WorldWideScience

Sample records for production garp modeling

  1. Comparison of GARP and Maxent in modelling the geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of presence-only models can be used in the prediction of the geographic distribution of diseases and/or their vectors. The predictive performance of these models differs depending on a number of factors but primarily the modeled species' ecological traits. In this study, the performance of GARP and Maxent, two of ...

  2. DOES GARP REALLY FAIL MISERABLY? A RESPONSE TO STOCKMAN ET AL. (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman et al. (2006) found that ecological niche models built using DesktopGARP 'failed miserably' to predict trapdoor spider (genus Promyrmekiaphila) distributions in California. This apparent failure of GARP (Genetic Algorithm for Rule-Set Production) was actually a failure ...

  3. GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) was the first major international experiment of the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP). It was conducted over...

  4. B lymphocytes confer immune tolerance via cell surface GARP-TGF-β complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Caroline H; Wu, Bill X; Salem, Mohammad; Ansa-Addo, Ephraim A; Metelli, Alessandra; Sun, Shaoli; Gilkeson, Gary; Shlomchik, Mark J; Liu, Bei; Li, Zihai

    2018-04-05

    GARP, a cell surface docking receptor for binding and activating latent TGF-β, is highly expressed by platelets and activated Tregs. While GARP is implicated in immune invasion in cancer, the roles of the GARP-TGF-β axis in systemic autoimmune diseases are unknown. Although B cells do not express GARP at baseline, we found that the GARP-TGF-β complex is induced on activated human and mouse B cells by ligands for multiple TLRs, including TLR4, TLR7, and TLR9. GARP overexpression on B cells inhibited their proliferation, induced IgA class-switching, and dampened T cell-independent antibody production. In contrast, B cell-specific deletion of GARP-encoding gene Lrrc32 in mice led to development of systemic autoimmune diseases spontaneously as well as worsening of pristane-induced lupus-like disease. Canonical TGF-β signaling more readily upregulates GARP in Peyer patch B cells than in splenic B cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that B cells are required for the induction of oral tolerance of T cell-dependent antigens via GARP. Our studies reveal for the first time to our knowledge that cell surface GARP-TGF-β is an important checkpoint for regulating B cell peripheral tolerance, highlighting a mechanism of autoimmune disease pathogenesis.

  5. Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP) positively regulates transforming growth factor (TGF) β3 and is essential for mouse palatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bill X; Li, Anqi; Lei, Liming; Kaneko, Satoshi; Wallace, Caroline; Li, Xue; Li, Zihai

    2017-11-03

    Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP) (encoded by the Lrrc32 gene) plays important roles in cell-surface docking and activation of TGFβ. However, GARP's role in organ development in mammalian systems is unclear. To determine the function of GARP in vivo , we generated a GARP KO mouse model. Unexpectedly, the GARP KO mice died within 24 h after birth and exhibited defective palatogenesis without apparent abnormalities in other major organs. Furthermore, we observed decreased apoptosis and SMAD2 phosphorylation in the medial edge epithelial cells of the palatal shelf of GARP KO embryos at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5), indicating a defect in the TGFβ signaling pathway in the GARP-null developing palates. Of note, the failure to develop the secondary palate and concurrent reduction of SMAD phosphorylation without other defects in GARP KO mice phenocopied TGFβ3 KO mice, although GARP has not been suggested previously to interact with TGFβ3. We found that GARP and TGFβ3 co-localize in medial edge epithelial cells at E14.5. In vitro studies confirmed that GARP and TGFβ3 directly interact and that GARP is indispensable for the surface expression of membrane-associated latent TGFβ3. Our findings indicate that GARP is essential for normal morphogenesis of the palate and demonstrate that GARP plays a crucial role in regulating TGFβ3 signaling during embryogenesis. In conclusion, we have uncovered a novel function of GARP in positively regulating TGFβ3 activation and function. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Surface Expression of TGFβ Docking Receptor GARP Promotes Oncogenesis and Immune Tolerance in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelli, Alessandra; Wu, Bill X; Fugle, Caroline W; Rachidi, Saleh; Sun, Shaoli; Zhang, Yongliang; Wu, Jennifer; Tomlinson, Stephen; Howe, Philip H; Yang, Yi; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Liu, Bei; Li, Zihai

    2016-12-15

    GARP encoded by the Lrrc32 gene is the cell surface docking receptor for latent TGFβ, which is expressed naturally by platelets and regulatory T cells (Treg). Although Lrrc32 is amplified frequently in breast cancer, the expression and relevant functions of GARP in cancer have not been explored. Here, we report that GARP exerts oncogenic effects, promoting immune tolerance by enriching and activating latent TGFβ in the tumor microenvironment. We found that human breast, lung, and colon cancers expressed GARP aberrantly. In genetic studies in normal mammary gland epithelial and carcinoma cells, GARP expression increased TGFβ bioactivity and promoted malignant transformation in immunodeficient mice. In breast carcinoma-bearing mice that were immunocompetent, GARP overexpression promoted Foxp3 + Treg activity, which in turn contributed to enhancing cancer progression and metastasis. Notably, administration of a GARP-specific mAb limited metastasis in an orthotopic model of human breast cancer. Overall, these results define the oncogenic effects of the GARP-TGFβ axis in the tumor microenvironment and suggest mechanisms that might be exploited for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Cancer Res; 76(24); 7106-17. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Surface Expression of TGF-β Docking Receptor GARP Promotes Oncogenesis and Immune Tolerance in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelli, Alessandra; Wu, Bill X; Fugle, Caroline W; Rachidi, Saleh; Sun, Shaoli; Zhang, Yongliang; Wu, Jennifer; Tomlinson, Stephen; Howe, Philip; Yang, Yi; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Liu, Bei; Li, Zihai

    2016-01-01

    GARP encoded by the Lrrc32 gene is the cell surface docking receptor for latent TGF-β which is expressed naturally by platelets and regulatory T cells. Although Lrrc32 is amplified frequently in breast cancer, the expression and relevant functions of GARP in cancer have not been explored. Here we report that GARP exerts oncogenic effects, promoting immune tolerance by enriching and activating latent TGF-β in the tumor microenvironment. We found that human breast, lung and colon cancers expressed GARP aberrantly. In genetic studies in normal mammary gland epithelial and carcinoma cells, GARP expression increased TGF-β bioactivity and promoted malignant transformation in immune deficient mice. In breast carcinoma-bearing mice that were immune competent, GARP overexpression promoted Foxp3+ regulatory T cell activity, which in turn contributed to enhancing cancer progression and metastasis. Notably, administration of a panel of GARP-specific monoclonal antibodies limited metastasis in an orthotopic model of human breast cancer. Overall, these results define the oncogenic effects of the GARP-TGF-β axis in the tumor microenvironment and suggest mechanisms that might be exploited for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:27913437

  8. Predicting the distribution of a parasite using the ecological niche model, GARP Predicción de la distribución de un parásito usando el modelo de nicho ecológico, GARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry R. Haverkost

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The ecological niche of a parasite exists only at the nexus of certain abiotic and biotic conditions suitable for both the definitive and intermediate hosts. However, the life cycles of most parasites are not known, or are poorly known, and using known ranges of hosts to find endemic parasitic infections has been difficult. However, with ecological niche modeling, we can create potential range maps using known localities of infection. Testing the validity of such maps requires knowledge of the localities of other parasites with common history. Here, we find that the ecological niche of a tapeworm parasite of voles, Paranoplocephala macrocephala (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae, allows prediction of the presence (in ecological and geographic space of 19 related parasite species from 3 genera in 23 different hosts throughout the Nearctic. These results give credence to the idea that this group shares similar life cycle requirements despite phylogenetic distance. This work further validates ecological niche modeling as a means by which to predict occurrence of parasites when not all facets of the life cycle are confirmed. Such inductive methods create the opportunity for deducing potential reservoir or intermediate hosts, and complementing studies of parasite biodiversity and community ecology.El nicho ecológico de un parásito existe sólo cuando coinciden condiciones abióticas y bióticas necesarias para los hospederos definitivos e intermediarios. No obstante, los ciclos de vida de la mayoría de los parásitos son poco conocidos; el usar áreas de distribución de hospederos para encontrar áreas endémicas de parasitismo ha resultado difícil. Con el modelado de nicho, se pueden producir mapas del área de distribución potencial con base en sitios conocidos de presencia. Para probar la validez de estos mapas, se requiere el conocimiento de sitios de presencia de otros parásitos relacionados. En este estudio, encontramos que el nicho ecol

  9. FOXP3 Expression in GARP-Transduced Helper T Cells Is Not Associated with FOXP3 TSDR Demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrmann, Jan; Zeschnigk, Michael; Buer, Jan; Probst-Kepper, Michael

    2011-10-01

    AIM: Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP or LRRC32) represents a human regulatory CD4+ CD25(hi) FOXP3+ T (T(reg)) cell-specific receptor that controls FOXP3. Ectopic expression of GARP in helper T (T(h)) cells has been shown to be sufficient for the induction of FOXP3 and generation of a stable regulatory phenotype. Since expression of FOXP3 in Treg cells is epigenetically controlled by a conserved motif, the so-called T(reg)-specific demethylated region (TSDR), we asked whether GARP-mediated upregulation of FOXP3 in Th cells is similarly accompanied by demethylation of the TSDR. METHODS: DNA methylation of the FOXP3 TSDR was analyzed by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from bisulfite-treated genomic DNA. RESULTS: Although GARP-transduced T(h) cells exhibit constitutive FOXP3 expression and a regulatory phenotype, the FOXP3 TSDR is completely methylated as in naive T(h) cells. GARP-mediated FOXP3 upregulation in T(h) cells is not associated with T(reg)-specific demethylation of the FOXP3 TSDR. CONCLUSION: Although GARP-engineered T(h) cells exhibit stable FOXP3 expression and a phenotypic reprogramming towards T(reg) cells in vitro, these cells do not completely mimic the epigenotype of natural T(reg) cells. Thus, concepts based on the genetic modification of T(h) cells as cellular therapies to treat autoimmune diseases or to control transplantation tolerance should be critically tested before any clinical application.

  10. The GARP complex is required for cellular sphingolipid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fröhlich, Florian; Petit, Constance; Kory, Nora

    2015-01-01

    (GARP) complex, which functions in endosome-to-Golgi retrograde vesicular transport, as a critical player in sphingolipid homeostasis. GARP deficiency leads to accumulation of sphingolipid synthesis intermediates, changes in sterol distribution, and lysosomal dysfunction. A GARP complex mutation...... analogous to a VPS53 allele causing progressive cerebello-cerebral atrophy type 2 (PCCA2) in humans exhibits similar, albeit weaker, phenotypes in yeast, providing mechanistic insights into disease pathogenesis. Inhibition of the first step of de novo sphingolipid synthesis is sufficient to mitigate many...

  11. How many studies are necessary to compare niche-based models for geographic distributions? Inductive reasoning may fail at the end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terribile, L C; Diniz-Filho, J A F; De Marco, P

    2010-05-01

    The use of ecological niche models (ENM) to generate potential geographic distributions of species has rapidly increased in ecology, conservation and evolutionary biology. Many methods are available and the most used are Maximum Entropy Method (MAXENT) and the Genetic Algorithm for Rule Set Production (GARP). Recent studies have shown that MAXENT perform better than GARP. Here we used the statistics methods of ROC - AUC (area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve) and bootstrap to evaluate the performance of GARP and MAXENT in generate potential distribution models for 39 species of New World coral snakes. We found that values of AUC for GARP ranged from 0.923 to 0.999, whereas those for MAXENT ranged from 0.877 to 0.999. On the whole, the differences in AUC were very small, but for 10 species GARP outperformed MAXENT. Means and standard deviations for 100 bootstrapped samples with sample sizes ranging from 3 to 30 species did not show any trends towards deviations from a zero difference in AUC values of GARP minus AUC values of MAXENT. Ours results suggest that further studies are still necessary to establish under which circumstances the statistical performance of the methods vary. However, it is also important to consider the possibility that this empirical inductive reasoning may fail in the end, because we almost certainly could not establish all potential scenarios generating variation in the relative performance of models.

  12. Expression of GARP selectively identifies activated human FOXP3+ regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Kozhaya, Lina; Mercer, Frances; Khaitan, Alka; Fujii, Hodaka; Unutmaz, Derya

    2009-08-11

    The molecules that define human regulatory T cells (Tregs) phenotypically and functionally remain to be fully characterized. We recently showed that activated human Tregs express mRNA for a transmembrane protein called glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP, or LRRC32). Here, using a GARP-specific mAb, we demonstrate that expression of GARP on activated Tregs correlates with their suppressive capacity. However, GARP was not induced on T cells activated in the presence of TGFbeta, which expressed high levels of FOXP3 and lacked suppressive function. Ectopic expression of FOXP3 in conventional T cells was also insufficient for induction of GARP expression in most donors. Functionally, silencing GARP in Tregs only moderately attenuated their suppressive activity. CD25+ T cells sorted for high GARP expression displayed more potent suppressive activity compared with CD25+GARP- cells. Remarkably, CD25+GARP- T cells expanded in culture contained 3-5 fold higher IL-17-secreting cells compared with either CD25+GARP+ or CD25-GARP- cells, suggesting that high GARP expression can potentially discriminate Tregs from those that have switched to Th17 lineage. We also determined whether GARP expression correlates with FOXP3-expressing T cells in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected subjects. A subset of HIV+ individuals with high percentages of FOXP3+ T cells did not show proportionate increase in GARP+ T cells. This finding suggests that higher FOXP3 levels observed in these HIV+ individuals is possibly due to immune activation rather than to an increase in Tregs. Our findings highlight the significance of GARP both in dissecting duality of Treg/Th17 cell differentiation and as a marker to identify bona fide Tregs during diseases with chronic immune activation.

  13. Characterization of the human GARP (Golgi associated retrograde protein) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liewen, Heike; Meinhold-Heerlein, Ivo; Oliveira, Vasco; Schwarzenbacher, Robert; Luo Guorong; Wadle, Andreas; Jung, Martin; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Stenner-Liewen, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The Golgi associated retrograde protein complex (GARP) or Vps fifty-three (VFT) complex is part of cellular inter-compartmental transport systems. Here we report the identification of the VFT tethering factor complex and its interactions in mammalian cells. Subcellular fractionation shows that human Vps proteins are found in the smooth membrane/Golgi fraction but not in the cytosol. Immunostaining of human Vps proteins displays a vesicular distribution most concentrated at the perinuclear envelope. Co-staining experiments with endosomal markers imply an endosomal origin of these vesicles. Significant accumulation of VFT complex positive endosomes is found in the vicinity of the Trans Golgi Network area. This is in accordance with a putative role in Golgi associated transport processes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, GARP is the main effector of the small GTPase Ypt6p and interacts with the SNARE Tlg1p to facilitate membrane fusion. Accordingly, the human homologue of Ypt6p, Rab6, specifically binds hVps52. In human cells, the 'orphan' SNARE Syntaxin 10 is the genuine binding partner of GARP mediated by hVps52. This reveals a previously unknown function of human Syntaxin 10 in membrane docking and fusion events at the Golgi. Taken together, GARP shows significant conservation between various species but diversification and specialization result in important differences in human cells

  14. The role of platelet and endothelial GARP in thrombosis and hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, Elien; Denorme, Frederik; Maes, Wim; De Meyer, Simon F; Vanhoorelbeke, Karen; Edwards, Justin; Shevach, Ethan M; Unutmaz, Derya; Fujii, Hodaka; Deckmyn, Hans; Tersteeg, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Glycoprotein-A Repetitions Predominant protein (GARP or LRRC32) is present on among others human platelets and endothelial cells. Evidence for its involvement in thrombus formation was suggested by full knockout of GARP in zebrafish. To evaluate the role of GARP in platelet physiology and in thrombus formation using platelet and endothelial conditional GARP knock out mice. Platelet and endothelial specific GARP knockout mice were generated using the Cre-loxP recombination system. The function of platelets without GARP was measured by flow cytometry, spreading analysis and aggregometry using PAR4-activating peptide and collagen related peptide. Additionally, clot retraction and collagen-induced platelet adhesion and aggregation under flow were analyzed. Finally, in vivo tail bleeding time, occlusion time of the mesenteric and carotid artery after FeCl3-induced thrombosis were determined in platelet and endothelial specific GARP knock out mice. Platelet specific GARP knockout mice had normal surface GPIb, GPVI and integrin αIIb glycoprotein expression. Although GARP expression was increased upon platelet activation, platelets without GARP displayed normal agonist induced activation, spreading on fibrinogen and aggregation responses. Furthermore, absence of GARP on platelets did not influence clot retraction and had no impact on thrombus formation on collagen-coated surfaces under flow. In line with this, neither the tail bleeding time nor the occlusion time in the carotid- and mesenteric artery after FeCl3-induced thrombus formation in platelet or endothelial specific GARP knock out mice were affected. Evidence is provided that platelet and endothelial GARP are not important in hemostasis and thrombosis in mice.

  15. The role of platelet and endothelial GARP in thrombosis and hemostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elien Vermeersch

    Full Text Available Glycoprotein-A Repetitions Predominant protein (GARP or LRRC32 is present on among others human platelets and endothelial cells. Evidence for its involvement in thrombus formation was suggested by full knockout of GARP in zebrafish.To evaluate the role of GARP in platelet physiology and in thrombus formation using platelet and endothelial conditional GARP knock out mice.Platelet and endothelial specific GARP knockout mice were generated using the Cre-loxP recombination system. The function of platelets without GARP was measured by flow cytometry, spreading analysis and aggregometry using PAR4-activating peptide and collagen related peptide. Additionally, clot retraction and collagen-induced platelet adhesion and aggregation under flow were analyzed. Finally, in vivo tail bleeding time, occlusion time of the mesenteric and carotid artery after FeCl3-induced thrombosis were determined in platelet and endothelial specific GARP knock out mice.Platelet specific GARP knockout mice had normal surface GPIb, GPVI and integrin αIIb glycoprotein expression. Although GARP expression was increased upon platelet activation, platelets without GARP displayed normal agonist induced activation, spreading on fibrinogen and aggregation responses. Furthermore, absence of GARP on platelets did not influence clot retraction and had no impact on thrombus formation on collagen-coated surfaces under flow. In line with this, neither the tail bleeding time nor the occlusion time in the carotid- and mesenteric artery after FeCl3-induced thrombus formation in platelet or endothelial specific GARP knock out mice were affected.Evidence is provided that platelet and endothelial GARP are not important in hemostasis and thrombosis in mice.

  16. The small G protein Arl5 contributes to endosome-to-Golgi traffic by aiding the recruitment of the GARP complex to the Golgi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Rosa-Ferreira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The small G proteins of the Arf family play critical roles in membrane trafficking and cytoskeleton organization. However, the function of some members of the family remains poorly understood including Arl5 which is widely conserved in eukaryotes. Humans have two closely related Arl5 paralogues (Arl5a and Arl5b, and both Arl5a and Arl5b localize to the trans-Golgi with Arl5b being involved in retrograde traffic from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus. To investigate the function of Arl5, we have used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. We find that the single Arl5 orthologue in Drosophila also localizes to the trans-Golgi, but flies lacking the Arl5 gene are viable and fertile. By using both liposome and column based affinity chromatography methods we find that Arl5 interacts with the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP complex that acts in the tethering of vesicles moving from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN. In Drosophila tissues the GARP complex is partially displaced from the Golgi when Arl5 is absent, and the late endosomal compartment is enlarged. In addition, in HeLa cells GARP also becomes cytosolic upon depletion of Arl5b. These phenotypes are consistent with a role in endosome-to-Golgi traffic, but are less severe than loss of GARP itself. Thus it appears that Arl5 is one of the factors that directs the recruitment of the GARP complex to the trans-Golgi, and this function is conserved in both flies and humans.

  17. Transport According to GARP: Receiving Retrograde Cargo at the Trans-Golgi Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacino, Juan S.; Hierro, Aitor

    2010-01-01

    Tethering factors are large protein complexes that capture transport vesicles and enable their fusion with acceptor organelles at different stages of the endomembrane system. Recent studies have shed new light on the structure and function of a heterotetrameric tethering factor named Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP), which promotes fusion of endosome-derived, retrograde transport carriers to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). X-ray crystallography of the Vps53 and Vps54 subunits of GARP has revealed that this complex is structurally related to other tethering factors such as the exocyst, COG and Dsl1, indicating that they all might work by a similar mechanism. Loss of GARP function compromises the growth, fertility and/or viability of the defective organisms, underscoring the essential nature of GARP-mediated retrograde transport. PMID:21183348

  18. From Product Models to Product State Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    A well-known technology designed to handle product data is Product Models. Product Models are in their current form not able to handle all types of product state information. Hence, the concept of a Product State Model (PSM) is proposed. The PSM and in particular how to model a PSM is the Research...

  19. Surface Expression of TGF-β Docking Receptor GARP Promotes Oncogenesis and Immune Tolerance in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Metelli, Alessandra; Wu, Bill X; Fugle, Caroline W; Rachidi, Saleh; Sun, Shaoli; Zhang, Yongliang; Wu, Jennifer; Tomlinson, Stephen; Howe, Philip; Yang, Yi; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Liu, Bei; Li, Zihai

    2016-01-01

    GARP encoded by the Lrrc32 gene is the cell surface docking receptor for latent TGF-β which is expressed naturally by platelets and regulatory T cells. Although Lrrc32 is amplified frequently in breast cancer, the expression and relevant functions of GARP in cancer have not been explored. Here we report that GARP exerts oncogenic effects, promoting immune tolerance by enriching and activating latent TGF-β in the tumor microenvironment. We found that human breast, lung and colon cancers expres...

  20. Production models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    The Project is co-financed with Nilpeter A/S and investigates the industrialization of build to order production. Project content: - Enterprise engineering - Specification processes - Mass Customization/ Build To Order - Knowledge/information management - Configuration - Supply Chain Management...

  1. AOIPS data base management systems support for GARP data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    A data base management system is identified, developed to provide flexible access to data sets produced by GARP during its data systems tests. The content and coverage of the data base are defined and a computer-aided, interactive information storage and retrieval system, implemented to facilitate access to user specified data subsets, is described. The computer programs developed to provide the capability were implemented on the highly interactive, minicomputer-based AOIPS and are referred to as the data retrieval system (DRS). Implemented as a user interactive but menu guided system, the DRS permits users to inventory the data tape library and create duplicate or subset data sets based on a user selected window defined by time and latitude/longitude boundaries. The DRS permits users to select, display, or produce formatted hard copy of individual data items contained within the data records.

  2. How many studies are necessary to compare niche-based models for geographic distributions? Inductive reasoning may fail at the end Quantos estudos ainda serão necessários para avaliar modelos de distribuição geográfica baseados em modelagem do nicho? Um pensamento indutivo pode estar fadado ao fracasso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Terribile

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of ecological niche models (ENM to generate potential geographic distributions of species has rapidly increased in ecology, conservation and evolutionary biology. Many methods are available and the most used are Maximum Entropy Method (MAXENT and the Genetic Algorithm for Rule Set Production (GARP. Recent studies have shown that MAXENT perform better than GARP. Here we used the statistics methods of ROC - AUC (area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve and bootstrap to evaluate the performance of GARP and MAXENT in generate potential distribution models for 39 species of New World coral snakes. We found that values of AUC for GARP ranged from 0.923 to 0.999, whereas those for MAXENT ranged from 0.877 to 0.999. On the whole, the differences in AUC were very small, but for 10 species GARP outperformed MAXENT. Means and standard deviations for 100 bootstrapped samples with sample sizes ranging from 3 to 30 species did not show any trends towards deviations from a zero difference in AUC values of GARP minus AUC values of MAXENT. Ours results suggest that further studies are still necessary to establish under which circumstances the statistical performance of the methods vary. However, it is also important to consider the possibility that this empirical inductive reasoning may fail in the end, because we almost certainly could not establish all potential scenarios generating variation in the relative performance of models.A utilização de modelos de nicho ecológico (ENM para gerar distribuições geográficas potenciais de espécies tem aumentado rapidamente nas áreas de ecologia, biologia da conservação e biologia evolutiva. O Método de Máxima Entropia (MAXENT e o Algoritmo Genético para Produção de Conjunto de Regras (GARP estão entre os métodos mais utilizados, e estudos recentes têm atribuído ao MAXENT um melhor desempenho no processo de modelagem com relação ao GARP. Neste trabalho, foram utilizados os m

  3. Atorvastatin Improves Inflammatory Response in Atherosclerosis by Upregulating the Expression of GARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoqi; Liu, Yuzhou; Zhong, Yucheng; Liu, Bo; Yu, Kunwu; Shi, Huairui; Zhu, Ruirui; Meng, Kai; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Bangwei

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T cells play an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. GARP is a newly biological membrane molecule existed on activated Tregs, which is related to the release of TGF-β. The antiatherosclerosis effects of statins partly depend on their multiple immune modulatory potencies. In this paper, we present that atorvastatin could upregulate the expression of GARP and TGF-β in CD4+ T cells and increase the numbers of CD4+LAP+ and CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in ApoE−/− mice. Also, we indicate that atorvastatin promotes the aggregation of GARP+ and Foxp3+ cells and secretory of the TGF-β1 in atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, we prove that atorvastatin could delay the procession of atherosclerosis and improve the stability of atherosclerotic plaques. Interestingly, we report that inhibition of GARP distinctly inhibits the anti-inflammatory effects of atorvastatin. We conclude that atorvastatin improves the inflammatory response in atherosclerosis partly by upregulating the expression of GARP on regulatory T cells. PMID:26063978

  4. Regulation of the expression of GARP/latent-TGF-β1 complexes on mouse T cells and their role in Regulatory T Cell and Th17 differentiation1

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Justin P.; Fujii, Hodaka; Zhou, Angela X.; Creemers, John; Unutmaz, Derya; Shevach, Ethan M.

    2013-01-01

    GARP/LRRC32 has previously been defined as a marker of activated human regulatory T-cells (Tregs) that is responsible for surface localization of latent TGF-β1. We find that GARP and latent TGF-β1 are also found on mouse Tregs activated via TCR stimulation, but in contrast to human Tregs, GARP is also expressed at a low level on resting Tregs. The expression of GARP can be upregulated on mouse Tregs by IL-2 or IL-4 exposure in the absence of TCR signaling. GARP is expressed at a low level on ...

  5. The GARP Complex Is Involved in Intracellular Cholesterol Transport via Targeting NPC2 to Lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jian; Zhang, Ying-Yu; Luo, Jie; Wang, Ju-Qiong; Zhou, Yu-Xia; Miao, Hong-Hua; Shi, Xiong-Jie; Qu, Yu-Xiu; Xu, Jie; Li, Bo-Liang; Song, Bao-Liang

    2017-06-27

    Proper intracellular cholesterol trafficking is critical for cellular function. Two lysosome-resident proteins, NPC1 and NPC2, mediate the egress of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol from lysosomes. However, other proteins involved in this process remain largely unknown. Through amphotericin B-based selection, we isolated two cholesterol transport-defective cell lines. Subsequent whole-transcriptome-sequencing analysis revealed two cell lines bearing the same mutation in the vacuolar protein sorting 53 (Vps53) gene. Depletion of VPS53 or other subunits of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex impaired NPC2 sorting to lysosomes and caused cholesterol accumulation. GARP deficiency blocked the retrieval of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) to the trans-Golgi network. Further, Vps54 mutant mice displayed reduced cellular NPC2 protein levels and increased cholesterol accumulation, underscoring the physiological role of the GARP complex in cholesterol transport. We conclude that the GARP complex contributes to intracellular cholesterol transport by targeting NPC2 to lysosomes in a CI-MPR-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mesenchymal stromal cells express GARP/LRRC32 on their surface: effects on their biology and immunomodulatory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Galvez, Ana Belén; Cobo, Marién; Cuevas-Ocaña, Sara; Gutiérrez-Guerrero, Alejandra; Sánchez-Gilabert, Almudena; Bongarzone, Pierpaolo; García-Pérez, Angélica; Muñoz, Pilar; Benabdellah, Karim; Toscano, Miguel G; Martín, Francisco; Anderson, Per

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent a promising tool for therapy in regenerative medicine, transplantation, and autoimmune disease due to their trophic and immunomodulatory activities. However, we are still far from understanding the mechanisms of action of MSCs in these processes. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in MSC migration, differentiation, and immunomodulation. Recently, glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP) was shown to bind latency-associated peptide (LAP)/TGF-β1 to the cell surface of activated Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and megakaryocytes/platelets. In this manuscript, we show that human and mouse MSCs express GARP which presents LAP/TGF-β1 on their cell surface. Silencing GARP expression in MSCs increased their secretion and activation of TGF-β1 and reduced their proliferative capacity in a TGF-β1-independent manner. Importantly, we showed that GARP expression on MSCs contributed to their ability to inhibit T-cell responses in vitro. In summary, we have found that GARP is an essential molecule for MSC biology, regulating their immunomodulatory and proliferative activities. We envision GARP as a new target for improving the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs and also as a novel MSC marker. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  7. Regulation of the expression of GARP/latent-TGF-β1 complexes on mouse T cells and their role in Regulatory T Cell and Th17 differentiation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Justin P.; Fujii, Hodaka; Zhou, Angela X.; Creemers, John; Unutmaz, Derya; Shevach, Ethan M.

    2013-01-01

    GARP/LRRC32 has previously been defined as a marker of activated human regulatory T-cells (Tregs) that is responsible for surface localization of latent TGF-β1. We find that GARP and latent TGF-β1 are also found on mouse Tregs activated via TCR stimulation, but in contrast to human Tregs, GARP is also expressed at a low level on resting Tregs. The expression of GARP can be upregulated on mouse Tregs by IL-2 or IL-4 exposure in the absence of TCR signaling. GARP is expressed at a low level on Tregs within the thymus and Treg precursors from the thymus concomitantly express GARP and Foxp3 upon exposure to IL-2. The expression of GARP is independent of TGF-β1 and TGF-β1 loading into GARP and is independent of furin-mediated processing of pro-TGF-β1 to latent TGF-β1. Specific deletion of GARP in CD4+ T cells results in lack of expression of latent-TGF-β1 on activated Tregs. GARP-deficient Tregs develop normally, are present in normal numbers in peripheral tissues, and are fully competent suppressors of the activation of T conventional cells in vitro. Activated Tregs expressing GARP/latent-TGF-β1 complexes are potent inducers of Th17 differentiation in the presence of exogenous IL-6 and inducers of Treg in the presence of IL-2. Induction of both Th17 producing cells and Treg is preferentially induced by Tregs expressing the latent-TGF-β1/GARP complex on their cell surface rather than by secreted latent-TGF-β1. PMID:23645881

  8. Regulation of the expression of GARP/latent TGF-β1 complexes on mouse T cells and their role in regulatory T cell and Th17 differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Justin P; Fujii, Hodaka; Zhou, Angela X; Creemers, John; Unutmaz, Derya; Shevach, Ethan M

    2013-06-01

    GARP/LRRC32 was defined as a marker of activated human regulatory T cells (Tregs) that is responsible for surface localization of latent TGF-β1. We find that GARP and latent TGF-β1 are also found on mouse Tregs activated via TCR stimulation; however, in contrast to human Tregs, GARP is also expressed at a low level on resting Tregs. The expression of GARP can be upregulated on mouse Tregs by IL-2 or IL-4 exposure in the absence of TCR signaling. GARP is expressed at a low level on Tregs within the thymus, and Treg precursors from the thymus concomitantly express GARP and Foxp3 upon exposure to IL-2. The expression of GARP is independent of TGF-β1 and TGF-β1 loading into GARP and is independent of furin-mediated processing of pro-TGF-β1 to latent TGF-β1. Specific deletion of GARP in CD4(+) T cells results in lack of expression of latent TGF-β1 on activated Tregs. GARP-deficient Tregs develop normally, are present in normal numbers in peripheral tissues, and are fully competent suppressors of the activation of conventional T cells in vitro. Activated Tregs expressing GARP/latent TGF-β1 complexes are potent inducers of Th17 differentiation in the presence of exogenous IL-6 and inducers of Treg in the presence of IL-2. Induction of both Th17-producing cells and Tregs is caused preferentially by Tregs expressing the latent TGF-β1/GARP complex on their cell surface rather than by secreted latent TGF-β1.

  9. Targeted Resequencing and Functional Testing Identifies Low-Frequency Missense Variants in the Gene Encoding GARP as Significant Contributors to Atopic Dermatitis Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, Judith; Rodríguez, Elke; ElSharawy, Abdou; Oesau, Eva-Maria; Petersen, Britt-Sabina; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Mayr, Gabriele; Weber, Susanne; Harder, Jürgen; Reischl, Eva; Schwarz, Agatha; Novak, Natalija; Franke, Andre; Weidinger, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Gene-mapping studies have consistently identified a susceptibility locus for atopic dermatitis and other inflammatory diseases on chromosome band 11q13.5, with the strongest association observed for a common variant located in an intergenic region between the two annotated genes C11orf30 and LRRC32. Using a targeted resequencing approach we identified low-frequency and rare missense mutations within the LRRC32 gene encoding the protein GARP, a receptor on activated regulatory T cells that binds latent transforming growth factor-β. Subsequent association testing in more than 2,000 atopic dermatitis patients and 2,000 control subjects showed a significant excess of these LRRC32 variants in individuals with atopic dermatitis. Structural protein modeling and bioinformatic analysis predicted a disruption of protein transport upon these variants, and overexpression assays in CD4 + CD25 - T cells showed a significant reduction in surface expression of the mutated protein. Consistently, flow cytometric (FACS) analyses of different T-cell subtypes obtained from atopic dermatitis patients showed a significantly reduced surface expression of GARP and a reduced conversion of CD4 + CD25 - T cells into regulatory T cells, along with lower expression of latency-associated protein upon stimulation in carriers of the LRRC32 A407T variant. These results link inherited disturbances of transforming growth factor-β signaling with atopic dermatitis risk. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. FOXP3 and GARP (LRRC32): the master and its minion

    OpenAIRE

    Buer Jan; Probst-Kepper Michael

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The transcription factor FOXP3 is essential for the development and function of CD4+CD25hiFOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, but also expressed in activated human helper T cells without acquisition of a regulatory phenotype. This comment focuses on glycoprotein-A repetitions predominant (GARP or LRRC32) recently identified as specific marker of activated human Treg cells, which may provide the missing link toward a better molecular definition of the regulatory phenotype. Reviewers: Dr...

  11. FOXP3 and GARP (LRRC32): the master and its minion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst-Kepper, Michael; Buer, Jan

    2010-02-05

    The transcription factor FOXP3 is essential for the development and function of CD4+CD25hiFOXP3+ regulatory T (T(reg)) cells, but also expressed in activated human helper T cells without acquisition of a regulatory phenotype. This comment focuses on glycoprotein-A repetitions predominant (GARP or LRRC32) recently identified as specific marker of activated human T(reg) cells, which may provide the missing link toward a better molecular definition of the regulatory phenotype.

  12. Seasonal distributions of diabatic heating during the First GARP Global Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Wei, Ming; Johnson, Donald R.; Townsend, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    The seasonal and annual global distributions of diabatic heating during the First GARP Global Experiment (FGGE) are estimated using the isentropic mass continuity equation. The data used are from the FGGE Level IIIa analyses generated by the United States National Meteorological Center. Spatially and temporally coherent diabatic heating distributions are obtained from the isentropic planetary scale mass circulation that is forced by large-scale heat sources and sinks. The diabatic heating in...

  13. Platelets subvert T cell immunity against cancer via GARP-TGFβ axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachidi, Saleh; Metelli, Alessandra; Riesenberg, Brian; Wu, Bill X; Nelson, Michelle H; Wallace, Caroline; Paulos, Chrystal M; Rubinstein, Mark P; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Hennig, Mirko; Bearden, Daniel W; Yang, Yi; Liu, Bei; Li, Zihai

    2017-05-05

    Cancer-associated thrombocytosis has long been linked to poor clinical outcome, but the underlying mechanism is enigmatic. We hypothesized that platelets promote malignancy and resistance to therapy by dampening host immunity. We show that genetic targeting of platelets enhances adoptive T cell therapy of cancer. An unbiased biochemical and structural biology approach established transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and lactate as major platelet-derived soluble factors to obliterate CD4 + and CD8 + T cell functions. Moreover, we found that platelets are the dominant source of functional TGFβ systemically as well as in the tumor microenvironment through constitutive expression of the TGFβ-docking receptor glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP) rather than secretion of TGFβ per se. Platelet-specific deletion of the GARP-encoding gene Lrrc32 blunted TGFβ activity at the tumor site and potentiated protective immunity against both melanoma and colon cancer. Last, this study shows that T cell therapy of cancer can be substantially improved by concurrent treatment with readily available antiplatelet agents. We conclude that platelets constrain T cell immunity through a GARP-TGFβ axis and suggest a combination of immunotherapy and platelet inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy against cancer. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Post-Golgi anterograde transport requires GARP-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Tetsuya; Fujita, Morihisa; Nakamura, Shota; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Motooka, Daisuke; Murakami, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Taroh

    2015-01-01

    The importance of endosome-to–trans-Golgi network (TGN) retrograde transport in the anterograde transport of proteins is unclear. In this study, genome-wide screening of the factors necessary for efficient anterograde protein transport in human haploid cells identified subunits of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex, a tethering factor involved in endosome-to-TGN transport. Knockout (KO) of each of the four GARP subunits, VPS51–VPS54, in HEK293 cells caused severely defective anterograde transport of both glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored and transmembrane proteins from the TGN. Overexpression of VAMP4, v-SNARE, in VPS54-KO cells partially restored not only endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport, but also anterograde transport of both GPI-anchored and transmembrane proteins. Further screening for genes whose overexpression normalized the VPS54-KO phenotype identified TMEM87A, encoding an uncharacterized Golgi-resident membrane protein. Overexpression of TMEM87A or its close homologue TMEM87B in VPS54-KO cells partially restored endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport and anterograde transport. Therefore GARP- and VAMP4-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport is required for recycling of molecules critical for efficient post-Golgi anterograde transport of cell-surface integral membrane proteins. In addition, TMEM87A and TMEM87B are involved in endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport. PMID:26157166

  15. Product and Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian T.; Gani, Rafiqul

    . These approaches are put into the context of life cycle modelling, where multiscale and multiform modelling is increasingly prevalent in the 21st century. The book commences with a discussion of modern product and process modelling theory and practice followed by a series of case studies drawn from a variety......This book covers the area of product and process modelling via a case study approach. It addresses a wide range of modelling applications with emphasis on modelling methodology and the subsequent in-depth analysis of mathematical models to gain insight via structural aspects of the models...... to biotechnology applications, food, polymer and human health application areas. The book highlights to important nature of modern product and process modelling in the decision making processes across the life cycle. As such it provides an important resource for students, researchers and industrial practitioners....

  16. Product Platform Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus

    for customisation of products. In many companies these changes in the business environment have created a controversy between the need for a wide variety of products offered to the marketplace and a desire to reduce variation within the company in order to increase efficiency. Many companies use the concept...... other. These groups can be varied and combined to form different product variants without increasing the internal variety in the company. Based on the Theory of Domains, the concept of encapsulation in the organ domain is introduced, and organs are formulated as platform elements. Included......This PhD thesis has the title Product Platform Modelling. The thesis is about product platforms and visual product platform modelling. Product platforms have gained an increasing attention in industry and academia in the past decade. The reasons are many, yet the increasing globalisation...

  17. Modelling Retail Floorspace Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); P. Kooiman

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis research note presents a "switching regime" model to investigate the impact of environmental factors on floorspace productivity of individual retail stores. The model includes independent supply and demand functions, which are incorporated within a sales maximizing framework. Unlike

  18. FOXP3 and GARP (LRRC32: the master and its minion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buer Jan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The transcription factor FOXP3 is essential for the development and function of CD4+CD25hiFOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg cells, but also expressed in activated human helper T cells without acquisition of a regulatory phenotype. This comment focuses on glycoprotein-A repetitions predominant (GARP or LRRC32 recently identified as specific marker of activated human Treg cells, which may provide the missing link toward a better molecular definition of the regulatory phenotype. Reviewers: Dr Jim Di Danto, Dr Benedita Rocha and Dr Werner Solbach.

  19. Innovation Production Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamam N. Guseinova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the study of the models of production of innovations at enterprise and state levels. The shift towards a new technology wave induces a change in systems of division of labour as well as establishment of new forms of cooperation that are reflected both in theory and practice of innovation policy and management. Within the scope of the research question we have studied different generation of innovation process, starting with simple linear models - "technology push" and "market pull" - and ending with a complex integrated model of open innovations. There are two organizational models of innovation production at the enterprise level: start-ups in the early stages of their development and ambidextrous organizations. The former are prone to linear models of innovation process, while the latter create innovation within more sophisticated inclusive processes. Companies that effectuate reciprocal ambidexterity stand out from all the rest, since together with start-ups, research and development centres, elements of innovation infrastructure and other economic agents operating in the same value chain they constitute the core of most advanced forms of national innovation systems, namely Triple Helix and Quadruple Helix systems. National innovation systems - models of innovation production at the state level - evolve into systems with a more profound division of labour that enable "line production" of innovations. These tendencies are closely related to the advent and development of the concept of serial entrepreneurship that transforms entrepreneurship into a new type of profession. International experience proves this concept to be efficient in various parts of the world. Nevertheless, the use of above mentioned models and concepts in national innovation system should be justified by socioeconomic conditions of economic regions, since they determine the efficiency of implementation of certain innovation processes and

  20. RNF41 interacts with the VPS52 subunit of the GARP and EARP complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masschaele, Delphine; De Ceuninck, Leentje; Wauman, Joris; Defever, Dieter; Stenner, Frank; Lievens, Sam; Peelman, Frank; Tavernier, Jan

    2017-01-01

    RNF41 (Ring Finger Protein 41) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in the intracellular sorting and function of a diverse set of substrates. Next to BRUCE and Parkin, RNF41 can directly ubiquitinate ErbB3, IL-3, EPO and RARα receptors or downstream signaling molecules such as Myd88, TBK1 and USP8. In this way it can regulate receptor signaling and routing. To further elucidate the molecular mechanism behind the role of RNF41 in intracellular transport we performed an Array MAPPIT (Mammalian Protein-Protein Interaction Trap) screen using an extensive set of proteins derived from the human ORFeome collection. This paper describes the identification of VPS52, a subunit of the GARP (Golgi-Associated Retrograde Protein) and the EARP (Endosome-Associated Recycling Protein) complexes, as a novel interaction partner of RNF41. Through interaction via their coiled coil domains, RNF41 ubiquitinates and relocates VPS52 away from VPS53, a common subunit of the GARP and EARP complexes, towards RNF41 bodies.

  1. RNF41 interacts with the VPS52 subunit of the GARP and EARP complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Masschaele

    Full Text Available RNF41 (Ring Finger Protein 41 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in the intracellular sorting and function of a diverse set of substrates. Next to BRUCE and Parkin, RNF41 can directly ubiquitinate ErbB3, IL-3, EPO and RARα receptors or downstream signaling molecules such as Myd88, TBK1 and USP8. In this way it can regulate receptor signaling and routing. To further elucidate the molecular mechanism behind the role of RNF41 in intracellular transport we performed an Array MAPPIT (Mammalian Protein-Protein Interaction Trap screen using an extensive set of proteins derived from the human ORFeome collection. This paper describes the identification of VPS52, a subunit of the GARP (Golgi-Associated Retrograde Protein and the EARP (Endosome-Associated Recycling Protein complexes, as a novel interaction partner of RNF41. Through interaction via their coiled coil domains, RNF41 ubiquitinates and relocates VPS52 away from VPS53, a common subunit of the GARP and EARP complexes, towards RNF41 bodies.

  2. Product Knowledge Modelling and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y.; MacCallum, K. J.; Duffy, Alex

    1996-01-01

    function-oriented design. Both Specific Product Knowledge and Product Domain Knowledge are modelled at two levels, a meta-model and an information-level.Following that, a computer-based scheme to manage the proposed product lknowledge models within a dynamically changing environment is presented.......The term, Product Knowledge is used to refer to two related but distinct concepts; the knowledge of a specific product (Specific Product Knowledge) and the knowledge of a product domain (Product Domain Knowledge). Modelling and managing Product Knowlege is an essential part of carrying out design.......A scheme is presented in this paper to model, i.e. classify, structure and formalise the product knowledge for the purpose of supporting function-oriented design. The product design specification and four types of required attributes of a specific product have been identified to form the Specific Product...

  3. FOXP3: required but not sufficient. the role of GARP (LRRC32) as a safeguard of the regulatory phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst-Kepper, M; Balling, R; Buer, J

    2010-08-01

    FOXP3 is essential for the development and function of regulatory CD4(+)CD25(hi) T (T(reg)) cells. However, recent evidence suggests that FOXP3 alone is not sufficient to completely explain the regulatory phenotype of these key players in autoimmunity and inflammation: after being activated, conventional human CD4(+) T cells transiently up-regulate FOXP3 without acquiring a regulatory function. Researchers have recently found that glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP, or LRRC32) is a T(reg)-specific receptor that binds latent TGF-beta and dominantly controls FOXP3 and the regulatory phenotype via a positive feedback loop. This finding provides a missing link in our molecular understanding of FOXP3 in T(reg) cells. This viewpoint focuses on GARP as safeguard of FOXP3 and the regulatory phenotype.

  4. Helios, and not FoxP3, is the marker of activated Tregs expressing GARP/LAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkord, Eyad; Abd Al Samid, May; Chaudhary, Belal

    2015-08-21

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key players of immune regulation/dysregulation both in physiological and pathophysiological settings. Despite significant advances in understanding Treg function, there is still a pressing need to define reliable and specific markers that can distinguish different Treg subpopulations. Herein we show for the first time that markers of activated Tregs [latency associated peptide (LAP) and glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP, or LRRC32)] are expressed on CD4+FoxP3- T cells expressing Helios (FoxP3-Helios+) in the steady state. Following TCR activation, GARP/LAP are up-regulated on CD4+Helios+ T cells regardless of FoxP3 expression (FoxP3+/-Helios+). We show that CD4+GARP+/-LAP+ Tregs make IL-10 immunosuppressive cytokine but not IFN-γ effector cytokine. Further characterization of FoxP3/Helios subpopulations showed that FoxP3+Helios+ Tregs proliferate in vitro significantly less than FoxP3+Helios- Tregs upon TCR stimulation. Unlike FoxP3+Helios- Tregs, FoxP3+Helios+ Tregs secrete IL-10 but not IFN-γ or IL-2, confirming they are bona fide Tregs with immunosuppressive characteristics. Taken together, Helios, and not FoxP3, is the marker of activated Tregs expressing GARP/LAP, and FoxP3+Helios+ Tregs have more suppressive characteristics, compared with FoxP3+Helios- Tregs. Our work implies that therapeutic modalities for treating autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, allergies and graft rejection should be designed to induce and/or expand FoxP3+Helios+ Tregs, while therapies against cancers or infectious diseases should avoid such expansion/induction.

  5. Modeling Novo Nordisk Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1997-01-01

    This report describes attributes of models and systems, and how models can be used for description of production systems. There are special attention on the 'Theory of Domains'.......This report describes attributes of models and systems, and how models can be used for description of production systems. There are special attention on the 'Theory of Domains'....

  6. PRODUCT STRUCTURE DIGITAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Sineglazov

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available  Research results of representation of product structure made by means of CADDS5 computer-aided design (CAD system, Product Data Management Optegra (PDM system and Product Life Cycle Management Wind-chill system (PLM, are examined in this work. Analysis of structure component development and its storage in various systems is carried out. Algorithms of structure transformation required for correct representation of the structure are considered. Management analysis of electronic mockup presentation of the product structure is carried out for Windchill system.

  7. The GARP/Latent TGF-β1 complex on Treg cells modulates the induction of peripherally derived Treg cells during oral tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Justin P; Hand, Timothy W; Morais da Fonseca, Denise; Glass, Deborah D; Belkaid, Yasmine; Shevach, Ethan M

    2016-06-01

    Treg cells can secrete latent TGF-β1 (LTGF-β1), but can also utilize an alternative pathway for transport and expression of LTGF-β1 on the cell surface in which LTGF-β1 is coupled to a distinct LTGF-β binding protein termed glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP)/LRRC32. The function of the GARP/LTGF-β1 complex has remained elusive. Here, we examine in vivo the roles of GARP and TGF-β1 in the induction of oral tolerance. When Foxp3(-) OT-II T cells were transferred to wild-type recipient mice followed by OVA feeding, the conversion of Foxp3(-) to Foxp3(+) OT-II cells was dependent on recipient Treg cells. Neutralization of IL-2 in the recipient mice also abrogated this conversion. The GARP/LTGF-β1 complex on recipient Treg cells, but not dendritic cell-derived TGF-β1, was required for efficient induction of Foxp3(+) T cells and for the suppression of delayed hypersensitivity. Expression of the integrin αvβ8 by Treg cells (or T cells) in the recipients was dispensable for induction of Foxp3 expression. Transient depletion of the bacterial flora enhanced the development of oral tolerance by expanding Treg cells with enhanced expression of the GARP/LTGF-β1 complex. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. European oil product supply modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Antonin, V.

    1998-01-01

    Over the last few years, trends in European oil product consumption (in terms of level as structure and quality) has important implications of the refining industry. In this context, the purpose of this thesis consists in building a mathematical programming model applied to the European refineries in order to determine oil product supply prices, European refining industry investments and oil product exchanges of the European Union. The first part presents the reason for our choice for a long-term aggregate multi-refineries linear programming model, based on European refineries characteristics and the objectives of our model. Its dual properties are studied in detail and we focus particularly on the European exchange modelling. In the second part, an analysis of the European refining trends leads us to identify parameters and variables of the model that are essential to the aggregate representation of the European oil product supply. The third part is devoted to the use of this model, regarding two scenarios of increasingly stringent specifications for gasoline and diesel oil. Our interest for these products is due to their important share of the European oil product consumption and the not insignificant responsibility of the transport sector for atmospheric pollution. Finally, in order to have the use of an overall picture of the European refining industry, we build a regression model summarizing, though a few equations, the main relations between the major endogenous and exogenous variables o the LP model. Based on pseudo-data, this kind of model provides a simple and robust representation of the oil product supply. But a more specialized analysis of the refining industry operations, turning on a technical assessment of processing units, is reliant on the use of an optimization model such as the model we have built. (author)

  9. Geometrical model of multiple production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikovani, Z.E.; Jenkovszky, L.L.; Kvaratshelia, T.M.; Struminskij, B.V.

    1988-01-01

    The relation between geometrical and KNO-scaling and their violation is studied in a geometrical model of multiple production of hadrons. Predictions concerning the behaviour of correlation coefficients at future accelerators are given

  10. GARP (LRRC32) is essential for the surface expression of latent TGF-β on platelets and activated FOXP3+ regulatory T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dat Q.; Andersson, John; Wang, Rui; Ramsey, Heather; Unutmaz, Derya; Shevach, Ethan M.

    2009-01-01

    TGF-β family members are highly pleiotropic cytokines with diverse regulatory functions. TGF-β is normally found in the latent form associated with latency-associated peptide (LAP). This latent complex can associate with latent TGFβ-binding protein (LTBP) to produce a large latent form. Latent TGF-β is also found on the surface of activated FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), but it is unclear how it is anchored to the cell membrane. We show that GARP or LRRC32, a leucine-rich repeat molecule of unknown function, is critical for tethering TGF-β to the cell surface. We demonstrate that platelets and activated Tregs co-express latent TGF-β and GARP on their membranes. The knockdown of GARP mRNA with siRNA prevented surface latent TGF-β expression on activated Tregs and recombinant latent TGF-β1 is able to bind directly with GARP. Confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation strongly support their interactions. The role of TGF-β on Tregs appears to have dual functions, both for Treg-mediated suppression and infectious tolerance mechanism. PMID:19651619

  11. GARP (LRRC32) is essential for the surface expression of latent TGF-beta on platelets and activated FOXP3+ regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dat Q; Andersson, John; Wang, Rui; Ramsey, Heather; Unutmaz, Derya; Shevach, Ethan M

    2009-08-11

    TGF-beta family members are highly pleiotropic cytokines with diverse regulatory functions. TGF-beta is normally found in the latent form associated with latency-associated peptide (LAP). This latent complex can associate with latent TGFbeta-binding protein (LTBP) to produce a large latent form. Latent TGF-beta is also found on the surface of activated FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), but it is unclear how it is anchored to the cell membrane. We show that GARP or LRRC32, a leucine-rich repeat molecule of unknown function, is critical for tethering TGF-beta to the cell surface. We demonstrate that platelets and activated Tregs co-express latent TGF-beta and GARP on their membranes. The knockdown of GARP mRNA with siRNA prevented surface latent TGF-beta expression on activated Tregs and recombinant latent TGF-beta1 is able to bind directly with GARP. Confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation strongly support their interactions. The role of TGF-beta on Tregs appears to have dual functions, both for Treg-mediated suppression and infectious tolerance mechanism.

  12. Product models for the Construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    1996-01-01

    Different types of product models for the building sector was elaborated and grouped. Some discussion on the different models was given. The "definition" of Product models was given.......Different types of product models for the building sector was elaborated and grouped. Some discussion on the different models was given. The "definition" of Product models was given....

  13. A model for optimizing the production of pharmaceutical products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevena Gospodinova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem associated with the optimal production planning is especially relevant in modern industrial enterprises. The most commonly used optimality criteria in this context are: maximizing the total profit; minimizing the cost per unit of production; maximizing the capacity utilization; minimizing the total production costs. This article aims to explore the possibility for optimizing the production of pharmaceutical products through the construction of a mathematical model that can be viewed in two ways – as a single-product model and a multi-product model. As an optimality criterion it is set the minimization of the cost per unit of production for a given planning period. The author proposes an analytical method for solving the nonlinear optimization problem. An optimal production plan of Tylosin tartrate is found using the single-product model.

  14. Product Family Modelling for Manufacturing Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    To enable product configuration of a product family, it is important to develop a model of the selected product family. From such a model, an often performed practice is to make a product configurator from which customers can specify individual products from the family. To get further utilisation...

  15. Production economic models of fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Levring

    The overall purpose of this PhD thesis is to investigate different aspects of fishermen’s behaviour using production economic models at the individual and industry levels. Three parts make up this thesis. The first part provides an overview of the thesis. The second part consists of four papers......, including all relevant factors in specific analyses is impossible, and it is therefore important to be aware of the most essential ones. As demonstrated in the literature review of Paper 1, a large number of factors may significantly influence fishermen’s short run behaviour, i.e. choice of gear type...

  16. Structural Basis for the Interaction of the Golgi-Associated Retrograde Protein (GARP) Complex with the t-SNARE Syntaxin 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abascal-Palacios, Guillermo; Schindler, Christina; Rojas, Adriana L; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Hierro, Aitor

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Golgi-Associated Retrograde Protein (GARP) is a tethering complex involved in the fusion of endosome-derived transport vesicles to the trans-Golgi network through interaction with components of the Syntaxin 6/Syntaxin 16/Vti1a/VAMP4 SNARE complex. The mechanisms by which GARP and other tethering factors engage the SNARE fusion machinery are poorly understood. Herein we report the structural basis for the interaction of the human Ang2 subunit of GARP with Syntaxin 6 and the closely related Syntaxin 10. The crystal structure of Syntaxin 6 Habc domain in complex with a peptide from the N terminus of Ang2 shows a novel binding mode in which a di-tyrosine motif of Ang2 interacts with a highly conserved groove in Syntaxin 6. Structure-based mutational analyses validate the crystal structure and support the phylogenetic conservation of this interaction. The same binding determinants are found in other tethering proteins and syntaxins, suggesting a general interaction mechanism. PMID:23932592

  17. A Production Model for Deteriorating Inventory Items with Production Disruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Yong He; Ju He

    2010-01-01

    Disruption management has recently become an active area of research. In this study, an extension is made to consider the fact that some products may deteriorate during storage. A production-inventory model for deteriorating items with production disruptions is developed. Then the optimal production and inventory plans are provided, so that the manufacturer can reduce the loss caused by disruptions. Finally, a numerical example is used to illustrate the model.

  18. Extending product modeling methods for integrated product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonev, Martin; Wörösch, Michael; Hauksdóttir, Dagný

    2013-01-01

    Despite great efforts within the modeling domain, the majority of methods often address the uncommon design situation of an original product development. However, studies illustrate that development tasks are predominantly related to redesigning, improving, and extending already existing products...... and PVM methods, in a presented Product Requirement Development model some of the individual drawbacks of each method could be overcome. Based on the UML standard, the model enables the representation of complex hierarchical relationships in a generic product model. At the same time it uses matrix....... Updated design requirements have then to be made explicit and mapped against the existing product architecture. In this paper, existing methods are adapted and extended through linking updated requirements to suitable product models. By combining several established modeling techniques, such as the DSM...

  19. Modelling of virtual production networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many companies, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, specialize in a limited field of production. It requires forming virtual production networks of cooperating enterprises to manufacture better, faster and cheaper. Apart from that, some production orders cannot be realized, because there is not a company of sufficient production potential. In this case the virtual production networks of cooperating companies can realize these production orders. These networks have larger production capacity and many different resources. Therefore it can realize many more production orders together than each of them separately. Such organization allows for executing high quality product. The maintenance costs of production capacity and used resources are not so high. In this paper a methodology of rapid prototyping of virtual production networks is proposed. It allows to execute production orders on time considered existing logistic constraints.

  20. A procedure for Building Product Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars

    1999-01-01

    , easily adaptable concepts and methods from data modeling (object oriented analysis) and domain modeling (product modeling). The concepts are general and can be used for modeling all types of specifications in the different phases in the product life cycle. The modeling techniques presented have been......The application of product modeling in manufacturing companies raises the important question of how to model product knowledge in a comprehensible and efficient way. An important challenge is to qualify engineers to model and specify IT-systems (product models) to support their specification...... activities. A basic assumption is that engineers have to take the responsability for building product models to be used in their domain. To do that they must be able to carry out the modeling task on their own without any need for support from computer science experts. This paper presents a set of simple...

  1. A Causal Model of Faculty Research Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, John P.

    A causal model of faculty research productivity was developed through a survey of the literature. Models of organizational behavior, organizational effectiveness, and motivation were synthesized into a causal model of productivity. Two general types of variables were assumed to affect individual research productivity: institutional variables and…

  2. Alignment of Product Models and Product State Models - Integration of the Product Lifecycle Phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm; Kirkby, Lars Phillip; Vesterager, Johan

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the integration of the Product Model (PM) and the Product State Model (PCM). Focus is on information exchange from the PSM to the PM within the manufacturing of a single ship. The paper distinguishes between information and knowledge integration. The paper ...... provides some overall strategies for integrating PM and PSM. The context of this discussion is a development project at Odense Steel Shipyard....

  3. A procedure for building product models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Riis, Jesper; Malis, Martin

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a procedure for building product models to support the specification processes dealing with sales, design of product variants and production preparation. The procedure includes, as the first phase, an analysis and redesign of the business processes, which are to be supported...... with product models. The next phase includes an analysis of the product assortment, and the set up of a so-called product master. Finally the product model is designed and implemented using object oriented modelling. The procedure is developed in order to ensure that the product models constructed are fit...... for the business processes they support, and properly structured and documented, in order to facilitate that the systems can be maintained continually and further developed. The research has been carried out at the Centre for Industrialisation of Engineering, Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Technical...

  4. On production costs in vertical differentiation models

    OpenAIRE

    Dorothée Brécard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the effects of the introduction of a unit production cost beside a fixed cost of quality improvement in a duopoly model of vertical product differentiation. Thanks to an original methodology, we show that a low unit cost tends to reduce product differentiation and thus prices, whereas a high unit cost leads to widen product differentiation and to increase prices

  5. An Optimization Model for Product Placement on Product Listing Pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Kwang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of product listing pages is a key component of Website design because it has significant influence on the sales volume on a Website. This study focuses on product placement in designing product listing pages. Product placement concerns how venders of online stores place their products over the product listing pages for maximization of profit. This problem is very similar to the offline shelf management problem. Since product information sources on a Web page are typically communicated through the text and image, visual stimuli such as color, shape, size, and spatial arrangement often have an effect on the visual attention of online shoppers and, in turn, influence their eventual purchase decisions. In view of the above, this study synthesizes the visual attention literature and theory of shelf-space allocation to develop a mathematical programming model with genetic algorithms for finding optimal solutions to the focused issue. The validity of the model is illustrated with example problems.

  6. Proactive Modeling of Market, Product and Production Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Hvam, Lars

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an operational model that allows description of market, products and production architectures. The main feature of this model is the ability to describe both structural and functional aspect of architectures. The structural aspect is an answer to the question: What constitutes...... the architecture, e.g. standard designs, design units and interfaces? The functional aspect is an answer to the question: What is the behaviour or the architecture, what is it able to do, i.e. which products at which performance levels can be derived from the architecture? Among the most important benefits...... of this model is the explicit ability to describe what the architecture is prepared for, and what it is not prepared for - concerning development of future derivative products. The model has been applied in a large scale global product development project. Among the most important benefits is contribution to...

  7. MASS CUSTOMIZATION and PRODUCT MODELS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten; Malis, Martin

    2003-01-01

    to the product. Through the application of a mass customization strategy, companies have a unique opportunity to create increased customer satisfaction. In a customized production, knowledge and information have to be easily accessible since every product is a unique combination of information. If the dream...... of a customized alternative instead of a uniform mass-produced product shall become a reality, then the cross-organizational efficiency must be kept at a competitive level. This is the real challenge for mass customization. A radical restructuring of both the internal and the external knowledge management systems...

  8. Modeling dependencies in product families with COVAMOF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinnema, Marco; Deelstra, Sybren; Nijhuis, Jos; Bosch, Jan; Riebisch, M; Tabeling, P; Zorn, W

    2006-01-01

    Many variability modeling approaches consider only formalized dependencies, i.e. in- or exclude relations between variants. However, in real industrial product families, dependencies are often much more complicated. In this paper, we discuss the product derivation problems associated with

  9. BOREAS TE-17 Production Efficiency Model Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A BOREAS version of the Global Production Efficiency Model(www.inform.umd.edu/glopem) was developed by TE-17 to generate maps of gross and net primary production,...

  10. Modelling Product Families for Product Configuration Systems with Product Variant Master

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an evaluation of applying a suggested method for modelling product families for product configuration based on theory for modelling mechanical products,systems theory and object-oriented modelling. The modelling technique includes a so-called product variant master and CRC-cards...... the three views. Modelling of characteristics of the product variants in a product family Modelling of constraints between parts in the product family Visualisation of the entire product family on a poster e.g. 1x2 meters The product variant master and CRC-cards are means to bridge the gap between domain...... experts and IT-developers, thus making it possible for the domain experts (e.g. engineers from product development) to express their knowledge in a form that is understandable both for the domain experts and the IT-developers. The product variant master and CRC-cards have currently been tested and further...

  11. CRC-cards for Product Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Riis, Jesper; Hansen, Benjamin Loer

    2003-01-01

    , transportation, service and decommissioning. A main challenge when building product models is to collect and document the product related data, information and knowledge in a structured way. CRC cards are index cards (or computerized versions of these) which are used to record proposed classes, the behavior......This paper describes the CRC (class, responsibility, collaboration) modelling process for building product models. A product model is normally represented in an IT system which contains data, information and knowledge on industrial products and their life cycle properties e.g. manufacturing...... of the classes, their responsibilities, and their relationship to other classes (collaboration). CRC modelling gives an effective, low-tech method for domain-experts, programmers and users to work closely together to identify, structure, understand and document a product model. CRC cards were originally...

  12. Description, Modelling and Design of Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter; Rudolph, Carsten

    1997-01-01

    Design of production systems are rarely an activity in which decision makers in most production companies have much experience. In future, this activity is to be more recurrent due to more and more frequent changes in the production task. Consequently, the decision makers are in need of better...... management tools and methods for description and modelling of production systems supporting the decisions. In this article a structural framework to describe and model production systems will be introduced, and it is shown how the production system of a minor Danish manufacturer of electromechanical...

  13. Graphical means for inspecting qualitative models of system behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwer, A.; Bredeweg, B.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the design and evaluation of a tool for inspecting conceptual models of system behaviour. The basis for this research is the Garp framework for qualitative simulation. This framework includes modelling primitives, such as entities, quantities and causal dependencies, which are

  14. A grand model for chemical product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fung, Ka Y.; Ng, Ka M.; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    , a pricing model, an economic model as well as factors such as company strategy, government policies and regulations. This article introduces the model and highlights selected aspects of the model with two case studies. One is a die attach adhesive that illustrates how pricing affects profitability, and how...... product composition changes with market conditions. Another is a hand lotion that illustrates how product quality affects the profit.(C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. GARP (LRRC32) is essential for the surface expression of latent TGF-β on platelets and activated FOXP3+ regulatory T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Dat Q.; Andersson, John; Wang, Rui; Ramsey, Heather; Unutmaz, Derya; Shevach, Ethan M.

    2009-01-01

    TGF-β family members are highly pleiotropic cytokines with diverse regulatory functions. TGF-β is normally found in the latent form associated with latency-associated peptide (LAP). This latent complex can associate with latent TGFβ-binding protein (LTBP) to produce a large latent form. Latent TGF-β is also found on the surface of activated FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), but it is unclear how it is anchored to the cell membrane. We show that GARP or LRRC32, a leucine-rich repeat molecule ...

  16. Promoting Sexual Tolerance : A study of Sexual Dissidence in John Irving’s The World According to Garp, The Hotel New Hampshire, and In One Person

    OpenAIRE

    Remåker, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this essay is to show that John Irving uses differentiating sexuality in his novels as a means of promoting sexual tolerance. This is done by using Jonathan Dollimore’s theoretical framework called sexual dissidence, which stems from a deconstruction of the Freudian usage of  perversion, and applying this framework to The World According to Garp (1978), The Hotel New Hampshire (1981) and In One Person (2012). The results show that, in these novels, Irving uses sexual d...

  17. Classification hierarchies for product data modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pels, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstraction is an essential element in data modelling that appears mainly in one of the following forms: generalisation, classification or aggregation. In the design of complex products classification hierarchies can be found product families that are viewed as classes of product types, while

  18. Marketing Modeling for New Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hernández-Mireles (Carlos)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis addresses the analysis of new or very recent marketing data and the introduction of new marketing models. We present a collection of models that are useful to analyze (1) the optimal launch time of new and dominant technologies, (2) the triggers, speed and timing of new

  19. A physiological production model for cacao : results of model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, P.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    CASE2 is a physiological model for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growth and yield. This report introduces the CAcao Simulation Engine for water-limited production in a non-technical way and presents simulation results obtained with the model.

  20. Modelling Configuration Knowledge in Heterogeneous Product Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queva, Matthieu Stéphane Benoit; Männistö, Tomi; Ricci, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Product configuration systems play an important role in the development of Mass Customisation. The configuration of complex product families may nowadays involve multiple design disciplines, e.g. hardware, software and services. In this paper, we present a conceptual approach for modelling...... the variability in such heterogeneous product families. Our approach is based on a framework that aims to cater for the different stakeholders involved in the modelling and management of the product family. The modelling approach is centred around the concepts of views, types and constraints and is illustrated...... by a motivation example. Furthermore, as a proof of concept, a prototype has been implemented for configuring a non-trivial heterogeneous product family....

  1. Hybrid simulation models of production networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kouikoglou, Vassilis S

    2001-01-01

    This book is concerned with a most important area of industrial production, that of analysis and optimization of production lines and networks using discrete-event models and simulation. The book introduces a novel approach that combines analytic models and discrete-event simulation. Unlike conventional piece-by-piece simulation, this method observes a reduced number of events between which the evolution of the system is tracked analytically. Using this hybrid approach, several models are developed for the analysis of production lines and networks. The hybrid approach combines speed and accuracy for exceptional analysis of most practical situations. A number of optimization problems, involving buffer design, workforce planning, and production control, are solved through the use of hybrid models.

  2. REVIEW OF AQUACULTURAL PRODUCTION SYSTEM MODELS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    models of aquacultural production systems with the aim of adopting a suitable one for ... of predicting the environmental condition, so as to determine point of diminishing returns and optimize yield in an ..... sale of fish are also tracked.

  3. Framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge which supports product modelling for mass customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Jesper; Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2003-01-01

    on experience from product modelling projects in several companies. Among them for example companies manufacturing electronic switchboards, spray dryer systems and air conditioning equipment. The framework is divided into three views: the product knowledge view, the life phase system view and the transformation...... and personalization. The framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge is based on the following theories: axiomatic design, technical systems, theory of domains, theory of structuring, theory of properties and the framework for the content of product and product related models. The framework is built......The article presents a framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge which can be used to support the product modelling process which is needed for developing IT systems. These IT systems are important tools for many companies when they aim at achieving mass customization...

  4. Statistical Model Checking for Product Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ter Beek, Maurice H.; Legay, Axel; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    average cost of products (in terms of the attributes of the products’ features) and the probability of features to be (un)installed at runtime. The product lines must be modelled in QFLan, which extends the probabilistic feature-oriented language PFLan with novel quantitative constraints among features...

  5. A model for persistency of egg production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.; Gossman, T.N.; Koops, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to propose a new definition for persistency of egg production and to develop a mathematical model to describe the egg production curve, one that includes a new measure for persistency, based on the proposed definition, for use as a selection criterion to improve

  6. A qualitative model of the salmon life cycle in the context of river rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noble, R.A.A.; Bredeweg, B.; Linnebank, F.; Salles, P.; Cowx, I.G.; Žabkar, J.; Bratko, I.

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative model was developed in Garp3 to capture and formalise knowledge about river rehabilitation and the management of an Atlantic salmon population. The model integrates information about the ecology of the salmon life cycle, the environmental factors that may limit the survival of key life

  7. Modeling oil production based on symbolic regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Guangfei; Li, Xianneng; Wang, Jianliang; Lian, Lian; Ma, Tieju

    2015-01-01

    Numerous models have been proposed to forecast the future trends of oil production and almost all of them are based on some predefined assumptions with various uncertainties. In this study, we propose a novel data-driven approach that uses symbolic regression to model oil production. We validate our approach on both synthetic and real data, and the results prove that symbolic regression could effectively identify the true models beneath the oil production data and also make reliable predictions. Symbolic regression indicates that world oil production will peak in 2021, which broadly agrees with other techniques used by researchers. Our results also show that the rate of decline after the peak is almost half the rate of increase before the peak, and it takes nearly 12 years to drop 4% from the peak. These predictions are more optimistic than those in several other reports, and the smoother decline will provide the world, especially the developing countries, with more time to orchestrate mitigation plans. -- Highlights: •A data-driven approach has been shown to be effective at modeling the oil production. •The Hubbert model could be discovered automatically from data. •The peak of world oil production is predicted to appear in 2021. •The decline rate after peak is half of the increase rate before peak. •Oil production projected to decline 4% post-peak

  8. Modeling Fission Product Sorption in Graphite Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane; Allen, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project is to determine changes in adsorption and desorption of fission products to/from nuclear-grade graphite in response to a changing chemical environment. First, the project team will employ principle calculations and thermodynamic analysis to predict stability of fission products on graphite in the presence of structural defects commonly observed in very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) graphites. Desorption rates will be determined as a function of partial pressure of oxygen and iodine, relative humidity, and temperature. They will then carry out experimental characterization to determine the statistical distribution of structural features. This structural information will yield distributions of binding sites to be used as an input for a sorption model. Sorption isotherms calculated under this project will contribute to understanding of the physical bases of the source terms that are used in higher-level codes that model fission product transport and retention in graphite. The project will include the following tasks: Perform structural characterization of the VHTR graphite to determine crystallographic phases, defect structures and their distribution, volume fraction of coke, and amount of sp2 versus sp3 bonding. This information will be used as guidance for ab initio modeling and as input for sorptivity models; Perform ab initio calculations of binding energies to determine stability of fission products on the different sorption sites present in nuclear graphite microstructures. The project will use density functional theory (DFT) methods to calculate binding energies in vacuum and in oxidizing environments. The team will also calculate stability of iodine complexes with fission products on graphite sorption sites; Model graphite sorption isotherms to quantify concentration of fission products in graphite. The binding energies will be combined with a Langmuir isotherm statistical model to predict the sorbed concentration of fission products

  9. A mathematical model to forecast uranium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camisani-Calzolari, F.A.G.M.

    1987-01-01

    The uranium production forecasting program described in this paper projects production from reasonably assured, estimated additional and speculative resources in the cost categories of less than $130/kg U. Originally designed to handle South African production, it has been expanded and redimensioned using available published information to forecast production for countries of the Western World. The program forecasts production from up to 400 plants over a period of fifty years and has built-in production models derived from documented historical data of the more important uranium provinces. It is particularly suitable to assess production capabilities on a national and global scale where variations in outputs for the individual plants tend to even out. The program is aimed at putting the uranium potential of any one country into a realistic perspective, and it could thus be useful for planning purposes and marketing strategies

  10. A deterministic aggregate production planning model considering quality of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madadi, Najmeh; Wong, Kuan Yew

    2013-01-01

    Aggregate Production Planning (APP) is a medium-term planning which is concerned with the lowest-cost method of production planning to meet customers' requirements and to satisfy fluctuating demand over a planning time horizon. APP problem has been studied widely since it was introduced and formulated in 1950s. However, in several conducted studies in the APP area, most of the researchers have concentrated on some common objectives such as minimization of cost, fluctuation in the number of workers, and inventory level. Specifically, maintaining quality at the desirable level as an objective while minimizing cost has not been considered in previous studies. In this study, an attempt has been made to develop a multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model that serves those companies aiming to incur the minimum level of operational cost while maintaining quality at an acceptable level. In order to obtain the solution to the multi-objective model, the Fuzzy Goal Programming approach and max-min operator of Bellman-Zadeh were applied to the model. At the final step, IBM ILOG CPLEX Optimization Studio software was used to obtain the experimental results based on the data collected from an automotive parts manufacturing company. The results show that incorporating quality in the model imposes some costs, however a trade-off should be done between the cost resulting from producing products with higher quality and the cost that the firm may incur due to customer dissatisfaction and sale losses.

  11. Revised Reynolds Stress and Triple Product Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Michael E.; Lillard, Randolph P.

    2017-01-01

    Revised versions of Lag methodology Reynolds-stress and triple product models are applied to accepted test cases to assess the improvement, or lack thereof, in the prediction capability of the models. The Bachalo-Johnson bump flow is shown as an example for this abstract submission.

  12. A qualitative model of limiting factors for a salmon life cycle in the context of river rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noble, R.A.A.; Bredeweg, B.; Linnebank, F.; Salles, P.; Cowx, I.G.

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative Reasoning modelling has been promoted as a tool for formalising, integrating and exploring conceptual knowledge in ecological systems, such as river rehabilitation, which draw different information from multiple domains. A qualitative model was developed in Garp3 to capture and formalise

  13. Lysosomal-associated Transmembrane Protein 4B (LAPTM4B) Decreases Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGF-β1) Production in Human Regulatory T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygens, Caroline; Liénart, Stéphanie; Dedobbeleer, Olivier; Stockis, Julie; Gauthy, Emilie; Coulie, Pierre G; Lucas, Sophie

    2015-08-14

    Production of active TGF-β1 is one mechanism by which human regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress immune responses. This production is regulated by glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP), a transmembrane protein present on stimulated Tregs but not on other T lymphocytes (Th and CTLs). GARP forms disulfide bonds with proTGF-β1, favors its cleavage into latent inactive TGF-β1, induces the secretion and surface presentation of GARP·latent TGF-β1 complexes, and is required for activation of the cytokine in Tregs. We explored whether additional Treg-specific protein(s) associated with GARP·TGF-β1 complexes regulate TGF-β1 production in Tregs. We searched for such proteins by yeast two-hybrid assay, using GARP as a bait to screen a human Treg cDNA library. We identified lysosomal-associated transmembrane protein 4B (LAPTM4B), which interacts with GARP in mammalian cells and is expressed at higher levels in Tregs than in Th cells. LAPTM4B decreases cleavage of proTGF-β1, secretion of soluble latent TGF-β1, and surface presentation of GARP·TGF-β1 complexes by Tregs but does not contribute to TGF-β1 activation. Therefore, LAPTM4B binds to GARP and is a negative regulator of TGF-β1 production in human Tregs. It may play a role in the control of immune responses by decreasing Treg immunosuppression. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Organic production in a dynamic CGE model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo

    2004-01-01

    for conventional production into land for organic production, a period of two years must pass before the land being transformed can be used for organic production. During that time, the land is counted as land of the organic industry, but it can only produce the conventional product. To handle this rule, we make......Concerns about the impact of modern agriculture on the environment have in recent years led to an interest in supporting the development of organic farming. In addition to environmental benefits, the aim is to encourage the provision of other “multifunctional” properties of organic farming...... such as rural amenities and rural development that are spillover benefit additional to the supply of food. In this paper we further develop an existing dynamic general equilibrium model of the Danish economy to specifically incorporate organic farming. In the model and input-output data each primary...

  15. Review of existing landfill leachate production models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    The protection of water resources is a fundamental consideration in managing landfill operations. Landfill sites should be designed and operated so as to control leachate production and hence minimize the risk of surface and ground water pollution. A further important development is the use of computer models to estimate the production of leachate from landfill sites. It is revealed from the literature that a number of landfill leachate management model lave been development in recent years. These models allow different engineering schemes to be evaluated and are essential tools for design and operation managements of modern landfills. This paper describes a review of such models mainly focused on their theory, practicability, data requirements, suitability to real situation and usefulness. An evaluation of these models identifies. (author)

  16. Product with service, technology with business model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakao, Tomohiko; McAloone, Tim C.

    2011-01-01

    Looking back over the last decade, the importance of an expanded understanding of engineering design has been shared within the engineering design community. Presented concepts and methods to support such expansion include Functional Product Development, Service Engineering, and Product/Service-S...... promising concept beyond PSS design; via an integrated development of technology and business model. This can be of particular interest for further research, especially due to its high freedom for designers....

  17. STEP - Product Model Data Sharing and Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroszynski, Uri

    1998-01-01

    During the last fifteen years, a very large effort to standardize the product models employed in product design, manufacturing and other life-cycle phases has been undertaken. This effort has the acronym STEP, and resulted in the International Standard ISO-10303 "Industrial Automation Systems...... - Product Data Representation and Exchange", featuring at present some 30 released parts, and growing continuously. Many of the parts are Application Protocols (AP). This article presents an overview of STEP, based upon years of involvement in three ESPRIT projects, which contributed to the development...

  18. A neurocomputational model of automatic sequence production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helie, Sebastien; Roeder, Jessica L; Vucovich, Lauren; Rünger, Dennis; Ashby, F Gregory

    2015-07-01

    Most behaviors unfold in time and include a sequence of submovements or cognitive activities. In addition, most behaviors are automatic and repeated daily throughout life. Yet, relatively little is known about the neurobiology of automatic sequence production. Past research suggests a gradual transfer from the associative striatum to the sensorimotor striatum, but a number of more recent studies challenge this role of the BG in automatic sequence production. In this article, we propose a new neurocomputational model of automatic sequence production in which the main role of the BG is to train cortical-cortical connections within the premotor areas that are responsible for automatic sequence production. The new model is used to simulate four different data sets from human and nonhuman animals, including (1) behavioral data (e.g., RTs), (2) electrophysiology data (e.g., single-neuron recordings), (3) macrostructure data (e.g., TMS), and (4) neurological circuit data (e.g., inactivation studies). We conclude with a comparison of the new model with existing models of automatic sequence production and discuss a possible new role for the BG in automaticity and its implication for Parkinson's disease.

  19. An integrated production, inventory and preventive maintenance model for a multi-product production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xuejuan; Wang, Wenbin; Peng, Rui

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a production system that can produce multiple products alternately. Products go through the system in a sequence and a complete run of all products forms a production cycle. An integrated production, inventory and preventive maintenance model is constructed, which is characterized by the delay-time concept. Two different situations are studied based on whether the unqualified products and downtime caused by the failures of the system, set-up and preventive maintenance can be ignored or not. Three cases are considered for each situation, depending on the position of the preventive maintenance epochs: the first case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at the end of each production cycle; the second case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at each set-up time of the products; and the third case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at some set-up times only, since it may not always be optimal to carry out preventive maintenance at the end of the production cycle or at each set-up time. The modeling objectives are to find the optimal number of production cycles per year and the optimal position of preventive maintenance that will maximize the expected profit per unit time. Numerical examples, using real data, are presented to illustrate the model. - Highlights: • We propose an integrated economic production quantity and preventive maintenance model. • The situation that multiple products are produced on the same system alternately is studied. • Two situations are studied based on whether the downtime and the product quality can be ignored or not. • We use enumeration method and analytical method to select the optimal preventive maintenance policy, respectively. • We use the delay-time concept to model the preventive maintenance policy

  20. Model for fission-product calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.

    1984-01-01

    Many fission-product cross sections remain unmeasurable thus considerable reliance must be placed upon calculational interpolation and extrapolation from the few available measured cross sections. The vehicle, particularly for the lighter fission products, is the conventional optical-statistical model. The applied goals generally are: capture cross sections to 7 to 10% accuracies and inelastic-scattering cross sections to 25 to 50%. Comparisons of recent evaluations and experimental results indicate that these goals too often are far from being met, particularly in the area of inelastic scattering, and some of the evaluated fission-product cross sections are simply physically unreasonable. It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the models employed in many of the evaluations are inappropriate and/or inappropriately used. In order to alleviate the above unfortunate situations, a regional optical-statistical (OM) model was sought with the goal of quantitative prediction of the cross sections of the lighter-mass (Z = 30-51) fission products. The first step toward that goal was the establishment of a reliable experimental data base consisting of energy-averaged neutron total and differential-scattering cross sections. The second step was the deduction of a regional model from the experimental data. It was assumed that a spherical OM is appropriate: a reasonable and practical assumption. The resulting OM then was verified against the measured data base. Finally, the physical character of the regional model is examined

  1. Automatic support for product based workflow design : generation of process models from a product data model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderfeesten, I.T.P.; Reijers, H.A.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Vogelaar, J.J.C.L.; Meersman, R.; Dillon, T.; Herrero, P.

    2010-01-01

    Product Based Workflow Design (PBWD) is one of the few scientific methodologies for the (re)design of workflow processes. It is based on an analysis of the product that is produced in the workflow process and derives a process model from the product structure. Until now this derivation has been a

  2. Design, product structuring and modelling of mechatronic products and systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Sørensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    Information Technology offers software and hardware for improvement of the engineering design, structuring and control systems, and industrial applications. The latest progress in IT makes integration of an overall design and manufacturing IT- concept feasible and commercially attractive. An IT......-tool concept for modelling, simulation and design of mechatronic products and systems is proposed in this paper. It built on results from a Danish mechatronic research program on intelligent motion control as well as from the Esprit project SWING on IT-tools for rapid prototyping of fluid power components...

  3. Product modelling: '20 years of stalemate'?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1998-01-01

    In a recent special issue of Design Studies Michael Ramscar, John Lee, and Helen Pain level a severe criticism against a field of research known as product modeling; a criticism that would be rather damaging if it were based on cogent arguments. I shall argue in this paper that it is not....

  4. Product modelling in the seafood industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Stella; Vesterager, Johan

    1997-01-01

    driven and proactive to comply with the increasing competition, in such a way that the fish processor issues new products covering both the current and especially latent future consumer demands. This implies a need for new systematic approaches in the NPD as procedures and tools, which integrate...... based integration obtained by the CE approach and tools. It is described how the knowledge and information of a seafood product can be modelled by using object oriented techniques.......The paper addresses the aspects of Concurrent Engineering (CE) as a means to obtain integrated product development in the seafood industry. It is assumed that the future New Product Development (NPD) in seafood industry companies will shift from being retailer driven and reactive to be more company...

  5. Pebble Bed Reactor Dust Production Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Joshua J. Cogliati

    2008-09-01

    The operation of pebble bed reactors, including fuel circulation, can generate graphite dust, which in turn could be a concern for internal components; and to the near field in the remote event of a break in the coolant circuits. The design of the reactor system must, therefore, take the dust into account and the operation must include contingencies for dust removal and for mitigation of potential releases. Such planning requires a proper assessment of the dust inventory. This paper presents a predictive model of dust generation in an operating pebble bed with recirculating fuel. In this preliminary work the production model is based on the use of the assumption of proportionality between the dust production and the normal force and distance traveled. The model developed in this work uses the slip distances and the inter-pebble forces computed by the authors’ PEBBLES. The code, based on the discrete element method, simulates the relevant static and kinetic friction interactions between the pebbles as well as the recirculation of the pebbles through the reactor vessel. The interaction between pebbles and walls of the reactor vat is treated using the same approach. The amount of dust produced is proportional to the wear coefficient for adhesive wear (taken from literature) and to the slip volume, the product of the contact area and the slip distance. The paper will compare the predicted volume with the measured production rates. The simulation tallies the dust production based on the location of creation. Two peak production zones from intra pebble forces are predicted within the bed. The first zone is located near the pebble inlet chute due to the speed of the dropping pebbles. The second peak zone occurs lower in the reactor with increased pebble contact force due to the weight of supported pebbles. This paper presents the first use of a Discrete Element Method simulation of pebble bed dust production.

  6. Pebble Bed Reactor Dust Production Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Joshua J. Cogliati

    2008-01-01

    The operation of pebble bed reactors, including fuel circulation, can generate graphite dust, which in turn could be a concern for internal components; and to the near field in the remote event of a break in the coolant circuits. The design of the reactor system must, therefore, take the dust into account and the operation must include contingencies for dust removal and for mitigation of potential releases. Such planning requires a proper assessment of the dust inventory. This paper presents a predictive model of dust generation in an operating pebble bed with recirculating fuel. In this preliminary work the production model is based on the use of the assumption of proportionality between the dust production and the normal force and distance traveled. The model developed in this work uses the slip distances and the inter-pebble forces computed by the authors PEBBLES. The code, based on the discrete element method, simulates the relevant static and kinetic friction interactions between the pebbles as well as the recirculation of the pebbles through the reactor vessel. The interaction between pebbles and walls of the reactor vat is treated using the same approach. The amount of dust produced is proportional to the wear coefficient for adhesive wear (taken from literature) and to the slip volume, the product of the contact area and the slip distance. The paper will compare the predicted volume with the measured production rates. The simulation tallies the dust production based on the location of creation. Two peak production zones from intra pebble forces are predicted within the bed. The first zone is located near the pebble inlet chute due to the speed of the dropping pebbles. The second peak zone occurs lower in the reactor with increased pebble contact force due to the weight of supported pebbles. This paper presents the first use of a Discrete Element Method simulation of pebble bed dust production

  7. Alternative methods of modeling wind generation using production costing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, M.R.; Pang, C.K.

    1996-08-01

    This paper examines the methods of incorporating wind generation in two production costing models: one is a load duration curve (LDC) based model and the other is a chronological-based model. These two models were used to evaluate the impacts of wind generation on two utility systems using actual collected wind data at two locations with high potential for wind generation. The results are sensitive to the selected wind data and the level of benefits of wind generation is sensitive to the load forecast. The total production cost over a year obtained by the chronological approach does not differ significantly from that of the LDC approach, though the chronological commitment of units is more realistic and more accurate. Chronological models provide the capability of answering important questions about wind resources which are difficult or impossible to address with LDC models

  8. Coordinated supply chain dynamic production planning model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Charu; Grabis, Janis

    2001-10-01

    Coordination of different and often contradicting interests of individual supply chain members is one of the important issues in supply chain management because the individual members can not succeed without success of the supply chain and vice versa. This paper investigates a supply chain dynamic production planning problem with emphasis on coordination. A planning problem is formally described using a supply chain kernel, which defines supply chain configuration, management policies, available resources and objectives both at supply chain or macro and supply chain member or micro levels. The coordinated model is solved in order to balance decisions made at the macro and micro levels and members' profitability is used as the coordination criterion. The coordinated model is used to determine inventory levels and production capacity across the supply chain. Application of the coordinated model distributes costs burden uniformly among supply chain members and preserves overall efficiency of the supply chain. Influence of the demand series uncertainty is investigated. The production planning model is a part of the integrated supply chain decision modeling system, which is shared among the supply chain members across the Internet.

  9. Reference model for apparel product development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Moretti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to develop a reference model for the implementation of the process of product development (PDP for apparel. The tool was developed through an interactive process of comparison between theoretical. Managers in companies and professionals working in this market can utilize the reference model as a source for the organization and improvement of the PDP for apparel and the universities as a reference source for systematized teaching of this process. This model represents the first comprehensive attempt to develop an instrument at a detailed level (macro phases, phases, activities, inputs and outputs at each stage and at the gates to systematize the PDP process for fashion products and to consider its particularities.

  10. Matrix factorizations, minimal models and Massey products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, Johanna; Omer, Harun

    2006-01-01

    We present a method to compute the full non-linear deformations of matrix factorizations for ADE minimal models. This method is based on the calculation of higher products in the cohomology, called Massey products. The algorithm yields a polynomial ring whose vanishing relations encode the obstructions of the deformations of the D-branes characterized by these matrix factorizations. This coincides with the critical locus of the effective superpotential which can be computed by integrating these relations. Our results for the effective superpotential are in agreement with those obtained from solving the A-infinity relations. We point out a relation to the superpotentials of Kazama-Suzuki models. We will illustrate our findings by various examples, putting emphasis on the E 6 minimal model

  11. Measuring productivity differences in equilibrium search models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanot, Gauthier; Neumann, George R.

    1996-01-01

    Equilibrium search models require unobserved heterogeneity in productivity to fit observed wage distribution data, but provide no guidance about the location parameter of the heterogeneity. In this paper we show that the location of the productivity heterogeneity implies a mode in a kernel density...... estimate of the wage distribution. The number of such modes and their location are identified using bump hunting techniques due to Silverman (1981). These techniques are applied to Danish panel data on workers and firms. These estimates are used to assess the importance of employer wage policy....

  12. Testing Software Development Project Productivity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkin, Ilya

    Software development is an increasingly influential factor in today's business environment, and a major issue affecting software development is how an organization estimates projects. If the organization underestimates cost, schedule, and quality requirements, the end results will not meet customer needs. On the other hand, if the organization overestimates these criteria, resources that could have been used more profitably will be wasted. There is no accurate model or measure available that can guide an organization in a quest for software development, with existing estimation models often underestimating software development efforts as much as 500 to 600 percent. To address this issue, existing models usually are calibrated using local data with a small sample size, with resulting estimates not offering improved cost analysis. This study presents a conceptual model for accurately estimating software development, based on an extensive literature review and theoretical analysis based on Sociotechnical Systems (STS) theory. The conceptual model serves as a solution to bridge organizational and technological factors and is validated using an empirical dataset provided by the DoD. Practical implications of this study allow for practitioners to concentrate on specific constructs of interest that provide the best value for the least amount of time. This study outlines key contributing constructs that are unique for Software Size E-SLOC, Man-hours Spent, and Quality of the Product, those constructs having the largest contribution to project productivity. This study discusses customer characteristics and provides a framework for a simplified project analysis for source selection evaluation and audit task reviews for the customers and suppliers. Theoretical contributions of this study provide an initial theory-based hypothesized project productivity model that can be used as a generic overall model across several application domains such as IT, Command and Control

  13. Streamlining environmental product declarations: a stage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Elisabeth; Lefebvre, Louis A.; Talbot, Stephane; Le Hen, Gael

    2001-02-01

    General public environmental awareness and education is increasing, therefore stimulating the demand for reliable, objective and comparable information about products' environmental performances. The recently published standard series ISO 14040 and ISO 14025 are normalizing the preparation of Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) containing comprehensive information relevant to a product's environmental impact during its life cycle. So far, only a few environmentally leading manufacturing organizations have experimented the preparation of EPDs (mostly from Europe), demonstrating its great potential as a marketing weapon. However the preparation of EPDs is a complex process, requiring collection and analysis of massive amounts of information coming from disparate sources (suppliers, sub-contractors, etc.). In a foreseeable future, the streamlining of the EPD preparation process will require product manufacturers to adapt their information systems (ERP, MES, SCADA) in order to make them capable of gathering, and transmitting the appropriate environmental information. It also requires strong functional integration all along the product supply chain in order to ensure that all the information is made available in a standardized and timely manner. The goal of the present paper is two fold: first to propose a transitional model towards green supply chain management and EPD preparation; second to identify key technologies and methodologies allowing to streamline the EPD process and subsequently the transition toward sustainable product development

  14. Declarative Modeling for Production Order Portfolio Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszak Zbigniew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A declarative framework enabling to determine conditions as well as to develop decision-making software supporting small- and medium-sized enterprises aimed at unique, multi-project-like and mass customized oriented production is discussed. A set of unique production orders grouped into portfolio orders is considered. Operations executed along different production orders share available resources following a mutual exclusion protocol. A unique product or production batch is completed while following a given activity’s network order. The problem concerns scheduling a newly inserted project portfolio subject to constraints imposed by a multi-project environment The answers sought are: Can a given project portfolio specified by its cost and completion time be completed within the assumed time period in a manufacturing system in hand? Which manufacturing system capability guarantees the completion of a given project portfolio ordered under assumed cost and time constraints? The considered problems regard finding a computationally effective approach aimed at simultaneous routing and allocation as well as batching and scheduling of a newly ordered project portfolio subject to constraints imposed by a multi-project environment. The main objective is to provide a declarative model enabling to state a constraint satisfaction problem aimed at multi-project-like and mass customized oriented production scheduling. Multiple illustrative examples are discussed.

  15. Models and Modelling Tools for Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    The design, development and reliability of a chemical product and the process to manufacture it, need to be consistent with the end-use characteristics of the desired product. One of the common ways to match the desired product-process characteristics is through trial and error based experiments......-based framework is that in the design, development and/or manufacturing of a chemical product-process, the knowledge of the applied phenomena together with the product-process design details can be provided with diverse degrees of abstractions and details. This would allow the experimental resources...... to be employed for validation and fine-tuning of the solutions from the model-based framework, thereby, removing the need for trial and error experimental steps. Also, questions related to economic feasibility, operability and sustainability, among others, can be considered in the early stages of design. However...

  16. Model of the Product Development Lifecycle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Sunny L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roe, Natalie H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wood, Evan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nachtigal, Noel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helms, Jovana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    While the increased use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf information technology equipment has presented opportunities for improved cost effectiveness and flexibility, the corresponding loss of control over the product's development creates unique vulnerabilities and security concerns. Of particular interest is the possibility of a supply chain attack. A comprehensive model for the lifecycle of hardware and software products is proposed based on a survey of existing literature from academic, government, and industry sources. Seven major lifecycle stages are identified and defined: (1) Requirements, (2) Design, (3) Manufacturing for hardware and Development for software, (4) Testing, (5) Distribution, (6) Use and Maintenance, and (7) Disposal. The model is then applied to examine the risk of attacks at various stages of the lifecycle.

  17. Modelling the behaviour of organic degradation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, J.E.; Ewart, F.T.; Greenfield, B.F.

    1989-03-01

    Results are presented from recent studies at Harwell which show that the degradation products which are formed when certain organic waste materials are exposed to the alkaline conditions typical of a cementitious environment, can enhance the solubility of plutonium, even at pH values as high as 12, by significant factors. Characterisation of the degradation products has been undertaken but the solubility enhancement does not appear to be related to the concentration of any of the major organic species that have been identified in the solutions. While it has not been possible to identify by analysis the organic ligand responsible for the increased solubility of plutonium, the behaviour of D-Saccharic acid does approach the behaviour of the degradation products. The PHREEQE code has been used to simulate the solubility of plutonium in the presence of D-Saccharic acid and other model degradation products, in order to explain the solubility enhancement. The extrapolation of the experimental conditions to the repository is the major objective, but in this work the ability of a model to predict the behaviour of plutonium over a range of experimental conditions has been tested. (author)

  18. Modelling Fungal Fermentations for Enzyme Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Mads Orla; Gernaey, Krist; Hansen, Morten S.

    We have developed a process model of fungal fed-batch fermentations for enzyme production. In these processes, oxygen transfer rate is limiting and controls the substrate feeding rate. The model has been shown to describe cultivations of both Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei strains in 550......L stirred tank pilot plant reactors well. For each strain, 8 biological parameters are needed as well as a correlation of viscosity, as viscosity has a major influence on oxygen transfer. The parameters were measured averages of at least 9 batches for each strain. The model is successfully able...... to cover a wide range of process conditions (0.3-2 vvm of aeration, 0.2-10.0 kW/m3 of specific agitation power input, and 0.1-1.3 barg head space pressure). Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis have shown that the uncertainty of the model is mainly due to difficulties surrounding the estimation...

  19. Constraining supergravity models from gluino production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, R.; Gamberini, G.; Giudice, G.F.; Ridolfi, G.

    1988-01-01

    The branching ratios for gluino decays g tilde → qanti qΧ, g tilde → gΧ into a stable undetected neutralino are computed as functions of the relevant parameters of the underlying supergravity theory. A simple way of constraining supergravity models from gluino production emerges. The effectiveness of hadronic versus e + e - colliders in the search for supersymmetry can be directly compared. (orig.)

  20. Modeling of petroleum products demand in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvel, A.; Jamin, F.; Cholet, G.

    1995-01-01

    This project was carried out under the responsibility of the Strategy-Economics-Program Division of the ''Institut Francais du Petrole''. The goal was the short-term (12 months) forecasting of the demand with regard to the four leading petroleum products in France - gas oil (GO), automotive (CA), home heating oil (FOD) and heavy fuel oil (FL). It was decided to test an original method (1) and to compare it with the widely used Box and Jenkins method (2), which gives good results for the GO and CA series but which proves disappointing for the FOD and FL series. This study is in two parts: (1) the first part describes the original method by breaking it down into trends and seasonality, with the model being additive or multiplicative. We improved its performances by using the theory of the Weiner filter; (2) the second part concerns Box an Jenkins modeling. This model was used on the unprocessed series and then on the series corrected for the influence of working days with the help of the ''Census-X11'' deseasonalization program. For each method, the principal phases are described for the modeling of gas oil on the French domestic market. For the other products, only the principal results are given, i.e. structure of the model retained, matching with reality, reliability of forecasts. (authors). 5 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs

  1. The Bilinear Product Model of Hysteresis Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kádár, György

    1989-01-01

    In ferromagnetic materials non-reversible magnetization processes are represented by rather complex hysteresis curves. The phenomenological description of such curves needs the use of multi-valued, yet unambiguous, deterministic functions. The history dependent calculation of consecutive Everett-integrals of the two-variable Preisach-function can account for the main features of hysteresis curves in uniaxial magnetic materials. The traditional Preisach model has recently been modified on the basis of population dynamics considerations, removing the non-real congruency property of the model. The Preisach-function was proposed to be a product of two factors of distinct physical significance: a magnetization dependent function taking into account the overall magnetization state of the body and a bilinear form of a single variable, magnetic field dependent, switching probability function. The most important statement of the bilinear product model is, that the switching process of individual particles is to be separated from the book-keeping procedure of their states. This empirical model of hysteresis can easily be extended to other irreversible physical processes, such as first order phase transitions.

  2. Research on Digital Product Modeling Key Technologies of Digital Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Guoping; ZHOU Zude; HU Yefa; ZHAO Liang

    2006-01-01

    With the globalization and diversification of the market and the rapid development of Information Technology (IT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI), the digital revolution of manufacturing is coming. One of the key technologies in digital manufacturing is product digital modeling. This paper firstly analyzes the information and features of the product digital model during each stage in the product whole lifecycle, then researches on the three critical technologies of digital modeling in digital manufacturing-product modeling, standard for the exchange of product model data and digital product data management. And the potential signification of the product digital model during the process of digital manufacturing is concluded-product digital model integrates primary features of each stage during the product whole lifecycle based on graphic features, applies STEP as data exchange mechanism, and establishes PDM system to manage the large amount, complicated and dynamic product data to implement the product digital model data exchange, sharing and integration.

  3. Models of black hole production at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klippert, R.; Salinas, C. J. Solano

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss about the different models for black hole production at the future Large Hadron Collider. In traditional scenarios the Planck scale is fundamental, and the weak scale is derived from it via some dynamical mechanism. Recently, several authors are exploring an alternative viewpoint where the weak scale is the fundamental scale of nature and the 4-dimensional Planck scale is to be derived from that. These scenarios include large or warped extra dimensions, propagation of matter and gauge degrees of freedom on brane worlds, and a fundamental Planck scale of O(TeV). If the scale of quantum gravity is near TeV we will have a copious production of mini black holes at the Large Hadron Collider and Cosmic rays interactions in the atmosphere. We discussed as well other line of semi-classical models from analog gravity in nonlinear electrodynamics that can be tested as well at LHC. The possible consequences of these models for high energy experimental physics are discussed

  4. Pathoproteomics of testicular tissue deficient in the GARP component VPS54. The wobbler mouse model of globozoospermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jockusch, Harald; Holland, Ashlin; Staunten, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    observed for proteins involved in cell redox homeostasis, cytoskeleton formation, PTMs, detoxification and metabolism. The most dramatically decreased protein in WR testis was identified as fatty acid binding protein FABP3, as confirmed by immunoblot analysis. We conclude that a missense mutation in VPS54...

  5. The economic production lot size model with several production rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    should be chosen in the interval between the demand rate and the production rate, which minimize unit production costs, and should be used in an increasing order. Then, given the production rates, we derive closed form solutions for the optimal runtimes as well as the minimum average cost. Finally we...

  6. Dilepton production with the SMASH model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weil, Janus; Staudenmaier, Jan; Petersen, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    In this work the SMASH model is presented (“Simulating Many Accelerated Strongly-Interacting Hadrons”), a next-generation hadronic transport approach, which is designed to describe the non-equilibrium evolution of hadronic matter in heavy-ion collisions. We discuss first dilepton spectra obtained with SMASH in the few-GeV energy range of GSI/FAIR, where the dynamics of hadronic matter is dominated by the production and decay of various resonance states. In particular we show how electromagnetic transition form factors can emerge in a transport picture under the hypothesis of vector-meson dominance. (paper)

  7. A speech production model including the nasal Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Morten

    In order to obtain articulatory analysis of speech production the model is improved. the standard model, as used in LPC analysis, to a large extent only models the acoustic properties of speech signal as opposed to articulatory modelling of the speech production. In spite of this the LPC model...... is by far the most widely used model in speech technology....

  8. Statistical modelling of fine red wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Producing wine is a very important economic activity in the province of San Juan in Argentina; it is therefore most important to predict production regarding the quantity of raw material needed. This work was aimed at obtaining a model relating kilograms of crushed grape to the litres of wine so produced. Such model will be used for predicting precise future values and confidence intervals for determined quantities of crushed grapes. Data from a vineyard in the province of San Juan was thus used in this work. The sampling coefficient of correlation was calculated and a dispersion diagram was then constructed; this indicated a li- neal relationship between the litres of wine obtained and the kilograms of crushed grape. Two lineal models were then adopted and variance analysis was carried out because the data came from normal populations having the same variance. The most appropriate model was obtained from this analysis; it was validated with experimental values, a good approach being obtained.

  9. Proposal for product development model focused on ce certification methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Marcia Goulart Pinheiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical analysis comparing 21 product development models in order to identify whether these structures meet the demands Product Certification of the European Community (CE. Furthermore, it presents a product development model, comprising the steps in the models analyzed, including improvements in activities for referred product certification. The proposed improvements are justified by the growing quest for the internationalization of products and processes within companies.

  10. The Structured Intuitive Model for Product Line Economics (SIMPLE)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clements, Paul C; McGregor, John D; Cohen, Sholom G

    2005-01-01

    .... This report presents the Structured Intuitive Model of Product Line Economics (SIMPLE), a general-purpose business model that supports the estimation of the costs and benefits in a product line development organization...

  11. Information Sharing In Shipbuilding based on the Product State Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    The paper provides a review of product modelling technologies and the overall architecture for the Product State Model (PSM) environment as a basis for how dynamically updated product data can improve control of production activities. Especially, the paper focuses on the circumstances prevailing...

  12. Kanban simulation model for production process optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golchev Riste

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A long time has passed since the KANBAN system has been established as an efficient method for coping with the excessive inventory. Still, the possibilities for its improvement through its integration with other different approaches should be investigated further. The basic research challenge of this paper is to present benefits of KANBAN implementation supported with Discrete Event Simulation (DES. In that direction, at the beginning, the basics of KANBAN system are presented with emphasis on the information and material flow, together with a methodology for implementation of KANBAN system. Certain analysis on combining the simulation with this methodology is presented. The paper is concluded with a practical example which shows that through understanding the philosophy of the implementation methodology of KANBAN system and the simulation methodology, a simulation model can be created which can serve as a basis for a variety of experiments that can be conducted within a short period of time, resulting with production process optimization.

  13. Developing engineering processes through integrated modelling of product and process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe Bjerrum; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This article aims at developing an operational tool for integrated modelling of product assortments and engineering processes in companies making customer specific products. Integrating a product model in the design of engineering processes will provide a deeper understanding of the engineering...... activities as well as insight into how product features affect the engineering processes. The article suggests possible ways of integrating models of products with models of engineering processes. The models have been tested and further developed in an action research study carried out in collaboration...... with a major international engineering company....

  14. Modelling and using product architectures in mechatronic product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Peter Lomholt; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    , experiences by using the architecture representation in a mechatronic development project, and the scope of using the architecture model as a skeleton for a data structure in a PLM system. The fundamental idea for planning and modeling holistic architectures is that an improved understanding of the whole...

  15. PRODUCT TRIAL PROCESSING (PTP): A MODEL APPROACH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    This study is a theoretical approach to consumer's processing of product trail, and equally explored ... consumer's first usage experience with a company's brand or product that is most important in determining ... product, what it is really marketing is the expected ..... confidence, thus there is a positive relationship between ...

  16. A Conceptual Model for Production Leveling (Heijunka) Implementation in Batch Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    De Araujo , Luciano Fonseca; De Queiroz , Abelardo Alves

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper explains an implementation model for a new method for Production Leveling designed for batch production system. The main structure of this model is grounded on three constructs: traditional framework for Operations Planning, Lean Manufacturing concepts for Production Leveling and case study guidelines. By combining the first and second construct, a framework for Production Leveling has been developed for batch production systems. Then, case study guidelines ...

  17. A comparison of production system life cycle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attri, Rajesh; Grover, Sandeep

    2012-09-01

    Companies today need to keep up with the rapidly changing market conditions to stay competitive. The main issues in this paper are related to a company's market and its competitors. The prediction of market behavior is helpful for a manufacturing enterprise to build efficient production systems. However, these predictions are usually not reliable. A production system is required to adapt to changing markets, but such requirement entails higher cost. Hence, analyzing different life cycle models of the production system is necessary. In this paper, different life cycle models of the production system are compared to evaluate the distinctive features and the limitations of each model. Furthermore, the difference between product life cycle and production life cycle is summarized, and the effect of product life cycle on production life cycle is explained. Finally, a production system life cycle model, along with key activities to be performed in each stage, is proposed specifically for the manufacturing sector.

  18. A product feature-based user-centric product search model

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Jabeur, Lamjed; Soulier, Laure; Tamine, Lynda; Mousset, Paul

    2016-01-01

    During the online shopping process, users would search for interesting products and quickly access those that fit with their needs among a long tail of similar or closely related products. Our contribution addresses head queries that are frequently submitted on e-commerce Web sites. Head queries usually target featured products with several variations, accessories, and complementary products. We present in this paper a product feature-based user-centric model for product search involving in a...

  19. A survey on the geometry of production models in economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Daniela Vîlcu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we survey selected recent results on the geometry of production models, focussing on the main production functions that are usually analyzed in economics, namely homogeneous, homothetic, quasi-sum and quasi-product production functions.

  20. A Model to Improve the Quality Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan GOKKAYA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is to present a solution who can improve product qualityfollowing the idea: “Unlike people who have verbal skills, machines use "sign language"to communicate what hurts or what has invaded their system’. Recognizing the "signs"or symptoms that the machine conveys is a required skill for those who work withmachines and are responsible for their care and feeding. The acoustic behavior of technical products is predominantly defined in the design stage, although the acoustic characteristics of machine structures can be analyze and give a solution for the actual products and create a new generation of products. The paper describes the steps intechnological process for a product and the solution who will reduce the costs with the non-quality of product and improve the management quality.

  1. Network model of project "Lean Production"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khisamova, E. D.

    2018-05-01

    Economical production implies primarily new approaches to culture of management and organization of production and offers a set of tools and techniques that allows reducing losses significantly and making the process cheaper and faster. Economical production tools are simple solutions that allow one to see opportunities for improvement of all aspects of the business, to reduce losses significantly, to constantly improve the whole spectrum of business processes, to increase significantly the transparency and manageability of the organization, to take advantage of the potential of each employee of the company, to increase competitiveness, and to obtain significant economic benefits without making large financial expenditures. Each of economical production tools solves a specific part of the problems, and only application of their combination will allow one to solve the problem or minimize it to acceptable values. The research of the governance process project "Lean Production" permitted studying the methods and tools of lean production and developing measures for their improvement.

  2. A model for 'sustainable' US beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Shaket, Taga; Cotler, Brett D; Gilutz, Stav; Giddings, Daniel; Raymo, Maureen E; Milo, Ron

    2018-01-01

    Food production dominates land, water and fertilizer use and is a greenhouse gas source. In the United States, beef production is the main agricultural resource user overall, as well as per kcal or g of protein. Here, we offer a possible, non-unique, definition of 'sustainable' beef as that subsisting exclusively on grass and by-products, and quantify its expected US production as a function of pastureland use. Assuming today's pastureland characteristics, all of the pastureland that US beef currently use can sustainably deliver ≈45% of current production. Rewilding this pastureland's less productive half (≈135 million ha) can still deliver ≈43% of current beef production. In all considered scenarios, the ≈32 million ha of high-quality cropland that beef currently use are reallocated for plant-based food production. These plant items deliver 2- to 20-fold more calories and protein than the replaced beef and increase the delivery of protective nutrients, but deliver no B 12 . Increased deployment of rapid rotational grazing or grassland multi-purposing may increase beef production capacity.

  3. Toy model for pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanhart, C.; Miller, G. A.; Myhrer, F.; Sato, T.; Kolck, U. van

    2001-01-01

    We develop a toy model for pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions that reproduces some of the features of the chiral Lagrangian calculations. We calculate the production amplitude and examine some common approximations

  4. A product-model supporting coupling's management during microproduct design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Museau, Matthieu; De Grave, Arnaud; Masclet, Cedric

    2009-01-01

    Microproducts show specificities compared to macroproducts and their design processes differ. Nowadays, existing design tools manage microproduct specificities too late during the design process, only after the first product representation is available. This article presents a product-model able...

  5. Architecture of the Product State Model Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Larsen, Michael; Lynggaard, Hans Jørgen B.

    2003-01-01

    on thedevelopment activities of the PSM architecture. An example discusses how to handle product relatedinformation on the shop floor in a manufacturing company and focuses on how dynamically updatedproduct data can improve control of production activities. This prototype example of welding a jointbetween two steel...... plates serves as proof of concept for the PSM architecture....

  6. A model for individual egg production in chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.; Koops, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Our primary objective was to improve on an existing model for the individual weekly egg production curve by modeling the curve as a sum of logistic functions: one for the increasing phase of production and a sum for the decreasing phases. To illustrate the model, we used four data sets from two

  7. Conceptual Modelling for Product Configuration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Sara

    Individual customization of goods and processes in different industries leads to complexity due to a growing mix of products both regarding characteristics of products and support services. In order to eliminate complexity and challenges in product/process customizing, smart IT systems called...... Product Configuration Systems (PCS), have been proposed as the solution both by researchers and practitioners and various benefits are mentioned from utilizing PCSs. Based on the latest literature, there are challenges reported in all phases of PCS projects including planning, development......, and documentation. Moreover, the challenges become more serious when it involves complicated products/processes in engineer-to-order (ETO) companies. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the existing knowledge of managing PCS projects by proposing frameworks and tools to address some of the main...

  8. Modelling production system architectures in the early phases of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Ravn, Poul Martin; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2016-01-01

    are needed and appropriate to enable determination of obtainable product quality. In order to meet this challenge, it is suggested that a visual modelling framework be adopted that clarifies which product and production features are known at a specific time of the project and which features will be worked...... on – leading to an improved basis for prioritizing activities in the project. Requirements for the contents of the framework are presented, and literature on production and system models is reviewed. The production system architecture modelling framework is founded on methods and approaches in literature......This article suggests a framework for modelling a production system architecture in the early phases of product development.The challenge in these phases is that the products to be produced are not completely defined and yet decisions need to be made early in the process on what investments...

  9. Optimal Pricing and Advertising Policies for New Product Oligopoly Models

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald L. Thompson; Jinn-Tsair Teng

    1984-01-01

    In this paper our previous work on monopoly and oligopoly new product models is extended by the addition of pricing as well as advertising control variables. These models contain Bass's demand growth model, and the Vidale-Wolfe and Ozga advertising models, as well as the production learning curve model and an exponential demand function. The problem of characterizing an optimal pricing and advertising policy over time is an important question in the field of marketing as well as in the areas ...

  10. Concurrent engineering and product models in seafood companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Stella; Vesterager, Johan; Børresen, Torger

    1998-01-01

    Concurrent Engineering (CE) can provide an improved approach to product development for extending the lines of seafood products. Information technology (IT) support tools based on product models can provide an integrated and simultaneous approach for specifying new recipes. The seafood industry can...... benefit from the CE approach which can support product developers to provide concurrent specifications for raw materials, ingredients, packaging, and production methods. The approach involves the use of product models from which line extensions are more easily generated than by use of customary stepwise...

  11. From Commodity Production to Sign Production: A Triple Triangle Model for Marx's Semiotics and Peirce's Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joohoan

    Using the viewpoint of semiotics, this paper "re-reads" Karl Marx's labor theory of value and suggests a "triple triangle" model for commodity production and shows how this model could be a model for semiosis in general. The paper argues that there are three advantages to considering homogeneity of the sign production and the…

  12. Modeling the Potential Effects of New Tobacco Products and Policies: A Dynamic Population Model for Multiple Product Use and Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugrin, Eric D.; Rostron, Brian L.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Brown, Theresa J.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Coleman, Blair N.; Paredes, Antonio; Apelberg, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent declines in US cigarette smoking prevalence have coincided with increases in use of other tobacco products. Multiple product tobacco models can help assess the population health impacts associated with use of a wide range of tobacco products. Methods and Findings We present a multi-state, dynamical systems population structure model that can be used to assess the effects of tobacco product use behaviors on population health. The model incorporates transition behaviors, such as initiation, cessation, switching, and dual use, related to the use of multiple products. The model tracks product use prevalence and mortality attributable to tobacco use for the overall population and by sex and age group. The model can also be used to estimate differences in these outcomes between scenarios by varying input parameter values. We demonstrate model capabilities by projecting future cigarette smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality and then simulating the effects of introduction of a hypothetical new lower-risk tobacco product under a variety of assumptions about product use. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the range of population impacts that could occur due to differences in input values for product use and risk. We demonstrate that potential benefits from cigarette smokers switching to the lower-risk product can be offset over time through increased initiation of this product. Model results show that population health benefits are particularly sensitive to product risks and initiation, switching, and dual use behaviors. Conclusion Our model incorporates the variety of tobacco use behaviors and risks that occur with multiple products. As such, it can evaluate the population health impacts associated with the introduction of new tobacco products or policies that may result in product switching or dual use. Further model development will include refinement of data inputs for non-cigarette tobacco products and inclusion of health

  13. An economic production model for time dependent demand with rework and multiple production setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a model for time dependent demand with multiple productions and rework setups. Production is demand dependent and greater than the demand rate. Production facility produces items in m production setups and one rework setup (m, 1 policy. The major reason of reverse logistic and green supply chain is rework, so it reduces the cost of production and other ecological problems. Most of the researchers developed a rework model without deteriorating items. A numerical example and sensitivity analysis is shown to describe the model.

  14. A model to explain human voice production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas Bôas, C. S. N.; Gobara, S. T.

    2018-05-01

    This article presents a device constructed with low-cost material to demonstrate and explain voice production. It also provides a contextualized, interdisciplinary approach to introduce the study of sound waves.

  15. Multi products single machine economic production quantity model with multiple batch size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Allah Taleizadeh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multi products single machine economic order quantity model with discrete delivery is developed. A unique cycle length is considered for all produced items with an assumption that all products are manufactured on a single machine with a limited capacity. The proposed model considers different items such as production, setup, holding, and transportation costs. The resulted model is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming model. Harmony search algorithm, extended cutting plane and particle swarm optimization methods are used to solve the proposed model. Two numerical examples are used to analyze and to evaluate the performance of the proposed model.

  16. Economic production quantity models for imperfect product and service with rework

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Allen H.

    2012-01-01

    When imperfect quality products are produced in a production process, rework may be performed to make them become serviceable. In an inventory system, items may deteriorate. Selling deteriorated items to customers will create negative impact on corporate image. In this paper, two economic production quantity (EPQ) models are proposed for deteriorating items with rework process. A single production-rework plant system and a system consists of $n$ production plants and one rework plant are cons...

  17. Modeling of Agile Intelligent Manufacturing-oriented Production Scheduling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Qi Sheng; Chang-Ping Tang; Ci-Xing Lv

    2010-01-01

    Agile intelligent manufacturing is one of the new manufacturing paradigms that adapt to the fierce globalizing market competition and meet the survival needs of the enterprises, in which the management and control of the production system have surpassed the scope of individual enterprise and embodied some new features including complexity, dynamicity, distributivity, and compatibility. The agile intelligent manufacturing paradigm calls for a production scheduling system that can support the cooperation among various production sectors, the distribution of various resources to achieve rational organization, scheduling and management of production activities. This paper uses multi-agents technology to build an agile intelligent manufacturing-oriented production scheduling system. Using the hybrid modeling method, the resources and functions of production system are encapsulated, and the agent-based production system model is established. A production scheduling-oriented multi-agents architecture is constructed and a multi-agents reference model is given in this paper.

  18. A single product perishing inventory model with demand interaction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper describes a single perishing product inventory model in which ... continuous review inventory models have been studied recently by Yadavalli et al ...... stochastic inventory system with lost sales, Stochastic Analysis and Applications ...

  19. Parallel Development of Products and New Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Morten; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård

    2014-01-01

    The perception of product development and the practical execution of product development in professional organizations have undergone dramatic changes in recent years. Many of these chances relate to introduction of broader and more cross-disciplinary views that involves new organizational functi...... and innovation management the 4th generation models are increasingly including the concept business models and business model innovation....... functions and new concepts. These chances can be captured in various generations of practice. This paper will discuss the recent development of 3rd generation product development process models and the emergence of a 4th generation. While the 3rd generation models included the concept of innovation...

  20. Models for estimating photosynthesis parameters from in situ production profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovač, Žarko; Platt, Trevor; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Antunović, Suzana

    2017-12-01

    The rate of carbon assimilation in phytoplankton primary production models is mathematically prescribed with photosynthesis irradiance functions, which convert a light flux (energy) into a material flux (carbon). Information on this rate is contained in photosynthesis parameters: the initial slope and the assimilation number. The exactness of parameter values is crucial for precise calculation of primary production. Here we use a model of the daily production profile based on a suite of photosynthesis irradiance functions and extract photosynthesis parameters from in situ measured daily production profiles at the Hawaii Ocean Time-series station Aloha. For each function we recover parameter values, establish parameter distributions and quantify model skill. We observe that the choice of the photosynthesis irradiance function to estimate the photosynthesis parameters affects the magnitudes of parameter values as recovered from in situ profiles. We also tackle the problem of parameter exchange amongst the models and the effect it has on model performance. All models displayed little or no bias prior to parameter exchange, but significant bias following parameter exchange. The best model performance resulted from using optimal parameter values. Model formulation was extended further by accounting for spectral effects and deriving a spectral analytical solution for the daily production profile. The daily production profile was also formulated with time dependent growing biomass governed by a growth equation. The work on parameter recovery was further extended by exploring how to extract photosynthesis parameters from information on watercolumn production. It was demonstrated how to estimate parameter values based on a linearization of the full analytical solution for normalized watercolumn production and from the solution itself, without linearization. The paper complements previous works on photosynthesis irradiance models by analysing the skill and consistency of

  1. Applying linear programming model to aggregate production planning of coated peanut products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmah, W. G.; Purwaningsih, I.; Santoso, EF S. M.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to set the overall production level for each grade of coated peanut product to meet market demands with a minimum production cost. The linear programming model was applied in this study. The proposed model was used to minimize the total production cost based on the limited demand of coated peanuts. The demand values applied to the method was previously forecasted using time series method and production capacity aimed to plan the aggregate production for the next 6 month period. The results indicated that the production planning using the proposed model has resulted a better fitted pattern to the customer demands compared to that of the company policy. The production capacity of product family A, B, and C was relatively stable for the first 3 months of the planning periods, then began to fluctuate over the next 3 months. While, the production capacity of product family D and E was fluctuated over the 6-month planning periods, with the values in the range of 10,864 - 32,580 kg and 255 – 5,069 kg, respectively. The total production cost for all products was 27.06% lower than the production cost calculated using the company’s policy-based method.

  2. Incomplete convolutions in production and inventory models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.; Zijm, W.H.M.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we study incomplete convolutions of continuous distribution functions, as they appear in the analysis of (multi-stage) production and inventory systems. Three example systems are discussed where these incomplete convolutions naturally arise. We derive explicit, nonrecursive formulae

  3. Modeling pure culture heterotrophic production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozumder, Md Salatul Islam; Goormachtigh, Laurens; Garcia-Gonzalez, Linsey; De Wever, Heleen; Volcke, Eveline I P

    2014-03-01

    In this contribution a mechanistic model describing the production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) through pure-culture fermentation was developed, calibrated and validated for two different substrates, namely glucose and waste glycerol. In both cases, non-growth-associated PHB production was triggered by applying nitrogen limitation. The occurrence of some growth-associated PHB production besides non-growth-associated PHB production was demonstrated, although it is inhibited in the presence of nitrogen. Other phenomena observed experimentally and described by the model included biomass growth on PHB and non-linear product inhibition of PHB production. The accumulated impurities from the waste substrate negatively affected the obtained maximum PHB content. Overall, the developed mathematical model provided an accurate prediction of the dynamic behavior of heterotrophic biomass growth and PHB production in a two-phase pure culture system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatial modelling of disease using data- and knowledge-driven approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kim B; Pfeiffer, Dirk U

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of spatial modelling in animal and public health is three-fold: describing existing spatial patterns of risk, attempting to understand the biological mechanisms that lead to disease occurrence and predicting what will happen in the medium to long-term future (temporal prediction) or in different geographical areas (spatial prediction). Traditional methods for temporal and spatial predictions include general and generalized linear models (GLM), generalized additive models (GAM) and Bayesian estimation methods. However, such models require both disease presence and absence data which are not always easy to obtain. Novel spatial modelling methods such as maximum entropy (MAXENT) and the genetic algorithm for rule set production (GARP) require only disease presence data and have been used extensively in the fields of ecology and conservation, to model species distribution and habitat suitability. Other methods, such as multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA), use knowledge of the causal factors of disease occurrence to identify areas potentially suitable for disease. In addition to their less restrictive data requirements, some of these novel methods have been shown to outperform traditional statistical methods in predictive ability (Elith et al., 2006). This review paper provides details of some of these novel methods for mapping disease distribution, highlights their advantages and limitations, and identifies studies which have used the methods to model various aspects of disease distribution. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Model based process-product design and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    This paper gives a perspective on modelling and the important role it has within product-process design and analysis. Different modelling issues related to development and application of systematic model-based solution approaches for product-process design is discussed and the need for a hybrid...... model-based framework is highlighted. This framework should be able to manage knowledge-data, models, and associated methods and tools integrated with design work-flows and data-flows for specific product-process design problems. In particular, the framework needs to manage models of different types......, forms and complexity, together with their associated parameters. An example of a model-based system for design of chemicals based formulated products is also given....

  6. A model for marketing planning of new products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne

    1994-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. A model for forecasting the sales of a new product is presented. This model allows to predict the sales development of a new product before it is actually launched on the market. 2. The model makes separate forecasts for the volume of trial and repeat purchases. It also...... incorporates a special model to explain consumer awareness of the new product. 3. Consumer awareness is explained by distribution (shelf facings and in-store promotion), advertising and giving away free samples. 4. The trial model incorporates the total market potential, the probability of being in a buying...... the product after some time. 6. The model requires three types of data input: market data, market research data, and marketing plan data. Using these data, prediction can be made by a user-friendly PC programme. 7. An example is shown demonstrating that the predictions made by the model were in good...

  7. Economic modelling of pork production-marketing chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, den M.

    1996-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was focused on the development of economic simulation and optimization computer models to support decision making with respect to pork production- marketing chains. The models include three production stages: pig farrowing, pig fattening and pig slaughtering

  8. A review of ocean chlorophyll algorithms and primary production models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingwen; Zhou, Song; Lv, Nan

    2015-12-01

    This paper mainly introduces the five ocean chlorophyll concentration inversion algorithm and 3 main models for computing ocean primary production based on ocean chlorophyll concentration. Through the comparison of five ocean chlorophyll inversion algorithm, sums up the advantages and disadvantages of these algorithm,and briefly analyzes the trend of ocean primary production model.

  9. A continuous-time control model on production planning network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A continuous-time control model on production planning network. DEA Omorogbe, MIU Okunsebor. Abstract. In this paper, we give a slightly detailed review of Graves and Hollywood model on constant inventory tactical planning model for a job shop. The limitations of this model are pointed out and a continuous time ...

  10. Developing a Decision Model of Sustainable Product Design and Development from Product Servicizing in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Chen; Tu, Jui-Che; Hung, So-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    In response to the global trend of low carbon and the concept of sustainable development, enterprises need to develop R&D for the manufacturing of energy-saving and sustainable products and low carbon products. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to construct a decision model for sustainable product design and development from product…

  11. A system dynamics model to determine products mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Hajghasem

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an implementation of system dynamics model to determine appropriate product mix by considering various factors such as labor, materials, overhead, etc. for an Iranian producer of cosmetic and sanitary products. The proposed model of this paper considers three hypotheses including the relationship between product mix and profitability, optimum production capacity and having minimum amount of storage to take advantage of low cost production. The implementation of system dynamics on VENSIM software package has confirmed all three hypotheses of the survey and suggested that in order to reach better mix product, it is necessary to reach optimum production planning, take advantage of all available production capacities and use inventory management techniques.

  12. A production model and maintenance planning model for the process industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Teelen, A.; Selen, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper a model is developed to simultaneously plan preventive maintenance and production in a process industry environment, where maintenance planning is extremely important. The model schedules production jobs and preventive maintenance jobs, while minimizing costs associated with

  13. Exotic hadron production in a quark combination model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Wei; Shao Fenglan; Li Shiyuan; Shang Yonghui; Yao Tao

    2009-01-01

    The philosophy on production of exotic hadrons (multiquark states) in the framework of the quark combination model is investigated, taking f 0 (980) as an example. The production rate and p T spectra of f 0 (980) considered as (ss) or (sqsq), respectively, are calculated and compared in Au+Au collisions at √(s NN )=200 GeV. The unitarity of various combination models, when open for exotic hadron production, is addressed.

  14. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC MODELS OF POTATO PRODUCTION IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miomir JOVANOVIC

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The northern region of Montenegro represents a very important resource for agricultural production. However, the depopulation of the analysed area, pronounced in-kind character of production without significant participation of market producers, lack of market research, stronger vertical and horizontal connection between primary production and processing sectors have significant impacts causing the low level of competitiveness of agricultural production. Potato production in the analysed area has recorded positive trends in last ten years. This paper presents economic models of agriculture households on the analysed area from the potatoes production point of view.

  15. Modelling energy consumption in a manufacturing plant using productivity KPIs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallachoir, Brian O.; Cahill, Caiman (Sustainable Energy Research Group, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. College Cork (Ireland))

    2009-07-01

    Energy efficiency initiatives in industrial plants are often focused on getting energy-consuming utilities and devices to operate more efficiently, or on conserving energy. While such device-oriented energy efficiency measures can achieve considerable savings, greater energy efficiency improvement may be achieved by improving the overall productivity and quality of manufacturing processes. The paper highlights the observed relationship between productivity and energy efficiency using aggregated data on unit consumption and production index data for Irish industry. Past studies have developed simple top-down models of final energy consumption in manufacturing plants using energy consumption and production output figures, but these models do not help identify opportunities for energy savings that could achieved through increased productivity. This paper proposes an improved and innovative method of modelling plant final energy demand that introduces standard productivity Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) into the model. The model demonstrates the relationship between energy consumption and productivity, and uses standard productivity metrics to identify the areas of manufacturing activity that offer the most potential for improved energy efficiency. The model provides a means of comparing the effect of device-oriented energy efficiency measures with the potential for improved energy efficiency through increased productivity.

  16. Sustainability Assessment Model in Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Faiz Mohd; Johan, Kartina; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Omar, Badrul

    2017-08-01

    Faster and more efficient development of innovative and sustainable products has become the focus for manufacturing companies in order to remain competitive in today’s technologically driven world. Design concept evaluation which is the end of conceptual design is one of the most critical decision points. It relates to the final success of product development, because poor criteria assessment in design concept evaluation can rarely compensated at the later stages. Furthermore, consumers, investors, shareholders and even competitors are basing their decisions on what to buy or invest in, from whom, and also on what company report, and sustainability is one of a critical component. In this research, a new methodology of sustainability assessment in product development for Malaysian industry has been developed using integration of green project management, new scale of “Weighting criteria” and Rough-Grey Analysis. This method will help design engineers to improve the effectiveness and objectivity of the sustainable design concept evaluation, enable them to make better-informed decisions before finalising their choice and consequently create value to the company or industry. The new framework is expected to provide an alternative to existing methods.

  17. Mining Product Data Models: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Claudia DOLEAN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two case studies used to prove the validity of some data-flow mining algorithms. We proposed the data-flow mining algorithms because most part of mining algorithms focuses on the control-flow perspective. First case study uses event logs generated by an ERP system (Navision after we set several trackers on the data elements needed in the process analyzed; while the second case study uses the event logs generated by YAWL system. We offered a general solution of data-flow model extraction from different data sources. In order to apply the data-flow mining algorithms the event logs must comply a certain format (using InputOutput extension. But to respect this format, a set of conversion tools is needed. We depicted the conversion tools used and how we got the data-flow models. Moreover, the data-flow model is compared to the control-flow model.

  18. Lattice Model for Production of Gas

    KAUST Repository

    Marder, M.

    2017-12-01

    We define a lattice model for rock, absorbers, and gas that makes it possible to examine the flow of gas to a complicated absorbing boundary over long periods of time. The motivation is to deduce the geometry of the boundary from the time history of gas absorption. We find a solution to this model using Green\\'s function techniques, and apply the solution to three absorbing networks of increasing complexity.

  19. Lattice Model for Production of Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Marder, M.; Eftekhari, Behzad; Patzek, Tadeusz W

    2017-01-01

    We define a lattice model for rock, absorbers, and gas that makes it possible to examine the flow of gas to a complicated absorbing boundary over long periods of time. The motivation is to deduce the geometry of the boundary from the time history of gas absorption. We find a solution to this model using Green's function techniques, and apply the solution to three absorbing networks of increasing complexity.

  20. Enriching step-based product information models to support product life-cycle activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigecili, Mehmet Ilteris

    The representation and management of product information in its life-cycle requires standardized data exchange protocols. Standard for Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP) is such a standard that has been used widely by the industries. Even though STEP-based product models are well defined and syntactically correct, populating product data according to these models is not easy because they are too big and disorganized. Data exchange specifications (DEXs) and templates provide re-organized information models required in data exchange of specific activities for various businesses. DEXs show us it would be possible to organize STEP-based product models in order to support different engineering activities at various stages of product life-cycle. In this study, STEP-based models are enriched and organized to support two engineering activities: materials information declaration and tolerance analysis. Due to new environmental regulations, the substance and materials information in products have to be screened closely by manufacturing industries. This requires a fast, unambiguous and complete product information exchange between the members of a supply chain. Tolerance analysis activity, on the other hand, is used to verify the functional requirements of an assembly considering the worst case (i.e., maximum and minimum) conditions for the part/assembly dimensions. Another issue with STEP-based product models is that the semantics of product data are represented implicitly. Hence, it is difficult to interpret the semantics of data for different product life-cycle phases for various application domains. OntoSTEP, developed at NIST, provides semantically enriched product models in OWL. In this thesis, we would like to present how to interpret the GD & T specifications in STEP for tolerance analysis by utilizing OntoSTEP.

  1. Ensemble modeling for aromatic production in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Rizk

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble Modeling (EM is a recently developed method for metabolic modeling, particularly for utilizing the effect of enzyme tuning data on the production of a specific compound to refine the model. This approach is used here to investigate the production of aromatic products in Escherichia coli. Instead of using dynamic metabolite data to fit a model, the EM approach uses phenotypic data (effects of enzyme overexpression or knockouts on the steady state production rate to screen possible models. These data are routinely generated during strain design. An ensemble of models is constructed that all reach the same steady state and are based on the same mechanistic framework at the elementary reaction level. The behavior of the models spans the kinetics allowable by thermodynamics. Then by using existing data from the literature for the overexpression of genes coding for transketolase (Tkt, transaldolase (Tal, and phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (Pps to screen the ensemble, we arrive at a set of models that properly describes the known enzyme overexpression phenotypes. This subset of models becomes more predictive as additional data are used to refine the models. The final ensemble of models demonstrates the characteristic of the cell that Tkt is the first rate controlling step, and correctly predicts that only after Tkt is overexpressed does an increase in Pps increase the production rate of aromatics. This work demonstrates that EM is able to capture the result of enzyme overexpression on aromatic producing bacteria by successfully utilizing routinely generated enzyme tuning data to guide model learning.

  2. Fuzzy production planning models for an unreliable production system with fuzzy production rate and stochastic/fuzzy demand rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Halim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider a single-unit unreliable production system which produces a single item. During a production run, the production process may shift from the in-control state to the out-of-control state at any random time when it produces some defective items. The defective item production rate is assumed to be imprecise and is characterized by a trapezoidal fuzzy number. The production rate is proportional to the demand rate where the proportionality constant is taken to be a fuzzy number. Two production planning models are developed on the basis of fuzzy and stochastic demand patterns. The expected cost per unit time in the fuzzy sense is derived in each model and defuzzified by using the graded mean integration representation method. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the optimal results of the proposed fuzzy models.

  3. Developing and modelling of ohmic heating for solid food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Frosch, Stina

    Heating of solid foods using the conventional technologies is time-consuming due to the fact that heat transfer is limited by internal conduction within the product. This is a big challenge to food manufactures who wish to heat the product faster to the desired core temperature and to ensure more...... uniform quality across the product. Ohmic heating is one of the novel technologies potentially solving this problem by allowing volumetric heating of the product and thereby reducing or eliminating temperature gradients within the product. However, the application of ohmic heating for solid food products...... such as meat and seafood is not industrially utilized yet. Therefore, the aim of the current work is to model and develop the ohmic heating technology for heating of solid meat and seafood. A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat transfer and electric field during ohmic heating of meat products has been...

  4. Production system with process quality control: modelling and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Jia-Chi

    2010-07-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a great deal of research dedicated to the study of quality and the economics of production. In this article, we develop a dynamic model which is based on the hypothesis of a traditional economic production quantity model. Taguchi's cost of poor quality is used to evaluate the cost of poor quality in the dynamic production system. A practical case from the automotive industry, which uses the Six-sigma DMAIC methodology, is discussed to verify the proposed model. This study shows that there is an optimal value of quality investment to make the production system reach a reasonable quality level and minimise the production cost. Based on our model, the management can adjust its investment in quality improvement to generate considerable financial return.

  5. Three-dimensional decomposition models for carbon productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Ming; Niu, Dongxiao

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents decomposition models for the change in carbon productivity, which is considered a key indicator that reflects the contributions to the control of greenhouse gases. Carbon productivity differential was used to indicate the beginning of decomposition. After integrating the differential equation and designing the Log Mean Divisia Index equations, a three-dimensional absolute decomposition model for carbon productivity was derived. Using this model, the absolute change of carbon productivity was decomposed into a summation of the absolute quantitative influences of each industrial sector, for each influence factor (technological innovation and industrial structure adjustment) in each year. Furthermore, the relative decomposition model was built using a similar process. Finally, these models were applied to demonstrate the decomposition process in China. The decomposition results reveal several important conclusions: (a) technological innovation plays a far more important role than industrial structure adjustment; (b) industry and export trade exhibit great influence; (c) assigning the responsibility for CO 2 emission control to local governments, optimizing the structure of exports, and eliminating backward industrial capacity are highly essential to further increase China's carbon productivity. -- Highlights: ► Using the change of carbon productivity to measure a country's contribution. ► Absolute and relative decomposition models for carbon productivity are built. ► The change is decomposed to the quantitative influence of three-dimension. ► Decomposition results can be used for improving a country's carbon productivity.

  6. Lattice Model for Production of Gas

    KAUST Repository

    Marder, M.; Eftekhari, Behzad; Patzek, Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    We define a lattice model for rock, absorbers, and gas that makes it possible to examine the flow of gas to a complicated absorbing boundary over long periods of time. The motivation is to deduce the geometry of the boundary from the time history

  7. Numerical Modeling of Rotary Kiln Productivity Increase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero-Valle, M.A.; Pisaroni, M.; Van Puyvelde, D.; Lahaye, D.J.P.; Sadi, R.

    2013-01-01

    Rotary kilns are used in many industrial processes ranging from cement manufacturing to waste incineration. The operating conditions vary widely depending on the process. While there are many models available within the literature and industry, the wide range of operating conditions justifies

  8. Putting mechanisms into crop production models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boote, Kenneth J; Jones, James W; White, Jeffrey W; Asseng, Senthold; Lizaso, Jon I

    2013-09-01

    Crop growth models dynamically simulate processes of C, N and water balance on daily or hourly time-steps to predict crop growth and development and at season-end, final yield. Their ability to integrate effects of genetics, environment and crop management have led to applications ranging from understanding gene function to predicting potential impacts of climate change. The history of crop models is reviewed briefly, and their level of mechanistic detail for assimilation and respiration, ranging from hourly leaf-to-canopy assimilation to daily radiation-use efficiency is discussed. Crop models have improved steadily over the past 30-40 years, but much work remains. Improvements are needed for the prediction of transpiration response to elevated CO₂ and high temperature effects on phenology and reproductive fertility, and simulation of root growth and nutrient uptake under stressful edaphic conditions. Mechanistic improvements are needed to better connect crop growth to genetics and to soil fertility, soil waterlogging and pest damage. Because crop models integrate multiple processes and consider impacts of environment and management, they have excellent potential for linking research from genomics and allied disciplines to crop responses at the field scale, thus providing a valuable tool for deciphering genotype by environment by management effects. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A stochastic surplus production model in continuous time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Berg, Casper Willestofte

    2017-01-01

    surplus production model in continuous time (SPiCT), which in addition to stock dynamics also models the dynamics of the fisheries. This enables error in the catch process to be reflected in the uncertainty of estimated model parameters and management quantities. Benefits of the continuous-time state......Surplus production modelling has a long history as a method for managing data-limited fish stocks. Recent advancements have cast surplus production models as state-space models that separate random variability of stock dynamics from error in observed indices of biomass. We present a stochastic......-space model formulation include the ability to provide estimates of exploitable biomass and fishing mortality at any point in time from data sampled at arbitrary and possibly irregular intervals. We show in a simulation that the ability to analyse subannual data can increase the effective sample size...

  10. Technology Model of Aquaculture Production System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hor, K. W.; Salleh, S. M.; Abdullah; Ezree, Mohd; Zaman, I.; Hatta, M. H.; Ahmad, S.; Ismail, A. E.; Mahmud, W. A. W.

    2017-10-01

    The high market demand has led to the rapid growth in fish farming. The young generation are inexperienced in determining the estimated results of fish farming and the preparation of fish pond during the period of fish farming. These need a complete guide as their reference which includes the knowledge of fish farming. The main objective of this project is to develop a practical design of real pond appropriate with aquaculture technology and fish farming production. There are three parts of study in this project which include fish farming cage, growth of fish and water quality of fish farming pond. Few of experiments were carried out involved the collection data in terms of growth of fish and parameters of water quality.

  11. Phase Equilibrium Modeling for Shale Production Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandoval Lemus, Diego Rolando

    is obtained for hydrocarbon mixtures. Such behavior is mainly caused by compositional changes in the bulk phase due to selective adsorption of the heavier components onto the rock, while the change in bubble point pressure is mainly due to capillary pressure. This study has developed several robust......Production of oil and gas from shale reservoirs has gained more attention in the past few decades due to its increasing economic feasibility and the size of potential sources around the world. Shale reservoirs are characterized by a more tight nature in comparison with conventional reservoirs......, having pore size distributions ranging in the nanometer scale. Such a confined nature introduces new challenges in the fluid phase behavior. High capillary forces can be experienced between the liquid and vapor, and selective adsorption of components onto the rock becomes relevant. The impact...

  12. Modeling of nitrous oxide production by autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria with multiple production pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Peng, Lai; Law, Yingyu; Guo, Jianhua; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-04-01

    Autotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have been recognized as a major contributor to N2O production in wastewater treatment systems. However, so far N2O models have been proposed based on a single N2O production pathway by AOB, and there is still a lack of effective approach for the integration of these models. In this work, an integrated mathematical model that considers multiple production pathways is developed to describe N2O production by AOB. The pathways considered include the nitrifier denitrification pathway (N2O as the final product of AOB denitrification with NO2(-) as the terminal electron acceptor) and the hydroxylamine (NH2OH) pathway (N2O as a byproduct of incomplete oxidation of NH2OH to NO2(-)). In this model, the oxidation and reduction processes are modeled separately, with intracellular electron carriers introduced to link the two types of processes. The model is calibrated and validated using experimental data obtained with two independent nitrifying cultures. The model satisfactorily describes the N2O data from both systems. The model also predicts shifts of the dominating pathway at various dissolved oxygen (DO) and nitrite levels, consistent with previous hypotheses. This unified model is expected to enhance our ability to predict N2O production by AOB in wastewater treatment systems under varying operational conditions.

  13. A model for marketing planning for new products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne

    1993-01-01

    awareness model. The model can be used to generate improved marketing plans. In this connection, it is important that the model includes the marketing variables, for it is only in this way that the model can be used for marketing plan optimization. It is predicted that a future direction of development...... and use of sales forecasting models for new products will be within optimization of the marketing plan for launching a new product, and not only as a tool for forecasting sales for just one marketing plan....

  14. A Health Production Model with Endogenous Retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galama, Titus; Kapteyn, Arie; Fonseca, Raquel; Michaud, Pierre-Carl

    2012-01-01

    We formulate a stylized structural model of health, wealth accumulation and retirement decisions building on the human capital framework of health and derive analytic solutions for the time paths of consumption, health, health investment, savings and retirement. We argue that the literature has been unnecessarily restrictive in assuming that health is always at the “optimal” health level. Exploring the properties of corner solutions we find that advances in population health decrease the retirement age, while at the same time individuals retire when their health has deteriorated. This potentially explains why retirees point to deteriorating health as an important reason for early retirement, while retirement ages have continued to fall in the developed world, despite continued improvements in population health and mortality. In our model, workers with higher human capital invest more in health and because they stay healthier retire later than those with lower human capital whose health deteriorates faster. PMID:22888062

  15. Sustainability Product Properties in Building Information Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    preferred car- pool parking spots, preferred low-emitting/fuel-efficient vehicle parking spots, bike racks and telecommuting as options to promote good...most part, these have not been in a computable form. Fallon then stressed the importance of a common conceptual framework, using the IFC model...organizations would be formed with the help of Mr. Kalin. He stressed the goal of the project was to create templates that would be free to use

  16. A Product Development Decision Model for Cockpit Weather Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant market demand for advanced cockpit weather information products. However, it is unclear how to identify the most promising technological options that provide the desired mix of consumer requirements by employing feasible technical systems at a price that achieves market success. This study develops a unique product development decision model that employs Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano's model of consumer choice. This model is specifically designed for exploration and resolution of this and similar information technology related product development problems.

  17. A Product Development Decision Model for Cockpit Weather Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin; Johnson, Edward J., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant market demand for advanced cockpit weather information products. However, it is unclear how to identify the most promising technological options that provide the desired mix of consumer requirements by employing feasible technical systems at a price that achieves market success. This study develops a unique product development decision model that employs Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano's model of consumer choice. This model is specifically designed for exploration and resolution of this and similar information technology related product development problems.

  18. Geometric Modeling and Reasoning of Human-Centered Freeform Products

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Charlie C L

    2013-01-01

    The recent trend in user-customized product design requires the shape of products to be automatically adjusted according to the human body’s shape, so that people will feel more comfortable when wearing these products.  Geometric approaches can be used to design the freeform shape of products worn by people, which can greatly improve the efficiency of design processes in various industries involving customized products (e.g., garment design, toy design, jewel design, shoe design, and design of medical devices, etc.). These products are usually composed of very complex geometric shapes (represented by free-form surfaces), and are not driven by a parameter table but a digital human model with free-form shapes or part of human bodies (e.g., wrist, foot, and head models).   Geometric Modeling and Reasoning of Human-Centered Freeform Products introduces the algorithms of human body reconstruction, freeform product modeling, constraining and reconstructing freeform products, and shape optimization for improving...

  19. Wind farm production prediction - The Zephyr model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landberg, L. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Giebel, G. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Madsen, H. [IMM (DTU), Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Nielsen, T.S. [IMM (DTU), Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Joergensen, J.U. [Danish Meteorologisk Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Lauersen, L. [Danish Meteorologisk Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Toefting, J. [Elsam, Fredericia (DK); Christensen, H.S. [Eltra, Fredericia (Denmark); Bjerge, C. [SEAS, Haslev (Denmark)

    2002-06-01

    This report describes a project - funded by the Danish Ministry of Energy and the Environment - which developed a next generation prediction system called Zephyr. The Zephyr system is a merging between two state-of-the-art prediction systems: Prediktor of Risoe National Laboratory and WPPT of IMM at the Danish Technical University. The numerical weather predictions were generated by DMI's HIRLAM model. Due to technical difficulties programming the system, only the computational core and a very simple version of the originally very complex system were developed. The project partners were: Risoe, DMU, DMI, Elsam, Eltra, Elkraft System, SEAS and E2. (au)

  20. A nonlinear model of gold production in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Norashikin; Muda, Nora; Umor, Mohd Rozi

    2014-06-01

    Malaysia is a country which is rich in natural resources and one of it is a gold. Gold has already become an important national commodity. This study is conducted to determine a model that can be well fitted with the gold production in Malaysia from the year 1995-2010. Five nonlinear models are presented in this study which are Logistic model, Gompertz, Richard, Weibull and Chapman-Richard model. These model are used to fit the cumulative gold production in Malaysia. The best model is then selected based on the model performance. The performance of the fitted model is measured by sum squares error, root mean squares error, coefficient of determination, mean relative error, mean absolute error and mean absolute percentage error. This study has found that a Weibull model is shown to have significantly outperform compare to the other models. To confirm that Weibull is the best model, the latest data are fitted to the model. Once again, Weibull model gives the lowest readings at all types of measurement error. We can concluded that the future gold production in Malaysia can be predicted according to the Weibull model and this could be important findings for Malaysia to plan their economic activities.

  1. Sum rule limitations of kinetic particle-production models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, J.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38; Guet, C.

    1988-04-01

    Photoproduction and absorption sum rules generalized to systems at finite temperature provide a stringent check on the validity of kinetic models for the production of hard photons in intermediate energy nuclear collisions. We inspect such models for the case of nuclear matter at finite temperature employed in a kinetic regime which copes those encountered in energetic nuclear collisions, and find photon production rates which significantly exceed the limits imposed by the sum rule even under favourable concession. This suggests that coherence effects are quite important and the production of photons cannot be considered as an incoherent addition of individual NNγ production processes. The deficiencies of present kinetic models may also apply for the production of probes such as the pion which do not couple perturbatively to the nuclear currents. (orig.)

  2. A non-linear model of economic production processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzi, A.; Yasutomi, A.; Kaneko, K.

    2003-06-01

    We present a new two phase model of economic production processes which is a non-linear dynamical version of von Neumann's neoclassical model of production, including a market price-setting phase as well as a production phase. The rate of an economic production process is observed, for the first time, to depend on the minimum of its input supplies. This creates highly non-linear supply and demand dynamics. By numerical simulation, production networks are shown to become unstable when the ratio of different products to total processes increases. This provides some insight into observed stability of competitive capitalist economies in comparison to monopolistic economies. Capitalist economies are also shown to have low unemployment.

  3. Aspect-Oriented Model-Driven Software Product Line Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groher, Iris; Voelter, Markus

    Software product line engineering aims to reduce development time, effort, cost, and complexity by taking advantage of the commonality within a portfolio of similar products. The effectiveness of a software product line approach directly depends on how well feature variability within the portfolio is implemented and managed throughout the development lifecycle, from early analysis through maintenance and evolution. This article presents an approach that facilitates variability implementation, management, and tracing by integrating model-driven and aspect-oriented software development. Features are separated in models and composed of aspect-oriented composition techniques on model level. Model transformations support the transition from problem to solution space models. Aspect-oriented techniques enable the explicit expression and modularization of variability on model, template, and code level. The presented concepts are illustrated with a case study of a home automation system.

  4. Systems Engineering Metrics: Organizational Complexity and Product Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mog, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    Innovative organizational complexity and product quality models applicable to performance metrics for NASA-MSFC's Systems Analysis and Integration Laboratory (SAIL) missions and objectives are presented. An intensive research effort focuses on the synergistic combination of stochastic process modeling, nodal and spatial decomposition techniques, organizational and computational complexity, systems science and metrics, chaos, and proprietary statistical tools for accelerated risk assessment. This is followed by the development of a preliminary model, which is uniquely applicable and robust for quantitative purposes. Exercise of the preliminary model using a generic system hierarchy and the AXAF-I architectural hierarchy is provided. The Kendall test for positive dependence provides an initial verification and validation of the model. Finally, the research and development of the innovation is revisited, prior to peer review. This research and development effort results in near-term, measurable SAIL organizational and product quality methodologies, enhanced organizational risk assessment and evolutionary modeling results, and 91 improved statistical quantification of SAIL productivity interests.

  5. Pricing Participating Products under a Generalized Jump-Diffusion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Kuen Siu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a model for valuing participating life insurance products under a generalized jump-diffusion model with a Markov-switching compensator. It also nests a number of important and popular models in finance, including the classes of jump-diffusion models and Markovian regime-switching models. The Esscher transform is employed to determine an equivalent martingale measure. Simulation experiments are conducted to illustrate the practical implementation of the model and to highlight some features that can be obtained from our model.

  6. Charm production in the dual topological unitarization model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batunin, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    The open and hidden charm hadroproduction has been traced up to the SPS energies in the framework of the dual parton model. The free parameter (the suppression of the charmed sea) comes from the experiments on D-meson hadroproduction. Then the hidden-charm production data are described assuming that the J/ψ-meson production suggests only one cc-bar pair in the string, while the pair ψψ production suggests two cc-bar pairs

  7. Parallel Development of Products and New Business Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Morten; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård

    2014-01-01

    The perception of product development and the practical execution of product development in professional organizations have undergone dramatic changes in recent years. Many of these chances relate to introduction of broader and more cross-disciplinary views that involves new organizational functions and new concepts. These chances can be captured in various generations of practice. This paper will discuss the recent development of 3rd generation product development process models and the emer...

  8. Real Exchange Rate and Productivity in an OLG Model

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Hong Thinh DOAN; Karine GENTE

    2013-01-01

    This article develops an overlapping generations model to show how demography and savings affect the relationship between real exchange rate (RER) and productivity. In high-saving (low-saving) countries and/or low-population-growth-rate countries, a rise in productivity leads to a real depreciation (appreciation) whereas the RER may appreciate or depreciate in highproduction-growth-rate. Using panel data, we conclude that a rise in productivity generally causes a real exchange rate appreciati...

  9. Biometrics in wearable products: Reverse Engineering and numerical modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The Reverse Engineering (RE) techniques and the Finite Element Modelling (FEM) are widely used tools in many scientific fields. They were firstly developed for the mechanics but in the last times became common for other disciplines. In the thesis these techniques are used for the customization of the wearable products. It is possible to observe that the geometry of whatever wearable product is fundamental for the comfort. In particular, starting from the need of wearable product it is possibl...

  10. Conceptual Development af a 3D Product Configuration Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skauge, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    in the development of IT-systems that support the procedures in companies and in the building industry. In other words, it is a knowledge-based system that helps companies in their daily work. The aim of the project has been to develop and examine conceptual ideas about 3D modelling configurator used in the company......’s production of steel fire sliding doors. The development of the 3D digital model is based on practical rather than theoretical research. The result of the research is a prototype digital 3D model to be presented live.......Paper. This project deals with 3D product configuration of a digital building element which has been developed as a prototype in cooperation between a product manufacturer and a research institution in Denmark. The project falls within the concept of product modelling which is more and more used...

  11. Official Reports: Inventions, useful models, industrial samples, product certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This serial collection presents brief information on patents, useful models, industrial samples, product certificates and trade marks registered in Uzbekistan. They comprise different branches of human activities including peaceful uses of atomic energy. (A.A.D.)

  12. Official Reports: Inventions, useful models, industrial samples, product certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This serial collection presents brief information on patents, useful models, industrial samples, product certificates and trade marks registered in Uzbekistan. They comprise different branches of human activities including peaceful uses of atomic energy. (A.A.D.)

  13. Official Reports: Inventions, useful models, industrial samples, product certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This serial collection presents brief information on patents, useful models, industrial samples, product certificates and trade marks registered in Uzbekistan. They comprise different branches of human activities including peaceful uses of atomic energy. (A.A.D.)

  14. Selection of productivity improvement techniques via mathematical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahassan M. Khater

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new mathematical model to select an optimal combination of productivity improvement techniques. The proposed model of this paper considers four-stage cycle productivity and the productivity is assumed to be a linear function of fifty four improvement techniques. The proposed model of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study of manufacturing plant. The resulted problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming which can be solved for optimality using traditional methods. The preliminary results of the implementation of the proposed model of this paper indicate that the productivity can be improved through a change on equipments and it can be easily applied for both manufacturing and service industries.

  15. Development of an inpatient operational pharmacy productivity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseman, Ryan W; Lopez, Ben R; Forrey, Ryan A; Weber, Robert J; Kipp, Kris M

    2015-02-01

    An innovative model for measuring the operational productivity of medication order management in inpatient settings is described. Order verification within a computerized prescriber order-entry system was chosen as the pharmacy workload driver. To account for inherent variability in the tasks involved in processing different types of orders, pharmaceutical products were grouped by class, and each class was assigned a time standard, or "medication complexity weight" reflecting the intensity of pharmacist and technician activities (verification of drug indication, verification of appropriate dosing, adverse-event prevention and monitoring, medication preparation, product checking, product delivery, returns processing, nurse/provider education, and problem-order resolution). The resulting "weighted verifications" (WV) model allows productivity monitoring by job function (pharmacist versus technician) to guide hiring and staffing decisions. A 9-month historical sample of verified medication orders was analyzed using the WV model, and the calculations were compared with values derived from two established models—one based on the Case Mix Index (CMI) and the other based on the proprietary Pharmacy Intensity Score (PIS). Evaluation of Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that values calculated using the WV model were highly correlated with those derived from the CMI-and PIS-based models (r = 0.845 and 0.886, respectively). Relative to the comparator models, the WV model offered the advantage of less period-to-period variability. The WV model yielded productivity data that correlated closely with values calculated using two validated workload management models. The model may be used as an alternative measure of pharmacy operational productivity. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A review of planning models for maintenance and production.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Budai-Balke (Gabriella); R. Dekker (Rommert); R.P. Nicolai (Robin)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we give an overview of the relation between planning of maintenance and production. On the one hand we consider production planning and scheduling models in which failures and maintenance aspects are taken into account. Next we discuss the planning of maintenance

  17. Productive Government Expenditure in Monetary Business Cycle Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnemann, L.; Schabert, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses the transmission of fiscal policy shocks in a New Keynesian framework where government expenditures contribute to aggregate production. It is shown that even if the impact of government expenditures on production is small, this assumption helps to reconcile the models'

  18. Production compilation : A simple mechanism to model complex skill acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taatgen, N.A.; Lee, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we describe production compilation, a mechanism for modeling skill acquisition. Production compilation has been developed within the ACT-Rational (ACT-R; J. R. Anderson, D. Bothell, M. D. Byrne, & C. Lebiere, 2002) cognitive architecture and consists of combining and specializing

  19. Cumulative particle production in the quark recombination model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, V.B.; Leksin, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Production of cumulative particles in hadron-nuclear inteactions at high energies is considered within the framework of recombination quark model. Predictions for inclusive cross sections of production of cumulative particles and different resonances containing quarks in s state are made

  20. Design models in the development of mechatronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Tufail; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2012-01-01

    In view of widespread application of mechatronic systems and the competition to offer customized products at high quality and low cost, there has been considerable attention to introduce new methods and models in this regard. This paper explores design process of mechatronic product development w...

  1. Organizational Learning and Product Design Management: Towards a Theoretical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva-Gomez, Ricardo; Camison-Zornoza, Cesar; Lapiedra-Alcami, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Case studies of four Spanish ceramics companies were used to construct a theoretical model of 14 factors essential to organizational learning. One set of factors is related to the conceptual-analytical phase of the product design process and the other to the creative-technical phase. All factors contributed to efficient product design management…

  2. Property Modelling and Databases in Product-Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Sansonetti, Sascha

    of the PC-SAFT is used. The developed database and property prediction models have been combined into a properties-software that allows different product-process design related applications. The presentation will also briefly highlight applications of the software for virtual product-process design...

  3. MODEL2TALK : An Intervention to Promote Productive Classroom Talk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Chiel; van der Wilt, Femke; van Kruistum, Claudia; van Oers, Bert; Michaels, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the MODEL2TALK intervention, which aims to promote young children's oral communicative competence through productive classroom talk. Productive classroom talk provides children in early childhood education with many opportunities to talk and think together. Results from a

  4. Product Portfolio Management Best Practices For New Product Development: A Review Of Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doorasamy Mishelle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The survival of any industrial organization depends on whether producing goods or services hinge on how innovative they have become in managing their product portfolio to craft new products that changes with the ever-changing tastes and needs of their customers. This study delves in to the models and theories that drive product portfolio management practices in a way that they support the successes of new product development. Our review is based on selected studies at the frontier of product management, summarized, and compared based on authors experiences, subsisting models, and theories with the results purely based on qualitative rather than quantitative approaches. The essence is to explore possible new theory or model in this field of research.

  5. Trade and Variety in a Model of Endogenous Product Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Lorz; Matthias Wrede

    2009-01-01

    This paper sets up a model of endogenous product differentiation to analyze the variety effects of international trade. In our model multi-product firms decide not only about the number of varieties they supply but also about the degree of horizontal differentiation between these varieties. Firms can raise the degree of differentiation by investing variety-specific fixed costs. In this setting, we analyze how trade integration, i.e. an increase in market size, influences the number of firms i...

  6. Simulation modeling for quality and productivity in steel cord manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Türkseven, Can Hulusi; Turkseven, Can Hulusi; Ertek, Gürdal; Ertek, Gurdal

    2003-01-01

    We describe the application of simulation modeling to estimate and improve quality and productivity performance of a steel cord manufacturing system. We describe the typical steel cord manufacturing plant, emphasize its distinguishing characteristics, identify various production settings and discuss applicability of simulation as a management decision support tool. Besides presenting the general structure of the developed simulation model, we focus on wire fractures, which can be an important...

  7. Product Modelling for Building Design: Annotated Bibliography (2nd Edition)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1999-01-01

    This bibliography concerns research publications from 1976 to 1994-5, on product modelling in computer aided architectural design and computer aided engineering design of buildings and their surroundings. For each item of literature, full bibliographic information is given whenever available...... of literature is offered on machine interpretation of drawings, which may be relevant in the context of information exchange among different product models. Although the bibliography is fairly comprehensive as far as it goes, no completeness of coverage is claimed....

  8. From Landau's hydrodynamical model to field theory model to field theory models of multiparticle production: a tribute to Peter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, F.

    1996-01-01

    We review the assumptions and domain of applicability of Landau's Hydrodynamical Model. By considering two models of particle production, pair production from strong electric fields and particle production in the linear σ model, we demonstrate that many of Landau's ideas are verified in explicit field theory calculations

  9. Modeling of the Gross Regional Product on the Basis of Production Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovin, Nikolay S.; Kokotkina, Tatiana N.; Barkalova, Tatiana G.; Tsaregorodsev, Evgeny I.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to elaboration and construction of a static model of macroeconomics in which economics is considered as an unstructured holistic unit, the input of which receives the resources, and the output is the result of the functioning of economics in the form of gross domestic product or gross regional product. Resources are…

  10. Forecasting Rice Productivity and Production of Odisha, India, Using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Tripathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting of rice area, production, and productivity of Odisha was made from the historical data of 1950-51 to 2008-09 by using univariate autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models and was compared with the forecasted all Indian data. The autoregressive (p and moving average (q parameters were identified based on the significant spikes in the plots of partial autocorrelation function (PACF and autocorrelation function (ACF of the different time series. ARIMA (2, 1, 0 model was found suitable for all Indian rice productivity and production, whereas ARIMA (1, 1, 1 was best fitted for forecasting of rice productivity and production in Odisha. Prediction was made for the immediate next three years, that is, 2007-08, 2008-09, and 2009-10, using the best fitted ARIMA models based on minimum value of the selection criterion, that is, Akaike information criteria (AIC and Schwarz-Bayesian information criteria (SBC. The performances of models were validated by comparing with percentage deviation from the actual values and mean absolute percent error (MAPE, which was found to be 0.61 and 2.99% for the area under rice in Odisha and India, respectively. Similarly for prediction of rice production and productivity in Odisha and India, the MAPE was found to be less than 6%.

  11. Maturity Model of Software Product with Educational Maturity Model

    OpenAIRE

    R.Manjula; J.Vaideeswaran

    2011-01-01

    Software product line engineering is an inter-disciplinary concept. It spans the dimensions of business, architecture, process,and the organization. Similarly, Education System engineering is also an inter-disciplinary concept, which spans the dimensions of academic, infrastructure, facilities, administration etc. Some of the potential benefits of this approach includecontinuous improvements in System quality and adhering to global standards. The increasing competency in IT and Educational Se...

  12. Microalgal CO2 sequestering – Modeling microalgae production costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilanovic, Dragoljub; Holland, Mark; Armon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Microalgae production costs were modeled as a function of specific expenses. ► The effects of uncontrollable expenses/factors were incorporated into the model. ► Modeled microalgae production costs were in the range $102–1503 t −1 ha −1 y −1 . - Abstract: Microalgae CO 2 sequestering facilities might become an industrial reality if microalgae biomass could be produced at cost below $500.00 t −1 . We develop a model for estimation of total production costs of microalgae as a function of known production-specific expenses, and incorporate into the model the effects of uncontrollable factors which affect known production-specific expenses. Random fluctuations were intentionally incorporated into the model, consequently into generated cost/technology scenarios, because each and every logically interconnected equipment/operation that is used in design/construction/operation/maintenance of a production process is inevitably subject to random cost/price fluctuations which can neither be eliminated nor a priori controlled. A total of 152 costs/technology scenarios were evaluated to find 44 scenarios in which predicted total production costs of microalgae (PTPCM) was in the range $200–500 t −1 ha −1 y −1 . An additional 24 scenarios were found with PTCPM in the range of $102–200 t −1 ha −1 y −1 . These findings suggest that microalgae CO 2 sequestering and the production of commercial compounds from microalgal biomass can be economically viable venture even today when microalgae production technology is still far from its optimum.

  13. Predictive Models for Photovoltaic Electricity Production in Hot Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabar H. Yousif

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The process of finding a correct forecast equation for photovoltaic electricity production from renewable sources is an important matter, since knowing the factors affecting the increase in the proportion of renewable energy production and reducing the cost of the product has economic and scientific benefits. This paper proposes a mathematical model for forecasting energy production in photovoltaic (PV panels based on a self-organizing feature map (SOFM model. The proposed model is compared with other models, including the multi-layer perceptron (MLP and support vector machine (SVM models. Moreover, a mathematical model based on a polynomial function for fitting the desired output is proposed. Different practical measurement methods are used to validate the findings of the proposed neural and mathematical models such as mean square error (MSE, mean absolute error (MAE, correlation (R, and coefficient of determination (R2. The proposed SOFM model achieved a final MSE of 0.0007 in the training phase and 0.0005 in the cross-validation phase. In contrast, the SVM model resulted in a small MSE value equal to 0.0058, while the MLP model achieved a final MSE of 0.026 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9989, which indicates a strong relationship between input and output variables. The proposed SOFM model closely fits the desired results based on the R2 value, which is equal to 0.9555. Finally, the comparison results of MAE for the three models show that the SOFM model achieved a best result of 0.36156, whereas the SVM and MLP models yielded 4.53761 and 3.63927, respectively. A small MAE value indicates that the output of the SOFM model closely fits the actual results and predicts the desired output.

  14. Boolean models of biosurfactants production in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Richard

    Full Text Available Cyclolipopeptides (CLPs are biosurfactants produced by numerous Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. CLP production is known to be regulated at least by the GacA/GacS two-component pathway, but the full regulatory network is yet largely unknown. In the clinical strain MFN1032, CLP production is abolished by a mutation in the phospholipase C gene (plcC and not restored by plcC complementation. Their production is also subject to phenotypic variation. We used a modelling approach with Boolean networks, which takes into account all these observations concerning CLP production without any assumption on the topology of the considered network. Intensive computation yielded numerous models that satisfy these properties. All models minimizing the number of components point to a bistability in CLP production, which requires the presence of a yet unknown key self-inducible regulator. Furthermore, all suggest that a set of yet unexplained phenotypic variants might also be due to this epigenetic switch. The simplest of these Boolean networks was used to propose a biological regulatory network for CLP production. This modelling approach has allowed a possible regulation to be unravelled and an unusual behaviour of CLP production in P. fluorescens to be explained.

  15. Robust Optimization Model for Production Planning Problem under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pembe GÜÇLÜ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditions of businesses change very quickly. To take into account the uncertainty engendered by changes has become almost a rule while planning. Robust optimization techniques that are methods of handling uncertainty ensure to produce less sensitive results to changing conditions. Production planning, is to decide from which product, when and how much will be produced, with a most basic definition. Modeling and solution of the Production planning problems changes depending on structure of the production processes, parameters and variables. In this paper, it is aimed to generate and apply scenario based robust optimization model for capacitated two-stage multi-product production planning problem under parameter and demand uncertainty. With this purpose, production planning problem of a textile company that operate in İzmir has been modeled and solved, then deterministic scenarios’ and robust method’s results have been compared. Robust method has provided a production plan that has higher cost but, will result close to feasible and optimal for most of the different scenarios in the future.

  16. Ecological niche modeling for visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Bahia, Brazil, using genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction and growing degree day-water budget analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prixia Nieto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Two predictive models were developed within a geographic information system using Genetic Algorithm Rule-Set Prediction (GARP and the growing degree day (GDD-water budget (WB concept to predict the distribution and potential risk of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The objective was to define the environmental suitability of the disease as well as to obtain a deeper understanding of the eco-epidemiology of VL by associating environmental and climatic variables with disease prevalence. Both the GARP model and the GDDWB model, using different analysis approaches and with the same human prevalence database, predicted similar distribution and abundance patterns for the Lutzomyia longipalpis-Leishmania chagasi system in Bahia. High and moderate prevalence sites for VL were significantly related to areas of high and moderate risk prediction by: (i the area predicted by the GARP model, depending on the number of pixels that overlapped among eleven annual model years, and (ii the number of potential generations per year that could be completed by the Lu. longipalpis-L. chagasi system by GDD-WB analysis. When applied to the ecological zones of Bahia, both the GARP and the GDD-WB prediction models suggest that the highest VL risk is in the interior region of the state, characterized by a semi-arid and hot climate known as Caatinga, while the risk in the Bahia interior forest and the Cerrado ecological regions is lower. The Bahia coastal forest was predicted to be a low-risk area due to the unsuitable conditions for the vector and VL transmission.

  17. [Modeling developmental aspects of sensorimotor control of speech production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, B J; Birkholz, P; Neuschaefer-Rube, C

    2007-05-01

    Detailed knowledge of the neurophysiology of speech acquisition is important for understanding the developmental aspects of speech perception and production and for understanding developmental disorders of speech perception and production. A computer implemented neural model of sensorimotor control of speech production was developed. The model is capable of demonstrating the neural functions of different cortical areas during speech production in detail. (i) Two sensory and two motor maps or neural representations and the appertaining neural mappings or projections establish the sensorimotor feedback control system. These maps and mappings are already formed and trained during the prelinguistic phase of speech acquisition. (ii) The feedforward sensorimotor control system comprises the lexical map (representations of sounds, syllables, and words of the first language) and the mappings from lexical to sensory and to motor maps. The training of the appertaining mappings form the linguistic phase of speech acquisition. (iii) Three prelinguistic learning phases--i. e. silent mouthing, quasi stationary vocalic articulation, and realisation of articulatory protogestures--can be defined on the basis of our simulation studies using the computational neural model. These learning phases can be associated with temporal phases of prelinguistic speech acquisition obtained from natural data. The neural model illuminates the detailed function of specific cortical areas during speech production. In particular it can be shown that developmental disorders of speech production may result from a delayed or incorrect process within one of the prelinguistic learning phases defined by the neural model.

  18. H2A Production Model, Version 2 User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Ramsden, T.; Zuboy, J.

    2008-09-01

    The H2A Production Model analyzes the technical and economic aspects of central and forecourt hydrogen production technologies. Using a standard discounted cash flow rate of return methodology, it determines the minimum hydrogen selling price, including a specified after-tax internal rate of return from the production technology. Users have the option of accepting default technology input values--such as capital costs, operating costs, and capacity factor--from established H2A production technology cases or entering custom values. Users can also modify the model's financial inputs. This new version of the H2A Production Model features enhanced usability and functionality. Input fields are consolidated and simplified. New capabilities include performing sensitivity analyses and scaling analyses to various plant sizes. This User Guide helps users already familiar with the basic tenets of H2A hydrogen production cost analysis get started using the new version of the model. It introduces the basic elements of the model then describes the function and use of each of its worksheets.

  19. Modeling new product sales; an application of cointegration analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers an econometric model for new product sales, which extends the deterministic Gompertz process by allowing the saturation level to depend on forcing variables. It turns out that this model can be written in error correction form. Given that many marketing variables

  20. An inventory model with dependent product demands and returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiesmüller, G.P.; Laan, van der E.P.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an inventory model for a single reusable product is investigated, in which the random returns depend explicitly on the demand stream. Further, the model distinguishes itself from most other research in this field by considering leadtimes and a finite planning horizon. We show that

  1. Modelling the Performance of Product Integrated Photovoltaic (PIPV) Cells Indoors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolou, G.; Verwaal, M.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a model, which have been developed for the estimation of the PV products’ cells’ performance in an indoor environment. The model computes the efficiency and power production of PV technologies, as a function of distance from natural and artificial light sources. It intents

  2. Making decision process knowledge explicit using the product data model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrusel, R.; Vanderfeesten, I.T.P.; Dolean, Cristina; Mican, D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new knowledge acquisition and formalization method: the decision mining approach. Basically, we aim to produce a model of the workflow of mental actions performed by decision makers during the decision process. We show that through the use of a Product Data Model (PDM) we

  3. Product design and business model strategies for a circular economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocken, N.M.P.; de Pauw, I.C.; Bakker, C.A.; van der Grinten, B.

    The transition within business from a linear to a circular economy brings with it a range of practical challenges for companies. The following question is addressed: What are the product design and business model strategies for
    companies that want to move to a circular economy model? This paper

  4. Models of multiparticle production of the eikonal type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinis, M.

    1974-01-01

    A survey of eikonal type models for multiparticle production is given. Empirical rules concerning the nature of multiparticle reactions are outlined. A discussion involving kinematics and cross sections for inclusive processes is presented. The constraints of multiparticle unitarity are considered to be of great importance in eikonal models for multiproduction at high energy. (HFdV)

  5. A Design of Product Collaborative Online Configuration Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguo; Zheng, Jin; Zeng, Qian

    According to the actual needs of mass customization, the personalization of product and its collaborative design, the paper analyzes and studies the working mechanism of modular-based product configuration technology and puts forward an information model of modular product family. Combined with case-based reasoning techniques (CBR) and the constraint satisfaction problem solving techniques (CSP), we design and study the algorithm for product configuration, and analyze its time complexity. A car chassis is made as the application object, we provide a prototype system of online configuration. Taking advantage of this system, designers can make appropriate changes on the existing programs in accordance with the demand. This will accelerate all aspects of product development and shorten the product cycle. Also the system will provide a strong technical support for enterprises to improve their market competitiveness.

  6. Forecasting corn production in Serbia using ARIMA model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural crop production is closely related to climate, as a decisive success factor. Temperature fluctuations and changes in the volume of precipitation are the main factors affecting the growth and development of crops, and, ultimately, the quantity produced. Corn is the most common crop necessary to provide for domestic needs, and a strategic product for export. Production of corn in the period from 1947 to 2014 in Serbia had an oscillatory trend, with significant jumps and falls in production. The subject of this paper is the forecasting of future trends in corn production in Serbia. Building on the subject, the purpose of this paper is to create the model for forecasting future corn production and establishing its trends.

  7. Modeling intermediate product selection under production and storage capacity limitations in food processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur Alper; Akkerman, Renzo; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In the food industry products are usually characterized by their recipes, which are specified by various quality attributes. For end products, this is given by customer requirements, but for intermediate products, the recipes can be chosen in such a way that raw material procurement costs and pro...... with production and inventory planning, thereby considering the production and storage capacity limitations. The resulting model can be used to solve an important practical problem typical for many food processing industries.......In the food industry products are usually characterized by their recipes, which are specified by various quality attributes. For end products, this is given by customer requirements, but for intermediate products, the recipes can be chosen in such a way that raw material procurement costs...... and processing costs are minimized. However, this product selection process is bound by production and storage capacity limitations, such as the number and size of storage tanks or silos. In this paper, we present a mathematical programming approach that combines decision making on product selection...

  8. Massive mu pair production in a vector field theory model

    CERN Document Server

    Halliday, I G

    1976-01-01

    Massive electrodynamics is treated as a model for the production of massive mu pairs in high-energy hadronic collisions. The dominant diagrams in perturbation theory are identified and analyzed. These graphs have an eikonal structure which leads to enormous cancellations in the two-particle inclusive cross section but not in the n-particle production cross sections. Under the assumption that these cancellations are complete, a Drell-Yan structure appears in the inclusive cross section but the particles accompanying the mu pairs have a very different structure compared to the parton model. The pionization region is no longer empty of particles as in single parton models. (10 refs).

  9. Alternative wind power modeling methods using chronological and load duration curve production cost models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M R

    1996-04-01

    As an intermittent resource, capturing the temporal variation in windpower is an important issue in the context of utility production cost modeling. Many of the production cost models use a method that creates a cumulative probability distribution that is outside the time domain. The purpose of this report is to examine two production cost models that represent the two major model types: chronological and load duration cure models. This report is part of the ongoing research undertaken by the Wind Technology Division of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in utility modeling and wind system integration.

  10. Modeling issues associated with production reactor safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stack, D.W.; Thomas, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes several Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) modeling issues that are related to the unique design and operation of the production reactors. The identification of initiating events and determination of a set of success criteria for the production reactors is of concern because of their unique design. The modeling of accident recovery must take into account the unique operation of these reactors. Finally, a more thorough search and evaluation of common-cause events is required to account for combinations of unique design features and operation that might otherwise not be included in the PSA. It is expected that most of these modeling issues also would be encountered when modeling some of the other more unique reactor and nonreactor facilities that are part of the DOE nuclear materials production complex. 9 refs., 2 figs

  11. Multi-scale modeling for sustainable chemical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Kai; Bakshi, Bhavik R.; Herrgard, Markus

    2013-01-01

    associated with the development and implementation of a su stainable biochemical industry. The temporal and spatial scales of modeling approaches for sustainable chemical production vary greatly, ranging from metabolic models that aid the design of fermentative microbial strains to material and monetary flow......With recent advances in metabolic engineering, it is now technically possible to produce a wide portfolio of existing petrochemical products from biomass feedstock. In recent years, a number of modeling approaches have been developed to support the engineering and decision-making processes...... models that explore the ecological impacts of all economic activities. Research efforts that attempt to connect the models at different scales have been limited. Here, we review a number of existing modeling approaches and their applications at the scales of metabolism, bioreactor, overall process...

  12. A model of the supplier involvement in the product innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Manoj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the product innovation in a supply chain by a supplier and derive a model for a supplier’s product innovation policy. The product innovation of a supplier can contribute to the long-term competitiveness for the supply chain, and as it is for many supply chains a major factor, it should be considered in the development of strategies for a supplier. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of supplier product innovation as a strategic tool to enhance the competitiveness and viability of supply chain. This paper explores the dynamic research performance of a supplier with endogenous time preference under a given arrangement of product innovation. We find that the optimal effort level and the achieved product innovation obey a saddle point path, or show tremendous fluctuations even without introducing the stochastic nature of product innovative activity. We also find that the fluctuation frequency is largely dependent both on the supplier’s characteristics such as supplier’s product innovative ability and on the nature of product innovation process per se. Short-run analyses are also made on the effect of supply chain cooperation in the product innovation process.

  13. A PRODUCTIVITY EVALUATION MODEL BASED ON INPUT AND OUTPUT ORIENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Anyaeche

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Many productivity models evaluate either the input or the output performances using standalone techniques. This sometimes gives divergent views of the same system’s results. The work reported in this article, which simultaneously evaluated productivity from both orientations, was applied on real life data. The results showed losses in productivity (–2% and price recovery (–8% for the outputs; the inputs showed productivity gain (145% but price recovery loss (–63%. These imply losses in product performances but a productivity gain in inputs. The loss in the price recovery of inputs indicates a problem in the pricing policy. This model is applicable in product diversification.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die meeste produktiwiteitsmodelle evalueer of die inset- of die uitsetverrigting deur gebruik te maak van geïsoleerde tegnieke. Dit lei soms tot uiteenlopende perspektiewe van dieselfde sisteem se verrigting. Hierdie artikel evalueer verrigting uit beide perspektiewe en gebruik ware data. Die resultate toon ‘n afname in produktiwiteit (-2% en prysherwinning (-8% vir die uitsette. Die insette toon ‘n toename in produktiwiteit (145%, maar ‘n afname in prysherwinning (-63%. Dit impliseer ‘n afname in produkverrigting, maar ‘n produktiwiteitstoename in insette. Die afname in die prysherwinning van insette dui op ‘n problem in die prysvasstellingbeleid. Hierdie model is geskik vir produkdiversifikasie.

  14. The model for estimation production cost of embroidery handicraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofierni; Sriwana, IK; Septriani, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Embroidery industry is one of type of micro industry that produce embroidery handicraft. These industries are emerging in some rural areas of Indonesia. Embroidery clothing are produce such as scarves and clothes that show cultural value of certain region. The owner of an enterprise must calculate the cost of production before making a decision on how many products are received from the customer. A calculation approach to production cost analysis is needed to consider the feasibility of each order coming. This study is proposed to design the expert system (ES) in order to improve production management in the embroidery industry. The model will design used Fuzzy inference system as a model to estimate production cost. Research conducted based on survey and knowledge acquisitions from stakeholder of supply chain embroidery handicraft industry at Bukittinggi, West Sumatera, Indonesia. This paper will use fuzzy input where the quality, the complexity of the design and the working hours required and the result of the model are useful to manage production cost on embroidery production.

  15. Property Modelling for Applications in Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    such as database, property model library, model parameter regression, and, property-model based product-process design will be presented. The database contains pure component and mixture data for a wide range of organic chemicals. The property models are based on the combined group contribution and atom...... is missing, the atom connectivity based model is employed to predict the missing group interaction. In this way, a wide application range of the property modeling tool is ensured. Based on the property models, targeted computer-aided techniques have been developed for design and analysis of organic chemicals......, polymers, mixtures as well as separation processes. The presentation will highlight the framework (ICAS software) for property modeling, the property models and issues such as prediction accuracy, flexibility, maintenance and updating of the database. Also, application issues related to the use of property...

  16. Sustainable economic production quantity models for inventory systems with shortage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taleizadeh, Ata Allah; Soleymanfar, Vahid Reza; Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    optimal values of inventory system variables, we solve four independent profit maximization problems for four different situations. These proposed models include a basic model in which shortages are not allowed, and when shortages are allowed, the lost sale, full backordering and partial backordering...... (EPQ). The theoretical sustainable EOQ and EPQ models are basic models that ignore many real-life conditions such as the possibility of stock-out in inventory systems. In this paper, we develop four new sustainable economic production quantity models that consider different shortage situations. To find...

  17. Rice production model based on the concept of ecological footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, S. A.; Wicaksono, A. D.; Dinanti, D.

    2017-06-01

    Pursuant to what had been stated in Region Spatial Planning (RTRW) of Malang Regency for period 2010-2030, Malang Regency was considered as the center of agricultural development, including districts bordered with Malang City. To protect the region functioning as the provider of rice production, then the policy of sustainable food farming-land (LP2B) was made which its implementation aims to protect rice-land. In the existing condition, LP2B system was not maximally executed, and it caused a limited extend of rice-land to deliver rice production output. One cause related with the development of settlements and industries due to the effect of Malang City that converted land-function. Location of research focused on 30 villages with direct border with Malang City. Review was conducted to develop a model of relation between farming production output and ecological footprint variables. These variables include rice-land area (X1), built land percentage (X2), and number of farmers (X3). Analysis technique was regression. Result of regression indicated that the model of rice production output Y=-207,983 + 10.246X1. Rice-land area (X1) was the most influential independent variable. It was concluded that of villages directly bordered with Malang City, there were 11 villages with higher production potential because their rice production yield was more than 1,000 tons/year, while 12 villages were threatened with low production output because its rice production yield only attained 500 tons/year. Based on the model and the spatial direction of RTRW, it can be said that the direction for the farming development policy must be redesigned to maintain rice-land area on the regions on which agricultural activity was still dominant. Because rice-land area was the most influential factor to farming production. Therefore, the wider the rice-land is, the higher rice production output is on each village.

  18. Construction of a biodynamic model for Cry protein production studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Mtz, Ana Karin; Pérez-Guevara, Fermín

    2014-12-01

    Mathematical models have been used from growth kinetic simulation to gen regulatory networks prediction for B. thuringiensis culture. However, this culture is a time dependent dynamic process where cells physiology suffers several changes depending on the changes in the cell environment. Therefore, through its culture, B. thuringiensis presents three phases related with the predominance of three major metabolic pathways: vegetative growth (Embded-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway), transition (γ-aminobutiric cycle) and sporulation (tricarboxylic acid cycle). There is not available a mathematical model that relates the different stages of cultivation with the metabolic pathway active on each one of them. Therefore, in the present study, and based on published data, a biodynamic model was generated to describe the dynamic of the three different phases based on their major metabolic pathways. The biodynamic model is used to study the interrelation between the different culture phases and their relationship with the Cry protein production. The model consists of three interconnected modules where each module represents one culture phase and its principal metabolic pathway. For model validation four new fermentations were done showing that the model constructed describes reasonably well the dynamic of the three phases. The main results of this model imply that poly-β-hydroxybutyrate is crucial for endospore and Cry protein production. According to the yields of dipicolinic acid and Cry from poly-β-hydroxybutyrate, calculated with the model, the endospore and Cry protein production are not just simultaneous and parallel processes they are also competitive processes.

  19. An integrated production-inventory model for food products adopting a general raw material procurement policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauza, G.; Prasetyo, H.; Amanto, B. S.

    2018-05-01

    Studies on an integrated production-inventory model for deteriorating items have been done extensively. Most of the studies define deterioration as physical depletion of some inventories over time. This definition may not represent the deterioration characteristics of food products. The quality of food production decreases over time while the quantity remains the same. Further, in the existing models, the raw material is replenished several times (or at least once) within one production cycle. In food industries, however, a food company, for several reasons (e.g., the seasonal raw materials, discounted price, etc.) sometimes will get more benefit if it orders raw materials in a large quantity. Considering this fact, this research, therefore, is aimed at developing a more representative inventory model by (i) considering the quality losses in food and (ii) adopting a general raw material procurement policy. A mathematical model is established to represent the proposed policy in which the total profit of the system is the objective function. To evaluate the performance of the model, a numerical test was conducted. The numerical test indicates that the developed model has better performance, i.e., the total profit is 2.3% higher compared to the existing model.

  20. A study for production simulation model generation system based on data model at a shipyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Gi Back

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Simulation technology is a type of shipbuilding product lifecycle management solution used to support production planning or decision-making. Normally, most shipbuilding processes are consisted of job shop production, and the modeling and simulation require professional skills and experience on shipbuilding. For these reasons, many shipbuilding companies have difficulties adapting simulation systems, regardless of the necessity for the technology. In this paper, the data model for shipyard production simulation model generation was defined by analyzing the iterative simulation modeling procedure. The shipyard production simulation data model defined in this study contains the information necessary for the conventional simulation modeling procedure and can serve as a basis for simulation model generation. The efficacy of the developed system was validated by applying it to the simulation model generation of the panel block production line. By implementing the initial simulation model generation process, which was performed in the past with a simulation modeler, the proposed system substantially reduced the modeling time. In addition, by reducing the difficulties posed by different modeler-dependent generation methods, the proposed system makes the standardization of the simulation model quality possible.

  1. Surrogate reservoir models for CSI well probabilistic production forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Buitrago

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the construction and use of Surrogate Reservoir Models capable of accurately predicting cumulative oil production for every well stimulated with cyclic steam injection at any given time in a heavy oil reservoir in Mexico considering uncertain variables. The central composite experimental design technique was selected to capture the maximum amount of information from the model response with a minimum number of reservoir models simulations. Four input uncertain variables (the dead oil viscosity with temperature, the reservoir pressure, the reservoir permeability and oil sand thickness hydraulically connected to the well were selected as the ones with more impact on the initial hot oil production rate according to an analytical production prediction model. Twenty five runs were designed and performed with the STARS simulator for each well type on the reservoir model. The results show that the use of Surrogate Reservoir Models is a fast viable alternative to perform probabilistic production forecasting of the reservoir.

  2. Habitat connectivity and ecosystem productivity: implications from a simple model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E

    2007-01-01

    The import of resources (food, nutrients) sustains biological production and food webs in resource-limited habitats. Resource export from donor habitats subsidizes production in recipient habitats, but the ecosystem-scale consequences of resource translocation are generally unknown. Here, I use a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton model to show how dispersive connectivity between a shallow autotrophic habitat and a deep heterotrophic pelagic habitat can amplify overall system production in metazoan food webs. This result derives from the finite capacity of suspension feeders to capture and assimilate food particles: excess primary production in closed autotrophic habitats cannot be assimilated by consumers; however, if excess phytoplankton production is exported to food-limited heterotrophic habitats, it can be assimilated by zooplankton to support additional secondary production. Transport of regenerated nutrients from heterotrophic to autotrophic habitats sustains higher system primary production. These simulation results imply that the ecosystem-scale efficiency of nutrient transformation into metazoan biomass can be constrained by the rate of resource exchange across habitats and that it is optimized when the transport rate matches the growth rate of primary producers. Slower transport (i.e., reduced connectivity) leads to nutrient limitation of primary production in autotrophic habitats and food limitation of secondary production in heterotrophic habitats. Habitat fragmentation can therefore impose energetic constraints on the carrying capacity of aquatic ecosystems. The outcomes of ecosystem restoration through habitat creation will be determined by both functions provided by newly created aquatic habitats and the rates of hydraulic connectivity between them.

  3. Multi-scale modeling for sustainable chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Kai; Bakshi, Bhavik R; Herrgård, Markus J

    2013-09-01

    With recent advances in metabolic engineering, it is now technically possible to produce a wide portfolio of existing petrochemical products from biomass feedstock. In recent years, a number of modeling approaches have been developed to support the engineering and decision-making processes associated with the development and implementation of a sustainable biochemical industry. The temporal and spatial scales of modeling approaches for sustainable chemical production vary greatly, ranging from metabolic models that aid the design of fermentative microbial strains to material and monetary flow models that explore the ecological impacts of all economic activities. Research efforts that attempt to connect the models at different scales have been limited. Here, we review a number of existing modeling approaches and their applications at the scales of metabolism, bioreactor, overall process, chemical industry, economy, and ecosystem. In addition, we propose a multi-scale approach for integrating the existing models into a cohesive framework. The major benefit of this proposed framework is that the design and decision-making at each scale can be informed, guided, and constrained by simulations and predictions at every other scale. In addition, the development of this multi-scale framework would promote cohesive collaborations across multiple traditionally disconnected modeling disciplines to achieve sustainable chemical production. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Estimation of Sand Production Rate Using Geomechanical and Hydromechanical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Tung Pham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop a numerical model that can be used in sand control during production phase of an oil and gas well. The model is able to predict not only the onset of sand production using critical bottom hole pressure inferred from geomechanical modelling, but also the mass of sand produced versus time as well as the change of porosity versus space and time using hydromechanical modelling. A detailed workflow of the modelling was presented with each step of calculations. The empirical parameters were calibrated using laboratory data. Then the modelling was applied in a case study of an oilfield in Cuu Long basin. In addition, a sensitivity study of the effect of drawdown pressure was presented in this paper. Moreover, a comparison between results of different hydromechanical models was also addressed. The outcome of this paper demonstrated the possibility of modelling the sand production mass in real cases, opening a new approach in sand control in petroleum industry.

  5. Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong

    2015-01-01

    This thesis, entitled “Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand”, presents many aspects of pig production in Thailand including the characteristics of pig farming system, distribution of pig population and pig farms, spatio-temporal distribution and risk of most important diseases in pig at present, and the suitability area for pig farming. Spatial distribution and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand were studied using time-series pig population data to des...

  6. Combinatorial Models for Assembly and Decomposition of Products

    OpenAIRE

    A. N. Bojko

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the most popular combinatorial models that are used for the synthesis of design solutions at the stage of the assembly process flow preparation. It shows that while assembling the product the relations of parts can be represented as a structure of preferences, which is formed on the basis of objective design restrictions put in at the stage of the product design. This structure is a binary preference relation pre-order. Its symmetrical part is equivalence and describes the...

  7. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic and Absorption Modeling for Osmotic Pump Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhanglin; Talattof, Arjang; Fan, Jianghong; Tsakalozou, Eleftheria; Sharan, Satish; Sun, Dajun; Wen, Hong; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Xinyuan

    2017-07-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) and absorption modeling approaches were employed for oral extended-release (ER) drug products based on an osmotic drug delivery system (osmotic pumps). The purpose was to systemically evaluate the in vivo relevance of in vitro dissolution for this type of formulation. As expected, in vitro dissolution appeared to be generally predictive of in vivo PK profiles, because of the unique feature of this delivery system that the in vitro and in vivo release of osmotic pump drug products is less susceptible to surrounding environment in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract such as pH, hydrodynamic, and food effects. The present study considered BCS (Biopharmaceutics Classification System) class 1, 2, and 3 drug products with half-lives ranging from 2 to greater than 24 h. In some cases, the colonic absorption models needed to be adjusted to account for absorption in the colon. C max (maximum plasma concentration) and AUCt (area under the concentration curve) of the studied drug products were sensitive to changes in colon permeability and segmental GI transit times in a drug product-dependent manner. While improvement of the methodology is still warranted for more precise prediction (e.g., colonic absorption and dynamic movement in the GI tract), the results from the present study further emphasized the advantage of using PBPK modeling in addressing product-specific questions arising from regulatory review and drug development.

  8. A Production Model for Construction: A Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antunes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The building construction industry faces challenges, such as increasing project complexity and scope requirements, but shorter deadlines. Additionally, economic uncertainty and rising business competition with a subsequent decrease in profit margins for the industry demands the development of new approaches to construction management. However, the building construction sector relies on practices based on intuition and experience, overlooking the dynamics of its production system. Furthermore, researchers maintain that the construction industry has no history of the application of mathematical approaches to model and manage production. Much work has been carried out on how manufacturing practices apply to construction projects, mostly lean principles. Nevertheless, there has been little research to understand the fundamental mechanisms of production in construction. This study develops an in-depth literature review to examine the existing knowledge about production models and their characteristics in order to establish a foundation for dynamic production systems management in construction. As a result, a theoretical framework is proposed, which will be instrumental in the future development of mathematical production models aimed at predicting the performance and behaviour of dynamic project-based systems in construction.

  9. Phase-synchronisation in continuous flow models of production networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz-Reiter, Bernd; Tervo, Jan Topi; Freitag, Michael

    2006-04-01

    To improve their position at the market, many companies concentrate on their core competences and hence cooperate with suppliers and distributors. Thus, between many independent companies strong linkages develop and production and logistics networks emerge. These networks are characterised by permanently increasing complexity, and are nowadays forced to adapt to dynamically changing markets. This factor complicates an enterprise-spreading production planning and control enormously. Therefore, a continuous flow model for production networks will be derived regarding these special logistic problems. Furthermore, phase-synchronisation effects will be presented and their dependencies to the set of network parameters will be investigated.

  10. A production inventory model with deteriorating items and shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A continuous production control inventory model for deteriorating items with shortages is developed. A number of structural properties of the inventory system are studied analytically. The formulae for the optimal average system cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time are derived when the deterioration rate is very small. Numerical examples are taken to illustrate the procedure of finding the optimal total inventory cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to demonstrate the effects of changing parameter values on the optimal solution of the system.

  11. An inventory control model for biomass dependent production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grado, S.C.; Strauss, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    The financial performance of a biomass dependent production system was critiqued based on the development and validation of an inventory control model. Dynamic programming was used to examine the constraints and capabilities of producing ethanol from various biomass crops. In particular, the model evaluated the plantation, harvest, and manufacturing components of a woody biomass supply system. The optimum wood to ethanol production scheme produced 38 million litres of ethanol in the harvest year, at 13.6 million litre increase over the least optimal policy as demonstrated in the dynamic programming results. The system produced ethanol at a delivered cost of $0.38 L -1 which was consistent with the unit costs from other studies. Nearly 60% of the delivered costs were in ethanol production. The remaining costs were attributed to growing biomass (14%), harvest and shipment of the crop (18%), storage of the raw material and finished product (7%) and open-quotes lost salesclose quotes (2%). Inventory control, in all phases of production, proved to be an important cost consideration throughout the model. The model also analyzed the employment of alternative harvesting policies and the use of different or multiple feedstocks. A comparison between the least cost wood system and an even cut wood system further revealed the benefits of using an inventory control system

  12. Comparison of kinetic model for biogas production from corn cob

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitophyta, L. M.; Maryudi

    2018-04-01

    Energy demand increases every day, while the energy source especially fossil energy depletes increasingly. One of the solutions to overcome the energy depletion is to provide renewable energies such as biogas. Biogas can be generated by corn cob and food waste. In this study, biogas production was carried out by solid-state anaerobic digestion. The steps of biogas production were the preparation of feedstock, the solid-state anaerobic digestion, and the measurement of biogas volume. This study was conducted on TS content of 20%, 22%, and 24%. The aim of this research was to compare kinetic models of biogas production from corn cob and food waste as a co-digestion using the linear, exponential equation, and first-kinetic models. The result showed that the exponential equation had a better correlation than the linear equation on the ascending graph of biogas production. On the contrary, the linear equation had a better correlation than the exponential equation on the descending graph of biogas production. The correlation values on the first-kinetic model had the smallest value compared to the linear and exponential models.

  13. GASCAP: Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model documentation, June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model (GASCAP) has been developed by EIA to provide a historical analysis of the monthly productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead and a projection of monthly capacity for 2 years into the future. The impact of drilling, oil and gas price assumptions, and demand on gas productive capacity are examined. Both gas-well gas and oil-well gas are included. Oil-well gas productive capacity is estimated separately and then combined with the gas-well gas productive capacity. This documentation report provides a general overview of the GASCAP Model, describes the underlying data base, provides technical descriptions of the component models, diagrams the system and subsystem flow, describes the equations, and provides definitions and sources of all variables used in the system. This documentation report is provided to enable users of EIA projections generated by GASCAP to understand the underlying procedures used and to replicate the models and solutions. This report should be of particular interest to those in the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas

  14. Towards a reference model for portfolio management for product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the concept of portfolio management for product development at company level. Departing from a combination of explorative interviews with industry professionals and a literature review a proposal for a reference model for portfolio management is developed....... The model consists of a set of defined and interrelated concepts which forms a coherent and consistent reference model that explicate the totality of the portfolio management concept at company level in terms of structure, processes and elements. The model simultaneously pinpoints, positions and integrates...... several central dimensions of portfolio management....

  15. Modeling and control for closed environment plant production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, David H.; Ting, K. C.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    A computer program was developed to study multiple crop production and control in controlled environment plant production systems. The program simulates crop growth and development under nominal and off-nominal environments. Time-series crop models for wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybean (Glycine max), and white potato (Solanum tuberosum) are integrated with a model-based predictive controller. The controller evaluates and compensates for effects of environmental disturbances on crop production scheduling. The crop models consist of a set of nonlinear polynomial equations, six for each crop, developed using multivariate polynomial regression (MPR). Simulated data from DSSAT crop models, previously modified for crop production in controlled environments with hydroponics under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, were used for the MPR fitting. The model-based predictive controller adjusts light intensity, air temperature, and carbon dioxide concentration set points in response to environmental perturbations. Control signals are determined from minimization of a cost function, which is based on the weighted control effort and squared-error between the system response and desired reference signal.

  16. Sampling from stochastic reservoir models constrained by production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegstad, Bjoern Kaare

    1997-12-31

    When a petroleum reservoir is evaluated, it is important to forecast future production of oil and gas and to assess forecast uncertainty. This is done by defining a stochastic model for the reservoir characteristics, generating realizations from this model and applying a fluid flow simulator to the realizations. The reservoir characteristics define the geometry of the reservoir, initial saturation, petrophysical properties etc. This thesis discusses how to generate realizations constrained by production data, that is to say, the realizations should reproduce the observed production history of the petroleum reservoir within the uncertainty of these data. The topics discussed are: (1) Theoretical framework, (2) History matching, forecasting and forecasting uncertainty, (3) A three-dimensional test case, (4) Modelling transmissibility multipliers by Markov random fields, (5) Up scaling, (6) The link between model parameters, well observations and production history in a simple test case, (7) Sampling the posterior using optimization in a hierarchical model, (8) A comparison of Rejection Sampling and Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, (9) Stochastic simulation and conditioning by annealing in reservoir description, and (10) Uncertainty assessment in history matching and forecasting. 139 refs., 85 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Integrative modelling reveals mechanisms linking productivity and plant species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, James B; Anderson, T Michael; Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Adler, Peter B; Harpole, W Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M; Pärtel, Meelis; Bakker, Jonathan D; Buckley, Yvonne M; Crawley, Michael J; Damschen, Ellen I; Davies, Kendi F; Fay, Philip A; Firn, Jennifer; Gruner, Daniel S; Hector, Andy; Knops, Johannes M H; MacDougall, Andrew S; Melbourne, Brett A; Morgan, John W; Orrock, John L; Prober, Suzanne M; Smith, Melinda D

    2016-01-21

    How ecosystem productivity and species richness are interrelated is one of the most debated subjects in the history of ecology. Decades of intensive study have yet to discern the actual mechanisms behind observed global patterns. Here, by integrating the predictions from multiple theories into a single model and using data from 1,126 grassland plots spanning five continents, we detect the clear signals of numerous underlying mechanisms linking productivity and richness. We find that an integrative model has substantially higher explanatory power than traditional bivariate analyses. In addition, the specific results unveil several surprising findings that conflict with classical models. These include the isolation of a strong and consistent enhancement of productivity by richness, an effect in striking contrast with superficial data patterns. Also revealed is a consistent importance of competition across the full range of productivity values, in direct conflict with some (but not all) proposed models. The promotion of local richness by macroecological gradients in climatic favourability, generally seen as a competing hypothesis, is also found to be important in our analysis. The results demonstrate that an integrative modelling approach leads to a major advance in our ability to discern the underlying processes operating in ecological systems.

  18. Modeling Inequity Aversion in a Dictator Game with Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Rodriguez-Lara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We expand upon the previous models of inequity aversion of Fehr and Schmidt [1], and Frohlich et al. [2], which assume that dictators get disutility if the final allocation of surplus deviates from the equal split (egalitarian principle or from the subjects' production (libertarian principle. In our model, dictators may also account for the way in which the surplus was generated. More precisely, our model incorporates the idea of liberal egalitarian ethics into the analysis, making it possible for dictators to divide the surplus according to the accountability principle, which states that subjects should only be rewarded for factors under their control. This fairness ideal does not hold subjects responsible for factors beyond their control in the production of the surplus, an idea that is absent in the models of inequity aversion cited above (JEL Codes: D3, D6, D63.

  19. Modeling the potential distribution of the invasive golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei in the Upper Paraguay River system using limnological variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD Oliveira

    Full Text Available The invasive golden mussel, Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857, was introduced into the La Plata River estuary and quickly expanded upstream to the North, into the Paraguay and Paraná rivers. An ecological niche modeling approach, based on limnological variables, was used to predict the expansion of the golden mussel in the Paraguay River and its tributaries. We used three approaches to predict the geographic distribution: 1 the spatial distribution of calcium concentration and the saturation index for calcium carbonate (calcite; 2 the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-Set Production (GARP model; and the 3 Maximum Entropy Method (Maxent model. Other limnological variables such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and Total Suspended Solids (TSS were used in the latter two cases. Important tributaries of the Paraguay River such as the Cuiabá and Miranda/Aquidauana rivers exhibit high risk of invasion, while lower risk was observed in the chemically dilute waters of the middle basin where shell calcification may be limited by low calcium concentrations and carbonate mineral undersaturation.

  20. Multivariate Product-Shot-noise Cox Point Process Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalilian, Abdollah; Guan, Yongtao; Mateu, Jorge

    We introduce a new multivariate product-shot-noise Cox process which is useful for model- ing multi-species spatial point patterns with clustering intra-specific interactions and neutral, negative or positive inter-specific interactions. The auto and cross pair correlation functions of the process...... can be obtained in closed analytical forms and approximate simulation of the process is straightforward. We use the proposed process to model interactions within and among five tree species in the Barro Colorado Island plot....

  1. Towards Product Lining Model-Driven Development Code Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Alexander; Rumpe, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    A code generator systematically transforms compact models to detailed code. Today, code generation is regarded as an integral part of model-driven development (MDD). Despite its relevance, the development of code generators is an inherently complex task and common methodologies and architectures are lacking. Additionally, reuse and extension of existing code generators only exist on individual parts. A systematic development and reuse based on a code generator product line is still in its inf...

  2. Irreducible integrable theories form tensor products of conformal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, S.D.; Warner, N.P.

    1991-01-01

    By using Toda field theories we show that there are perturbations of direct products of conformal theories that lead to irreducible integrable field theories. The same affine Toda theory can be truncated to different quantum integrable models for different choices of the charge at infinity and the coupling. The classification of integrable models that can be obtained in this fashion follows the classification of symmetric spaces of type G/H with rank H = rank G. (orig.)

  3. Modeling of growth and laccase production by Pycnoporus sanguineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saat, Muhammad Naziz; Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad; Alias, Zazali; Chuan, Ling Tau; Chisti, Yusuf

    2014-05-01

    Production of extracellular laccase by the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus was examined in batch submerged cultures in shake flasks, baffled shake flasks and a stirred tank bioreactor. The biomass growth in the various culture systems closely followed a logistic growth model. The production of laccase followed a Luedeking-Piret model. A modified Luedeking-Piret model incorporating logistic growth effectively described the consumption of glucose. Biomass productivity, enzyme productivity and substrate consumption were enhanced in baffled shake flasks relative to the cases for the conventional shake flasks. This was associated with improved oxygen transfer in the presence of the baffles. The best results were obtained in the stirred tank bioreactor. At 28 °C, pH 4.5, an agitation speed of 600 rpm and a dissolved oxygen concentration of ~25 % of air saturation, the laccase productivity in the bioreactor exceeded 19 U L(-1 )days(-1), or 1.5-fold better than the best case for the baffled shake flask. The final concentration of the enzyme was about 325 U L(-1).

  4. Modeling Manpower and Equipment Productivity in Tall Building Construction Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudumbai Krishnaswamy, Parthasarathy; Rajiah, Murugasan; Vasan, Ramya

    2017-12-01

    Tall building construction projects involve two critical resources of manpower and equipment. Their usage, however, widely varies due to several factors affecting their productivity. Currently, no systematic study for estimating and increasing their productivity is available. What is prevalent is the use of empirical data, experience of similar projects and assumptions. As tall building projects are here to stay and increase, to meet the emerging demands in ever shrinking urban spaces, it is imperative to explore ways and means of scientific productivity models for basic construction activities: concrete, reinforcement, formwork, block work and plastering for the input of specific resources in a mixed environment of manpower and equipment usage. Data pertaining to 72 tall building projects in India were collected and analyzed. Then, suitable productivity estimation models were developed using multiple linear regression analysis and validated using independent field data. It is hoped that the models developed in the study will be useful for quantity surveyors, cost engineers and project managers to estimate productivity of resources in tall building projects.

  5. Ecological Niche Modelling of Bank Voles in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Amirpour Haredasht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The bank vole (Myodes glareolus is the natural host of Puumala virus (PUUV in vast areas of Europe. PUUV is one of the hantaviruses which are transmitted to humans by infected rodents. PUUV causes a general mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS called nephropathia epidemica (NE. Vector-borne and zoonotic diseases generally display clear spatial patterns due to different space-dependent factors. Land cover influences disease transmission by controlling both the spatial distribution of vectors or hosts, as well as by facilitating the human contact with them. In this study the use of ecological niche modelling (ENM for predicting the geographical distribution of bank vole population on the basis of spatial climate information is tested. The Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP is used to model the ecological niche of bank voles in Western Europe. The meteorological data, land cover types and geo-referenced points representing the locations of the bank voles (latitude/longitude in the study area are used as the primary model input value. The predictive accuracy of the bank vole ecologic niche model was significant (training accuracy of 86%. The output of the GARP models based on the 50% subsets of points used for testing the model showed an accuracy of 75%. Compared with random models, the probability of such high predictivity was low (χ2 tests, p < 10−6. As such, the GARP models were predictive and the used ecologic niche model indeed indicates the ecologic requirements of bank voles. This approach successfully identified the areas of infection risk across the study area. The result suggests that the niche modelling approach can be implemented in a next step towards the development of new tools for monitoring the bank vole’s population.

  6. Ecological niche modelling of bank voles in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirpour Haredasht, Sara; Barrios, Miguel; Farifteh, Jamshid; Maes, Piet; Clement, Jan; Verstraeten, Willem W; Tersago, Katrien; Van Ranst, Marc; Coppin, Pol; Berckmans, Daniel; Aerts, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-28

    The bank vole (Myodes glareolus) is the natural host of Puumala virus (PUUV) in vast areas of Europe. PUUV is one of the hantaviruses which are transmitted to humans by infected rodents. PUUV causes a general mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) called nephropathia epidemica (NE). Vector-borne and zoonotic diseases generally display clear spatial patterns due to different space-dependent factors. Land cover influences disease transmission by controlling both the spatial distribution of vectors or hosts, as well as by facilitating the human contact with them. In this study the use of ecological niche modelling (ENM) for predicting the geographical distribution of bank vole population on the basis of spatial climate information is tested. The Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP) is used to model the ecological niche of bank voles in Western Europe. The meteorological data, land cover types and geo-referenced points representing the locations of the bank voles (latitude/longitude) in the study area are used as the primary model input value. The predictive accuracy of the bank vole ecologic niche model was significant (training accuracy of 86%). The output of the GARP models based on the 50% subsets of points used for testing the model showed an accuracy of 75%. Compared with random models, the probability of such high predictivity was low (χ(2) tests, p < 10(-6)). As such, the GARP models were predictive and the used ecologic niche model indeed indicates the ecologic requirements of bank voles. This approach successfully identified the areas of infection risk across the study area. The result suggests that the niche modelling approach can be implemented in a next step towards the development of new tools for monitoring the bank vole's population.

  7. Monitoring and Modeling Farmland Productivity Along the Venice Coastland, Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoli, G.; Bonetti, S.; Scudiero, E.

    2013-01-01

    The southern portion of the Venice coastland is a very precarious environment and salt contamination of land and groundwater is a severe problem that is seriously impacting the farmland productivity. Geophysical surveys, lab testing and continuous monitoring of hydrological parameters together wi...... model is linked to the atmosphere by the calculation of the stomatal conductance which is optimized for maximum carbon gain. The model is applied to the field site to understand the impact of land elevation, soil heterogeneities, and seawater contamination on land productivity.......The southern portion of the Venice coastland is a very precarious environment and salt contamination of land and groundwater is a severe problem that is seriously impacting the farmland productivity. Geophysical surveys, lab testing and continuous monitoring of hydrological parameters together...

  8. The Knowledge Production Model of the New Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauto, Giancarlo; Valentin, Finn

    2016-01-01

    , coexists with the standard model of knowledge production in clinical medicine. Our comparison of the two approaches finds that Translational Research allows investigations across diverse and cognitively distant knowledge bases, thanks to the intensive use of research technologies that emerge from...

  9. Revised models and genetic parameter estimates for production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic parameters for production and reproduction traits in the Elsenburg Dormer sheep stud were estimated using records of 11743 lambs born between 1943 and 2002. An animal model with direct and maternal additive, maternal permanent and temporary environmental effects was fitted for traits considered traits of the ...

  10. Optimum profit model considering production, quality and sale problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Ho; Lu, Chih-Lun

    2011-12-01

    Chen and Liu ['Procurement Strategies in the Presence of the Spot Market-an Analytical Framework', Production Planning and Control, 18, 297-309] presented the optimum profit model between the producers and the purchasers for the supply chain system with a pure procurement policy. However, their model with a simple manufacturing cost did not consider the used cost of the customer. In this study, the modified Chen and Liu's model will be addressed for determining the optimum product and process parameters. The authors propose a modified Chen and Liu's model under the two-stage screening procedure. The surrogate variable having a high correlation with the measurable quality characteristic will be directly measured in the first stage. The measurable quality characteristic will be directly measured in the second stage when the product decision cannot be determined in the first stage. The used cost of the customer will be measured by adopting Taguchi's quadratic quality loss function. The optimum purchaser's order quantity, the producer's product price and the process quality level will be jointly determined by maximising the expected profit between them.

  11. Kinetic study and modeling of biosurfactant production using Bacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesty Heryani

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: For further development and industrial applications, the modified Gompertz equation is proposed to predict the cell mass and biosurfactant production as a goodness of fit was obtained with this model. The modified Gompertz equation was also extended to enable the excellent prediction of the surface tension.

  12. Empirical Model for Predicting Rate of Biogas Production | Adamu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rate of biogas production using cow manure as substrate was monitored in two laboratory scale batch reactors (13 liter and 108 liter capacities). Two empirical models based on the Gompertz and the modified logistic equations were used to fit the experimental data based on non-linear regression analysis using Solver tool ...

  13. Theoretical models in the development of advertising for food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Stacey, Julia

    2005-01-01

    the advertisement influences the target may serve as creative inspiration and as a common frame of reference for those involved in the development of advertisements. The means-end-chain model says that an advertisement is effective by connecting the product's attributes (means) and the target's personal values...

  14. Hamiltonian model analysis of ππ scattering and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obu, Mitsuaki

    2000-01-01

    A simple Hamiltonian model for ππ scattering and production is presented which incorporates resonant and background interactions. Analysis of isoscalar S wave ππ phase shift indicates that the background interaction plays only a minor role and the σ may be a dynamical resonance which is not originated from a corresponding bare state. (author)

  15. Large psub(T) pion production and clustered parton model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanki, T [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Coll. of General Education

    1977-05-01

    Recent experimental results on the large p sub(T) inclusive ..pi../sup 0/ productions by pp and ..pi..p collisions are interpreted by the parton model in which the constituent quarks are defined to be the clusters of the quark-partons and gluons.

  16. Fluctuations and correlations in statistical models of hadron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.

    2012-01-01

    An extension of the standard concept of the statistical ensembles is suggested. Namely, the statistical ensembles with extensive quantities fluctuating according to an externally given distribution are introduced. Applications in the statistical models of multiple hadron production in high energy physics are discussed.

  17. The Linked Dual Representation model of vocal perception and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean eHutchins

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The voice is one of the most important media for communication, yet there is a wide range of abilities in both the perception and production of the voice. In this article, we review this range of abilities, focusing on pitch accuracy as a particularly informative case, and look at the factors underlying these abilities. Several classes of models have been posited describing the relationship between vocal perception and production, and we review the evidence for and against each class of model. We look at how the voice is different from other musical instruments and review evidence about both the association and the dissociation between vocal perception and production abilities. Finally, we introduce the Linked Dual Representation model, a new approach which can account for the broad patterns in prior findings, including trends in the data which might seem to be countervailing. We discuss how this model interacts with higher-order cognition and examine its predictions about several aspects of vocal perception and production.

  18. Product Lifecycle Management Architecture: A Model Based Systems Engineering Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, Nicholas James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report is an analysis of the Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) program. The analysis is centered on a need statement generated by a Nuclear Weapons (NW) customer. The need statement captured in this report creates an opportunity for the PLM to provide a robust service as a solution. Lifecycles for both the NW and PLM are analyzed using Model Based System Engineering (MBSE).

  19. Double Regge model for non diffractive A1 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, J.C.; Endler, A.; Santoro, A.; Simao, F.R.A.

    1977-07-01

    A Reggeized double-nucleon-exchange model is shown to be able to to reproduce qualitatively the non-diffractive A 1 production recently observed in the reaction K - p → Σ - π + π - π + at 4.15 GeV/c

  20. Modelling climate change impacts on crop production for food security

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bindi, M.; Palosuo, T.; Trnka, Miroslav; Semenov, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 65, SEP (2015), s. 3-5 ISSN 0936-577X Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Crop production Upscaling * Climate change impact and adaptation assessments * Upscaling * Model ensembles Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.690, year: 2015

  1. Metabolic modeling of mixed substrate uptake for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Y.; Hebly, M.; Kleerebezem, R.; Muyzer, G.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production by mixed microbial communities can be established in a two-stage process, consisting of a microbial enrichment step and a PHA accumulation step. In this study, a mathematical model was constructed for evaluating the influence of the carbon substrate composition

  2. Modelling of wander ratios, travel speeds and productivity of cable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study, however, found that both cable and grapple skidders were only hauling approximately 50% of their capacity and for that reason multiple regression models to predict potential production at full payload capacity were developed for the two skidder configurations. Multiple regression was also used to develop ...

  3. Sustainable crop models for fruit, vegetable and flower quality productions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inglese Paolo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a paradigm that has evolved over the time, since the ideas of socially acceptable and compatible development, on which it was originally based, are now supported by the more recent notions of ecological equilibria and production process economy, both of which need to be also preserved. Environmental and health safety, rational use of the natural resources and technological tools, upkeep of high social growth rates and respect of a social equity are the basis of the sustainability for any production process, including the agriculture. The new globalization framework has penalized small farms and, at the same time, has put serious constraints to the development of stronger economic systems (medium/large farms, as well. As consequence, the EU has outlined several strategic programs to support small agricultural systems in marginal areas by: 1 strengthening all the quality- related aspects of agricultural production, including nutritional and cultural traits associated to local, typical and in some cases to neglected crops; 2 improving traditional cultural practices by adapting the cropping cycles and fomenting new partnerships between the different parts of the production chain, as for example; promotion of small horticultural chains. Specific political actions for the horticultural production sector have also been developed. Some of these policies are specifically addressed to preserve the biodiversity and to create quality labels certifying typical and/or organic products. All of these are possible strategies that may counteract and cope with the globalization process and increase the competitiveness of many production systems especially those performed by local and small entrepreneurs. New sustainable development models are required by both the market and the implicit requirements of the production system, inside a context on which Europe must face with new emerging economies with lower production costs, by increasing

  4. Employment, Production and Consumption model: Patterns of phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavička, H.; Lin, L.; Novotný, J.

    2010-04-01

    We have simulated the model of Employment, Production and Consumption (EPC) using Monte Carlo. The EPC model is an agent based model that mimics very basic rules of industrial economy. From the perspective of physics, the nature of the interactions in the EPC model represents multi-agent interactions where the relations among agents follow the key laws for circulation of capital and money. Monte Carlo simulations of the stochastic model reveal phase transition in the model economy. The two phases are the phase with full unemployment and the phase with nearly full employment. The economy switches between these two states suddenly as a reaction to a slight variation in the exogenous parameter, thus the system exhibits strong non-linear behavior as a response to the change of the exogenous parameters.

  5. Particle production at large transverse momentum and hard collision models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranft, G.; Ranft, J.

    1977-04-01

    The majority of the presently available experimental data is consistent with hard scattering models. Therefore the hard scattering model seems to be well established. There is good evidence for jets in large transverse momentum reactions as predicted by these models. The overall picture is however not yet well enough understood. We mention only the empirical hard scattering cross section introduced in most of the models, the lack of a deep theoretical understanding of the interplay between quark confinement and jet production, and the fact that we are not yet able to discriminate conclusively between the many proposed hard scattering models. The status of different hard collision models discussed in this paper is summarized. (author)

  6. Prioritizing Interdependent Production Processes using Leontief Input-Output Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masbad Jesah Grace

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology in identifying key production processes in an interdependent production system. Previous approaches on this domain have drawbacks that may potentially affect the reliability of decision-making. The proposed approach adopts the Leontief input-output model (L-IOM which was proven successful in analyzing interdependent economic systems. The motivation behind such adoption lies in the strength of L-IOM in providing a rigorous quantitative framework in identifying key components of interdependent systems. In this proposed approach, the consumption and production flows of each process are represented respectively by the material inventory produced by the prior process and the material inventory produced by the current process, both in monetary values. A case study in a furniture production system located in central Philippines was carried out to elucidate the proposed approach. Results of the case were reported in this work

  7. Modeling population exposures to silver nanoparticles present in consumer products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Steven G.; Mukherjee, Dwaipayan; Cai, Ting; Xu, Shu S.; Alexander, Jocelyn A.; Mi, Zhongyuan; Calderon, Leonardo; Mainelis, Gediminas; Lee, KiBum; Lioy, Paul J.; Tetley, Teresa D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-11-01

    Exposures of the general population to manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) are expected to keep rising due to increasing use of MNPs in common consumer products (PEN 2014). The present study focuses on characterizing ambient and indoor population exposures to silver MNPs (nAg). For situations where detailed, case-specific exposure-related data are not available, as in the present study, a novel tiered modeling system, Prioritization/Ranking of Toxic Exposures with GIS (geographic information system) Extension (PRoTEGE), has been developed: it employs a product life cycle analysis (LCA) approach coupled with basic human life stage analysis (LSA) to characterize potential exposures to chemicals of current and emerging concern. The PRoTEGE system has been implemented for ambient and indoor environments, utilizing available MNP production, usage, and properties databases, along with laboratory measurements of potential personal exposures from consumer spray products containing nAg. Modeling of environmental and microenvironmental levels of MNPs employs probabilistic material flow analysis combined with product LCA to account for releases during manufacturing, transport, usage, disposal, etc. Human exposure and dose characterization further employ screening microenvironmental modeling and intake fraction methods combined with LSA for potentially exposed populations, to assess differences associated with gender, age, and demographics. Population distributions of intakes, estimated using the PRoTEGE framework, are consistent with published individual-based intake estimates, demonstrating that PRoTEGE is capable of capturing realistic exposure scenarios for the US population. Distributions of intakes are also used to calculate biologically relevant population distributions of uptakes and target tissue doses through human airway dosimetry modeling that takes into account product MNP size distributions and age-relevant physiological parameters.

  8. Yarrowia lipolytica: a model yeast for citric acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Ema; Charreau, Hernán; Cerrutti, Patricia; Foresti, María Laura

    2017-12-01

    Every year more than 2 million tons of citric acid (CA) are produced around the world for industrial uses. Although initially extracted from citrus, the low profitability of the process and the increasing demand soon stimulated the search for more efficient methods to produce CA. Currently, most world CA demand (99%) is satisfied by fermentations with microorganisms, especially filamentous fungi and yeasts. CA production with yeasts has certain advantages over molds (e.g. higher productivity and easier cultivation), which in the last two decades have triggered a clear increase in publications and patents devoted to the use of yeasts in this field. Yarrowia lipolytica has become a model yeast that proved to be successful in different production systems. Considering the current interest evidenced in the literature, the most significant information on CA production using Y. lipolytica is summarized. The relevance on CA yields of key factors such as strains, media formulation, environmental conditions and production regimes is thoroughly discussed, with particular focus on increasing CA productivity. Besides, the possibility of tuning the mentioned variables to reduce concomitant isocitric acid production-the biggest disadvantage of using yeasts-is analyzed. Available methods for CA purification/quantification are also discussed. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Educational productivity in higher education : An examination of part of the Walberg Educational Productivity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, M.; Jansen, E. P. W. A.

    Several factors in the H. J. Walberg Educational Productivity Model, which assumes that 9 factors affect academic achievement, were examined with a limited sample of 1st-year students in the University of Groningen. Information concerning 8 of these factors - grades, motivation, age, prior

  10. Multifractal structure of multiparticle production in the branching models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.B.; Hwa, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure is described for the multifractal analysis of data on multiparticle production obtained at high energy either in experiment or in Monte Carlo simulation. It is shown how the spectrum f(α) of the rapidity-density index α can be determined from the multiplicity fluctuation of the rapidity distribution, as the resolution is changed. The branching model is used to illustrate the procedure. It is found that the φ 3 model has a narrower f(α) than the gluon model, suggesting that multifractality is a useful arena for confrontation between theory and experiment. 13 refs., 2 figs

  11. Multiparticle production in a two-component dual parton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurenche, P.; Bopp, F.W.; Capella, A.; Kwiecinski, J.; Maire, M.; Ranft, J.; Tran Thanh Van, J.

    1992-01-01

    The dual parton model (DPM) describes soft and semihard multiparticle production. The version of the DPM presented in this paper includes soft and hard mechanisms as well as diffractive processes. The model is formulated as a Monte Carlo event generator. We calculate in this model, in the energy range of the hadron colliders, rapidity distributions and the rise of the rapidity plateau with the collision energy, transverse-momentum distributions and the rise of average transverse momenta with the collision energy, multiplicity distributions in different pseudorapidity regions, and transverse-energy distributions. For most of these quantities we find a reasonable agreement with experimental data

  12. Fission-product burnup chain model for research reactor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Do; Gil, Choong Sup; Lee, Jong Tai [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Republic of Korea)

    1990-12-01

    A new fission-product burnup chain model was developed for use in research reactor analysis capable of predicting the burnup-dependent reactivity with high precision over a wide range of burnup. The new model consists of 63 nuclides treated explicitly and one fissile-independent pseudo-element. The effective absorption cross sections for the preudo-element and the preudo-element yield of actinide nuclides were evaluated in the this report. The model is capable of predicting the high burnup behavior of low-enriched uranium-fueled research reactors.(Author).

  13. Prices, production, and inventories over the automotive model year

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Copeland; Wendy E. Dunn; George J. Hall

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the within-model-year pricing and production of new automobiles. Using new monthly data on U.S. transaction prices, we document that for the typical new vehicle, prices typically fall over the model year at a 9.2 percent annual rate. Concurrently, both sales and inventories are hump shaped. To explain these time series, we formulate a market equilibrium model for new automobiles in which inventory and pricing decisions are made simultaneously. On the demand side, we use mic...

  14. A model of the productivity of the northern pintail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, J.D.; Clark, W.R.; Klaas, E.E.

    1993-01-01

    We adapted a stochastic computer model to simulate productivity of the northern pintail (Anas acuta). Researchers at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service originally developed the model to simulate productivity of the mallard (A. platyrhynchos). We obtained data and descriptive information on the breeding biology of pintails from a literature review and from discussions with waterfowl biologists. All biological parameters in the productivity component of the mallard model (e.g, initial body weights, weight loss during laying and incubation, incubation time, clutch size, nest site selection characteristics) were compared with data on pintails and adjusted accordingly. The function in the mallard model that predicts nest initiation in response to pond conditions adequately mimicked pintail behavior and did not require adjustment.Recruitment rate was most sensitive to variations in parameters that control nest success, seasonal duckling survival rate, and yearling and adult body weight. We simulated upland and wetland habitat conditions in central North Dakota and compared simulation results with observed data. Simulated numbers were not significantly different from observed numbers of successful nests during wet, average, and dry wetland conditions. The simulated effect of predator barrier fencing in a study area in central North Dakota increased recruitment rate by an average of 18.4%. This modeling synthesized existing knowledge on the breeding biology of the northern pintail, identified necessary research, and furnished a useful tool for the examination and comparison of various management options.

  15. Production functions for climate policy modeling. An empirical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Werf, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative models for climate policy modeling differ in the production structure used and in the sizes of the elasticities of substitution. The empirical foundation for both is generally lacking. This paper estimates the parameters of 2-level CES production functions with capital, labour and energy as inputs, and is the first to systematically compare all nesting structures. Using industry-level data from 12 OECD countries, we find that the nesting structure where capital and labour are combined first, fits the data best, but for most countries and industries we cannot reject that all three inputs can be put into one single nest. These two nesting structures are used by most climate models. However, while several climate policy models use a Cobb-Douglas function for (part of the) production function, we reject elasticities equal to one, in favour of considerably smaller values. Finally we find evidence for factor-specific technological change. With lower elasticities and with factor-specific technological change, some climate policy models may find a bigger effect of endogenous technological change on mitigating the costs of climate policy. (author)

  16. The CAFE model: A net production model for global ocean phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silsbe, Greg M.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Halsey, Kimberly H.; Milligan, Allen J.; Westberry, Toby K.

    2016-12-01

    The Carbon, Absorption, and Fluorescence Euphotic-resolving (CAFE) net primary production model is an adaptable framework for advancing global ocean productivity assessments by exploiting state-of-the-art satellite ocean color analyses and addressing key physiological and ecological attributes of phytoplankton. Here we present the first implementation of the CAFE model that incorporates inherent optical properties derived from ocean color measurements into a mechanistic and accurate model of phytoplankton growth rates (μ) and net phytoplankton production (NPP). The CAFE model calculates NPP as the product of energy absorption (QPAR), and the efficiency (ϕμ) by which absorbed energy is converted into carbon biomass (CPhyto), while μ is calculated as NPP normalized to CPhyto. The CAFE model performance is evaluated alongside 21 other NPP models against a spatially robust and globally representative set of direct NPP measurements. This analysis demonstrates that the CAFE model explains the greatest amount of variance and has the lowest model bias relative to other NPP models analyzed with this data set. Global oceanic NPP from the CAFE model (52 Pg C m-2 yr-1) and mean division rates (0.34 day-1) are derived from climatological satellite data (2002-2014). This manuscript discusses and validates individual CAFE model parameters (e.g., QPAR and ϕμ), provides detailed sensitivity analyses, and compares the CAFE model results and parameterization to other widely cited models.

  17. A game-theoretical model of private power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, W.; Wu, F.F.

    2001-01-01

    Private power production has sprung up all over the world. The build-operate-transfer (BOT) arrangement has emerged as one of the most important options for private power production, especially in developing countries with rapidly growing demand and financial shortages. Based on oligopoly theory, the paper proposes a Stackelberg game model between a BOT investor and an electric utility whereby they can negotiate a long-term energy contract. Asymmetric pricing schemes are taken into account such that a host utility purchases electricity from a BOT company at its ''avoided cost'', and sells its electricity to end users at its ''average cost''. Our Stackelberg game model is transferred into a two-level optimization problem, and then solved by an iterative algorithm. The game model is demonstrated by an illustrative example. (author)

  18. A game-theoretical model of private power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, W.; Wu, F.F. [University of Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    2001-03-01

    Private power production has sprung up all over the world. The build-operate-transfer (BOT) arrangement has emerged as one of the most important options for private power production, especially in developing countries with rapidly growing demand and financial shortages. Based on oligopoly theory, the paper proposes a Stackelberg game model between a BOT investor and an electric utility whereby they can negotiate a long-term energy contract. Asymmetric pricing schemes are taken into account such that a host utility purchases electricity from a BOT company at its ''avoided cost'', and sells its electricity to end users at its ''average cost''. Our Stackelberg game model is transferred into a two-level optimization problem, and then solved by an iterative algorithm. The game model is demonstrated by an illustrative example. (author)

  19. Local business models for district heat production; Kaukolaemmoen paikalliset liiketoimintamallit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, L.; Pesola, A.; Vanhanen, J.

    2012-12-15

    Local district heating business, outside large urban centers, is a profitable business in Finland, which can be practiced with several different business models. In addition to the traditional, local district heating business, local district heat production can be also based on franchising business model, on integrated service model or on different types of cooperation models, either between a local district heat producer and industrial site providing surplus heat or between a local district heat producer and a larger district heating company. Locally available wood energy is currently utilized effectively in the traditional district heating business model, in which a local entrepreneur produces heat to consumers in the local area. The franchising model is a more advanced version of the traditional district heating entrepreneurship. In this model, franchisor funds part of the investments, as well as offers centralized maintenance and fuel supply, for example. In the integrated service model, the local district heat producer offers also energy efficiency services and other value-added services, which are based on either the local district heat suppliers or his partner's expertise. In the cooperation model with industrial site, the local district heating business is based on the utilization of the surplus heat from the industrial site. In some cases, profitable operating model approach may be a district heating company outsourcing operations of one or more heating plants to a local entrepreneur. It can be concluded that all business models for district heat production (traditional district heat business model, franchising, integrated service model, cooperative model) discussed in this report can be profitable in Finnish conditions, as well for the local heat producer as for the municipality - and, above all, they produce cost-competitive heat for the end-user. All the models were seen as viable and interesting and having possibilities for expansion Finland

  20. Mathematical model of rhamnolipid production using E.coli bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adham, Muhammad Fariduddin; Apri, Mochamad; Moeis, Maelita Ramdani

    2018-03-01

    Rhamnolipid is one of biosurfactants that is widely used in many industries. Despite its wide use, production of rhamnolipid usually involves a pathogen that may endanger our health. To tackle this issue, in iGEM (International Genetically Engineered Machine) competition 2015, our team engineered Escherichia coli (E.coli) to produce rhamnolipid. The bacteria were then put into medium containing glucose and lactose. It turned out that bacteria E. coli produced lower rhamnolipid than that by pseudomonas, therefore a good strategy is required to improve their productivity. We present a mathematical model to describe the production of rhamnolipid by the engineered E coli. Using bifurcation analysis, the equilibrium points of the model and their stabilities were analyzed as the amount of lactose was varied. We show that the system produces bistability behavior for some interval values of lactose. From this analysis we found that to guarantee a high production of rhamnolipid, a high level of lactose is required. To maintain the productivity, however, it is sufficient to maintain the lactose level above a certain threshold value.

  1. Modeling Electric Discharges with Entropy Production Rate Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Christen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Under which circumstances are variational principles based on entropy production rate useful tools for modeling steady states of electric (gas discharge systems far from equilibrium? It is first shown how various different approaches, as Steenbeck’s minimum voltage and Prigogine’s minimum entropy production rate principles are related to the maximum entropy production rate principle (MEPP. Secondly, three typical examples are discussed, which provide a certain insight in the structure of the models that are candidates for MEPP application. It is then thirdly argued that MEPP, although not being an exact physical law, may provide reasonable model parameter estimates, provided the constraints contain the relevant (nonlinear physical effects and the parameters to be determined are related to disregarded weak constraints that affect mainly global entropy production. Finally, it is additionally conjectured that a further reason for the success of MEPP in certain far from equilibrium systems might be based on a hidden linearity of the underlying kinetic equation(s.

  2. Next Generation Agricultural System Data, Models and Knowledge Products: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antle, John M.; Jones, James W.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural system models have become important tools to provide predictive and assessment capability to a growing array of decision-makers in the private and public sectors. Despite ongoing research and model improvements, many of the agricultural models today are direct descendants of research investments initially made 30-40 years ago, and many of the major advances in data, information and communication technology (ICT) of the past decade have not been fully exploited. The purpose of this Special Issue of Agricultural Systems is to lay the foundation for the next generation of agricultural systems data, models and knowledge products. The Special Issue is based on a 'NextGen' study led by the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

  3. Improving Power System Modeling. A Tool to Link Capacity Expansion and Production Cost Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diakov, Victor [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Capacity expansion models (CEM) provide a high-level long-term view at the prospects of the evolving power system. In simulating the possibilities of long-term capacity expansion, it is important to maintain the viability of power system operation in the short-term (daily, hourly and sub-hourly) scales. Production-cost models (PCM) simulate routine power system operation on these shorter time scales using detailed load, transmission and generation fleet data by minimizing production costs and following reliability requirements. When based on CEM 'predictions' about generating unit retirements and buildup, PCM provide more detailed simulation for the short-term system operation and, consequently, may confirm the validity of capacity expansion predictions. Further, production cost model simulations of a system that is based on capacity expansion model solution are 'evolutionary' sound: the generator mix is the result of logical sequence of unit retirement and buildup resulting from policy and incentives. The above has motivated us to bridge CEM with PCM by building a capacity expansion - to - production cost model Linking Tool (CEPCoLT). The Linking Tool is built to onset capacity expansion model prescriptions onto production cost model inputs. NREL's ReEDS and Energy Examplar's PLEXOS are the capacity expansion and the production cost models, respectively. Via the Linking Tool, PLEXOS provides details of operation for the regionally-defined ReEDS scenarios.

  4. Integrated modelling of crop production and nitrate leaching with the Daisy model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manevski, Kiril; Børgesen, Christen Duus; Li, Xiaoxin

    2016-01-01

    An integrated modelling strategy was designed and applied to the Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer model Daisy for simulation of crop production and nitrate leaching under pedo-climatic and agronomic environment different than that of model original parameterisation. The points of significance...

  5. Modeling crop water productivity using a coupled SWAT-MODSIM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examines the water productivity of irrigated wheat and maize yields in Karkheh River Basin (KRB) in the semi-arid region of Iran using a coupled modeling approach consisting of the hydrological model (SWAT) and the river basin water allocation model (MODSIM). Dynamic irrigation requireme...

  6. Fungal Morphology in Industrial Enzyme Production - Modelling and Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintanilla, D.; Hagemann, T.; Hansen, K.

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are widely used in the biotechnology industry for the production of industrial enzymes. Thus, considerable work has been done with the purpose of characterizing these processes. The ultimate goal of these efforts is to be able to control and predict fermentation performance......, and on the way the data is interpreted-i.e. which models were applied. The main filamentous fungi used in industrial fermentation are introduced, ranging from Trichoderma reesei to Aspergillus species. Due to the fact that secondary metabolites, like antibiotics, are not to be considered bulk products, organisms...

  7. Parton recombination model including resonance production. RL-78-040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.G.; Hwa, R.C.; Matsuda, S.

    1978-05-01

    Possible effects of resonance production on the meson inclusive distribution in the fragmentation region are investigated in the framework of the parton recombination model. From a detailed study of the data on vector-meson production, a reliable ratio of the vector-to-pseudoscalar rates is determined. Then the influence of the decay of the vector mesons on the pseudoscalar spectrum is examined, and the effect found to be no more than 25% for x > 0.5. The normalization of the non-strange antiquark distributions are still higher than those in a quiescent proton. The agreement between the calculated results and data remain very good. 36 references

  8. The problem of nucleon production in the quark parton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranft, J.; Ranft, G.

    1977-06-01

    Quark fragmentation into hadrons, esp. nucleons, is studied fitting empirical fragmentation functions to e + e - annihilation data. We find fragmentation functions deviating from counting rule predictions as well as from scaling due to the threshold in kaon and nucleon production. Using these fragmentation functions we study particle production ratios in ep and large transverse momentum hadronic reactions. In both cases we find the ratios p/π + and antip/π - to agree roughly in magnitude with the measured ratios. The model is however inconsistent with the transverse momentum -12 behaviour of large transverse momentum proton spectra. (author)

  9. Parton recombination model including resonance production. RL-78-040

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R. G.; Hwa, R. C.; Matsuda, S.

    1978-05-01

    Possible effects of resonance production on the meson inclusive distribution in the fragmentation region are investigated in the framework of the parton recombination model. From a detailed study of the data on vector-meson production, a reliable ratio of the vector-to-pseudoscalar rates is determined. Then the influence of the decay of the vector mesons on the pseudoscalar spectrum is examined, and the effect found to be no more than 25% for x > 0.5. The normalization of the non-strange antiquark distributions are still higher than those in a quiescent proton. The agreement between the calculated results and data remain very good. 36 references.

  10. An Efficiency Model For Hydrogen Production In A Pressurized Electrolyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoglie, Cecilia; Lauretta, Ricardo

    2010-09-15

    The use of Hydrogen as clean fuel at a world wide scale requires the development of simple, safe and efficient production and storage technologies. In this work, a methodology is proposed to produce Hydrogen and Oxygen in a self pressurized electrolyzer connected to separate containers that store each of these gases. A mathematical model for Hydrogen production efficiency is proposed to evaluate how such efficiency is affected by parasitic currents in the electrolytic solution. Experimental set-up and results for an electrolyzer are also presented. Comparison of empirical and analytical results shows good agreement.

  11. Nonlinear flow model for well production in an underground formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Guo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluid flow in underground formations is a nonlinear process. In this article we modelled the nonlinear transient flow behaviour of well production in an underground formation. Based on Darcy's law and material balance equations, we used quadratic pressure gradients to deduce diffusion equations and discuss the origins of nonlinear flow issues. By introducing an effective-well-radius approach that considers skin factor, we established a nonlinear flow model for both gas and liquid (oil or water. The liquid flow model was solved using a semi-analytical method, while the gas flow model was solved using numerical simulations because the diffusion equation of gas flow is a stealth function of pressure. For liquid flow, a series of standard log-log type curves of pressure transients were plotted and nonlinear transient flow characteristics were analyzed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were used to compare the solutions of the linear and nonlinear models. The effect of nonlinearity upon pressure transients should not be ignored. For gas flow, pressure transients were simulated and compared with oil flow under the same formation and well conditions, resulting in the conclusion that, under the same volume rate production, oil wells demand larger pressure drops than gas wells. Comparisons between theoretical data and field data show that nonlinear models will describe fluid flow in underground formations realistically and accurately.

  12. An innovative model of integrated mentorship in film production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Miha Jambrek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author focuses on an innovative approach towards mentoring in film production. Emphasis is placed on a model of integrated mentorship in which the mentor becomes a part of the creative process. The mentor operates from within the creative process and works on an equal basis with the mentee in areas such as production, brainstorming, and problem-solving. This kind of approach assumes reciprocal learning and uses an adult education methodology in a formal pedagogical process. Our research was conducted as a participatory research observation, with participation in several short film productions at the Ljubljana High School for Media and Graphic Technology and the Artes Liberales Film Academy.

  13. Modeling Hourly Resident Productivity in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joshua W; Henning, Daniel J; Strouse, Connie S; Chiu, David T; Nathanson, Larry A; Sanchez, Leon D

    2017-08-01

    Resident productivity, defined as new patients per hour, carries important implications for emergency department operations. In high-volume academic centers, essential staffing decisions can be made on the assumption that residents see patients at a static rate. However, it is unclear whether this model mirrors reality; previous studies have not rigorously examined whether productivity changes over time. We examine residents' productivity across shifts to determine whether it remained consistent. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted in an urban academic hospital with a 3-year emergency medicine training program in which residents acquire patients ad libitum throughout their shift. Time stamps of all patient encounters were automatically logged. A linear mixed model was constructed to predict productivity per shift hour. A total of 14,364 8- and 9-hour shifts were worked by 75 residents between July 1, 2010, and June 20, 2015. This comprised 6,127 (42.7%) postgraduate year (PGY) 1 shifts, 7,236 (50.4%) PGY-2 shifts, and 998 (6.9%) PGY-3 nonsupervisory shifts (Table 1). Overall, residents treated a mean of 10.1 patients per shift (SD 3.2), with most patients at Emergency Severity Index level 3 or more acute (93.8%). In the initial hour, residents treated a mean of 2.14 patients (SD 1.2), and every subsequent hour was associated with a significant decrease, with the largest in the second, third, and final hours. Emergency medicine resident productivity during a single shift follows a reliable pattern that decreases significantly hourly, a pattern preserved across PGY years and types of shifts. This suggests that resident productivity is a dynamic process, which should be considered in staffing decisions and studied further. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Production, decay, and mixing models of the iota meson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, W.F.; Pinsky, S.S.; Bender, C.

    1984-01-01

    We solve a five-channel mixing problem involving eta, eta', zeta(1275), iota(1440), and a new hypothetical high-mass pseudoscalar state between 1600 and 1900 MeV. We obtain the quark and glue content of iota(1440). We compare two solutions to the mixing problem with iota(1440) production and decay data, and with quark-model predictions for bare masses. In one solution the iota(1440) is primarily a glueball. This solution is preferred by the production and decay data. In the other solution the iota(1440) is a radially excited (ss-bar) state. This solution is preferred by the quark-model picture for the bare masses. We judge the weight of the combined evidence to favor the glueball interpretation

  15. Modeling and Analysis of New Products Diffusion on Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuping Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a heterogeneous networks model with the awareness stage and the decision-making stage to explain the process of new products diffusion. If mass media is neglected in the decision-making stage, there is a threshold whether the innovation diffusion is successful or not, or else it is proved that the network model has at least one positive equilibrium. For networks with the power-law degree distribution, numerical simulations confirm analytical results, and also at the same time, by numerical analysis of the influence of the network structure and persuasive advertisements on the density of adopters, we give two different products propagation strategies for two classes of nodes in scale-free networks.

  16. Quark model calculation of charmed baryon production by neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avilez, C.; Kobayashi, T.; Koerner, J.G.

    1976-11-01

    We study the neutrino production of 25 low-lying charmed baryon resonances in the four flavour quark model. The mass difference of ordinary and charmed quarks is explicitly taken into account. The quark model is used to determine the spectrum of the charmed baryon resonances and the q 2 = 0 values of the weak current transition matrix elements. These transition matrix elements are then continued to space-like q 2 -values by a generalized meson dominance ansatz for a set of suitably chosen invariant form factors. We find that the production of the L = 0 states C 0 , C 1 and C 1 * is dominant, with the C 0 produced most copiously. For L = 1, 2 the Jsup(P) = 3/2 - 5/2 + charm states are dominant. We give differential cross sections, total cross sections and energy integrated total cross sections using experimental neutrino fluxes. (orig./BJ) [de

  17. A Hybrid Fuzzy Model for Lean Product Development Performance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osezua Aikhuele, Daniel; Mohd Turan, Faiz

    2016-02-01

    In the effort for manufacturing companies to meet up with the emerging consumer demands for mass customized products, many are turning to the application of lean in their product development process, and this is gradually moving from being a competitive advantage to a necessity. However, due to lack of clear understanding of the lean performance measurements, many of these companies are unable to implement and fully integrated the lean principle into their product development process. Extensive literature shows that only few studies have focus systematically on the lean product development performance (LPDP) evaluation. In order to fill this gap, the study therefore proposed a novel hybrid model based on Fuzzy Reasoning Approach (FRA), and the extension of Fuzzy-AHP and Fuzzy-TOPSIS methods for the assessment of the LPDP. Unlike the existing methods, the model considers the importance weight of each of the decision makers (Experts) since the performance criteria/attributes are required to be rated, and these experts have different level of expertise. The rating is done using a new fuzzy Likert rating scale (membership-scale) which is designed such that it can address problems resulting from information lost/distortion due to closed-form scaling and the ordinal nature of the existing Likert scale.

  18. Modeling of fission product release in integral codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaidurrahman, K.; Raman, Rupak K.; Gaikwad, Avinash J.

    2014-01-01

    The Great Tohoku earthquake and tsunami that stroke the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station in March 11, 2011 has intensified the needs of detailed nuclear safety research and with this objective all streams associated with severe accident phenomenology are being revisited thoroughly. The present paper would cover an overview of state of art FP release models being used, the important phenomenon considered in semi-mechanistic models and knowledge gaps in present FP release modeling. Capability of FP release module, ELSA of ASTEC integral code in appropriate prediction of FP release under several diversified core degraded conditions will also be demonstrated. Use of semi-mechanistic fission product release models at AERB in source-term estimation shall be briefed. (author)

  19. Bayesian non parametric modelling of Higgs pair production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarpa Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical classification models are commonly used to separate a signal from a background. In this talk we face the problem of isolating the signal of Higgs pair production using the decay channel in which each boson decays into a pair of b-quarks. Typically in this context non parametric methods are used, such as Random Forests or different types of boosting tools. We remain in the same non-parametric framework, but we propose to face the problem following a Bayesian approach. A Dirichlet process is used as prior for the random effects in a logit model which is fitted by leveraging the Polya-Gamma data augmentation. Refinements of the model include the insertion in the simple model of P-splines to relate explanatory variables with the response and the use of Bayesian trees (BART to describe the atoms in the Dirichlet process.

  20. Procurement model for copper and polymer electrical products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sremac

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Procurement model for copper and polymer electrical products. Electrical cable structure (wire, insulation, filling and mantle is in accordance with the technical specifications of individual cable components in terms of the incorporated materials. Materials used in cable manufacture are copper, aluminum, rubber and polyvinyl chloride. One of the key issues in managing the flow of goods pertains to the timing of procurement. The combination of the two concepts can take advantage of individual strengths of fuzzy logic and neural networks in hybrid systems of homogeneous structure. The model has high practical significance, as, with minor modifications, it can be applied in any enterprise responsible for managing the goods flows.

  1. Mechanistic Modelling of Biodiesel Production using a Liquid Lipase Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Hofmann, Björn; Silva, Vanessa T. L.

    2014-01-01

    , with respect to the industrial production of biodiesel. The developed kinetic model, coupled with a mass balance of the system, was fitted to and validated on experimental results for the fed-batch transesterification of rapeseed oil. The confidence intervals of the parameter estimates, along...... that constrains the amount of methanol in the reactor was computed and the predictions experimentally validated. Monte-Carlo simulations were then used to characterize the effect of the parameter uncertainty on the model outputs, giving a biodiesel yield, based on the mass of oil, of 90.8 ± 0.55 mass %. © 2014...

  2. Single-tier city logistics model for single product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih, N. I.; Nur Bahagia, S.; Suprayogi; Syabri, I.

    2017-11-01

    This research develops single-tier city logistics model which consists of suppliers, UCCs, and retailers. The problem that will be answered in this research is how to determine the location of UCCs, to allocate retailers to opened UCCs, to assign suppliers to opened UCCs, to control inventory in the three entities involved, and to determine the route of the vehicles from opened UCCs to retailers. This model has never been developed before. All the decisions will be simultaneously optimized. Characteristic of the demand is probabilistic following a normal distribution, and the number of product is single.

  3. Conformal operator product expansion in the Yukawa model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prati, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    Conformal techniques are applied to the Yukawa model, as an example of a theory with spinor fields. It is written the partial-wave analysis of the 4-point function of two scalars and two spinors in the channel phi psi → phi psi in terms of spinor tensor representations of the conformal group. Using this conformal expansion, it is diagonalized the Bethe-Salpeter equation, which is reduced to algebraic relations among the partial waves. It is shown that in the γ 5 -invariant model, but not in the general case, it is possible to derive dynamically from the expansions of the 4-point function the vacuum operator product phi psi>

  4. Linear programming model can explain respiration of fermentation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Philip; Liu, Xiaochen; Schuster, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Many differentiated cells rely primarily on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for generating energy in the form of ATP needed for cellular metabolism. In contrast most tumor cells instead rely on aerobic glycolysis leading to lactate to about the same extent as on respiration. Warburg found that cancer cells to support oxidative phosphorylation, tend to ferment glucose or other energy source into lactate even in the presence of sufficient oxygen, which is an inefficient way to generate ATP. This effect also occurs in striated muscle cells, activated lymphocytes and microglia, endothelial cells and several mammalian cell types, a phenomenon termed the “Warburg effect”. The effect is paradoxical at first glance because the ATP production rate of aerobic glycolysis is much slower than that of respiration and the energy demands are better to be met by pure oxidative phosphorylation. We tackle this question by building a minimal model including three combined reactions. The new aspect in extension to earlier models is that we take into account the possible uptake and oxidation of the fermentation products. We examine the case where the cell can allocate protein on several enzymes in a varying distribution and model this by a linear programming problem in which the objective is to maximize the ATP production rate under different combinations of constraints on enzymes. Depending on the cost of reactions and limitation of the substrates, this leads to pure respiration, pure fermentation, and a mixture of respiration and fermentation. The model predicts that fermentation products are only oxidized when glucose is scarce or its uptake is severely limited. PMID:29415045

  5. Linear programming model can explain respiration of fermentation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Philip; Liu, Xiaochen; Schuster, Stefan; Boley, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Many differentiated cells rely primarily on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for generating energy in the form of ATP needed for cellular metabolism. In contrast most tumor cells instead rely on aerobic glycolysis leading to lactate to about the same extent as on respiration. Warburg found that cancer cells to support oxidative phosphorylation, tend to ferment glucose or other energy source into lactate even in the presence of sufficient oxygen, which is an inefficient way to generate ATP. This effect also occurs in striated muscle cells, activated lymphocytes and microglia, endothelial cells and several mammalian cell types, a phenomenon termed the "Warburg effect". The effect is paradoxical at first glance because the ATP production rate of aerobic glycolysis is much slower than that of respiration and the energy demands are better to be met by pure oxidative phosphorylation. We tackle this question by building a minimal model including three combined reactions. The new aspect in extension to earlier models is that we take into account the possible uptake and oxidation of the fermentation products. We examine the case where the cell can allocate protein on several enzymes in a varying distribution and model this by a linear programming problem in which the objective is to maximize the ATP production rate under different combinations of constraints on enzymes. Depending on the cost of reactions and limitation of the substrates, this leads to pure respiration, pure fermentation, and a mixture of respiration and fermentation. The model predicts that fermentation products are only oxidized when glucose is scarce or its uptake is severely limited.

  6. The Model of the Production Process for the Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alot Zbigniew

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a result of the research on the models of the production processes for the quality management and their identification. It discusses the classical model and the indicators for evaluating the capabilities by taking as its starting point the assumption of the normal distribution of the process characteristics. The division of the process types proposed by ISO 21747:2006 standard introducing models for non-stationary processes is presented. A general process model that allows in any real case to precisely describe the statistical characteristics of the process is proposed. It gives the opportunity for more detailed description, in comparison to the model proposed by ISO 21747:2006 standard, of the process characteristics and determining its capability. This model contains the type of process, statistical distribution, and the method for determining the capability and performance (long-term capability of the process. One of the model elements is proposed, own classification and resulting set of process types. The classification follows the recommendations of ISO 21747:2006 introducing models for the non-stationary processes. However, the set of the process types allows, beyond a more precise description of the process characteristics, its usage to monitor the process.

  7. Productivity simulation model for optimization of maritime container terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen TWRDY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a proposed productivity simulation model enabling container terminal operators to find optimization possibilities. A research of more than forty terminals has been done, in order to provide a helping tool for maritime container terminals. By applying an adequate simulation model, it is possible to measure and increase the productivity in all subsystem of the maritime container terminal. Management of a maritime container terminal includes a vast number of different financial and operational decisions. Financial decisions are often in a direct connection with investments in infrastructure and handling equipment. Such investments are very expensive. Therefore, they must give back the invested money as soon as possible. On the other hand, some terminals are limited by the physical extension and are forced to increase annual throughput only with sophisticated equipment on the berth side and on the yard as well. Considering all these important facts in container and shipping industry, the proposed simulation model gives a helping tool for checking the productivity and its time variation and monitoring competitiveness of a certain maritime terminal with terminals from the same group.

  8. A topological model for baryon production in jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Kowalski, H.

    1988-01-01

    We present a conceptual model for baryon production in jets, inspired by the Skyrme picture of baryons as topological defects in a chiral quark-antiquark condensate. High energy collisions produce ''hot'' partons which split perturbatively into showers of ''cool'' partons which hadronize non-perturbatively. We visualize each of these as corresponding to a connected domain with a common orientation of the chiral condensate. Topological defects, namely baryons, are formed when there are mismatches in the orientations of adjacent field domains, rather as cosmic strings or monopoles are formed in the early Universe. Our model gives a good qualitative description of various salient features of baryon production in jets, which previously could be described only with a large number of free parameters. In particular, we give a qualitative explanation of the high baryon production rate in Υ decays compared to the e + e - continuum. When combined with a perturbative QCD parton shower Monte Carlo it could become a basis for a fully-fledged fragmentation model. (orig.)

  9. Modeling methane emissions by cattle production systems in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelan-Ortega, O. A.; Ku Vera, J.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-12-01

    Methane emissions from livestock is one of the largest sources of methane in Mexico. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a realistic estimate of the national inventory of methane produced by the enteric fermentation of cattle, based on an integrated simulation model, and to provide estimates of CH4 produced by cattle fed typical diets from the tropical and temperate climates of Mexico. The Mexican cattle population of 23.3 million heads was divided in two groups. The first group (7.8 million heads), represents cattle of the tropical climate regions. The second group (15.5 million heads), are the cattle in the temperate climate regions. This approach allows incorporating the effect of diet on CH4 production into the analysis because the quality of forages is lower in the tropics than in temperate regions. Cattle population in every group was subdivided into two categories: cows (COW) and other type of cattle (OTHE), which included calves, heifers, steers and bulls. The daily CH4 production by each category of animal along an average production cycle of 365 days was simulated, instead of using a default emission factor as in Tier 1 approach. Daily milk yield, live weight changes associated with the lactation, and dry matter intake, were simulated for the entire production cycle. The Moe and Tyrrell (1979) model was used to simulate CH4 production for the COW category, the linear model of Mills et al. (2003) for the OTHE category in temperate regions and the Kurihara et al. (1999) model for the OTHE category in the tropical regions as it has been developed for cattle fed tropical diets. All models were integrated with a cow submodel to form an Integrated Simulation Model (ISM). The AFRC (1993) equations and the lactation curve model of Morant and Gnanasakthy (1989) were used to construct the cow submodel. The ISM simulates on a daily basis the CH4 production, milk yield, live weight changes associated with lactation and dry matter intake. The total daily CH

  10. Evaluation of Aqua crop Model to Predict Crop Water Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noor Hidayat Adenan; Faiz Ahmad; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Abdul Rahim Harun; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Water and nutrient are critical inputs for crop production, especially in meeting challenges from increasing fertilizer cost and irregular water availability associated with climate change. The Land and Water Division of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has developed Aqua Crop, an integrated application software to simulate the interactions between plant, water and soil. Field management and irrigation management are the factors that need to be considered since it affects the interactions. Four critical components are needed in the Aqua Crop model, viz. climate, crop, field management and soil conditions. In our case study, climate data from rice field in Utan Aji, Kangar, Perlis was applied to run a simulation by using AquaCrop model. The rice crop was also assessed against deficit irrigation schedules and we found that use of water at optimum level increased rice yield. Results derived from the use of the model corresponded conventional assessment. This model can be adopted to help farmers in Malaysia in planning crop and field management to increase the crop productivity, especially in areas where the water is limited. (author)

  11. Evolution Model and Simulation of Profit Model of Agricultural Products Logistics Financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wu, Yan

    2018-03-01

    Agricultural products logistics financial warehousing business mainly involves agricultural production and processing enterprises, third-party logistics enterprises and financial institutions tripartite, to enable the three parties to achieve win-win situation, the article first gives the replication dynamics and evolutionary stability strategy between the three parties in business participation, and then use NetLogo simulation platform, using the overall modeling and simulation method of Multi-Agent, established the evolutionary game simulation model, and run the model under different revenue parameters, finally, analyzed the simulation results. To achieve the agricultural products logistics financial financing warehouse business to participate in tripartite mutually beneficial win-win situation, thus promoting the smooth flow of agricultural products logistics business.

  12. Assimilation of LAI time-series in crop production models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, Lammert; Rijk, Bert; Nannes, Louis

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture is worldwide a large consumer of freshwater, nutrients and land. Spatial explicit agricultural management activities (e.g., fertilization, irrigation) could significantly improve efficiency in resource use. In previous studies and operational applications, remote sensing has shown to be a powerful method for spatio-temporal monitoring of actual crop status. As a next step, yield forecasting by assimilating remote sensing based plant variables in crop production models would improve agricultural decision support both at the farm and field level. In this study we investigated the potential of remote sensing based Leaf Area Index (LAI) time-series assimilated in the crop production model LINTUL to improve yield forecasting at field level. The effect of assimilation method and amount of assimilated observations was evaluated. The LINTUL-3 crop production model was calibrated and validated for a potato crop on two experimental fields in the south of the Netherlands. A range of data sources (e.g., in-situ soil moisture and weather sensors, destructive crop measurements) was used for calibration of the model for the experimental field in 2010. LAI from cropscan field radiometer measurements and actual LAI measured with the LAI-2000 instrument were used as input for the LAI time-series. The LAI time-series were assimilated in the LINTUL model and validated for a second experimental field on which potatoes were grown in 2011. Yield in 2011 was simulated with an R2 of 0.82 when compared with field measured yield. Furthermore, we analysed the potential of assimilation of LAI into the LINTUL-3 model through the 'updating' assimilation technique. The deviation between measured and simulated yield decreased from 9371 kg/ha to 8729 kg/ha when assimilating weekly LAI measurements in the LINTUL model over the season of 2011. LINTUL-3 furthermore shows the main growth reducing factors, which are useful for farm decision support. The combination of crop models and sensor

  13. A model for fission product distribution in CANDU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzumdar, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a model to estimate the distribution of active fission products among the UO 2 grains, grain-boundaries, and the free void spaces in CANDU fuel elements during normal operation. This distribution is required for the calculation of the potential release of activity from failed fuel sheaths during a loss-of-coolant accident. The activity residing in the free spaces (''free'' inventory) is available for release upon sheath rupture, whereas relatively high fuel temperatures and/or thermal shock are required to release the activity in the grain boundaries or grains. A preliminary comparison of the model with the data from in-reactor sweep-gas experiments performed in Canada yields generally good agreement, with overprediction rather than under prediction of radiologically important isotopes, such as I 131 . The model also appears to generally agree with the ''free'' inventory release calculated using ANS-5.4. (author)

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Probabilistic Models of Software Product Lines with Statistical Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ter Beek, Maurice H.; Legay, Axel; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the suitability of statistical model checking techniques for analysing quantitative properties of software product line models with probabilistic aspects. For this purpose, we enrich the feature-oriented language FLAN with action rates, which specify the likelihood of exhibiting pa...

  15. A review of forecasting models for new products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Mas-Machuca

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The main objective of this article is to present an up-to-date review of new product forecasting techniques. Design/methodology/approach: A systematic review of forecasting journals was carried out using the ISI-Web of Knowledge database. Several articles were retrieved and examined, and forecasting techniques relevant to this study were selected and assessed. Findings: The strengths, weaknesses and applications of the main forecasting models are discussed to examine trends and set future challenges. Research limitations/implications: A theoretical reference framework for forecasting techniques classified into judgmental, consumer/market research, cause-effect and artificial intelligence is proposed. Future research can assess these models qualitatively. Practical implications: Companies are currently motivated to launch new products and thus attract new customers to expand their market share.  In order to reduce uncertainty and risk, many companies go to extra lengths to forecast sales accurately using several techniques. Originality/value: This article outlines new lines of research on the improvement of new product performance which will aid managers in decision making and allow companies to sustain their competitive advantages in this challenging world.

  16. Nuclear models and data for gamma-ray production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.G.

    1975-01-01

    The current Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B, Version IV) contains information on prompt gamma-ray production from neutron-induced reactions for some 38 nuclides. In addition, there is a mass of fission product yield, capture, and radioactive decay data from which certain time-dependent gamma-ray results can be calculated. These data are needed in such applications as gamma-ray heating calculations for reactors, estimates of radiation levels near nuclear facilities and weapons, shielding design calculations, and materials damage estimates. The prompt results are comprised of production cross sections, multiplicities, angular distributions, and energy spectra for secondary gamma-rays from a variety of reactions up to an incident neutron energy of 20 MeV. These data are based in many instances on experimental measurements, but nuclear model calculations, generally of a statistical nature, are also frequently used to smooth data, to interpolate between measurements, and to calculate data in unmeasured regions. The techniques and data used in determining the ENDF/B evaluations are reviewed, and comparisons of model-code calculations and ENDF data with recent experimental results are given. 11 figures

  17. Modelling demand for crude oil products in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedregal, D.J.; Dejuan, O.; Gomez, N.; Tobarra, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops an econometric model for the five most important crude oil products demand in Spain. The aim is the estimation of a range of elasticities of such demands that would serve as the basis for an applied general equilibrium model used for forecasting energy demand in a broader framework. The main distinctive features of the system with respect to previous literature are (1) it takes advantage of monthly information coming from very different information sources and (2) multivariate unobserved components (UC) models are implemented allowing for a separate analysis of long- and short-run relations. UC models decompose time series into a number of unobserved though economic meaningful components mainly trend, seasonal and irregular. A module is added to such structure to take into account the influence of exogenous variables necessary to compute price, cross and income elasticities. Since all models implemented are multivariate in nature, the demand components are allowed to interact among them through the system noises (similar to a seemingly unrelated equations model). The results show unambiguously that the main factor driving demand is real income with prices having little impact on energy consumption. (author)

  18. Modelling demand for crude oil products in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedregal, D.J. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales and Instituto de Matematica Aplicada a la Ciencia y la Ingenieria (IMACI), Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM), Avenida Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Dejuan, O.; Gomez, N.; Tobarra, M.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM) (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    This paper develops an econometric model for the five most important crude oil products demand in Spain. The aim is the estimation of a range of elasticities of such demands that would serve as the basis for an applied general equilibrium model used for forecasting energy demand in a broader framework. The main distinctive features of the system with respect to previous literature are (1) it takes advantage of monthly information coming from very different information sources and (2) multivariate unobserved components (UC) models are implemented allowing for a separate analysis of long- and short-run relations. UC models decompose time series into a number of unobserved though economic meaningful components mainly trend, seasonal and irregular. A module is added to such structure to take into account the influence of exogenous variables necessary to compute price, cross and income elasticities. Since all models implemented are multivariate in nature, the demand components are allowed to interact among them through the system noises (similar to a seemingly unrelated equations model). The results show unambiguously that the main factor driving demand is real income with prices having little impact on energy consumption. (author)

  19. Marine Natural Products as Models to Circumvent Multidrug Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solida Long

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR to anticancer drugs is a serious health problem that in many cases leads to cancer treatment failure. The ATP binding cassette (ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp, which leads to premature efflux of drugs from cancer cells, is often responsible for MDR. On the other hand, a strategy to search for modulators from natural products to overcome MDR had been in place during the last decades. However, Nature limits the amount of some natural products, which has led to the development of synthetic strategies to increase their availability. This review summarizes the research findings on marine natural products and derivatives, mainly alkaloids, polyoxygenated sterols, polyketides, terpenoids, diketopiperazines, and peptides, with P-gp inhibitory activity highlighting the established structure-activity relationships. The synthetic pathways for the total synthesis of the most promising members and analogs are also presented. It is expected that the data gathered during the last decades concerning their synthesis and MDR-inhibiting activities will help medicinal chemists develop potential drug candidates using marine natural products as models which can deliver new ABC transporter inhibitor scaffolds.

  20. Biological production models as elements of coupled, atmosphere-ocean models for climate research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Trevor; Sathyendranath, Shubha

    1991-01-01

    Process models of phytoplankton production are discussed with respect to their suitability for incorporation into global-scale numerical ocean circulation models. Exact solutions are given for integrals over the mixed layer and the day of analytic, wavelength-independent models of primary production. Within this class of model, the bias incurred by using a triangular approximation (rather than a sinusoidal one) to the variation of surface irradiance through the day is computed. Efficient computation algorithms are given for the nonspectral models. More exact calculations require a spectrally sensitive treatment. Such models exist but must be integrated numerically over depth and time. For these integrations, resolution in wavelength, depth, and time are considered and recommendations made for efficient computation. The extrapolation of the one-(spatial)-dimension treatment to large horizontal scale is discussed.

  1. Nuclear model calculations on cyclotron production of {sup 51}Cr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakavand, Tayeb [Imam Khomeini International Univ., Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Physics; Aboudzadeh, Mohammadreza [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute/AEOI, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School; Farahani, Zahra; Eslami, Mohammad [Zanjan Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Physics

    2015-12-15

    {sup 51}Cr (T{sub 1/2} = 27.7 d), which decays via electron capture (100 %) with 320 keV gamma emission (9.8 %), is a radionuclide with still a large application in biological studies. In this work, ALICE/ASH and TALYS nuclear model codes along with some adjustments are used to calculate the excitation functions for proton, deuteron, α-particle and neutron induced on various targets leading to the production of {sup 51}Cr radioisotope. The production yields of {sup 51}Cr from various reactions are determined using the excitation function calculations and stopping power data. The results are compared with corresponding experimental data and discussed from point of view of feasibility.

  2. Performance modelling for product development of advanced window systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelfeld, David

    properties (chapter 5) of CFSs. The last chapter concludes the thesis and the individual investigations. It is complicated to holistically evaluate the performance of a prototyped system, since simulation programs evaluate standardised products such as aluminium venetian blinds. State-of-the-art tools......The research presented in this doctoral thesis shows how the product development (PD) of Complex Fenestration Systems (CFSs) can be facilitated by computer-based analysis to improve the energy efficiency of fenestration systems as well as to improve the indoor environment. The first chapter defines...... the hypothesis and objectives of the thesis, which is followed by an extended introduction and background. The third chapter briefly suggests the PD framework which is suitable for CFSs. The fourth and fifth chapter refer to the detailed performance modelling of thermal properties (chapter 4) and optical...

  3. Soft hadronic production by ECCO in the geometrical branching model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, J.; Hwa, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Soft production of hadrons in hadronic collisions is described in the geometrical branching model and implemented by the eikonal cascade code (ECCO). It is shown that the major global features of multiparticle production can be reproduced by one essential characterization of the dynamics of branching, namely, a scaling law for the mass distribution of daughter clusters. Without further adjustment of any parameters, the event generator can produce local features of multiplicity fluctuations in agreement with the NA22 intermittency data. The scaling exponent ν is determined to be 1.522 at √s =22 GeV, independent of the dimensionality of the intermittency analysis. It is shown that ν is approximately independent of the collision energy

  4. MODELLING CONSUMERS' DEMAND FOR ORGANIC FOOD PRODUCTS: THE SWEDISH EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuchehr Irandoust

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine a few factors characterizing consumer preferences and behavior towards organic food products in the south of Sweden using a proportional odds model which captures the natural ordering of dependent variables and any inherent nonlinearities. The findings show that consumer's choice for organic food depends on perceived benefits of organic food (environment, health, and quality and consumer's perception and attitudes towards labelling system, message framing, and local origin. In addition, high willingness to pay and income level will increase the probability to buy organic food, while the cultural differences and socio-demographic characteristics have no effect on consumer behaviour and attitudes towards organic food products. Policy implications are offered.

  5. Hadronic models and experimental data for the neutrino beam production

    CERN Document Server

    Collazuol, G; Guglielmi, A M; Sala, P R

    2000-01-01

    The predictions of meson production by 450 GeV/c protons on Be using the Monte Carlo FLUKA standalone and GEANT-FLUKA and GEANT-GHEISHA in GEANT are compared with available experimental measurements. The comparison enlightens the improvements of the hadronic generator models of the present standalone code FLUKA with respect to the 1992 version which is embedded into GEANT-FLUKA. Worse results were obtained with the GHEISHA package. A complete simulation of the SPS neutrino beam line at CERN showed significant variations in the intensity and composition of the neutrino beam when FLUKA standalone instead of the GEANT-FLUKA package is used to simulate particle production in the Be target.

  6. Hadronic models and experimental data for the neutrino beam production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collazuol, G.; Ferrari, A.; Guglielmi, A.; Sala, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    The predictions of meson production by 450 GeV/c protons on Be using the Monte Carlo FLUKA standalone and GEANT-FLUKA and GEANT-GHEISHA in GEANT are compared with available experimental measurements. The comparison enlightens the improvements of the hadronic generator models of the present standalone code FLUKA with respect to the 1992 version which is embedded into GEANT-FLUKA. Worse results were obtained with the GHEISHA package. A complete simulation of the SPS neutrino beam line at CERN showed significant variations in the intensity and composition of the neutrino beam when FLUKA standalone instead of the GEANT-FLUKA package is used to simulate particle production in the Be target

  7. Wind farm electrical power production model for load flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura-Heras, Isidoro; Escriva-Escriva, Guillermo; Alcazar-Ortega, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The importance of renewable energy increases in activities relating to new forms of managing and operating electrical power: especially wind power. Wind generation is increasing its share in the electricity generation portfolios of many countries. Wind power production in Spain has doubled over the past four years and has reached 20 GW. One of the greatest problems facing wind farms is that the electrical power generated depends on the variable characteristics of the wind. To become competitive in a liberalized market, the reliability of wind energy must be guaranteed. Good local wind forecasts are therefore essential for the accurate prediction of generation levels for each moment of the day. This paper proposes an electrical power production model for wind farms based on a new method that produces correlated wind speeds for various wind farms. This method enables a reliable evaluation of the impact of new wind farms on the high-voltage distribution grid. (author)

  8. Application of product modelling - seen from a work preparation viewpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars

    and methods, as only a minor part of the engineering work in these functions in the planning system until now has been supported with IT. The aim is to develop methods for analysing which activities to support with IT, and in relation to this, define context and structure of the IT-systems to support......, over building a model, and to the final programming of an application. It has been stressed out to carry out all the phases in the outline of procedure in the empirical work, one of the reasons being to prove that it is possible, with a reasonable consumption of resources, to build an application......Manufacturing companies spends an increasing amount of the total work resources in the manufacturing planning system with the activities of e.g. specifying products and methods, scheduling, procurement etc. By this the potential for obtaining increased productivity moves from the direct costs...

  9. Experimental limits from ATLAS on Standard Model Higgs production.

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Experimental limits from ATLAS on Standard Model Higgs production in the mass range 110-600 GeV. The solid curve reflects the observed experimental limits for the production of a Higgs of each possible mass value (horizontal axis). The region for which the solid curve dips below the horizontal line at the value of 1 is excluded with a 95% confidence level (CL). The dashed curve shows the expected limit in the absence of the Higgs boson, based on simulations. The green and yellow bands correspond (respectively) to 68%, and 95% confidence level regions from the expected limits. Higgs masses in the narrow range 123-130 GeV are the only masses not excluded at 95% CL

  10. Production optimisation in the petrochemical industry by hierarchical multivariate modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Magnus; Furusjoe, Erik; Jansson, Aasa

    2004-06-01

    This project demonstrates the advantages of applying hierarchical multivariate modelling in the petrochemical industry in order to increase knowledge of the total process. The models indicate possible ways to optimise the process regarding the use of energy and raw material, which is directly linked to the environmental impact of the process. The refinery of Nynaes Refining AB (Goeteborg, Sweden) has acted as a demonstration site in this project. The models developed for the demonstration site resulted in: Detection of an unknown process disturbance and suggestions of possible causes; Indications on how to increase the yield in combination with energy savings; The possibility to predict product quality from on-line process measurements, making the results available at a higher frequency than customary laboratory analysis; Quantification of the gradually lowered efficiency of heat transfer in the furnace and increased fuel consumption as an effect of soot build-up on the furnace coils; Increased knowledge of the relation between production rate and the efficiency of the heat exchangers. This report is one of two reports from the project. It contains a technical discussion of the result with some degree of detail. A shorter and more easily accessible report is also available, see IVL report B1586-A.

  11. Constrained optimization via simulation models for new product innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujowidianto, Nugroho A.

    2017-11-01

    We consider the problem of constrained optimization where the decision makers aim to optimize the primary performance measure while constraining the secondary performance measures. This paper provides a brief overview of stochastically constrained optimization via discrete event simulation. Most review papers tend to be methodology-based. This review attempts to be problem-based as decision makers may have already decided on the problem formulation. We consider constrained optimization models as there are usually constraints on secondary performance measures as trade-off in new product development. It starts by laying out different possible methods and the reasons using constrained optimization via simulation models. It is then followed by the review of different simulation optimization approach to address constrained optimization depending on the number of decision variables, the type of constraints, and the risk preferences of the decision makers in handling uncertainties.

  12. Multifractal modeling of the production of concentrated sugar syrup crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Sheng; Gao Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    High quality, concentrated sugar syrup crystal is produced in a critical step in cane sugar production: the clarification process. It is characterized by two variables: the color of the produced sugar and its clarity degree. We show that the temporal variations of these variables follow power-law distributions and can be well modeled by multiplicative cascade multifractal processes. These interesting properties suggest that the degradation in color and clarity degree has a system-wide cause. In particular, the cascade multifractal model suggests that the degradation in color and clarity degree can be equivalently accounted for by the initial “impurities” in the sugarcane. Hence, more effective cleaning of the sugarcane before the clarification stage may lead to substantial improvement in the effect of clarification. (paper)

  13. Modelling the bioconversion of cellulose into microbial products: rate limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asenjo, J A

    1984-12-01

    The direct bioconversion of cellulose into microbial products carried out as a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation has a strong effect on the rates of cellulose degradation because cellobiose and glucose inhibition of the reaction are circumvented. A general mathematical model of the kinetics of this bioconversion has been developed. Its use in representing aerobic systems and in the analysis of the kinetic limitations has been investigated. Simulations have been carried out to find the rate limiting steps in slow fermentations and in rapid ones as determined by the specific rate of product formation. The requirements for solubilising and depolymerising enzyme activities (cellulase and cellobiase) in these systems has been determined. The activity that have been obtained for fungal cellulases are adequate for the kinetic requirements of the fastest fermentative strains. The results also show that for simultaneous bioconversions where strong cellobiose and glucose inhibition is overcome, no additional cellobiase is necessary to increase the rate of product formation. These results are useful for the selection of cellolytic micro-organisms and in the determination of enzymes to be cloned in recombinant strains. 17 references.

  14. Combinatorial Models for Assembly and Decomposition of Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Bojko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the most popular combinatorial models that are used for the synthesis of design solutions at the stage of the assembly process flow preparation. It shows that while assembling the product the relations of parts can be represented as a structure of preferences, which is formed on the basis of objective design restrictions put in at the stage of the product design. This structure is a binary preference relation pre-order. Its symmetrical part is equivalence and describes the entry of parts into the assembly unit. The asymmetric part is a partial order. It specifies part- ordering time in in the course of the assembly process. The structure of preferences is a minimal description of the restrictions and constraints in the assembly process. It can serve as a source for generating multiple assembly sequences of a product and its components, which are allowed by design. This multiplicity increases the likelihood of rational choice under uncertainty, unpredictable changes in the properties of technological or industrial systems.Incomplete dominance relation gives grounds for further examination and better understanding of the project situation. Operation field of the study is limited to a set of disparate elements of the partial order. Different strategies for processing the disparate elements may be offered, e.g. selection of the most informative pairs, comparison of which foremost linearizes the original partial order.

  15. Top quark pair production and modeling via QCD in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Fernandez, Juan Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential top quark pair ($\\textrm{t}\\bar{\\textrm{t}}$) production cross section at centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV and 5.02 TeV are presented, performed using CMS data collected in 2015 and 2016. The inclusive cross section is measured in the lepton+jets, dilepton and fully hadronic channels. Top quark pair differential cross sections are measured and are given as functions of various kinematic observables of (anti)top quark, the $\\textrm{t}\\bar{\\textrm{t}}$ system, and of the jets and leptons in the final state. Furthermore, the multiplicity and kinematic distributions of the additional jets produced in $\\textrm{t}\\bar{\\textrm{t}}$ events are also investigated and its modeling is compared for several generators. A new tune of parameters is developed for some of the generators. In addition, first measurements of top quark pair production with additional b quarks in the final state are presented. Furthermore, searches for four top quark production in CMS are also present...

  16. PROCESS MODELLING AND DEBOTTLENECKING STUDY OF A VACCINE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Huda Mohamed Safri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The main objective of this research work was to model and optimise the production of a locally-developed Infectious Coryza (IC vaccine. The simulation work was performed using a commercially available batch process simulator SuperPro Designer v5.5. Six debottlenecking schemes were analysed using throughput analysis and cost to benefit ratio (CBR when the annual production was set to increase by 100%. Based on the economic analysis, the selected debottlenecking scheme has an annual predicted revenue of USD 240 million, with a gross margin of 9.13% and a return on investment (ROI of 46.12%. In addition, the payback period of the selected scheme is estimated to be within three years. ABSTRAK: Objektif utama dalam penyelidikan ini adalah untuk memodelkan dan mengoptimumkan hasil pembuatan vaksin tempatan Coryza berjangkit. Kerja simulasi ini dijalankan menggunakan alat simulasi Super Pro Designer v5.5. Sebanyak enam (6 skema khusus diujikaji menggunakan analisis pemprosesan dan kos kepada nisbah faedah (CBR apabila pembuatan tahunan meningkat kepada 100%. Berdasarkan analisis ekonomi yang telah dilakukan, sesuatu skema khusus yang dipilih mempunyai keuntungan sebanyak USD 240 juta dengan margin kasar 9.13% dan pulangan atas pelaburan (ROI sebanyak 46.12%. Selain itu juga, tempoh pembayaran balik bagi skema yang dipilih dianggarkan dalam tempoh tiga(3 tahun.KEYWORDS: process simulation; modelling; debottlenecking; optimisation

  17. Reflexion on linear regression trip production modelling method for ensuring good model quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprayitno, Hitapriya; Ratnasari, Vita

    2017-11-01

    Transport Modelling is important. For certain cases, the conventional model still has to be used, in which having a good trip production model is capital. A good model can only be obtained from a good sample. Two of the basic principles of a good sampling is having a sample capable to represent the population characteristics and capable to produce an acceptable error at a certain confidence level. It seems that this principle is not yet quite understood and used in trip production modeling. Therefore, investigating the Trip Production Modelling practice in Indonesia and try to formulate a better modeling method for ensuring the Model Quality is necessary. This research result is presented as follows. Statistics knows a method to calculate span of prediction value at a certain confidence level for linear regression, which is called Confidence Interval of Predicted Value. The common modeling practice uses R2 as the principal quality measure, the sampling practice varies and not always conform to the sampling principles. An experiment indicates that small sample is already capable to give excellent R2 value and sample composition can significantly change the model. Hence, good R2 value, in fact, does not always mean good model quality. These lead to three basic ideas for ensuring good model quality, i.e. reformulating quality measure, calculation procedure, and sampling method. A quality measure is defined as having a good R2 value and a good Confidence Interval of Predicted Value. Calculation procedure must incorporate statistical calculation method and appropriate statistical tests needed. A good sampling method must incorporate random well distributed stratified sampling with a certain minimum number of samples. These three ideas need to be more developed and tested.

  18. Modeling texture kinetics during thermal processing of potato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, P C; Troncoso, E; Pedreschi, F

    2007-03-01

    A kinetic model based on 2 irreversible serial chemical reactions has been proposed to fit experimental data of texture changes during thermal processing of potato products. The model links dimensionless maximum force F*(MAX) with processing time. Experimental texture changes were obtained during frying of French fries and potato chips at different temperatures, while literature data for blanching/cooking of potato cubes have been considered. A satisfactory agreement between experimental and predicted values was observed, with root mean square values (RMSs) in the range of 4.7% to 16.4% for French fries and 16.7% to 29.3% for potato chips. In the case of blanching/cooking, the proposed model gave RMSs in the range of 1.2% to 17.6%, much better than the 6.2% to 44.0% obtained with the traditional 1st-order kinetics. The model is able to predict likewise the transition from softening to hardening of the tissue during frying.

  19. Short-term to seasonal variability in factors driving primary productivity in a shallow estuary: Implications for modeling production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canion, Andy; MacIntyre, Hugh L.; Phipps, Scott

    2013-10-01

    The inputs of primary productivity models may be highly variable on short timescales (hourly to daily) in turbid estuaries, but modeling of productivity in these environments is often implemented with data collected over longer timescales. Daily, seasonal, and spatial variability in primary productivity model parameters: chlorophyll a concentration (Chla), the downwelling light attenuation coefficient (kd), and photosynthesis-irradiance response parameters (Pmchl, αChl) were characterized in Weeks Bay, a nitrogen-impacted shallow estuary in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Variability in primary productivity model parameters in response to environmental forcing, nutrients, and microalgal taxonomic marker pigments were analysed in monthly and short-term datasets. Microalgal biomass (as Chla) was strongly related to total phosphorus concentration on seasonal scales. Hourly data support wind-driven resuspension as a major source of short-term variability in Chla and light attenuation (kd). The empirical relationship between areal primary productivity and a combined variable of biomass and light attenuation showed that variability in the photosynthesis-irradiance response contributed little to the overall variability in primary productivity, and Chla alone could account for 53-86% of the variability in primary productivity. Efforts to model productivity in similar shallow systems with highly variable microalgal biomass may benefit the most by investing resources in improving spatial and temporal resolution of chlorophyll a measurements before increasing the complexity of models used in productivity modeling.

  20. Functional overview of the Production Planning Model (ProdMod)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, M.V.; Paul, P.K.

    1995-09-01

    The Production Planning Model (ProdMod) has been developed by SRTC for use by High Level Waste Program Management and High Level Waste Engineering as a fast running, integrated, comprehensive model of the entire SRS high level waste (HLW) complex. ProdMod can simulate the response of the HLW complex from its current state to the end of tank clean-up or to any intermediate point. The present document describes the initial release of ProdMod at the end of FY95: a model version that contains all the significant elements from the High-level Waste System Plan Revision 5 and is capable of running the simulation all the way to the postulated completion of waste removal. For the scenario represented by this release, that simulates approximately 70 years of operation of the HLW complex (out to FY2065). This initial release of ProdMod will serve as the immediate starting point for the modeling of the High-Level Waste System Plan Revision 6. Thus ProdMod is expected to be in a state of continuous change and improvement.the initial goal has been to generate a simulation of the processes of interest, with the emphasis on mass and volume balances tracked throughout the HLW complex. That has been accomplished. Future development will add a set of cost equations to the process equations and extend the model for use as a linear programming (optimization) application. The goal of this later phase will be to free the ProdMod user to some extent from the need to set up detailed simulation scenarios: the model will automatically make operational choices which minimize or maximize a given objective function. Appendix A contains the source code

  1. A Process-based Model of Global Lichen Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porada, P.; Kleidon, A.

    2012-04-01

    Lichens and biotic crusts are abundant in most ecosystems of the world. They are the main autotrophic organisms in many deserts and at high altitudes and they can also be found in large amounts as epiphytes in some forests, especially in the boreal zone. They are characterised by a great variety of physiological properties, such as growth form, productivity or color. Due to the vast land surface areas covered by lichens, they may contribute significantly to the global terrestrial net carbon uptake. Furthermore, they potentially play an important role with respect to nutrient cycles in some ecosystems and they have the ability to enhance weathering at the surface on which they grow. A possible way to quantify these processes at the global scale is presented here in form of a process-based lichen model. This approach is based on the concepts used in many dynamical vegetation models and extends these methods to account for the specific properties of lichens. Hence, processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and water exchange are implemented as well as important trade-offs like photosynthetic capacity versus respiratory load and water content versus CO2 conductivity. The great physiological variability of lichens is incorporated directly into the model through ranges of possible parameter values, which are randomly sampled. In this way, many artificial lichen "species" are created and climate then acts as a filter to determine the species which are able to survive permanently. By averaging over the surviving "species", the model predicts lichen productivity as a function of climate input data such as temperature, radiation and precipitation at the global scale. Consequently, the contribution of lichens to the global carbon balance can be quantified. Moreover, global patterns of lichen biodiversity and other properties can be illustrated. The model can be extended to account for the nutrient dynamics of lichens, such as nitrogen fixation and the acquisition and

  2. Geophysical Global Modeling for Extreme Crop Production Using Photosynthesis Models Coupled to Ocean SST Dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, D.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change appears to have manifested itself along with abnormal meteorological disasters. Instability caused by drought and flood disasters is producing poor harvests because of poor photosynthesis and pollination. Fluctuations of extreme phenomena are increasing rapidly because amplitudes of change are much greater than average trends. A fundamental cause of these phenomena derives from increased stored energy inside ocean waters. Geophysical and biochemical modeling of crop production can elucidate complex mechanisms under seasonal climate anomalies. The models have progressed through their combination with global climate reanalysis, environmental satellite data, and harvest data on the ground. This study examined adaptation of crop production to advancing abnormal phenomena related to global climate change. Global environmental surface conditions, i.e., vegetation, surface air temperature, and sea surface temperature observed by satellites, enable global modeling of crop production and monitoring. Basic streams of the concepts of modeling rely upon continental energy flow and carbon circulation among crop vegetation, land surface atmosphere combining energy advection from ocean surface anomalies. Global environmental surface conditions, e.g., vegetation, surface air temperature, and sea surface temperature observed by satellites, enable global modeling of crop production and monitoring. The method of validating the modeling relies upon carbon partitioning in biomass and grains through carbon flow by photosynthesis using carbon dioxide unit in photosynthesis. Results of computations done for this study show global distributions of actual evaporation, stomata opening, and photosynthesis, presenting mechanisms related to advection effects from SST anomalies in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans on global and continental croplands. For North America, climate effects appear clearly in severe atmospheric phenomena, which have caused drought and forest fires

  3. Metabolic modelling of polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymers production by mixed microbial cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Maria AM

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents a metabolic model describing the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA copolymers in mixed microbial cultures, using mixtures of acetic and propionic acid as carbon source material. Material and energetic balances were established on the basis of previously elucidated metabolic pathways. Equations were derived for the theoretical yields for cell growth and PHA production on mixtures of acetic and propionic acid as functions of the oxidative phosphorylation efficiency, P/O ratio. The oxidative phosphorylation efficiency was estimated from rate measurements, which in turn allowed the estimation of the theoretical yield coefficients. Results The model was validated with experimental data collected in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR operated under varying feeding conditions: feeding of acetic and propionic acid separately (control experiments, and the feeding of acetic and propionic acid simultaneously. Two different feast and famine culture enrichment strategies were studied: (i either with acetate or (ii with propionate as carbon source material. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA was performed for the different feeding conditions and culture enrichment strategies. Flux balance analysis (FBA was used to calculate optimal feeding scenarios for high quality PHA polymers production, where it was found that a suitable polymer would be obtained when acetate is fed in excess and the feeding rate of propionate is limited to ~0.17 C-mol/(C-mol.h. The results were compared with published pure culture metabolic studies. Conclusion Acetate was more conducive toward the enrichment of a microbial culture with higher PHA storage fluxes and yields as compared to propionate. The P/O ratio was not only influenced by the selected microbial culture, but also by the carbon substrate fed to each culture, where higher P/O ratio values were consistently observed for acetate than propionate. MFA studies suggest that when mixtures of

  4. Preparation of the Digital Elevation Model for Orthophoto CR Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švec, Z.; Pavelka, K.

    2016-06-01

    The Orthophoto CR is produced in co-operation with the Land Survey Office and the Military Geographical and Hydrometeorological Office. The product serves to ensure a defence of the state, integrated crisis management, civilian tasks in support of the state administration and the local self-government of the Czech Republic as well. It covers the whole area of the Republic and for ensuring its up-to-datedness is reproduced in the biennial period. As the project is countrywide, it keeps the project within the same parameters in urban and rural areas as well. Due to economic reasons it cańt be produced as a true ortophoto because it requires large side and forward overlaps of the aerial photographs and a preparation of the digital surface model instead of the digital terrain model. Use of DTM without some objects of DSM for orthogonalization purposes cause undesirable image deformations in the Orthophoto. There are a few data sets available for forming a suitable elevation model. The principal source should represent DTMs made from data acquired by the airborne laser scanning of the entire area of the Czech Republic that was carried out in the years 2009-2013, the DMR4G in the grid form and the DMR5G in TIN form respectively. It can be replenished by some vector objects (bridges, dams, etc.) taken from the geographic base data of the Czech Republic or obtained by new stereo plotting. It has to be taken into account that the option of applying DSM made from image correlation is also available. The article focuses on the possibilities of DTM supplement for ortogonalization. It looks back to the recent transition from grid to hybrid elevation models, problems that occurred, its solution and getting some practical remarks. Afterwards it assesses the current state and deals with the options for updating the model. Some accuracy analysis are included.

  5. PREPARATION OF THE DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL FOR ORTHOPHOTO CR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Švec

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Orthophoto CR is produced in co-operation with the Land Survey Office and the Military Geographical and Hydrometeorological Office. The product serves to ensure a defence of the state, integrated crisis management, civilian tasks in support of the state administration and the local self-government of the Czech Republic as well. It covers the whole area of the Republic and for ensuring its up-to-datedness is reproduced in the biennial period. As the project is countrywide, it keeps the project within the same parameters in urban and rural areas as well. Due to economic reasons it can´t be produced as a true ortophoto because it requires large side and forward overlaps of the aerial photographs and a preparation of the digital surface model instead of the digital terrain model. Use of DTM without some objects of DSM for orthogonalization purposes cause undesirable image deformations in the Orthophoto. There are a few data sets available for forming a suitable elevation model. The principal source should represent DTMs made from data acquired by the airborne laser scanning of the entire area of the Czech Republic that was carried out in the years 2009-2013, the DMR4G in the grid form and the DMR5G in TIN form respectively. It can be replenished by some vector objects (bridges, dams, etc. taken from the geographic base data of the Czech Republic or obtained by new stereo plotting. It has to be taken into account that the option of applying DSM made from image correlation is also available. The article focuses on the possibilities of DTM supplement for ortogonalization. It looks back to the recent transition from grid to hybrid elevation models, problems that occurred, its solution and getting some practical remarks. Afterwards it assesses the current state and deals with the options for updating the model. Some accuracy analysis are included.

  6. Process model for carbothermic production of silicon metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, B.

    1995-09-12

    This thesis discusses an advanced dynamical two-dimensional cylinder symmetric model for the high temperature part of the carbothermic silicon metal process, and its computer encoding. The situation close to that which is believed to exist around one of three electrodes in full-scale industrial furnaces is modelled. This area comprises a gas filled cavity surrounding the lower tip of the electrode, the metal pool underneath and the lower parts of the materials above. The most important phenomena included are: Heterogeneous chemical reactions taking place in the high-temperature zone (above 1860 {sup o}C), Evaporation and condensation of silicon, Transport of materials by dripping, Turbulent or laminar fluid flow, DC electric arcs, Heat transport by convection, conduction and radiation. The results from the calculations, such as production rates, gas- and temperature distributions, furnace- and particle geometries, fluid flow fields etc, are presented graphically. In its present state the model is a prototype. The process is very complex, and the calculations are time consuming. The governing equations are coded into a Fortran 77 computer code applying the commercial 3D code FLUENT as a basis. 64 refs., 110 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Consumer boycotts of foreign products: a metric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Hakan Altintas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Even if reactions to foreign goods are measured by means of various conceptual structures, few studies approach the question from the point of view of boycotts. Responding to this scarcity and with the aid of netnography, this study examines antecedents of consumer boycotts of foreign goods. The study considers the degree to what a measurement model is useful for examining this boycott process. When the study examines the boycotting of foreign goods as an individual or social process, the study examines the phenomena of nationalism, xenophobia, country-of-origin, and ethnocentrism as antecedents. The conversion of the dimensions obtained from discourse analysis into items and that were tested by means of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis lead to two discoveries: 1 three basic dimensions – hate against foreign products, citizen consumers and economic independence - influenced decisions to boycott and 2 the second-order model (all constructs load on one construct as consumer boycotting was more valid than the three first-order models.

  8. Modeling Degradation Product Partitioning in Chlorinated-DNAPL Source Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroumand, A.; Ramsburg, A.; Christ, J.; Abriola, L.

    2009-12-01

    Metabolic reductive dechlorination degrades aqueous phase contaminant concentrations, increasing the driving force for DNAPL dissolution. Results from laboratory and field investigations suggest that accumulation of cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) may occur within DNAPL source zones. The lack of (or slow) degradation of cis-DCE and VC within bioactive DNAPL source zones may result in these dechlorination products becoming distributed among the solid, aqueous, and organic phases. Partitioning of cis-DCE and VC into the organic phase may reduce aqueous phase concentrations of these contaminants and result in the enrichment of these dechlorination products within the non-aqueous phase. Enrichment of degradation products within DNAPL may reduce some of the advantages associated with the application of bioremediation in DNAPL source zones. Thus, it is important to quantify how partitioning (between the aqueous and organic phases) influences the transport of cis-DCE and VC within bioactive DNAPL source zones. In this work, abiotic two-phase (PCE-water) one-dimensional column experiments are modeled using analytical and numerical methods to examine the rate of partitioning and the capacity of PCE-DNAPL to reversibly sequester cis-DCE. These models consider aqueous-phase, nonaqueous phase, and aqueous plus nonaqueous phase mass transfer resistance using linear driving force and spherical diffusion expressions. Model parameters are examined and compared for different experimental conditions to evaluate the mechanisms controlling partitioning. Biot number, a dimensionless number which is an index of the ratio of the aqueous phase mass transfer rate in boundary layer to the mass transfer rate within the NAPL, is used to characterize conditions in which either or both processes are controlling. Results show that application of a single aqueous resistance is capable to capture breakthrough curves when DNAPL is distributed in porous media as low

  9. INTEGRATED COST MODEL FOR IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION IN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Hajduova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: All processes in the company play important role in ensuring functional integrated management system. We point out the importance of need for a systematic approach to the use of quantitative, but especially statistical methods for modelling the cost of the improvement activities that are part of an integrated management system. Development of integrated management systems worldwide leads towards building of systematic procedures of implementation maintenance and improvement of all systems according to the requirements of all the sides involved.Methodology: Statistical evaluation of the economic indicators of improvement costs and the need for a systematic approach to their management in terms of integrated management systems have become a key role also in the management of processes in the company Cu Drôt, a.s. The aim of this publication is to highlight the importance of proper implementation of statistical methods in the process of improvement costs management in the integrated management system of current market conditions and document the legitimacy of a systematic approach in the area of monitoring and analysing indicators of improvement with the aim of the efficient process management of company. We provide specific example of the implementation of appropriate statistical methods in the production of copper wire in a company Cu Drôt, a.s. This publication also aims to create a model for the estimation of integrated improvement costs, which through the use of statistical methods in the company Cu Drôt, a.s. is used to support decision-making on improving efficiency.Findings: In the present publication, a method for modelling the improvement process, by an integrated manner, is proposed. It is a method in which the basic attributes of the improvement in quality, safety and environment are considered and synergistically combined in the same improvement project. The work examines the use of sophisticated quantitative, especially

  10. Technical change in forest sector models: the global forest products model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno; Sushuai Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Technical change is developing rapidly in some parts of the forest sector, especially in the pulp and paper industry where wood fiber is being substituted by waste paper. In forest sector models, the processing of wood and other input into products is frequently represented by activity analysis (input–output). In this context, technical change translates in changes...

  11. Two agricultural production data libraries for risk assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baes, C.F. III; Shor, R.W.; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two data libraries based on the 1974 US Census of Agriculture are described. The data packages (AGDATC and AGDATG) are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Agricultural production and land-use information by county (AGDATC) or by 1/2 by 1/2 degree longitude-latitude grid cell (AGDATG) provide geographical resolution of the data. The libraries were designed for use in risk assessment models that simulate the transport of radionuclides from sources of airborne release through food chains to man. However, they are also suitable for use in the assessment of other airborne pollutants that can affect man from a food ingestion pathway such as effluents from synfuels or coal-fired power plants. The principal significance of the data libraries is that they provide default location-specific food-chain transport parameters when site-specific information are unavailable. Plant food categories in the data libraries include leafy vegetables, vegetables and fruits exposed to direct deposition of airborne pollutants, vegetables and fruits protected from direct deposition, and grains. Livestock feeds are also tabulated in four categories: pasture, grain, hay, and silage. Pasture was estimated by a material balance of cattle and sheep inventories, forage feed requirements, and reported harvested forage. Cattle (Bos spp.), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), hog (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus domesticus), and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) inventories or sales are also tabulated in the data libraries and can be used to provide estimates of meat, eggs, and milk production. Honey production also is given. Population, irrigation, and meteorological information are also listed

  12. USAHA PENINGKATAN PRODUKTIVITAS DENGAN PRODUCTIVITY EVALUATION TREE (PET MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchlison Anis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Usaha peningkatan produktivitas merupakan suatu langkah menuju perbaikan perusahaan dimasa yang akan datang. Model perencanaan produktivitas Productivity Evaluation Tree (PET memberikan kemudahan bagi perusahaan dalam mengembangkan dan menilai seluruh alternatif yang mungkin dilakukan dalam menetapkan target peningkatan produktivitas dan usaha peningkatan produktivitas. Dalam penelitian ini alternatif perencanaan ada tiga. Pertama, meningkatkan standart penggunaan bahan baku dari 20% menjadi 30%. Kedua, pengeluaran bahan baku diusulkan sama dengan bulan lalu dengan menerapkan peningkatan standart penggunaan bahan baku sama seperti dengan alternatif pertama, Ketiga, menstimulasi alternatif 2 dengan melakukan manajemen motivasi terhadap tenaga kerja. Dari hasil evaluasi pohon produktivitas maka dapat diketahui estimasi peningkatan produktivitas yang tertinggi adalah alternatif ke tiga dengan perubahan tingkat produktivitas sebesar 0,39.

  13. Thermal evolution of the Schwinger model with matrix product operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banuls, M.C.; Cirac, J.I.; Cichy, K.; Jansen, K.; Saito, H.

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate the suitability of tensor network techniques for describing the thermal evolution of lattice gauge theories. As a benchmark case, we have studied the temperature dependence of the chiral condensate in the Schwinger model, using matrix product operators to approximate the thermal equilibrium states for finite system sizes with non-zero lattice spacings. We show how these techniques allow for reliable extrapolations in bond dimension, step width, system size and lattice spacing, and for a systematic estimation and control of all error sources involved in the calculation. The reached values of the lattice spacing are small enough to capture the most challenging region of high temperatures and the final results are consistent with the analytical prediction by Sachs and Wipf over a broad temperature range.

  14. Model for H- and D- production by hydrogen backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.; Schneider, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Marlowe Monte-Carlo backscattering code has been used to calculate particle reflection coefficients and energy distributions for H, D incident upon Li, K, Ni, Cu, Mo, Ag, Cs, Hf, W, Pt, and U surfaces. The backscattered energy and angular distributions are combined with a model for formation and survival probabilities for H - , D - leaving the surface. A least-squares fit of experimental measurements of H - yields from the composite surface, Cs/Cu, has been used to obtain two semi-empirical constants, α, β which enter into the formation and survival probabilities. These probabilities are used to calculate the production probability which in turn provides an upper limit to the negative ion yield. The choice of electrode material is discussed as a function of atomic number

  15. Coherent lower previsions in systems modelling: products and aggregation rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooman, Gert de; Troffaes, Matthias C.M.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss why coherent lower previsions provide a good uncertainty model for solving generic uncertainty problems involving possibly conflicting expert information. We study various ways of combining expert assessments on different domains, such as natural extension, independent natural extension and the type-I product, as well as on common domains, such as conjunction and disjunction. We provide each of these with a clear interpretation, and we study how they are related. Observing that in combining expert assessments no information is available about the order in which they should be combined, we suggest that the final result should be independent of the order of combination. The rules of combination we study here satisfy this requirement

  16. Multiphoton production at high energies in the standard model. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlon, G.

    1993-01-01

    We examine multiphoton production in the electroweak sector of the standard model in the high-energy limit using the equivalence theorem in combination with spinor helicity techniques. We utilize currents consisting of a charged scalar, spinor, or vector line that radiates n photons. Only one end of the charged line is off shell in these currents, which are known for the cases of like-helicity and one unlike-helicity photons. We obtain a wide variety of helicity amplitudes for processes involving two pairs of charged particles by considering combinations of four currents. We examine the situation with respect to currents which have both ends of the charged line off shell, and present solutions for the case of like-helicity photons. These new currents may be combined with two of the original currents to produce additional amplitudes involving Higgs bosons, longitudinal Z, or neutrino pairs

  17. Integrated modelling of crop production and nitrate leaching with the Daisy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manevski, Kiril; Børgesen, Christen D; Li, Xiaoxin; Andersen, Mathias N; Abrahamsen, Per; Hu, Chunsheng; Hansen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    An integrated modelling strategy was designed and applied to the Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer model Daisy for simulation of crop production and nitrate leaching under pedo-climatic and agronomic environment different than that of model original parameterisation. The points of significance and caution in the strategy are: •Model preparation should include field data in detail due to the high complexity of the soil and the crop processes simulated with process-based model, and should reflect the study objectives. Inclusion of interactions between parameters in a sensitivity analysis results in better account for impacts on outputs of measured variables.•Model evaluation on several independent data sets increases robustness, at least on coarser time scales such as month or year. It produces a valuable platform for adaptation of the model to new crops or for the improvement of the existing parameters set. On daily time scale, validation for highly dynamic variables such as soil water transport remains challenging. •Model application is demonstrated with relevance for scientists and regional managers. The integrated modelling strategy is applicable for other process-based models similar to Daisy. It is envisaged that the strategy establishes model capability as a useful research/decision-making, and it increases knowledge transferability, reproducibility and traceability.

  18. Global modelling to predict timber production and prices: the GFPM approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno

    2014-01-01

    Timber production and prices are determined by the global demand for forest products, and the capability of producers from many countries to grow and harvest trees, transform them into products and export. The Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) simulates how this global demand and supply of multiple products among many countries determines prices and attendant...

  19. Evaluation of Satellite and Model Precipitation Products Over Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, M. T.; Amjad, M.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing, gauge stations, and models are the three major platforms to acquire precipitation dataset. Among them satellites and models have the advantage of retrieving spatially and temporally continuous and consistent datasets, while the uncertainty estimates of these retrievals are often required for many hydrological studies to understand the source and the magnitude of the uncertainty in hydrological response parameters. In this study, satellite and model precipitation data products are validated over various temporal scales (daily, 3-daily, 7-daily, 10-daily and monthly) using in-situ measured precipitation observations from a network of 733 gauges from all over the Turkey. Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B42 version 7 and European Center of Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) model estimates (daily, 3-daily, 7-daily and 10-daily accumulated forecast) are used in this study. Retrievals are evaluated for their mean and standard deviation and their accuracies are evaluated via bias, root mean square error, error standard deviation and correlation coefficient statistics. Intensity vs frequency analysis and some contingency table statistics like percent correct, probability of detection, false alarm ratio and critical success index are determined using daily time-series. Both ECMWF forecasts and TRMM observations, on average, overestimate the precipitation compared to gauge estimates; wet biases are 10.26 mm/month and 8.65 mm/month, respectively for ECMWF and TRMM. RMSE values of ECMWF forecasts and TRMM estimates are 39.69 mm/month and 41.55 mm/month, respectively. Monthly correlations between Gauges-ECMWF, Gauges-TRMM and ECMWF-TRMM are 0.76, 0.73 and 0.81, respectively. The model and the satellite error statistics are further compared against the gauges error statistics based on inverse distance weighting (IWD) analysis. Both the model and satellite data have less IWD errors (14

  20. Spatial Mapping of Agricultural Water Productivity Using the SWAT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thokal, Rajesh Tulshiram; Gorantiwar, S. D.; Kothari, Mahesh; Bhakar, S. R.; Nandwana, B. P.

    2015-03-01

    The Sina river basin is facing both episodic and chronic water shortages due to intensive irrigation development. The main objective of this study was to characterize the hydrologic processes of the Sina river basin and assess crop water productivity using the distributed hydrologic model, SWAT. In the simulation year (1998-1999), the inflow to reservoir from upstream side was the major contributor to the reservoir accounting for 92 % of the total required water release for irrigation purpose (119.5 Mm3), while precipitation accounted for 4.1 Mm3. Annual release of water for irrigation was 119.5 Mm3 out of which 54 % water was diverted for irrigation purpose, 26 % was wasted as conveyance loss, average discharge at the command outlet was estimated as 4 % and annual average ground-water recharge coefficient was in the range of 13-17 %. Various scenarios involving water allocation rule were tested with the goal of increasing economic water productivity values in the Sina Irrigation Scheme. Out of those, only most benefited allocation rule is analyzed in this paper. Crop yield varied from 1.98 to 25.9 t/ha, with the majority of the area between 2.14 and 2.78 t/ha. Yield and WP declined significantly in loamy soils of the irrigation command. Crop productivity in the basin was found in the lower range when compared with potential and global values. The findings suggested that there was a potential to improve further. Spatial variations in yield and WP were found to be very high for the crops grown during rabi season, while those were low for the crops grown during kharif season. The crop yields and WP during kharif season were more in the lower reach of the irrigation commands, where loamy soil is more concentrated. Sorghum in both seasons was most profitable. Sorghum fetched net income fivefold that of sunflower, two and half fold of pearl millet and one and half fold of mung beans as far as crop during kharif season were concerned and it fetched fourfold that of

  1. Product Trial Processing (PTP): a model approach from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is a theoretical approach to consumer's processing of product trail, and equally explored the literature of product levels, concept benefit and life cycle. Product trial is described as consumer's first usage experience with a company's brand or product that is most important in determining brand attributes and the ...

  2. Model-driven design of self-observing products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funk, M.

    2011-01-01

    Current complex electronic products are designed and developed by multi-disciplinary teams of stakeholders, and they are sold to customers world-wide who are often overwhelmed with the complexity of products. Product creation processes lack information about product usage and user experience in the

  3. A business model framework for product life extension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Hollander, M.C.; Bakker, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Product life extension is an increase in the utilization period of products. Design research on product life extension strategies has so far mainly focused on technical aspects of products, like ‘prevention engineering’ or ‘design for repair, maintenance and upgradability’, and on individual

  4. Process model economics of xanthan production from confectionery industry wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajić, Bojana Ž; Vučurović, Damjan G; Dodić, Siniša N; Grahovac, Jovana A; Dodić, Jelena M

    2017-12-01

    In this research a process and cost model for a xanthan production facility was developed using process simulation software (SuperPro Designer ® ). This work represents a novelty in the field for two reasons. One is that xanthan gum has been produced from several wastes but never from wastewaters from confectionery industries. The other more important is that the aforementioned software, which in intended exclusively for bioprocesses, is used for generating a base case, i.e. starting point for transferring the technology to industrial scales. Previously acquired experimental knowledge about using confectionery wastewaters from five different factories as substitutes for commercially used cultivation medium have been incorporated into the process model in order to obtain an economic viability of implementing such substrates. A lower initial sugar content in the medium based on wastewater (28.41 g/L) compared to the synthetic medium (30.00 g/L) gave a lower xanthan content at the end of cultivation (23.98 and 26.27 g/L, respectively). Although this resulted in somewhat poorer economic parameters, they were still in the range of being an investment of interest. Also the possibility of utilizing a cheap resource (waste) and reducing pollution that would result from its disposal has a positive effect on the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling defect production in high energy collision cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.; Singh, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    A multi-model approach roach (MMA) to simulating defect production processes at the atomic scale is described that incorporates molecular dynamics (MD), binary collision approximation (BCA) calculations and stochastic annealing simulations. The central hypothesis of the MMA is that the simple, fast computer codes capable of simulating large numbers of high energy cascades (e.g., BCA codes) can be made to yield the correct defect configurations when their parameters are calibrated using the results of the more physically realistic MD simulations. The calibration procedure is investigated using results of MD simulations of 25 keV cascades in copper. The configurations of point defects are extracted from the MD cascade simulations at the end of the collisional phase, similar to the information obtained with a binary collision model. The MD collisional phase defect configurations are used as input to the ALSOME annealing simulation code, and values of the ALSOME quenching parameters are determined that yield the best fit to the post-quenching defect configurations of the MD simulations

  6. Chemical Reaction and Flow Modeling in Fullerene and Nanotube Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Carl D.; Farhat, Samir; Greendyke, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    The development of processes to produce fullerenes and carbon nanotubes has largely been empirical. Fullerenes were first discovered in the soot produced by laser ablation of graphite [1]and then in the soot of electric arc evaporated carbon. Techniques and conditions for producing larger and larger quantities of fullerenes depended mainly on trial and error empirical variations of these processes, with attempts to scale them up by using larger electrodes and targets and higher power. Various concepts of how fullerenes and carbon nanotubes were formed were put forth, but very little was done based on chemical kinetics of the reactions. This was mainly due to the complex mixture of species and complex nature of conditions in the reactors. Temperatures in the reactors varied from several thousand degrees Kelvin down to near room temperature. There are hundreds of species possible, ranging from atomic carbon to large clusters of carbonaceous soot, and metallic catalyst atoms to metal clusters, to complexes of metals and carbon. Most of the chemical kinetics of the reactions and the thermodynamic properties of clusters and complexes have only been approximated. In addition, flow conditions in the reactors are transient or unsteady, and three dimensional, with steep spatial gradients of temperature and species concentrations. All these factors make computational simulations of reactors very complex and challenging. This article addresses the development of the chemical reaction involved in fullerene production and extends this to production of carbon nanotubes by the laser ablation/oven process and by the electric arc evaporation process. In addition, the high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) process is discussed. The article is in several parts. The first one addresses the thermochemical aspects of modeling; and considers the development of chemical rate equations, estimates of reaction rates, and thermodynamic properties where they are available. The second part

  7. Modelling the Costs and Benefits of Delayed Product Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hau L. Lee; Christopher S. Tang

    1997-01-01

    Expanding product variety and high customer service provision are both major challenges for manufacturers to compete in the global market. In addition to many ongoing programs, such as lead-time reduction, redesigning products and processes so as to delay the point of product differentiation is becoming an emerging means to address these challenges. Such a strategy calls for redesigning products and processes so that the stages of the production process in which a common process is used are p...

  8. Modelling biogas production of solid waste: application of the BGP model to a synthetic landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco

    2013-04-01

    Production of biogas as a result of the decomposition of organic matter included on solid waste landfills is still an issue to be understood. Reports on this matter are rarely included on the engineering construction projects of solid waste landfills despite it can be an issue of critical importance while operating the landfill and after its closure. This paper presents an application of BGP (Bio-Gas-Production) model to a synthetic landfill. The evolution in time of the concentrations of the different chemical compounds of biogas is studied. Results obtained show the impact on the air quality of different management alternatives which are usually performed in real landfills.

  9. Transfer prices assignment with integrated production and marketing optimization models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Parra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In decentralized organizations (today a great majority of the large multinational groups, much of the decision-making power is in its individual business units-BUs-. In these cases, the management control system (MCS uses transfer prices to coordinate actions of the BUs and to evaluate their performance with the goal of guaranteeing the whole corporation optimum. The purpose of the investigation is to design transfer prices that suit this goal. Design/methodology/approach: Considering the results of the whole company supply chain optimization models (in the presence of seasonality of demand the question is to design a mechanism that creates optimal incentives for the managers of each business unit to drive the corporation to the optimal performance. Mathematical programming models are used as a start point. Findings: Different transfer prices computation methods are introduced in this paper for decentralised organizations with two divisions (production and marketing. The methods take into account the results of the solution of the whole company supply chain optimization model, if exists, and can be adapted to the type of information available in the company. It is mainly focused on transport costs assignment. Practical implications: Using the methods proposed in this paper a decentralized corporation can implement more accurate transfer prices to drive the whole organization to the global optimum performance. Originality/value: The methods proposed are a new contribution to the literature on transfer prices with special emphasis on the practical and easy implementation in a modern corporation with several business units and with high seasonality of demand. Also, the methods proposed are very flexible and can be tuned depending on the type of information available in the company.

  10. Modelling future oil production, population and the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laherrere, Jean

    2003-07-01

    Most published data on energy, population and the economy are unreliable. In many cases, authors have political motives, selectively choosing data from a wide range of uncertainty to give a desired image. In addition to the uncertainty of the measurements themselves, as in the case of population or the confidentiality of the oil reserves, they often indulge in manipulation. A so-called hedonistic factor distorts the calculation of GDP in the United States; and the definition of the Proved Reserves by the Securities and Exchange Commission gives rise to 'reserve growth'. OPEC misreports its oil reserves because its quotas depend upon the reported reserves, and the reserves were overestimated in the Soviet Union because economic and technical constraints were ignored. Our present culture of eternal growth makes the word 'decline' politically incorrect, but constant growth is unsustainable in a finite world. Growth is the Santa Claus of the modern age who is supposed to provide welfare and retirement for our children and us. All natural events, when measured over their full life, can be modelled under one or more cycles, as in the Fourier analysis. This cyclical nature corresponds with the finite nature of the Universe; everything that is born will die, whether we speak of the solar system, the Earth, or human species. What goes up must come down. The Russian population is already declining and Europe's will soon do so too. This basic understanding was recognised by the celebrated King Hubbert when he made his famous prediction in 1956 that US oil production would peak in 1970. But, in fact, he oversimplified by showing a single peak. In reality, US oil production had a secondary peak (93% of the first one) in 1985, reflecting the entry of Alaskan production, which itself peaked in 1988. A symmetrical oil cycle reflects a large number of independent producers, acting randomly, but in many cases economic and political factors disturb the

  11. Modelling future oil production, population and the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laherrere, Jean

    2003-07-01

    Most published data on energy, population and the economy are unreliable. In many cases, authors have political motives, selectively choosing data from a wide range of uncertainty to give a desired image. In addition to the uncertainty of the measurements themselves, as in the case of population or the confidentiality of the oil reserves, they often indulge in manipulation. A so-called hedonistic factor distorts the calculation of GDP in the United States; and the definition of the Proved Reserves by the Securities and Exchange Commission gives rise to 'reserve growth'. OPEC misreports its oil reserves because its quotas depend upon the reported reserves, and the reserves were overestimated in the Soviet Union because economic and technical constraints were ignored. Our present culture of eternal growth makes the word 'decline' politically incorrect, but constant growth is unsustainable in a finite world. Growth is the Santa Claus of the modern age who is supposed to provide welfare and retirement for our children and us. All natural events, when measured over their full life, can be modelled under one or more cycles, as in the Fourier analysis. This cyclical nature corresponds with the finite nature of the Universe; everything that is born will die, whether we speak of the solar system, the Earth, or human species. What goes up must come down. The Russian population is already declining and Europe's will soon do so too. This basic understanding was recognised by the celebrated King Hubbert when he made his famous prediction in 1956 that US oil production would peak in 1970. But, in fact, he oversimplified by showing a single peak. In reality, US oil production had a secondary peak (93% of the first one) in 1985, reflecting the entry of Alaskan production, which itself peaked in 1988. A symmetrical oil cycle reflects a large number of independent producers, acting randomly, but in many cases economic and political factors disturb the pattern, giving one or more new

  12. eTOXlab, an open source modeling framework for implementing predictive models in production environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrió, Pau; López, Oriol; Sanz, Ferran; Pastor, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Computational models based in Quantitative-Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) methodologies are widely used tools for predicting the biological properties of new compounds. In many instances, such models are used as a routine in the industry (e.g. food, cosmetic or pharmaceutical industry) for the early assessment of the biological properties of new compounds. However, most of the tools currently available for developing QSAR models are not well suited for supporting the whole QSAR model life cycle in production environments. We have developed eTOXlab; an open source modeling framework designed to be used at the core of a self-contained virtual machine that can be easily deployed in production environments, providing predictions as web services. eTOXlab consists on a collection of object-oriented Python modules with methods mapping common tasks of standard modeling workflows. This framework allows building and validating QSAR models as well as predicting the properties of new compounds using either a command line interface or a graphic user interface (GUI). Simple models can be easily generated by setting a few parameters, while more complex models can be implemented by overriding pieces of the original source code. eTOXlab benefits from the object-oriented capabilities of Python for providing high flexibility: any model implemented using eTOXlab inherits the features implemented in the parent model, like common tools and services or the automatic exposure of the models as prediction web services. The particular eTOXlab architecture as a self-contained, portable prediction engine allows building models with confidential information within corporate facilities, which can be safely exported and used for prediction without disclosing the structures of the training series. The software presented here provides full support to the specific needs of users that want to develop, use and maintain predictive models in corporate environments. The technologies used by e

  13. What Happens to Integrated Product Development Models with Product/Service-System Approaches?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian; McAloone, Timothy Charles; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2006-01-01

    Integrated Product Development (IPD) has traditionally focused on the development activities relating to physical technological artefacts. With the advent of business approaches for manufacturing firms based on providing customers the utility of integrated products and services – a term dubbed...... ‘product/service-systems (PSS)’ – companies need to extend their activities to include new dimensions of development. Within the paradigm of mass production and consumption, traditional product-oriented business strategies regarded physical technological artefacts (products) as the mediators of customer...... value. Value was based on the exchange of products between a providing company and a receiving customer. The more products the company could sell, the more revenue it generated. At the point of sale the ownership and responsibility of the product was transferred from company to customer. A customer...

  14. The Benefish consortium 24 month report WP6: productivity modelling of OWI's and welfare intervention measures

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, O.; Schram, E.; Noble, C.

    2009-01-01

    In order to accurately model all costs and benefits associated with welfare interventions for farmed fish it is necessary to establish how any welfare actions affect productivity. Productivity modelling within Benefish has been conducted in WP6. WP6 aimed to model relationships between welfare interventions, changes in OWI’s and measures of productivity. It did so focusing only on the effects which were biological in nature: economic costs and benefits attributed to changes in productivity ar...

  15. An Implementation Model for Production Quality Management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... of Iran must become more flexible in order to meet customer needs ... into consideration desires and demands of consumers will win the .... and capacities of current process;. 7. ... Attention to production of a. Quality product for.

  16. Simulation of less master production schedule nervousness model

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera , Carlos; Thomas , André

    2009-01-01

    International audience; In production decision making systems, Master Production Schedule (MPS) states the requirements for individual end items by date and quantity. The solution sensitivity to demand forecast changes, unforeseen supplier and production problem occurrences, is known as nervousness. This feature cause undesirable effects at tactical and operational levels. Some of these effects are production and inventory cost increases and, also, negative impacts on overall and labor produc...

  17. Effects of Variable Production Rate and Time-Dependent Holding Cost for Complementary Products in Supply Chain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali Sarkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a major trend is going to redesign a production system by controlling or making variable the production rate within some fixed interval to maintain the optimal level. This strategy is more effective when the holding cost is time-dependent as it is interrelated with holding duration of products and rate of production. An effort is made to make a supply chain model (SCM to show the joint effect of variable production rate and time-varying holding cost for specific type of complementary products, where those products are made by two different manufacturers and a common retailer makes them bundle and sells bundles to end customers. Demand of each product is specified by stochastic reservation prices with a known potential market size. Those players of the SCM are considered with unequal power. Stackelberg game approach is employed to obtain global optimum solution of the model. An illustrative numerical example, graphical representation, and managerial insights are given to illustrate the model. Results prove that variable production rate and time-dependent holding cost save more than existing literature.

  18. Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part 2: Modeling Demand Response in a Production Cost Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummon, Marissa [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olsen, Daniel J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Matson, Nance [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rose, Cody [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dudley, Junqiao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goli, Sasank [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ma, Ookie [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report is one of a series stemming from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study. This study is a multi-national-laboratory effort to assess the potential value of demand response (DR) and energy storage to electricity systems with different penetration levels of variable renewable resources and to improve our understanding of associatedmarkets and institutions. This report implements DR resources in the commercial production cost model PLEXOS.

  19. Modelling architectures in multi-product oriented technology development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir

    are not completely defined. Yet, decisions need to be made during technology development on the capabilities to be provided through the development to fulfil future application requirements,provide a foundation for future products, and development of a production system capable of producing future products...

  20. A Predictive Model of Multi-Stage Production Planning for Fixed Time Orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozłowski Edward

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional production planning model based upon a deterministic approach is well described in the literature. Due to the uncertain nature of manufacturing processes, such model can however incorrectly represent actual situations on the shop floor. This study develops a mathematical modeling framework for generating production plans in a multistage manufacturing process. The devised model takes into account the stochastic model for predicting the occurrence of faulty products. The aim of the control model is to determine the number of products which should be manufactured in each planning period to minimize both manufacturing costs and potential financial penalties for failing to fulfill the order completely.

  1. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF HEATING RATE PRODUCT AT HIGH HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Akhmedova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods of computing and mathematical modeling are all widely used in the study of various heat exchange processes that provide the ability to study the dynamics of the processes, as well as to conduct a reasonable search for the optimal technological parameters of heat treatment.This work is devoted to the identification of correlations among the factors that have the greatest effect on the rate of heating of the product at hightemperature heat sterilization in a stream of hot air, which are chosen as the temperature difference (between the most and least warming up points and speed cans during heat sterilization.As a result of the experimental data warming of the central and peripheral layers compote of apples in a 3 liter pot at high-temperature heat treatment in a stream of hot air obtained by the regression equation in the form of a seconddegree polynomial, taking into account the effects of pair interaction of these parameters. 

  2. Modeling of market segmentation for new IT product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiopoulos, Dimitrios K.; Sakas, Damianos P.; Vlachos, D. S.; Mavrogianni, Amanda

    2015-02-01

    Businesses from all Information Technology sectors use market segmentation[1] in their product development[2] and strategic planning[3]. Many studies have concluded that market segmentation is considered as the norm of modern marketing. With the rapid development of technology, customer needs are becoming increasingly diverse. These needs can no longer be satisfied by a mass marketing approach and follow one rule. IT Businesses can face with this diversity by pooling customers[4] with similar requirements and buying behavior and strength into segments. The result of the best choices about which segments are the most appropriate to serve can then be made, thus making the best of finite resources. Despite the attention which segmentation gathers and the resources that are invested in it, growing evidence suggests that businesses have problems operationalizing segmentation[5]. These problems take various forms. There may have been a rule that the segmentation process necessarily results in homogeneous groups of customers for whom appropriate marketing programs and procedures for dealing with them can be developed. Then the segmentation process, that a company follows, can fail. This increases concerns about what causes segmentation failure and how it might be overcome. To prevent the failure, we created a dynamic simulation model of market segmentation[6] based on the basic factors leading to this segmentation.

  3. The economic production lot size model extended to include more than one production rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2001-01-01

    btween the demand rate and the production rate which minimizes unit production costs, and should be used in an increasing order. Then, given the production rates, we derive closed-form expressions for all optimal runtimes as well as the minimum average cost. This analysis reveals that it is the size...... of the setup cost that determines the need for being able to use several production rates. Finally, we show how to derive a near-optimal solution of the general problem....

  4. A Market Dynamics Model for New Industrial Products and Its Application

    OpenAIRE

    Shmuel S. Oren; Michael H. Rothkopf

    1984-01-01

    New product planning models attempt to predict the market consequences of product line and product design decisions. One output of such models, especially those driven by subjective or market research data, is usually theoretical market shares based upon consumer preferences under idealized conditions. This paper describes a class of models that bridge the gap between such theoretical market shares and dynamic sales forecasts. This model accounts for differences in customer awareness of diffe...

  5. A model of regional primary production for use with coarse resolution satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, S. D.

    1991-01-01

    A model of crop primary production, which was originally developed to relate the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) to net production in field studies, is discussed in the context of coarse resolution regional remote sensing of primary production. The model depends on an approximately linear relationship between APAR and the normalized difference vegetation index. A more comprehensive form of the conventional model is shown to be necessary when different physiological types of plants or heterogeneous vegetation types occur within the study area. The predicted variable in the new model is total assimilation (net production plus respiration) rather than net production alone or harvest yield.

  6. Spatial competition for biogas production using insights from retail location models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Mikkel; Birkin, M.; Clarke, G.

    2014-01-01

    production sector. Through a two-step approach by combining a location-allocation model with a production constrained spatial interaction model, this paper addresses the dual problem of determining optimal location and production capacity. What-if scenarios, in combination with the strategic economic...

  7. The economic production lot size model extended to include more than one production rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    production rates should be chosen in the interval between the demand rate and the production rate which minimizes unit production costs, and should be used in an increasing order. Then, given the production rates, we derive closed-form expressions for all optimal runtimes as well as the minimum average cost....... This analysis reveals that it is the size of the setup cost that determines the need for being able to use several production rates. We also show how to derive a near-optimal solution of the general problem....

  8. Research on the Development of E-commerce Model of Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huo Yaping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electronic commerce of agricultural products has developed rapidly. In the development process of electronic commerce of agricultural products,many classic cases and business models have emerged. Such as tootoo industrial commune model (product drive type, Original life model (marketing driven type, Suichang model (service platform type. The author analyzes and compares each model from 7 aspects, and summarizes their differences and links. Finally, The author puts forward suggestions on the development of electronic commerce of agricultural products in china.

  9. A Diffusion Model Incorporating Product Benefits, Price, Income and Information

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Horsky

    1990-01-01

    We start by assuming that a major benefit of many new durable products such as dishwashers and microwave ovens is time savings. Others, such as VCRs, also enhance the value of our leisure time. Using a household production framework we demonstrate that a utility maximizing individual will have a reservation price for the product which is a function of the product benefits and his wage rate. By assuming that the wage rate has an extreme value distribution across the population, we are able to ...

  10. Modelling and operation of reactors for enzymatic biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony

    to the production of high fructose corn syrup, upgrading of fats and oils and biodiesel production to name a few. Despite these examples of industrial enzymatic applications, it is still not “clear cut” how to implement biocatalyst in industry and how best to optimize the processes. This is because the processing...... aspects of the enzyme with reaction/reactor engineering is performed. This strategy is applied to a case study of biodiesel production catalysed by a liquid enzyme formulation. The use of enzymes for biodiesel production is still in its infancy with non-optimized process designs. Furthermore is it unclear...

  11. Hydrogen production by the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima Part II: modeling and experimental approaches for hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auria, Richard; Boileau, Céline; Davidson, Sylvain; Casalot, Laurence; Christen, Pierre; Liebgott, Pierre Pol; Combet-Blanc, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Thermotoga maritima is a hyperthermophilic bacterium known to produce hydrogen from a large variety of substrates. The aim of the present study is to propose a mathematical model incorporating kinetics of growth, consumption of substrates, product formations, and inhibition by hydrogen in order to predict hydrogen production depending on defined culture conditions. Our mathematical model, incorporating data concerning growth, substrates, and products, was developed to predict hydrogen production from batch fermentations of the hyperthermophilic bacterium, T. maritima . It includes the inhibition by hydrogen and the liquid-to-gas mass transfer of H 2 , CO 2 , and H 2 S. Most kinetic parameters of the model were obtained from batch experiments without any fitting. The mathematical model is adequate for glucose, yeast extract, and thiosulfate concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 20 mmol/L, 0.2-0.5 g/L, or 0.01-0.06 mmol/L, respectively, corresponding to one of these compounds being the growth-limiting factor of T. maritima . When glucose, yeast extract, and thiosulfate concentrations are all higher than these ranges, the model overestimates all the variables. In the window of the model validity, predictions of the model show that the combination of both variables (increase in limiting factor concentration and in inlet gas stream) leads up to a twofold increase of the maximum H 2 -specific productivity with the lowest inhibition. A mathematical model predicting H 2 production in T. maritima was successfully designed and confirmed in this study. However, it shows the limit of validity of such mathematical models. Their limit of applicability must take into account the range of validity in which the parameters were established.

  12. Modelling a New Product Model on the Basis of an Existing STEP Application Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.-R. Hoehn

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years a great range of computer aided tools has been generated to support the development process of various products. The goal of a continuous data flow, needed for high efficiency, requires powerful standards for the data exchange. At the FZG (Gear Research Centre of the Technical University of Munich there was a need for a common gear data format for data exchange between gear calculation programs. The STEP standard ISO 10303 was developed for this type of purpose, but a suitable definition of gear data was still missing, even in the Application Protocol AP 214, developed for the design process in the automotive industry. The creation of a new STEP Application Protocol or the extension of existing protocol would be a very time consumpting normative process. So a new method was introduced by FZG. Some very general definitions of an Application Protocol (here AP 214 were used to determine rules for an exact specification of the required kind of data. In this case a product model for gear units was defined based on elements of the AP 214. Therefore no change of the Application Protocol is necessary. Meanwhile the product model for gear units has been published as a VDMA paper and successfully introduced for data exchange within the German gear industry associated with FVA (German Research Organisation for Gears and Transmissions. This method can also be adopted for other applications not yet sufficiently defined by STEP. 

  13. Modeling gallic acid production rate by empirical and statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratati Kar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available For predicting the rate of enzymatic reaction empirical correlation based on the experimental results obtained under various operating conditions have been developed. Models represent both the activation as well as deactivation conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis and the results have been analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA. The tannase activity was found maximum at incubation time 5 min, reaction temperature 40ºC, pH 4.0, initial enzyme concentration 0.12 v/v, initial substrate concentration 0.42 mg/ml, ionic strength 0.2 M and under these optimal conditions, the maximum rate of gallic acid production was 33.49 mumoles/ml/min.Para predizer a taxa das reações enzimaticas uma correlação empírica baseada nos resultados experimentais foi desenvolvida. Os modelos representam a ativação e a desativativação da hydrolise enzimatica. Os resultados foram avaliados pela análise de variança (ANOVA. A atividade máxima da tannase foi obtida após 5 minutos de incubação, temperatura 40ºC, pH 4,0, concentração inicial da enzima de 0,12 v/v, concentração inicial do substrato 0,42 mg/ml, força iônica 0,2 M. Sob essas condições a taxa máxima de produção ácido galico foi de 33,49 µmoles/ml/min.

  14. Tax policy can change the production path: A model of optimal oil extraction in Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leighty, Wayne; Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    We model the economically optimal dynamic oil production decisions for seven production units (fields) on Alaska's North Slope. We use adjustment cost and discount rate to calibrate the model against historical production data, and use the calibrated model to simulate the impact of tax policy on production rate. We construct field-specific cost functions from average cost data and an estimated inverse production function, which incorporates engineering aspects of oil production into our economic modeling. Producers appear to have approximated dynamic optimality. Consistent with prior research, we find that changing the tax rate alone does not change the economically optimal oil production path, except for marginal fields that may cease production. Contrary to prior research, we find that the structure of tax policy can be designed to affect the economically optimal production path, but at a cost in net social benefit. - Highlights: ► We model economically optimal dynamic oil production decisions for 7 Alaska fields. ► Changing tax rate alone does not alter the economically optimal oil production path. ► But change in tax structure can affect the economically optimal oil production path. ► Tax structures that modify the optimal production path reduce net social benefit. ► Field-specific cost functions and inverse production functions are estimated

  15. An innovative model for regulating supplement products: Natural health products in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestmann, Earle R.; Harwood, Melody; Martyres, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    On 1 January 2004, Health Canada officially added a new term to the global list of synonyms for dietary supplements: natural health products (NHP). Developed with the intent of providing Canadian consumers with ready access to NHP that are safe, effective, and of high quality, the Natural Health Products Regulations (the NHP regulations) are applicable to the sale, manufacture, packaging, labelling, importation, distribution, and storage of NHP, and are administered by the recently formed Natural Health Products Directorate (NHPD) within Health Canada. This paper provides an overview of the process for regulating supplement products in Canada

  16. Structural model for sustainable consumption and production adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luthra, Sunil; Govindan, Kannan; Mangla, Sachin Kumar

    2017-01-01

    . “Governmental policies and regulations to develop sustainable consumption and production focused system” and “Management support, dedication and involvement in sustainable consumption and production implementation” have been found as the most influencing drivers and “Gaining the market edge and improving...

  17. Concepts for modelling the quality of perishable products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, M.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Wilkinson, E.C.

    1996-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the quality of perishable products depends on three factors: the product, the user and the market situation. It is therefore difficult to define what quality is and how to control it. Decomposition of the effects of these factors on quality leads to a distinction

  18. The Benefish consortium 24 month report WP6: productivity modelling of OWI's and welfare intervention measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, O.; Schram, E.; Noble, C.

    2009-01-01

    In order to accurately model all costs and benefits associated with welfare interventions for farmed fish it is necessary to establish how any welfare actions affect productivity. Productivity modelling within Benefish has been conducted in WP6. WP6 aimed to model relationships between welfare

  19. A Reverse Logistics Network Model for Handling Returned Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Zaarour

    2014-07-01

    obtained the optimal solution at a fraction of the time used by the traditional nonlinear model and solution procedure, as well as the ability to handle up to 150 customers as compared to 30 in the conventional nonlinear model. As such, the proposed linear model is more suitable for actual industry applications than the existing models.

  20. A fast-response production-inventory model for deteriorating seasonal products with learning in set-ups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraheem Abdul

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical production-inventory model assumes that both demand and set-up costs are constant. However, in real manufacturing environment, managers usually embark on continuous improvement programmes that often lead to more effective use of tools and machineries and consequently reduction in set-up costs. In fact, constant emphasis on reduction of set-up costs is usually cited as one of the factors responsible for the efficiency of Japanese manufacturing methods. On the other hand, the demand for seasonal product is often characterized by a mixture of time-dependent patterns over the entire season. This paper investigates the effect of learning-based reduction in set-up costs on the optimal schedules and costs of a production-inventory system for deteriorating seasonal products. The demand pattern is a general three-phase ramp-type demand function that represents the various phases of demand commonly observed in many seasonal products in the market. A two-parameter Weibull-distribution function is used for the deterioration of items in order to make the model more generalized and realistic. The study further presents two different multi-period production strategies that can ensure a fast-response to customers’ demand and compare them with the usual single period strategy. The Numerical example and sensitivity analysis shows that learning-based reduction in set-up costs leads to higher production frequency and shorter production runs which are vital aspects of the just-in-time (JIT philosophy.

  1. Mathematical model for production of an industry focusing on worker status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visalakshi, V.; kiran kumari, Sheshma

    2018-04-01

    Productivity improvement is posing a great challenge for industry everyday because of the difficulties in keeping track and priorising the variables that have significant impact on the productivity. The variation in production depends on the linguistic variables such as worker commitment, worker motivation and worker skills. Since the variables are linguistic we try to propose a model which gives an appropriate production of an industry. Fuzzy models aids the relationship between the factors and status. The model will support the industry to focus on the mentality of worker to increase the production.

  2. Parameters Investigation of Mathematical Model of Productivity for Automated Line with Availability by DMAIC Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chan Sin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated line is widely applied in industry especially for mass production with less variety product. Productivity is one of the important criteria in automated line as well as industry which directly present the outputs and profits. Forecast of productivity in industry accurately in order to achieve the customer demand and the forecast result is calculated by using mathematical model. Mathematical model of productivity with availability for automated line has been introduced to express the productivity in terms of single level of reliability for stations and mechanisms. Since this mathematical model of productivity with availability cannot achieve close enough productivity compared to actual one due to lack of parameters consideration, the enhancement of mathematical model is required to consider and add the loss parameters that is not considered in current model. This paper presents the investigation parameters of productivity losses investigated by using DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control concept and PACE Prioritization Matrix (Priority, Action, Consider, and Eliminate. The investigated parameters are important for further improvement of mathematical model of productivity with availability to develop robust mathematical model of productivity in automated line.

  3. Model Feed for Hydrotreating of Fat for Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biodiesel production by the transesterification of oils and fats with an alcohol to fatty acid alkyl esters is rapidly increasing worldwide. Plant oils are usually suited for transesterification, but feedstocks from waste products like trap greases and abattoir wastes are difficult to react due...... resulted in lower conversions and a much higher degree of hydrogenation than with the Pt catalyst. This protocol represents a facile method of studying hydrotreating of waste fats and oils for biodiesel production, which may be a viable alternative to current dominating transesterification technology. 1...

  4. Architecture Descriptions. A Contribution to Modeling of Production System Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Allan Dam; Hvam, Lars

    a proper understanding of the architecture phenomenon and the ability to describe it in a manner that allow the architecture to be communicated to and handled by stakeholders throughout the company. Despite the existence of several design philosophies in production system design such as Lean, that focus...... a diverse set of stakeholder domains and tools in the production system life cycle. To support such activities, a contribution is made to the identification and referencing of production system elements within architecture descriptions as part of the reference architecture framework. The contribution...

  5. The impact of applying product-modelling techniques in configurator projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Shafiee, Sara

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to increase understanding of the impact of using product-modelling techniques to structure and formalise knowledge in configurator projects. Companies that provide customised products increasingly apply configurators in support of sales and design activities, reaping benefits...... that include shorter lead times, improved quality of specifications and products, and lower overall product costs. The design and implementation of configurators are a challenging task that calls for scientifically based modelling techniques to support the formal representation of configurator knowledge. Even...... the phenomenon model and information model are considered visually, (2) non-UML-based modelling techniques, in which only the phenomenon model is considered and (3) non-formal modelling techniques. This study analyses the impact to companies from increased availability of product knowledge and improved control...

  6. Disease-threat model explains acceptance of genetically modified products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokop Pavol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural selection favoured survival of individuals who were able to avoid disease. The behavioural immune system is activated especially when our sensory system comes into contact with disease-connoting cues and/or when these cues resemble disease threat. We investigated whether or not perception of modern risky technologies, risky behaviour, expected reproductive goals and food neophobia are associated with the behavioural immune system related to specific attitudes toward genetically modified (GM products. We found that respondents who felt themselves more vulnerable to infectious diseases had significantly more negative attitudes toward GM products. Females had less positive attitudes toward GM products, but engaging in risky behaviours, the expected reproductive goals of females and food neophobia did not predict attitudes toward GM products. Our results suggest that evolved psychological mechanisms primarily designed to protect us against pathogen threat are activated by modern technologies possessing potential health risks.

  7. Cost Optimization of Product Families using Analytic Cost Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for analysing the cost structure of a mass customized product family. The method uses linear regression and backwards selection to reduce the complexity of a data set describing a number of historical product configurations and incurred costs. By reducing the data...... set, the configuration variables which best describe the variation in product costs are identified. The method is tested using data from a Danish manufacturing company and the results indicate that the method is able to identify the most critical configuration variables. The method can be applied...... in product family redesign projects focusing on cost reduction to identify which modules contribute the most to cost variation and should thus be optimized....

  8. Introducing new products that affect consumer privacy : A mediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancelot Miltgen, Caroline; Henseler, Jörg; Gelhard, Carsten Volker; Popovic, Ales

    2016-01-01

    Many innovative products can only fully deploy their value if they rely on consumers' personal information. This issue challenges the confidence that consumers have in new innovations, and revolutionizes marketing practices. Malhotra, Kim, and Agarwal's (2004) framework provides the theoretical

  9. Modelling and visualising modular product architectures for mass customisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Pedersen, Rasmus; Kvist, Morten

    2008-01-01

    that the companies are striving for variety from a commercial- and simplicity from a manufacturing one. A conscious structuring of product architectures and/or the use of product platforms can help overcome this challenge. This paper presents a new method for the synthesis and visualisation of product architecture...... concepts that puts emphasis on variety in markets while also treating the consequences in the manufacturing set-up. The work is based on the assumption that a graphical overview of a given solution space and relations between market demands, product architecture and manufacturing layout can support......Companies following a mass customisation strategy have to observe two prerequisites for success: they have to fulfil a wide variety of customer needs and demands, and to harvest the benefits from economies of scale within their organisation and supply chain. This leads to the situation...

  10. Television production, Funding Models and Exploitation of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Doyle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The rise of digital platforms has transformative implications for strategies of financing media production and for exploitation of the economic value in creative content. In the television industry, changes in technologies for distribution and the emergence of SVOD services such as Netflix are gradually shifting audiences and financial power away from broadcasters while at the same time creating unprecedented opportunities for programme-makers.  Drawing on findings from recent RCUK-funded research, this article examines how these shifts are affecting production financing and the economics of supplying television content.  In particular, it focuses on how changes in the dynamics of rights markets and in strategic approaches towards the financing of television production might mean for markets, industries and for policies intended to support the economic sustainability of independent television content production businesses.

  11. empirical model for predicting rate of biogas production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    users

    Rate of biogas production using cow manure as substrate was monitored in two laboratory scale ... Biogas is a Gas obtained by anaerobic ... A. A. Adamu, Petroleum and Natural Gas Processing Department, Petroleum Training Institute, P.M.B..

  12. One sector models, indeterminacy, and productive public spending

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slobodyan, Sergey

    -, č. 293 (2006), s. 1-24 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : indeterminacy * absolute instability * productive public spending Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp293.pdf

  13. Effects of product\\'s warranty on customers\\' preferences: empirical findings on reverse logistics models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsalan Najmi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: IT products are now becoming the part of every one's life. Since Pakistan didn't manufacture IT products, so the customers had to purchase the products that are available in the markets. During such purchase, customers not only gave preference to brand or price or both but they also consider its warranty so that they are secured with the post purchase risks. Methods: This study was aimed to identify the impact of the warranty on customers' preferences towards brand and price. A conceptual framework was made on the basis of available literature and then data was collected. It was collected from 298 respondents through survey questionnaire and after applying Factor Analysis, One Way MANOVA was applied on the factors. Results and conclusions: The study found that the product's warranty has a significant impact on preferences towards brand, concern for price and price intentions whereas the impact on willingness to pay was found insignificant. The results conclude that Pakistani customers need a branded IT product on competitive prices, which give more in less along with the warranty so that they can enjoy the same quality of the product for a period of time whereas, they are not willing to pay any additional amount for the product just because of Warranty.

  14. An Agent-Based Monetary Production Simulation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    An Agent-Based Simulation Model Programmed in Objective Borland Pascal. Program and source code is downloadable......An Agent-Based Simulation Model Programmed in Objective Borland Pascal. Program and source code is downloadable...

  15. The Use of Modelling Methods for Product Configuration in Industrial Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Bonev, Martin; Haug, Anders

    2014-01-01

    reported. This article investigates the challenge on how industrial companies model their product CSs. The study is based on interviews of 18 industrial companies using CSs for configuring customer-tailored products. It investigates the relationship between using a structured modelling technique...... for modelling product families relative to less or no formal approaches. Furthermore, the study explores the specific characteristics of configuration set-ups with respect to size and complexity and their effect on product variant management and availability of product knowledge in organizations. The results......Developing product configuration system (CS) requires extracting and representing domain expert knowledge in appropriate product models. As acknowledged by researchers, this is often one of the most challenging activities in configuration projects, where only little empirical insights have yet been...

  16. A potato model intercomparison across varying climates and productivity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    H. Fleisher, David; Condori, Bruno; Quiroz, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A potato crop multi-model assessment was conducted to quantify variation among models and evaluate responses to climate change. Nine modeling groups simulated agronomic and climatic responses at low- (Chinoli, Bolivia and Gisozi, Burundi) and high- (Jyndevad, Denmark and Washington, United States.......01). These are the first reported results quantifying uncertainty for tuber/root crops and suggest modeling assessments of climate change impact on potato may be improved using an ensemble approach....

  17. Stochastic multi-period multi-product multi-objective Aggregate Production Planning model in multi-echelon supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Khalili-Damghani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a multi-period multi-product multi-objective aggregate production planning (APP model is proposed for an uncertain multi-echelon supply chain considering financial risk, customer satisfaction, and human resource training. Three conflictive objective functions and several sets of real constraints are considered concurrently in the proposed APP model. Some parameters of the proposed model are assumed to be uncertain and handled through a two-stage stochastic programming (TSSP approach. The proposed TSSP is solved using three multi-objective solution procedures, i.e., the goal attainment technique, the modified ε-constraint method, and STEM method. The whole procedure is applied in an automotive resin and oil supply chain as a real case study wherein the efficacy and applicability of the proposed approaches are illustrated in comparison with existing experimental production planning method.

  18. Dietary Maillard reaction products and their fermented products reduce cardiovascular risk in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, N S; Park, M R; Lee, K W; Kim, S H; Kim, Y

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effects of Maillard reaction products (MRP) and MRP fermented by lactic acid bacteria on antioxidants and their enhancement of cardiovascular health in ICR mouse and rat models. In previous in vitro studies, the selected lactic acid bacteria were shown to significantly affect the activity of MRP. The expression of genes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) related to antioxidant activity was upregulated by Maillard-reacted sodium caseinate (cMRP), and cMRP fermented by Lactobacillus fermentum H9 (F-cMRP) synergistically increased the expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase when compared with the high-cholesterol-diet group. Bleeding time, the assay for determination of antithrombotic activity, was significantly prolonged by Maillard-reacted whey protein concentration (wMRP) and wMRP fermented by Lactobacillus gasseri H10 (F-wMRP), similar to the bleeding time of the aspirin group (positive control). In addition, the acute pulmonary thromboembolism-induced mice overcame severe body paralysis or death in both the wMRP and the F-wMRP groups. In the serum-level experiment, cMRP and F-cMRP significantly reduced the serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and triglycerides but had only a slight effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase also declined in the cMRP and F-cMRP intake groups compared with the high-cholesterol-diet group. In particular, F-cMRP showed the highest reducing effects on triglycerides, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Moreover, the expression of cholesterol-related genes in the F-cMRP group demonstrated greater effects than for the cMRP group in the level of cholesterol 7 α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), and low-density lipoprotein receptors compared with the high-cholesterol-diet group. The protective role of cMRP and F-cMRP in the high

  19. Dynamics of group knowledge production in facilitated modelling workshops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Franco, L. Alberto

    2015-01-01

    by which models are jointly developed with group members interacting face-to-face, with or without computer support. The models produced are used to inform negotiations about the nature of the issues faced by the group, and how to address them. While the facilitated modelling literature is impressive......, the workshop. Drawing on the knowledge-perspective of group communication, we conducted a micro-level analysis of a transcript of a facilitated modelling workshop held with the management team of an Alternative Food Network in the UK. Our analysis suggests that facilitated modelling interactions can take...

  20. Proposing an Aggregate Production Planning Model by Goal Programming Approach, a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Farzam Rad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Production planning is one of the most important functions in the process of production management. Production planning in the intermediate range of time is termed as aggregate production planning (APP. Aggregate production planning is an important upper level planning activity in a production management system. The present study tries to suggest an aggregate production planning model for products of Hafez tile factory during one year. Due to this fact that the director of the company seeks 3 main objectives to determine the optimal production rate, the linear goal planning method was employed. After solving the problem, in order to examine the efficiency and the distinctiveness of this method in compare to linear programming, the problem was modeled just by considering one objective then was solved by linear programming approach. The findings revealed the goal programming with multi objectives resulted more appropriate solution rather than linear programming with just one objective.

  1. Research on the Decision Model for Self-Production and Outsourcing Choices under Limited Production Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Y.-T. Chang; C.-Y. Lo

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: In the face of competitive environments with uncertain demands and a trend toward High-Mix, Low-Volume (HMLV) production, self-production or direct outsourcing has troubled decision-makers of enterprise for a long time. In the previous studies, not much has been written about the topic. Approach: Therefore, this study applies the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to investigate the topic through either qualitative or quantitative decision-making factors that influence enterp...

  2. How can Product Development Process Modelling be made more useful?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wynn, David C; Maier, Anja; Clarkson, John P

    2010-01-01

    and on the way they are applied. The paper draws upon established principles of cybernetic systems in an attempt to explain the role played by process modelling in operating and improving PD processes. We use this framework to identify eight key factors which influence the utility of modelling in the context...... of use. Further, we indicate how these factors can be interpreted to identify opportunities to improve modelling utility. The paper is organised as follows. Section 2 provides background and motivation for the paper by discussing an example of PD process modelling practice. After highlighting from......, and the process being modelled. Section 5 draws upon established principles of cybernetic systems theory to incorporate this view in an explanation of the role of modelling in PD process operation and improvement. This framework is used to define modelling utility and to progressively identify influences upon it...

  3. Assessing uncertainties in crop and pasture ensemble model simulations of productivity and N2O emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simulation models are extensively used to predict agricultural productivity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, the uncertainties of (reduced) model ensemble simulations have not been assessed systematically for variables affecting food security and climate change mitigation, within multisp...

  4. Compartmental models for assessing the fishery production in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dalal, S.G.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Compartmental models for assessing the fishery production in the Indian Ocean is discussed. The article examines the theoretical basis on which modern fishery sciences is built. The model shows that, large changes in energy flux from one pathway...

  5. Topographic modelling of haptic properties of tissue products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, B-G; Fall, A; Farbrot, A; Bergström, P; Rosen, S

    2014-01-01

    The way a product or material feels when touched, haptics, has been shown to be a property that plays an important role when consumers determine the quality of products For tissue products in constant touch with the skin, ''softness'' becomes a primary quality parameter. In the present work, the relationship between topography and the feeling of the surface has been investigated for commercial tissues with varying degree of texture from the low textured crepe tissue to the highly textured embossed- and air-dried tissue products. A trained sensory panel at was used to grade perceived haptic ''roughness''. The technique used to characterize the topography was Digital light projection (DLP) technique, By the use of multivariate statistics, strong correlations between perceived roughness and topography were found with predictability of above 90 percent even though highly textured products were included. Characterization was made using areal ISO 25178-2 topography parameters in combination with non-contacting topography measurement. The best prediction ability was obtained when combining haptic properties with the topography parameters auto-correlation length (Sal), peak material volume (Vmp), core roughness depth (Sk) and the maximum height of the surface (Sz)

  6. Visual persuasion with physically attractive models in ads: An examination of how the ad model influences product evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Söderlund, Magnus; Lange, Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the prevalent advertising practice of visually juxtaposing an anonymous, physically attractive ad model and a product in terms of its effects on the attitude toward the product. In this appeal, in which there are no explicit verbal claims about how the two objects are connected, we argue that the physically attractive model sets in motion a process in which emotions and the attitude toward the ad model serve as mediating variables, and that this process ultimately results ...

  7. Mathematical modeling of a multi-product EMQ model with an enhanced end items issuing policy and failures in rework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yuan-Shyi Peter; Sung, Peng-Cheng; Chiu, Singa Wang; Chou, Chung-Li

    2015-01-01

    This study uses mathematical modeling to examine a multi-product economic manufacturing quantity (EMQ) model with an enhanced end items issuing policy and rework failures. We assume that a multi-product EMQ model randomly generates nonconforming items. All of the defective are reworked, but a certain portion fails and becomes scraps. When rework process ends and the entire lot of each product is quality assured, a cost reduction n + 1 end items issuing policy is used to transport finished items of each product. As a result, a closed-form optimal production cycle time is obtained. A numerical example demonstrates the practical usage of our result and confirms a significant savings in stock holding and overall production costs as compared to that of a prior work (Chiu et al. in J Sci Ind Res India, 72:435-440 2013) in the literature.

  8. Visual product architecture modelling for structuring data in a PLM system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Peter Lomholt; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to determine the role of a product architecture model to support communication and to form the basis for developing and maintaining information of product structures in a PLM system. This paper contains descriptions of a modelling tool to represent a product architecture....... Moreover, it is discussed how the sometimes intangible elements and phenomena within an architecture model can be visually modeled in order to form the basis for a data model in a PLM system. © 2012 International Federation for Information Processing....

  9. Starch hydrolysis modeling: application to fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Ganti S; Johnston, David B; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, M E; Singh, Vijay

    2011-09-01

    Efficiency of the starch hydrolysis in the dry grind corn process is a determining factor for overall conversion of starch to ethanol. A model, based on a molecular approach, was developed to simulate structure and hydrolysis of starch. Starch structure was modeled based on a cluster model of amylopectin. Enzymatic hydrolysis of amylose and amylopectin was modeled using a Monte Carlo simulation method. The model included the effects of process variables such as temperature, pH, enzyme activity and enzyme dose. Pure starches from wet milled waxy and high-amylose corn hybrids and ground yellow dent corn were hydrolyzed to validate the model. Standard deviations in the model predictions for glucose concentration and DE values after saccharification were less than ± 0.15% (w/v) and ± 0.35%, respectively. Correlation coefficients for model predictions and experimental values were 0.60 and 0.91 for liquefaction and 0.84 and 0.71 for saccharification of amylose and amylopectin, respectively. Model predictions for glucose (R2 = 0.69-0.79) and DP4+ (R2 = 0.8-0.68) were more accurate than the maltotriose and maltose for hydrolysis of high-amylose and waxy corn starch. For yellow dent corn, simulation predictions for glucose were accurate (R2 > 0.73) indicating that the model can be used to predict the glucose concentrations during starch hydrolysis.

  10. Intelligent decision-making models for production and retail operations

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Zhaoxia

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of intelligent decision-making techniques and discusses their application in production and retail operations. Manufacturing and retail enterprises have stringent standards for using advanced and reliable techniques to improve decision-making processes, since these processes have significant effects on the performance of relevant operations and the entire supply chain. In recent years, researchers have been increasingly focusing attention on using intelligent techniques to solve various decision-making problems. The opening chapters provide an introduction to several commonly used intelligent techniques, such as genetic algorithm, harmony search, neural network and extreme learning machine. The book then explores the use of these techniques for handling various production and retail decision-making problems, such as production planning and scheduling, assembly line balancing, and sales forecasting.

  11. Designing Mechatronic Products - Achieving Integration by Means of Modelling Dependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Jonas

    of a joint effort between mechanical, electronics and software development. Companies engaged in multi-disciplinary product development face the challenge of coordinating different engineering disciplines to pursue a synergistic effect and to avoid failures when solutions from the different engineering...... disciplines have to be combined and function in an integrated fashion. The holistic view of the product concept is sometimes missing in projects and engineering disciplines are reluctant to interact. Investigations of literature, cases from industry and practical experience are used for dissecting...

  12. Kinetic modeling of cell metabolism for microbial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rafael S; Hartmann, Andras; Vinga, Susana

    2016-02-10

    Kinetic models of cellular metabolism are important tools for the rational design of metabolic engineering strategies and to explain properties of complex biological systems. The recent developments in high-throughput experimental data are leading to new computational approaches for building kinetic models of metabolism. Herein, we briefly survey the available databases, standards and software tools that can be applied for kinetic models of metabolism. In addition, we give an overview about recently developed ordinary differential equations (ODE)-based kinetic models of metabolism and some of the main applications of such models are illustrated in guiding metabolic engineering design. Finally, we review the kinetic modeling approaches of large-scale networks that are emerging, discussing their main advantages, challenges and limitations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A potato model intercomparison across varying climates and productivity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, David H; Condori, Bruno; Quiroz, Roberto; Alva, Ashok; Asseng, Senthold; Barreda, Carolina; Bindi, Marco; Boote, Kenneth J; Ferrise, Roberto; Franke, Angelinus C; Govindakrishnan, Panamanna M; Harahagazwe, Dieudonne; Hoogenboom, Gerrit; Naresh Kumar, Soora; Merante, Paolo; Nendel, Claas; Olesen, Jorgen E; Parker, Phillip S; Raes, Dirk; Raymundo, Rubi; Ruane, Alex C; Stockle, Claudio; Supit, Iwan; Vanuytrecht, Eline; Wolf, Joost; Woli, Prem

    2017-03-01

    A potato crop multimodel assessment was conducted to quantify variation among models and evaluate responses to climate change. Nine modeling groups simulated agronomic and climatic responses at low-input (Chinoli, Bolivia and Gisozi, Burundi)- and high-input (Jyndevad, Denmark and Washington, United States) management sites. Two calibration stages were explored, partial (P1), where experimental dry matter data were not provided, and full (P2). The median model ensemble response outperformed any single model in terms of replicating observed yield across all locations. Uncertainty in simulated yield decreased from 38% to 20% between P1 and P2. Model uncertainty increased with interannual variability, and predictions for all agronomic variables were significantly different from one model to another (P < 0.001). Uncertainty averaged 15% higher for low- vs. high-input sites, with larger differences observed for evapotranspiration (ET), nitrogen uptake, and water use efficiency as compared to dry matter. A minimum of five partial, or three full, calibrated models was required for an ensemble approach to keep variability below that of common field variation. Model variation was not influenced by change in carbon dioxide (C), but increased as much as 41% and 23% for yield and ET, respectively, as temperature (T) or rainfall (W) moved away from historical levels. Increases in T accounted for the highest amount of uncertainty, suggesting that methods and parameters for T sensitivity represent a considerable unknown among models. Using median model ensemble values, yield increased on average 6% per 100-ppm C, declined 4.6% per °C, and declined 2% for every 10% decrease in rainfall (for nonirrigated sites). Differences in predictions due to model representation of light utilization were significant (P < 0.01). These are the first reported results quantifying uncertainty for tuber/root crops and suggest modeling assessments of climate change impact on potato may be

  14. Modeling production functions and economic weights in intensive meat production of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Mariam; Cruz, Danny Julio; Blasco, Agustín

    2017-10-01

    A profit function for a typical commercial farm of intensive guinea pig production was designed. The simulated farm contained 86 cages with a ratio of 7:1 females/males, with continuous mating. Kits were weaned at 15 days of age and slaughtered for meat production at 90 days of age. The absolute (EW) and relative economic weights of the main traits were calculated. The highest EW were kits produced per kindling (US$25), kits weaned per kindling (US$22), kits born alive per kindling (US$20), and the number of kindlings per female and year (US$12). Profit, returns, and costs per female and year were US$15, 68, and 53, respectively. Returns came from the production of young guinea pigs and discarded reproductive adults for meat production, 90 and 10% of the total returns. The highest costs were feeding and labor, 44 and 23% of the total cost. The EW and profit did not substantially change when simulating variations of ±20% in the prices of kilograms of fattening feed and kilograms of live weight of guinea pig, showing their robustness to future variations in market prices or to variations in prices between countries. The results obtained highlight the importance of the feeding costs in the guinea pig meat production.

  15. Extension of internationalisation models drivers and processes for the globalisation of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Erik Stefan; Oehmen, Josef; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2016-01-01

    of product development and collaborative distributed development beyond sourcing, sales and production elements. The paper then provides propositions for how to further develop the suggested model, and how western companies can learn from the Chinese approaches, and globalise their product development...

  16. A Procedure for Building Product Models in Intelligent Agent-based OperationsManagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Riis, Jesper; Malis, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a procedure for building product models to support the specification processes dealing with sales, design of product variants and production preparation. The procedure includes, as the first phase, an analysis and redesign of the business processes that are to be supported b...

  17. Targeting and timing promotional activities : An agent-based model for the takeoff of new products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delre, S. A.; Jager, W.; Bijmolt, T. H. A.; Janssen, M. A.

    Many marketing efforts focus on promotional activities that support the launch of new products. Promotional strategies may play a crucial role in the early stages of the product life cycle, and determine to a large extent the diffusion of a new product. This paper proposes an agent-based model to

  18. Quantitative modelling to estimate the transfer of pharmaceuticals through the food production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitescu, C.L.; Nicolau, A.I.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Use of pharmaceuticals in animal production may cause an indirect route of contamination of food products of animal origin. This study aimed to assess, through mathematical modelling, the transfer of pharmaceuticals from contaminated soil, through plant uptake, into the dairy food production chain.

  19. The influence of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and coumarin on flavonoid production by fungus Phellinus sp.: modeling of production kinetic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Kui; Li, Le; Peterson, Eric Charles; Ruan, Tingting; Duan, Xiaoyi

    2015-11-01

    For the purpose of improving the fungal production of flavonoids, the influence of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and coumarin on flavonoid production by fungus Phellinus sp. P0988 was investigated by developing the corresponding kinetics of flavonoid production in a 7-L bioreactor. Phellinus sp. was confirmed to form flavonoids in pellets and broth when cultivated in basic medium, and the optimum concentration of NAA and coumarin in medium for flavonoid production were determined to be 0.03 and 0.02 g/L, respectively. The developed unstructured mathematical models were in good agreement with the experimental results with respect to flavonoid production kinetic profiles with NAA and coumarin supplementation at optimum levels and revealed significant accuracy in terms of statistical consistency and robustness. Analysis of these kinetic processes indicated that NAA and coumarin supplementations imposed a stronger positive influence on flavonoid production and substrate consumption compared to their effects on cell growth. The separate addition of NAA and coumarin resulted in enhancements in final product accumulation and productivity, achieving final flavonoid concentrations of 3.60 and 2.75 g/L, respectively, and glucose consumption showed a significant decrease compared to the non-supplemented control as well. Also, the separate presence of NAA and coumarin respectively decreased maintenance coefficients (M s) from 2.48 in the control to 1.39 and 0.22, representing decreases of 43.9 and 91.1 %, respectively. The current study is the first known application of mathematical kinetic models to explore the influence of medium components adding on flavonoid production by fungi.

  20. Software module for geometric product modeling and NC tool path generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenko, Sofija; Dukovski, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    The intelligent CAD/CAM system named VIRTUAL MANUFACTURE is created. It is consisted of four intelligent software modules: the module for virtual NC machine creation, the module for geometric product modeling and automatic NC path generation, the module for virtual NC machining and the module for virtual product evaluation. In this paper the second intelligent software module is presented. This module enables feature-based product modeling carried out via automatic saving of the designed product geometric features as knowledge data. The knowledge data are afterwards applied for automatic NC program generation for the designed product NC machining. (Author)

  1. A dynamic model for managing overlapped iterative product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, J.; Chai, K.H.; Wong, Y.S.; Brombacher, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    Intense competition in many industries impels firms to develop more products in less time. Overlapping of development activities is regarded as one of the most promising strategies to reduce project cycle time. However, the gain from overlapping must be weighed against the additional resource and

  2. A model of strategic product quality and process improvement incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Jasper; Gaalman, G.

    2013-01-01

    In many production firms it is common practice to financially reward managers for firm performance improvement. The use of financial incentives for improvement has been widely researched in several analytical and empirical studies. Literature has also addressed the strategic effect of incentives, in

  3. Parallel distributed computing in modeling of the nanomaterials production technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Korkhov, V.V.; Zatevakhin, M.A.; Gorbachev, Y.E.

    2008-01-01

    Simulation of physical and chemical processes occurring in the nanomaterial production technologies is a computationally challenging problem, due to the great number of coupled processes, time and length scales to be taken into account. To solve such complex problems with a good level of detail in a

  4. searches for physics beyond the standard model in production at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    production at LEP II. PETER JOHN HOLT. CERN, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland. Abstract. Preliminary combinations of measurements of the 4 LEP Collaborations of the process e+e- ff at LEP II are presented. The combined results are interpreted in terms of contact interactions and the exchange of Ζ' bosons and within ...

  5. Modelling the association between in vitro gas production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro gas production of four different browse plants (Azadirachta indica, Terminalia catappa, Mangifera indica and Vernonia amygdalina) was investigated under different extractions. The relationship between the forage composition parameters (dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, acid detergent fibre, neutral ...

  6. An Implementation Model for Production Quality Management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally speaking, the quality management philosophy emphasizes on preventive practices instead of treatment efforts. In the quality management system, there is an exciting interest on why defects and flaws occur in the operation process in spite of all efforts made to prevent defected products from proceeding in the ...

  7. Modeling belowground biomass of black cohosh, a medicinal forest product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Chamberlain; Gabrielle Ness; Christine Small; Simon Bonner; Elizabeth Hiebert

    2014-01-01

    Tens of thousands of kilograms of rhizomes and roots of Actaea racemosa L., a native Appalachian forest perennial, are harvested every year and used for the treatment of menopausal conditions. Sustainable management of this and other wild-harvested non-timber forest products requires the ability to effectively and reliably inventory marketable plant...

  8. Production of fungal lipids : kinetic modeling and process design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwse, P.

    2011-01-01

    Finding alternatives for fossil fuels is currently urgent. One of the new processes in this field is the production of biodiesel from lipids accumulated by microorganisms. Some yeasts and fungi accumulate lipids when a component needed for growth, usually the N-source, is limiting while the

  9. Background and derivation of ANS-5.4 standard fission product release model. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    ANS Working Group 5.4 was established in 1974 to examine fission product releases from UO2 fuel. The scope of ANS-5.4 was narrowly defined to include the following: (1) Review available experimental data on release of volatile fission products from UO2 and mixed-oxide fuel; (2) Survey existing analytical models currently being applied to lightwater reactors; and (3) Develop a standard analytical model for volatile fission product release to the fuel rod void space. Place emphasis on obtaining a model for radioactive fission product releases to be used in assessing radiological consequences of postulated accidents

  10. a modified intervention model for gross domestic product variable

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    observations on a variable that have been measured at ... assumption that successive values in the data file ... these interventions, one may try to evaluate the effect of ... generalized series by comparing the distinct periods. A ... the process of checking for adequacy of the model based .... As a result, the model's forecast will.

  11. Modeling Peak Oil and the Geological Constraints on Oil Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynes, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show

  12. A model to predict productivity of different chipping operations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additional international case studies from North America, South America, and central and northern Europe were used to test the accuracy of the model, in which 15 studies confirmed the model's validity and two failed to pass the test. Keywords: average piece size, chipper, power, sensitivity analysis, type of operation, unit ...

  13. Predictive ability of boiler production models | Ogundu | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The weekly body weight measurements of a growing strain of Ross broiler were used to compare the of ability of three mathematical models (the multi, linear, quadratic and Exponential) to predict 8 week body weight from early body measurements at weeks I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII. The results suggest that the three models ...

  14. The quark-gluon model for particle production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovitskij, P.E.

    1983-01-01

    The quark-gluon model for hadronization of strings produced in soft and hard processes is suggested. The model is based on the distribution functions of valence quarks in hadrons which have correct Regge behaviour. The simplest case is discussed in which only the longitudinal degrees of freedom are taken into account

  15. Computer model for economic study of unbleached kraft paperboard production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince

    1984-01-01

    Unbleached kraft paperboard is produced from wood fiber in an industrial papermaking process. A highly specific and detailed model of the process is presented. The model is also presented as a working computer program. A user of the computer program will provide data on physical parameters of the process and on prices of material inputs and outputs. The program is then...

  16. Modeling peak oil and the geological constraints on oil production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynès, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show

  17. Product, service, and business model innovation: A discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Geissdoerfer, Martin; Vladimirova, Doroteya Kamenova; Van Fossen, Kirsten; Evans, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Business model innovation is increasingly recognised to be a central part of strategic management that generates the decisive competitive advantages for a growing number of organisations. This is particularly relevant in the areas of corporate sustainability strategy and sustainable entrepreneurship, since technological innovations in isolation yield increasingly incremental economic, social and environmental performance improvements. Despite the surge of research into business model innovati...

  18. An economic production model for deteriorating items and time dependent demand with rework and multiple production setups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthayakumar, R.; Tharani, S.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, much emphasis has given to study the control and maintenance of production inventories of the deteriorating items. Rework is one of the main issues in reverse logistic and green supply chain, since it can reduce production cost and the environmental problem. Many researchers have focused on developing rework model, but few of them have developed model for deteriorating items. Due to this fact, we take up productivity and rework with deterioration as the major concern in this paper. In this paper, a production-inventory model with deteriorative items in which one cycle has n production setups and one rework setup (n, 1) policy is considered for deteriorating items with stock-dependent demand in case 1 and exponential demand in case 2. An effective iterative solution procedure is developed to achieve optimal time, so that the total cost of the system is minimized. Numerical and sensitivity analyses are discussed to examine the outcome of the proposed solution procedure presented in this research.

  19. Examining the Possibilities of Identifying and Modeling Correlations between Product Families and Business Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Allan Dam; Hvam, Lars

    2010-01-01

    In order for companies to make well founded decisions on the product family makeup, an understanding of the correlation between the complexity of the product family and business processes is required, though it is often not available. This paper investigates the potential of using the Product...... Variant Master (PVM) modeling technique and Process Flow Charts in combination, to analyze the correlation between complexity in product families and business processes. The approach is based on a visual modeling of the product assortment and the business processes. It is hypothesized that the combined...... use of the modeling techniques can allow for analysis and communication of the product family and business processes; as well as the connections between the two, with the potential of creating a single combined model. A case from a Danish industrial company is used for the purpose of the investigation...

  20. By-product mutualism and the ambiguous effects of harsher environments - A game-theoretic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jaegher, Kris; Hoyer, Britta

    2016-01-01

    We construct two-player two-strategy game-theoretic models of by-product mutualism, where our focus lies on the way in which the probability of cooperation among players is affected by the degree of adversity facing the players. In our first model, cooperation consists of the production of a public