and adhesives were determined and compared with each other. (Author)

  2. Neural networks applied to characterize blends containing refined and extra virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca-Santos, Regina; Cancilla, John C; Pariente, Enrique S; Torrecilla, José S

    2016-12-01

    The identification and quantification of binary blends of refined olive oil with four different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varietals (Picual, Cornicabra, Hojiblanca and Arbequina) was carried out with a simple method based on combining visible spectroscopy and non-linear artificial neural networks (ANNs). The data obtained from the spectroscopic analysis was treated and prepared to be used as independent variables for a multilayer perceptron (MLP) model. The model was able to perfectly classify the EVOO varietal (100% identification rate), whereas the error for the quantification of EVOO in the mixtures containing between 0% and 20% of refined olive oil, in terms of the mean prediction error (MPE), was 2.14%. These results turn visible spectroscopy and MLP models into a trustworthy, user-friendly, low-cost technique which can be implemented on-line to characterize olive oil mixtures containing refined olive oil and EVOOs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A new concept for product refining in the Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrich, E.; Bauder, U.; Marquardt, R.

    1986-01-01

    In actual Purex plants the products are refined in additional solvent extraction cycles. Crystallization of uranyl and plutonyl nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solution is proposed as a potentially simpler product refining concept. Suitable crystallization conditions are being investigated in the laboratory using simulated and actual process solutions. A thorough removal of mother liquor is an essential purification step and well washed crystals usually contain less than 1% of an individual impurity. Crystallization simultaneously comprises a product concentration step. Hexavalent uranium can be separated from lower-valent plutonium. An outline of an integrated processing concept is given. Product refining by crystallization is compact; recycling of mother liquor plus wash acid prevents product loss and the generation of additional waste streams. (orig.) [de

  4. Calendula oil processing : seed classification, oil extraction, refining process development and oil quality aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, R.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The difference in Calendula oil quality from fractions obtained after seed classification is enormous. The oil quality varies from excellent to very poor, according to important aspects such as in the hulls and dust fraction, high free fatty acid values (13% vs. 0.6%) are found. This can be

  5. Production of synthetic hydrocarbon lube oil from highly waxy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Q; Ding, Z; Zheng, Sh; Wu, W

    1980-01-01

    A feasible way to utilize the low value soft wax is to convert it into synthetic hydrocarbon lube oil by thermal cracking/polymerization route. The first commercial plant for this purpose has been in normal operation since 1970. It has been proved to be economically sound. The antioxidant response of the product polymer oil can be distinctly improved by hydro-refining. It has been found that the vacuum gas oil from highly waxy crude with or without furfural refining can be used as cracking stock. If high viscosity index polymer oil is desired, it is better to use slack wax as the cracking stock.

  6. Refining of wax-containing oil by distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1930-04-28

    A continuous method is disclosed for producing low cold test oil from wax-containing mineral oil, which comprises continuously heating the oil in a tubular heater with avoidance of cracking, and fractionating the resulting liquid and vapor in a fractionating tower with reflux to produce a wax-containing fraction having therein substantially all of the amorphous wax and being sufficiently free of crystalline wax so as to be waxable by a method suitable for the removal of amorphous wax.

  7. A Simple Refining Technique of Coconut Oil for Small Holder Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Triyono

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple refining equipment and process for small holder industries of edible coconut oil has beeninvestigated. The equipment consisted of 20-L filtering and NaOH neutralization bottles. Filtration wasintended to remove impurities such as gums and pigment, while neutralization was to remove free fattyacids (FFA and other non-fat materials. In the experiment, the crude coconut oil was found to have impurityof 0.16%, FFA of 8.02%, saponification number of 270, and water content of 0.33%. The results showed thateither granular activated carbon (GAC or zeolite filtration can be chosen individually to remove physicalimpurity. The GAC or zeolite-filtered coconut oil contained impurity less than the SNI standard of 0.05%.In term of FFA; however, the NaOH neutralized coconut oil did not meet the SNI standard of 0.3%. AfterNaOH neutralization, the GAC filtered oil contained 1.20% FFA; while the zeolite filtered oil contained1.32%. These FFA contents were definitely higher than the SNI standard, but could satisfy APCC standardfor grade IV coconut oil which is 5%. The refined coconut oils could also satisfy the SNI standard ofsaponification number which is 196 – 206 at minimum. In term of water content, either the filtered or theneutralized oil could also satisfy the SNI standard of 0.3%. In short, the proposed technique could helpfarmers refine their raw coconut oil, and hopefully improve its marketability.

  8. Oil production system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, J F

    1983-12-21

    A new oil producing system is proposed which consists of a group of underwater wells, an underwater riser and a floating storage facility for the production of the wells. The group of wells and the riser are interconnected through a manifold system in such a way that the production from any well or from the entire group of wells go to the base (foundation) of the riser. From above the riser is connected with the floating storage facility which is equipped, besides tanks for storing the well products, with a separation device for separating the oil and the accompanying gas. The gas is used as a fuel for producing electric power required by the dynamic positioning systems. The products from each well are tested by means of a regulable coupling controlled by means of a cable, which is passed from the surface through the riser. The wellhead equipment for the unslanted wells is mounted on a template previously installed on the sea floor. From the template the well products enter the riser through the manifold unit system.

  9. Identification of vegetable oil botanical speciation in refined vegetable oil blends using an innovative combination of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Maria Teresa; Haughey, Simon A; Elliott, Christopher T; Koidis, Anastasios

    2015-12-15

    European Regulation 1169/2011 requires producers of foods that contain refined vegetable oils to label the oil types. A novel rapid and staged methodology has been developed for the first time to identify common oil species in oil blends. The qualitative method consists of a combination of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to profile the oils and fatty acid chromatographic analysis to confirm the composition of the oils when required. Calibration models and specific classification criteria were developed and all data were fused into a simple decision-making system. The single lab validation of the method demonstrated the very good performance (96% correct classification, 100% specificity, 4% false positive rate). Only a small fraction of the samples needed to be confirmed with the majority of oils identified rapidly using only the spectroscopic procedure. The results demonstrate the huge potential of the methodology for a wide range of oil authenticity work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cooperation needed for securing Japan's imports of refined products from neighbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Yasuo; Ogawa, Yoshike

    1996-01-01

    As of April 1996, Japan repealed the Provisional Law on Importation of Specified Petroleum Products (Plispp), thus further freeing imports from regulation. Since the dawn of the 1990s, Asia has suffered an imbalance of soaring oil demand and lack of refining capacity. In addition, to intraregional trade, product imports from outside the region, such as the US West Coast and the Mediterranean Sea, have expanded. Given such conditions in Asia, as well as japan's stringent product specifications for environmental reasons, potential exporters of the three specified products (gasoline, diesel, and kerosene) in Asia should virtually be limited to the Republic of Korea (ROK), Taiwan, and Singapore. This study is designed to make an in-depth examination of the current and future supply/demand and trade for refined products of the three countries with respect to Japan's potential import needs

  11. A Comparative Study on Formation of Polar Components, Fatty Acids and Sterols during Frying of Refined Olive Pomace Oil Pure and Its Blend Coconut Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hammouda, Ibtissem; Triki, Mehdi; Matthäus, Bertrand; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2018-04-04

    The frying performance of pure refined olive-pomace oil (ROPO) and blended with refined coconut oil (RCO) (80:20) was compared during a frying operation of French fries at 180 °C. Blending polyunsaturated oils with highly saturated or monounsaturated oils has been studied extensively, however in literature there is no study has been reported so far on blending ROPO (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids) with RCO (rich in saturated fatty acids) to formulate new frying oils. At the end of the frying process, the blend of ROPO/RCO exhibited a higher chemical stability than the pure ROPO based on total polar compounds (TPC), and polymers. The rate of TPC formation was achieved 23.3% and 30.6% for the blend and the pure oil, respectively. Trans and free fatty acids content, as well as anisidine value were also observed to be the highest in the pure ROPO. This study evaluated the frying performance in the search for appropriate frying oils to deliver healthy fried products with optimized nutritional qualities.

  12. Whither Alberta's oil production?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, R.A.; Dick, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    It is demonstrated how a combination of old theory (decline methods and statistics) and new technology (computer graphics) can enhance decline-curve forecasts for multi-well groupings. Production and well-count forecasts are presented for four different sized groups of aggregate production. The four examples are: the small Manville pool; the Pembina Cardium, Alberta's largest oil pool; an aggregate of all reef pools of Keg River age; and an aggregate of all wells reporting conventional oil production in the province of Alberta. In each case graphical results show the historical and forecast trends for the statistical distribution of well rates, the median well rate, the aggregated rate, and the number of producing wells. It is concluded that well rate distributions for groups ranging from 15 wells in a single pool to thousands of wells in hundreds of pools are all approximately lognormal. Lognormal well rate distributions and Lorenz graphs provide qualitative and quantitative assessments of a resource base. Decline curves for the median well rate can reveal trends masked in the aggregated rate by changing well count, operating practice and degradation of the resource base. The number of producing wells in Alberta has grown from ca 9000 in 1970 to ca 24,000 in 1988, has remained constant from 1988-1990, and will start to decline as the number of suspended or abandoned wells exceeds the number of new completions. 3 refs., 13 figs., 4 figs

  13. 75 FR 18015 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Philip... Coal, and Indian Coal:'', Line 26, the language ``is 2.15 cents per kilowatt hour on the'' is corrected...

  14. The oil industry in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2007: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  15. The oil industry in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2006: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  16. Scientific Opinion on the safety of refined Buglossoides oil as a novel food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    . With the exceptions of SDA and GLA, these FAs are widely present in common foods. The NFI is intended to be used in a range of foods and food supplements to provide approximately 200 mg of SDA per day. Upon digestion, FAs are used primarily as an energy source. ALA and SDA can be elongated and desaturated to produce......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on refined Buglossoides oil as a novel food ingredient (NFI) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The NFI is produced from the seeds...... eicosapentaenoic acid. In human studies using various sources of SDA, no increase or small increases in SDA were observed in blood cell membranes or in total plasma. The proposed specifications for pyrrolizidine alkaloids and erucic acid, which are undesirable substances,do not give rise to concern in view...

  17. Lipase pre-hydrolysis enhance anaerobic biodigestion of soap stock from an oil refining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Carrière, Frédéric; Sayadi, Sami

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcalophilic Staphylococcus haemolyticus strain with the lipolytic activity was used to perform enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment of soap stock: a lipid rich solid waste from an oil refining industry. The culture liquid of the selected bacteria and an enzymatic preparation obtained by precipitation with ammonium sulphate from a filtrate of the same culture liquid were used for enzymatic pretreatment. The hydrolysis was carried with different incubation concentrations (10, 20 and 30%) of soap stock and the pretreatment efficiency was verified by running comparative biodegradability tests (crude and treated lipid waste). All pretreated assays showed higher reaction rate compared to crude lipid waste, which was confirmed by the increased levels of biogas production. The pretreatment of solutions containing 10% emulsified soap stock was optimized for 24 h hydrolysis time, enabling high-biogaz formation (800 ml). The use of enzymatic pre-treatment seemed to be a very promising alternative for treating soap stock having high fat contents.

  18. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of refined petroleum products against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Static and static-renewal evaluation of the acute toxicity of three refined petroleum products — petrol, kerosene and diesel — against two freshwater animals, the mollusc Pila ovata and the fish Poecilia reticulata, was conducted in the laboratory. Petrol, kerosene and diesel were found to be moderately toxic to the test ...

  19. North American refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osten, James; Haltmaier, Susan

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the current status of the North American refining industry, and considers the North American economy and the growth in demand in the petroleum industry, petroleum product demand and quality, crude oil upgrading to meet product standards, and changes in crude oil feedstocks such as the use of heavier crudes and bitumens. Refining expansion, the declining profits in refining, and changes due to environmental standards are discussed. The Gross Domestic Product and oil demand for the USA, Canada, Mexico, and Venezuela for the years 1995-2020 are tabulated

  20. Determining an Efficient Solvent Extraction Parameters for Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of vehicle waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the efficient and cheapest methods. Three extracting solvents MEK (Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone, 1-butanol, 2-propanol were determined experimentally for their performance based on the parameters i.e. solvent type, solvent oil ratio and extraction temperature. From the experimental results it was observed the MEK performance was highest based on the lowest oil percent losses and highest sludge removal. Further, when temperature of extraction increased the oil losses percent also decreased. This is due to the solvent ability that dissolves the base oil in waste lubricating oil and determines the best SOR (Solvent Oil Ratio and extraction temperatures.

  1. Analysing oil-production subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenblik, Ronald

    2017-11-01

    Understanding how subsidies affect fossil-fuel investment returns and production is crucial to commencing new reforms. New analysis on the impact of subsidies on US crude-oil producers finds that, at recent oil prices of around US50 per barrel, tax preferences and other subsidies push nearly half of new oil investments into profitability.

  2. Extent of Microbial Contamination of Refined and Unrefined Vegetable oils sold in South-west Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi Flora

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oils constitute a major source of plant-based protein. A major limitation to optimal oil consumption in sub-tropical region is fungal infestation and consequent mycotoxin contamination. Ten refined and eight unrefined vegetable oils were randomly purchase from open markets and screened for microbial contamination using standard microbial procedures. Twenty six fungi isolates were obtained from the vegetable oil samples, the isolates were identified as Aspergillus fumigatus (43.0%, Mucor (17.9%, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10.7%, Aspergillus niger (7.1%, Aspergillus flavus (7.1%, Penicillium spp (7.1%, Aspergillus oryzae (3.6%, Mucor (17.9% and Rhizopus spp (3.6%. Five out of the ten refined vegetable oil samples had no fungal contamination. A. flavus and A. oryzae were absent in all the refined oil samples while A. niger was absent in all the unrefined oil samples. Isolation of mycotoxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus spp. is of vital importance in the food industry. Education and training of processors and consumers is recommended.

  3. Auxiliary units for refining of high nitrogen content oils: Premium II refinery case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolato, Paolo Contim; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    PETROBRAS is constantly investing on its refining park in order to increase the production of clean and stable fuels and to be capable to process heavier oils with high contaminants content. Sulfur and nitrogen are the main heteroatoms present in petroleum. They are responsible for some undesirable fuels properties like corrosivity and instability, and also emit pollutants when burnt. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are designed to remove these contaminants and adjust other fuel properties, generating, as byproduct, sour gases and sour water streams rich in H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}, which are usually sent to Sour Water Treatment Units and Sulfur Recovery Units. The regeneration of the amine used for the light streams treatment, as fuel gas and LPG, also generates sour gas streams that must be also sent to Sulfur Recovery Units. As the ammonia content in the sour streams increases, some design parameters must be adjusted to avoid increasing the Refinery emissions. Sulfur Recovery Units must provide proper NH3 destruction. Sour Water Treatment must have a proper segregation between H{sub 2}S and ammonia streams, whenever desirable. Amine Regeneration Systems must have an efficient procedure to avoid the ammonia concentration in the amine solution. This paper presents some solutions usually applied to the Petroleum Industry and analyses some aspects related to Premium II Refinery Project and how its design will help the Brazilian refining park to meet future environmental regulation and market demands. (author)

  4. Petroleum refining industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    The oil refining industry in China has faced rapid growth in oil imports of increasingly sour grades of crude with which to satisfy growing domestic demand for a slate of lighter and cleaner finished products sold at subsidized prices. At the same time, the world petroleum refining industry has been moving from one that serves primarily local and regional markets to one that serves global markets for finished products, as world refining capacity utilization has increased. Globally, refined product markets are likely to experience continued globalization until refining investments significantly expand capacity in key demand regions. We survey the oil refining industry in China in the context of the world market for heterogeneous crude oils and growing world trade in refined petroleum products. (author)

  5. Biodiesel production using waste frying oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpe, Trupti W.; Rathod, Virendra K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Waste sunflower frying oil is successfully converted to biodiesel using lipase as catalyst. → Various process parameters that affects the conversion of transesterification reaction such as temperature, enzyme concentration, methanol: oil ratio and solvent are optimized. → Inhibitory effect of methanol on lipase is reduced by adding methanol in three stages. → Polar solvents like n-hexane and n-heptane increases the conversion of tranesterification reaction. - Abstract: Waste sunflower frying oil is used in biodiesel production by transesterification using an enzyme as a catalyst in a batch reactor. Various microbial lipases have been used in transesterification reaction to select an optimum lipase. The effects of various parameters such as temperature, methanol:oil ratio, enzyme concentration and solvent on the conversion of methyl ester have been studied. The Pseudomonas fluorescens enzyme yielded the highest conversion. Using the P. fluorescens enzyme, the optimum conditions included a temperature of 45 deg. C, an enzyme concentration of 5% and a methanol:oil molar ratio 3:1. To avoid an inhibitory effect, the addition of methanol was performed in three stages. The conversion obtained after 24 h of reaction increased from 55.8% to 63.84% because of the stage-wise addition of methanol. The addition of a non-polar solvent result in a higher conversion compared to polar solvents. Transesterification of waste sunflower frying oil under the optimum conditions and single-stage methanol addition was compared to the refined sunflower oil.

  6. Long term prediction of unconventional oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, S.H.; Evans, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although considerable discussion surrounds unconventional oil's ability to mitigate the effects of peaking conventional oil production, very few models of unconventional oil production exist. The aim of this article was to project unconventional oil production to determine how significant its production may be. Two models were developed to predict the unconventional oil production, one model for in situ production and the other for mining the resources. Unconventional oil production is anticipated to reach between 18 and 32 Gb/y (49-88 Mb/d) in 2076-2084, before declining. If conventional oil production is at peak production then projected unconventional oil production cannot mitigate peaking of conventional oil alone.

  7. FY 1999 report on the results of the R and D on the assessment of reliability of oil refining facilities; 1999 nendo sekiyu seisei setsubi shinraisei hyoka nado gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    At present, in oil refineries in Japan, the term of the continued operation in oil refining facilities is shorter than that in Europe and America because of the regulation on the open inspection period for boilers and hazardous material storage tanks. As a result, the refining cost is comparatively higher than in Europe and America due to the increase in inspection/repair cost and decrease in operational rate. Therefore, it is becoming important to effectively supply petroleum products by keeping stability in oil refining facilities of the whole Japan and prolonging the term of the continued operation of oil refining facilities, etc. In this R and D, the technical development is conducted which is needed for the long-term continued operation of oil refining facilities. The items for the R and D are as follows: assessment technology of reliability of oil refining high temperature system facilities, assessment technology of reliability of piping/storage facilities in oil refinery, assessment technology of reliability of oil refining power system facilities, technology of management support system in oil refining facilities. In this fiscal year, technical survey, data collection, and construction of the basic concept of developmental technology were mostly conducted. Also conducted were trial manufacture of various probes for non-fracture inspection use, oscillators, etc., and basic design of inspection equipment and trial manufacture of a part of them. And the data acquired were analyzed. (NEDO)

  8. Potential Development Essential Oil Production of Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alighiri, D.; Eden, W. T.; Supardi, K. I.; Masturi; Purwinarko, A.

    2017-04-01

    Indonesia is the source of raw essential oil in the world. Essential oils are used in various types of industries such as food and beverage, flavour, fragrance, perfumery, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. However, the development of Indonesian essential oil industry has not been encouraging for the production of essential oils, further it is unable to meet global demand. Besides that, the quality of volatile oil resulted cannot meet the international market standards. Based on the facts, the potential of Indonesian essential oils needs to be developed to provide added value, through increased production, improved quality and product diversification. One part of Indonesia having abundant of raw essential oil source is Central Java. Central Java has the quite large potential production of essential oils. Some essential oils produced from refining industry owned by the government, private and community sectors include cananga oils (Boyolali district), clove oils (Semarang district), patchouli oils (Brebes district, Pemalang district, and Klaten district). The main problem in the development of plants industries that producing essential oil in Central Java is low crops production, farming properties, quality of essential oils are diverse, providing poor-quality products and volatile oil price fluctuations. Marketing constraints of Central Java essential oils are quite complex supply chain. In general, marketing constraints of essential oils due to three factors, namely the low quality due to type of essential oil business that generally shaped small businesses with different capital and technology, domestic marketing is still a buyer-market (price determined by the buyer) because of weak bargaining position processors businessman, and prices fluctuate (domestic and foreign) due to uncontrolled domestic production and inter-country competition among manufacturers.

  9. Seed production for fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosca, G.

    1992-01-01

    With the aim of assessing commercialization prospects for vegetable oils to be used as diesel fuel alternatives, this paper provides maps indicating regional production quantities for soybean, rape and sunflower seeds in Italy. It then tables and discusses the results of energy input-output analyses carried out for rape and soybean oil production

  10. Impact of Expanded North Slope of Alaska Crude Oil Production on Crude Oil Flows in the Contiguous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, Sean E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flanagan, Tatiana Paz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The National Transportation Fuels Model was used to simulate a hypothetical increase in North Slope of Alaska crude oil production. The results show that the magnitude of production utilized depends in part on the ability of crude oil and refined products infrastructure in the contiguous United States to absorb and adjust to the additional supply. Decisions about expanding North Slope production can use the National Transportation Fuels Model take into account the effects on crude oil flows in the contiguous United States.

  11. Petroleum Refining and its Economic and Technological Impact for the Production of Gasoline in Mexico to 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granados-Hernández Elías

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gas imports in Mexico have increased in the last few years. Nowadays Mexico has no capacity to meet the demands of this fuel in the next twenty years. In this paper we analyze several oil refining projections that enable the oil supply in Mexico until year 2030, taking into consideration four types of refineries, processing the produc- tion of pure oils in the country, using four mixtures of the higher reserve, consider- ing an import to meet the demand of fuel and once met consider exportation. Modeling was carried out analyzing the volume of refined oil and the required in- vestment, based on the kind of refinery and on the processing units that characterize it. As it was mentioned before, there are different refining projections to meet the demand of gas, but considering that the main oil production in Mexico is heavy. The simulated projection with this type of oil would require a higher volume in the exis- tent refineries in the country to meet that demand. Besides, considering the kind of refinery (out of four, the volumes to refine will be less, if very complex refineries are used. However, the cost of investment in this technology would be higher, consider- ing that new refineries will be built in a near future to meet the fuel demands.

  12. Bio-oil production from cotton stalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jilu; Yi Weiming; Wang Nana

    2008-01-01

    Cotton stalk was fast pyrolyzed at temperatures between 480 deg. C and 530 deg. C in a fluidized bed, and the main product of bio-oil is obtained. The experimental result shows that the highest bio-oil yield of 55 wt% was obtained at 510 deg. C for cotton stalk. The chemical composition of the bio-oil acquired was analyzed by GC-MS, and its heat value, stability, miscibility and corrosion characteristics were determined. These results showed that the bio-oil obtained can be directly used as a fuel oil for combustion in a boiler or a furnace without any upgrading. Alternatively, the fuel can be refined to be used by vehicles. Furthermore, the energy performance of the pyrolysis process was analyzed. In the pyrolysis system used in our experiment, some improvements to former pyrolysis systems are done. Two screw feeders were used to prevent jamming the feeding system, and the condenser is equipped with some nozzles and a heat exchanger to cool quickly the cleaned hot gas into bio-oil

  13. Emission and Performance analysis of hydrotreated refined sunflower oil as alternate fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hemanandh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were conducted by using the hydrotreated refined sunflower oil as alternative fuel in a 4-stroke, stationary DI diesel engine at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The effects of hydrotreated vegetable oil blends on diesel engine emission and performance were studied. The emission and performance were studied for different proportions such as HTSF B25 and HTSF B100 and at different loading conditions and comparison was made with petrodiesel. The emission and performance results of HTSF B25 and HTSF B100 showed that decrease in CO by 9% and 37%, HC by 42% and 55%, NOx by 10% and 18.18%, BSFC by 25% and 12.5%. The increase in brake thermal efficiency was by 10% and 38%. It was observed from the study that hydrotreatment of refined sunflower oil could be one of the best alternative fuels for the diesel engine.

  14. Environmental emergency in the oil production and oil products transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Čopan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the experience of the environmental emergency response in the case of accidental leakages of oil or oil products into the environment. The gained experience is demonstrated on four different sites where the remediation of contaminated soil / groundwater and emergency response were carried out by the Czech environmental company DEKONTA a.s.

  15. The Necessity of a Graded Tariff System between Crude Oil and Oil Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, B.R. [SK Corporation, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-06-01

    Even though the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products has been continuously insisted by oil refining companies since the export and import liberalization of 1997, and its necessity has been admitted by the government, press, and academia, the expanded implementation of the graded tariff system has not been yet realized. Some people says that the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products is a kind of desperate plans, which oil refining companies suggests to stop the importing companies' rapid growth, so it will eventually restrict the competition of the domestic oil market due to the withering of importing companies. However, the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products should have been enforced in 1997 as a complementary measure of the import liberalization like other industries or the advanced countries' cases. It is the basic tariff principle that the low tariff is levied on raw materials and the high tariff on final products in order to protect domestic industry. The remaining things are just to form the sympathy and to agree socially for the reorganization of tariff structure in the reasonable way. It is not desirable to make a fool mistake such as a proverb; t is too late to shut the stable door after the horse has bolted. owing to the unreasonable tariff system.

  16. Production of top quality soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa, Dr. Ahmad

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper comments the most adequate conditions required to produce to quality soybean oil. It is essential to avoid contaminations (water, metallic, oxidation products, overheating, undue exposition to air, as well as an appropriate control of the different steps of the refining process.

    El trabajo presenta las condiciones recomendadas para obtener aceite de soja de la mejor calidad. Es importante evitar las contaminaciones (agua, metales y compuestos oxidados, los sobrecalentamientos, la exposición al aire, así como el adecuado control de los diferentes pasos del proceso de refinación.

  17. A method of refining aromatic hydrocarbons from coal chemical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieborak, K.; Koprowski, A.; Ratajczak, W.

    1979-10-01

    A method is disclosed for refining aromatic hydrocarbons of coal chemical production by contact of liquid aromatic hydrocarbons and their mixtures with a strongly acid macroporous sulfocationite in the H-form at atmospheric pressure and high temperature. The method is distinguished in that the aromatic hydrocarbons and their mixtures, from which alkali compounds have already been removed, are supplied for refinement with the sulfocationite with simultaneous addition of olefin derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons, followed by separation of pure hydrocarbons by rectification. Styrene or alpha-methylstyrene is used as the olefin derivatives of the aromatic hydrocarbons. The method is performed in several stages with addition of olefin derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons at each stage.

  18. Spanish Refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lores, F.R.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of petroleum refining in Spain is presented (by Repsol YPF) and some views on future trends are discussed. Spain depends heavily on imports. Sub-headings in the article cover: sources of crude imports, investments and logistics and marketing, -detailed data for each are shown diagrammatically. Tables show: (1) economic indicators (e.g. total GDP, vehicle numbers and inflation) for 1998-200; (2) crude oil imports for 1995-2000; (3) oil products balance for 1995-2000; (4) commodities demand, by product; (5) refining in Spain in terms of capacity per region; (6) outlets in Spain and other European countries in 2002 and (7) sales distribution channel by product

  19. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change.

  20. The demand for refined petroleum products in Iran: Estimation and projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kianian, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    The estimation and projection of the demand for refined petroleum products of the OPEC states, are important for the world petroleum market from both the demand and supply sides. In this context, this study forms an econometric model to estimte the demand for the total and four major refined petroleum products (RPPs) in Iran and project their future trends into the year 2000. The fact that Iran has the largest domestic demand for RPPs among all the OPEC members has motivated some research primarily to study the structure of the demand for such products. None, however, has utilized econometric models to estimate or project the demand for RPPs. The first section of this study discusses the structure of the Iranian energy market. Next, the demand functions for gasoline, kerosine, gas oil, fuel oil, and the total RPPs in Iran are estimated. The third section puts together the demand functions to form a model used to project the demand for RPPs up to the year 2000 under an historical scenario. Finally, some condlusions are offered. 7 tabs

  1. Processes subject to integrated pollution control. Petroleum processes: oil refining and associated processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document, part of a series offering guidance on pollution control regulations issued by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution, (HMIP) focuses on petroleum processes such as oil refining and other associated processes. The various industrial processes used, their associated pollution release routes into the environment and techniques for controlling these releases are all discussed. Environmental quality standards are related to national and international agreements on pollution control and abatement. HMIP's work on air, water and land pollution monitoring is also reported. (UK)

  2. Comparison of geometrical isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids in selected commercially refined oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasan, M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Four different commercially refined vegetable oils were analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography for their trans fatty acid contents. The results obtained showed that the total trans FA contents in refined sunflower, corn, soybean, and hazelnut oils were 0.68 ± 0.41, 0.51 ± 0.24, 1.27 ± 0.57, and 0.26 ± 0.07% of total FA, respectively. The total trans FA comprised isomers of the C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Meanwhile, five brands of the refined sunflower oil and two brands of hazelnut oil contained no measurable amounts of total trans C18:3 acids. The total trans C18:2 acid was the predominant trans FA found in the refined sunflower and corn oils, while trans polyunsaturated FAs for the refined soybean oils were found at high levels. However, total trans C18:1 acid was the major trans FA for refined hazelnut oils. The commercially refined vegetable oils with a relatively high total polyunsaturated FA contained considerable amounts of trans polyunsaturated isomers. This study indicates that it is necessary to optimize industrial deodorization, especially the time and temperature, for each different FA composition of oil used.

    Cuatro aceites vegetales refinados comerciales diferentes fueron analizados por cromatografía de gases para determinar el contenido en ácidos grasos trans. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que el contenido total de los FA trans de aceites refinados de girasol, maíz, soja y avellana fueron 0.68 ± 0.41, 0.51 ± 0.24, 1.27 ± 0.57, y 0.26 ± 0.07% de FA totales, respetivamente. Los ácidos grasos totales trans comprenden a isómeros de FA C18:1, C18:2 y C18:3. Cinco marcas de aceites de girasol refinado y dos marcas de aceite de avellana contenían cantidades no medibles de ácidos trans C18:3 totales. Los ácidos C18:2 trans totales fueron los FA trans predominantes en el aceite de girasol y ma

  3. World resources of oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaterre, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    In a first part, the author outlines that the issue of density of an oil product raises the question of the validity of a counting approach based on volumes. As oil industries produce always less heavy products and always more light products, this means that always less oil is needed to produce a gallon or a litre of fuel out of a refinery. The author comments the evolution of crude oil extraction. In a second part, he outlines that hydrocarbon productions become always more complex with respect to their origin. Thus, during gas extraction, humid gases are recovered which contain an important part of hydrocarbons similar to light oil. These aspects and the development of shale gas exploitation will make the USA the first oil producer in the world whereas they still have to import heavy oil to feed their refineries. He discusses the level of reserves and production costs with respect to the product type or its extraction location. He discusses the evolution of the estimates of world ultimately recoverable resources (synthesis processes excluded). He comments the level of condensate extraction ratio of the main shale gas fields in the USA and outlines the cost of natural gas imports for France. He outlines the importance of GTL (gas to liquid) processes, the increasing importance of bio-fuels (notably isobutanol biosynthesis and terpene biosynthesis). In the third part, the author states that the barrel price should keep on increasing and, in the fourth part, proposes a list of issues which will impact the future of the oil market

  4. The combination of activated natural zeolite-bentonite to reduce Fe and Cu in refined bleached palm oil (RBPO) by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakwan; Raja, PM; Giyanto

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is one of the crude palm oil (CPO) production country in the world. As many products are derivated from the CPO, the quality must be increased continuously. One of the things that influence the quality of palm oil is the Fe and Cu content. The objective of this research was to reduce Fe and Cu content in Refined Bleached Palm Oil (RBPO). In processing CPO or Refined Bleachead Palm Oil (RBPO) may be contaminated by Fe and Cu from metal tank and pipe in the factory. The zeolite and bentonite was activated by maceration method using hydrochloric acid (0,1 N). Four batch reactions consisting of refined palm oil (RPO), activated natural zeolite-bentonite (ANZB) was bleached by heating and stirring them at about 105°C and 1200 rpm for 30 minutes. The results showed that all combinations of ANZB can reduce the Fe content. Thereafter, the optimal combination of ANZB was obtained in K1, K2 and K4 with Cu content 0.02 ppm. In the future, it is needed to study on the reduction of the Fe and Cu content in palm oil with the other adsorbent.

  5. Worldwide cheap and heavy oil productions: A long-term energy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseo, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Crude oil, natural gas liquids, heavy oils, deepwater oils, and polar oils are non-renewable energy resources with increasing extraction costs. Two major definitions emerge: regular or 'cheap' oil and non-conventional or 'heavy' oil. Peaking time in conventional oil production has been a recent focus of debate. For two decades, non-conventional oils have been mixed with regular crude oil. Peaking time estimation and the rate at which production may be expected to decline, following the peak, are more difficult to determine. We propose a two-wave model for world oil production pattern and forecasting, based on the diffusion of innovation theories: a sequential multi-Bass model. Historical well-known shocks are confirmed, and new peaking times for crude oil and mixed oil are determined with corresponding depletion rates. In the final section, possible ties between the dynamics of oil extraction and refining capacities are discussed as a predictive symptom of an imminent mixed oil peak in 2016. - Highlights: → Production of conventional and non-conventional oils in aggregate time series. → Decomposition modelling and forecasting with a multi-regime model. → Diffusion of innovation theories and appropriateness of applying Bass concepts to the extraction of oil resources. → Partially overlapping oil extraction processes. → Refining capacities and dynamics of oil extraction.

  6. Anicteric hepatoxicity: a potential health risk of occupational exposures in Nigerian petroleum oil refining and distribution industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezejiofor, Tobias I Ndubuisi; Ezejiofor, Anthonet N; Orisakwe, Orish E; Nwigwe, Hariet C; Osuala, Ferdinand Ou; Iwuala, Moses Oe

    2014-01-22

    Literature abounds linking one's job to certain unpalatable health outcomes. Since exposures to hazardous conditions in industrial environments often results in sundry health effects among workers, we embarked on this study to investigate the hepatic health effects of occupational activities in the petroleum refining and distribution industry. Biochemical markers of liver functions were assayed in plasma, using Reflotron dry chemistry spectrophotometric system. The study was conducted on randomly selected workers of Port Harcourt Refining Company (PHRC) and Pipelines and Petroleum Product Marketing Company (PPMC) both in Alesa-Eleme near Port Harcourt, Nigeria, as well as non-oil work civil servants serving as control subjects. Results showed that, bilirubin ranged 0.3-1.6 mg/dl with a mean of 0.66±0.20mg/dl among the oil workers as against 0.5-1.00mg/dl with a mean of 0.58±0.13mg/dl in non-oil workers, Alkaline phosphatase ranged 50.00-296.00u/l (mean: 126.21±39.49u/l) in oil workers as against 40.20-111u/l (mean: 66.83±18.54u/l) for non-oil workers, Aspartic transaminases (AST) ranged 5.80-140.20u/l (mean: 21.81±11.49u/l) in oil workers against 18.00-44.00u/l (mean: 26.89±6.99u/l) for non-oil workers, while Alanine transaminases (ALT) ranged 4.90-86.00u/l (mean: 22.14±11.28u/l) in oil workers as against 10.00-86.60u/l (mean: 22.30±10.22u/l) for the non-oil workers. A close study of the results revealed that although the mean values for all the studied parameters were still within the parametric reference ranges, however, relative to the referents, there were significant increases (Pdifferentiation data showed that though the mean values for the parameters were higher in males than females, the increases were not significant in most cases (P>0.05), whereas data for age and exposure period classifications revealed that irrespective of the age of the worker, the effects are likely to start after the first five years, manifesting fully after the first decade

  7. Quantitative analysis of hydroperoxy-, keto- and hydroxy-dienes in refined vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Arturo; Marmesat, Susana; Dobarganes, M Carmen; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Velasco, Joaquín

    2012-03-16

    Quantitative analysis of the main oxidation products of linoleic acid - hydroperoxy-, keto- and hydroxy-dienes - in refined oils is proposed in this study. The analytical approach consists of derivatization of TAGs into FAMEs and direct analysis by HPLC-UV. Two transmethylation methods run at room temperature were evaluated. The reactants were KOH in methanol in method 1 and sodium methoxide (NaOMe) in method 2. Method 1 was ruled out because resulted in losses of hydroperoxydienes as high as 90 wt%. Transmethylation with NaOMe resulted to be appropriate as derivatization procedure, although inevitably also gives rise to losses of hydroperoxydienes, which were lower than 10 wt%, and formation of keto- and hydroxy-dienes as a result. An amount of 0.6-2.1 wt% of hydroperoxydienes was transformed into keto- and hydroxy-dienes, being the formation of the former as much as three times higher. The method showed satisfactory sensitivity (quantification limits of 0.3 μg/mL for hydroperoxy- and keto-dienes and 0.6 μg/mL for hydroxydienes), precision (coefficients of variation ≤ 6% for hydroperoxydienes and ≤ 15% for keto- and hydroxy-dienes) and accuracy (recovery values of 85(± 4), 99(± 2) and 97.0(± 0.6) % for hydroperoxy-, keto- and hydroxy-dienes, respectively). The method was applied to samples of high-linoleic (HLSO), high-oleic (HOSO) and high-stearic high-oleic (HSHOSO) sunflower oils oxidized at 40 °C. Results showed that the higher the linoleic-to-oleic ratio, the higher were the levels of hydroperoxy-, keto- and hydroxy-dienes when tocopherols were completely depleted, i.e. at the end of the induction period (IP). Levels of 23.7, 2.7 and 1.1 mg/g oil were found for hydroperoxy-, keto- and hydroxy-dienes, respectively, in the HLSO when tocopherol was practically exhausted. It was estimated that hydroperoxydienes constituted approximately 100, 95 and 60% of total hydroperoxides in the HLSO, HOSO and HSHOSO, respectively, along the IP. Copyright © 2012

  8. Detection of impurities in fluid flowing in refinery pipeline or oil production operations using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Chlorine (from salt water) and sulphur are determined in crude oil in a well head conduit or refined product in a petroleum refinery by bombardment with neutrons and measuring the gamma rays emitted by neutron capture reactions. (U.K.)

  9. Natural cold pressed oils as cosmetic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ligęza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. It seems that patients may ask general practitioners about natural cosmetics applied on the skin regarding their safety and suitability. Objectives. The aim of the study was to analyze natural cold pressed oils as potential cosmetic products. Material and methods. Cold pressed oils obtained from selected seeds and fruit stones were analyzed, including: chokeberry seed oil, blackcurrant seed oil, elderberry seed oil, raspberry seed oil, apricot seed oil, tomato seed oil, strawberry seed oil, broccoli seed oil, Nigella sativa seed oil, hemp oil, safflower seed oil, Silybum marianum seed oil and coconut oil. 80 adult volunteers assessed the cosmetic properties of the analyzed oils. Each of the volunteers tested 2 to 4 different oils, by applying them on the skin. In addition, patch tests with all analyzed oils were performed on 23 individuals. Results. The majority of tested oils were positively evaluated by the participants: in the opinion of the participants, oil extracted from safflower had the best appearance (100% positive opinions, coconut oil had the best smell (70% positive opinions, while black currant seed oil showed the best absorbency (85% positive opinions. No irritation was observed within the analyzed product group, albeit one allergic reaction to apricot seed oil was observed with patch testing. Conclusions . Based on the achieved results, it could be suggested that natural cold pressed oils can be applied to the skin as cosmetics. Our observations may be helpful for general practitioners when choosing natural cosmetics.

  10. Determining the thermal and physicals properties of oil processing products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria I. Kryvda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades both technological process’ improvement and primary energy resources saving are the main tasks of oil refineries. Using various oil products does impose an accurate knowledge of their properties. The dispersion analysis applied makes possible to construct a model simulating the primary oil refining products’ and raw materials’ thermal physical properties. As a result of data approximation there were obtained polynomials with coefficients differing from attributable to the studied oil products fractions. The research represents graphic dependences of thermal physical properties on temperature values for diesel oil fraction. The linear character of density and calorific capacity dependencies from temperature is represented with a proportional error in calculations. The relative minimum error is below 2% that confirms the implemented calculations’ adequacy. The resulting model can be used in calculations for further technological process improvements.

  11. Rockets and Feathers: The Asymmetric Effect between China’s Refined Oil Prices and International Crude Oil Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs an asymmetric error-correction model (AECM, and uses monthly data on wholesale prices of gasoline and diesel products in China and international crude oil prices from February 2006 to October 2013 to examine whether China’s gasoline and diesel prices adjust asymmetrically to international crude oil price changes. Our empirical results suggest that increases and decreases in international oil prices have asymmetric effects on both wholesale prices of gasoline and diesel fuel in China, and that both increases and decreases in international oil prices have a greater effect on diesel prices than on gasoline prices in China. If there is no change in the maximum retail price, the asymmetry results from the transmission of wholesale prices in China with international oil prices. However, if there is a change in maximum retail prices, both international oil prices and maximum retail prices cause the asymmetry.

  12. Formulation of soy oil products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woerfel, John B.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper comments different formulations of soy oil products such as salad and cooking oils, margarine, shortenings, commercial shortenings, frying shortenings, and fluid shortenings. Hydrogenation and its influence on final products is also included.

    El trabajo presenta diferentes formulaciones a base de aceite de soja tales como aceites para ensalada y cocinado, margarina, grasas sólidas (shortenings, grasas sólidas comerciales, grasas sólidas para frituras y grasas fluidas. Hace también referencia al proceso de hidrogenación y a sus efectos en los productos finales.

  13. Characteristics of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Zhendi; Hollebone, Bruce P; Brown, Carl E; Landriault, Mike

    2009-05-15

    This study presents a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BSs) in numerous crude oils and refined petroleum products including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels, and lubricating oils collected from various sources. Ten commonly recognized bicyclic sesquiterpanes were determined in all the studied crude oils and diesel range fuels with principal dominance of BS3 (C(15)H(28)), BS5 (C(15)H(28)) and BS10 (C(16)H(30)), while they were generally not detected or in trace in light fuel oils like gasoline and kerosene and most lubricating oils. Laboratory distillation of crude oils demonstrated that sesquiterpanes were highly enriched in the medium distillation fractions of approximately 180 to 481 degrees C and were generally absent or very low in the light distillation fraction (boiling point to approximately 180 degrees C) and the heavy residual fraction (>481 degrees C). The effect of evaporative weathering on a series of diagnostic ratios of sesquiterpanes, n-alkanes, and biomarkers was evaluated with two suites of weathered oil samples. The change of abundance of sesquiterpanes was used to determine the extent of weathering of artificially evaporated crude oils and diesel. In addition to the pentacyclic biomarker C(29) and C(30) alphabeta-hopane, C(15) and C(16) sesquiterpanes might be alternative internal marker compounds to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. These findings may offer potential applications for both oil identification and oil-source correlation in cases where the tri- to pentacyclic biomarkers are absent due to refining or environmental weathering of oils.

  14. The effects of carbon prices and anti-leakage policies on selected industrial sectors in Spain – Cement, steel and oil refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaría, Alberto; Linares, Pedro; Pintos, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the impacts on the cement, steel and oil refining sectors in Spain of the carbon prices derived from the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), and the potential effect on these sectors of the European Union anti-leakage policy measures. The assessment is carried out by means of three engineering models developed for this purpose. Our results show a high exposure to leakage of cement in coastal regions; a smaller risk in the steel sector, and non-negligible risk of leakage for the oil refining sector when carbon allowance prices reach high levels. We also find that the risk of leakage could be better handled with other anti-leakage policies than those currently in place in the EU. - Highlights: • We simulate the impact of carbon prices on the risk of leakage in the cement, steel and oil refining sectors. • We also assess the effectiveness of different anti-leakage policies in Europe. • Cement production in coastal areas is highly exposed. • The risk of leakage for steel and oil refining is smaller. • Anti-leakage policies should be modified to be efficient

  15. Low cost and conformal microwave water-cut sensor for optimizing oil production process

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2015-01-01

    Efficient oil production and refining processes require the precise measurement of water content in oil (i.e., water-cut) which is extracted out of a production well as a byproduct. Traditional water-cut (WC) laboratory measurements are precise

  16. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL): EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, T. P. V. B.; Mielke Neto, P.; Ansolin, M.; Follegatti-Romero, L. A.; Batista, E. A. C.; Meirelles, A. J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Phase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol) and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters) up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements...

  17. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL): EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    T. P. V. B. Dias; P. Mielke Neto; L. A. Follegatti-Romero; E. A. C. Batista; A. J. A. Meirelles

    2015-01-01

    AbstractPhase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol) and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters) up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements ...

  18. Spent bleaching clay (SBC) from oil refining as a substrate for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the utilization of SBC in shiitatke spawn production not only considerably reduces the costs of shiitake production but also bring about substantial environmental benefits. Keywords: Spent bleaching clay, shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes, vegetable oils, spawn production, mycelial growth, components ...

  19. Impact of operating variables on re-refining of vehicle waste oil to base-oil by acid-clay process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, H.A.; Panhwar, M.I.; Kazi, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    A large volume of waste oil is generated each year as the number of vehicles in the country is increasing every day. This used lubricant oil constitutes a serious pollution problem. It easily be converted as a resource depending on the manners of utilization and management. This paper compares various end uses of waste oil and develops technology by which basic properties of the base oil can be regained. An experimental setup (Experimental rig) of acid-clay method was used to regain waste oil collected and number of experiments were conducted by varying different process variables. The impacts of the operating variables on the quality of re-refined oil are also discussed. The recovery of re-refined base oil was found in between 44-49%. (author)

  20. Micro-encapsulation of refined olive oil: influence of capsule wall components and the addition of antioxidant additives on the shelf life and chemical alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Patricia; Castaño, Angel Luís; Lozano, Mercedes; González-Gómez, David

    2012-10-01

    Although refined olive oils (ROOs) exhibit lower quality and less stability toward thermal stress than extra-virgin olive oils, these types of oil are gaining importance in the food industry. The inclusion of ROOs in processed food may alter the oxidative stability of the manufactured products, and therefore having technological alternatives to increase oil stability will be an important achievement. For this reason the main goal of this study was to assess the influence of the micro-encapsulation process on the ROO chemical composition and its oxidative stability. Factors such as microcapsule wall constituents and the addition of the antioxidant butyl hydroxytoluene were investigated in order to establish the most appropriate conditions to ensure no alteration of the refined olive oil chemical characteristics. The optimised methodology exhibited high encapsulation yield (>98%), with micro-encapsulation efficiency ranging from 35 to 69% according to the nature of the wall components. The encapsulation process slightly altered the chemical composition of the olive oil and protected the oxidative stability for at least 11 months when protein components were included as wall components. It was concluded that the presence of proteins constituents in the microcapsule wall material extended the shelf life of the micro-encapsulated olive oil regardless the use of antioxidant additives. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Refining revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesharaki, F.; Isaak, D.

    1984-01-01

    A review of changes in the oil refining industry since 1973 examines the drop in capacity use and its effect on profits of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries compared to world refining. OPEC countries used their new oil revenues to expand Gulf refineries, which put additional pressure on OECD refiners. OPEC involvement in global marketing, however, could help to secure supplies. Scrapping some older OECD refineries could improve the percentage of capacity in use if new construction is kept to a minimum. Other issues facing refiners are the changes in oil demand patterns and government responses to the market. 2 tables.

  2. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  3. Production of oil from Israeli oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givoni, D.

    1993-01-01

    Oil shale can be utilized in two-ways: direct combustion to generate steam and power or retorting to produce oil or gas. PAMA has been developing both direct combustion and retorting processes. Its main effort is in the combustion. An oil shale fired steam boiler was erected in the Rotem industrial complex for demonstration purposes. PAMA has also been looking into two alternative retorting concepts - slow heating of coarse particles and fast heating of fine particles. The present paper provides operating data of oil shale processing in the following scheme: (a) retorting in moving bed, pilot and bench scale units, and (b) retorting in a fluidized bed, bench scale units. (author)

  4. γ-Oryzanol and tocopherol contents in residues of rice bran oil refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana-Bauer, Vanessa Ribeiro; Zambiazi, Rui C; Mendonça, Carla R B; Beneito-Cambra, Miriam; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo

    2012-10-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) contains significant amounts of the natural antioxidants γ-oryzanol and tocopherols, which are lost to a large degree during oil refining. This results in a number of industrial residues with high contents of these phytochemicals. With the aim of supporting the development of profitable industrial procedures for γ-oryzanol and tocopherol recovery, the contents of these phytochemicals in all the residues produced during RBO refining were evaluated. The samples included residues from the degumming, soap precipitation, bleaching earth filtering, dewaxing and deodorisation distillation steps. The highest phytochemical concentrations were found in the precipitated soap for γ-oryzanol (14.2 mg g(-1), representing 95.3% of total γ-oryzanol in crude RBO), and in the deodorisation distillate for tocopherols (576 mg 100 g(-1), representing 6.7% of total tocopherols in crude RBO). Therefore, among the residues of RBO processing, the deodorisation distillate was the best source of tocopherols. As the soap is further processed for the recovery of fatty acids, samples taken from every step of this secondary process, including hydrosoluble fraction, hydrolysed soap, distillation residue and purified fatty acid fraction, were also analyzed. The distillation residue left after fatty acid recovery from soap was found to be the best source of γ-oryzanol (43.1 mg g(-1), representing 11.5% of total γ-oryzanol in crude RBO). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimization of palm oil physical refining process for reduction of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) ester formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkurnain, Musfirah; Lai, Oi Ming; Tan, Soo Choon; Abdul Latip, Razam; Tan, Chin Ping

    2013-04-03

    The reduction of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) ester formation in refined palm oil was achieved by incorporation of additional processing steps in the physical refining process to remove chloroester precursors prior to the deodorization step. The modified refining process was optimized for the least 3-MCPD ester formation and acceptable refined palm oil quality using response surface methodology (RSM) with five processing parameters: water dosage, phosphoric acid dosage, degumming temperature, activated clay dosage, and deodorization temperature. The removal of chloroester precursors was largely accomplished by increasing the water dosage, while the reduction of 3-MCPD esters was a compromise in oxidative stability and color of the refined palm oil because some factors such as acid dosage, degumming temperature, and deodorization temperature showed contradictory effects. The optimization resulted in 87.2% reduction of 3-MCPD esters from 2.9 mg/kg in the conventional refining process to 0.4 mg/kg, with color and oil stability index values of 2.4 R and 14.3 h, respectively.

  6. Protective effects of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil in animal models of acute inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S; Sepodes, B; Rocha, J; Direito, R; Fernandes, A; Brites, D; Freitas, M; Fernandes, E; Bronze, M R; Figueira, M E

    2015-04-01

    Virgin olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, and its beneficial health effects have been related with oleic acid and phenolic compounds content. Hydroxytyrosol, a typical virgin olive oil phenolic compound, has beneficial antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as previously reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis was induced by intradermic administration, in male Wistar rats, of Freund's adjuvant with collagen type II on days 1 and 21. Hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils were administrated by gavage from day 23 until day 35. The treatment at 5-mg/kg dose significantly decreased paw edema (P<.01), histological damage, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and markedly reduced the degree of bone resorption, soft tissue swelling and osteophyte formation, improving articular function in treated animals. Acute inflammation, induced by carrageenan, was also evaluated for hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg. Both doses significantly reduced paw edema (P<.001). Our results suggest that the supplementation of refined olive oil with hydroxytyrosol may be advantageous in rheumatoid arthritis with significant impact not only on chronic inflammation but also on acute inflammatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The refining industry and the future of the fuel oils; L'industrie du raffinage et le devenir des fiouls lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleille, S

    2004-01-15

    The fuel oils consumption decrease in France since 1970, because of the two petroleum crisis, the nuclear energy competition and the air pollution. The fuel oils industry is then looking other export possibilities. This report aims to offer a first approach of the problem and presents the main challenges. The first part is devoted to the technical context (definition, production and outlet. The second part presents the environmental context and the fuel oils market. In the third part the market is studied at the world scale, in the fourth at the french scale and in the fifth at the scale of other countries as United States, Japan and european Union. A synthesis tables is given in the last part to compare and propose some hypothesis concerning the future of fuel oils and the french refining industry. (A.L.B.)

  8. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  9. Refining margins and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudouin, C.; Favennec, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Refining margins throughout the world have remained low in 1996. In Europe, in spite of an improvement, particularly during the last few weeks, they are still not high enough to finance new investments. Although the demand for petroleum products is increasing, experts are still sceptical about any rapid recovery due to prevailing overcapacity and to continuing capacity growth. After a historical review of margins and an analysis of margins by regions, we analyse refining over-capacities in Europe and the unbalances between production and demand. Then we discuss the current situation concerning barriers to the rationalization, agreements between oil companies, and the consequences on the future of refining capacities and margins. (author)

  10. PM-10 emissions and power of a Diesel engine fueled with crude and refined Biodiesel from salmon oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.F. Reyes; M.A. Sepulveda [University of Concepcion (Chile). Department of Mechanization and Energy, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering

    2006-09-15

    Power response and level of particulate emissions were assessed for blends of Diesel-crude Biodiesel and Diesel-refined Biodiesel. Crude Biodiesel and refined Biodiesel or methyl ester, were made from salmon oil with high content of free fatty acids, throughout a process of acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification. Blends of Diesel-crude Biodiesel and Diesel-refined Biodiesel were tested in a diesel engine to measure simultaneously the dynamometric response and the particulate material (PM-10) emission performance. The results indicate a maximum power loss of about 3.5% and also near 50% of PM-10 reduction with respect to diesel when a 100% of refined Biodiesel is used. For blends with less content of either crude Biodiesel or refined Biodiesel, the observed power losses are lower but at the same time lower reduction in PM-10 emissions are attained. 21 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Avocado oil extraction processes: method for cold-pressed high-quality edible oil production versus traditional production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Costagli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill. is widely regarded as an important fruit for its nutritional values, as it is rich in vital human nutrients. The avocado fruit is mainly sold fresh on the market, which however trades also a relevant quantity of second-grade fruits with a relatively high oil content. Traditionally, this oil is extracted from dried fruits by means of organic solvents, but a mechanical method is also used in general in locations where drying systems and/or solvent extraction units cannot be installed. These traditional processes yield a grade of oil that needs subsequent refining and is mainly used in the cosmetic industry. In the late 1990s, in New Zeland, a processing company with the collaboration of Alfa Laval began producing cold-pressed avocado oil (CPAO to be sold as edible oil for salads and cooking. Over the last fifteen years, CPAO production has increased in many other countries and has led to an expansion of the market which is set to continue, given the growing interest in highquality and healthy food. Avocado oil like olive oil is extracted from the fruit pulp and in particular shares many principles of the extraction process with extra-vergin olive oil. We conducted a review of traditional and modern extraction methods with particular focus on extraction processes and technology for CPAO production.

  12. Decision support in hierarchical planning systems: The case of procurement planning in oil refining industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Kasper Bislev; Lynge, Lasse Hadberg; Akkerman, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of decision support systems for hierarchically structured planning approaches, such as commercially available advanced planning systems. We develop a framework to show how such a decision support system can be designed with the existing organization in mind...... and from the perspective of the organizational aspects involved. To exemplify and develop our framework, we use a case study of crude oil procurement planning in the refining industry. The results of the case study indicate an improved organizational embedding of the DSS, leading to significant savings...... in terms of planning efforts and procurement costs. In general, our framework aims to support the continuous improvement of advanced planning systems, increasing planning quality in complex supply chain settings....

  13. Caspian Oil and Gas: Production and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelb, Bernard A

    2005-01-01

    .... The Caspian Sea region historically has been an oil and natural gas producer, but many believe that the region contains large reserves of oil and gas capable of much greater production than at present...

  14. The production of refined intermediate fuels with high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowacki, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    Power plants can be divided into conventional steam plants, fueled with hard coal, lignite or liquid fuel, hydroelectric plants and nuclear plants, their chief use was or is the production of electric energy and - in certain cases only - of production of process heat, using steam or hot water for process heat in industry and district heating for residential and commercial purposes. The part played by electricity in the whole energy demand is of the order of 10% to 25% the total demand, the rest is necessary for supplying process heat below 200 0 C or above 200 0 C, up to some 1500 0 C. The present distribution of energy demands is covered chiefly by liquid fuel, coal and lignite, water energy and increasing steps by nuclear fuel. It is well known that the erection of nuclear energy plants is a necessity for today and for the future. There is another necessity, i.e. to utilize the primary energy resources in a complex way i.e. to supply electricity as energy vector and other fuels as process heat as new energy vectors. These manmade fuels - whether in a gaseous or liquid phase - contain hydrogen, and one can believe, the world is entering a new energy civilisation in utilizing hydrogen and its compounds as second energy vector. The author has taken up the task to investigate this new problem of process, heat in the form of hydrogen and its compounds, by evaluating their present and future production, based on the utilization of natural gas, oil coal, water and the nuclear heat of helium, available in a closed circuit as primary coolant in a High - Temeprature Helium cooled reactor, which is symbolized in the paper as HTR. The paper deals in more detail with the following application of Nuclear Heat: hydrogasification, direct reduction of ore, mainly iron ores, ammonia synthesis, methanol synthesis Hydrocracking, long distance transfer of process heat (chemical heat pipe), hydrogenation of coal, Fischer - Tropsch synthesis, oxosynthesis, coal gasification, coal

  15. Formation and reduction of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters in peanut oil during physical refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang; Li, Linyan; Jia, Hanbing; Wang, Yuting; Shen, Mingyue; Nie, Shaoping; Xie, Mingyong

    2016-05-15

    In the present study, lab-scale physical refining processes were investigated for their effects on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters. The potential precursors, partial acylglycerols and chlorines were determined before each refining step. 3-MCPD esters were not detected in degummed and bleached oil when the crude oils were extracted by solvent. While in the hot squeezed crude oils, 3-MCPD esters were detected with low amounts. 3-MCPD esters were generated with maximum values in 1-1.5h at a certain deodorizing temperature (220-260°C). Chlorine seemed to be more effective precursor than partial acylglycerol. By washing bleached oil before deodorization with ethanol solution, the precursors were removed partially and the content of 3-MCPD esters decreased to some extent accordingly. Diacetin was found to reduce 3-MCPD esters effectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. THE QUESTION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF OIL REFINING IN RUSSIA: AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov A. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The relations between the financial statements’ figures of the complex of refining companies - the core of Russian refining industry from 2006 to 2013 - were analyzed using component and regression analysis from the standpoint of the effectiveness of their activities during the modernization period. Through the component analysis the main factors that influenced the final financial results of the enterprises during the given period were determined. Regression models of panel data with fixed and random effects were made for 19 enterprises. Regression analysis revealed no statistically significant dependencies of the efficiency (profitability on the production scale (enterprise revenue. The dynamics of certain types of expenses were analyzed in order to explain the differences in the profitability dynamics. It revealed virtually no difference in the values of the individual effects of enterprises in different areas of specialization (profile.

  17. Quantification of pure refined olive oil adulterant in extra virgin olive oil using diamond cell atr-ftir spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandhro, A.A.; Saleem, R.; Laghari, A.H.; Sultana, R.

    2014-01-01

    The present study depicts spectroscopic method development to deliver a rapid, simple and reproducible quantification of pure refined olive oil (PROO) adulterant in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) using partial least square (PLS) regression (statistical parameter). Single bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was choice in the developed method. Blended standards of PROO and EVOO were obtained by their weight by weight percentage and the values were used to construct calibration curves for quantification. The optimum regression values (i.e. >0.99) were achieved using the combined frequencies of 3105-2761, 1838-1687, and 1482-440 cm-1 with regression coefficients (R2) 0.99718 and achieved residual mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) 1.40% w/w. To determine the suitability of developed method principal component spectra (PCS) diagnostic was also used. The results of the present study prove that the developed methods reported in preceding studies can be good option for more rapid and accurate determination of PROO adulteration in EVOO. (author)

  18. Phase equilibria study of systems composed of refined babassu oil, lauric acid, ethanol, and water at 303.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reipert, Erika C. D'Anton; Rodrigues, Christianne E.C.; Meirelles, Antonio J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Refining of vegetable oils. → Deacidification of babassu oil by liquid-liquid extraction using ethanol as solvent. → Distribution coefficient values of lauric acid and neutral oil were evaluated. → The carbon chain length of the molecules influenced the solubility of the system. - Abstract: Deacidification of vegetable oils can be performed using liquid-liquid extraction as an alternative method to the classical chemical and physical refining processes. This paper reports experimental data for systems containing refined babassu oil, lauric acid, ethanol, and water at 303.2 K with different water mass fractions in the alcoholic solvent (0, 0.0557, 0.1045, 0.2029, and 0.2972). The dilution of solvent with water reduced the distribution coefficient values, which indicates a reduction in the loss of neutral oil. The experimental data were used to adjust the NRTL equation parameters. The global deviation between the observed and the estimated compositions was 0.0085, indicating that the model can accurately predict the behavior of the compounds at different levels of solvent hydration.

  19. Value-added potential of expeller-pressed canola oil refining: characterization of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols from byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yougui; Thiyam-Hollander, Usha; Barthet, Veronique J; Aachary, Ayyappan A

    2014-10-08

    Valuable phenolic antioxidants are lost during oil refining, but evaluation of their occurrence in refining byproducts is lacking. Rapeseed and canola oil are both rich sources of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols. The retention and loss of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols in commercially produced expeller-pressed canola oils subjected to various refining steps and the respective byproducts were investigated. Loss of canolol (3) and tocopherols were observed during bleaching (84.9%) and deodorization (37.6%), respectively. Sinapic acid (2) (42.9 μg/g), sinapine (1) (199 μg/g), and canolol (344 μg/g) were found in the refining byproducts, namely, soap stock, spent bleaching clay, and wash water, for the first time. Tocopherols (3.75 mg/g) and other nonidentified phenolic compounds (2.7 mg sinapic acid equivalent/g) were found in deodistillates, a byproduct of deodorization. DPPH radical scavenging confirmed the antioxidant potential of the byproducts. This study confirms the value-added potential of byproducts of refining as sources of endogenous phenolics.

  20. Physical refining of edible oils using nitrogen as stripping gas. Process optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciani Constante, E.

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of nitrogen as a stripping gas in physical refining of edible oils represents a technological improvement with potential advantages such as the possibilities of recovering high quality deodorized distillates and eliminating pollution.
    The objectives of the present paper are to study, evaluate and optimize, as far as possible, independent variables involved in the process (nitrogen flow, operating temperature and the height of the oil layer inside the deodorizer in reference to the quality of the obtained oils as well as the manufacturing requirements.
    All the experiments were carried out with sunflower oil in a discontinuous deodorizer with a 200 Kg capacity. A 4x4 latin square experimental design was used, consisting of three factors, each of which had four different levels.
    The results led to the establishment of charts that allow to determine the most suitable conditions in which to carry out the processing in accord with the desired quality of the finished oil and the functional objectives of the factory. These charts are presented in the paper. The results were checked by another set of experiments.

    La utilización de nitrógeno como gas de arrastre en la refinación física de aceites comestibles representa un avance tecnológico con ventajas potenciales, como la posibilidad tanto de recoger destilados de desodorización de alta calidad como de eliminar polución.
    Los objetivos del presente trabajo son estudiar, evaluar y optimizar, tanto como sea posible, las variables que intervienen en el proceso (flujo de nitrógeno, temperatura de operación y altura de la capa de aceite en el desodorizador en función de la calidad de los aceites obtenidos así como de los requerimientos de producción.
    Los ensayos se han realizado con aceite de girasol en un desodorizador discontinuo de 200 kg de capacidad. Se ha utilizado un diseño de experimento en cuadrado latino de 4x4, constituido por tres

  1. The refined of waste oil as sustainable solution: Ecoroil project; El re-refinamiento como solucion sostenible para el aceite usado: proyecto Ecoril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torras, J. M.

    1999-11-01

    Waste oil must be re-refined at all? Or simply burn it all and forget about it? Today`s waste oil is burnt and dumped, thus causing serious and unnecessary pollution of the environment, contamination of the rivers, seas, water sources, soil and atmosphere. Industry and government, both, have fundamental responsibility to use every option to them to reduce pollution and to re-use and recycle before producing more. One of the most effective recycling possibilities is the re-refining. The lubricating oil business is large, profitable and complex. The new technologies in re-refining produce base oils of highest quality which can equal the performance of virgin oil. The ECOROIL Project carried forward by three companies from different sectors, F. L. Iberia - Infineum -Cator, S. A. - has demonstrated it. The paper also provides some light aspects about waste oil and re-refined oils in the last years in Spain. (Author) 4 refs.

  2. Pipeline oil fire detection with MODIS active fire products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogungbuyi, M. G.; Martinez, P.; Eckardt, F. D.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate 85 129 MODIS satellite active fire events from 2007 to 2015 in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. The region is the oil base for Nigerian economy and the hub of oil exploration where oil facilities (i.e. flowlines, flow stations, trunklines, oil wells and oil fields) are domiciled, and from where crude oil and refined products are transported to different Nigerian locations through a network of pipeline systems. Pipeline and other oil facilities are consistently susceptible to oil leaks due to operational or maintenance error, and by acts of deliberate sabotage of the pipeline equipment which often result in explosions and fire outbreaks. We used ground oil spill reports obtained from the National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency (NOSDRA) database (see www.oilspillmonitor.ng) to validate MODIS satellite data. NOSDRA database shows an estimate of 10 000 spill events from 2007 - 2015. The spill events were filtered to include largest spills by volume and events occurring only in the Niger Delta (i.e. 386 spills). By projecting both MODIS fire and spill as `input vector' layers with `Points' geometry, and the Nigerian pipeline networks as `from vector' layers with `LineString' geometry in a geographical information system, we extracted the nearest MODIS events (i.e. 2192) closed to the pipelines by 1000m distance in spatial vector analysis. The extraction process that defined the nearest distance to the pipelines is based on the global practices of the Right of Way (ROW) in pipeline management that earmarked 30m strip of land to the pipeline. The KML files of the extracted fires in a Google map validated their source origin to be from oil facilities. Land cover mapping confirmed fire anomalies. The aim of the study is to propose a near-real-time monitoring of spill events along pipeline routes using 250 m spatial resolution of MODIS active fire detection sensor when such spills are accompanied by fire events in the study location.

  3. Commercial refining in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, P.

    1999-01-01

    About 9% of the world's oil refining capacity is on the Mediterranean: some of the world's biggest and most advanced refineries are on Sicily and Sardinia. The Mediterranean refineries are important suppliers to southern Europe and N. Africa. The article discusses commercial refining in the Mediterranean under the headings of (i) historic development, (ii) product demand, (iii) refinery configurations, (iv) refined product trade, (v) financial performance and (vi) future outlook. Although some difficulties are foreseen, refining in the Mediterranean is likely to continue to be important well into the 21st century. (UK)

  4. Mechanism of formation of 3-chloropropan-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters under conditions of the vegetable oil refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmidrkal, Jan; Tesařová, Markéta; Hrádková, Iveta; Berčíková, Markéta; Adamčíková, Aneta; Filip, Vladimír

    2016-11-15

    3-MCPD esters are contaminants that can form during refining of vegetable oils in the deodorization step. It was experimentally shown that their content in the vegetable oil depends on the acid value of the vegetable oil and the chloride content. 3-MCPD esters form approximately 2-5 times faster from diacylglycerols than from monoacylglycerols. It has been proved that the higher fatty acids content in the oil caused higher 3-MCPD esters content in the deodorization step. Neutralization of free fatty acids in the vegetable oil before the deodorization step by alkaline carbonates or hydrogen carbonates can completely suppress the formation of 3-MCPD esters. Potassium salts are more effective than sodium salts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Productivity assessment of Angola's oil blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Managi, Shunsuke

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the change in productivity as a result of Angola oil policy from 2001 to 2007. Angola oil blocks are the main source of tax receipts and, therefore, strategically important for public finances. A Malmquist index with the input technological bias is applied to measure productivity change. Oil blocks on average became both more efficient and experienced technological progress. Our results indicate that the traditional growth accounting method, which assumes Hicks neutral technological change, is not appropriate for analyzing changes in productivity for Angola oil blocks. Policy implications are derived. (author)

  6. Economic missions. Synthetic file: the petroleum sector in Brazil (exploration and production); the refining activity in Brazil; natural gas in Brazil: a fragile market, inferior to forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    This dossier prepared by the economic mission of the French embassy in Brazil makes a synthesis of the exploration-production and refining activities of the petroleum industry, and of the natural gas distribution market in Brazil: oil reserves and production, Petrobras company, partnership agreements with Petrobras, legal aspects, concessions, projects financing, refining capacity, refinery projects in progress or under study, para-petroleum market perspectives and opportunities, natural gas market development, pipelines network, gas utilities, privatization and foreign participation, lack of expertise and of gas infrastructures and equipments. (J.S.)

  7. European oil product supply modelling; Modelisation de l`offre de produits petroliers en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Antonin, V

    1998-12-11

    Over the last few years, trends in European oil product consumption (in terms of level as structure and quality) has important implications of the refining industry. In this context, the purpose of this thesis consists in building a mathematical programming model applied to the European refineries in order to determine oil product supply prices, European refining industry investments and oil product exchanges of the European Union. The first part presents the reason for our choice for a long-term aggregate multi-refineries linear programming model, based on European refineries characteristics and the objectives of our model. Its dual properties are studied in detail and we focus particularly on the European exchange modelling. In the second part, an analysis of the European refining trends leads us to identify parameters and variables of the model that are essential to the aggregate representation of the European oil product supply. The third part is devoted to the use of this model, regarding two scenarios of increasingly stringent specifications for gasoline and diesel oil. Our interest for these products is due to their important share of the European oil product consumption and the not insignificant responsibility of the transport sector for atmospheric pollution. Finally, in order to have the use of an overall picture of the European refining industry, we build a regression model summarizing, though a few equations, the main relations between the major endogenous and exogenous variables o the LP model. Based on pseudo-data, this kind of model provides a simple and robust representation of the oil product supply. But a more specialized analysis of the refining industry operations, turning on a technical assessment of processing units, is reliant on the use of an optimization model such as the model we have built. (author) 102 refs.

  8. Rebound and disinvestment effects in refined oil consumption and supply resulting from an increase in energy efficiency in the Scottish commercial transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anson, Sam; Turner, Karen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we use an energy-economy-environment computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Scottish economy to examine the impacts of an exogenous increase in energy augmenting technological progress in the domestic commercial Transport sector on the supply and use of energy. We focus our analysis on Scottish refined oil, as the main type of energy input used in commercial transport activity. We find that a 5% increase in energy efficiency in the commercial Transport sector leads to rebound effects in the use of oil-based energy commodities in all time periods, in the target sector and at the economy-wide level. However, our results also suggest that such an efficiency improvement may cause a contraction in capacity in the Scottish refined oil supply sector. This 'disinvestment effect' acts as a constraint on the size of rebound effects. However, the magnitude of rebound effects and presence of the disinvestment effect in the simulations conducted here are sensitive to the specification of key elasticities of substitution in the nested production function for the target sector, particularly the substitutability of energy for non-energy intermediate inputs to production.

  9. Rebound and disinvestment effects in refined oil consumption and supply resulting from an increase in energy efficiency in the Scottish commercial transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anson, Sam [Transport Analytical Services, Scottish Government, Victoria Quay, Edinburgh, EH6 6QQ (United Kingdom); Turner, Karen [Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde, Sir William Duncan Building, 130 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0GE (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper, we use an energy-economy-environment computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Scottish economy to examine the impacts of an exogenous increase in energy augmenting technological progress in the domestic commercial Transport sector on the supply and use of energy. We focus our analysis on Scottish refined oil, as the main type of energy input used in commercial transport activity. We find that a 5% increase in energy efficiency in the commercial Transport sector leads to rebound effects in the use of oil-based energy commodities in all time periods, in the target sector and at the economy-wide level. However, our results also suggest that such an efficiency improvement may cause a contraction in capacity in the Scottish refined oil supply sector. This 'disinvestment effect' acts as a constraint on the size of rebound effects. However, the magnitude of rebound effects and presence of the disinvestment effect in the simulations conducted here are sensitive to the specification of key elasticities of substitution in the nested production function for the target sector, particularly the substitutability of energy for non-energy intermediate inputs to production. (author)

  10. Glycidyl esters in refined palm (Elaeis guineensis) oil and related fractions. Part II: practical recommendations for effective mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Brian D; Nagy, Kornél; Seefelder, Walburga; Dubois, Mathieu; Destaillats, Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    In a previous work, it was shown that at high temperatures (up to 280°C) glycidyl esters (GE) are formed from diacylglycerols (DAG) via elimination of free fatty acid (FFA). In the present study, the impact of DAG content and temperature on the formation of GE using a model vacuum system mimicking industrial edible oil deodorization is investigated. These deodorization experiments confirmed that the formation of GE from DAG is extensive at temperatures above 230-240°C, and therefore, this value should be considered as an upper limit for refining operations. Furthermore, experimental data suggest that the formation of GE accelerates in particular when the DAG levels in refined oils exceed 3-4% of total lipids. Analysis of the lipid composition of crude palm oil (CPO) samples allowed the estimation that this critical DAG content corresponds to about 1.9-2.5% of FFA, which is the conventional quality marker of CPO. Moreover, high levels (>100ppm) of GE were also found in palm fatty acid distillate samples, which may indicate that the level of GE in fully refined palm oils also depends on the elimination rate of GE into the fatty acid distillate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A catalogue of crude oil and oil product properties, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobra, M.A.; Callaghan, S.

    1990-09-01

    This catalogue is a compilation of available data on crude oils and petroleum products. The emphasis of the catalogue is upon oils which could potentially impact Canada's environment. Other oils which are unlikely to be of direct Canadian concern are also included because they have been well characterized and used in relevant studies. The properties listed for each oil are those which will provide an indication of a spilled oil's environmental behaviour and effects. The properties on which data is provided include API gravity, density, viscosity, interfacial tension, pour point, flash point, vapor pressure, volatility and component distribution, emulsion formation tendency and stability, weathering, dispersability, major hydrocarbon groups, aqueous solubility, toxicity, sulfur content, fire point, and wax content. Most of the chemical-physical properties listed in this catalogue were measured using standard tests. For certain properties, data are given at different temperatures and for different degrees of oil weathering. An oil's degree of weathering is expresed as the volume or weight percent evaporated from the fresh oil. Weathered oils used for testing were artificially weathered by gas stripping following the method of Mackay and Stiver. 109 refs

  12. A catalogue of crude oil and oil product properties, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiticar, S.; Bobra, M.; Liuzzo, P.; Callaghan, S.; Fingas, M.; Jokuty, P.; Ackerman, F.; Cao, J.

    1993-02-01

    This catalogue is a compilation of available data on crude oils and petroleum products. The emphasis of the catalogue is upon oils which could potentially impact Canada's environment. Other oils which are unlikely to be of direct Canadian concern are also included because they have been well characterized and used in relevant studies. The properties listed for each oil are those which will provide an indication of a spilled oil's environmental behaviour and effects. The properties on which data is provided include API gravity, density, viscosity, interfacial tension, pour point, flash point, vapor pressure, volatility and component distribution, emulsion formation tendency and stability, weathering, dispersability, major hydrocarbon groups, aqueous solubility, toxicity, sulfur content, fire point, and wax content. Most of the chemical-physical properties listed in this catalogue were measured using standard tests. For certain properties, data are given at different temperatures and for different degrees of oil weathering. An oil's degree of weathering is expresed as the volume or weight percent evaporated from the fresh oil. Weathered oils used for testing were artificially weathered by gas stripping following the method of Mackay and Stiver. 140 refs

  13. Refining in the 1990s: Technological response to environmental concerns, product quality requirements and changes in demand patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naber, J.E.; Stork, W.H.J.; Blauwhoff, P.M.M. (Koninklijke Shell, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Lab.); Groeneveld, K.J.W. (Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands))

    1990-01-01

    The refining industry is faced with a pressing need to protect the environment and with increasing demands for higher quality and changes in the composition of the product mix, partly as a result of a continued decline in demand for residual fuel due to energy savings and competition from other energy sources. An important part of the response to these challenges has been the development and implementation of new and improved technology to increase the refiner's ability to upgrade relatively low-value products to high-quality fuels. This generally involves an increase of the hydrogen content of the products, either by rejecting carbon or by adding hydrogen. In consequence, advanced technology has recently been developed for the conversion of residual components in catalytic crackers (carbon rejection) as well as in residue hydroprocessing (hydrogen addition). However, as a result of the increasing amounts of aromatic components in distillates from residue conversion, higher product quality demands in conjunction with a shift to diesel fuel can only be met by significant further developments in hydroprocessing. These developments favour the low hetero-atom and low-aromatics production in modern hydrocrackers utilising advanced catalysts and process technology. In the more distant future, the advent of new technology for large-scale production of synthesis gas (CO/H{sub 2}) from partial oxidation of natural gas, heavy oil or coal will enable the production of superior-quality non-aromatic middle distillates through sophisticated Fischer-Tropsch catalysis. (orig./EF).

  14. Transgenic oil palm: production and projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C

    2000-12-01

    Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020.

  15. Perspectives of microbial oils for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Qiang; Du Wei; Liu Dehua [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-10-15

    Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits, and the fact that it is made from renewable resources. Generally speaking, biodiesel is prepared through transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats with short chain alcohols. However, the lack of oil feedstocks limits the large-scale development of biodiesel to some extent. Recently, much attention has been paid to the development of microbial, oils and it has been found that many microorganisms, such as algae, yeast, bacteria, and fungi, have the ability to accumulate oils under some special cultivation conditions. Compared to other plant oils, microbial oils have many advantages, such as short life cycle, less labor required, less affection by venue, season and climate, and easier to scale up. With the rapid expansion of biodiesel, microbial oils might become one of potential oil feedstocks for biodiesel production in the future, though there are many works associated with microorganisms producing oils need to be carried out further. This review is covering the related research about different oleaginous microorganisms producing oils, and the prospects of such microbial oils used for biodiesel production are also discussed. (orig.)

  16. Influence of enzymatic and chemical interesterification on crystallisation properties of refined, bleached and deodourised (RBD) palm oil and RBD palm kernel oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norizzah, Abd Rashid; Nur Azimah, Kamarulzaman; Zaliha, Omar

    2018-04-01

    Interesterification reaction involves rearrangement of the fatty acid radicals on the glycerol backbone, either randomly (chemical interesterification) or regioselectivity (enzymatic interesterification). Refined, bleached and deodourised palm oil (RBDPO) and palm kernel oil (RBDPKO) were blended in ratios from 25:75 to 75:25 (wt/wt). All blends were subjected to enzymatic (EI) and chemical interesterification (CI) using Lipozyme TL IM (4% w/w) and sodium methoxide (0.2% m/m) as the catalysts, respectively. The effect of EI and CI on the triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour, polymorphism, crystal morphology and crystallisation kinetics were studied. The aim of this research is to characterise the nature of crystals in food product for certain desired structure. The crystallisation behaviour discussed in this study involves microstructure (PLM), polymorphism (XRD), thermal properties and crystallisation kinetics by DSC. The alteration in TAG composition was greater after CI as compared to EI with the reduction of LaLaLa (from 11.00% to 5.15%) and POO (from 14.28% to 4.87%). The DSC complete melting and crystallisation temperature of blend with 75% PO increased after CI, from 39.58 °C to 41.67 °C and from -30.84 °C to -28.33 °C, respectively. EI contributed to finer crystals than CI. However, the β' and β polymorph mixture and crystallisation kinetics (n = 2) of PO-PKO blends did not change after CI and EI. The knowledge on controlling crystallisation of RBDPO and RBDPKO blends is vital for proper processing condition like margarine production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An application of multiple criteria decision-making techniques for ranking different national Iranian oil refining and distribution companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Nazari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement plays an essential role on management of governmental agencies especially when profitability is not the primary concern and we need to consider other important factors than profitability such as customer satisfaction, etc. In this paper, we propose a multi-criteria decision making method to rank different national Iranian oil refining and distribution companies. The proposed study of this paper uses six factors including per capita supply, energy cost, physical productivity of labor, staff participation, quality control inspection of stations and education per capita. The proposed study uses Entropy to find the relative importance of each criterion and TOPSIS to rank 37 alternatives based on cities and three regions. The results of the implementation of our method indicate that central regions close to capital city of the country maintains the highest ranking (0.9122 while southern regions maintains the lowest comes in the lowest priority (0.0569 and the northern region is in the middle (0.7635.

  18. [Effects of oil-refining microbes (genus Acinetobacter) on cytogenetical structures of human lymphocytes in cell cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'inskikh, N N; Il'inskikh, E N; Il'inskikh, I N

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess ability of oil-refining bacteria Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and A. valentis to induce karyopathological abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocyte cultures. It was found that the cultures infected with A. calcoaceticus showed significantly high frequencies of cytogenetical effects and chromosomal aberrant cells as compared to the intact cultures and cultures infected with A. valentis. The most of chromosomal aberrations, mainly chromatid aberrations, were located in 1 and 2 chromosomes. Moreover, the aberrations were detected in some specific chromosome areas. Abnormalities of mitotic cell division and nucleus morphology were determined in lymphocyte cultures infected with A. calcoaceticus. There were found significantly high frequencies of cells with micronuclei, nucleus protrusions, anaphase or metaphase chromosome and chromosomal fragments lagging as well as multipolar and C-mitoses. Thus, the oil-refining bacteria A. calcoaceticus in contrast to A. valentis demonstrated strong genotoxic effects in human lymphocyte cultures in vitro.

  19. Modeling oil production based on symbolic regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Guangfei; Li, Xianneng; Wang, Jianliang; Lian, Lian; Ma, Tieju

    2015-01-01

    Numerous models have been proposed to forecast the future trends of oil production and almost all of them are based on some predefined assumptions with various uncertainties. In this study, we propose a novel data-driven approach that uses symbolic regression to model oil production. We validate our approach on both synthetic and real data, and the results prove that symbolic regression could effectively identify the true models beneath the oil production data and also make reliable predictions. Symbolic regression indicates that world oil production will peak in 2021, which broadly agrees with other techniques used by researchers. Our results also show that the rate of decline after the peak is almost half the rate of increase before the peak, and it takes nearly 12 years to drop 4% from the peak. These predictions are more optimistic than those in several other reports, and the smoother decline will provide the world, especially the developing countries, with more time to orchestrate mitigation plans. -- Highlights: •A data-driven approach has been shown to be effective at modeling the oil production. •The Hubbert model could be discovered automatically from data. •The peak of world oil production is predicted to appear in 2021. •The decline rate after peak is half of the increase rate before peak. •Oil production projected to decline 4% post-peak

  20. Oil shale mines and their realizable production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habicht, K.

    1994-01-01

    The production of Estonian oil shale depends on its marketing opportunities. The realizable production is a function of the oil shale price, which in turn depends on production costs. The latter are dependent on which mines are producing oil shale and on the volume of production. The purpose of the present article is to analyze which mines should operate under various realizable production scenarios and what should be their annual output so that the total cost of oil shale production (including maintenance at idle mines) is minimized. This paper is also targeted at observing the change in the average production cost per ton of oil shale depending on the realizable output. The calculations are based on data for the first four months of 1993, as collected by N. Barabaner (Estonian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economy). The data include the total production volume and production cost from the mines of RE 'Eesti Polevkivi' (State Enterprise 'Estonian Oil Shale'). They also project expenses from mine closings in case of conservation. The latter costs were allocated among mines in direct proportion to their respective number of employees. (author)

  1. Refining ASD for disease management in strawberry and apple production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) has been studied as an industry level option for replacing soil fumigants to manage soil-borne diseases in both annual and perennial crop production systems. Although ASD has proven effective for the suppression of certain soil-borne pathogens in both strawberry ...

  2. Oil? Finally, a product like the others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau Defarges, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    As oil is generally considered as a vital element for production and consumption system, without which the one who hasn't any could not live, the author examines whether oil is actually an exceptional raw product which would escape from market rules according to which everything depends on the market and work is the only source of value and power. In order to do so, he discusses whether the present oil price increase is a good or a bad news, whether this increase confirms that oil is finally a product like the others, whether it has been and is a reason for war, and whether oil will remain (if it has ever been) a major geopolitical issue or, in other words, a determining factor of alliances and antagonism

  3. SOLID BIOFUEL UTILIZATION IN VEGETABLE OIL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slusarenko V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with questions of creating at JSC “Alimentarmash "in the last 20 years the technological equipment for the production of vegetable oils from oilseeds: from the press for the final spin to mini oilfactory, using as an energy source for heating the liquid coolant (Thermal oil "Arian" of solid biofuels - husk of sunflower seeds.

  4. Oil production from bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotting, H E.B.; Gotting, L K

    1940-07-30

    The material such as shale, coal, lignite and the like, is heated in an externally heated retort and the generated gas is passed to a series of cells comprising a bubble tower, the cells of which are separated by plates, through which pipes, with perforated caps pass, also overflow pipes. The gas passing through the cell produces further oil vapour, and is decomposed by heated oil into lighter fractions, till it passes out of the tower through a pipe and through condensing coil to receiving vessels for the oil. Fixed gas passes to cylindrical wash vessels, the back pressure inducing the required pressure in the retort.

  5. Use of absorption spectroscopy for refined petroleum product discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michael

    1991-07-01

    On-line discrimination between arbitrary petroleum products is necessary for optimal control of petroleum refinery and pipeline operation and process control involving petroleum distillates. There are a number of techniques by which petroleum products can be distinguished from one another. Among these, optical measurements offer fast, non-intrusive, real-time characterization. The application examined here involves optically monitoring the interface between dissimilar batches of fluids in a gasoline pipeline. After examination of near- infrared and mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform mid-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was chosen as the best candidate for implementation. On- line FTIR data is presented, verifying the applicability of the technique for batch interface detection.

  6. Giant Oil Fields - The Highway to Oil: Giant Oil Fields and their Importance for Future Oil Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robelius, Fredrik

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1950s, oil has been the dominant source of energy in the world. The cheap supply of oil has been the engine for economic growth in the western world. Since future oil demand is expected to increase, the question to what extent future production will be available is important. The belief in a soon peak production of oil is fueled by increasing oil prices. However, the reliability of the oil price as a single parameter can be questioned, as earlier times of high prices have occurred without having anything to do with a lack of oil. Instead, giant oil fields, the largest oil fields in the world, can be used as a parameter. A giant oil field contains at least 500 million barrels of recoverable oil. Only 507, or 1 % of the total number of fields, are giants. Their contribution is striking: over 60 % of the 2005 production and about 65 % of the global ultimate recoverable reserve (URR). However, giant fields are something of the past since a majority of the largest giant fields are over 50 years old and the discovery trend of less giant fields with smaller volumes is clear. A large number of the largest giant fields are found in the countries surrounding the Persian Gulf. The domination of giant fields in global oil production confirms a concept where they govern future production. A model, based on past annual production and URR, has been developed to forecast future production from giant fields. The results, in combination with forecasts on new field developments, heavy oil and oil sand, are used to predict future oil production. In all scenarios, peak oil occurs at about the same time as the giant fields peak. The worst-case scenario sees a peak in 2008 and the best-case scenario, following a 1.4 % demand growth, peaks in 2018

  7. Panorama 2012 - Refining 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, Pierre; Saint-Antonin, Valerie

    2011-11-01

    The major uncertainty characterizing the global energy landscape impacts particularly on transport, which remains the virtually-exclusive bastion of the oil industry. The industry must therefore respond to increasing demand for mobility against a background marked by the emergence of alternatives to oil-based fuels and the need to reduce emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG). It is in this context that the 'Refining 2030' study conducted by IFP Energies Nouvelles (IFPEN) forecasts what the global supply and demand balance for oil products could be, and highlights the type and geographical location of the refinery investment required. Our study shows that the bulk of the refining investment will be concentrated in the emerging countries (mainly those in Asia), whilst the areas historically strong in refining (Europe and North America) face reductions in capacity. In this context, the drastic reduction in the sulphur specification of bunker oil emerges as a structural issue for European refining, in the same way as increasingly restrictive regulation of refinery CO 2 emissions (quotas/taxation) and the persistent imbalance between gasoline and diesel fuels. (authors)

  8. Quality Characteristics of Iranian Extra Virgin Flaxseed Oil and the Effect of the Refining Stages before Deodorization on its Physicochemical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Manochehr Bahmaei; Yousef Ramezan; Parvin Eshratabadi

    2017-01-01

    Flaxseed oil is known as a functional oil because of the high content of α-linolenic acid; therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate some physicochemical properties of Iranian extra virgin flaxseed oil (EVFO) and the impact of the refining stages before deodorization on these properties. Fatty acid composition, peroxide and anisidine values, free fatty acids, Crystallization point, chlorophyll content, β-carotene content, and color were analyzed. The Iranian flaxseed oils had abo...

  9. The economic impact of taxes on refined petroleum products in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.; Uri, N.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper uses an aggregate modelling approach to assess the impact of taxes on refined petroleum products on the Philippine economy. The effects of removing the 48% tax on premium and regular gasoline and the 24% tax on other refined petroleum products on prices and quantities are examined. For example, the consequences of a complete elimination of refined petroleum product taxes would be an increase in output by all producing sectors of about 3.7% or about 2.65 hundred billion Philippine pesos, a rise in the consumption of goods and services by about 13.6% or 4.2 hundred billion Philippine pesos, a rise in lower tax revenue for the government of 62.4% or 2.8 hundred billion Philippine pesos. When subjected to sensitivity analyses, the results are reasonably robust. (author)

  10. Diesel-soluble lignin oils and methods of their production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Solvent consumption in supercritical ethanol, propanol or butanol treatment of either refined pre-extracted lignin or comparatively impure lignin-rich solid residual from hydrothermally pretreated lignocellulosic biomass can be minimized by conducting the reaction at very high loading of lignin...... to solvent. Comparatively impure, crude lignin- rich solid residual can be directly converted by supercritical alcohol treatment to significantly diesel-soluble lignin oil without requirement for pre-extraction or pre- solubilisation of lignin or for added reaction promoters such as catalysts, hydrogen donor...... co-solvents, acids, based or H2 gas. O:C ratio of product oil can readily be obtained using crude lignin residual in such a process at levels 0.20 or lower....

  11. Growth regulators and essential oil production

    OpenAIRE

    Prins, Cláudia L; Vieira, Ivo J. C; Freitas, Silvério P

    2010-01-01

    The aroma and fragrance industry is a billion-dollar world market which grows annually. Essential oils comprise the majority of compounds used by these industries. These sets of metabolites are formed mainly by monoterpenes, which are products of the plants' secondary metabolism. Biosynthesized from mevalonate and methylerythitol phosphate, the essential oil production depends not only on genetic factors and the developmental stage of plants, but also on environmental factors which could resu...

  12. Economic growth to raise U.S. oil products, natural gas demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    An accelerating economy will raise consumption of oil products and natural gas in the US this year. Contributing to demand growth will be the slump that began late last year in prices for crude oil and petroleum products. Some price recovery is likely in 1994, but there's little reason to expect a major increase. With oil production falling and demand rising, imports will have to climb again this year. OGJ projects a 2.6% increase this year following a 6.6% increase last year. Imports are expected to fill a record high 49.3% of US oil demand this year. The paper discusses energy and the economy, overall energy use, energy by source, the electrification trend, energy supplies, imports, refining operations, the growth of margins, and the energy demand of motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuels, residual fuel oils, other petroleum products, and natural gas

  13. Biodiesel Production Using Waste Cooking Oil and Ethanol for Alkaline Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bulla Pereira, Edwin A.; Sierra, Fabio E.; Guerrero, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a study of the results of the project “Design of a Biodiesel Production Process Based on Cooking Oils at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia” (“Diseño de un proceso de producción de biodiesel a partir de aceites de fritura de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia”) carried out in 2013. Refined vegetable oils are the most commonly used to produce biodiesel fuels; however, used fried oils (auf from the Spanish acronym) make for a product with quality, yield and environmental b...

  14. Comparison of the effects of semi-refined rice oil and soybean oil on meat oxidative stability, carcass yield, metabolism, and performance of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML de Moraes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments (EXP 1 and EXP 2 were conducted to compare soybean oil (SO and semi-refined rice oil (RBO added to broilers diets. In EXP 1, 400 male Ross x Ross 308 broilers were reared in battery cages, and their performance was evaluated. A metabolism assay was performed. In EXP 2, 1344 broilers from the same strain were reared in floor pens with rice husks litter. In addition to performance, carcass yield and meat oxidative stability were evaluated. In both EXP, birds were distributed in a 2x4 factorial arrangement, with two types of oils (SO or RBO and four oil inclusion levels (1%, 2.5%, 4%, or 5.5%. Two periods were considered: starter (1 to 21 days of age and grower (22 to 42 days. In both EXP, oil type had no influence on starter performance. Although treatments promoted similar in weight gain (WG and feed intake (FI, grower birds fed RBO had better feed conversion (FCR in EXP 2, but not in EXP1. In both trials, increasing dietary oil levels negatively influenced FI and positively FCR. Weight gain was similar among all treatments in EXP 1, whereas in EXP 2, WG was higher when 4 and 5.5% oil was included in the feed. RBO presented 94% fat metabolizability, and crude energy and metabolizable energy levels of 9.260 and 8.714 kcal/kg, respectively. Carcass yield was not influenced by oil type; however, oil inclusion level negatively affected breast yield. The experimental treatments had no effect on meat oxidative stability. RBO can be used as an alternative to soybean oil in broilers diets.

  15. Maximization of Egyptian Gas Oil Production Through the Optimal Use of the Operating Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marawan, H.

    2004-01-01

    Gas oil is the major fossil fuel consumed around the world. Global gas oil consumption is rising at a steadily fast pace because of its higher combustion efficiency (versus gasoline). The annual increase rate of gas oil consumption in Egypt is 7 % whereas, the world increase rates range from 1.5 % to 2 % . The main sources for producing gas oil in Egypt refiners is the direct production from the atmospheric distillation process units or it may be produced as a side product from vacuum distillation units . Gas oil is produced through hydrocracking process of vacuum distillation side streams and heavy cocked gas oil. Gas oil production yield can be increased through the existing operation process units. Modifications of the current atmospheric and vacuum tower operations will increase gas oil yield rates to 20 % more than the existing production rates. The modification of the operating conditions and adoption of the optimum catalyst of the existing hydrocracking and mild hydro cracking process units improve gas oil production yield. Operating delayed cocker at high temperatures, low pressure and low cycle ratio also support achieving the maximization of gas oil yield

  16. Investing in Iranian oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraclough, Colin.

    1997-01-01

    The decision by a French-led consortium to sign a 2bn oil development deal with Iran represents the largest single investment in the Islamic Republic since its revolution of 1978/79. Despite the threat of US sanctions on investors, Iran is on the threshold of a major revitalization of its hydrocarbon industries. (UK)

  17. Satisfaction of the Automotive Fleet Fuel Demand and Its Impact on the Oil Refining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Because virtually all transportation fuels are based on petroleum, it is essential to include petroleum refining in any assessment of potential changes in the transportation system. A number of changes in the automotive fleet have been proposed to im...

  18. Oil refining in a CO2 constrained world: Effects of carbon pricing on refineries globally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Manan, Amir F.N.; Arfaj, Abdullah; Babiker, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Six aggregated refinery linear programming (LP) models were developed to represent actual refineries in North America, Latin America, Europe (including the CIS), Middle East, Asia (excluding China) and China. The models were used to conduct regional comparative assessments and to evaluate the effects of carbon pricing on refinery operations globally. We found that the average refinery energy efficiencies for the regions were estimated to range from 92.2% to 95.2%. The well-to-refinery gate carbon intensities for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels were estimated to be 17.1 (16.4–19.4), 13.3 (12.5–14.2) and 10.1 (9.6–10.8) gCO2eq/MJ, respectively. If refineries are forced to at least meet the 2014 regional volume demands for oil products, pricing CO 2 would not have an impact on either refinery productions, efficiency or emissions. If refineries are allowed to re-optimize production slates to reduce CO 2 emissions, refineries would opt to increase gasoline yield at the expense of diesel. This is counter intuitive since gasoline has a higher carbon intensity than diesel. The refinery bias against dieselization creates a supply preference toward a less efficient transportation end use. Here, we argue that if carbon pricing is not administered properly, this can lead to emissions leakage from refineries to the road transport sector. - Highlights: • Investigate actual refinery productions in 6 regions globally. • Refineries already operate at the most efficient levels. • Complex refineries tolerate higher CO 2 prices better. • Carbon pricing induces bias against dieselization. • Identify potential emissions leakage.

  19. US refining reviewed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    1998-01-01

    The paper reviews the history, present position and future prospects of the petroleum industry in the USA. The main focus is on supply and demand, the high quality of the products, refinery capacity and product trade balances. Diagrams show historical trends in output, product demand, demand for transport fuels and oil, refinery capacity, refinery closures, and imports and exports. Some particularly salient points brought out were (i) production of US crude shows a marked downward trend but imports of crude will continue to increase, (ii) product demand will continue to grow even though the levels are already high, (iii) the demand is dominated by those products that typically yield the highest income for the refiner, (i.e. high quality transport fuels for environmental compliance), (iv) refinery capacity has decreased since 1980 and (v) refining will continue to have financial problems but will still be profitable. (UK)

  20. Law proposal aiming at imposing the domestic consumption tax to the natural gas used for hydrogen generation for petroleum refining purposes; Proposition de loi visant a soumettre a la taxe interieure de consommation le gaz naturel utilise pour la production d'hydrogene a des fins de raffinage petrolier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    In France, natural gas benefits from tax exemptions in several situations and in particular when used as raw material for hydrogen generation, which in turn, is used for crude oil refining and fuels generation. However, crude oil is cheaper when it is heavier but more hydrogen, and thus more natural gas, is needed to refine it and more CO{sub 2} is released in the atmosphere. Therefore, refining cheap crude oil increases the refining margins of oil companies but their environmental impact as well. The aim of this law proposal is to impose the domestic consumption tax to natural gas when used in oil refining processes in order to finance the development of the renewable hydrogen industry through the creation of a High Council of Hydrogen Industry. This High Council would be in charge of promoting the development of renewable hydrogen production facilities and distribution circuits, of hydrogen-fueled vehicles, and of fuel cells. (J.S.)

  1. DEMAND FOR OIL PRODUCTS IN OPEC COUNTRIES: A PANEL COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourah Al Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing consumption of oil-refined products on OPEC countries will have its impact on the availability of oil exports. The goal of this paper is to examine the determinants of oil refined products’ consumption for a panel consisting of 7 OPEC countries, namely, Algeria, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Emirates and Iran for the period of 1980–2010, by employing the recently developed panel data unit root tests and panel data cointegration techniques. Furthermore, conditional on finding cointegration, the paper extends the literature by employing the Pedroni Panel Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS Dynamic OLS (DOLS procedure to generate. The study estimates the demand for Gasoline, Kerosene and Diesel. An attempt is also made to assess the impact of this demand on the future availability of OPEC oil exports.

  2. Oil and gas exploration and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, D.; Favennec, J.P.; Bauquis, P.R.; Bret-Rouzaut, N.; Guirauden, D.

    2004-01-01

    The steps that lead to the production of oil and gas are diverse, complex and costly. They are diverse, because the detection of oil and gas involves input from many specialties, ranging from geology to reservoir engineering. They are complex, as shown by the development of the job of the petroleum architect, who coordinates all the operations. They are costly, as the investments for exploration and production represent more than half of all investments in the oil and gas sector. Moreover, exploration is a risky activity, both from the technical and financial viewpoint: only one well in five produces marketable oil. Meanwhile, the areas for exploration and production are spread throughout the world. This book provides a complete overview of the stakes and challenges involved in oil and gas exploration and production. Following a historical review and a survey of the markets, the technical phases are covered, as are the evaluation of reserves, the estimation of investments and costs, the decision-making and control processes, and the accounting, legal and contractual environment for these activities. The book concludes with a discussion of the role of safety, and of environmental and ethical issues. This work, which is designed for readers concerned with the various aspects of the oil and gas upstream sector, is accessible to all. Contents: 1. Petroleum: a strategic product. 2. Oil and gas exploration and production. 3. Hydrocarbon reserves. 4. Investments and costs. 5. Legal, fiscal and contractual framework. 6. Decision-making on exploration and production. 7. Information, accounting and competition analysis. 8. Health, safety, the environment, ethics. Bibliography. Glossary. Index

  3. GC/MS determination of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Wang, Z.; Hollebone, B.; Brown, C.E.; Landriault, M.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted in which sesquiterpanes, a component of crude oils and petroleum products, were identified and characterized in an effort to determine the feasibility of using them as biomarkers for fingerprinting and identifying unknown lighter petroleum product spills. The study compared the distributions of sesquiterpanes in different oils, oil distillation fractions and refined products, including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels and lubricating oils. Evaporative weathering effects on sesquiterpane distribution and concentration were quantitatively studied and several diagnostic indices of sesquiterpane were developed for oil correlation and differentiation. Bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and oil products have much different abundances and distributions. Therefore, the relevant sesquiterpane ratios are different. Bicyclic sesquiterpanes are mostly partitioned into the medium distillation fractions. The study showed that concentrations of sesquiterpanes in crude oil and diesel fuel increase in proportion with the increase of weathering percentages. Relevant diagnostic ratios therefore remained stable. It was concluded that C 15 and C 16 sesquiterpanes may be alternative internal tracers to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. 13 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  4. Alcorn wells bolster Philippines oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Alcorn International Inc., Houston, is producing about 16,500 b/d of oil from West Linapacan A field in the South China Sea off the Philippines. The field's current production alone is more than fivefold the Philippines' total average oil flow of 3,000 b/d in 1991. It's part of a string of oil and gas strikes off Palawan Island that has made the region one of the hottest exploration/development plays in the Asia-Pacific theater

  5. Global Trends and Development Prospects for Oil and the Oil Products Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dorozhkina

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the important issue of the development of the global market of oil and oil products. It offers an overview of how this market was formed and its current status, classification, location and potential of countries in the oil and oil processing business. It analyzes the Ukrainian oil products market. The article discusses the shortcomings and strategic areas for the development of Ukraine’s oil transport system. It presents an optimum method for creating integration groups in order to develop the oil processing business in Ukraine for the future. The article considers the main trends and outlines development prospects for the global oil and oil products market.

  6. Oil and gas products and energy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The planned activities of the Canadian oil and gas products and energy equipment industry for 1996-1997, were presented. The sector is made up of approximately 1500 small and medium sized enterprises. The Canadian oil field manufacturing and servicing industry holds only a small 2.5% share of the world export market, but it is recognized internationally as one of the leading suppliers of advanced petroleum equipment. Their exports include specialized equipment for extracting oil sands, gathering and treatment facilities for sour gas, underbalanced drilling technologies, equipment for wells experiencing declining production rates, top motor drives, winter drilling rigs, and horizontal drilling technologies. They also offer petroleum industry software products. Most exploration and production equipment sold abroad by Canadian firms is manufactured in Canada, but there is an increasing trend toward manufacturing in the country of operation. 2 tabs

  7. Operator Product Formulas in the Algebraic Approach of the Refined Topological Vertex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Li-Qiang; Wang Li-Fang; Wu Ke; Yang Jie

    2013-01-01

    The refined topological vertex of Iqbal—Kozçaz—Vafa has been investigated from the viewpoint of the quantum algebra of type W 1+∞ by Awata, Feigin, and Shiraishi. They introduced the trivalent intertwining operator Φ which is normal ordered along with some prefactors. We manage to establish formulas from the infinite operator product of the vertex operators and the generalized ones to restore this prefactor, and obtain an explicit formula for the vertex realization of the topological vertex as well as the refined topological vertex

  8. Emission and Performance Analysis of ZrO2 And CeO2 Coated Piston Using Refined Vegetable Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanandh, J.; Narayanan, K. V.; Manoj, Vemuri

    2017-05-01

    Increase in global warming and pollution leads to look for an alternative fuel. The aim of this paper to improve the performance and to reduce the emissions in DI diesel engine. The 80% of ZrO2 and 20% of CeO2 were mixed and coated on the piston head using plasma spray method. The B10 fuel of various refined vegetable oil methyl esters were used as fuel. The test was conducted in the 4-stroke DI diesel engine at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The results show that the brake thermal efficiency, NOx and BSFC was increased. The CO and HC were decreased.

  9. Soy Sauce Residue Oil Extracted by a Novel Continuous Phase Transition Extraction under Low Temperature and Its Refining Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lichao; Zhang, Yong; He, Liping; Dai, Weijie; Lai, Yingyi; Yao, Xueyi; Cao, Yong

    2014-04-09

    On the basis of previous single-factor experiments, extraction parameters of soy sauce residue (SSR) oil extracted using a self-developed continuous phase transition extraction method at low temperature was optimized using the response surface methodology. The established optimal conditions for maximum oil yield were n-butane solvent, 0.5 MPa extraction pressure, 45 °C temperature, 62 min extraction time, and 45 mesh raw material granularity. Under these conditions, the actual yield was 28.43% ± 0.17%, which is relatively close to the predicted yield. Meanwhile, isoflavone was extracted from defatted SSR using the same method, but the parameters and solvent used were altered. The new solvent was 95% (v/v) ethanol, and extraction was performed under 1.0 MPa at 60 °C for 90 min. The extracted isoflavones, with 0.18% ± 0.012% yield, mainly comprised daidzein and genistein, two kinds of aglycones. The novel continuous phase transition extraction under low temperature could provide favorable conditions for the extraction of nonpolar or strongly polar substances. The oil physicochemical properties and fatty acids compositions were analyzed. Results showed that the main drawback of the crude oil was the excess of acid value (AV, 63.9 ± 0.1 mg KOH/g) and peroxide value (POV, 9.05 ± 0.3 mmol/kg), compared with that of normal soybean oil. However, through molecular distillation, AV and POV dropped to 1.78 ± 0.12 mg KOH/g and 5.9 ± 0.08 mmol/kg, respectively. This refined oil may be used as feedstuff oil.

  10. Stability evaluation of quality parameters for palm oil products at low temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nur Aainaa Syahirah; Mohd Noor, Mohd Azmil; Musa, Hajar; Ghazali, Razmah

    2018-07-01

    Palm oil is one of the major oils and fats produced and traded worldwide. The value of palm oil products is mainly influenced by their quality. According to ISO 17025:2005, accredited laboratories require a quality control procedure with respect to monitoring the validity of tests for determination of quality parameters. This includes the regular use of internal quality control using secondary reference materials. Unfortunately, palm oil reference materials are not currently available. To establish internal quality control samples, the stability of quality parameters needs to be evaluated. In the present study, the stability of quality parameters for palm oil products was examined over 10 months at low temperature storage (6 ± 2 °C). The palm oil products tested included crude palm oil (CPO); refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm oil (RBDPO); RBD palm olein (RBDPOo); and RBD palm stearin (RBDPS). The quality parameters of the oils [i.e. moisture content, free fatty acid content (FFA), iodine value (IV), fatty acids composition (FAC) and slip melting point (SMP)] were determined prior to and throughout the storage period. The moisture, FFA, IV, FAC and SMP for palm oil products changed significantly (P  0.05). The stability study indicated that the quality of the palm oil products was stable within the specified limits throughout the storage period at low temperature. The storage conditions preserved the quality of palm oil products throughout the storage period. These findings qualify the use of the palm oil products CPO, RBDPO, RBDPOo and RBDPS as control samples in the validation of test results. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  12. New Insights on Degumming and Bleaching Process Parameters on The Formation of 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-Diol Esters and Glycidyl Esters in Refined, Bleached, Deodorized Palm Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Biow Ing; Muhamad, Halimah; Lai, Oi Ming; Abas, Faridah; Yeoh, Chee Beng; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Khor, Yih Phing; Tan, Chin Ping

    2018-04-01

    This paper examines the interactions of degumming and bleaching processes as well as their influences on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl esters in refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil by using D-optimal design. Water degumming effectively reduced the 3-MCPDE content up to 50%. Acid activated bleaching earth had a greater effect on 3-MCPDE reduction compared to natural bleaching earth and acid activated bleaching earth with neutral pH, indicating that performance and adsorption capacities of bleaching earth are the predominant factors in the removal of esters, rather than its acidity profile. The combination of high dosage phosphoric acid during degumming with the use of acid activated bleaching earth eliminated almost all glycidyl esters during refining. Besides, the effects of crude palm oil quality was assessed and it was found that the quality of crude palm oil determines the level of formation of 3-MCPDE and glycidyl esters in palm oil during the high temperature deodorization step of physical refining process. Poor quality crude palm oil has strong impact towards 3-MCPDE and glycidyl esters formation due to the intrinsic components present within. The findings are useful to palm oil refining industry in choosing raw materials as an input during the refining process.

  13. Calculated identification of the output of a refinate in furfurol purification of distillate oil fractions. Raschetnoye opredeleniye vykhoda rafinata pri ochistke furfurolom distillyatnykh maslyanykh fraktsii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okhrimenko, N.V.; Dorodnova, V.S.; Martynenko, A.G.; Shiryayeva, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    The possibility is shown of using an equation proposed by Weigl and Dvayvedi for calculated identification of the outputs of a refinate in furfurol purification of gas oil fractions as applied to the purification of distillate oil fractions (350 to 420 and 420 to 500 degrees of a mixture of Eastern Ukrainian oils from the Druzhba pipeline with a content of 43.6 and 53.8 percent aromatic hydrocarbons (ArU). The deviations between the calculated values of the refinate output and the actual do not exceed 0.5 to 1.5 percent.

  14. Factors Affecting Oil Palm Production in Ondo State of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discovery of crude oil and the civil war adversely affected oil palm production in Nigeria. This has resulted in scarcity and high cost of palm products and palm oil. The study therefore investigated the factors influencing oil palm production in Ondo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty respondents were selected from ...

  15. Oil and gas leasing/production program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimberger, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    As the Congress declared in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act the natural gas and oil production from the Outer Continental Shelf constitutes an important part of the Nation's domestic energy supply. Federal offshore minerals are administered within the Department of the Interior by the Minerals Management Service (MMS), which provides access to potential new sources of natural gas and oil offshore by conducting lease sales. Each year, on or before March 31, the MMS presents to Congress a fiscal year annual report on the Federal offshore natural gas and oil leasing and production program. In FY 1991, this program was the third largest producer of non-tax revenue for the US Treasury, contributing more than $3 billion. This report presents Federal offshore leasing, sales, production, and exploration activities, and environmental monitoring activities

  16. Production, properties and utilisation of pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K; Oasmaa, A; Arpiainen, V; Solantausta, Y; Leppaemaeki, E; Kuoppala, E; Levander, J; Kleemola, J; Saarimaeki, P [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    In this project VTT Energy co-ordinates the EU JOULE Project `Biofuel oil for power plants and boilers` supporting the development projects of Finnish enterprises, and participates in the Pyrolysis Project of IEA Bioenergy Agreement. Presently two pyrolysis devices with capacities of 150 g/h and 1 kg/h are used for the project. Hot gas filtering tests by using one ceramic candle equipment have been carried out with the 1 kg/h device for pyrolysis oil. The solids and alkali contents of the product oil were reduced clearly. Suitable conditions are being defined for continuous hot gas filtering. A PDU device of 20 kg/h is being commissioned. The main aim of the chemical characterisation of pyrolysis oil was to develop as simple a method as possible for differentiating pyrolysis oils and for finding correlations between the characteristics and behaviour of pyrolysis oils. Pyrolysis oils produced from various raw materials (hardwood, pine, straw) were analysed and compared with each other. VTT Energy participates in the pyrolysis network (EU/PYNE) of EU, the aim of which is to collect and disseminate research results of pyrolysis studies, i.e., through a journal with a wide circulation. VTT also participates in the pyrolysis activity of IEA (PYRA), the other partners being Great Britain, EU, Canada and the United States. I.e., quality criteria and improvement, occupational safety and pyrolysis kinetics are discussed in IEA/PYRA

  17. Life cycle water demand coefficients for crude oil production from five North American locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Babkir; Kumar, Amit

    2017-10-15

    The production of liquid fuels from crude oil requires water. There has been limited focus on the assessment of life cycle water demand footprints for crude oil production and refining. The overall aim of this paper is address this gap. The objective of this research is to develop water demand coefficients over the life cycle of fuels produced from crude oil pathways. Five crude oil fields were selected in the three North American countries to reflect the impact of different spatial locations and technologies on water demand. These include the Alaska North Slope, California's Kern County heavy oil, and Mars in the U.S.; Maya in Mexico; and Bow River heavy oil in Alberta, Canada. A boundary for an assessment of the life cycle water footprint was set to cover the unit operations related to exploration, drilling, extraction, and refining. The recovery technology used to extract crude oil is one of the key determining factors for water demand. The amount of produced water that is re-injected to recover the oil is essential in determining the amount of fresh water that will be required. During the complete life cycle of one barrel of conventional crude oil, 1.71-8.25 barrels of fresh water are consumed and 2.4-9.51 barrels of fresh water are withdrawn. The lowest coefficients are for Bow River heavy oil and the highest coefficients are for Maya crude oil. Of all the unit operations, exploration and drilling require the least fresh water (less than 0.015 barrel of water per barrel of oil produced). A sensitivity analysis was conducted and uncertainty in the estimates was determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Oil price movements and production agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazraati, M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this technical exercise is to apply econometric modelling to study the relationship between movements in the oil price and compliance by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) with its self-assigned production agreements, whose purpose is to bring order and stability to the international oil market. After introducing various methods of measurement of compliance, the study applies these methods to monthly data for 1995-2002 for OPEC. It then identifies the method ''over-production as a percentage of ceiling'' as the best-fitting and most accurate criterion for measuring OPEC compliance. The paper then elaborates on intervention analysis, explains the various types of intervention in detail and introduces a number of econometric models to monitor oil price movements resulting from OPEC's intervention in the oil market, along with the extent of its compliance with its agreements. On applying the models to a set of historical monthly data, the study finds that higher oil prices have been achieved when the effective level of compliance lies in the range of 94-99 per cent, and that lower oil prices have been experienced when there is less compliance and more volatility. The paper notes that the achievement of order and stability is the responsibility of all parties in an international market that is inherently volatile. (author)

  19. Optimization of biodiesel production from castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Nivea de Lima; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Batistella, César Benedito; Maciel Filho, Rubens

    2006-01-01

    The transesterification of castor oil with ethanol in the presence of sodium ethoxide as catalyst is an exceptional option for the Brazilian biodiesel production, because the castor nut is quite available in the country. Chemically, its oil contains about 90% of ricinoleic acid that gives to the oil some beneficial characteristics such as its alcohol solubility at 30 degrees C. The transesterification variables studied in this work were reaction temperature, catalyst concentration and alcohol oil molar ratio. Through a star configuration experimental design with central points, this study shows that it is possible to achieve the same conversion of esters carrying out the transesterification reaction with a smaller alcohol quantity, and a new methodology was developed to obtain high purity biodiesel.

  20. Process for refining naphthalene, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroff, G

    1922-05-13

    A process is described for the refining of naphthalene, its distillates, and mineral oils by the use of dilute sulfuric acid, characterized in that the oils are oxidized with oxygen of the air and thereafter are treated with 65 to 75 percent sulfuric acid to separate the unsaturated hydrocarbons in the form of polymerized products whereby, if necessary, heating and application of usual or higher pressure can take place.

  1. Biodegradable multifunctional oil production chemicals: Thermal polyaspartates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, R.J.; Ravenscroft, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with biodegradable oil production chemicals. Control of both mineral scale and corrosion with a single, environmentally acceptable material is an ambitious goal. Polyaspartate polymers represent a significant milestone in the attainment of this goal. Thermal polyaspartates (TPA) are polycarboxylate polymers derived via thermal condensation of the naturally occurring amino acid aspartic acid. These protein-like polymers are highly biodegradable and non-toxic, and are produced by an environmentally benign manufacturing process. TPAs exhibit excellent mineral scale inhibition activity and CO 2 corrosion control. Laboratory data on scale inhibition and corrosion control in the North Sea oil field production applications is presented. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Production Optimization of Oil Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten

    with emphasis on optimal control of water ooding with the use of smartwell technology. We have implemented immiscible ow of water and oil in isothermal reservoirs with isotropic heterogenous permeability elds. We use the method of lines for solution of the partial differential equation (PDE) system that governs...... the uid ow. We discretize the the two-phase ow model spatially using the nite volume method (FVM), and we use the two point ux approximation (TPFA) and the single-point upstream (SPU) scheme for computing the uxes. We propose a new formulation of the differential equation system that arise...... as a consequence of the spatial discretization of the two-phase ow model. Upon discretization in time, the proposed equation system ensures the mass conserving property of the two-phase ow model. For the solution of the spatially discretized two-phase ow model, we develop mass conserving explicit singly diagonally...

  3. Productivity improvement with green approach to palm oil factory productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matondang, N.

    2018-02-01

    The palm oil factory (POF) processes fresh fruit bunches into crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel oil (PKO) by products in the form of liquid and solid waste. One of the solid wastes produced in POF Tanjung Kasau is empty fruit bunches of palm oil (FBPO) which have been burned completely on incinerator tubes so that potentially produces pollutants that pollute the environment. If FBPO waste is managed properly, it will improve the productivity of the company. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study to find out how far the increased productivity of the company can reduce their impact on the environment, if FBPO is used as raw material of liquid smoke. The productivity improvement approach is done by Green Productivity concept, by looking at three aspects: environmental, social and economical. Green Productivity aims to protect the environment simultaneously by increasing the productivity of the company. One way is to turn FBPO waste into liquid smoke product is by pyrolysis process. The results showed that turning FBPO solid waste into liquid smoke will increase productivity by 18.18%. Implementation of Green Productivity can improve productivity through the improvement of FBPO waste treatment process which has been done by perfect combustion by pyrolysis process so that waste can be minimized to create environment industry POF clean and friendly environment.

  4. 76 FR 21947 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ..., open-loop biomass, geothermal energy, solar energy, small irrigation power, municipal solid waste, qualified hydropower production, marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy have not been determined for... electricity produced from closed-loop biomass, open-loop biomass, geothermal energy, solar energy, small...

  5. 75 FR 16576 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., open-loop biomass, geothermal energy, solar energy, small irrigation power, municipal solid waste, qualified hydropower production, marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy have not been determined for... electricity produced from closed-loop biomass, open-loop biomass, geothermal energy, solar energy, small...

  6. 77 FR 25538 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity Production... Reference Prices for Calendar Year 2012; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correction to a publication of inflation adjustment factors and reference prices for calendar year 2012 as...

  7. Refining margins: recent trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudoin, C.; Favennec, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a business environment that was globally mediocre due primarily to the Asian crisis and to a mild winter in the northern hemisphere, the signs of improvement noted in the refining activity in 1996 were borne out in 1997. But the situation is not yet satisfactory in this sector: the low return on invested capital and the financing of environmental protection expenditure are giving cause for concern. In 1998, the drop in crude oil prices and the concomitant fall in petroleum product prices was ultimately rather favorable to margins. Two elements tended to put a damper on this relative optimism. First of all, margins continue to be extremely volatile and, secondly, the worsening of the economic and financial crisis observed during the summer made for a sharp decline in margins in all geographic regions, especially Asia. Since the beginning of 1999, refining margins are weak and utilization rates of refining capacities have decreased. (authors)

  8. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P. [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India)

    2010-12-15

    In view of the fast depletion of fossil fuel, the search for alternative fuels has become inevitable, looking at huge demand of diesel for transportation sector, captive power generation and agricultural sector, the biodiesel is being viewed a substitute of diesel. The vegetable oils, fats, grease are the source of feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. Significant work has been reported on the kinetics of transesterification of edible vegetable oils but little work is reported on non-edible oils. Out of various non-edible oil resources, Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) is considered as future feedstocks for biodiesel production in India and limited work is reported on the kinetics of transesterification of high FFA containing oil. The present study reports a review of kinetics of biodiesel production. The paper also reveals the results of kinetics study of two-step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried out at pre-determined optimum temperature of 65 and 50 C for esterification and transesterification process, respectively, under the optimum condition of methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1% (w/w) for H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH and 400 rpm of stirring. The yield of methyl ester (ME) has been used to study the effect of different parameters. The maximum yield of 21.2% of ME during esterification and 90.1% from transesterification of pretreated JCO has been obtained. This is the first study of its kind dealing with simplified kinetics of two-step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried at optimum temperature of both the steps which took about 6 h for complete conversion of TG to ME. (author)

  9. Quality Characteristics of Iranian Extra Virgin Flaxseed Oil and the Effect of the Refining Stages before Deodorization on its Physicochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manochehr Bahmaei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Flaxseed oil is known as a functional oil because of the high content of α-linolenic acid; therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate some physicochemical properties of Iranian extra virgin flaxseed oil (EVFO and the impact of the refining stages before deodorization on these properties. Fatty acid composition, peroxide and anisidine values, free fatty acids, Crystallization point, chlorophyll content, β-carotene content, and color were analyzed. The Iranian flaxseed oils had about 39-40% omega-3 fatty acids and a low ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 and equal to 0.44-0.47, which can be combined with oils rich in omega-6 to reach a favorite omega-6 to omega-3 ratio. In addition, the results showed that when EVFO was refined, the crystallization thermograms changed significantly. The presence of phospholipid compounds in EVFO made its onset, crystallization, endset points higher than the RFO. The amount of β-carotene and chlorophyll content of refined flaxseed oil (RFO were 6 and 22.33 times lower than its EVFO. Also, RFO had significantly (p<0.05 more L*, less tendency to yellow color, and tendency to a green color as compared to its EVFO. The results showed that flaxseed oil fatty acid content, free fatty acids, peroxide, Anisdine values, crystallization temperature, chlorophyll and β-carotene content and the color were significantly affected by the refining stages. So it is recommended that flaxseed oil not to be refined, but be used in a short time period. Also, it should be consumed in blending with omega-6 oils (in order to maintain omega-6 to omega-3 ratio.

  10. Energy balance of the lavender oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman GÖKDOĞAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine the energy input-output analysis of lavender oil production. Data from agricultural farms in Isparta province was used. Energy input was calculated as 1993.89 MJ and energy output was calculated as 2925.51 MJ. Wood energy, fresh stalked lavender flower energy, equipment energy, human labour energy, electricity energy, and water energy inputs were 54.22 %, 41.86 %, 3.40 %, 0.23 %, 0.18 %, and 0.10 % of energy inputs, respectively. In this production, it is noteworthy that wood was used as fuel in the lavender oil production distillation process as the highest input. In the energy outputs, an average of 3.10 kg lavender oil and 130 kg lavender water were extracted by processing 234 kg fresh stalked lavender flower. Energy use efficiency, specific energy, energy productivity, and net energy for lavender oil production were calculated as 1.47, 643.19 MJ kg-1, 0.002 kg MJ-1 and 931.62 MJ, respectively.

  11. Mössbauer effect study of corrosion products from a Brazilian oil refinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, M. I.; Kunrath, J. I.; Moro, J. T.; da Cunha, J. B. M.; Englert, G.; Comparsi, L. U.; Muller, I. L.

    1993-04-01

    Corrosion of an oil refining plant in southern Brazil is controlled by placing metallic coupons in strategic places of the unit. The amount of the corrosion products formed after two months of exposure of the coupons is then obtained by weight loss measurements. To have a better insight of these products an analysis by Conversion Electron and transmission Mössbauer spectroscopies was done on some of the coupons. This paper reports some of the findings.

  12. Marine Lipids (Omega-3 Oil) - Stability of Oil and Enriched Products During Production and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2015-01-01

    The awareness of health benefits of marine lipids with a high content of omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids from fish and algae oil has led to an increased intake as oil and in products. However, these lipids are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation, which results in the formation of undesirable...... off-flavours and gives rise to unhealthy compounds such as free radicals and reactive aldehydes. Necessary prerequisites for successful development of omega-3 enriched products are that the oil used for enrichment is of a high quality and low in oxidation products and that oxidation of the lipids...

  13. Use of residual soapstock from the refining of edible vegetable oils to make biodiesel; Aprovechamiento de las oleinas residuales procedentes del proceso de refinado de los aceites vegetales comestibles, para la fabricaciond e biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, P.; Barriga Mateos, F.; Alvarez Mateos, P. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    A procedure to obtain Biodiesel from Oiliness is studied. Biodiesel is a suitable product to replace diesel oil currently used to power the Diesel engines. It consists of a mixture of methyl esters of the fatty acids presents as triglycerides in vegetables oils (oil, sunflower, soya, rape oils). As a result of the refining of these oils for their use as food, a waste product is formed, the oleins (acidulated soapstock). The oiliness consist of a mixture of triglycerides and free fatty acids, the latter amounting to 50% or more of the mixture and are subject to a fluctuating market, therefore it exist at times a problem for their disposal. In our research work we have tried to obtain biodiesel from oiliness. The process resulting from our experimental work is as follows. 1. Scarification of the free fatty acids with methanol, by acid catalysis, centrifuging the reaction product and removal of the acid-methanol phase. Drying of the latter. At this stage we have a product containing about 70% of methyl esters. 2. Transesterification of the triglycerides present in the sterified product with methanol by alkaline catalysis, washing the reaction product with a water methanol solution. Centrifuging and removal of the water-methanol phase. At this stage a biodiesel products is obtained containing about 90% of methyl esters. 3. Fractional vacuum distillation of the 90% biodiesel gives a final product with a methyl esters content higher than 98%. (Author)

  14. The oil and gas industry in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Illustrated by many graphs and tables, this report presents and comments many data and figures on many aspects of the oil and gas industry in the world and in France: worldwide oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, worldwide gas exploration and production and stakes for European supply, exploration and production in France, oil and oil-based industry, hydrocarbon supplies, refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, domestic transport of oil products, gas infrastructures, oil product storage, oil and gas product consumption, hydrocarbon taxing, oil product prices, and oil product distribution

  15. Oil production and water management in Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, D.H.; Kuijvenhoven, C.A.T.; Waterland, R.D.; Smies, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the development of integrated (production) water management in Petroleum Development Oman. In its existing oil fields the water cut is rising rapidly and water production is expected to increase two to three times in the next 15 years. Re-injection of production water will continue to account for less than half of the volume of co-produced water. Current subsurface disposal of production water to shallow Tertiary formations is based on thorough knowledge of the local hydrogeology and does not affect potable water resources. However, in view of the expected increase in production water volume, utilization and disposal options have been re-evaluated. This review has been facilitated by recently acquired data on production water quality and by the results of research in dehydration and de-oiling technologies and of tests with production chemicals. The combined knowledge base is used to arrive at water management strategies for individual oil fields that are sound both in principle and in practice

  16. Pollutant in palm oil production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Abdul Wahid, Mazlan

    2015-07-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a by-product of the palm industry and it releases large amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Water systems are also contaminated by POME if it is released into nonstandard ponds or rivers where it endangers the lives of fish and water fowl. In this paper, the environmental bottlenecks faced by palm oil production were investigated by analyzing the data collected from wet extraction palm oil mills (POMs) located in Malaysia. Strategies for reducing pollution and technologies for GHG reduction from the wet extraction POMs were also proposed. Average GHG emissions produced from processing 1 ton of crude palm oil (CPO) was 1100 kg CO2eq. This amount can be reduced to 200 kg CO2eq by capturing biogases. The amount of GHG emissions from open ponds could be decreased from 225 to 25 kg CO2eq/MT CPO by covering the ponds. Installation of biogas capturing system can decrease the average of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to about 17,100 mg/L and stabilizing ponds in the final step could decrease COD to 5220 mg/L. Using a biogas capturing system allows for the reduction of COD by 80% and simultaneously using a biogas capturing system and by stabilizing ponds can mitigate COD by 96%. Other ways to reduce the pollution caused by POME, including the installation of wet scrubber vessels and increasing the performance of biogas recovery and biogas upgrading systems, are studied in this paper. Around 0.87 m3 POME is produced per 1 ton palm fruit milled. POME consists of around 2% oil, 2-4% suspended solid, 94-96% water. In palm oil mills, more than 90% of GHGs were emitted from POME. From 1 ton crude palm oil, 1100 kg CO2eq GHGs are generated, which can be reduced to 200 kg CO2eq by installation of biogas capturing equipment.

  17. Oil in France: main results in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This article comments the evolution of oil product prices in France in 2008 and of the global oil product consumption in 2008. This consumption and its evolutions are also analysed with respect to the different consuming sectors: non-energetic uses (petrochemical industry and lubricants), industry, housing and office buildings, agriculture, transports, and electricity thermal production. Crude oil imports and their origins are the commented, as well as refined product imports and exports. The evolution of price of imported crude oil, the national oil production, the refining activity in France, and the amount of crude and refined oil stocks are also briefly commented

  18. An evaluation of the effects of the tax on refined petroleum products in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uri, N.D.; Boyd, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper uses an aggregate modelling approach to assess the effect of taxes on refined petroleum products on the Philippine economy. The approach used in the analysis consists of a general equilibrium model comprising 14 producing sectors, 14 consuming sectors, 3 household categories classified by income and government. The effects of removing the 48% tax on premium and regular gasoline and the 24% tax on other refined petroleum products on prices and quantities are examined. The results are revealing. For example, the consequences of a complete elimination of refined petroleum product taxes would be an increase in output by all producing sectors of about 3.7% or about 2.65 hundred billion Philippine pesos, a rise in the consumption of goods and services by about 13.6% or 4.2 hundred billion Philippine pesos, a rise in total utility by 14.3% or 4.5 hundred billion Philippine pesos and lower tax revenue for the government of 62.4% or 2.8 hundred billion Philippine pesos. When subjected to a sensitivity analysis, the results are reasonably robust with regard to the assumption of the values of the substitution elasticities. That is, while the model's equilibrium values do vary in response to different assumptions of the values of these elasticities, the fluctuations are not so enormous to suggest that the model is unrealistically sensitive to these parameters. (Author)

  19. Sustainability aspects of biobased products : comparison of different crops and products from the vegetable oil platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, K.P.H.; Corré, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.; Patel, M.K.; Bos, H.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study focusses on the production of vegetable oil based products. A limited number of aspacts of the sustainability of the full chain (from agriculture to product at the factory gate) was evaluated. Three different vegetable oils were taken into account: palm oil, soy oil and rapeseed oil. Also

  20. Oil sand synfuel production using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.

    1984-10-01

    The importance of oil sand as a primary energy carrier is illustrated. The oil sand mining project 'synfuel' in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, is described. On the basis of a layout of an In-situ-process different possibilities of introducing nuclear energy to the process are described. This leads to an increase of the product yield, leading finally to a doubling of the energy output compared to the reference layout. The introduction of nuclear energy contributes to the reduction of emissions, in particular to the emission of carbon dioxide in the conversion process. (orig.)

  1. Use of array of conducting polymers for differentiation of coconut oil products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rañola, Rey Alfred G; Santiago, Karen S; Sevilla, Fortunato B

    2016-01-01

    An array of chemiresistors based on conducting polymers was assembled for the differentiation of coconut oil products. The chemiresistor sensors were fabricated through the potentiostatic electrodeposition of polyaniline (PANi), polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3-methylthiophene) (P-3MTp) on the gap separating two planar gold electrodes set on a Teflon substrate. The change in electrical resistance of the sensors was measured and observed after exposing the array to the headspace of oil samples. The sensor response was found rapid, reversible and reproducible. Different signals were obtained for each coconut oil sample and pattern recognition techniques were employed for the analysis of the data. The developed system was able to distinguish virgin coconut oil (VCO) from refined, bleached & deodorised coconut oil (RBDCO), flavoured VCO, homemade VCO, and rancid VCO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Elevated circulating LDL phenol levels in men who consumed virgin rather than refined olive oil are associated with less oxidation of plasma LDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Torre-Carbot, Karina; Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; Jaúregui, Olga

    2010-01-01

    In human LDL, the bioactivity of olive oil phenols is determined by the in vivo disposition of the biological metabolites of these compounds. Here, we examined how the ingestion of 2 similar olive oils affected the content of the metabolic forms of olive oil phenols in LDL in men. The oils differed...... in phenol concentrations as follows: high (629 mg/L) for virgin olive oil (VOO) and null (0 mg/L) for refined olive oil (ROO). The study population consisted of a subsample from the EUROLIVE study and a randomized controlled, crossover design was used. Intervention periods lasted 3 wk and were preceded...... acids (P olive oil modulates the phenolic metabolite content in LDL after sustained...

  3. Elevated circulating LDL phenol levels in men who consumed virgin rather than refined olive oil are associated with less oxidation of plasma LDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Torre-Carbot, Karina; Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; Jaúregui, Olga

    2010-01-01

    In human LDL, the bioactivity of olive oil phenols is determined by the in vivo disposition of the biological metabolites of these compounds. Here, we examined how the ingestion of 2 similar olive oils affected the content of the metabolic forms of olive oil phenols in LDL in men. The oils differed...... in phenol concentrations as follows: high (629 mg/L) for virgin olive oil (VOO) and null (0 mg/L) for refined olive oil (ROO). The study population consisted of a subsample from the EUROLIVE study and a randomized controlled, crossover design was used. Intervention periods lasted 3 wk and were preceded...... acids (P phenol levels (r = -0.296; P = 0.013). Phenols in LDL were not associated with other oxidation markers. In summary, the phenol concentration of olive oil modulates the phenolic metabolite content in LDL after sustained...

  4. Characterization of CRUDE OILS and petroleum products: (i) elution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of CRUDE OILS and petroleum products: (i) elution liquid chromatographic separation and gas chromatographic analysis of crude oils and petroleum products. E.O. Odebunmi, E.A. Ogunsakin, P.E.P. Ilukhor ...

  5. Factors affecting oil palm production in Ondo state of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sola

    ... affecting oil palm production in predominantly oil palm producing areas of Ondo state of Nigeria. ... This was because the mangrove swamp zone does not .... Research stations e.g. NIFOR. Radio .... palm production management practices.

  6. Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy for authentication of the adulteration of edible vegetable oil with refined used frying oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jin; Li, Rong; Jiang, Zi-Tao; Tang, Shu-Hua; Wang, Ying; Shi, Meng; Xiao, Yi-Qian; Jia, Bin; Lu, Tian-Xiang; Wang, Hao

    2017-02-15

    Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy has been developed for the discrimination of used frying oil (UFO) from edible vegetable oil (EVO), the estimation of the using time of UFO, and the determination of the adulteration of EVO with UFO. Both the heating time of laboratory prepared UFO and the adulteration of EVO with UFO could be determined by partial least squares regression (PLSR). To simulate the EVO adulteration with UFO, for each kind of oil, fifty adulterated samples at the adulterant amounts range of 1-50% were prepared. PLSR was then adopted to build the model and both full (leave-one-out) cross-validation and external validation were performed to evaluate the predictive ability. Under the optimum condition, the plots of observed versus predicted values exhibited high linearity (R(2)>0.96). The root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were both lower than 3%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of mechanism on microstructure refinement during compact strip production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hao; Kang Yonglin; Wang Kelu; Fu Jie; Wang Zhongbing; Liu Delu

    2003-01-01

    In this study, microstructures of 1.9 mm hot strip steel produced by compact strip production (CSP) are investigated by using optical metallograph observation and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) data to deduce the status of hot rolled austenite before phase transformation, because the evolution of hot rolled austenite is important to provide information for the microstructure refinement. The experimental results show that the finishing hot rolled microstructure is a mixture of recrystallized and deformed austenite, and the percentage of recrystallized austenite is greater than that of the deformed austenite. At last, microstructure evolution of austenite is modeled based on chemical compositions and techniques of producing 1.9 mm hot strip. The simulation results agree well with experimental data. Analysis shows that microstructure refinement, recrystallization and supercooling rate are the primary causes to fine microstructure

  8. Refining of crude uranium by solvent extraction for production of nuclear pure uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Manna, S.; Singha, M.; Hareendran, K.N.; Chowdhury, S.; Satpati, S.K.; Kumar, K.

    2007-01-01

    Uranium is the primary fuel material for any nuclear fission energy program. Natural uranium contains only 0.712% of 235 U as fissile constituent. This low concentration of fissile isotope in natural uranium calls for a very high level of purity, especially with respect to neutron poisons like B, Cd, Gd etc. before it can be used as nuclear fuel. Solvent extraction is a widely used technique by which crude uranium is purified for reactor use. Uranium metal plant (UMP), BARC, Trombay is engaged in refining of uranium concentrate for production of nuclear pure uranium metal for fabrication of fuel for research reactors. This paper reviews some of the fundamental aspects of this refining process with some special references to UMP, BARC. (author)

  9. Bioemulsan Production by Iranian Oil Reservoirs Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Amiriyan, M Mazaheri Assadi, VA Saggadian, A Noohi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactants are believed to be surface active components that are shed into the surrounding medium during the growth of the microorganisms. The oil degrading microorganism Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 produces a poly-anionic biosurfactant, hetero-polysaccharide bioemulsifier termed as emulsan which forms and stabilizes oil-water emulsions with a variety of hydrophobic substrates. In the present paper results of the possibility of biosurfactant (Emulsan production by microorganisms isolated from Iranian oil reservoirs is presented. Fourthy three gram negative and gram positive, non fermentative, rod bacilli and coccobacilli shaped baceria were isolated from the oil wells of Bibi Hakimeh, Siri, Maroon, Ilam , East Paydar and West Paydar. Out of the isolated strains, 39 bacterial strains showed beta haemolytic activity, further screening revealed the emulsifying activity and surface tension. 11 out of 43 tested emulsifiers were identified as possible biosurfactant producers and two isolates produced large surface tension reduction, indicating the high probability of biosurfactant production. Further investigation revealed that, two gram negative, oxidase negative, aerobic and coccoid rods isolates were the best producers and hence designated as IL-1, PAY-4. Whole culture broth of isolates reduced surface tension from 68 mN /m to 30 and 29.1mN/m, respectively, and were stable during exposure to high salinity (10%NaCl and elevated temperatures(120C for 15 min .

  10. Simulation of the effect of an oil refining project on the water environment using the MIKE 21 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Peng; Wang, Qinggai; Lu, Xuchuan; Zhang, Beibei; Li, Chen; Li, Sa; Li, Shibei; Wang, Yaping

    2018-02-01

    A case study of the Caofeidian oil refining project is conducted. A two-dimensional convective dispersion mathematical model is established to simulate the increase in the concentration of pollutants resulting from the wastewater discharge from the Caofeidian oil refining project and to analyze the characteristics of the dispersion of pollutants after wastewater is discharged and the effect of the wastewater discharge on the surrounding sea areas. The results demonstrate the following: (1) The Caofeidian sea area has strong tidal currents, which are significantly affected by the terrain. There are significant differences in the tidal current velocity and the direction between the deep-water areas and the shoals. The direction of the tidal currents in the deep-water areas is essentially parallel to the contour lines of the sea areas. Onshore currents and rip currents submerging the shoals are the dominant currents in the shoals. (2) The pollutant concentration field in the offshore areas changes periodically with the movement of the tidal current. The dilution and dispersion of pollutants are affected by the ocean currents in different tidal periods. The turbulent dispersion of pollutants is the most intense when a neap tide ebbs, followed by when a neap tide rises, when a spring tide ebbs and when a spring tide rises. (3) There are relatively good hydrodynamic conditions near the project's wastewater discharge outlet. Wastewater is well diluted after being discharged. Areas with high concentrations of pollutants are concentrated near the wastewater discharge outlet and the offshore areas. These pollutants migrate southwestward with the flood tidal current and northeastward with the ebb tidal current and have no significant impact on the protection targets in the open sea areas and nearby sea areas.

  11. Biodiesel production from acid oils and ethanol using a solid basic resin as catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, J.M.; Errazu, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    In the search of an alternative fuel to substitute diesel fuel, biodiesel appears as one of the most promising sources of energy for diesel engines because of its environmental advantages and also due to the evolution of the petroleum market. Refined oil is the conventional raw material for the production of this biofuel; however, its major disadvantage is the high cost of its production. Therefore, frying oils, waste oils, crude oils and/or acid oils are being tested as alternative raw materials; nevertheless, there will be some problems if a homogeneous basic catalyst (NaOH) is employed due to the high amount of free fatty acid present in the raw oil. In this work, the transesterification reaction of acid oil using solid resin, Dowex monosphere 550 A, was studied as an alternative process. Ethanol was employed to have a natural and sustainable final product. The reaction temperature's effects, the initial amount of free fatty acid, the molar ratio of alcohol/oil and the type of catalyst (homogeneous or heterogeneous) over the main reaction are analyzed and their effects compared. The results obtained show that the solid resin is an alternative catalyst to be used to produce fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) by a transesterification reaction with a final conversion over 90%. On the other hand, the time required to achieve this conversion is bigger than the one required using conventional technology which employs a homogeneous basic catalyst. This reaction time needs to be optimized. (author)

  12. Oil exploration and production offshore Sakhalin Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, I.C. [Sakhalin Energy Investment Company, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-11-15

    The offshore oil and gas exploration that is currently taking place on Sakhalin Island was discussed, with particular reference to the status of Sakhalin Energy and the challenges facing oil and exportation from the ice covered waters of Russia's Sea of Okhotsk. Sakhalin Energy, an incorporated joint venture of a consortium of companies, completed a feasibility study for oil production off the east coast of Sakhalin Island in December 1992. Sakhalin Energy has two fields, namely the Piltun Astokhskoye and Lunskoye fields. The Piltun Astokhskoye field is currently under production via the Molikpaq platform and the Lunskoye field and northern part of Piltun Astokhskoye field are currently being developed under the Phase 2 project. Since 1999, Sakhalin Energy has been producing oil from a caisson structure drilling rig which was fitted with ice protection shielding around the waterline in order to comply with Russian requirements. Production is via an undersea pipeline to a Single Anchor Leg Mooring (SALM) unit and then to a Floating Storage and Offloading unit (FSO). A brief outline of the structure was presented along with current ice management procedures and arrangements. In order to maximize the length of the production season, ice management is used to enable an early start and a late end to production. It was noted that great care is taken to ensure that the operations in ice are carried out with consideration of the environmentally sensitive area that is home to the endangered Western Gray Whale and Stellar Sea Eagle. 3 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  13. The present state of refining in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The european refining industry suffers from a production over-capacity and closures are inevitable; the situation is even worse in France due to the imbalance between gas oil and gasoline prices and the weak margin for distributors. The French refining industry is however an important and essential link for its strategic fuel and petroleum product supply, and represent 17000 jobs. Several measures are introduced by the French Industry department towards restructuring, capacity reduction and fuel price harmonization

  14. CG/MS quantitation of diamondoid compounds in crude oils and petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Wang, Z.D.; Hollebone, B.P.; Fingas, M.; Peng, X.; Landriault, M.

    2006-01-01

    Diamondoids are a class of saturated hydrocarbons that consist of 3-dimensionally fused cyclohexane rings. Diamondoid compounds in petroleum are the result of carbonium ion rearrangements of cyclic precursors on clay superacids in the source rock during oil generation. They are considered to be a problem due to their deposition during production of reservoir fluids and transportation of natural gas, gas condensates and light crude oils. At high concentrations, and with changes in pressure and temperature, diamondoid compounds can segregate out of reservoir fluids during production. Environmental scientists have considered fingerprinting the diamondoid hydrocarbons as a forensic method for oil spill studies. Since diamondoid compounds are thermodynamically stable, they have potential applications in oil-source correlation and differentiation for cases where traditional biomarker terpanes and steranes are absent because of environmental weathering or refining of petroleum products. Although there is increased awareness of possible use of diamondoid compounds for source identification, there is no systematic approach for using these compounds. Quantitative surveys of the abundances of diamondoids are not available. Therefore, this study developed a reliable analytical method for quantitative diamondoid analysis. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to quantitatively determine diamondoid compounds (adamantane, diamantane and their alkylated homologues) in 14 fresh crude oils and 23 refined petroleum products, including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels and lubricating oils collected from different sources. Results were compared with 2 types of biomarker compounds in oil saturated hydrocarbon fractions. Several diagnostic ratios of diamondoids were developed based on their concentrations. Their potential use for forensic oil spill source identification was evaluated. 24 refs., 8 tabs., 4 figs

  15. Biodegradable multifunctional oil production chemicals: Thermal polyaspartates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, R J [Donlar Corporation (United States); Ravenscroft, P D [BP Exploration Operating Company, (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The paper deals with biodegradable oil production chemicals. Control of both mineral scale and corrosion with a single, environmentally acceptable material is an ambitious goal. Polyaspartate polymers represent a significant milestone in the attainment of this goal. Thermal polyaspartates (TPA) are polycarboxylate polymers derived via thermal condensation of the naturally occurring amino acid aspartic acid. These protein-like polymers are highly biodegradable and non-toxic, and are produced by an environmentally benign manufacturing process. TPAs exhibit excellent mineral scale inhibition activity and CO{sub 2} corrosion control. Laboratory data on scale inhibition and corrosion control in the North Sea oil field production applications is presented. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Oil trading manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.

    1995-01-01

    This manual provides basic information on all aspects of oil trading. Topics reviewed in Part 1 include physical characteristics and refining and oil pricing arrangements. Part 2 on instruments and markets contains chapters on crude oil markets, product markets, forward and futures contracts, forward paper markets, oil future exchanges, options, swaps and long term oil markets. Part 3 deals with administration and has chapters on operations and logistics, credit control, accounting, taxation of oil trading, contracts and legal and regulatory issues. (UK)

  17. Identification of refined petroleum products in contaminated soils using an identification index for GC chromatograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dongwook; Ko, Myoung-Soo; Yang, Jung-Seok; Kwon, Man Jae; Lee, Seung-Woo; Lee, Seunghak

    2015-08-01

    Hydrocarbons found in the environment are typically characterized by gas chromatography (GC). The shape of the GC chromatogram has been used to identify the source of petroleum contamination. However, the conventional practice of simply comparing the peak patterns of source products to those of environmental samples is dependent on the subjective decisions of individual analysts. We have developed and verified a quantitative analytical method for interpreting GC chromatograms to distinguish refined petroleum products in contaminated soils. We found that chromatograms for gasoline, kerosene, and diesel could be divided into three ranges with boundaries at C6, C8, C16, and C26. In addition, the relative peak area (RPA(GC)) of each range, a dimensionless ratio of the peak area within each range to that of the total range (C6-C26), had a unique value for each petroleum product. An identification index for GC chromatograms (ID(GC)), defined as the ratio of RPA(GC) of C8-C16 to that of C16-C26, was able to identify diesel and kerosene sources in samples extracted from artificially contaminated soils even after weathering. Thus, the ID(GC) can be used to effectively distinguish between refined petroleum products in contaminated soils.

  18. Optimization of Jatropha curcas pure plant oil production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subroto, Erna

    2015-01-01

    The use of pure plant oils as fuel, either directly or after conversion of the oil to bio-diesel, is considered to be one of the potential contributions to the transformation of the current fossil oil based economy to a sustainable bio-based one. The production of oil producing seeds using plants

  19. Cathode recovery products of oxidation of oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.М. Захарчук

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available  The article provides the review of electrochemical reduction of carbonic compounds – those that are among main oxidation of oils  hydrocarbons products. The principal possibility of ketons to alcohols  reduction is proved in practice based on the experimental data . The methodical algoritm of quantative control of the catod reduction is developed, which uses the reduction-oxidizing potentiometric titration method.

  20. Analysis of solvent dyes in refined petroleum products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Solvent dyes are used to color refined petroleum products to enable differentiation between gasoline, diesel, and jet fuels. Analysis for these dyes in the hydrocarbon product is difficult due to their very low concentrations in such a complex matrix. Flow injection analysis/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry in both negative and positive mode was used to optimize ionization of ten typical solvent dyes. Samples of hydrocarbon product were analyzed under similar conditions. Positive electrospray ionization produced very complex spectra, which were not suitably specific for targeting only the dyes. Negative electrospray ionization produced simple spectra because aliphatic and aromatic moieties were not ionized. This enabled screening for a target dye in samples of hydrocarbon product from a spill.

  1. The European refining and distribution industry at the 2010 vista

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacour, J.J.; Tessmer, G.; Ward, I.

    1998-01-01

    Oil company chairmen belonging to the AFTP, DGMK and IP associations met together to debate about the future of the European refining industry. The following topics were discussed: is it the end of the refining crisis? Which uncertainties will have to be met? What is the situation of petroleum products supply and demand? What are the consumers' expectations? How to face the environmental constraints? Which future for the refining activities in Europe? Seven round-tables took place with the following themes: the factors of uncertainty in the future of refining activities, the petroleum products supply and demand (automotive fuels, fuel oils, lubricants), the refining activities and the supply of consumers (service stations and supermarkets), the situation of the European petroleum policy, the European refining industry and the public regulations (development of more efficient environmental approaches), the impact of environmental constraints and the technical solutions, and the future of the refining industry. (J.S.)

  2. THE INCREASED PRODUCTION OF OIL CITRONELLA IN THE VILLAGE CIMUNGKAL-SUMEDANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugraha Nugraha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Inability to fulfill the demand of consumers is becoming the major issues on citronella oil refinery in the village of Cimungkal Sumedang. This study was conducted to formulate alternative measures in order to increase the production of citronella oil distillates in the Cimungkal village. Mapping of the production process is done with Value Stream Mapping (VSM as a first step to determine the processing time (lead time of production and identify the waste that occurs, analyze the causes of the problems at the manufacturing level, and formulate remedial measures to increase the production of oil of citronella. The results show some activity in the production process of citronella oil which is a waste and should be minimized. By mapping, it can be seen that the lead time citronella oil refining initial amounted to 647 minutes or 10.78 hours. After repairs (Future State improvements Total lead time to 274 minutes. Value-added activity increased by 38.93%, non-value added decreased by 3.63%, and necessary but non-value added fell by 35.3%. The study also resulted in the formulation of strategies that can be done to increase the production of oil of citronella.

  3. Coke fouling process on the oil refining; Processo de incrustacao por coque no refino do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombardelli, Clovis; Fiorentin, Leila D.; Negrao, Cezar O.R.; Franco, Admilson T. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana (CEFET-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais (PPGEM)

    2004-07-01

    The heavy crude fraction processing is performed under very high vacuum to minimize thermal cracking which cause coke deposition and damage the equipment. The current tendency is to process heavier oil leading to higher process temperatures and consequently to greater fouling. This situation demands better knowledge fouling process by carbonization. This problem is pronounced in the residual gasoil region of a vacuum distillation unit because it obstructs the recirculation circuits and the spray system with serious environmental and economics implications. This paper review the main correlated published work related to coke generation and fouling and presents a discussion about the works. (author)

  4. Romanian refining industry assesses restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanasescu, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Romanian crude oil refining industry, as all the other economic sectors, faces the problems accompanying the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. At present, all refineries have registered as joint-stock companies and all are coordinated and assisted by Rafirom S.A., from both a legal and a production point of view. Rafirom S.A. is a joint-stock company that holds shares in refineries and other stock companies with activities related to oil refining. Such activities include technological research, development, design, transportation, storage, and domestic and foreign marketing. This article outlines the market forces that are expected to: drive rationalization and restructuring of refining operations and define the targets toward which the reconfigured refineries should strive

  5. Tightening rules of the oil game; Industry preparing for sulphur-free products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropponen, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing demand for sulphur-free fuels is the major driving force behind Fortum's oil refining investments. Environmental regulations are also setting the direction for oil retail network investments and will lead to closure of some retail sites. The year 2001 was marked by fluctuations in crude oil prices and low refining margins

  6. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; Louis M. Castanier

    2002-09-30

    The Stanford University Petroleum Research Institute (SUPRI-A) conducts a broad spectrum of research intended to help improve the recovery efficiency from difficult to produce reservoirs including heavy oil and fractured low permeability systems. Our scope of work is relevant across near-, mid-, and long-term time frames. The primary functions of the group are to conduct direction-setting research, transfer research results to industry, and educate and train students for careers in industry. Presently, research in SUPRI-A is divided into 5 main project areas. These projects and their goals include: (1) Multiphase flow and rock properties--to develop better understanding of the physics of displacement in porous media through experiment and theory. This category includes work on imbibition, flow in fractured media, and the effect of temperature on relative permeability and capillary pressure. (2) Hot fluid injection--to improve the application of nonconventional wells for enhanced oil recovery and elucidate the mechanisms of steamdrive in low permeability, fractured porous media. (3) Mechanisms of primary heavy oil recovery--to develop a mechanistic understanding of so-called ''foamy oil'' and its associated physical chemistry. (4) In-situ combustion--to evaluate the effect of different reservoir parameters on the insitu combustion process. (5) Reservoir definition--to develop and improve techniques for evaluating formation properties from production information. What follows is a report on activities for the past year. Significant progress was made in all areas.

  7. Assessment of the impact of the tax on refined petroleum products in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uri, N.D.; Boyd, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper uses an aggregate modelling approach to assess the impact of taxes on refined-petroleum products on the Philippine's economy. The approach used in the analysis consists of a general equilibrium model composed of 14 producing sectors, 14 consuming sectors, three household categories classified by income, and a government. The effects of removing the 48% tax on premium and regular gasoline and the 24% tax on other refined petroleum products on prices and quantities are examined. The results are revealing. For example, the consequences of a complete elimination of refined petroleum product taxes would be an increase in output by all producing sectors of about 3.7% or about 2.65 hundred billion (2.65 x 10 11 ) Philippine pesos, a rise in the consumption of goods and services by about 13.6% or 4.2 hundred billion (4.2 x 10 11 ) Philippine pesos, a rise in total utility by 14.3% or 4.5 hundred billion (4.5 x 10 11 ) Philippine pesos and a lower tax revenue for the government of 62.4% and 2.8 hundred billion (2.8 x 10 11 ) Philippine pesos. When subjected to a sensitivity analysis, the results are reasonably robust with regard to the assumption of the values of the substitution elasticities. That is, while the model's equilibrium values do vary in response to different assumptions of the values of these elasticities, the fluctuations are not so large as to suggest that the model is unrealistically sensitive to these parameters. (Author)

  8. Russian crude-oil production and export still increasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purho, P.

    2001-01-01

    Russian crude-oil production is still increasing. In 2000 the annual production 6.48 mb/d was about 6% higher than a year before. In 2001 the production is expected to rise near the level 7 mb/d, so the increase in production volume is fast. However, the production is still far away from the maximum level of the former Soviet Union, 12 mb/d. At the moment Russia is the second largest oil producer right after Saudi Arabia. The increase in production is based on intensified use of old oil fields caused by improved technology. The oil export of Russia far abroad in 2000 was 2.5 mb/d and near abroad into FSU countries only about 180 000 b/d. The recent export of crude-oil has been near the maximum export capacity corresponding to 2.7 mb/d. About 61 million tons of oil products were exported in 2000, and even the export of oil products is increasing. Most of this was gas oil and heavy fuel oil, but also the export of gasoline was significant. The export of oil and oil products is mainly based on shipments, but also the share of train transport is high. Nearly all the crude oil is transported west either by ships or via pipelines. The share of railway transport is only few percents. Russia will continue its own oil pumping policy despite of the appeals of OPEC for reduction of oil production. Opinion in Russia is that if the increase of production and export serves the interests of Russia, it will also be carried out. The target value for crude oil for 2002 is 22 USD per barrel. The Russian crude oil production is estimated to grow up to 7.4 - 8.4 mb/d by the year 2010

  9. Kurdistan crude oils as feedstock for production of aromatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsalam R. Karim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crude oils from various locations in Iraqi Kurdistan were fully evaluated, so that enables refiners to improve their operation by selecting the best crude oil that yields high naphtha content to be used as a catalytic reforming feedstock after determination of total sulfur content and then de sulfurizing them, then cyclizing or reforming these sweet naphtha cuts to produce aromatic fractions which can be split into benzene, toluene, and xylenes.

  10. A new hypothesis about continuous distillation with striping gas and its application the physical refining of edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciani Constante, E.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the free fatty acid concentration in the gas inside the continuous deodorizer in continuous physical refining was studied and a hypothesis was formed to explain the results: In a continuous process of deacidification by distillation of free fatty acids at low pressure (2 - 3 mbar, high temperature (180 – 260 ºC, with stripping gas, initial free fatty acid content of oil ≤ 7.4% w/w and similar temperature for both the gas distillate inside the continuous deodorizer and the oil, in the equilibrium the ratio between the free fatty acid content of the deacidified oil and the concentration of free fatty acids in the gas inside the continuous deodorizer is constant. This hypothesis is submitted to discussion.Se estudia la influencia de la concentración en ácidos grasos libres en el gas de arrastre en la cabeza del desodorizador durante la refinación física en continuo, y se establece una hipótesis para explicar los resultados: En un proceso continuo de desacidificación por destilación de ácidos grasos a baja presión (2 - 3 mbar, alta temperatura (180 – 265ºC, con arrastre de vapor, con igual temperatura para los gases en la cabeza del desodorizador y para el aceite, aplicado a aceites con una acidez inicial ≤ 7,4 % peso/peso, en el equilibrio se cumple que la relación entre la concentración en ácidos grasos libres en el aceite desodorizado y la concentración en ácidos grasos libres en el gas situado en la cabeza del desodorizador es constante. Esta hipótesis se somete a discusión.

  11. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: Areas of Historical Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura

    2008-01-01

    This report contains maps and associated spatial data showing historical oil and gas exploration and production in the United States. Because of the proprietary nature of many oil and gas well databases, the United States was divided into cells one-quarter square mile and the production status of all wells in a given cell was aggregated. Base-map reference data are included, using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Map, the USGS and American Geological Institute (AGI) Global GIS, and a World Shaded Relief map service from the ESRI Geography Network. A hardcopy map was created to synthesize recorded exploration data from 1859, when the first oil well was drilled in the U.S., to 2005. In addition to the hardcopy map product, the data have been refined and made more accessible through the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. The cell data are included in a GIS database constructed for spatial analysis via the USGS Internet Map Service or by importing the data into GIS software such as ArcGIS. The USGS internet map service provides a number of useful and sophisticated geoprocessing and cartographic functions via an internet browser. Also included is a video clip of U.S. oil and gas exploration and production through time.

  12. Demulsification of residual waters from refining industries of lubricant oil: case study; Desemulsificacao de aguas residuarias de industrias de refino de oleo lubrificante: estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawamura, Marcia Yumi; Morita, Dione Mari [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Hidraulica e Sanitaria]. E-mail: dmmorita@usp.br

    1997-07-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the coagulation, flocculation with iron chloride (FeCl{sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O), followed by phase separation, as alternative for treating residual waters from lubricant oil refining industries. Tests have been performed by using {sup j}ar test{sup ,} changing pH value and coagulants for various wastewater characteristics.

  13. Production of polyol oils from soybean oil by bioprocess and Philippines edible medicinal wild mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have been trying to develop a bioprocess for the production of polyol oils directly from soybean oil. We reported earlier the polyol products produced from soybean oil by Acinetobacter haemolyticus A01-35 (NRRL B-59985) (Hou and Lin, 2013). The objective of this study is to identify the chemical ...

  14. Production of polyol oils from soybean oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa E03-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy-polyols are important starting materials for the manufacture of polymers such as polyurethane. We have been trying to develop a bioprocess for the production of polyol oils directly from soybean oil. We reported earlier the polyol products produced from soybean oil by Acinetobacter haemolyticus ...

  15. EFFECT OF REFINED PETROLEUM PRODUCTS CONTAMINATION ON BACTERIAL POPULATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTIVATED AGRICULTURAL SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Sogo Olalemi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the effect of refined petroleum products contamination on bacterial population and physicochemical characteristics of cultivated agricultural soil was carried out. The soil samples obtained from the Teaching and Research Farm, Obakekere, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State were contaminated with varying volumes of petrol, diesel and kerosene. The results revealed higher bacterial populations in uncontaminated soils than contaminated soils. The counts of bacteria ranged from 3.0 × 105 to 5.0 × 105 cfu/g in uncontaminated soils and 1.0 × 105 to 3.0 × 105 cfu/g in contaminated soils. The isolated bacteria were identified as Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium lutescens, Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium variabilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens. The contamination had no significant effect on pH, potassium, sodium, organic carbon and nitrogen content of the soils, while the moisture, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium content of the contaminated soils were significantly different (P < 0.05 compared with the uncontaminated soils. The ability of Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium lutescens, Micrococcus luteus, and Pseudomonas fluorescens to utilize the refined petroleum products suggest that these bacteria had potential to bioremediate petroleum contaminated soils.

  16. Economic Analysis of Production of Essential Oil using Steam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Economic Analysis of Production of Essential Oil using. Steam Distillation ... The return on investment (ROI) was 125%, internal rate of return ... oils, over dependency on petrodollar and ... The steam may be obtained from external boiler or.

  17. Panorama 2009 - refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    For oil companies to invest in new refining and conversion capacity, favorable conditions over time are required. In other words, refining margins must remain high and demand sustained over a long period. That was the situation prevailing before the onset of the financial crisis in the second half of 2008. The economic conjuncture has taken a substantial turn for the worse since then and the forecasts for 2009 do not look bright. Oil demand is expected to decrease in the OECD countries and to grow much more slowly in the emerging countries. It is anticipated that refining margins will fall in 2009 - in 2008, they slipped significantly in the United States - as a result of increasingly sluggish demand, especially for light products. The next few months will probably be unfavorable to investment. In addition to a gloomy business outlook, there may also be a problem of access to sources of financing. As for investment projects, a mainstream trend has emerged in the last few years: a shift away from the regions that have historically been most active (the OECD countries) towards certain emerging countries, mostly in Asia or the Middle East. The new conjuncture will probably not change this trend

  18. Corruption and reduced oil production: An additional resource curse factor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kasim, Farouk; Søreide, Tina; Williams, Aled

    2013-01-01

    Prominent contributions to the resource curse literature suggest weak governance and corruption are important factors behind the wide welfare variations observed among oil producing countries. How weak governance and corruption influence revenue management and expenditure decisions, as well as the possible welfare benefits derived from oil, are broadly discussed. How they impact upon volumes of oil produced has, however, attracted little attention. This paper combines a review of the resource curse and oil production literatures with findings from qualitative interviews with oil sector experts to appreciate the feasibility of connections between corruption and oil production below its potential. We make particular reference to environments where regulatory institutions or political accountability are weak and focus primarily on producer government and oil firm relations. Drawing on insights from geology, political science and economics, we suggest suboptimal production solutions can impact volumes of oil actually produced and create constraints on long term revenues for oil producing countries. We argue greater disclosure of information on oil production efficiency on a field-by-field and country-by-country basis will assist further investigation of the relationships between corruption and volumes of oil produced. - Highlights: ► We combine a literature review with qualitative interviews with oil experts. ► We focus on feasible connections between corruption and oil production levels. ► We suggest suboptimal production solutions can impact volumes of oil produced. ► Corruption may reinforce suboptimal oil production. ► More data on oil production efficiency by field and country will assist research

  19. Demand, deregulation may attract more refiners to Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    As a result of rapidly increasing demand, major oil companies are eyeing Asian oil and gas markets more closely than ever. Higher earnings can be expected there than in the US or Europe, where product markets--especially light products--are expected to tighten long-term. Of the nations with growing requirements for refined products, China and India offer greater opportunity for foreign investors to enter downstream projects. Also offering excellent business prospects are Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. The paper discusses oil demand, products, refining capacity, and capacity additions in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and China

  20. A comparative study on the effect of unsaturation degree of camelina and canola oils on the optimization of bio-diesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transesterification is the most common method of producing biodiesel from vegetable oils. A comparative study on the optimization of reaction variables for refined canola oil, unrefined canola oil, and unrefined camelina oil using a four-factor (temperature, time, molar ratio of methanol to oil, and catalyst loading face-centered central composite design (FCCCD was carried out. The optimum settings of these four factors that jointly maximize product, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME and biodiesel yields for each of refined canola, unrefined canola and unrefined camelina were determined. Results showed that the optimized conditions were associated with the fatty acid profile and physical properties of the parent oils. The optimum temperature of vegetable oil with low polyunsaturation degree was higher than that of oils with high polyunsaturation degree. High free fatty acid content in parent oils led to low optimized catalyst concentration, and the decreased reaction rate could be compensated by increased reaction temperature due to significant interaction effect between reaction temperature and catalyst loading in the transesterification process. The highest biodiesel yields from the optimum setting for refined canola oil, unrefined canola oil, and unrefined camelina oil were 97.7%, 95.2%, and 95.6%, respectively. This study provided guidelines on how to optimize different reaction variables taking economic viability and feedstock availability into consideration when producing biodiesel at plant scale.

  1. Oil Depletion and the Energy Efficiency of Oil Production: The Case of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Brandt

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the impact of oil depletion on the energetic efficiency of oil extraction and refining in California. These changes are measured using energy return ratios (such as the energy return on investment, or EROI. I construct a time-varying first-order process model of energy inputs and outputs of oil extraction. The model includes factors such as oil quality, reservoir depth, enhanced recovery techniques, and water cut. This model is populated with historical data for 306 California oil fields over a 50 year period. The model focuses on the effects of resource quality decline, while technical efficiencies are modeled simply. Results indicate that the energy intensity of oil extraction in California increased significantly from 1955 to 2005. This resulted in a decline in the life-cycle EROI from 6.5 to 3.5 (measured as megajoules (MJ delivered to final consumers per MJ primary energy invested in energy extraction, transport, and refining. Most of this decline in energy returns is due to increasing need for steam-based thermal enhanced oil recovery, with secondary effects due to conventional resource depletion (e.g., increased water cut.

  2. An overview of empty fruit bunch from oil palm as feedstock for bio-oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Siu Hua

    2014-01-01

    Empty fruit bunch (EFB) from oil palm is one of the potential biomass to produce biofuels like bio-oil due to its abundant supply and favorable physicochemical characteristics. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents an overview of EFB as a feedstock for bio-oil production. The fundamental characteristics of EFB in terms of proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and chemical composition, as well as the recent advances in EFB conversion processes for bio-oil production like pyrolysis and solvolysis are outlined and discussed. A comparison of properties in terms of proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and fuel properties between the bio-oil from EFB and petroleum fuel oil is included. The major challenges and future prospects towards the utilization of EFB as a useful resource for bio-oil production are also addressed. - Highlights: • Palm EFB has high heating value and low greenhouse gas emissions during combustion. • Conversion of EFB to bio-oil is mainly by fast pyrolysis without and with catalyst. • Bio-oil from EFB is lower in heating value, heavier and more acidic than fuel oil. • The viscosity of bio-oil from EFB is between those of light and heavy fuel oils. • The flash and pour points of bio-oil from EFB are close to those of light fuel oil

  3. Continued slide seen for C.I.S. oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that oil production in the Commonwealth of Independent States may dip to 7.7 million b/d next year. Robert Ebel of the Center for strategic and International Studies, Washington, D.C., made that prediction before a meeting of the National Association of Petroleum Investment Analysts. Oil and Gas Journal's latest worldwide oil production figures peg the C.I.S. volume at 8.689 million b/d last August. Ebel said a September decree will allow oil prices to move in line with the market and with costs of production. That in turn will lead to development of a deregulated domestic oil market

  4. The effects of physical refining on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters in relation to palm oil minor components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkurnain, Musfirah; Lai, Oi Ming; Latip, Razam Abdul; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Ling, Tau Chuan; Tan, Chin Ping

    2012-11-15

    The formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters in refined palm oil during deodorisation is attributed to the intrinsic composition of crude palm oil. Utilising D-optimal design, the effects of the degumming and bleaching processes on the reduction in 3-MCPD ester formation in refined palm oil from poor-quality crude palm oil were studied relative to the palm oil minor components that are likely to be their precursors. Water degumming remarkably reduced 3-MCPD ester formation by up to 84%, from 9.79 mg/kg to 1.55 mg/kg. Bleaching with synthetic magnesium silicate caused a further 10% reduction, to 0.487 mg/kg. The reduction in 3-MCPD ester formation could be due to the removal of related precursors prior to the deodorisation step. The phosphorus content of bleached palm oil showed a significant correlation with 3-MCPD ester formation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficiency of consortium for in-situ bioremediation and CO2 evolution method of refines petroleum oil in microcosms study

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Shreyasri; Singh, Padma

    2017-01-01

    An in-situ bioremediation study was conducted in a laboratory by using mixed microbial consortium. An indigenous microbial consortium was developed by assemble of two Pseudomonas spp. and two Aspergillus spp. which were isolated from various oil contaminated sites of India. The laboratory feasibility study was conducted in a 225 m2 block. Six treatment options-Oil alone, Oil+Best remediater, Oil+Bacterial consortium, Oil+Fungal consortium, Oil+Mixed microbial consortium, Oil+Indigenous microf...

  6. Synthesis of CaOZnO Nanoparticles Catalyst and Its Application in Transesterification of Refined Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicik Herlina Yulianti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The CaOZnO nanoparticle catalysts with Ca to Zn atomic ratios of 0.08 and 0.25 have been successfully synthesized by co-precipitation method. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD analysis provided with Rietica and Maud software, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and its properties was compared with bare CaO and ZnO catalysts. The phase composition estimated by Rietica software revealed that the CaO catalyst consists of CaO and CaCO3 phases. The estimation of the particle size by Maud software, showed that the particle size of all catalysts increased by the following order: ZnO. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 1st January 2014; Revised: 10th March 2014; Accepted: 18th March 2014[How to Cite: Yulianti, C.H., Ediati, R., Hartanto, D., Purbaningtias, T.E., Chisaki, Y., Jalil, A.A., Hitam, C.K.N.L.C.K., Prasetyoko, D., (2014. Synthesis of CaOZnO Nanoparticles Catalyst and Its Application in Transesterification of Refined Palm Oil. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (2: 100-110. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.2.5998.100-110][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.2.5998.100-110

  7. Oil company profitability: observations on the use of oil product price assessments and associated errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Gilbert

    2000-01-01

    Oil companies often report the exact price obtained for crude oil sales. Furthermore, crude oil prices may be linked to the price of Brent crude oil which is actively and very transparently traded on the International Petroleum Exchange. Brent crude oil prices are reported worldwide electronically and in many newspapers on a daily basis. Gas oil (No. 2 Fuel oil in the USA) is actively traded on the IPE and on NYMEX and the prices are also reported worldwide almost instantaneously. One grade of unleaded gasoline is traded on NYMEX but all other oil products do not have regulated and transparent markets. The prices of these products are assessed by price reporters following daily discussions with active oil traders. Two prices are assessed and reported, the bid (low) and offer (high) even if no trade has taken place. The oil industry itself and oil products consumers make much use of these assessed prices. The object of this paper is to provide some statistical detail on the differences between various product price assessments made through 2000. From these differences, it is possible to provide an indication of the precision of oil product price assessments However, it is doubtful if precision data based on a simple determination of the standard deviation of the differences between the assessment made by the various price reporting services would be of practical use. (Author)

  8. Economic analysis and performance of a low power diesel engine using soybean oil refined; Analise economica e de desempenho de um motor diesel de baixa potencia utilizando oleo de soja refinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Guilherme Ladeira dos; Fernandes, Haroldo Carlos; Alvarenga, Cleyton Batista de; Leite, Daniel Mariano; Siqueira, Wagner da Cunha [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mails: glsantos@yahoo.com.br, haroldo@ufv.br, cleyton.alvarenga@ufv.br, daniel.mariano@ufv.br, wagner.siqueira@ufv.br

    2011-07-01

    Oil is the main source of energy available to power internal combustion engines, enabling its transformation into mechanical energy. To meet the production of vegetable oils, many cultures can be used, according to regional conditions, especially those that are already commercially exploited, such as peanuts, Soybeans, Corn, Palm oil, Sunflower and Canola, and other public regional and castor oil, Andiroba, Pequi, Buriti, Inaja, Carnauba, Jatropha, among others. The objective of this work make an economic analysis of replacing diesel fuel by mixing and compare performance on the engine and using B{sub 2} biodiesel fuel mixture of diesel with 2 % Refined Soybean Oil (SAB). The loads applied by the dynamometer in the engine were 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19 and 21.5 lbs. The engine was coupled to the dynamometer with the aid of pulleys and belts of the type V with gear ratio of 1:1,9. Apparently, the best vegetable oil mixture was 30 %, both in terms of specific consumption and cost from R$ kW{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Providing the same cost of pure diesel. (author)

  9. Pilot study on the corrosion monitoring and control of the crude oil refining system by thin layer activation (TLA) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choochartchaikulkarn, Bodin; Chueinta, Siripone; Santawamaitre, Todsadol

    2001-01-01

    This report represents a pilot study on application of Ta technique for measurement monitoring the corrosion rates occurring in the refinery crude oil overhead crude oil system at the Bangchak Petroleum Co., Ltd. in Thailand during mid 1999 to mid 2000. TLA coupons containing very low activity of 5 6 Co produced by the accelerator was attached to the used electrical resistance probe inserted into production system at the test position. Gamma intensity of 56 Co was routinely monitored at external cladding and corrosion rates calculated in comparison with the non corroded standard after decay correction. From the study, TLA technique provides accurate corrosion rates less than 75 mm/year as compared to the standard Electrical Resistance Probes (ERP) technique. (author)

  10. Pakistan stepping up expansion of refining, transportation sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Pakistan is taking steps to speed expansion of its refining and oil transportation infrastructure. While the country has made significant progress toward energy self-efficiency by boosting oil and gas production it still must modernize and expand an aging, inadequate refining sector to meet rapidly growing demand for refined products. Pakistan's government has disclosed plans to build two refineries in the country, one at Rawalpindi near a string of recent oil discoveries, the other somewhere in the southern part of the country, likely Karachi. At the same time, efforts are proceeding to upgrade Pakistan's refineries. In addition, Pakistani state companies continue to press joint ventures in refining and marketing with foreign companies and expand downstream ties with neighbors that are key oil and gas exporters

  11. Effective Heuristics for Capacitated Production Planning with Multiperiod Production and Demand with Forecast Band Refinement

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Kaminsky; Jayashankar M. Swaminathan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we extend forecast band evolution and capacitated production modelling to the multiperiod demand case. In this model, forecasts of discrete demand for any period are modelled as bands and defined by lower and upper bounds on demand, such that future forecasts lie within the current band. We develop heuristics that utilize knowledge of demand forecast evolution to make production decisions in capacitated production planning environments. In our computational study we explore the ...

  12. Western Siberia leads slide in former U.S.S.R.'s oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The huge western Siberian basin, which Moscow had counted on to ensure rising Soviet petroleum production into the next century, is in steady leading the sharp decline in the former U.S.S.R.'s total oil flow. New data indicate that western Siberia's 1991 crude and condensate production fell to less than 6.5 million b/d. That's down from nearly 7.5 million b/d in 1990 and a peak of 8.28 million b/d in 1988. This paper reports that such low production would make it difficult for Russia to meet the oil needs of other members of the new Commonwealth of Independent States, let alone earn substantial amounts of desperately needed hard currency from crude and refined products sales to foreign countries

  13. Oil product blending optimization system; Sistema de otimizacao de misturas de derivados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, F.L.P.; Sousa, L.C.F.; Joly, M.; Takahashi, M.T.; Magalhaes, M.V.O.; Mendonca, P.N. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The current scenario of the world refining industry demands significant investment in the improvement of its products and production processes quality, either due to a competitive market or strict environmental restrictions, requiring deep changes in the oil companies. In this environment, blending optimization has been receiving increasing attention in both academic and industrial sectors resulting in the development and improvement of tools for decision support and realtime control. The main objective of these tools is to optimize, according to either an economic or an operational criterion, the fuel blending recipe, guaranteeing the product specification with minimum giveaway in the critical properties and avoiding the reblending process. This work presents a blending optimization system of oil products named OTIMIST and instances of its application in PETROBRAS' Recap refinery. (author)

  14. Challenges and Prospects of Smallholder Oil Palm Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the challenges and prospects of smallholder oil palm production in Awka Agricultural Zone of Anambra State. Seventy two smallholder oil palm farmers were interviewed for the purpose of eliciting information. Smallholder oil palm farmers in Awka Agricultural Zone were educated (79.2% - Senior ...

  15. Effect Of Weed On Oil Palm Inflorenscence Production: Implication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weed consistently depressed the performance of oil palm and this depressive effect was attributed to aggressive growth resources, smothering of the oil palm and preventing the palm from proper ventilation and solar radiation. Weed interference on inflorescence production of oil palm was assessed with the view of ...

  16. Enzymatic biodiesel production from sludge palm oil (SPO) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodiesel is a non-toxic, renewable and environmental friendly fuel. This study involved the production of biodiesel from sludge palm oil (SPO), a low-cost waste oil via enzymatic catalysis. The enzyme catalyst was a Candida cylindracea lipase, locally-produced using palm oil mill effluent as the low cost based medium.

  17. Utilization of some non-edible oil for biodiesel production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the production of biodiesel from four sources of non-edible oils, namely jatropha, animal fat, waste vegetable oil and castor oil was carried out. It was done using an acid esterification process followed by alkali transesterification in the laboratory. Subsequently the physicochemical properties for four blends B100 ...

  18. APPLICATION OF DEEP LEARNING IN GLOBELAND30-2010 PRODUCT REFINEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available GlobeLand30, as one of the best Global Land Cover (GLC product at 30-m resolution, has been widely used in many research fields. Due to the significant spectral confusion among different land cover types and limited textual information of Landsat data, the overall accuracy of GlobeLand30 is about 80 %. Although such accuracy is much higher than most other global land cover products, it cannot satisfy various applications. There is still a great need of an effective method to improve the quality of GlobeLand30. The explosive high-resolution satellite images and remarkable performance of Deep Learning on image classification provide a new opportunity to refine GlobeLand30. However, the performance of deep leaning depends on quality and quantity of training samples as well as model training strategy. Therefore, this paper 1 proposed an automatic training sample generation method via Google earth to build a large training sample set; and 2 explore the best training strategy for land cover classification using GoogleNet (Inception V3, one of the most widely used deep learning network. The result shows that the fine-tuning from first layer of Inception V3 using rough large sample set is the best strategy. The retrained network was then applied in one selected area from Xi’an city as a case study of GlobeLand30 refinement. The experiment results indicate that the proposed approach with Deep Learning and google earth imagery is a promising solution for further improving accuracy of GlobeLand30.

  19. Application of Deep Learning in GLOBELAND30-2010 Product Refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.; Chen, X.

    2018-04-01

    GlobeLand30, as one of the best Global Land Cover (GLC) product at 30-m resolution, has been widely used in many research fields. Due to the significant spectral confusion among different land cover types and limited textual information of Landsat data, the overall accuracy of GlobeLand30 is about 80 %. Although such accuracy is much higher than most other global land cover products, it cannot satisfy various applications. There is still a great need of an effective method to improve the quality of GlobeLand30. The explosive high-resolution satellite images and remarkable performance of Deep Learning on image classification provide a new opportunity to refine GlobeLand30. However, the performance of deep leaning depends on quality and quantity of training samples as well as model training strategy. Therefore, this paper 1) proposed an automatic training sample generation method via Google earth to build a large training sample set; and 2) explore the best training strategy for land cover classification using GoogleNet (Inception V3), one of the most widely used deep learning network. The result shows that the fine-tuning from first layer of Inception V3 using rough large sample set is the best strategy. The retrained network was then applied in one selected area from Xi'an city as a case study of GlobeLand30 refinement. The experiment results indicate that the proposed approach with Deep Learning and google earth imagery is a promising solution for further improving accuracy of GlobeLand30.

  20. Modeling and optimization of the european oil refining capacities and structures on the horizons 1995, 2000 and 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khebri, S.

    1993-04-01

    This thesis is a study on petroleum refining. In a first part, the author describes the existing refining processes and the structure of refining units, the structure of petroleum consumption and the interfaces with petroleum chemistry industry and gives a retrospect on world and european petroleum refining. In a second part, the author describes the models used to realize the simulation of supplies, market and refining scheme. Four scenarios are developed (conventional wisdom, driving into tensions, sustaining a high economic growth, high prices) and a forecasting on the horizons 1995, 2000 and 2010 is given. 54 refs

  1. Market analysis of shale oil co-products. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Data are presented in these appendices on the marketing and economic potential for soda ash, aluminia, and nahcolite as by-products of shale oil production. Appendices 1 and 2 contain data on the estimated capital and operating cost of an oil shales/mineral co-products recovery facility. Appendix 3 contains the marketing research data.

  2. EIA model documentation: World oil refining logistics demand model,''WORLD'' reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This manual is intended primarily for use as a reference by analysts applying the WORLD model to regional studies. It also provides overview information on WORLD features of potential interest to managers and analysts. Broadly, the manual covers WORLD model features in progressively increasing detail. Section 2 provides an overview of the WORLD model, how it has evolved, what its design goals are, what it produces, and where it can be taken with further enhancements. Section 3 reviews model management covering data sources, managing over-optimization, calibration and seasonality, check-points for case construction and common errors. Section 4 describes in detail the WORLD system, including: data and program systems in overview; details of mainframe and PC program control and files;model generation, size management, debugging and error analysis; use with different optimizers; and reporting and results analysis. Section 5 provides a detailed description of every WORLD model data table, covering model controls, case and technology data. Section 6 goes into the details of WORLD matrix structure. It provides an overview, describes how regional definitions are controlled and defines the naming conventions for-all model rows, columns, right-hand sides, and bounds. It also includes a discussion of the formulation of product blending and specifications in WORLD. Several Appendices supplement the main sections

  3. Conversion of by-products from the vegetable oil industry into biodiesel and its use in internal combustion engines: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Piloto-Rodríguez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel produced from by-products and waste materials can be an economical way of reducing traditional oil consumption and environmental problems. The by-products from the vegetable oil refining industry such as soapstock, acid oil and fatty acid distillates are suitable for producing biodiesel. The present work is a survey related to the use of these by-products to obtain biodiesel, covering not only the traditional and most widely used acid/base catalysis, but also solid and enzymatic catalysis. Details of the techniques are presented and compared. The advantages and drawbacks of the different approaches are mentioned and analyzed. The synthesis and use of by-products from the vegetable oil refining industry are covered in this work. The use of the obtained biodiesel in diesel engines is also included, demonstrating the disparity between the number of papers related to biodiesel production and engine performance assessment.

  4. Biodiesel production from waste coconut oil by esterification with ethanol: The effect of water removal by adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Joao Felipe G.; Lucena, Izabelly Larissa; Saboya, Rosana M. Alves; Rodrigues, Marcelo L.; Torres, Antonio Eurico B.; Fernandes, Fabiano A. Narciso; Cavalcante, Celio L. Jr. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Bl. 709, 60455-760, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Parente, Expedito Jose S. Jr. [Tecnologias Bioenergeticas (TECBIO), PARTEC, Rua Prof. Romulo Proenca, s/n, CEP 60455-700, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The production of biodiesel by esterification with ethanol using waste oil generated in the refining of coconut oil was investigated in this study. The reaction was performed with and without adsorption of water in order to verify the effect of removing water on the reaction conversion. Methanol was also evaluated as an esterification agent. For both ethanol and methanol, conversions over 99% mol were observed. Simultaneous water adsorption allowed the use of lower alcohol/oil molar ratios thus enabling better economics to a possible industrial process. (author)

  5. Elevated circulating LDL phenol levels in men who consumed virgin rather than refined olive oil are associated with less oxidation of plasma LDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre-Carbot, Karina; Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; Jaúregui, Olga; Castellote, Ana I; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Nurmi, Tarja; Poulsen, Henrik E; Gaddi, Antonio V; Kaikkonen, Jari; Zunft, Hans-Franz; Kiesewetter, Holger; Fitó, Montserrat; Covas, María-Isabel; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2010-03-01

    In human LDL, the bioactivity of olive oil phenols is determined by the in vivo disposition of the biological metabolites of these compounds. Here, we examined how the ingestion of 2 similar olive oils affected the content of the metabolic forms of olive oil phenols in LDL in men. The oils differed in phenol concentrations as follows: high (629 mg/L) for virgin olive oil (VOO) and null (0 mg/L) for refined olive oil (ROO). The study population consisted of a subsample from the EUROLIVE study and a randomized controlled, crossover design was used. Intervention periods lasted 3 wk and were preceded by a 2-wk washout period. The levels of LDL hydroxytyrosol monosulfate and homovanillic acid sulfate, but not of tyrosol sulfate, increased after VOO ingestion (P oil modulates the phenolic metabolite content in LDL after sustained, daily consumption. The inverse relationship of these metabolites with the degree of LDL oxidation supports the in vivo antioxidant role of olive oil phenolics compounds.

  6. Potential Applications of Gosat Based Carbon Budget Products to Refine Terrestrial Ecosystem Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, M.; Ichii, K.

    2011-12-01

    Estimation of carbon exchange in terrestrial ecosystem associates with difficulties due to complex entanglement of physical and biological processes: thus, the net ecosystem productivity (NEP) estimated from simulation often differs among process-based terrestrial ecosystem models. In addition to complexity of the system, validation can only be conducted in a point scale since reliable observation is only available from ground observations. With a lack of large spatial data, extension of model simulation to a global scale results in significant uncertainty in the future carbon balance and climate change. Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), launched by the Japanese space agency (JAXA) in January, 2009, is the 1st operational satellite promised to deliver the net land-atmosphere carbon budget to the terrestrial biosphere research community. Using that information, the model reproducibility of carbon budget is expected to improve: hence, gives a better estimation of the future climate change. This initial analysis is to seek and evaluate the potential applications of GOSAT observation toward the sophistication of terrestrial ecosystem model. The present study was conducted in two processes: site-based analysis using eddy covariance observation data to assess the potential use of terrestrial carbon fluxes (GPP, RE, and NEP) to refine the model, and extension of the point scale analysis to spatial using Carbon Tracker product as a prototype of GOSAT product. In the first phase of the experiment, it was verified that an optimization routine adapted to a terrestrial model, Biome-BGC, yielded the improved result with respect to eddy covariance observation data from AsiaFlux Network. Spatial data sets used in the second phase were consists of GPP from empirical algorithm (e.g. support vector machine), NEP from Carbon Tracker, and RE from the combination of these. These spatial carbon flux estimations was used to refine the model applying the exactly same

  7. Future of French refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, B.

    1993-01-01

    Over recent years, the refining industry has had to grapple with a growing burden of environmental and safety regulations concerning not only its plants and other facilities, but also its end products. At the same time, it has had to bear the effects of the reduction of the special status that used to apply to petroleum, and the consequences of economic freedom, to which we should add, as specifically concerns the French market, the impact of energy policy and the pro-nuclear option. The result is a drop in heavy fuel oil from 36 million tonnes per year in 1973 to 6.3 million in 1992, and in home-heating fuel from 37 to 18 million per year. This fast-moving market is highly competitive. The French market in particular is wide open to imports, but the refining companies are still heavy exporters for those products with high added-value, like lubricants, jet fuel, and lead-free gasolines. The competition has led the refining companies to commit themselves to quality, and to publicize their efforts in this direction. This is why the long-term perspectives for petroleum fuels are still wide open. This is supported by the probable expectation that the goal of economic efficiency is likely to soften the effects of the energy policy, which penalizes petroleum products, in that they have now become competitive again. In the European context, with the challenge of environmental protection and the decline in heavy fuel outlets, French refining has to keep on improving the quality of its products and plants, which means major investments. The industry absolutely must return to a more normal level of profitability, in order to sustain this financial effort, and generate the prosperity of its high-performance plants and equipment. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  8. Risk management of Norwegian oil production; Risikostyring av norsk oljeproduksjon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloegetvedt, Bjoern

    1998-07-01

    The items discussed in this presentation are: (1) Oil price chronology, (2) Market structure - Forward prices, (3) Volatility in oil prices, (4) Sales strategies and price fixing, (5) Development of ''Risk Management'' in the oil trading, (6) Oil products and markets, (7) Management of risk exposure, (8) Strong points and weak points of the norm price system, (9) Comparison with UK.

  9. State and trends of oil crops production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tiankui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to present a full picture of current situation and future trends of Chinese oil crop production. The total oil crop production remained broadly constant during 2011–2014. The top three oil crops are soybean, peanut and rapeseed, together accounting for more than 70% of total oil crop production. The area under cultivation and the production of peanuts will keep steadily increasing because most Chinese like its pleasant roasted flavor. Because of their high content in polyunsaturated fatty acids and the natural minor functional components in their oils, more attention is being paid to sunflower seed and rice bran. The diminishing availability of arable land and concern over the security of edible oil supplies is driving both a change in cultivation structure of crops and improvements in the efficiency of oilseed production in China.

  10. Petrophysical studies in heavy oil sands with early water production - Hamaca area, Orinoco Oil Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salisch, H.A.

    1982-07-01

    This study describes the main lines of petrophysical research in the Hamaca-Pao region of the Orinoco Oil Belt. The techniques and parameters most appropriate for petrophysical studies in the area of interest are discussed. Field tests have confirmed the conclusions of this study on early water production and low oil recovery. Steam injection was shown to be a means for increasing oil mobility to such a degree that significant amounts of additional oil can be produced.

  11. The effects of alcohol to oil molar ratios and the type of alcohol on biodiesel production using transesterification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Atadashi Musa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The nature of alcohol and alcohol to oil molar ratio plays an important role on the method of biodiesel production. As a result, this paper examined different alcohols commonly used for the production of biodiesel fuel with more emphasis on methanol and ethanol. Further the different alcohol to oil molar ratios used for the production of biodiesel have been extensively discussed and reported. Also the effects of alcohol to molar ratios on biodiesel refining process and its physicochemical properties were investigated.

  12. The oil barrel price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondy, J.; Papon, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an overview and a prospective glance on the oil barrel price. It indicates the relevant indicators: Brent quotation, euro/dollar parity, economic activity indicators, world oil consumption distribution, crude oil production, refining capacity. It briefly presents the involved stake holders: crude oil producers, oil refiners, refined product dealers, and the OPEC. It discusses the major retrospective trends: evolution in relationship with geopolitical events and energy policies, strong correlation between oil demand and economic growth, prevalence of OPEC, growing importance of national oil companies. An emerging trend is noticed: growing role of emerging countries on the crude market. Some prospective issues are discussed: duration and intensity of economic recession, separation between economic growth and energy consumption, pace and ambition level of policies of struggle against climate change, exploitable resources, and geopolitical hazards. Four evolution hypotheses are discussed

  13. Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Philip; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

    2012-07-01

    As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

  14. Biodiesel production methods of rubber seed oil: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfah, M.; Mulyazmi; Burmawi; Praputri, E.; Sundari, E.; Firdaus

    2018-03-01

    The utilization of rubber seed as raw material of biodiesel production is seen highly potential in Indonesia. The availability of rubber seeds in Indonesia is estimated about 5 million tons per annum, which can yield rubber seed oil about 2 million tons per year. Due to the demand of edible oils as a food source is tremendous and the edible oil feedstock costs are far expensive to be used as fuel, production of biodiesel from non-edible oils such as rubber seed is an effective way to overcome all the associated problems with edible oils. Various methods for producing biodiesel from rubber seed oil have been reported. This paper introduces an optimum condition of biodiesel production methods from rubber seed oil. This article was written to be a reference in the selection of methods and the further development of biodiesel production from rubber seed oil. Biodiesel production methods for rubber seed oils has been developed by means of homogeneous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts, supercritical method, ultrasound, in-situ and enzymatic processes. Production of biodiesel from rubber seed oil using clinker loaded sodium methoxide as catalyst is very interesting to be studied and developed further.

  15. BioRefine. New biomass products programme 2007-2012. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makinen, T. (ed.) [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Alakangas, E.; Holviala, N. (eds.) [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaskyla (Finland)

    2012-07-01

    The focal areas of the BioRefine programme have been business development, raw materials, and product lines. The key issue in the programme has been the development of business opportunities. The other two programme areas - raw materials and product lines, including technologies and services - have always been viewed from the perspective of short, medium or long-term business activities.The programme has organised four calls for research projects. The focus of the first call was on biomass-based fuels for transport (in the autumn 2007), the second one focused on other biomass-based products like chemicals and materials (in the spring 2008), and the third one on new biomass sources and waste-based biomass, and research supporting the business development of SME companies (early in 2010). In the last call in the spring 2011, project proposals were expected to focus on the following areas: new innovative and multidisciplinary research initiatives related to biomass utilisation, small distributed biorefinery concepts, efficient and sustainable utilisation of biomass raw materials in new integrated solutions for biorefining, and new integrated solutions for the efficient utilisation of sidestreams in the biorefining value chain or in its parts. Unlike research organizations, companies have been able to apply for funding continuously from Tekes.

  16. Production of Al-Ti-C grain refiners with the addition of elemental carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gezer, Berke Turgay; Toptan, Fatih; Daglilar, Sibel; Kerti, Isil

    2010-01-01

    Grain refining process used in aluminium alloys, has an important role for preventing columnar, coarse grains and encouraging fine, equiaxed grain formation. Al-Ti-B grain refiners are widely used as aluminium grain refiners despite the problems in application Al-Ti-C refiners have an increasing demand in recent years. In the present work, Al-Ti-C grain refiners with different Ti:C ratios were produced by insitu method with the addition of elemental carbon. Microstructures were characterised by optic microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The effects of temperature, holding time and Ti:C ratio on the grain refinement process were investigated and optimum conditions were determined.

  17. Genetic determinism of oil acidity among some DELI oil palm (Elaeis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-08-24

    Aug 24, 2016 ... Key words: Elaeis guineensis Jacq., free fatty acid content, crude palm oil, inheritance. INTRODUCTION. The oil palm (Elaeis ... of world's production of vegetable oils. The highest palm oil producing countries ... Without prior refining, acidic palm oil is improper for human consumption (Anonymous, 2005).

  18. Method of preparing an Al-Ti-B grain refiner for aluminium-comprising products, and a method of casting aluminium products

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkman, H.J.; Duszczyk, J.; Katgerman, L.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of preparing an Al-Ti-B grain refiner for cast aluminium-comprising products. According to the invention the preparation is realized by mixing powders selected from the group comprising aluminium, titanium, boron, and alloys and intermetallic compounds thereof, compressing, heating in an inert environment until an exothermic reaction is initiated and cooling. It has been shown that when the grain refiner thus prepared is applied, the quality of cast products ...

  19. Production of jet fuel using heavy crude oil; Producao de combustiveis de aviacao a partir de petroleos pesados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Om, Neyda [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Cavado, Alberto; Reyes, Yordanka [Centro de Pesquisas do Petroleo, Cidade de Havana (Cuba); Dominguez, Zulema [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2004-07-01

    The production of heavy crude oils increased in the last years in the world. Crude oils with high density, viscosity, acidity and sulfur, nitrogen, metals and asphaltenes contents, by the others hand, low stability and low product quality. The challenger of many refiners is find solutions to refine the heavy crude oils, and produce fuels with certify quality, such as Jet Fuel. The principal aviation technique on the world work with gas turbines engines feted for jet fuel (JET A1). The quality specifications of this fuel are establish by International Norms: ASTM-1655, DEF STAN 91-91-3 (DERD 2494) and joint Fuelling System Check List. The world technologies to obtain jet fuel from mixtures of heavy crude oil with middle crude oils are: Atmospheric distillation, with a posterior hydrogenation and finally the additivation. Studies carried out have demonstrates that the Cubans heavy crude oils is characterized for having API less than 10, raised viscosity, high sulfur content (>6%) and asphaltenes content (more than 15%). These properties provide to its derivatives of low quality. This paper define the characteristic of Cuban heavy crude oil, the technology and operational conditions to produce jet fuel (Jet A1) and the quality of fuel produced. (author)

  20. Biosurfactant production by Mucor circinelloides on waste frying oil and possible uses in crude oil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanizadeh, Parvin; Moghimi, Hamid; Hamedi, Javad

    2017-10-01

    Biosurfactants are biocompatible surface active agents which many microorganisms produce. This study investigated the production of biosurfactants by Mucor circinelloides. The effects of different factors on biosurfactant production, including carbon sources and concentrations, nitrogen sources, and iron (II) concentration, were studied and the optimum condition determined. Finally, the strain's ability to remove the crude oil and its relationship with biosurfactant production was evaluated. The results showed that M. circinelloides could reduce the surface tension of the culture medium to 26.6 mN/m and create a clear zone of 12.9 cm diameter in an oil-spreading test. The maximum surface tension reduction was recorded 3 days after incubation. The optimum condition for biosurfactant production was achieved in the presence of 8% waste frying oil as a carbon source, 2 g/L yeast extract as a nitrogen source, and 0.01 mM FeSO 4 . M. circinelloides could consume 8% waste frying oil in 5 days of incubation, and 87.6% crude oil in 12 days of incubation. A direct correlation was observed between oil degradation and surface tension reduction in the first 3 days of fungal growth. The results showed that the waste frying oil could be recommended as an inexpensive oily waste substance for biosurfactant production, and M. circinelloides could have the potential to treat waste frying oil. According to the results, the produced crude biosurfactant or fungal strain could be directly used for the mycoremediation of crude oil contamination in oil fields.

  1. HEAVY-OIL PRODUCTION USING EMULSION FLOODING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... American Petroleum Institute, EOR = Enhanced Oil Recovery, GOR = Gas Oil Ratio ... concentration, 166.003 is the constant (molar mass of ... (molar mass of CaCO3),1M is the constant value. ... volume of prepared oil-in-water emulsion, that.

  2. An oil production forecast for China considering economic limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke; Feng, Lianyong; Wang, Jianliang; Xiong, Yi; Tverberg, Gail E.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, it has become apparent that oil prices may not rise endlessly. Unconventional oil is likely to be especially affected by low prices because it tends to be high-priced to extract. To estimate the impact prices might have on future Chinese oil production, we develop a model in which only future unconventional oil production is affected by price. We analyze three price scenarios: Stays Low, Best Estimate, and Ever-Rising Prices. In these scenarios, remaining Ultimate Recoverable Resources (URR) are estimated to be 10%, 50%, and 90% of remaining Technically Recoverable Resources, respectively. Since oil price can be expected to affect the shape of the extraction curve, we spread estimated URR to year using models that do not assume that future production will ultimately produce a symmetric Hubbert-type curve (Multi-Cycle Generalized Weng Model and Stochastic Resource-Constrained Growth Model). In the Best Estimate Scenario, China's oil production is expected to reach a maximum of 226.79 million tons in 2020. In the Ever-Rising Prices Scenario, China's maximum oil production occurs in 2023. In the Stays Low Scenario, maximum production has already been reached. - Highlights: • China's conventional oil reached a peak in 2010 and has begun to decline. • Unconventional oil production will be especially adversely affected by low prices. • Rising selling price of oil may lead to recession, bringing prices back down. • China's total oil supply appears likely to peak about 2020. • Likely oil production is less than Technically Recoverable Resources.

  3. Oil extraction from plant seeds for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadessa Gonfa Keneni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy is basic for development and its demand increases due to rapid population growth, urbanization and improved living standards. Fossil fuels will continue to dominate other sources of energy although it is non-renewable and harm global climate. Problems associated with fossil fuels have driven the search for alternative energy sources of which biodiesel is one option. Biodiesel is renewable, non-toxic, environmental-friendly and an economically feasible options to tackle the depleting fossil fuels and its negative environmental impact. It can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae. However, nowadays, the major feedstocks of biodiesel are edible oils and this has created food vs fuel debate. Therefore, the future prospect is to use non-edible oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae as feedstock for biodiesel. Selection of non-expensive feedstock and the extraction and preparation of oil for biodiesel production is a crucial step due to its relevance on the overall technology. There are three main conventional oil extraction methods: mechanical, chemical/solvent and enzymatic extraction methods. There are also some newly developed oil extraction methods that can be used separately or in combination with the conventional ones, to overcome some disadvantages of the conventional oil extraction methods. This review paper presents, compare and discusses different potential biofuel feedstocks, various oil extraction methods, advantages and disadvantages of different oil extraction methods, and propose future prospective for the improvement of oil extraction methods and sustainability of biodiesel production and utilization.

  4. Value added product recovery from sludge generated during gum arabic refining process by vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Veena; Satyanarayan, Sanjeev; Satyanarayan, Shanta

    2016-09-01

    Gum arabic is multifunctional and used in food products, pharmaceutical, confectionery, cosmetic, printing and textile industry. Gum arabic has an excellent market and its production is being increased to meet the market demand. In the process, huge quantity of solid waste is generated during its refining process. An attempt has been made to vermicompost this organic waste using Eudrilus eugeniae. This research work is first of its kind. Literature on this substrate has not been reported anywhere else for vermicomposting. Results were excellent with volatile solid reduction of 51.34 %; C/N ratio reduced to 16.31 % indicating efficient loss of carbon as carbon dioxide during vermicomposting period. Manurial value, i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in the range, required for the plants also increased. Porosity of 67.74 % and water holding capacity of 65.75 % were observed. The maturity of the vermicompost was evaluated through scanning electron microscopy wherein the complete conversion of large raw material particles into finer particles forming a uniform matrix with more surface area was observed indicating its efficient conversion. Microbial quality of vermicompost was also studied. The final vermicompost is free of fungal cells and pathogenic bacteria.

  5. 1999 Crude oil market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochener, J.

    1998-01-01

    Baseline projection handling of crude oil prices was discussed, based on actual crude oil price trends from 1992 to 1998. Attention was drawn to the lack of correlation between crude oil and natural gas prices. Predictions for crude oil production were extended to the year 2015. As far as the immediate future is concerned the crude oil price for 1999 was predicted to continue to be sluggish due to competitive pressure from refined products at burner tip. tabs., figs

  6. Production of Detergent from Castor Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakar Garba ISAH

    2006-01-01

    This research work was carried out with the objective of extraction of oil from castor seeds and its utilization to produce a synthetic detergent. Solvent extraction method was employed in extracting the oil and the total percent oil yield was found to be 23.8%. The experimentally determined saponification value of the oil was 183.7275mgKOH/g of oil. The detergent efficiency, determined as a measure of the foamability of the detergent was found to be 2.6cm. The pH tests revealed mildly basic ...

  7. English-Igbo glossary creation of palm oil production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Igbo speaking people are well known for palm oil production and processing in Nigeria. This occupation is one of the lucrative ventures among other trades or occupations for which the Igbo are known. With recent technological advancement in the method of production and processing palm oil, more English terms that ...

  8. Impact of heavy metals on the oil products biodegradation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukauskaite, Audrone; Jakubauskaite, Viktorija; Belous, Olga; Ambrazaitiene, Dalia; Stasiskiene, Zaneta

    2008-12-01

    Oil products continue to be used as a principal source of energy. Wide-scale production, transport, global use and disposal of petroleum have made them major contaminants in prevalence and quantity in the environment. In accidental spills, actions are taken to remove or remediate or recover the contaminants immediately, especially if they occur in environmentally sensitive areas, for example, in coastal zones. Traditional methods to cope with oil spills are confined to physical containment. Biological methods can have an advantage over the physical-chemical treatment regimes in removing spills in situ as they offer biodegradation of oil fractions by the micro-organisms. Recently, biological methods have been known to play a significant role in bioremediation of oil-polluted coastal areas. Such systems are likely to be of significance in the effective management of sensitive coastal ecosystems chronically subjected to oil spillage. For this reason the aim of this paper is to present an impact of Mn, Cu, Co and Mo quantities on oil biodegradation effectiveness in coastal soil and to determine the relationship between metal concentrations and degradation of two oil products (black oil and diesel fuel). Soil was collected in the Baltic Sea coastal zone oil products degradation area (Klaipeda, Lithuania). The experiment consisted of two parts: study on the influence of micro-elements on the oil product biodegradation process; and analysis of the influence of metal concentration on the number of HDMs. The analysis performed and results obtained address the following areas: impact of metal on a population of hydrocarbon degrading micro-organisms, impact of metals on residual concentrations of oil products, influence of metals on the growth of micro-organisms, inter-relation of metal concentrations with degradation rates. Statistical analysis was made using ;Statgraphics plus' software. The influence of metals on the growth of micro-organisms, the biodegradation process

  9. Development and growth of science-intensive production of lube oil additives in the transition to a market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhurba, A.S.; Burlaka, G.G.; Pravikov, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    In the Soviet petroleum refining and petrochemical industry, preference with respect to science-intensive development should be given to lube oil additives as production objects which are characterized by high cost of scientific developments and which are major factors influencing scientific and technical progress in many branches of the economy. The role of additives is becoming much more significant because of dwindling resources of crude oils with high potential contents of lube fractions (18-20%); other factors are the phasing out of ecologically harmful technologies, unsatisfactory utilization of used oils, and so on. Under these conditions, the use of additives is essentially the only method for increasing the efficiency of lube oil production and improving the product quality, which, together with improved design and materials for the lubricating components and an improvement of the professional and cultural level of their operation, will logically bring forth a marked curtailment of lubricant consumption. Outside the USSR, additive production, thanks to its conversion into a rapidly progressing subbranch of the petroleum refining industry, has become the object of capital investment. Under conditions of a market economy, additive manufacture is characterized by a high level of specialization and concentration, various forms of cooperation, profitability, and competitiveness. Because of the existence of a branch network of retail and wholesale trade, production of lube oils and additives can be adjusted rapidly to meet the requirements of the domestic and world market

  10. The evaporation of crude oil and petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M. F.

    1996-01-01

    The physics of oil and petroleum evaporation was studied by means of an experimental apparatus. The evaporation was determined by weight loss and recorded on a computer. Examination of the data showed that most oil and petroleum products (those with seven to ten components) evaporate at a logarithmic rate with respect to time, while other petroleum products (those with fewer chemical components) evaporate at a rate which is square root with respect to time. Evaporation of oil and petroleum was not strictly boundary-layer regulated because the typical oil evaporation rate rates do not exceed that of molecular diffusion and thus turbulent diffusion does not increase the evaporation rates. Overall, boundary layer regulation can be ignored in the prediction of oil and petroleum evaporation. The simple equation relating only the logarithm of time (or the square root of time in the case of narrow-cut products) and temperature are sufficient to accurately describe oil evaporation. refs., figs

  11. Report on the oil and gas industry in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables of data, this report discuss the recent evolutions of world oil and gas markets in 2009, of the oil and gas exploration and production in the world, of the issue of European gas supplies, of the exploration and production in France, of the oil industry and oil services, of hydrocarbon imports, of refining activities in France, of the quality of fuels, of substitution fuels, of the domestic transportation of oil products, of gas infrastructures, of oil product storage, of oil and gas products consumption, of hydrocarbon taxing, of gas price for the end consumer, of oil product prices, and of the retailing of oil products

  12. Report on the oil and gas industry 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables of data, this report discusses the recent evolutions and trends of world oil and gas markets in 2010, of oil and gas exploration and production in the world, of the issue of European gas supplies, of exploration and production in France, of the oil industry and oil services, of hydrocarbon imports, of refining activities in France, of the quality of fuels, of substitution fuels, of the domestic transportation of oil products, of the issue of strategic storage, of oil product storage, of oil and gas products consumption, of hydrocarbon taxing, of the retailing of oil products, of oil product prices, and of gas price for the end consumer

  13. Modeling Peak Oil and the Geological Constraints on Oil Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynes, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show

  14. Modeling peak oil and the geological constraints on oil production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynès, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show

  15. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA. Cis 9, trans 11 and trans 10, cis 12 isomer detection in crude and refined corn oils by capillary GC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Tokuşoğlu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs exhibit protective effects against various types of cancer and heart diseases. With the newly developed capillary gas chromatographic method (GC, cis9, trans11 and trans10, cis12 octadecadienoic acid isomers of CLA (C18:2 were determined in crude and refined corn oils as qualitative and quantitative measurements. Cis 9, trans11 C18:2 (c9, t11 CLA was the major CLA isomer in both oils. It was found that c9, t11 CLA was 0.62% of the total lipid in crude oil and 1.24% of the total lipid in refined oil. Using the refining process, the total CLA was 1.38% whereas that of crude corn oil was 0.62%. An approximate 2.2 fold increase in the total CLA was found in refined oil (n = 9 (p y = 2.782x + 0.046 (R2 = 0.9999] were performed (p El ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA parece exhibir efecto protector frente a enfermedades cardiovasculares y varios tipos de cáncer. En este trabajo, se establece un mátodo analítico mediante cromatografía de gases con columna capilar para la determinación cualitativa y cuantitativa de los isómeros cis 9,trans 11 y trans 10, cis 12 en aceites de maiz crudo y refinado. El isómero cis 9, trans11 C18:2 fue el mayoritario encontrándose en concentraciones de 0.62% en el aceite cru,do y de 1.24 % en el aceite refinado. La cantidad total de CLA encontrada en el aceite refinado (n = 9 (p 2 = 0.9999 y de recuperación [y = 2.782x+0.046 (R2 = 0.9999]. El método cromatográfico propuesto podría ser usado para el control de calidad de los aceites vegetales.

  16. Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

  17. Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

  18. Oil price shocks and policy implications the emergence of U.S. tight oil production: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Voth, Jeffrey Michael

    2015-01-01

    How have shocks to supply and demand affected global oil prices; and what are key policy implications following the resurgence of oil production in the United States? Highlights: − The recent collapse in global oil prices was dominated by oversupply. − The future of tight oil in the United States is vulnerable to obstacles beyond oil prices. − Opinions on tight oil from the Top 25 think tank organizations are considered. Global oil prices have fallen more than fifty percent since ...

  19. Crystallography of waxes - an electron diffraction study of refined and natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorset, Douglas L.

    1997-02-01

    The crystal structure of four waxes has been investigated by electron crystallography. Two of these waxes, including a refined petroleum product (Gulfwax) and a material from lignite (montan wax), form well ordered crystals and their structure could be solved quantitatively from the observed 0022-3727/30/3/018/img1 diffraction patterns. As also found previously for simpler binary n-paraffin solid solutions, the average structure resembles that of a pure paraffin (e.g. n-0022-3727/30/3/018/img2) but with a Gaussian distribution of atomic occupancies near the chain ends to account for the statistical distribution of chain lengths within a lamella. Two other waxes from living organisms, South African bee honeycomb and the leaves of the Brazilian carnauba palm, are much less ordered, even though they share the same methylene subcell packing of the most crystalline parts of the previous materials. It appears that these waxes cannot fully separate into distinct lamellae, perhaps due to the presence of very long `tie' molecules, and are therefore `frustrated' crystal structures.

  20. Produced water: Market and global trends - oil production - water production - choice of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The presentation discusses various aspects of the world oil production, the energy demand, the future oil supply, the oil prices and the production growth. Some problems with produced water are also discussed as well as aspects of the market for produced water technology (tk)

  1. Oils; lubricants; paraffin-wax compositions; hydrocarbon condensation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1934-04-04

    Petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, kerosene, Diesel fuel oil, lubricating-oil, and paraffin wax, and like hydrocarbons such as are obtainable from shale oil and by the hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials, are improved by addition of products obtained by condensing a cyclic hydrocarbon with a saturated dihalogen derivative of an aliphatic hydrocarbon containing less than five carbon atoms. The addition of the condensation products increases the viscosity of the hydrocarbon oils specified, and is particularly useful in the case of lubricating-oils; addition of the condensation products to paraffin wax increases the transparency and adherent properties of the wax, and is useful in the manufacture of moulded articles such as candles; the products may also be used in solid lubricating-compositions.

  2. Conceptual design and techno-economic evaluation of efficient oil shale refinery processes ingratiated with oil and gas products upgradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Qingchun; Qian, Yu; Zhou, Huairong; Yang, Siyu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three integrated oil shale refinery processes are proposed. • Techno-economic performance of three proposed processes is conducted and compared. • Competitiveness of the three proposed processes is investigated at different scenarios. • A development direction for oil shale refinery industry is suggested. - Abstract: Compared with the petrochemical industry, oil shale refinery industry is still relatively backward and has many shortcomings, such as poor quality of shale oil, inefficient utilization of retorting gas, and the unsatisfactory economic performance. In the situation of the low oil price, many oil shale refinery plants are forced to stop or cut production. Thus, oil shale industry is facing a severe problem. How to relieve monetary loss or turn it into profits? This paper proposes three integrated oil shale refinery processes: an integrated with hydrogen production from retorting gas, an integrated with hydrogenation of shale oil, and an integrated with hydrogen production and oil hydrogenation. The techno-economic performance of the three different processes is conducted and compared with that of a conventional oil shale process. Results show the exergy destruction ratio of the oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production from retorting gas is the least, 41.6%, followed by the oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production and oil hydrogenation, 45.9%. Furthermore, these two proposed processes have the best economic performance. Especially they can turn losses of the conventional oil shale process into profits at the situation of low oil price. The oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production from retorting gas is recommended to the oil shale plants which use the oil shale with oil content lower than 12.9%, while the plants using oil shale with oil content higher than 12.9% are better to select the oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production and oil hydrogenation.

  3. Oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.; Winter, B.

    2001-01-01

    In refineries in particular attention is paid to the minimization of the generation of waste. Therefor catalysts in many processes are regenerated, absorbents are recycled and oily by-products are re-refined or used as fuels. This study discusses the origin and utilization of by-products from the oil industry. The processing of crude oils causes by-products and waste resulting from the crude oil itself or from cleaning measures for water pre-treatment, effluent treatment and flue gas treatment. (author)

  4. Radiotracer investigations in oil production and water injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eapen, A.C.; Jain, S.K.; Kirti

    1977-01-01

    Injection of gamma emitting radiotracers into oil wells followed by logging provides information on several aspects such as the identification of zones of seepage of water in the water injection wells and also the location of source of water entering oil producting wells. The experience gained in the application of bromine-82 and rubidium-86 as radiotracers in such studies at the Ankleshwar and Kalol oil fields in Gujarat and Nazira in Assam has been briefly reported. (author)

  5. Features of electric drive sucker rod pumps for oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizatullin, F. A.; Khakimyanov, M. I.; Khusainov, F. F.

    2018-01-01

    This article is about modes of operation of electric drives of downhole sucker rod pumps. Downhole oil production processes are very energy intensive. Oil fields contain many oil wells; many of them operate in inefficient modes with significant additional losses. Authors propose technical solutions to improve energy performance of a pump unit drives: counterweight balancing, reducing of electric motor power, replacing induction motors with permanent magnet motors, replacing balancer drives with chain drives, using of variable frequency drives.

  6. Development of taxation system for oil production companies in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmina, S. V.; Sboeva, I. M.; Selivanovskaya, J. I.; Khafizova, A. R.; Fomin, V. P.

    2018-01-01

    The present article is devoted to the taxation system for oil production companies in Russia. The role of oil production companies in the realization of the fiscal function of the state is shown. Tax and due receipts at the consolidated budget of the Russian Federation from major economic sectors in the years 2013-2015 are presented and analysed. An investigation of oil production taxation peculiarities is carried out. In particular, mineral extraction tax analysis is made, the said tax being one of the basic taxes paid by oil production companies. The authors come to a conclusion that mineral extraction tax in Russia needs reforming. Based on the investigation realized possible ways of taxation system development in respect of oil production companies in Russia are proposed. Thus, taking into account the fact that oil industry is very important for budget revenue formation, initially it is planned to test the new taxation system principles in a limited number of deposits, so called ‘pilot projects’. For highly profitable minefield deposits it is planned to introduce progressive and regressive index, varying depending on oil prices. Within the framework of the investigation the authors come to a conclusion that it is necessary to introduce gradually the taxation system based on the definition of surplus profit depending on the cost effectiveness and taking into account oil prices.

  7. Production of Detergent from Castor Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Garba ISAH

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This research work was carried out with the objective of extraction of oil from castor seeds and its utilization to produce a synthetic detergent. Solvent extraction method was employed in extracting the oil and the total percent oil yield was found to be 23.8%. The experimentally determined saponification value of the oil was 183.7275mgKOH/g of oil. The detergent efficiency, determined as a measure of the foamability of the detergent was found to be 2.6cm. The pH tests revealed mildly basic properties. The color, scent and efficiency of the detergent were improved with the addition of bleaching agent, perfume and foaming agents respectively.

  8. Canadian crude oil production and supply forecast 2006-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    In order to enable members to plan for pipeline capacity requirements for transporting Canadian crude oil to markets, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) 2006-2020 crude oil production and supply forecast provides a long-range outlook of Canadian crude oil production. It provides a forecast of supply and demand for both western and eastern Canada. Because offshore eastern oil production does not rely on pipeline access to reach markets, the analysis primarily focuses on western Canadian production and supply. Over the next fifteen years, Alberta's oil sands provides the main source of growth in the western Canadian production forecast. A survey of CAPP members encompassing all oil sands projects was conducted. Survey responses reflect both planned and envisioned projects over a fifteen year period, although some of the envisioned projects have been risk adjusted by modifying the potential completion schedules for projects which are deemed more uncertain. Detailed tables are provided on forecast data. Three sets of tables are included to show production, two supply scenarios and a high level assessment of the need for incremental pipeline capacity. The report also discusses delays and risk factors that could slow the pace of oil sands development and the corresponding increase in production being forecast in the base case. 16 tabs

  9. Explosively fracturing a productive oil and gas formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon, C W

    1966-06-23

    In this method of fracturing an oil- or gas-producing strata, a portion of the formation adjacent to, but separated from, the producing strata is fractured. Explosives are then introduced into the fracture in this portion of the formation and thereafter detonated to fracture the productive strata. Also claimed are a method of variably controlling the extent and force of the explosives used, and a method of increasing oil and gas production from a productive strata.

  10. Production and Characterization of Biodiesel from Tung Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Deog-Keun; Wang, Zhong-Ming; Lu, Pengmei; Park, Soon-Chul; Lee, Jin-Suk

    The feasibility of biodiesel production from tung oil was investigated. The esterification reaction of the free fatty acids of rung oil was performed using Amberlyst-15. Optimal molar ratio of methanol to oil was determined to be 7.5:1, and Amberlyst-15 was 20.8wt% of oil by response surface methodology. Under these reaction conditions, the acid value of rung oil was reduced to 0.72mg KOH/g. In the range of the molar equivalents of methanol to oil under 5, the esterification was strongly affected by the amount of methanol but not the catalyst. When the molar ratio of methanol to oil was 4.1:1 and Amberlyst-15 was 29.8wt% of the oil, the acid value decreased to 0.85mg KOH/g. After the transesterification reaction of pretreated rung oil, the purity of rung biodiesel was 90.2wt%. The high viscosity of crude rung oil decreased to 9.8mm2/s at 40 °C. Because of the presence of eleostearic acid, which is a main component of tung oil, the oxidation stability as determined by the Rancimat method was very low, 0.5h, but the cold filter plugging point, -11 °C, was good. The distillation process did not improve the fatty acid methyl ester content and the viscosity.

  11. Net energy yield from production of conventional oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, Michael; Krumdieck, Susan; Bodger, Pat

    2011-01-01

    Historic profitability of bringing oil to market was profound, but most easy oil has been developed. Higher cost resources, such as tar sands and deep off-shore, are considered the best prospects for the future. Economic modelling is currently used to explore future price scenarios commensurate with delivering fuel to market. Energy policy requires modelling scenarios capturing the complexity of resource and extraction aspects as well as the economic profitability of different resources. Energy-return-on-investment (EROI) expresses the profitability of bringing energy products to the market. Net energy yield (NEY) is related to the EROI. NEY is the amount of energy less expenditures necessary to deliver a fuel to the market. This paper proposes a pattern for EROI of oil production, based on historic oil development trends. Methodology and data for EROI is not agreed upon. The proposed EROI function is explored in relation to the available data and used to attenuate the International Energy Agency (IEA) world oil production scenarios to understand the implications of future declining EROI on net energy yield. The results suggest that strategies for management and mitigation of deleterious effects of a peak in oil production are more urgent than might be suggested by analyses focussing only on gross production. - Highlights: → Brief introduction to methodological issues concerning net energy analysis. → Description of EROI function over the whole production cycle of an energy resource. → Calibration of this function to EROI data from historic oil production. → Application to determine the net energy yield from current global oil production. → Calculation of net energy yield from IEA projections of future oil production.

  12. OPEC and Venezuelan oil production. Evidence against a cartel hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Douglas B.; Pippenger, Michael K. [Department of Economics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2010-10-15

    This study revisits the OPEC cartel hypothesis using a case study. A test is conducted to see if Venezuela has its production Granger cause its OPEC quota or whether the OPEC quota for Venezuela Granger causes Venezuelan production. The results show both occur at different times. In the short run, OPEC's oil production quota for Venezuela Granger causes Venezuelan production. However, shortly after cuts, Venezuela cheats on agreements, suggesting a tit-for-tat oligopoly game, which is not anti-competitive. In the long run, we show that Venezuelan oil production Granger causes OPEC's quota for Venezuela, but not vice versa. Having Venezuelan oil production Granger cause OPEC quotas for Venezuela in the long run suggests OPEC does not coordinate outputs as much as it reacts to them. The evidence suggests Venezuela is not a part of an OPEC anti-competitive syndicate even though we show that Venezuelan oil production is low. An alternative explanation for why Venezuela and possibly other OPEC members have low oil production outputs is that institutions and risk aversion, not cartel participation, is the cause. A vector error correction model shows that there is no tendency for Venezuelan oil production to converge to OPEC's quota for Venezuela. (author)

  13. OPEC and Venezuelan oil production: Evidence against a cartel hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Douglas B., E-mail: DBReynolds@Alaska.ed [Department of Economics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Pippenger, Michael K. [Department of Economics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2010-10-15

    This study revisits the OPEC cartel hypothesis using a case study. A test is conducted to see if Venezuela has its production Granger cause its OPEC quota or whether the OPEC quota for Venezuela Granger causes Venezuelan production. The results show both occur at different times. In the short run, OPEC's oil production quota for Venezuela Granger causes Venezuelan production. However, shortly after cuts, Venezuela cheats on agreements, suggesting a tit-for-tat oligopoly game, which is not anti-competitive. In the long run, we show that Venezuelan oil production Granger causes OPEC's quota for Venezuela, but not vice versa. Having Venezuelan oil production Granger cause OPEC quotas for Venezuela in the long run suggests OPEC does not coordinate outputs as much as it reacts to them. The evidence suggests Venezuela is not a part of an OPEC anti-competitive syndicate even though we show that Venezuelan oil production is low. An alternative explanation for why Venezuela and possibly other OPEC members have low oil production outputs is that institutions and risk aversion, not cartel participation, is the cause. A vector error correction model shows that there is no tendency for Venezuelan oil production to converge to OPEC's quota for Venezuela.

  14. OPEC and Venezuelan oil production: Evidence against a cartel hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Douglas B.; Pippenger, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    This study revisits the OPEC cartel hypothesis using a case study. A test is conducted to see if Venezuela has its production Granger cause its OPEC quota or whether the OPEC quota for Venezuela Granger causes Venezuelan production. The results show both occur at different times. In the short run, OPEC's oil production quota for Venezuela Granger causes Venezuelan production. However, shortly after cuts, Venezuela cheats on agreements, suggesting a tit-for-tat oligopoly game, which is not anti-competitive. In the long run, we show that Venezuelan oil production Granger causes OPEC's quota for Venezuela, but not vice versa. Having Venezuelan oil production Granger cause OPEC quotas for Venezuela in the long run suggests OPEC does not coordinate outputs as much as it reacts to them. The evidence suggests Venezuela is not a part of an OPEC anti-competitive syndicate even though we show that Venezuelan oil production is low. An alternative explanation for why Venezuela and possibly other OPEC members have low oil production outputs is that institutions and risk aversion, not cartel participation, is the cause. A vector error correction model shows that there is no tendency for Venezuelan oil production to converge to OPEC's quota for Venezuela.

  15. Oil Fields, Oil and gas production platforms are potential source for oil spills and may interfere with mechanical means to clean up oil spills., Published in 1998, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Oil Fields dataset current as of 1998. Oil and gas production platforms are potential source for oil spills and may interfere with mechanical means to clean up oil...

  16. The peak of oil production-Timings and market recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Pedro de; Silva, Pedro D.

    2009-01-01

    Energy is essential for present societies. In particular, transportation systems depend on petroleum-based fuels. That world oil production is set to pass a peak is now a reasonably accepted concept, although its date is far from consensual. In this work, we analyze the true expectations of the oil market participants about the future availability of this fundamental energy source. We study the evolution through time of the curves of crude oil futures prices, and we conclude that the market participants, among them the crude oil producers, already expect a near-term peak of oil production. This agrees with many technical predictions for the date of peak production, including our own, that point to peak dates around the end of the present decade. If this scenario is confirmed, it can cause serious social and economical problems because societies will have little time to perform the necessary adjustments

  17. Market analysis of shale oil co-products. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    This study examines the potential for separating, upgrading and marketing sodium mineral co-products together with shale oil production. The co-products investigated are soda ash and alumina which are derived from the minerals nahcolite and dawsonite. Five cases were selected to reflect the variance in mineral and shale oil content in the identified resource. In the five cases examined, oil content of the shale was varied from 20 to 30 gallons per ton. Two sizes of facilities were analyzed for each resource case to determine economies of scale between a 15,000 barrel per day demonstration unit and a 50,000 barrel per day full sized plant. Three separate pieces of analysis were conducted in this study: analysis of manufacturing costs for shale oil and co-products; projection of potential world markets for alumina, soda ash, and nahcolite; and determination of economic viability and market potential for shale co-products.

  18. Liquid oil production from shale gas condensate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, James J.

    2018-04-03

    A process of producing liquid oil from shale gas condensate reservoirs and, more particularly, to increase liquid oil production by huff-n-puff in shale gas condensate reservoirs. The process includes performing a huff-n-puff gas injection mode and flowing the bottom-hole pressure lower than the dew point pressure.

  19. Characteristics of small-scale palm oil production enterprise in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined characteristics of small-scale palm oil production enterprise in Anambra State, Nigeria. All the palm oil producers in Anambra State formed the population of the study. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents for the study. Data were collected from primary source through ...

  20. Economic Analysis of Production of Essential Oil using Steam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the profitability analysis and measure of return on investment carried out based on the various assumptions and projections made, it was quite obvious that the production of essential oil using steam distillation technology is highly profitable which should be attractive to potential investors. Keywords: Essential oil ...

  1. Toxicity of crude oil products and detergent on serum alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative effect of exposing Clarias gariepinus juveniles (100.20 + 0.8g) to diferent concentrations of crude oil products and detergent were studied. Bonny Light Crude oil (BLCO), Premium motor spirit (PMS), Dual purpose kerosene (DPK) and Ariel Enzymax Detergent (AED) were respectively applied at three ...

  2. Oil Reservoir Production Optimization using Single Shooting and ESDIRK Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Völcker, Carsten; Frydendall, Jan

    2012-01-01

    the injections and oil production such that flow is uniform in a given geological structure. Even in the case of conventional water flooding, feedback based optimal control technologies may enable higher oil recovery than with conventional operational strategies. The optimal control problems that must be solved...

  3. Oil production, oil prices, and macroeconomic adjustment under different wage assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, C.; Maleka, P.T.

    1992-01-01

    In a previous paper one of the authors developed a simple model to try to identify the possible macroeconomic adjustment processes arising in an economy experiencing a temporary period of oil production, under alternative wage adjustment assumptions, namely nominal and real wage rigidity. Certain assumptions were made regarding the characteristics of actual production, the permanent revenues generated from that oil production, and the net exports/imports of oil. The role of the price of oil, and possible changes in that price was essentially ignored. Here we attempt to incorporate the price of oil, as well as changes in that price, in conjunction with the production of oil, the objective being to identify the contribution which the price of oil, and changes in it, make to the adjustment process itself. The emphasis in this paper is not given to a mathematical derivation and analysis of the model's dynamics of adjustment or its comparative statics, but rather to the derivation of simulation results from the model, for a specific assumed case, using a numerical algorithm program, conducive to the type of theoretical framework utilized here. The results presented suggest that although the adjustment profiles of the macroeconomic variables of interest, for either wage adjustment assumption, remain fundamentally the same, the magnitude of these adjustments is increased. Hence to derive a more accurate picture of the dimensions of adjustment of these macroeconomic variables, it is essential to include the price of oil as well as changes in that price. (Author)

  4. Canadian operators boost heavy oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdue, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Recent technological advances in slurry pipelining, horizontal wells, and thermal recovery techniques have made recovery of Canadian heavy oil resources more economical. In addition, reduced government royalties have made investment in these difficult reservoirs more attractive. As a result, activity has increased in heavy-oil fields in Alberta and Saskatchewan. This paper review the various oil sand recovery projects under development in the area and the current government policies which are helping to develop them. The paper also provides brief descriptions of the equipment and technologies that have allowed a reduced cost in the development. Items discussed include surface mining techniques, horizontal drilling, reservoir engineering techniques, separation processes, and thermal recovery

  5. Review on biofuel oil and gas production processes from microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Sarmidi

    2009-01-01

    Microalgae, as biomass, are a potential source of renewable energy, and they can be converted into energy such as biofuel oil and gas. This paper presents a brief review on the main conversion processes of microalgae becoming energy. Since microalgae have high water content, not all biomass energy conversion processes can be applied. By using thermochemical processes, oil and gas can be produced, and by using biochemical processes, ethanol and biodiesel can be produced. The properties of the microalgae product are almost similar to those of offish and vegetable oils, and therefore, it can be considered as a substitute of fossil oil.

  6. Oil Production, The Price Crash and Uncertainty in Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    World oil production increased to about 74 million barrels per day by January 2005, and was fairly constant until 2011 when it started to increase to 77.8 mb/d in 2014. This spectacular increase of 4 mb/d was almost entirely due to a sharp increase in production in the US from shale formations, called light tight oil (LTO). World oil production minus this increase in US LTO Production has been flat since 2005 at about 74 mb/d. When US production starts to decline, world oil production likely will as well. That surge is forecast to end soon because LTO is expensive to produce, the first year decline rates are extremely high requiring many new wells each year to maintain or increase production and the most productive locations have already been drilled. It is unprofitable for the Exploration and Production (E&P) companies. Full-year free cash flow has been negative for most tight oil E&P companies since 2009. The total negative cash flow for the 19 largest E&P companies totaled 10.5B in 2014. The surge in US LTO production created an imbalance in global supply and demand and resulted in a 50% decrease in the price of oil. The tight-oil producers who were are financially marginal at an oil price greater than 90 per barrel are even more so at the lower price. As a result the surge in US production of LTO is declining, making it unlikely that world oil production will exceed the present value of about 28 Gb/yr (equivalent to 75 mb/d) (175 EJ/yr). Many of the SRES (IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios) and RCP (IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways) projections (especially RCP 8.5 and 6) require CO2 emissions due to oil consumption in the range of 32 Gb/yr to 57 Gb/yr (200 to 350 EJ/yr). The higher values would require a doubling of world oil production. It is highly uncertain whether the higher CO2 scenarios will be reached. This is an element of uncertainty missing from most considerations of future climate change.

  7. Biodiesel production from residual oils recovered from spent bleaching earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yi-Pin; Chang, James I.

    2010-01-01

    This work was to study technical and economic feasibilities of converting residual oils recovered from spent bleaching earth generated at soybean oil refineries into useable biodiesel. Experimental results showed that fatty acids in the SBE residual oil were hexadecenoic acid (58.19%), stearic acid (21.49%) and oleic acid (20.32%), which were similar to those of vegetable oils. The methyl ester conversion via a transesterification process gave a yield between 85 and 90%. The biodiesel qualities were in reasonable agreement with both EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 standards. A preliminary financial analysis showed that the production cost of biodiesel from SBE oils was significantly lower than the pre-tax price of fossil diesel or those made of vegetable oils or waste cooking oils. The effects of the crude oil price and the investment on the production cost and the investment return period were also conducted. The result showed that the investment would return faster at higher crude oil price. (author)

  8. Controlled PVTS oil and gas production stimulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ospina-Racines, E

    1970-02-01

    By completing oil- or gas-producing wells according to the PVTS method and energizing the flow of the oil-gas fluids in the reservoir with a small horse-power gas compressor at the wellhead, the following oil and gas production features are attained: (1) Original reservoir story energy conditions are restored, improved, used, and conserved while producing oil and/or gas. (2) The flow of oil or gas in the pay formation to the well bore is stimulated by gas compressor energy, outside of the reservoir system. The pressure drawdown is developed by gas-compressor energy in the well casing and not in the pay formation. (3) The stored energy of the reservoir is conserved while producing oil or gas. The potential energy (pressure) of the reservoir can be used to advantage up to bubble point of the virgin crude. (4) Producible reserves are increased from 4-to 5-fold by the conservation of reservoir energy. Present-day primary oil production practice yields a maximum of 20% of the oil in place by depleting the original reservoir energy. The PVTS system will yield over 80% + of oil in place. (5) Producible gas reserves can be increased greatly by establishing a low abandonment pressure at will. The principal features of the PVTS well mechanism and energy injection method are illustrated by a schematic diagram.

  9. Biodiesel production from soybean oil and methanol using hydrotalcites as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carla Cristina C.M.; Aranda, Donato A.G. [GREENTEC - Laboratory of Green Technologies, Escola de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco E, sala 211, CEP 21941-909, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, Nielson F.P.; Souza, Mariana M.V.M. [LabTecH - Laboratory of Hydrogen Technologies, Escola de Quimica/UFRJ, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco E, sala 206, CEP 21941-909, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-02-15

    Esters of fatty acids, derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, and known as biodiesel, are a promising alternative diesel fuel regarding the limited resources of fossil fuels and the environmental concerns. In this work, methanolysis of soybean oil was investigated using Mg-Al hydrotalcites as heterogeneous catalyst, evaluating the effect of Mg/Al ratio on the basicity and catalytic activity for biodiesel production. The catalysts were prepared with Al/(Mg + Al) molar ratios of 0.20, 0.25 and 0.33, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), textural analysis (BET method) and temperature-programmed desorption of CO{sub 2} (CO{sub 2}-TPD). When the reaction was carried out at 230 C with a methanol:soybean oil molar ratio of 13:1, a reaction time of 1 h and a catalyst loading of 5 wt.%, the oil conversion was 90% for the sample with Al/(Mg + Al) ratio of 0.33. This sample was the only one to show basic sites of medium strength. We also investigated the reuse of this catalyst, the effect of calcination temperature and made a comparison between refined and acidic oil. (author)

  10. Perspectives for pyrolysis oil production and market in Scandinavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipilae, K.; Oasmaa, A.; Solantausta, Y.; Arpiainen, V.; Nyroenen, T.

    1999-01-01

    Commercial power production from biomass is mainly based on various combustion technologies, new gasification technologies being on pilot and demonstration scale in Europe. From the market viewpoint, there will be an attractive and large market volume for small and medium-scale combined heat and power production (CHP) and for liquid bioenergy products in order to meet the Kyoto challenges in Europe by the year 2010. Biomass pyrolysis technology offers a novel method of converting solid biomass to a liquid product which can easily be transported, stored and utilised for electricity production by diesel engines and gas turbines. The overall efficiency in pyrolysis oil production can be increased from 65 to 90 % (LHV) by integrating the big-oil production to a conventional boiler plant, the-system identified by VTT. A modern diesel power plant has an efficiency of 40 - 44 % with a high power-to-heat ratio. Parallel to diesel power plants, the big-oil can be used in existing heating oil boilers with minor burner modifications. The paper comprises an overview of market assessments in Scandinavia and a summary of pyrolysis oil production, stability and properties tests. The challenge of today is to understand and improve the properties of pyrolysis oils in order to reach a 12-month storage time without any changes in the homogeneity of pyrolysis oils. Reliable operation of oil-fired boilers and diesel power plants has to be demonstrated. As soon as these problems have been solved, biomass pyrolysis technologies will offer new attractive bioenergy market opportunities where a huge potential can be reached by conversing existing petroleum-fired boilers, 0.1 - 10 MW to big-oils and followed by combined heat and power production with high-efficiency diesel power plants in 0.1 - 10 MW scale. Pyrolysis technology is clearly the most attractive method for producing liquid biofuels, compared to bioalcohols and biodiesel. With the present price structure, pyrolysis oil can be

  11. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jundika C. Kurnia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further develop these technologies, it is essential to understand the current stage of the industry and technology developments. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the palm oil industry, review technologies available to process oil palm and palm oil residues into biofuel, and to summarise the challenges that should be overcome for further development. The paper also discusses the research and development needs, technoeconomics, and life cycle analysis of biofuel production from oil-palm and palm-oil wastes.

  12. Optimum oil production planning using infeasibility driven evolutionary algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hemant Kumar; Ray, Tapabrata; Sarker, Ruhul

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a practical oil production planning optimization problem. For oil wells with insufficient reservoir pressure, gas is usually injected to artificially lift oil, a practice commonly referred to as enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The total gas that can be used for oil extraction is constrained by daily availability limits. The oil extracted from each well is known to be a nonlinear function of the gas injected into the well and varies between wells. The problem is to identify the optimal amount of gas that needs to be injected into each well to maximize the amount of oil extracted subject to the constraint on the total daily gas availability. The problem has long been of practical interest to all major oil exploration companies as it has the potential to derive large financial benefit. In this paper, an infeasibility driven evolutionary algorithm is used to solve a 56 well reservoir problem which demonstrates its efficiency in solving constrained optimization problems. Furthermore, a multi-objective formulation of the problem is posed and solved using a number of algorithms, which eliminates the need for solving the (single objective) problem on a regular basis. Lastly, a modified single objective formulation of the problem is also proposed, which aims to maximize the profit instead of the quantity of oil. It is shown that even with a lesser amount of oil extracted, more economic benefits can be achieved through the modified formulation.

  13. Production of a 304 stainless steel nuclear reactor forging from a very large electroslag refined ingot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, E.J.; Tihansky, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    A four-loop, upper barrel flange forging for a nuclear reactor was produced from what the authors believe to be the largest 304H grade stainless steel electroslag refined (ESR) ingot ever refined. The ingot was refined in a 1524-mm-diameter, ingot withdrawal-type ESR furnace using a lime-bearing slag, low-frequency a-c power, and dry air protection. Five electrodes were remelted in order to produce the desired ingot weight. The ingot was subsequently forged in a five-step operation on a 6800-metric-ton press to produce the desired barrel flange configuration. Testing of the finished machined forging revealed excellent tensile ductility, excellent ultrasonic penetrability, and good chemical uniformity with no macrosegregation. Overall quality was judged to be superior to previously produced, conventionally melted forgings

  14. Crude oil derived petroleum products in the aquatic environment: priorities for control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimwood, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    The available data on the environmental fate, behaviour and toxicity of five groups of petroleum products is reviewed and the information used to identify the priority of oil products for pollution control to protect the aquatic environment. The oil product groups comprise gasolines, kerosenes, other light fuel oil distillates, residual heavy fuel oils and lubricating oils. (author)

  15. Application of Neuro-Fuzzy to palm oil production process | Odior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm oil is an important nutritional food requirement and in order to facilitate the production of palm oil for consumption, the production process of palm oil has been investigated. The basic operations involved in the production of edible palm oil include; purchase, transportation and reception of oil palm bunches; bunch ...

  16. Oil and Gas Production, Environmental Health and Livelihood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil and Gas Production, Environmental Health and Livelihood Vulnerability in the West Coast of Ghana. ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... Respondents' level of education significantly influences their level of knowledge about ...

  17. Deposition of naturally occurring radioactivity in oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysebo, I.; Strand, T.

    1997-01-01

    This booklet contains general information about naturally occurring radioactive materials, NORM, in production of oil and natural gas, occupational doses, radiation protection procedures and measures, and classification methods of contaminated equipment. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. Production of Biodiesel from Parinari polyandra B. Seed Oil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    catalysts for the transesterification of Parinari polyandra seeds oil and the results .... reduction in free fatty acids. .... Development and Characterization of Biodiesel from Shea Nut ... comparative review of biodiesel production from Jatropha.

  19. Heavy and Thermal Oil Recovery Production Mechanisms, SUPRI TR-127

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovscek, Anthony R.; Brigham, William E.; Castanier, Louis M.

    2001-09-07

    The program spans a spectrum of topics and is divided into five categories: (i) multiphase flow and rock properties, (ii) hot fluid injection, (iii) primary heavy-oil production, (iv) reservoir definition, and (v) in-situ combustion.

  20. Oil market prices 1989/1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, G.

    1991-01-01

    There are many oil markets. Oil Market Prices lists the markets, provides statistics on prices and the volumes of trade, analyses the price structures in the markets and provides supplementary information on ocean freight rates and oil refining margins. Oil Market Prices will serve as a permanent record of crude oil prices including those quoted on the futures and forward markets, the many wholesale prices for refined oil products, prices consumers pay and the average prices received by the oil companies. In all instances the sources of the statistics are given together with comprehensive listing of alternative sources. (Author)

  1. Survey data on consumer behaviour in olive oil markets: The role of product knowledge and brand credence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Ordóñez, Melania; Rodríguez-Entrena, Macario; Cabrera, Elena R; Henseler, Jörg

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents data conducted to analyse consumer behaviour in agri-food markets, where product differentiation failures occur, with the aim of disentangling the roles played by both consumer information and inferences made from informational stimuli. We thus examined consumer knowledge structures and brand credence related to attitudes towards a particular foodstuff and a product alternative, as well as the actual consumption of the foodstuff. To do so, the selected case study was the olive oil markets in Spain, given that products such as extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and refined olive oil (ROO), that differ in terms of intrinsic features, become undifferentiated. The data of the observed variables were collected from 700 regular buyers from an online panel at the household level in southern Spain. The data were processed using both Excel for checking, cleaning and descriptive purposes and ADANCO 2.0 (Dijkstra and Henseler, 2015) [1] for performing the model estimations.

  2. Survey data on consumer behaviour in olive oil markets: The role of product knowledge and brand credence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Salazar-Ordóñez

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data conducted to analyse consumer behaviour in agri-food markets, where product differentiation failures occur, with the aim of disentangling the roles played by both consumer information and inferences made from informational stimuli. We thus examined consumer knowledge structures and brand credence related to attitudes towards a particular foodstuff and a product alternative, as well as the actual consumption of the foodstuff. To do so, the selected case study was the olive oil markets in Spain, given that products such as extra virgin olive oil (EVOO and refined olive oil (ROO, that differ in terms of intrinsic features, become undifferentiated. The data of the observed variables were collected from 700 regular buyers from an online panel at the household level in southern Spain. The data were processed using both Excel for checking, cleaning and descriptive purposes and ADANCO 2.0 (Dijkstra and Henseler, 2015 [1] for performing the model estimations.

  3. Displacement of oil by gas in power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundram, S.; Seng, L.K.; Kow, P.T.A.

    1992-01-01

    After the oil crises, Malaysia unveiled its four fuel diversification policy in the late 1970s towards utilization of gas, oil, coal and hydro. This was to ensure adequate and continuous energy supply for driving economic development and to cushion itself against impact of possible future fluctuations in oil prices. The primary energy supply in 1978 was predominantly oil based, consisting of 75.5% oil. As a result of this diversification policy, the oil component was reduced to about 51.8% in 1988. Due to its inherent ability to adapt and adjust to different fuels, the power sector played a crucial role in this massive shift away from oil. For the corresponding period, the oil component in the electricity generation input mix has decreased from 86.7% oil to 47.4%. Malaysia is endowed with substantial natural gas reserves amounting to 52.5 trillion cubic feet. Gas, therefore constitutes a natural and attractive option for the power sector in diversifying into non-oil indigenous energy resources, as the country's hydro potential has its limitations and the available proven coal reserves are relatively small. The paper addresses the past and current status and issues involved in displacing oil by gas for the power sector. These include the economic, technological and pricing aspects of natural gas development and issues pertaining to power system development. Future gas utilization strategies include the conversion of existing oil-fired plants to gas-fired, and the plant-up of gas turbines and the efficient combined cycle plants to meet the load requirements. These strategies are assessed from the viability and security perspective of increased gas utilization. Oil will continue to be displaced, but the extent to which gas will increase its share in power production is dependent on numerous factors ranging from its economics to supply security

  4. Japan's refiner/marketers headed for major shakeout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's downstream oil industry is in a state of crisis and headed for a major shakeout. The major catalyst for this was a dramatic deregulation step during April 1996 that allowed refined petroleum product imports by non-refiners. The move, together with a sharp drop in refining margins, falling retail gasoline prices, and a service station sector on the brink of collapse, are all leading to massive changes in the way the country's refiners and marketers do business. This paper reviews the collapse of corporate profits during this period of deregulation; the development of a new price system geared toward bringing the prices of gasoline, fuel oil, and kerosene into line with each other to offset the fall in gasoline prices; and industry restructuring including mergers, acquisitions, and marketing consolidation. The paper then makes predictions on the outcome of these changes on the Japanese oil industry

  5. Nigeria's oil production and the need for increased producing capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoroji, C. E. I.

    1998-01-01

    After 40 years of commercial oil production, Nigeria's crude oil production is moving through difficult times. This transition period has been made more difficult because of recurring international economic recession, lack-luster crude prices, and slow oil demand growth and Government funding problems etc. Crude oil remains the most important export revenue earner in Nigeria, and more efforts are required to encourage higher output levels to support more foreign exchange generation. Nigeria's crude oil production at present stands at 2.2 million barrels per day (mbpd). This study, covers the period 1998-2005, during which oil production is forecast to grow to about 2.85 mbpd while potential for new discoveries could raise production to more than 3.0 mbpd. These projected rates could depend to a large extent on the rate and size of new discoveries. However, Nigeria's crude oil potential is being constrained by both lack of infrastructure and inadequate investment. The massive investment needed to raise the country's productive capacity will require foreign capital, yet the current fiscal environment leaves much to be desired. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of Nigeria's past, present and future oil production. To meet the projected production capacity very early in the next millennium, current estimates put the overall potential investment needed for an accelerated capacity-expansion drive in order to ensure that there is adequate cushion of crude potential at $19.7 billion during the next seven years. Furthermore, not more than $12.0 billion of this requirement can be generated from Nigeria's government cash flow

  6. Enzymatic interesterification of vegetable oil/ fish oil blend for margarine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Xu, Xuebing

    the desired properties. In this study, palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and fish oil (FO) are blended and modified by enzymatic interesterification. PS functioned as the hard stock, PKO as the soft oil and FO as a source for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/ docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The purpose...... cause the product to be susceptible to oxidation due to the presence of high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, FO could also influence the melting properties of the product. Therefore, in addition to determining the fatty acid position on the glycerol backbone, it is also pertinent...

  7. Influence of oil composition on the formation of fatty acid esters of 2-chloropropane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD) and 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) under conditions simulating oil refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermacora, Alessia; Hrncirik, Karel

    2014-10-15

    The toxicological relevance and widespread occurrence of fatty acid esters of 2-chloropropane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD) and 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in refined oils and fats have recently triggered an interest in the mechanism of formation and decomposition of these contaminants during oil processing. In this work, the effect of the main precursors, namely acylglycerols and chlorinated compounds, on the formation yield of MCPD esters was investigated in model systems simulating oil deodorization. The composition of the oils was modified by enzymatic hydrolysis, silica gel purification and application of various refining steps prior to deodorization (namely degumming, neutralization, bleaching). Partial acylglycerols showed greater ability, than did triacylglycerols, to form MCPD esters. However, no direct correlation was found between these two parameters, since the availability of chloride ions was the main limiting factor in the formation reaction. Polar chlorinated compounds were found to be the main chloride donors, although the presence of reactive non-polar chloride-donating species was also observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oil Reservoir Production Optimization using Optimal Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    Practical oil reservoir management involves solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. In this paper we present a numerical method for solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. The method is a single-shooting method that computes the gradients using the adjo...... reservoir using water ooding and smart well technology. Compared to the uncontrolled case, the optimal operation increases the Net Present Value of the oil field by 10%.......Practical oil reservoir management involves solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. In this paper we present a numerical method for solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. The method is a single-shooting method that computes the gradients using...

  9. The Study of the Desulfurization Process of Oil and Oil Products of "Zhanazhol" Oil Field Using the Approaches of Green Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaksyntay K. Kairbekov; Zhannur K. Myltykbaeva; Nazym T. Smagulova; Dariya K. Kanseitova

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we studied sono catalytic oxidative desulfurization of oil and diesel fraction from “Zhanazhol” oil deposits. We have established that the combined effect of the ultrasonic field and oxidant (ozone-air mixture) in the presence of the catalyst on the oil is potentially very effective method of desulfurization of oil and oil products. This method allows increasing the degree of desulfurization of oil by 62%.

  10. Biosurfactants production and possible uses in microbial enhanced oil recovery and oil pollution remediation: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banat, I.M.

    1995-01-01

    Surfactants are widely used for various purposes in industry, but for many years were mainly chemically synthesized. It has only been in the past few decades that biological surface-active compounds (biosurfactants) have been described. Biosurfactants are gaining prominence and have already taken over for a number of important industrial uses, due to their advantages of biodegradability, production on renewable resources and functionality under extreme conditions; particularly those pertaining during tertiary crude-oil recovery. Conflicting reports exist concerning their efficacy and the economics of both their production and application. The limited successes and applications for biosurfactants production, recovery, use in oil pollution control, oil storage tank clean-up and enhanced oil-recovery are reviewed from the technical point of view. (author)

  11. In Situ Biodiesel Production from Residual Oil Recovered from Spent Bleaching Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramli Mat

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, semi-refined and refined vegetable oils are used as a feedstock in biodiesel production. However, due to competition with conventional fossil fuel, economic reasons, shortage supply of food and its social impact on the global scale has somewhat slowed the development of biodiesel industry. Studies have been conducted to recover oil from mill palm oil operation especially from the spent bleaching earth. Hence, the study was to investigate the potential recovery of oil from spent bleaching earth to be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The effect of different types of catalysts (sodium hydroxide alkali and sulfuric acid catalysts on biodiesel yield was studied. In addition, the effect of volume addition of methanol to the weight of spent bleaching earth on the product yield was also studied. Furthermore, the effect of ratio of hexane to methanol was also carried out to determine its product yield. The studies were carried out in an in-situ biodiesel reactor system and the biodiesel product was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Result shows that the use of alkali catalyst produced the highest yield of biodiesel and the most optimum biodiesel yield was obtained when the methanol to spent bleaching earth ratio was 3.2:1 (gram of methanol: gram of SBE and hexane to methanol ratio of 0.6:1 (volume of hexane: volume of methanol. © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 19th December 2010, Revised: 10th May 2011; Accepted: 18th May 2011[How to Cite: R. Mat, O.S. Ling, A. Johari, M. Mohamed. (2011. In Situ Biodiesel Production from Residual Oil Recovered from Spent Bleaching Earth. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6(1: 53-57. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.678.53-57][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.678.53-57 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/678 ] | View in 

  12. Rhagoletis cerasi: Oviposition Reduction Effects of Oil Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae, is a highly destructive pest. Methods to control it are limited and alternatives are needed. Observations of cherry fruit flies suggest that females exert much effort to penetrate cherries at color change stage (from green to yellow for oviposition. Therefore, the question arose as to whether a physical barrier on the fruit surface could reduce oviposition. The effects of different commercial horticultural oil products on R. cerasi oviposition were evaluated in a series of laboratory, semi-field and field experiments. In the laboratory experiments, the rate of successful oviposition on fruits treated with 0.25% v/v of the rapeseed oil product Telmion was significantly reduced by 90% compared to the untreated control. In semi-field experiments, deposits of 1% of rapeseed, mineral and paraffinic oil significantly reduced oviposition for up to 3 days. Semi-field experiments indicated that the oil products lose efficacy within 3 to 6 days after application due to degradation. Although treatments with the rapeseed oil product Telmion reduced infestation rates in an on-farm field experiment, the infested fruit clearly exceeded the level of market tolerance of 2%. Further research is needed to assess whether combinations of oil products, higher application rates and different formulations might improve field efficacy.

  13. Report on the oil and gas industry in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report proposes an overview of facts, events and data concerning the world oil and gas markets, the oil and gas exploration and production in the world, the challenges of gas European supplies, the exploration and production in France, the oil and oil-related industry, hydrocarbons imports, the refining activity in France, fuel quality, alternative fuels, the domestic transportation of oil products, gas infrastructures, the storage of oil products, the consumption of oil and gas products, taxes on hydrocarbons, prices for the final consumer, and the prices of oil products

  14. Quality of feedstock in production of lubricating oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martynenko, A.G.; Kalenik, G.S.; Bayburskaya, E.L.; Ledyashova, G.Ye.; Okhrimenko, N.V.; Potashnikov, G.L.; Shiryayeva, G.P.

    1980-01-01

    Data are obtained under industrial conditions concerning production of lubricating oils from the mixture of crudes distinguished in terms of major properties: viscosity, content of light petroleum products, resin, sulfur. The difference in main properties and hydrocarbon composition of the original feedstock caused a change in conditions of selective purification of output of target and intermediate products. It is demonstrated that selection and grading of Eastern Ukrainian petroleum (separation of gas condensate) can achieve a continued increase of production of oils, approximately 30 percent.

  15. Borehole radar for oil production monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.

    2012-01-01

    The area of smart well technology, or closed-loop reservoir management, aims at enhancing oil recovery through a combination of monitoring and control. Monitoring is performed with a wide range of sensors deployed downhole or at the surface. These sensors allow for capturing changes in the reservoir

  16. Amendment of oil related systems. Abolishment of the temporary measure law for importing specific petroleum products and amendment of the oil storage law and the volatile oil selling business law; Sekiyu kanren no seido kaisei ni tsuite. Tokutei sekiyu seihin yunyu oyobi kihatsuyu hanbaigyoho no kaisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, I. [Small and Medium Enterprise Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-20

    This paper describes the following matters related to amendment of oil related systems which will be enforced according to the result of discussions at the Petroleum Council on the ways the oil product supply should be in the future. The temporary measure law for importing specific oil products shall be abolished when it will be expired in March 1996. This is because the law has limited the oil product importing organizations only to oil companies who have oil refining capabilities, and the continuation of the law would lose its justifiability under the present circumstances in the petroleum industry. The oil reservation law is then amended so that the emergency handling ability on oil supply will not be hampered even after possible expansion in the number of oil product importing organizations as a result of the abolishment of the temporary measure law. The quality management systems for oil products will also be revised so that the present level on quality items of the minimum necessity will not be declined with respect to the environments and safety. Furthermore, the area designating system that has been limiting erection of oil service stations will be repealed by October 1996. 2 tabs.

  17. Shifting production trends point to more oil from OPEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, I.A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Oil production from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and non-OPEC regions has undergone four major phases of change in relation to oil price since 1960. Patterns visible in those phases offer an indication of world-wide production trends in the future. These four phases are described. Overall, demand for oil during 1960--93 has increased from around 20 million b/d in 1960 to as high as 65 million b/d in 1993. The consensus among energy analysts and forecasters is that this demand growth will continue. This will encourage OPEC and non OPEC producers to invest in the oil industry to meet future demand growth. However, since the resource base is larger in OPEC than in non-OPEC areas, and since the cost of developing these resources is lower in OPEC than outside OPEC, the future call on OPEC oil to meet growth in demand will undoubtedly be substantiated as production from the non-OPEC region diminishes or at best stagnates. The paper discusses OPEC production trends, non-OPEC production, natural gas liquids, future production scenarios, and future constraints on production

  18. [Factors of work environment and employment of workers in production of fuels and solvents at the oil refinery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotarev, P A; Kharlashova, N V

    2012-01-01

    Factors of the industrial environment and labor activity of workers of manufacture propellants and solvents at the oil refining enterprise. Working conditions of workers at all installations of manufacture No 1 JSC "Naftan" of Novopolotsk of Byelorussia (production of fuels and solvents). Hygienic evaluation of working conditions of persons working in the production of fuels and solvents at the oil refinery. Sanitary description of the production with hygienic analysis of project design and technological documentation, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of conventional methods in the work environment and working process of employees in the workplace for the main modes of operation of the equipment. The working environment of refineries is influenced by a number of simultaneously acting factors, which have different material nature and characteristics of the action on the human body, the workers in production of fuels and solvents at the refinery, are exposed to a variety of hazardous and dangerous factors of production, a chemical factor is prevalent, of course.

  19. OPEC oil production and market fundamentals: a causality relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmani, A.; Al-Osaimy, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper first establishes a statistical measurement for OPEC Member Countries' compliance levels with their respective quotas and then examines the correlations and the casual relationships between compliance levels and oil market fundamentals. The compliance level is measured by the deviation of the production level from the respective quota for OPEC Member Countries, and this is based on the Euclidean distance formula, while oil market fundamentals are represented by OECD oil demand and stock levels, and the OPEC Basket price and oil supply. Monthly data from January 1996 to June 2000 was used and two sub-periods considered, where the first sub-period was characterized by a low level of compliance and the second by a high level. The analytical results of correlations and causality showed different directions of relationships between compliance levels and oil market fundamentals. (author)

  20. Life cycle assessment of two palm oil production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stichnothe, Heinz; Schuchardt, Frank

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 approx. 40 Mt of palm oil were produced globally. Growing demand for palm oil is driven by an increasing human population as well as subsidies for biodiesel and is likely to increase further in coming years. The production of 1 t crude palm oil requires 5 t of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). On average processing of 1 t FFB in palm oil mills generates 0.23 t empty fruit bunches (EFB) and 0.65 t palm oil mill effluents (POME) as residues. In this study it is assumed that land use change does not occur. In order to estimate the environmental impacts of palm oil production a worst and a best case scenario are assessed and compared in the present study using 1000 kg of FFB as functional unit. The production and treatment of one t FFB causes more than 460 kg CO 2eq in the worst case scenario and 110 kg CO 2eq in the best case scenario. The significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction is achieved by co-composting residues of the palm oil mill. Thus treating those residues appropriately is paramount for reducing environmental impacts particularly global warming potential (GWP) and eutrophication potential (EP). Another important contributor to the EP but also to the human toxicity potential (HTP) is the biomass powered combined heat and power (CHP) plant of palm oil mills. Frequently CHP plants of palm oil mills operate without flue gas cleaning. The CHP plant emits heavy metals and nitrogen oxides and these account for 93% of the HTP of the advanced palm oil production system, of which heavy metal emissions to air are responsible for 79%. The exact emission reduction potential from CHP plants could not be quantified due to existing data gaps, but it is apparent that cleaning the exhaust gas would reduce eutrophication, acidification and toxicity considerably. -- Highlights: → We have estimated the environmental impacts of two palm oil production systems. → Residues from palm oil mills are a wasted resource rather than waste. → Co-composting of EFB and

  1. Method of preparing an Al-Ti-B grain refiner for aluminium-comprising products, and a method of casting aluminium products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, H.J.; Duszczyk, J.; Katgerman, L.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of preparing an Al-Ti-B grain refiner for cast aluminium-comprising products. According to the invention the preparation is realized by mixing powders selected from the group comprising aluminium, titanium, boron, and alloys and intermetallic compounds thereof,

  2. Peaking of world oil production: Impacts, mitigation, & risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, R.L. (SAIC); Bezdek, Roger (MISI); Wendling, Robert (MISI)

    2005-02-01

    The peaking of world oil production presents the U.S. and the world with an unprecedented risk management problem. As peaking is approached, liquid fuel prices and price volatility will increase dramatically, and, without timely mitigation, the economic, social, and political costs will be unprecedented. Viable mitigation options exist on both the supply and demand sides, but to have substantial impact, they must be initiated more than a decade in advance of peaking.... The purpose of this analysis was to identify the critical issues surrounding the occurrence and mitigation of world oil production peaking. We simplified many of the complexities in an effort to provide a transparent analysis. Nevertheless, our study is neither simple nor brief. We recognize that when oil prices escalate dramatically, there will be demand and economic impacts that will alter our simplified assumptions. Consideration of those feedbacks will be a daunting task but one that should be undertaken. Our aim in this study is to-- • Summarize the difficulties of oil production forecasting; • Identify the fundamentals that show why world oil production peaking is such a unique challenge; • Show why mitigation will take a decade or more of intense effort; • Examine the potential economic effects of oil peaking; • Describe what might be accomplished under three example mitigation scenarios. • Stimulate serious discussion of the problem, suggest more definitive studies, and engender interest in timely action to mitigate its impacts.

  3. Production of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil via KM Micromixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Elkady

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oils through its pretreatment followed by transesterification process in presence of methanol was investigated using a KM micromixer reactor. The parameters affecting biodiesel production process such as alcohol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF as a cosolvent, and the volumetric flow rates of inlet fluids were optimized. The properties of the produced biodiesel were compared with its parent waste oil through different characterization techniques. The presence of methyl ester groups at the produced biodiesel was confirmed using both the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and the infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Moreover, the thermal analysis of the produced biodiesel and the comparable waste oil indicated that the product after the transesterification process began to vaporize at 120°C which makes it lighter than its parent oil which started to vaporize at around 300°C. The maximum biodiesel production yield of 97% was recorded using 12 : 1 methanol to oil molar ratio in presence of both 1% NaOH and THF/methanol volume ratio 0.3 at 60 mL/h flow rate.

  4. A refined approach: Saudi Arabia moves beyond crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Saudi Arabia's role in global energy markets is changing. The kingdom is reshaping itself as a supplier of refined petroleum products while moving beyond its long-held role as a simple exporter of crude oil. This change is commensurate with the typical development trajectory of a state progressing to a more advanced stage of global economic integration. Gains from increased refining include reducing fuel imports and capturing margins now bequeathed to competitors. Refining also allows the kingdom to export its heavy crude oil to a wider array of customers, beyond select importers configured to handle heavy crudes. However, the move also presents strategic complications. The world's 'swing supplier' of oil may grow less willing or able to adjust supply to suit market demands. In the process, Saudi Arabia may have to update the old “oil for security” relationship that links it with Washington, augmenting it with a more diverse set of economic and investment ties with individual companies and countries, including China. -- Highlights: •Saudi Arabia is diverting crude oil into an expanding refining sector. •In doing so, the kingdom is moving beyond its role as global “swing supplier” of crude oil. •The kingdom will benefit from increased refining, including enhanced demand for heavy crude. •Strategic complications may force it to seek security partners beyond Washington

  5. A survey of oil product demand elasticities for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, Carol

    1994-01-01

    As more and more developing countries join the ranks of the rich they will consume both more oil and higher percentage of the lighter products. To satisfy this growing demand oil production and refinery capacity that can provide the right quantity and mix of products must be developed. In a companion piece, Dahl (1993) found the total demand for oil to be price inelastic (-0.34) and income elastic (1.32) These elasticities can give information on the total quantity of oil that might be demanded, the total amount of distillation capacity that might be needed and the overall increases in product prices that might be necessary to choke off demand growth. However, with this overall growth in product demand, the more the shift towards the lighter portion of the barrel, the more complex the refinery and the greater the demand for downstream capital. To provide information on this mix in developing countries in the coming years, this paper surveys the available work on econometric demand elasticities by oil product. (author)

  6. Biotechnological processes for biodiesel production using alternative oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azocar, Laura; Ciudad, Gustavo [La Frontera Univ., Temuco (Chile). Nucleo Cietifico Tecnologico en Biorrecursos; Heipieper, Hermann J. [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Biotechnology; Navia, Rodrigo [La Frontera Univ., Temuco (Chile). Nucleo Cietifico Tecnologico en Biorrecursos; La Frontera Univ., Temuco (Chile). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    2010-10-15

    As biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) is mainly produced from edible vegetable oils, crop soils are used for its production, increasing deforestation and producing a fuel more expensive than diesel. The use of waste lipids such as waste frying oils, waste fats, and soapstock has been proposed as low-cost alternative feedstocks. Non-edible oils such as jatropha, pongamia, and rubber seed oil are also economically attractive. In addition, microalgae, bacteria, yeast, and fungi with 20% or higher lipid content are oleaginous microorganisms known as single cell oil and have been proposed as feedstocks for FAME production. Alternative feedstocks are characterized by their elevated acid value due to the high level of free fatty acid (FFA) content, causing undesirable saponification reactions when an alkaline catalyst is used in the transesterification reaction. The production of soap consumes the conventional catalyst, diminishing FAME production yield and simultaneously preventing the effective separation of the produced FAME from the glycerin phase. These problems could be solved using biological catalysts, such as lipases or whole-cell catalysts, avoiding soap production as the FFAs are esterified to FAME. In addition, by-product glycerol can be easily recovered, and the purification of FAME is simplified using biological catalysts. (orig.)

  7. Transformation of soil and vegetable conditions at oil production territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatina, Evgeniia

    2017-04-01

    On the territory of modern oil production soil, vegetation, ecosystem conditions of the environment are significantly transformed. Researches have been conducted on the oil production territories located in a boreal coniferous forest natural zone from 2005 to 2015. Standard geobotanical and soil methods are used. Mechanical destruction of a plant cover, change of the water conditions, intake of oil products and salty waters in ecosystems, pollution of the atmosphere are considered as the major technology-related factors defining transformation of land ecosystems at operation of the oil field. Under the mechanical destruction of a plant cover the pioneer plant communities are formed. These communities are characterized by most reduced specific wealth with prevalence of types of meadow groups of plants and presence of types of wetland groups of plants. The biodiversity of biocenosis which are affected linear infrastructure facilities of oil production territories and change of the water conditions, decreases. It is observed decrease in species wealth, simplification of structure of communities. Under the salting of soils in ecosystems there is a decrease species diversity of communities to prevalence nitrophilous and meadow plant species. At the increased content of organic substances in the soils that is a consequence of intake of oil products, is characteristic increase in specific richness of communities, introduction of types of wetland and oligotrophic groups of plants in forest communities. Influence depends on distance to an influence source. In process of removal from a source of atmospheric pollution in forest communities there is a decrease in species diversity and complication of structure of community. It is caused by introduction of types of meadow groups of plants in ecotone sites of the forest communities located near a source of influence and restoration of structural features of forest communities in process of removal from an influence source

  8. Conversion of Crude Oil to Methane by a Microbial Consortium Enriched From Oil Reservoir Production Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina eBerdugo-Clavijo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heavy oil reservoir. Alkylsuccinates indicative of fumarate addition to C5 and C6 n-alkanes were identified in the culture (above levels found in controls, corresponding to the detection of an alkyl succinate synthase gene (assA in the culture. In addition, the enrichment culture was tested for its ability to produce methane from residual oil in a sandstone-packed column system simulating a mature field. Methane production rates of up 5.8 μmol CH4/g of oil/day were measured in the column system. Amounts of produced methane were in relatively good agreement with hydrocarbon loss showing depletion of more than 50% of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons. Microbial community analysis revealed that the enrichment culture was dominated by members of the genus Smithella, Methanosaeta, and Methanoculleus. However, a shift in microbial community occurred following incubation of the enrichment in the sandstone columns. Here, Methanobacterium sp. were most abundant, as were bacterial members of the genus Pseudomonas and other known biofilm forming organisms. Our findings show that microorganisms enriched from petroleum reservoir waters can bioconvert crude oil components to methane both planktonically and in sandstone-packed columns as test systems. Further, the results suggest that different organisms may contribute to oil biodegradation within different phases (e.g., planktonic versus sessile within a subsurface crude oil reservoir.

  9. Beyond Texas City: the state of process safety in the unionized U.S. oil refining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiston, Thomas H; Lippin, Tobi Mae; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Anderson, Joseph; Beach, Josie; Beevers, Gary; Frederick, Randy J; Frederick, James; Greene, Tammy; Hoffman, Thomas; Lefton, James; Nibarger, Kim; Renner, Paul; Ricks, Brian; Seymour, Thomas; Taylor, Ren; Wright, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The March 2005 British Petroleum (BP) Texas City Refinery disaster provided a stimulus to examine the state of process safety in the U.S. refining industry. Participatory action researchers conducted a nation-wide mail-back survey of United Steelworkers local unions and collected data from 51 unionized refineries. The study examined the prevalence of highly hazardous conditions key to the Texas City disaster, refinery actions to address those conditions, emergency preparedness and response, process safety systems, and worker training. Findings indicate that the key highly hazardous conditions were pervasive and often resulted in incidents or near-misses. Respondents reported worker training was insufficient and less than a third characterized their refineries as very prepared to respond safely to a hazardous materials emergency. The authors conclude that the potential for future disasters plagues the refining industry. In response, they call for effective proactive OSHA regulation and outline ten urgent and critical actions to improve refinery process safety.

  10. Air toxics from heavy oil production and consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipfert, F.W.; DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    This report assesses the potential impact of recent Federal and state regulations for airborne toxic substances on the production and consumption of heavy fuel oils. Emissions of nickel from heavy oil production in California are considered in some detail, in conjunction with California state regulations for toxic emissions. Although the use of thermal energy from heavy crude oils could in theory be impacted by toxic air pollution regulations, recent trends towards the use of natural gas for the required extraction energy appear to provide substantial relief, in addition to reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants. However, the consumption of residual fuel oils containing toxic metals could result in higher population exposures to these substances and their attendant risks may be worthy of more detailed analysis

  11. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  12. Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil via Esterification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Widayat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One promise source of alternative energy is biodiesel from rubber seed oil, because the raw materials available in plentiful quantities and can be renewed. In addition, the rubber seed is still lack of utilization, and Indonesia is one of the largest rubbers producing country in the world. The objective of this research is to studied on biodiesel production by esterification process. Parameters used in this study are the ratio of catalyst and temperature and its influence on the characteristics of the resulting biodiesel product. Characterization of rubber seed include acid content number analysis, saponification numbers, density, viscosity, iodine number, type of free fatty acids and triglyceride oils. The results of analysis showed that rubber seed oil content obtained is 50.5%. The results of the GCMS analysis showed that a free fatty acid level in rubber seed is very high. Conversion into bio-diesel oil is obtained by at most 59.91% and lowest 48.24%.

  13. Use of calcium oxide in palm oil methyl ester production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulchanat Prasertsit

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducing an untreated calcium oxide (CaO as a solid heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from palm oil by transesterification was studied in this work. The four studied parameters were methanol to oil molar ratio, CaO catalyst concentration, reaction time, and water content. The results for palm oil show that when the water content is higher than 3%wt and the amount of CaO greater than 7%wt soap formation from saponification occurs. A higher methanol to oil molar ratio requires a higher amount of CaO catalyst to provide the higher product purity. The appropriate methanol to CaO catalyst ratio is about 1.56. Commercial grade CaO gives almost the same results as AR grade CaO. In addition, reusing commercial grade CaO for about 5 to 10 repetitions without catalyst regeneration drops the percentage of methyl ester purity approximately 5 to 10%, respectively.

  14. Opportunities to improve oil productivity in unstructured deltaic reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This report contains presentations presented at a technical symposium on oil production. Chapter 1 contains summaries of the presentations given at the Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored symposium and key points of the discussions that followed. Chapter 2 characterizes the light oil resource from fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). An analysis of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and advanced secondary recovery (ASR) potential for fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs based on recovery performance and economic modeling as well as the potential resource loss due to well abandonments is presented. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the general reservoir characteristics and properties within deltaic deposits. It is not exhaustive treatise, rather it is intended to provide some basic information about geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of deltaic reservoirs, and the resulting recovery problems.

  15. Production of Biodiesel from Mixed Waste Cooking and Castor Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyanto Hadiyanto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing population growth, the consumption and needs of energy increase significantly. This leads Indonesia government to search alternative energy to cover the lacks of fossil energy reserves. Biodiesel is one of the prospective alternative energy which are renewable and environmental friendly. A common problem in large-scale biodiesel production is the sustainability of feedstock and the biodiesel stability. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the production of biodiesel from two oil sources i.e. waste cooking oil and castor oil. This study examined the effect of mixed oil ratio on yield, biodiesel characteristics and stability. The physical properties included kinematic viscosity, acid number, saponification number, iodine number and cetane number have been evaluated as function of oil ratio. Yield of biodiesel was obtained at 35.07%, 99.2% and 83.69% for jatropha:castor oil ratio of 1: 0, 1: 2 and 2: 1, respectively. Most of these characteristics showed an increase by increasing the oil ratio. The result concluded that at the ratio of 1:1(v/v was the best characteristic and stability.

  16. Response to Oil Sands Products Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    clothing , and eye protection. The MSDS for natural gas condensate for Oneok (2009) warns that condensate, being denser than air, will accumulate in...with shovels and clippers and plastic bags collecting all this stuff.” Detergents were ineffective, Hamilton said (Schulte, 2013). 3.4.5 Lack of...oil, are pumped to these basins—or ponds— where settling occurs and water is recycled for reuse in the process. When the ponds are no longer required

  17. Creating value in refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on recent developments in the US refining industry and presents a model for improving the performance of refineries based on the analysis of the refining industry by Cap Gemini Ernst and Young. The identification of refineries in risk of failing, the construction of pipelines for refinery products from Gulf State refineries, mergers and acquisitions, and poor financial performance are discussed. Current challenges concerning the stagnant demand for refinery products, environmental regulations, and shareholder value are highlighted. The structure of the industry, the creation of value in refining, and the search for business models are examined. The top 25 US companies and US refining business groups are listed

  18. Vegetable fats and oils as functional ingredients in meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Totosaus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sausages are a widely consumed food in México, and due to their low fat content (ca. 10% they can be employed to enrich diet by including functional or nutraceutic ingredients as vegetable fats and oils. The replace or incorporation of vegetable fats or oils in cooked sausages is a way to improve their nutritional profile to offer functional meat products.

  19. Efficient production of fatty acid methyl ester from waste activated bleaching earth using diesel oil as organic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Seiji; Du, Dongning; Sato, Masayasu; Park, Enoch Y

    2004-01-01

    Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) production from waste activated bleaching earth (ABE) discarded by the crude oil refining industry was investigated using fossil fuel as a solvent in the esterification of triglycerides. Lipase from Candida cylindracea showed the highest stability in diesel oil. Using diesel oil as a solvent, 3 h was sufficient to obtain a yield of approximately 100% of FAME in the presence of 10% lipase from waste ABE. Kerosene was also a good solvent in the esterification of triglycerides embedded in the waste ABE. Fuel analysis showed that the FAME produced using diesel oil as a solvent complied with the Japanese diesel standard and the 10% residual carbon amount was lower than that of FAME produced using other solvents. Use of diesel oil as solvent in the FAME production from the waste ABE simplified the process, because there was no need to separate the organic solvent from the FAME-solvent mixture. These results demonstrate a promising reutilization method for the production of FAME, for use as a biodiesel, from industrial waste resources containing waste vegetable oils.

  20. Economic potentials of oil palm products and weed control on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out at the Research Farm of National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike, southeastern Nigeria (05o, 29'N, 07o 33'E and 122 m above sea level), in 2015 and 2016 cropping seasons to study the economic potentials of oil palm products and weed control on sustainable turmeric production and some ...

  1. Remote methods of indicating oil products in natural waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlyakhova, L A

    1981-01-01

    A survey is made of domestic and foreign publications covering remote methods of monitoring film petroleum products and oil in natural waters. The given methods are realized in practice with the use of different sections of the electromagnetic spectrum. Remote quality control of the natural waters at the modern level may be an indicator of water pollution with film petroleum products.

  2. Modeling of cumulative release on long term leaching behaviour of selected oil sludge from crude oil terminal and petroleum refining plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fadzil, S.; Khoo, K.S.; Sarmani, S.; Majid, A.Ab.; Hamzah, A.

    2013-01-01

    Management of oil sludge containing environmentally toxic elements is a major problem in crude oil processing industry. Oil sludge samples from the petroleum refinery plant in Melaka and crude oil terminal in Sarawak were analysed. The aim of present work is to study long term leaching behaviour of arsenic (As), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and zinc (Zn) from oil sludge. Tank leaching test was carried out and the samples were analysed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results were studied using LeachXS software to plot the graphs of elements concentration in order to study the leaching behaviour of toxic elements in oil sludge. The long term leaching (100 years) modeling was calculated using equations referred to National Institute of Public Health and the Environment Bilthoven (RIVM) and the results were plotted for cumulative release in different areas of oil sludge. Tank leaching test of the oil sludge samples from petroleum refinery plant in Melaka showed concentrations of As, Co, Cr and Zn ranging from 0.205 to 1.102, 0.031-0.454, 0.016-0.086 and 0.409-8.238 mg/l, respectively while the concentrations of As, Co, Cr and Zn in oil sludge samples from crude oil terminal in Sarawak were in the range of 0.002-0.089, 0.001-0.033, 0.006-1.016 and 0.100-2.744 mg/l, respectively. On the other hand, results on cumulative release from the modeling of long term leaching (100 years) showed that As, Co, Cr and Zn concentrations were proportional to the quantity of oil sludge. In conclusion, during extrapolation of release of toxic elements using the data in the laboratory, several other factors were taken into account to suit environmental conditions such as soil moisture, the negative logarithm of the effective diffusion coefficient (pD e ) and temperature, while the long-term behaviour of As, Co, Cr and Zn was proportional to the quantity of oil sludge to be disposed off. (author)

  3. Fiscal 1997 report on the model project for the effective energy consumption in developing countries. Survey of changes of energy conservation technology and environmental protection technology in the oil refining industry in Japan; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka model jigyo (Nippon sekiyu seiseigyo ni okeru sho energy gijutsu to kankyo taisaku gijutsu no hensen chosa hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For global scale measures to be taken for environmental protection, it becomes more and more important in the future to positively transfer and spread energy conservation technologies of Japan to overseas countries. Especially, it is effective for both economic growth in the Asian region and global environmental protection to transfer technologies which the oil refining industry has been developing and accumulating. Energy conservation in the oil refining industry means the energy conservation by strengthening the operational control at the first and second oil crises in the first stage, the energy conservation in the second stage which was accompanied by small and medium scale plant/equipment investments during several years after the first stage, and the energy conservation in the third stage which was accompanied by large scale investments from the first half of the 1980s to the present, resulting in improvement of 40% over before the first oil crisis. As to environmental protection measures, measures to reduce waste from oil refinery against air pollution and water pollution were prepared by the first half of the 1970s, and technologies were established of waste water treatment, flue gas desulfurization and denitrification. A lot of facilities for improvement of product quality and for low pollution were installed. In addition to environmental technologies, also in other industries, there were seen the heightening of thermal efficiency of kiln and thermal efficiency of cooling technique of clinker cooler in the cement industry and the improvement of productivity in the paper/pulp industry. 360 figs., 62 tabs.

  4. A Canadian refiner's perspective of synthetic crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, T.L.; McIntosh, A.P.; Rasmussen

    1997-01-01

    Some of the factors affecting a refiner's choice of crude oil include refinery hardware, particularly gas oil crackers, products slate and product specifications, crude availability, relative crude price and crude quality. An overview of synthetic crude, the use of synthetic crude combined with other crudes and a comparison of synthetic crude with conventional crude oil was given. The two main users of synthetic crude are basically two groups of refiners, those large groups who use synthetic crude combined with other crudes, and a smaller group who run synthetic crude on specially designed units as a sole feed. The effects of changes in fuel legislation were reviewed. It was predicted that the changes will have a mixed impact on the value of synthetic crude, but low sulphur diesel regulations and gasoline sulphur regulations will make current synthetic crudes attractive. The big future change with a negative impact will be diesel cetane increases to reduce engine emissions. This will reduce synthetic crude attractiveness due to distillate yields and quality and high gas oil yields. Similarly, any legislation limiting aromatics in diesel fuel will also make synthetic crudes less attractive. Problems experienced by refiners with hardware dedicated to synthetic crude (salt, naphthenic acid, fouling, quality variations) were also reviewed. 3 tabs

  5. Bio-oil production through pyrolysis of blue-green algae blooms (BGAB): Product distribution and bio-oil characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zhiquan; Zheng, Yang; Yan, Feng; Xiao, Bo; Liu, Shiming

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolysis experiments of blue-green algae blooms (BGAB) were carried out in a fixed-bed reactor to determine the effects of pyrolysis temperature, particle size and sweep gas flow rate on pyrolysis product yields and bio-oil properties. The pyrolysis temperature, particle size and sweep gas flow rate were varied in the ranges of 300–700 °C, below 0.25–2.5 mm and 50–400 mL min −1 , respectively. The maximum oil yield of 54.97% was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C, particle size below 0.25 mm and sweep gas flow rate of 100 mL min −1 . The elemental analysis and calorific value of the oil were determined, and the chemical composition of the oil was investigated using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) technique. The analysis of bio-oil composition showed that bio-oil from BGAB could be a potential source of renewable fuel with a heating value of 31.9 MJ kg −1 . - Highlights: ► Bio-oil production from pyrolysis of blue-green algae blooms in fixed bed reactor. ► Effects of pyrolysis conditions on product distribution were investigated. ► The maximum bio-oil yield reached 54.97 wt %. ► The bio-oil has high heating value and may be suitable as renewable fuel. ► Pyrolysis of algal biomass beneficial for energy recovery, eutrophication control

  6. Past, Present, and Future Production of Bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Philip; Yu, Fei; Gajjela, Sanjeev

    2009-04-01

    Bio-oil is a liquid product produced by fast pyrol-ysis of biomass. The fast pyrolysis is performed by heating the biomass rapidly (2 sec) at temperatures ranging from 350 to 650 oC. The vapors produced by this rapid heating are then condensed to produce a dark brown water-based emulsion composed of frag-ments of the original hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin molecules contained in the biomass. Yields range from 60 to 75% based on the feedstock type and the pyrolysis reactor employed. The bio-oil pro-duced by this process has a number of negative prop-erties that are produced mainly by the high oxygen content (40 to 50%) contributed by that contained in water (25 to 30% of total mass) and oxygenated compounds. Each bio-oil contains hundreds of chemi-cal compounds. The chemical composition of bio-oil renders it a very recalcitrant chemical compound. To date, the difficulties in utilizing bio-oil have limited its commercial development to the production of liq-uid smoke as food flavoring. Practitioners have at-tempted to utilize raw bio-oil as a fuel; they have also applied many techniques to upgrade bio-oil to a fuel. Attempts to utilize raw bio-oil as a combustion engine fuel have resulted in engine or turbine dam-age; however, Stirling engines have been shown to successfully combust raw bio-oil without damage. Utilization of raw bio-oil as a boiler fuel has met with more success and an ASTM standard has recently been released describing bio-oil characteristics in relation to assigned fuel grades. However, commercialization has been slow to follow and no reports of distribution of these bio-oil boiler fuels have been reported. Co-feeding raw bio-oil with coal has been successfully performed but no current power generation facilities are following this practice. Upgrading of bio-oils to hydrocarbons via hydroprocessing is being performed by several organizations. Currently, limited catalyst life is the obstacle to commercialization of this tech-nology. Researchers

  7. Biodiesel production from corn oil by transesterification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A.; Dessouky, H.

    2009-01-01

    There is much political demand and economic pressure to convert agricultural surpluses into material, such as motor fuel, in which the world is deficient. Transport industry is primary consumer of crude oil. Due to scarcity of known petroleum reserves, the possible alternative fuel for use in present engine technology is biofuels. Europe, USA and Brazil are successfully using biofuels. Biofuels causes less environmental pollution as compared to normal petro fuels. As a fuel, ethanol (gasohol) is used in internal combustion engine while methyester (Biodiesel) is used in diesel engines with same or better performance as compared to petro fuels. Corn is very valuable crop with numerous industrial applications, and is used in more than 300 modern industries, including the manufacture of textiles, paper, adhesives, insecticides, paints, soaps, explosives and many more. Presently the biggest source of ethanol production is from corn (produced by USA). Edible oil can also be extracted from corn which is normally used for cooking and it can be used for biodiesel production. Many countries are experimenting on fats and oil to get feasible data for production of biodiesel. Presently USA prefer to use soybean oil as raw material for commercial production of biodiesel while in Europe rapeseed oil is preferred, so therefore, it depends upon the availability of raw material in particular area and may change from location to location. In Pakistan we started with corn oil to produce biodiesel by transesterification method. In present study different design parameters such as effect of temperature, catalyst concentration, molar ratio, and Stirrer speed were founded for better conversion of neat and used corn oil into biodiesel. The optimum parameters proposed for neat corn oil are 0.5% of catalyst based on weight of corn oil, temperature between 50 deg. C to 60 deg. C, reaction time 15 minutes, molar ratio of 6:1 and speed of stirrer 155 rpm. In case of used corn oil high catalyst

  8. Production of Biodiesel from Vegetable Oil Using Microware Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapilan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum oil supply crisis, the increase in demand and the price eruption have led to a search for an alternative fuel of bio-origin in India. Among the alternative fuels, biodiesel is considered as a sustainable renewable alternative fuel to fossil diesel. Non-edible jatropha oil has considerable potential for the production of biodiesel in India. The production of biodiesel from jatropha oil using a conventional heating method takes more than 1h. In this work, microwave irradiation has been used as a source of heat for the transesterification reaction. A domestic microwave oven was modified and used for microwave heating of the reactants. The time taken for biodiesel production using microwave irradiation was 1 min. The fuel property analysis shows that the properties of jatropha oil biodiesel satisfy the biodiesel standards, and are close to the fossil diesel standards. From this work, it is concluded that biodiesel can be produced from vegetable oil using microwave irradiation, with a significant reduction in production time.

  9. Britain's North Sea oil and gas production: a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    The size and longevity of Britain's offshore hydrocarbons resources have been underestimated. Gas reserves were seriously under-exploited for almost 20 years from the late 1960s, given a belief that gas should be used only as a premium fuel and in the context of an uncompetitive market. Oil reserves' development and production has suffered from time to time from inappropriate politico-economic conditions. Nevertheless, offshore oil and gas has come to dominate the UK's energy production over the past 20 years and currently accounts for 85% of the country's total energy output. Fears for resources' exhaustion remain unjustified, as the industry continues to replace oil and gas reserves used each year. The North Sea is still not comprehensively explored: the continuation of the process will enable oil production to remain at high levels and that of gas to expand further. Supplementary output from the new west of Shetland province will become progressively more important after 2000. But continued intensive production overall depends on the maintenance of attractive politico-economic conditions and on present oil prices. It also requires the European gas market to remain firm but, ironically, the planned flow of UK gas to the mainland constitutes a threat to this condition. (Author)

  10. Growing markets to sustain oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.

    2003-01-01

    The utilization of Alberta bitumen for the clean fuels market depends on upgrading, transportation, and refining processes. Forecasts show that oil sands production, which includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), will surpass declining conventional production in Western Canada. Several issues pose a challenge to the oil sands processing industry. The producers' market is affected by crude oil prices, market expansion options, diluent availability/cost, supply cost competitiveness, and regional processing. The common market issues include light/heavy crude prices, oil sands crude qualities, prices of oil sands crudes, pipeline infrastructure, and competitive supplies. The issues facing the refiners are: refining margins, security of crude supply, refined product quality, and competitive product supply. A brief review of markets for Canadian crude oil, including synthetic crude, was provided. The share of the Midwest market by Alberta must be retained and increased. The market expansion options were reviewed for both downstream (refining) and upstream (upgrading) operations. To reach more distant markets such as Southern Midwest, Washington, and California, new pipeline capacity would be required. The market is nearly saturated for Canada's heavy oil supply. More upgrading will be required as bitumen production increases. Market growth is still possible for Canada's SCO but according to forecasts, the market could also become saturated. To increase demand and allow supplies to grow, SCO prices may fall below light crude prices. It was noted that a balance must be achieved in order for producers to increase production and for refiner/upgraders to expand their conversion capacity. tabs., figs

  11. Process for reducing halogen impurities in oil products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basler, F.

    1990-08-14

    Oil products, in particular waste oils, may be efficiently reprocessed according to an economic and technically simple method for removing impurities, notably halogens. In this method, the oil product is treated at temperatures up to about 150{degree}C with an effective amount of an aqueous solution of at least one compound selected from the group consisting of a strong acid, a salt of a weak base and a strong acid and precursors thereof. The oil product obtained in this step is treated at increased temperatures with at least one halogen binding agent. The water and/or solids from the product so treated are separated out. The process of the invention can be carried out in a conventional stripping apparatus. The strong acid used in the first step is preferably selected from sulfurous acid, phosphoric acid, phosphorous acid, and phosphonic acid. The salt of the weak base and strong acid is preferably ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium sulfite, diammonium hydrogen phosphate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, ammonium phosphite, and ammonium phosphonic acid. The second step of the method is preferably a coagulation step in which organic halogen compounds break down into hydrogen halides which are neutralized by the added halogen binding agents. The preferred halogen binding agents are ammonia and/or an organic base. The coagulation is preferably carried out in heat exchangers so that the oil is heated in 3 stages and the oil from each stage is passed through a cascade tower. In the third step, additives may be used to enhance separation of the oil. Experiments are described to illustrate the method of the invention. 1 tab.

  12. BIOSURFACTANTS PRODUCTION BY Pseudomonas aeruginosa USING SOYBEAN OIL AS SUBSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venty Suryanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimization condition of the biosurfactants production by P. aeruginosa using soybean oil as substrate has been examined. The media containing 10% v/v of the soybean oil and 6 days of the fermentation time was the optimum condition for the biosurfactants production. The extraction technique using different solvent polarity (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and buthanol, respectively was applied for the isolation of the biosurfactants. The biosurfactant was found in the extract chloroform of the crude biospasoy (biosurfactants obtained from soybean oil as substrate which then is called chlo-biospasoy. The chlo-biospasoy was identified as rhamnolipids which had oil in water (o/w emulsion type, had the CMC of 860 mg/L and could reduced the surface tension of the water from 72 mN/m to 52 mN/m. The chlo-biospasoy could be used as an emulsifier to form emulsion between water and hydrocarbon such as palm oil, benzene, premium or toluene with various stability. The results indicated that chlo-biospasoy could be used as an emulsifying and emulsion-stabilizing agent.     Keywords: Biosurfactants, P. aeruginosa, Soybean Oil, Emulsifier

  13. Environmental Compliance for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Christine

    1999-10-26

    The Appalachian/Illinois Basin Directors is a group devoted to increasing communication among the state oil and gas regulatory agencies within the Appalachian and Illinois Basin producing region. The group is comprised of representatives from the oil and gas regulatory agencies from states in the basin (Attachment A). The directors met to discuss regulatory issues common to the area, organize workshops and seminars to meet the training needs of agencies dealing with the uniqueness of their producing region and perform other business pertinent to this area of oil and gas producing states. The emphasis of the coordinated work was a wide range of topics related to environmental compliance for natural gas and oil exploration and production.

  14. Studies of Terminalia catappa L. oil: characterization and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, I C F; de Carvalho, S H V; Solleti, J I; Ferreira de La Salles, W; Teixeira da Silva de La Salles, K; Meneghetti, S M P

    2008-09-01

    Since the biodiesel program has been started in Brazil, the investigation of alternative sources of triacylglycerides from species adapted at semi-arid lands became a very important task for Brazilian researchers. Thus we initiated studies with the fruits of the Terminalia catappa L (TC), popularly known in Brazil as "castanhola", evaluating selected properties and chemical composition of the oil, as well any potential application in biodiesel production. The oil was obtained from the kernels of the fruit, with yields around 49% (% mass). Also, its fatty acid composition was quite similar to that of conventional oils. The crude oil of the TC was transesterified, using a conventional catalyst and methanol to form biodiesel. The studied physicochemical properties of the TC biodiesel are in acceptable range for use as biodiesel in diesel engines.

  15. Biodiesel Production from Acidified Oils via Supercritical Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In biodiesel production, the vegetable oil used as raw material for transesterification should be free of water and free fatty acids (FFAs, which may consume catalyst and reduce catalyst efficiency. In this work biodiesel was prepared from acidified oils (AO through a supercritical methanol route, in which the esterification of FFAs and transesterification of glyceride with methanol occurred simultaneously. The effects of the mass ratio of methanol to AO, the operation temperature as well as the water content on the FFAs conversion and glycerol yield were investigated. The results indicated that the FFAs conversion for esterification under the condition of 1:1 methanol/oil ratio, 310 °C and 15 min reaction time reached 98.7%, and the glycerol yield for transesterification under 0.25:1 methanol/oil ratio, 290 °C and 20 min reaction time reached 63.5% respectively.

  16. Production of bio diesel from chicken frying oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, E.T.; Fadhil, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Chicken fried oil was converted into different bio diesels through single step transesterification and two step transesterification, namely acid-base and base-base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The results showed that two step base catalyzed transesterification was better compared to other methods. It resulted in higher yield and better fuel properties. Transesterification of fried chicken oil was monitored by TLC technique and compared with that of the parent oil. Fuel properties of the products have been measured and found markedly enhanced compared to those of the parent oil. Also, the values satisfied the standard limits according to the ASTM standards. Blending of the better bio diesel sample with petro diesel was made using three volume percentages (10, 30 and 50% v/v). The results disclosed that blending had slight effect on the original properties of petro diesel.

  17. Castor and jatropha oils: production strategies – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lago Regina C.A.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian bioenergy matrix is based on four platforms: ethanol, energy forests, residues and co-products and biodiesel. The food-energy dichotomy in the use of edible oils is one factor which has stimulated the search for non-edible oleaginous energy crops, such as many native palms. By the year 2000 Brazil had an annual deficit of 80 thousand tons of castor oil, making necessary to import oil from China and India. After a strong debate the National Program on Biodiesel Production (NPBP was launched by December 2004. After an initial excessive enthusiasm, small producers being focused in the program, a more mature and realistic planning is undertaken. Production in semi arid lands is being stimulated, mainly castor (Ricinus communis and Jatropha (Jatropha curcas. Apart from belonging to the same botanical family (Euphorbiaceae, both plants are well resistant to poor soils. Castor plant is well adapted to practically the whole country, except for some extreme areas (too low water availability or too much rain. Castor keeps being an alternative for the semi arid region but much more technology is requested to make it largely exploited. Following the petroleum crisis of 1980’s an ambitious research program on Jatropha curcas was initiated, later on discontinued and presently retaken by Embrapa and some Universities. Progress is slower than in the case of Ricinus communis. The first agronomical observations confirmed low productivity, problems with pests and diseases, high harvesting costs etc. Some strategic factors should be considered for the production of castor and Jatropha oils: 1. Production of raw materials; 2. Production of oils; 3. Detoxification and value aggregation to the extraction cakes and residues. Regarding raw material production, it is necessary a strong, long term research program on genetic breeding (short cycle varieties, with high productivity and allowing a sole harvesting, soil fertility, pest control, domestication

  18. Production possibility frontier analysis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagawa, Shigemi; Takezono, Kanako; Suh, Sangwon; Kudoh, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the productive efficiency of an advanced biodiesel plant in Japan using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The empirical analysis uses monthly input data (waste cooking oil, methanol, potassium hydroxide, power consumption, and the truck diesel fuel used for the procurement of waste cooking oil) and output data (biodiesel) of a biodiesel fuel plant for August 2008–July 2010. The results of this study show that the production activity with the lowest cost on the biodiesel production possibility frontier occurred in March 2010 (production activity used 1.41 kL of waste cooking oil, 0.18 kL of MeOH, 16.33 kg of KOH, and 5.45 kW h of power), and the unit production cost in that month was 18,517 yen/kL. Comparing this efficient production cost to the mean unit production cost on the production possibility frontier at 19,712 yen/kL, revealed that the cost of producing 1 kL of biodiesel could be reduced by as much as 1195 yen. We also find that the efficiency improvement will contribute to decreasing the cost ratio (cost per sale) of the biodiesel production by approximately 1% during the study period (24 months) between August 2008 and July 2010. - Highlights: ► This paper analyzes the productive efficiency of an advanced biodiesel plant using DEA. ► We examine the optimal production activities of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. ► Considering the production frontier, the unit cost of biodiesel could be reduced by 1195 yen. ► The efficiency improvement contributes to decreasing the cost ratio of the biodiesel by 1%

  19. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constancio, Silva

    2006-07-01

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  20. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constancio, Silva

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)