WorldWideScience

Sample records for product structures production

  1. Product Structuring, an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tichem, Marcel; Storm, Ton; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1997-01-01

    .In the paper, the field of product structuring is defined and broken down into topics. For each of the topics, results of research are presented. Issues for further research are identified. The references in the paper refer to papers in the proceedings of the workshops.......This paper presents the highlights of two WDK Workshops on Product Structuring. Product structuring plays an important role in creating products which have good functional and life-cycle related properties, in design process management, and in several other company functions like production control...

  2. PRODUCT STRUCTURE DIGITAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Sineglazov

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available  Research results of representation of product structure made by means of CADDS5 computer-aided design (CAD system, Product Data Management Optegra (PDM system and Product Life Cycle Management Wind-chill system (PLM, are examined in this work. Analysis of structure component development and its storage in various systems is carried out. Algorithms of structure transformation required for correct representation of the structure are considered. Management analysis of electronic mockup presentation of the product structure is carried out for Windchill system.

  3. Evolving production network structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Gunther, H.O.; Burdenik, H.

    2007-01-01

    When deciding about future production network configurations, the current structures have to be taken into account. Further, core issues such as the maturity of the products and the capacity requirements for test runs and ramp-ups must be incorporated. Our approach is based on optimization...... modelling and assigns products and capacity expansions to production sites under the above constraints. It also considers the production complexity at the individual sites and the flexibility of the network. Our implementation results for a large manufacturing network reveal substantial possible cost...

  4. Structure - materials - production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders; Gammel, Peder; Busch, Jens

    2002-01-01

    For the last six years th Aarhus School of Architecture has introduced the first year students (there are about 200 students admitted each year) to structure, materials, design and production through a five week course in collaboration with a group of local companies.......For the last six years th Aarhus School of Architecture has introduced the first year students (there are about 200 students admitted each year) to structure, materials, design and production through a five week course in collaboration with a group of local companies....

  5. Product Structure, the Heart of Product Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoog, C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the LMMSS Product Definition System (PDS) philosophy and approach were the use of each item parts document or software can be traced to a specific end item (EI) serial/tail number of the product. It explains why a part-oriented approach to data organization and configuration management is required. The definition of part-oriented is that all appropriate product definition data products will be collected. Referenced and managed by their linkage/relationship to parts/items, The paper will touch upon how LMMSS store/controls product definition information under each project's top product designator in a two tiered approach. One tier for each product end item and another tier which contain/controls listings of drawings, documents. Specifications and standards that are required for hardware item definition.

  6. Product Work Breakdown Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okayama, Y; Chirillo, L. D

    1980-01-01

    .... Any such subdivision scheme is a work breakdown structure. Traditional shipbuilders employ work subdivisions by ships functional systems which are natural and appropriate for estimating and for early design stages...

  7. Corporate tax structure and production

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Jeffrey; Shah, Anwar

    1993-01-01

    The authors provide an empirical framework for assessing the effects of tax policy on an array of producer decisions about output supplies and input demands in Mexico, Pakistan, and Turkey. They specify and estimate a dynamic production structure model with imperfect competition for selected industries in these countries. The model results suggest that tax policy affected production and investment and further that selective tax incentives such as investment tax credits, investment allowances,...

  8. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  9. [The productive structure and migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, M

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses the possibility of determining the proper approach to the study of migration, with a focus on the importance of global, structural, and historical analysis of the phenomenon. A general theoretical outline is presented that tends to show migration as an integral part of the process of social change. The sociological focus on modernization as a theoretical guide influencing the study of migration in Latin America is evaluated. The concept of overpopulation is explained in relation to the migratory process, with reference to capitalist and non-capitalist forms of production.

  10. Diffractive production and hadron structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussinov, S.; Szwed, J.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of diffractive production on nuclei implied cross sections of the diffractively produced system on nucleons which are smaller than the corresponding projectile nucleon cross sections. A natural explanation for this feature is provided in the Good-Walker coherent production formalism. A specific realization of the Good-Walker formalism stated in terms of quarks and connecting electric flux tubes and some ensuing consequences are also discussed briefly. (Auth.)

  11. Product Differentiation and Industrial Structure.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaked, Avner; Sutton, John

    1987-01-01

    Some recent literature on "vertical product differentiation" has d eveloped the idea that if the nature of technology and tastes in some industry take a certain form, then the industry must necessarily be "concentrated" and must remain so, no matter how large the economy becomes. The present paper develops this idea further and looks at so me of its implications. This approach offers a simple unified framewo rk within which to reexplore many issues that arise in considering th e relationship ...

  12. Product numerical range in a space with tensor product structure

    OpenAIRE

    Puchała, Zbigniew; Gawron, Piotr; Miszczak, Jarosław Adam; Skowronek, Łukasz; Choi, Man-Duen; Życzkowski, Karol

    2010-01-01

    We study operators acting on a tensor product Hilbert space and investigate their product numerical range, product numerical radius and separable numerical range. Concrete bounds for the product numerical range for Hermitian operators are derived. Product numerical range of a non-Hermitian operator forms a subset of the standard numerical range containing the barycenter of the spectrum. While the latter set is convex, the product range needs not to be convex nor simply connected. The product ...

  13. Proving productivity in infinite data structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; Raffelsieper, M.; Lynch, C.

    2010-01-01

    For a general class of infinite data structures including streams, binary trees, and the combination of finite and infinite lists, we investigate the notion of productivity. This generalizes stream productivity. We develop a general technique to prove productivity based on proving context-sensitive

  14. Efficient Product Customization by Structure Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, M.;Rupp, T.;Lindemann, U.

    2017-01-01

    The presented approach describes a new strategy for creating product structures, which are suitable for further customer driven product customization – i.e. the customization can be carried out within less time and for lower costs. The required input data is knowledge on the interconnectivity between product components and knowledge of principal scopes of customization demands (e.g. which components or functions customers would like to individualize, which ones are unknown or hidden). By mean...

  15. Globalization, structural change, and productivity growth:

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, Margaret; Rodrik, Dani

    2012-01-01

    Large gaps in labor productivity between the traditional and modern parts of the economy are a fundamental reality of developing societies. In this paper, we document these gaps and emphasize that labor flows from low-productivity activities to high-productivity activities are a key driver of development. Our results show that since 1990 structural change has been growth-reducing in both Africa and Latin America, with the most striking changes taking place in Latin America. The bulk of the di...

  16. Governance Structure, Product Diversification, and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.C.J. van Oijen; G.W.J. Hendrikse (George)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractProduct diversification and its financial outcomes have been studied exhaustively. However, previous literature has focused on corporations, ignoring other important legal organizations or governance structures. In this paper, we study the diversification strategies of cooperatives and

  17. Local product structure for expansive homeomorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Artigue, Alfonso; Brum, Joaquin; Potrie, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Let $f\\colon M\\to M$ be an expansive homeomorphism with dense topologically hyperbolic periodic points, $M$ a compact manifold. Then there is a local product structure in an open and dense subset of $M$. Moreover, if some topologically hyperbolic periodic point has codimension one, then this local product structure is uniform. In particular, we conclude that the homeomorphism is conjugated to a linear Anosov diffeomorphism of a torus.

  18. Structural Analysis of Natural Products

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přichystal, Jakub; Schug, K. A.; Lemr, Karel; Novák, Jiří; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 21 (2016), s. 10338-10346 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14064; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-20229S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : IONIZATION-MASS-SPECTROMETRY * BIOSYNTHETIC GENE CLUSTERS * STRUCTURE ELUCIDATION Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  19. Design, product structuring and modelling of mechatronic products and systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Sørensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    Information Technology offers software and hardware for improvement of the engineering design, structuring and control systems, and industrial applications. The latest progress in IT makes integration of an overall design and manufacturing IT- concept feasible and commercially attractive. An IT......-tool concept for modelling, simulation and design of mechatronic products and systems is proposed in this paper. It built on results from a Danish mechatronic research program on intelligent motion control as well as from the Esprit project SWING on IT-tools for rapid prototyping of fluid power components...

  20. Modeling Fission Product Sorption in Graphite Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane; Allen, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project is to determine changes in adsorption and desorption of fission products to/from nuclear-grade graphite in response to a changing chemical environment. First, the project team will employ principle calculations and thermodynamic analysis to predict stability of fission products on graphite in the presence of structural defects commonly observed in very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) graphites. Desorption rates will be determined as a function of partial pressure of oxygen and iodine, relative humidity, and temperature. They will then carry out experimental characterization to determine the statistical distribution of structural features. This structural information will yield distributions of binding sites to be used as an input for a sorption model. Sorption isotherms calculated under this project will contribute to understanding of the physical bases of the source terms that are used in higher-level codes that model fission product transport and retention in graphite. The project will include the following tasks: Perform structural characterization of the VHTR graphite to determine crystallographic phases, defect structures and their distribution, volume fraction of coke, and amount of sp2 versus sp3 bonding. This information will be used as guidance for ab initio modeling and as input for sorptivity models; Perform ab initio calculations of binding energies to determine stability of fission products on the different sorption sites present in nuclear graphite microstructures. The project will use density functional theory (DFT) methods to calculate binding energies in vacuum and in oxidizing environments. The team will also calculate stability of iodine complexes with fission products on graphite sorption sites; Model graphite sorption isotherms to quantify concentration of fission products in graphite. The binding energies will be combined with a Langmuir isotherm statistical model to predict the sorbed concentration of fission products

  1. Using Genomics for Natural Product Structure Elucidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, Jonathan I; Mitchell, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) are the most historically bountiful source of chemical matter for drug development-especially for anti-infectives. With insights gleaned from genome mining, interest in natural product discovery has been reinvigorated. An essential stage in NP discovery is structural elucidation, which sheds light not only on the chemical composition of a molecule but also its novelty, properties, and derivatization potential. The history of structure elucidation is replete with techniquebased revolutions: combustion analysis, crystallography, UV, IR, MS, and NMR have each provided game-changing advances; the latest such advance is genomics. All natural products have a genetic basis, and the ability to obtain and interpret genomic information for structure elucidation is increasingly available at low cost to non-specialists. In this review, we describe the value of genomics as a structural elucidation technique, especially from the perspective of the natural product chemist approaching an unknown metabolite. Herein we first introduce the databases and programs of interest to the natural products chemist, with an emphasis on those currently most suited for general usability. We describe strategies for linking observed natural product-linked phenotypes to their corresponding gene clusters. We then discuss techniques for extracting structural information from genes, illustrated with numerous case examples. We also provide an analysis of the biases and limitations of the field with recommendations for future development. Our overview is not only aimed at biologically-oriented researchers already at ease with bioinformatic techniques, but also, in particular, at natural product, organic, and/or medicinal chemists not previously familiar with genomic techniques.

  2. Organizational Structure and Product Market Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Hur; Yohanes E. Riyanto

    2007-01-01

    We analyze an interaction between a firm’s choice of organizational structure and competition in the product-market. Two organizational structures are considered, namely a centralized-organization, whereby formal authority is retained by a principal, and a decentralized-organization, whereby formal authority is delegated to an agent. We show that the choice of organizational structure hinges on a trade-off between operating-profit and managerial effort. The principal may prefer to choose an o...

  3. 75 FR 33312 - Indexing Structured Product Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ...] Indexing Structured Product Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products; Request for... Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) are indexing certain categories of information in product labeling for use as terms to search repositories of approved prescription medical product structured product...

  4. Plasmonic Structural Colors for Plastic Consumer Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Today colorants, such as pigments or dyes, are used to color plastic-based consumer products, either as base for solid colored bulk polymer or in inks for surface decoration. After usage, the products must be mechanically sorted by color before recycling, limiting any large-scale efficient...... can be avoided in the recycling state. Plasmon color technology based on aluminum has recently been firmly established as a route towards structural coloring of polymeric materials. We report on the fabrication of colors by localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) using roll-to-roll printing...

  5. Structure elucidation of secondary natural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seger, C.

    2001-06-01

    The presented thesis deals with the structure elucidation of secondary natural products. Most of the compounds under investigation were terpenes, especially triterpenes, alkaloids and stilbenoids. Besides characterizing a multitude of already known and also new compounds, it was possible to detect and correct wrongly assigned literature data. The methodological aspect of this thesis lies - beside in the utilization of modern 2D NMR spectroscopy - in the evaluation of computer assisted structure elucidation (CASE) techniques in the course of spectroscopy supported structure elucidation processes. (author)

  6. Structural and Functional Views of Mechatronic Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2011-01-01

    The development and subsequent production of industrial products are often complicated tasks. The complication increases with combined product as mechatronic products and is further complicated when large variety is required. Modularity is often used to achieve optimum in these complications both...

  7. Structuring user-centred product development processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoolhorst, F.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Within the last decades, product development industry has found itself facing a general increase in product use problems. These problems originate from a mismatch between the actual functionality that the product provides and the afforded product-user interaction versus the user’s expectations

  8. Principles and practices of lean production applied in a metal structures production system

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Rogério; Alves, Anabela Carvalho; Lopes, Isabel da Silva

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a work undertaken in a metal structures production system in a company producing several assorted products for the civil construction. The work aim was to improve the production process, solving several productive problems encountered in the production system, such as: deliveries delays, long lead times, too many material handling, high stocks, errors and defects in metal structures assembly and production, and unnecessary motions. The identified problems were analyzed and...

  9. Structural analysis of radiolysis products of sennoside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hyun Pa; Kim, Dong Ho

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to analyze the structural changes of gamma irradiated sennoside B (prodrug) and to provide the possibility for application of irradiation to induce structural changes of the prodrugs for enhanced bioavailability. Sennoside B (200 ppm) in 70% methanol solution with or without the use of hydrogen peroxide or nitrous oxide gas was irradiated with 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy by gamma ray. The radiolysis products of gamma irradiated sennoside B solution were identified and determined by TLC, HPLC and LC-MS/MS. The sennoside B quantity decreased when irradiation dose increased and completely degraded at 10 kGy of irradiation. There was a linear relationship between the production of the radiolysis compounds and the absorbed dose of the gamma ray irradiated sennoside B. Radiolysis products yields increased on the addition of nitrous oxide gas into the sennoside B solution. No anthraquinone compounds were formed after irradiation of sennosie B. Scission of the O-glycoside bond and consequently formation of aglycone of sennoside B was observed

  10. Structural Materials for Efficient Energy Production Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Briceno, D.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing the efficiency of electric power production systems implies increasing the operating temperature above those of systems currently in operation. The viability of new systems depends completely on the availability of structural materials that withstand the operating conditions specified in the design: adequate features under mechanical stress at high temperatures and compatibility with the medium. In the case of nuclear systems (fission, fusion), an important requirement is their response to irradiation induced damage. In spite of the significant differences that exist in the design of nuclear power plants, fusion reactors, innovative fission systems, supercritical fossil plants, biomass plants, solar concentration thermal plants, etc., all of them have as a common characteristic the use of resistant materials at high temperatures. The qualification of existing materials for the new and more demanding operating conditions and the development of new materials is one of the challenges faced by the electric power production industry. The science of materials and the understanding of the basic processes that take place in structural materials on exposure to the operating conditions of energy production systems are the tools that are available to obtain safe and economically viable solutions. (Authors) 4 refs.

  11. Structural analysis of radiolysis products of sennoside

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hyun Pa; Kim, Dong Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The purpose of the present investigation was to analyze the structural changes of gamma irradiated sennoside B (prodrug) and to provide the possibility for application of irradiation to induce structural changes of the prodrugs for enhanced bioavailability. Sennoside B (200 ppm) in 70% methanol solution with or without the use of hydrogen peroxide or nitrous oxide gas was irradiated with 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy by gamma ray. The radiolysis products of gamma irradiated sennoside B solution were identified and determined by TLC, HPLC and LC-MS/MS. The sennoside B quantity decreased when irradiation dose increased and completely degraded at 10 kGy of irradiation. There was a linear relationship between the production of the radiolysis compounds and the absorbed dose of the gamma ray irradiated sennoside B. Radiolysis products yields increased on the addition of nitrous oxide gas into the sennoside B solution. No anthraquinone compounds were formed after irradiation of sennosie B. Scission of the O-glycoside bond and consequently formation of aglycone of sennoside B was observed

  12. Production of Energy Efficient Preform Structures (PEEPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. John A. Baumann

    2012-06-08

    Due to its low density, good structural characteristics, excellent fabrication properties, and attractive appearance, aluminum metal and its alloys continue to be widely utilized. The transportation industry continues to be the largest consumer of aluminum products, with aerospace as the principal driver for this use. Boeing has long been the largest single company consumer of heat-treated aluminum in the U.S. The extensive use of aluminum to build aircraft and launch vehicles has been sustained, despite the growing reliance on more structurally efficient carbon fiber reinforced composite materials. The trend in the aerospace industry over the past several decades has been to rely extensively on large, complex, thin-walled, monolithic machined structural components, which are fabricated from heavy billets and thick plate using high speed machining. The use of these high buy-to-fly ratio starting product forms, while currently cost effective, is energy inefficient, with a high environmental impact. The widespread implementation of Solid State Joining (SSJ) technologies, to produce lower buy-to-fly ratio starting forms, tailored to each specific application, offers the potential for a more sustainable manufacturing strategy, which would consume less energy, require less material, and reduce material and manufacturing costs. One objective of this project was to project the energy benefits of using SSJ techniques to produce high-performance aluminum structures if implemented in the production of the world fleet of commercial aircraft. A further objective was to produce an energy consumption prediction model, capable of calculating the total energy consumption, solid waste burden, acidification potential, and CO2 burden in producing a starting product form - whether by conventional or SSJ processes - and machining that to a final part configuration. The model needed to be capable of computing and comparing, on an individual part/geometry basis, multiple possible

  13. Inclusive vector meson production and hadron structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckmann, K.

    1977-08-01

    It is shown that J/PSI production in hadronic interactions is dominated by central production from sea quarks even at beam momenta as low as 40 GeV/c. All known experimental data on inclusive vector meson production support the hypothesis that cross sections obtained from meson-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon interactions have to be compared in the quark C.M. system. With the distinction of sea quark and valence quark interactions in the additive quark model a consistent description of inclusive rho, K*, PHI and J/PSI production in hadronic interactions. A natural connection of inclusive rho 0 production cross sections in anti pp, pp and πp interactions is obtained. (orig.) [de

  14. Deconstructing the BRICs : Structural transformation and aggregate productivity growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, G.J.; Erumban, Abdul Azeez; Timmer, M.P.; Voskoboynikov, I.; Wu, H.X.

    de Vries, Gaaitzen J., Erumban, Abdul A., Timmer, Marcel P., Voskoboynikov, Ilya-Deconstructing the BRICs: Structural transformation and aggregate productivity growth This paper studies structural transformation and its implications for productivity growth in the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia,

  15. Structure Sensitive Hashing With Adaptive Product Quantization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianglong; Du, Bowen; Deng, Cheng; Liu, Ming; Lang, Bo

    2016-10-01

    Hashing has been proved as an attractive solution to approximate nearest neighbor search, owing to its theoretical guarantee and computational efficiency. Though most of prior hashing algorithms can achieve low memory and computation consumption by pursuing compact hash codes, however, they are still far beyond the capability of learning discriminative hash functions from the data with complex inherent structure among them. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose a structure sensitive hashing based on cluster prototypes, which explicitly exploits both global and local structures. An alternating optimization algorithm, respectively, minimizing the quantization loss and spectral embedding loss, is presented to simultaneously discover the cluster prototypes for each hash function, and optimally assign unique binary codes to them satisfying the affinity alignment between them. For hash codes of a desired length, an adaptive bit assignment is further appended to the product quantization of the subspaces, approximating the Hamming distances and meanwhile balancing the variance among hash functions. Experimental results on four large-scale benchmarks CIFAR-10, NUS-WIDE, SIFT1M, and GIST1M demonstrate that our approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art hashing methods in terms of semantic and metric neighbor search.

  16. Structure of fungal oxyluciferin, the product of the bioluminescence reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtov, K V; Osipova, Z M; Petushkov, V N; Rodionova, N S; Tsarkova, A S; Kotlobay, A A; Chepurnykh, T V; Gorokhovatsky, A Yu; Yampolsky, I V; Gitelson, J I

    2017-11-01

    The structure of fungal oxyluciferin was determined, the enzymatic bioluminescence reaction under substrate saturation conditions with discrete monitoring of formed products was conducted, and the structures of the end products of the reaction were established. On the basis of these studies, the scheme of oxyluciferin degradation to the end products was developed. The structure of fungal oxyluciferin was confirmed by counter synthesis.

  17. The Structured Intuitive Model for Product Line Economics (SIMPLE)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clements, Paul C; McGregor, John D; Cohen, Sholom G

    2005-01-01

    .... This report presents the Structured Intuitive Model of Product Line Economics (SIMPLE), a general-purpose business model that supports the estimation of the costs and benefits in a product line development organization...

  18. Enhancing Productivity: A Structured Approach to Downsizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehm, J. Kent

    1991-01-01

    Organizations that downsize in a rational and orderly manner can increase productivity. School districts can initiate a cost-reduction and restructuring program with an analysis of the responsibilities of each employee followed by communicating with, and renewing the commitment of, remaining employees. (MLF)

  19. Development of Hybrid Product Breakdown Structure for NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Henry, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Product Breakdown Structure is traditionally a method of identification of the products of a project in a tree structure. It is a tool used to assess, plan, document, and display the equipment requirements for a project. It is part of a product based planning technique, and attempts to break down all components of a project in as much detail as possible, so that nothing is overlooked. The PBS for ground systems at the Kennedy Space Center is being developed to encompass the traditional requirements including the alignment of facility, systems, and components to the organizational hierarchy. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure is a hybrid in nature in that some aspects of a work breakdown structure will be incorporated and merged with the Architecture Concept of Operations, Master Subsystem List, customer interface, and assigned management responsibility. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure needs to be able to identify the flexibility of support differing customers (internal and external) usage of ground support equipment within the Kennedy Space Center launch and processing complex. The development of the Product Breakdown Structure is an iterative activity Initially documenting the organization hierarchy structure and relationships. The Product Breakdown Structure identifies the linkage between the customer program requirements, allocation of system resources, development of design goals, and identification logistics products. As the Product Breakdown Structure progresses the incorporation of the results of requirement planning for the customer occurs identifying facility needs and systems. The mature Product Breakdown Structure is baselined with a hierarchical drawing, the Product Breakdown Structure database, and an associated document identifying the verification of the data through the life cycle of the program/product line. This paper will document, demonstrate, and identify key aspects of the life cycle of a Hybrid Product

  20. Faculty Research Productivity and Organizational Structure in Schools of Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlenberg, Eileen Mieras

    1992-01-01

    A sample of 128 of 221 nursing faculty completed a scholarly productivity index and organizational inventory, which did not yield significant relationships between productivity and organizational structure. Productivity and prepublication research activities varied positively with procedural specifications in a highly bureaucratic organizational…

  1. Spectral-Product Methods for Electronic Structure Calculations (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langhoff, P. W; Mills, J. E; Boatz, J. A

    2006-01-01

    .... The spectral-product approach to molecular electronic structure avoids the repeated evaluations of the one- and two-electron integrals required in construction of polyatomic Hamiltonian matrices...

  2. Spectral-Product Methods for Electronic Structure Calculations (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langhoff, P. W; Hinde, R. J; Mills, J. D; Boatz, J. A

    2007-01-01

    .... The spectral-product approach to molecular electronic structure avoids the repeated evaluations of the one- and two-electron integrals required in construction of polyatomic Hamiltonian matrices...

  3. Towards a Tool for Computer Supported Structuring of Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp

    1997-01-01

    . However, a product possesses not only a component structure but also various organ structures which are superimposed on the component structure. The organ structures carry behaviour and make the product suited for its life phases.Our long-term research goal is to develop a computer-based system...... that is capable of supporting synthesis activities in engineering design, and thereby also support handling of various organ structures. Such a system must contain a product model, in which it is possible to describe and manipulate both various organ structures and the component structure.In this paper we focus...... on the relationships between organ structures and the component structure. By an analysis of an existing product it is shown that a component may contribute to more than one organ. A set of organ structures is identified and their influence on the component strucute is illustrated....

  4. The algebraic structure of crossed products

    CERN Document Server

    Karpilovsky, G

    2014-01-01

    In the past 15 years, the theory of crossed products has enjoyed a period of vigorous development. The foundations have been strengthened and reorganized from new points of view, especially from the viewpoint of graded rings.The purpose of this monograph is to give, in a self-contained manner, an up-to-date account of various aspects of this development, in an effort to convey a comprehensive picture of the current state of the subject. It is assumed that the reader has had the equivalent of a standard first-year graduate course, thus familiarity with basic ring-theoretic and g

  5. Students' Demand for Smartphones: Structural Relationships of Product Features, Brand Name, Product Price and Social Infuence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suki, Norazah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to examine structural relationships of product features, brand name, product price and social influence with demand for Smartphones among Malaysian students'. Design/methodology/approach: Data collected from 320 valid pre-screened university students studying at the pubic higher learning institution in Federal Territory of…

  6. Faculty research productivity and organizational structure in schools of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlenberg, E M

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between faculty research productivity and organizational structure in schools of nursing. The need for nursing research has been widely recognized by members of the nursing profession, yet comparatively few engage in conducting research. Although contextual variables have been investigated that facilitate or inhibit nursing research, the relationship between organizational structure and nursing research productivity has not been examined. This problem was examined within the context of the Entrepreneurial Theory of Formal Organizations. A survey methodology was used for data collection. Data on individual faculty research productivity and organizational structure in the school of nursing were obtained through the use of a questionnaire. A random sample of 300 faculty teaching in 60 master's and doctoral nursing schools in the United States was used. The instruments for data collection were Wakefield-Fisher's Adapted Scholarly Productivity Index and Hall's Organizational Inventory. The data were analyzed using Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficients and multiple correlation/regression techniques. The overall relationship between faculty research productivity and organizational structure in schools of nursing was not significant at the .002 level of confidence. Although statistically significant relationships were not identified, scholarly research productivity and its subscale prepublication and research activities tended to vary positively with procedural specifications in a highly bureaucratic organizational structure. Further research may focus on identification of structural variables that support highly productive nurse researchers.

  7. Structure and manual of radioisotope-production data base, ISOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Kentaro; Terunuma, Kusuo

    1994-02-01

    We planned on collecting the information of radioisotope production which was obtained from research works and tasks at the Department of Radioisotopes in JAERI, and constructed a proto-type data base ISOP after discussion of the kinds and properties of the information available for radioisotope production. In this report the structure and the manual of ISOP are described. (author)

  8. 3D engineered fiberboard : a new structural building product

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Hunt; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2002-01-01

    To help meet the need for sustainable forest management tools, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory is developing an economically viable process to produce three-dimensional structural fibreboard products that can utilize a wide range of lignocellulosic fibres contained in the forest undergrowth and in underutilized timber. This will encourage the public and private...

  9. Production defects in marine composite structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, Brian; Berggreen, Christian; Tsouvalis, Nicholas G.

    2007-01-01

    Composite structures are often used when there is a requirement for low weight. Then a key aspect is to be able to take full advantage of the material and utilise it to its limits. To do this it is important to achieve as low a variability as possible in the manufacture of such structures...

  10. Opinion on the new financial products issued by financial institutions - structured products

    OpenAIRE

    Baranga Laurentiu Paul

    2017-01-01

    Structured products are financial instruments issued by a financial institution where the amount claimed by the investor from the issuer depends on the variation of the price of the underlying instrument based on which the certificate is issued, namely: individual shares, share costs, stock indexes, currencies, commodities or combinations of these according to the prospectus. These products appeared with the development and diversification of financial services during the recent years, as wel...

  11. Fractal Structure and Entropy Production within the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. E. Seely

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Our goal is to explore the relationship between two traditionally unrelated concepts, fractal structure and entropy production, evaluating both within the central nervous system (CNS. Fractals are temporal or spatial structures with self-similarity across scales of measurement; whereas entropy production represents the necessary exportation of entropy to our environment that comes with metabolism and life. Fractals may be measured by their fractal dimension; and human entropy production may be estimated by oxygen and glucose metabolism. In this paper, we observe fractal structures ubiquitously present in the CNS, and explore a hypothetical and unexplored link between fractal structure and entropy production, as measured by oxygen and glucose metabolism. Rapid increase in both fractal structures and metabolism occur with childhood and adolescent growth, followed by slow decrease during aging. Concomitant increases and decreases in fractal structure and metabolism occur with cancer vs. Alzheimer’s and multiple sclerosis, respectively. In addition to fractals being related to entropy production, we hypothesize that the emergence of fractal structures spontaneously occurs because a fractal is more efficient at dissipating energy gradients, thus maximizing entropy production. Experimental evaluation and further understanding of limitations and necessary conditions are indicated to address broad scientific and clinical implications of this work.

  12. Harnessing natural product assembly lines: structure, promiscuity, and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Christopher C; Williams, Gavin J

    2016-03-01

    Many therapeutically relevant natural products are biosynthesized by the action of giant mega-enzyme assembly lines. By leveraging the specificity, promiscuity, and modularity of assembly lines, a variety of strategies has been developed that enables the biosynthesis of modified natural products. This review briefly summarizes recent structural advances related to natural product assembly lines, discusses chemical approaches to probing assembly line structures in the absence of traditional biophysical data, and surveys efforts that harness the inherent or engineered promiscuity of assembly lines for the synthesis of non-natural polyketides and non-ribosomal peptide analogues.

  13. Retail Structured Products for Socially Responsible Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    Institutional investors are the main drivers of demand for socially responsible investment (SRI). Preferences for non- nancial goals such as social and environmental sustainability are also held by small retail agents who, nonetheless, are almost non-existent in the market. This paper studies how...... and when it can be utility enhancing to engage in SRI: It proposes a quantitative method to incorporate responsibility into the investment decision and investigates how structured financial instruments can facilitate access to SRI for small retail agents. The goal is to demonstrate market potential...

  14. Tensor products of process matrices with indefinite causal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ding; Sakharwade, Nitica

    2018-03-01

    Theories with indefinite causal structure have been studied from both the fundamental perspective of quantum gravity and the practical perspective of information processing. In this paper we point out a restriction in forming tensor products of objects with indefinite causal structure in certain models: there exist both classical and quantum objects the tensor products of which violate the normalization condition of probabilities, if all local operations are allowed. We obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for when such unrestricted tensor products of multipartite objects are (in)valid. This poses a challenge to extending communication theory to indefinite causal structures, as the tensor product is the fundamental ingredient in the asymptotic setting of communication theory. We discuss a few options to evade this issue. In particular, we show that the sequential asymptotic setting does not suffer the violation of normalization.

  15. [Production, specificity and structure of immunoglobulins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujard, C; Delfraissy, J F

    1991-03-21

    Immunoglobulin is a key factor of the immune response resulting from B-cell activation and associated with T-cell stimulation. Because of its structure, this antibody has a dual function: it specifically recognizes the inducer antigen in the variable region and eliminates it by a constant portion which is responsible for effector properties. Surface immunoglobulin, therefore, is the B-cell antigen receptor; it differs from the T-cell receptor in that it recognizes the antigen unbound to the major istocompatibility complex; binding the antigen results in direct signal transduction first in the cytoplasm, then in the nucleus. This receptor can be secreted in the body: it is made up of circulating immunoglobulins. Human immunoglobulins are divided into 5 classes, each of them with its own response kinetics, distribution and functions. The variability of the antibody response accounts for a genetic organization involving numerous genes which may be associated with each other, or mutate, or recombine during maturation of the lymphocytes. Altogether, this system has a theoretical capacity of response to three hundred million different antigens.

  16. Opinion on the new financial products issued by financial institutions - structured products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranga Laurentiu Paul

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Structured products are financial instruments issued by a financial institution where the amount claimed by the investor from the issuer depends on the variation of the price of the underlying instrument based on which the certificate is issued, namely: individual shares, share costs, stock indexes, currencies, commodities or combinations of these according to the prospectus. These products appeared with the development and diversification of financial services during the recent years, as well as due to the emergence of liquidity suppliers of international importance. The liquidity providers have developed on their own platforms a new range of derivatives which are different from the classical derivatives. These new derivatives, similar to contracts for difference (CFDs, have given to other institutions the possibility of transferring their risk more easily, regardless of the nature or type of the underlying asset. Thus, the financial institutions issuing structured financial products have found in liquidity providers the possibility of developing the CFDs required for their risk transfer operations. The issuers of structured products do not accept new risky positions when they issue certificates because they neutralize them through suitable risk transfer operations. The issuing financial institutions structure certificates from a variety of financial assets and/or commodities in order to adjust them to the various risk profiles of investors both in terms of expected return and in terms of the response to risk. Thus, products are issued that quickly respond to the trends of the financial or commodity markets. Investors in structured financial products benefit from the economic effect of a derivative but are exposed to financial risks that are more complex and more difficult to understand and at the same time depend on the reliability and stability of the contractual relationships between various financial institutions.

  17. Carbon nano structures: Production and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beig Agha, Rosa

    L'objectif de ce memoire est de preparer et de caracteriser des nanostructures de carbone (CNS -- Carbon Nanostructures, en licence a l'Institut de recherche sur l'hydrogene, Quebec, Canada), un carbone avec un plus grand degre de graphitisation et une meilleure porosite. Le Chapitre 1 est une description generale des PEMFCs (PEMFC -- Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell) et plus particulierement des CNS comme support de catalyseurs, leur synthese et purification. Le Chapitre 2 decrit plus en details la methode de synthese et la purification des CNS, la theorie de formation des nanostructures et les differentes techniques de caracterisation que nous avons utilises telles que la diffraction aux rayons-X (XRD -- X-ray diffraction), la microscopie electronique a transmission (TEM -- transmission electron microscope ), la spectroscopie Raman, les isothermes d'adsorption d'azote a 77 K (analyse BET, t-plot, DFT), l'intrusion au mercure, et l'analyse thermogravimetrique (TGA -- thermogravimetric analysis). Le Chapitre 3 presente les resultats obtenus a chaque etape de la synthese des CNS et avec des echantillons produits a l'aide d'un broyeur de type SPEXRTM (SPEX/CertiPrep 8000D) et d'un broyeur de type planetaire (Fritsch Pulverisette 5). La difference essentielle entre ces deux types de broyeur est la facon avec laquelle les materiaux sont broyes. Le broyeur de type SPEX secoue le creuset contenant les materiaux et des billes d'acier selon 3 axes produisant ainsi des impacts de tres grande energie. Le broyeur planetaire quant a lui fait tourner et deplace le creuset contenant les materiaux et des billes d'acier selon 2 axes (plan). Les materiaux sont donc broyes differemment et l'objectif est de voir si les CNS produits ont les memes structures et proprietes. Lors de nos travaux nous avons ete confrontes a un probleme majeur. Nous n'arrivions pas a reproduire les CNS dont la methode de synthese a originellement ete developpee dans les laboratoires de l'Institut de

  18. The Virtual Product-Process Design Laboratory for Structured Chemical Product Design and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele; Yunus, Nor Alafiza Binti; Kalakul, Sawitree

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present new methods for design of chemicals based formulated products and their implementation in the software, the Virtual Product-Process Design Laboratory. The new products are tailor-made blended liquid products and emulsion-based products. The new software...

  19. Factors controlling Eucalyptus productivity: How water availability and stand structure alter production and carbon allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan; Jose Luiz Stape; Dan Binkley; Sebastiao Fonseca; Rodolfo A. Loos; Ernesto N. Takahashi; Claudio R. Silva; Sergio R. Silva; Rodrigo E. Hakamada; Jose Mario Ferreira; Augusto M. N. Lima; Jose Luiz Gava; Fernando P. Leite; Helder B. Andrade; Jacyr M. Alves; Gualter G. C. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Wood production varies substantially with resource availability, and the variation in wood production can result from several mechanisms: increased photosynthesis, and changes in partitioning of photosynthesis to wood production, belowground flux, foliage production or respiration. An understanding of the mechanistic basis for patterns in wood production...

  20. Structuring front-end innovation activities throughout strategic product planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Strategic product planning (SPP for new product development (NPD in the front-end of innovation (FEI is a great challenge for managers and practitioners. This article analyzes the structuring process of FEI activities during SPP. A research was carried out with 78 industries from both food and furniture in Brazil. Our study revealed that FEI activities are structured in an intricate network with a high level of complexity and interdependence. The large amount of activities and the complexity in structuring them denote that companies are concerned to reduce uncertainties and risks intensifying the planning phase.

  1. Economic Growth, Structural Change and Productive Employment Linkages in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a quantitative analysis of growth, structural change and employment linkages at the aggregate level and by sector under the state- and market-led regimes in India. The underlying objectives are: (a) to understand how economic liberalization has affected the economic and labour...... intervention to broad base structural change for generating productive employment, which is at the core of poverty reduction....

  2. Persistent Structural Priming from Language Comprehension to Language Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Kathryn; Dell, Gary S.; Chang, Franklin; Onishi, Kristine H.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the relationship between syntactic processes in language comprehension and language production, we compared structural persistence from sentence primes that speakers heard to persistence from primes that speakers produced. [Bock, J. K., & Griffin, Z. M. (2000). The persistence of structural priming: transient activation or implicit…

  3. Isolation and structure elucidation of an interaction product of aminotadalafil found in an illegal health food product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häberli, Adrian; Girard, Philippe; Low, Min-Yong; Ge, Xiaowei

    2010-09-21

    An interaction product of aminotadalafil was isolated from an illegal health food product. The structure of the interaction product was elucidated by means of IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy. The hitherto unknown compound was characterized as condensation product of aminotadalafil and hydroxymethylfuraldehyde and is probably the result of a drug-excipient incompatibility. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Structure-based synthesis from natural products to drug prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanessian, S.

    2009-01-01

    X-Ray crystallographic data available from complexes of natural and synthetic molecules with the enzyme thrombin has aided to the design and synthesis of truncated and hybrid molecules exhibiting excellent inhibition in vitro. The vital importance of natural products for the well-being of man has been known lor millennia. Their therapeutic benefits to alleviate pain or cure diseases continue to rank natural products among the primary sources of potential drugs. Great advances have been made in the methods of isolation, identification, and structure elucidation of some of the most complex natural products in recent years. The advent of molecular biology and genetic mapping has also aided in our understanding of the intriguing biosynthetic pathways leading to various classes of therapeutically relevant antibiotic, anticancer, and related natural products. Elegant and practical methodology has been developed leading to the total synthesis of virtually every class of medicinally important natural product. In some cases, natural products or their chemically modified congeners have been manufactured by total synthesis on an industrial level which is a testament to the ingenuity of process chemists. In spite of their potent activities HI enzymatic ox receptor-mediated assays, not all natural products are amenable to being developed as marketable drags. In many instances unfavorable pharmacological effects cannot be overcome without drastic structural and functional modifications, which may also result in altered efficacy. Structure modification through truncation, functional group variations, isosteric replacements, and skeletal rigidifications aided by molecular modeling, X ray crystallography of protein targets, or NMR data are valid objectives in the context of small molecule drug discovery starting with bioactive natural products. A large proportion of these pertain to chemotherapeutic agents against cancer

  5. Portfolio optimization with structured products under return constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baweja Meena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for optimizing risk in a portfolio of financial instruments involving structured products is presented. This paper deals with a portfolio selection model which uses optimization methodology to minimize conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR under return constraint. It focuses on minimizing CVaR rather than on minimizing value-at-Risk VaR, as portfolios with low CVaR necessarily have low VaR as well. We consider a simple investment problem where besides stocks and bonds, the investor can also include structured products into the investment portfolio. Due to possible intermediate payments from structured product, we have to deal with a re-investment problem modeled as a linear optimization problem.

  6. Propagation of engineering changes to multiple product data views using history of product structure changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Do, N.; Choi, I.; Song, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The present paper proposes a comprehensive procedure for engineering change propagation in order to maintain consistency between various product data views. A product data model is also proposed for the propagation procedure, which integrates base product definitions for product design, and

  7. CONVERSION PRODUCT STRUCTURE AS TOOL TO INCREASE YIELD PROCESSING ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Khorev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors' analysis of the performance of organizations, processing raw materials of agricultural origin, in particular, dealing with meat processing, identified the need to develop tools to increase their profitability. Unlike common approaches to assessing the profitability of the processing organizations, taking into account only the interests of the organization's leadership and buyers of products, the authors proposed and implemented a concept based on the interests of participants in the triune balance business activities: owners of capital, management organizations and consumers. As one of the tools for improving the yield of processing organizations are invited to transform their product mix of economic evaluations of profitability of each product line positions. Russian researchers income from product sales are traditionally measured by indicators such as net income, income from sales, profit margins and profitability level - in terms of return on sales. The disadvantage of using these indicators, according to the authors, is their lack of objectivity in the evaluation of the effectiveness of investment business owners. In this work was used unconventional and non-proliferation in the Russian practice, the rate of economic value added (EVA, a built - in system of profitability assortment positions. As indicators, the production of a particular product line units proposed and used two quantitative indicators - EVA level per unit of production and profitability of production (for EVA, as well as a quality parameter - the level of demand. Developed by the evaluation program transformation product structure represented as a matrix management capabilities, allowing to achieve a balance of interests of the triune main participants in business activity.

  8. AVLIS Production Plant work breakdown structure and Dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The work breakdown structure has been prepared for the AVLIS Production Plant to define, organize, and identify the work efforts and is summarized in Fig. 1-1 for the top three project levels. The work breakdown structure itself is intended to be the primary organizational tool of the AVLIS Production Plant and is consistent with the overall AVLIS Program Work Breakdown Structure. It is designed to provide a framework for definition and accounting of all of the elements that are required for the eventual design, procurement, and construction of the AVLIS Production Plant. During the present phase of the AVLIS Project, the conceptual engineering phase, the work breakdown structure is intended to be the master structure and project organizer of documents, designs, and cost estimates. As the master project organizer, the key role of the work breakdown structure is to provide the mechanism for developing completeness in AVLIS cost estimates and design development of all hardware and systems. The work breakdown structure provides the framework for tracking, on a one-to-one basis, the component design criteria, systems requirements, design concepts, design drawings, performance projections, and conceptual cost estimates. It also serves as a vehicle for contract reporting. 12 figures, 2 tables

  9. Particle production from nuclear targets and the structure of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialas, A.

    Production processes from nuclear targets allow studying interactions of elementary hadronic constituents in nuclear matter. The information thus obtained on the structure of hadrons and on the properties of hadronic constituents is presented. Both soft (low momentum transfer) and hard (high momentum transfer) processes are discussed. (author)

  10. The influence of compositional and structural diversity on forest productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    James N. Long; John D. Shaw

    2010-01-01

    Data from ~1500 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa C. Lawson) stands in the western United States were used to examine the potential influence of compositional and structural diversity on forest productivity. Relative density, height and site quality were combined in a conceptually sound expression of the relationship between growth and growing stock for ponderosa pine-...

  11. Corporate financial structure, misallocation and total factor productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uras, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the quantitative relevance of the cross-sectional dispersion of corporate financial structure in explaining the intra-industry allocation efficiency of productive factors. I solve a heterogeneous firms model with financial constraints and distortions to the marginal rental-rate of

  12. Deconstructing the BRICs : Structural Transformation and Aggregate Productivity Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Gaaitzen; Erumban, A. A.; Timmer, M.P.; Voskoboynikov, I.; Wu H.X., [No Value

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies structural transformation and its implications for productivity growth in the BRIC countries based on a new database that provides trends in value added and employment at a detailed 35-sector level. We find that for China, India and Russia reallocation of labour across sectors is

  13. Structuring Formal Requirements Specifications for Reuse and Product Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimdahl, Mats P. E.

    2001-01-01

    In this project we have investigated how formal specifications should be structured to allow for requirements reuse, product family engineering, and ease of requirements change, The contributions of this work include (1) a requirements specification methodology specifically targeted for critical avionics applications, (2) guidelines for how to structure state-based specifications to facilitate ease of change and reuse, and (3) examples from the avionics domain demonstrating the proposed approach.

  14. Nuclear reactor structural material forming less radioactive corrosion product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Hiroshi.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide nuclear reactor structural materials forming less radioactive corrosion products. Constitution: Ni-based alloys such as inconel alloy 718, 600 or inconel alloy 750 and 690 having excellent corrosion resistance and mechanical property even in coolants at high temperature and high pressure have generally been used as nuclear reactor structural materials. However, even such materials yield corrosion products being attacked by coolants circulating in the nuclear reactor, which produce by neutron irradiation radioactive corrosion products, that are deposited in primary circuit pipeways to constitute exposure sources. The present invention dissolves dissolves this problems by providing less activating nuclear reactor structural materials. That is, taking notice on the fact that Ni-58 contained generally by 68 % in Ni changes into Co-58 under irradiation of neutron thereby causing activation, the surface of nuclear reactor structural materials is applied with Ni plating by using Ni with a reduced content of Ni-58 isotopes. Accordingly, increase in the radiation level of the nuclear reactor structural materials can be inhibited. (K.M.)

  15. Spin dependent structure functions with leading-hadron productions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, J.C.; Xu, G.

    2000-01-01

    The feasibility of using high-mass dihadron production to probe polarized gluon distribution in the nucleon is examined. Taking into account all hard subprocesses involved in leading-order dihadron production, we obtain good agreement between calculations and the CCOR π 0 -pair production data. We predict the π 0 -pair production cross sections and double-helicity asymmetry at RHIC energies. (author)

  16. Nucleon structure functions from lattice operator product expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, A.J.; Somfleth, K.; Young, R.D.; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). CSSM, Dept. of Physics; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe (Japan); Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Deep-inelastic scattering, in the laboratory and on the lattice, is most instructive for understanding how the nucleon is built from quarks and gluons. The long-term goal is to compute the associated structure functions from first principles. So far this has been limited to model calculations. In this Letter we propose a new method to compute the structure functions directly from the virtual, all-encompassing Compton amplitude, utilizing the operator product expansion. This overcomes issues of renormalization and operator mixing, which so far have hindered lattice calculations of power corrections and higher moments.

  17. Nucleon structure functions from lattice operator product expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, A.J.; Somfleth, K.; Young, R.D.; Zanotti, J.M.; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A.

    2017-03-01

    Deep-inelastic scattering, in the laboratory and on the lattice, is most instructive for understanding how the nucleon is built from quarks and gluons. The long-term goal is to compute the associated structure functions from first principles. So far this has been limited to model calculations. In this Letter we propose a new method to compute the structure functions directly from the virtual, all-encompassing Compton amplitude, utilizing the operator product expansion. This overcomes issues of renormalization and operator mixing, which so far have hindered lattice calculations of power corrections and higher moments.

  18. Specific-structured lipids: nutritional perspectives and production potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Høy, Carl-Erik; Balchen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    Structured lipids are referring to any triacylglycerols containing both long chain fatty acids (mostly essential fatty acids) and medium or short chain fatty acids. In case of specific-structured lipids (SSLs), each group of fatty acids locates specifically at sn-2 or -1.3 positions of the glycerol...... backbone. Recently the nutritional perspectives of this kind of lipids attract many interests. This causes an increasing interest in the production of them by lipase-catalyzed interesterification. One of the advantages of lipase method over chemical ones is that SSLs can be produced with particular fatty...

  19. Nucleon Structure Functions from Operator Product Expansion on the Lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, A J; Horsley, R; Nakamura, Y; Perlt, H; Rakow, P E L; Schierholz, G; Schiller, A; Somfleth, K; Young, R D; Zanotti, J M

    2017-06-16

    Deep-inelastic scattering, in the laboratory and on the lattice, is most instructive for understanding how the nucleon is built from quarks and gluons. The long-term goal is to compute the associated structure functions from first principles. So far this has been limited to model calculations. In this Letter we propose a new method to compute the structure functions directly from the virtual, all-encompassing Compton amplitude, utilizing the operator product expansion. This overcomes issues of renormalization and operator mixing, which so far have hindered lattice calculations of power corrections and higher moments.

  20. Estimating plutonium production fron long-lived radionuclides in permanent structural components of production reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetter, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the United States and the Soviet Union face critical decisions about the future of plutonium production for nuclear weapons. Both countries could eliminate the economic burden of rebuilding their production complexes by agreeing to ban the production of plutonium for weapons. Such an agreement could also provide important national-security benefits by reinforcing the Non-Proliferation Treaty and by diminishing the ability of both nations to break out of nuclear-arms reduction agreements at a later time - especially if the plutonium in the warheads eliminated by the arms reduction agreements is put under safeguards. A production cutoff would be verifiable

  1. What Is the Structure of the Antitubercular Natural Product Eucapsitrione?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullella, Glenn A; Wild, Duncan A; Nealon, Gareth L; Elyashberg, Mikhail; Piggott, Matthew J

    2017-07-21

    1,5,7-Trihydroxy-6H-indeno[1,2-b]anthracene-6,11,13-trione (1), proposed to be the antitubercular natural product eucapsitrione, has been synthesized in 43% overall yield and six steps, including a key Suzuki-Miyaura biaryl coupling and a directed remote metalation (DReM)-initiated cyclization. The physical and spectroscopic properties of 1 do not match the data reported for the natural product. At this time there is insufficient information available to enable a structure reassignment. During the optimization of the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling, an unprecedented biaryl coupling ortho to the borono group was observed. The scope of this unusual reaction has been investigated.

  2. EFFECTIVE ANNUAL INTEREST SIGNIFIANCE ON BANKING PRODUCTS PRICE STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medar Lucian-Ion

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the products and services prices can be found in the reference price, that customer must compare it with the price of the last made acquisition. The price of the banking product, that includes the effective annual intrest rate (EAI, is a guide price including all the cost elements related to banking products and services. The price of the products promoted through lending activities, is affected by the exchange rate of national and foreign currency, available on the money market. The role of the banking fee is very important in the specific services and bank products price formation.

  3. Value Chain Structures that Define European Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregg, Jay Sterling; Bolwig, Simon; Hansen, Teis

    2017-01-01

    production plants across Europe from a global value chain (GVC) perspective. We find that most CE production plants in the EU focus largely on intellectual property and are therefore only at the pilot or demonstration scale. Crescentino, the largest CE production facility in Europe, is also more interested...... petroleum markets and higher financial risks. We argue that, to increase CE production, policies should consider value chains, promote the wider bio-economy of products and focus on economies of scope. Whereas the EU and its member states have ethanol quotas and blending targets, a more effective policy......Production of cellulosic ethanol (CE) has not yet reached the scale envisaged by the literature and industry. This study explores CE production in Europe to improve understanding of the motivations and barriers associated with this situation. To do this, we conduct a case study-based analysis of CE...

  4. Distortion product otoacoustic emission fine structure of symphony orchestra musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) are sounds produced by the healthy inner ear. They can be measured as low-level signals in the ear canal and are used to monitor the functioning of outer hair cells.Several studies indicate that OAE might be a more sensitive measure to detect early noise-induced hearing...... losses than puretone audiometry. The distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure is obtained when the ear is stimulated by dual tone stimuli using a high frequency resolution. It is characterized by quasi-periodic variations across frequency, as it can be observed in the hearing...

  5. Ceramic ware waste as coarse aggregate for structural concrete production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Julia; Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-Del Pozo, Julia M; Guerra-Romero, M Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The manufacture of any kind of product inevitably entails the production of waste. The quantity of waste generated by the ceramic industry, a very important sector in Spain, is between 5% and 8% of the final output and it is therefore necessary to find an effective waste recovery method. The aim of the study reported in the present article was to seek a sustainable means of managing waste from the ceramic industry through the incorporation of this type of waste in the total replacement of conventional aggregate (gravel) used in structural concrete. Having verified that the recycled ceramic aggregates met all the technical requirements imposed by current Spanish legislation, established in the Code on Structural Concrete (EHE-08), then it is prepared a control concrete mix and the recycled concrete mix using 100% recycled ceramic aggregate instead of coarse natural aggregate. The concretes obtained were subjected to the appropriate tests in order to conduct a comparison of their mechanical properties. The results show that the concretes made using ceramic sanitary ware aggregate possessed the same mechanical properties as those made with conventional aggregate. It is therefore possible to conclude that the reuse of recycled ceramic aggregate to produce recycled concrete is a feasible alternative for the sustainable management of this waste.

  6. Production and Structural Characterization of Lactobacillus helveticus Derived Biosurfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepansh; Saharan, Baljeet Singh; Chauhan, Nikhil; Bansal, Anshul; Procha, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    A probiotic strain of lactobacilli was isolated from traditional soft Churpi cheese of Yak milk and found positive for biosurfactant production. Lactobacilli reduced the surface tension of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) from 72.0 to 39.5 mNm−1 pH 7.2 and its critical micelle concentration (CMC) was found to be 2.5 mg mL−1. Low cost production of Lactobacilli derived biosurfactant was carried out at lab scale fermenter which yields 0.8 mg mL−1 biosurfactant. The biosurfactant was found least phytotoxic and cytotoxic as compared to the rhamnolipid and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) at different concentration. Structural attributes of biosurfactant were determined by FTIR, NMR (1H and 13C), UPLC-MS, and fatty acid analysis by GCMS which confirmed the presence of glycolipid type of biosurfactant closely similar to xylolipids. Biosurfactant is mainly constituted by lipid and sugar fractions. The present study outcomes provide valuable information on structural characterization of the biosurfactant produced by L. helveticus MRTL91. These findings are encouraging for the application of Lactobacilli derived biosurfactant as nontoxic surface active agents in the emerging field of biomedical applications. PMID:25506070

  7. Product configuration of infra structure systems for data centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Christensen, Tim Teglgaard; Jensen, Søren Brogaard

    2007-01-01

    centres, and components and systems for these systems. At the heart of its mass customisation strategy are a module-based product range and the use of product configuration systems for sales and order processing. In addition, the company has implemented a manufacturing concept, which involves the mass...

  8. Value Chain Structures that Define European Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Sterling Gregg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of cellulosic ethanol (CE has not yet reached the scale envisaged by the literature and industry. This study explores CE production in Europe to improve understanding of the motivations and barriers associated with this situation. To do this, we conduct a case study-based analysis of CE production plants across Europe from a global value chain (GVC perspective. We find that most CE production plants in the EU focus largely on intellectual property and are therefore only at the pilot or demonstration scale. Crescentino, the largest CE production facility in Europe, is also more interested in technology licensing than producing ethanol. Demonstration-scale plants tend to have a larger variety of feedstocks, whereas forestry-based plants have more diversity of outputs. As scale increases, the diversity of feedstocks and outputs diminishes, and firms struggle with feedstock provisioning, global petroleum markets and higher financial risks. We argue that, to increase CE production, policies should consider value chains, promote the wider bio-economy of products and focus on economies of scope. Whereas the EU and its member states have ethanol quotas and blending targets, a more effective policy would be to seek to reduce the risks involved in financing capital projects, secure feedstock provisioning and support a diversity of end products.

  9. Structural model for sustainable consumption and production adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luthra, Sunil; Govindan, Kannan; Mangla, Sachin Kumar

    2017-01-01

    . “Governmental policies and regulations to develop sustainable consumption and production focused system” and “Management support, dedication and involvement in sustainable consumption and production implementation” have been found as the most influencing drivers and “Gaining the market edge and improving...

  10. Production, purification, crystallization and structure determination of H-1 Parvovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halder, Sujata; Nam, Hyun-Joo; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Vogel, Michèle; Dinsart, Christiane; Salomé, Nathalie; McKenna, Robert; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2012-01-01

    The production, purification, crystallization and crystallographic analysis of H-1 Parvovirus, a gene-therapy vector, are reported. Crystals of H-1 Parvovirus (H-1PV), an antitumor gene-delivery vector, were obtained for DNA-containing capsids and diffracted X-rays to 2.7 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 255.4, b = 350.4, c = 271.6 Å, β = 90.34°. The unit cell contained two capsids, with one capsid per crystallographic asymmetric unit. The H-1PV structure has been determined by molecular replacement and is currently being refined

  11. NMR structural studies of oligosaccharides and other natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Louise

    produce secondary metabolites for signaling and competing against other organisms, and these molecules are important in drug discovery due to their inherent biological activities. From a marine Photobacterium (P. halotolerans) we isolated the solonamides and the ngercheumicins, two families of cyclic...... through the nJCH correlation, this experiment has exciting applications for configurational assignment of e.g. carbohydrates and for residual dipolar couplings. Identification of known molecules and discovery of novel molecules are other important applications of NMR spectroscopy. Bacteria and fungi....... fijiensis, was also investigated for production of novel secondary metabolites, and a new pyranonigrin (E) was isolated and structure elucidated by NMR spectroscopy along with JBIR-74 and decumbenone A, two known metabolites previously isolated from Aspergillus and Penicillium species. Oligosaccharides...

  12. Production and Structural Investigation of Polyethylene Composites with Modified Kaolin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domka, L.; Malicka, A.; Stachowiak, N.

    2008-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of the filler (kaolin) modification with silane coupling agents on the properties of the polyethylene (HDPE Hostalen ACP 5831) composites. Powder mineral fillers are added to polymers to modify the properties of the latter and to reduce the cost of their production. A very important factor is the filler dispersion in the polymer matrix. Kaolin modified with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane and pure kaolin were characterised by surface area, pore size, water absorbing capacity, paraffin oil absorbing capacity, bulk density, scanning electron microscopy observations and X-ray diffraction measurements. Their performance was characterised by determination of the mechanical resistance upon static stretching and tearing, and their structure was observed in scanning electron microscopy images. The results were compared to those obtained for the composites with unmodified filler and pure HDPE. (authors)

  13. Production and Structural Investigation of Polyethylene Composites with Modified Kaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domka, L.; Malicka, A.; Stachowiak, N.

    2008-08-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of the filler (kaolin) modification with silane coupling agents on the properties of the polyethylene (HDPE Hostalen ACP 5831) composites. Powder mineral fillers are added to polymers to modify the properties of the latter and to reduce the cost of their production. A very important factor is the filler dispersion in the polymer matrix. Kaolin modified with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane and pure kaolin were characterised by surface area, pore size, water absorbing capacity, paraffin oil absorbing capacity, bulk density, scanning electron microscopy observations and X-ray diffraction measurements. Their performance was characterised by determination of the mechanical resistance upon static stretching and tearing, and their structure was observed in scanning electron microscopy images. The results were compared to those obtained for the composites with unmodified filler and pure HDPE.

  14. Advances in aluminium alloy products for structural applications in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staley, J.T.; Lege, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the needs of the aviation and automotive markets for structural materials and presents examples of developments of aluminum alloy products to fill these needs. Designers of aircraft desire materials which will allow them to design lightweight, cost-effective structures which have the performance characteristics of durability and damage tolerance. Their needs are being met by new and emerging materials varying from Al-Li alloys for thick structure, high-strength plate and extrusions for wings, and new monolithic and aluminum-fiber laminates for fuselages. Increase in fuel economy because of lighter weight structure is the driving force for aluminum alloys in the automotive market, and cost is extremely important. Mechanical properties for automotive use also depend on the application, and corrosion resistance must be adequate. For ''hang-on'' components such as fenders and hoods, formability is typically the limiting mechanical property. Strength must be adequate to resist denting at a thickness which offers cost-effective weight savings over steel. Because formability often decreases with increasing yield strength, alloys which are highly formable in the T4 temper and which age harden during the paint bake operation were developed. Alloys such as 6009 and 6010 are now being challenged by 2008, 6111 and 6016. Body structure components must be made from materials which absorb energy and fail gracefully during a crash. Such components for an automotive space frame are being die cast from an Al-Si-Mg alloy. These ductile die castings are joined to thin 6XXX extrusions which must combine formability, strength, ductility and the ability to deform plastically on impact. Bumpers must combine strength and adequate formability; in the event that current alloys are inadequate for future needs, a new 7XXX alloy offers an improved combination of properties. (orig.)

  15. Product design - Molecules, devices, functional products, and formulated products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Ng, Ka M.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical product design is a multidisciplinary and diverse subject. This article provides an overview of product design while focusing on product conceptualization. Four product types are considered - molecular products, formulated products, devices and functional products. For molecular products......, computer-aided design tools are used to predict the physicochemical properties of single molecules and blends. For formulated products, an integrated experiment-modeling approach is used to generate the formula with the specified product attributes. For devices and functional products, conceptual product...... design is carried out by modeling the product based on thermodynamics, kinetics and transport processes, by performing experiments, and by decision making based on rule-based methods The results are product specifications in terms of the type of ingredients, composition, and the structure, form, shape...

  16. Osserman and conformally Osserman manifolds with warped and twisted product structure

    OpenAIRE

    Brozos-Vazquez, M.; Garcia-Rio, E.; Vazquez-Lorenzo, R.

    2008-01-01

    We characterize Osserman and conformally Osserman Riemannian manifolds with the local structure of a warped product. By means of this approach we analyze the twisted product structure and obtain, as a consequence, that the only Osserman manifolds which can be written as a twisted product are those of constant curvature.

  17. Non-destructive methods and means for quality control of structural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    Progressive non-destructive methods (acoustic, magnetic, radiation with liquid penetrants) and means of control of structural product quality, allowing to determine the state of products and structures not only immediately after their production but directly at the erected or reconstructed objects are described

  18. Knowledge production in education: Post-structuralism as epistemological potency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirley Lizott Tedeschi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the epistemological and methodological potentialities of Poststructuralism in education research. With a theoretical-bibliographic character, the research takes as main references Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Derrida’s contributions in order to problematize the modern metanarratives and the processes of knowledge production in this area. By problematizing modern metanarratives and pointing out the historical, contextual character, inherent in the process of knowledge production, this epistemological perspective has triggered a number of concerns, doubts and discontinuities that have reverberated in investigative processes in that area. Being open to this epistemological field may both contribute to the deconstruction of the conceptual apparatus of modernity, which has strongly marked the education research, and bring other epistemological and methodological possibilities for knowledge production in that area. In this sense, the potentiality of this epistemological and methodological perspective for research in education is the multiplicity of possibilities that it provides.

  19. Performance of Product Codes and Related Structures with Iterated Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    Several modifications of product codes have been suggested as standards for optical networks. We show that the performance exhibits a threshold that can be estimated from a result about random graphs. For moderate input bit error probabilities, the output error rates for codes of finite length can...

  20. Structural optimization for materially informed design to robotic production processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.; Mostafavi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbody’s materially informed Design-to-Robotic-Production (D2RP) processes for additive and subtractive manufacturing aim to achieve performative porosity in architecture at various scales. An extended series of D2RP experiments aiming to produce prototypes at 1:1 scale wherein design materiality

  1. Structural Reforms and Growth : Product and Labor Market Deregulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Rossi, A.

    2006-01-01

    The paper focuses on labor and product market deregulations, as fundamental elements in the passage from an investment to an innovation-based economy.The approach undertaken is prominently empirical.After a very brief description of the regulatory levels on the two sides of the Atlantic, we take two

  2. Why is relating plankton community structure to pelagic production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mixing regulates primary production, and assuming certain features of food-chain length and efficiency, one can estimate fish yields. Fundamental to these arguments are assumptions concerning resource limitation which appear to be uncertain as generic marine pelagic characteristics, primarily that trophic levels are ...

  3. Productive structure and production relations between polarized region by Londrina and the rest of Paraná in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Moretto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article had as objective estimate the sector linkages and the overflowing of the production multiplier between the North of Parana and the Rest of Parana, using the interregional input-output matrix for 1995. The main results showed that a agriculture and food processing sectors stood out in the productive structure of North of Parana State, comparing to the Rest of Parana State, as disseminators of inter-sector relations b the industrial structure of the Rest of Parana presented more diversification as compared to the North Region, showing less dependence on agriculture and food processing sectors for its dynamic; c the overflowing effect of the production multiplier in the direction Rest of Parana-North of Parana was 4,9%, whereas in the direction North of Parana-Rest of Parana it was 12%, revealing a greater dependency of the productive process of the North of Parana vis-a-vis the Rest of Parana; d the Rest of Parana, although more diversified in its productive structure, showed more dependence on the North of Parana as for the answer to the input requirements of the food processing sectors when facing growth in its final demand.

  4. Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... Tweet Share Compartir Find Fact Sheets on Products (Cigars, Bidis and Betel Quid with Tobacco (Gutka) and ...

  5. Atomic spectral-product representations of molecular electronic structure: metric matrices and atomic-product composition of molecular eigenfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Nun, M; Mills, J D; Hinde, R J; Winstead, C L; Boatz, J A; Gallup, G A; Langhoff, P W

    2009-07-02

    Recent progress is reported in development of ab initio computational methods for the electronic structures of molecules employing the many-electron eigenstates of constituent atoms in spectral-product forms. The approach provides a universal atomic-product description of the electronic structure of matter as an alternative to more commonly employed valence-bond- or molecular-orbital-based representations. The Hamiltonian matrix in this representation is seen to comprise a sum over atomic energies and a pairwise sum over Coulombic interaction terms that depend only on the separations of the individual atomic pairs. Overall electron antisymmetry can be enforced by unitary transformation when appropriate, rather than as a possibly encumbering or unnecessary global constraint. The matrix representative of the antisymmetrizer in the spectral-product basis, which is equivalent to the metric matrix of the corresponding explicitly antisymmetric basis, provides the required transformation to antisymmetric or linearly independent states after Hamiltonian evaluation. Particular attention is focused in the present report on properties of the metric matrix and on the atomic-product compositions of molecular eigenstates as described in the spectral-product representations. Illustrative calculations are reported for simple but prototypically important diatomic (H(2), CH) and triatomic (H(3), CH(2)) molecules employing algorithms and computer codes devised recently for this purpose. This particular implementation of the approach combines Slater-orbital-based one- and two-electron integral evaluations, valence-bond constructions of standard tableau functions and matrices, and transformations to atomic eigenstate-product representations. The calculated metric matrices and corresponding potential energy surfaces obtained in this way elucidate a number of aspects of the spectral-product development, including the nature of closure in the representation, the general redundancy or

  6. Product diversification and bank performance: does ownership structure matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Saghi-Zedek , Nadia

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Using detailed data on control chains of 710 European commercial banks, we test whether the presence of some categories of controlling shareholders affects product diversification performance. We find that when banks have no controlling shareholder or have only family and state shareholders activity diversification yields diseconomies. However, as long as the control chain involves banking institutions, institutional investors, industrial companies or any other combina...

  7. Syntactic Processing in Korean-English Bilingual Production: Evidence from Cross-Linguistic Structural Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeong-Ah; Christianson, Kiel

    2009-01-01

    A structural priming experiment investigated whether grammatical encoding in production consists of one or two stages and whether oral bilingual language production is shared at the functional or positional level [Bock, J. K., Levelt, W. (1994). Language production. Grammatical encoding. In M. A. Gernsbacher (Ed.), "Handbook of psycholinguistics"…

  8. Multifractal structure of multiparticle production in the branching models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.B.; Hwa, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure is described for the multifractal analysis of data on multiparticle production obtained at high energy either in experiment or in Monte Carlo simulation. It is shown how the spectrum f(α) of the rapidity-density index α can be determined from the multiplicity fluctuation of the rapidity distribution, as the resolution is changed. The branching model is used to illustrate the procedure. It is found that the φ 3 model has a narrower f(α) than the gluon model, suggesting that multifractality is a useful arena for confrontation between theory and experiment. 13 refs., 2 figs

  9. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks. Here...

  10. Validation of optimization strategies using the linear structured production chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusiak, Jan; Morkisz, Paweł; Oprocha, Piotr; Pietrucha, Wojciech; Sztangret, Łukasz

    2017-06-01

    Different optimization strategies applied to sequence of several stages of production chains were validated in this paper. Two benchmark problems described by ordinary differential equations (ODEs) were considered. A water tank and a passive CR-RC filter were used as the exemplary objects described by the first and the second order differential equations, respectively. Considered in the work optimization problems serve as the validators of strategies elaborated by the Authors. However, the main goal of research is selection of the best strategy for optimization of two real metallurgical processes which will be investigated in an on-going projects. The first problem will be the oxidizing roasting process of zinc sulphide concentrate where the sulphur from the input concentrate should be eliminated and the minimal concentration of sulphide sulphur in the roasted products has to be achieved. Second problem will be the lead refining process consisting of three stages: roasting to the oxide, oxide reduction to metal and the oxidizing refining. Strategies, which appear the most effective in considered benchmark problems will be candidates for optimization of the mentioned above industrial processes.

  11. Product Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Riis, Jesper

    For the majority of industrial companies, customizing products and services is among the most critical means to deliver true customer value and achieve superior competitive advantage. The challenge is not to customize products and services in itself – but to do it in a profitable way...... from more than 40 product configuration projects in companies providing customer tailored products and services........ The implementation of a product configuration system is among the most powerful ways of achieving this in practice, offering a reduction of the lead time for products and quotations, faster and more qualified responses to customer inquiries, fewer transfers of responsibility and fewer specification mistakes...

  12. STRUCTURE OF THE MARKET OF INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS: APPROACH TO ASSESSING THE IMPACT ON EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elagina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of innovation policy innovative economy is impossible without an understanding of the conceptual basis of the efficiency of production of innovative products. In particular, determination of the influence of market structure on the possibility of expanded reproduction of innovative products. The article is devoted to consideration of existing in this field of research and definition of the limits of quantitative assessment of the influence of defects of market structures on efficiency.

  13. Effects of antioxidants on the lipase-catalyzed acidolysis during production of structured lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Timm Heinrich, Maike; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2005-01-01

    In the production process of structured lipids, the influence of the addition of antioxidants before enzymatic acidolysis was investigated. Eight different antioxidants were screened: butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, ascorbyl palmitate, citric acid, EDTA...... of the structured lipid produced....

  14. Production of specific-structured lipids by enzymatic interesterification in a pilot continuous enzyme bed reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Balchen, Steen; Høy, Carl-Erik

    1998-01-01

    Production of specific-structured lipids (interesterified lipids with a specific structure) by enzymatic interesterification was carried out in a continuous enzyme bed pilot scale reactor. Commercial immobilized lipase (Lipozyme IM) was used and investigations of acyl migration, pressure drop...

  15. Workforce productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ruth

    2012-10-26

    Managers who are responsible for delivering the workforce productivity element of the Quality, Innovation, Productivity and Prevention (QIPP) programme can network and share best practice through a dedicated NHS Employers webpage.

  16. Primary productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Photosynthetic production in the oceans in relation to light, nutrients and mixing processes is discussed. Primary productivity in the estuarine region is reported to be high in comparison to coastal and oceanic waters. Upwelling phenomenon...

  17. 46 CFR 154.182 - Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test. 154.182... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.182 Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test. If a portion of the contiguous hull structure is designed for a temperature colder than −34 °C (−30 °F) and is not part of the...

  18. Establishing a pricing structure for software products : Case study: Viope Solutions Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tram

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is a case study that explores how to establish a pricing structure for software products. The objective is to provide a guideline to establish a pricing structure for Viope Solutions Oy. A new pricing structure is crucial for the company due to recent changes in its business such as internationalisation and new product launches. The literature review introduces five attributes of a pricing structure. They are the unit definition, price determination, price segmentation, versio...

  19. The correlation between composition, structure and properties of high-level waste solidification products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, L.; Vojtech, O.; Santarova, M.; Stejskal, I.; Gulinskij, V.

    1977-01-01

    The final product of a high-level liquid waste solidification process must meet a number of quantitative criteria. The necessary data can be obtained by direct measurement of certain parameters of the product (leachability of important radionuclides from the basic matrix, total solubility of the final product, thermal conductivity, mechanical properties, the temperature dependence of viscosity, etc.). Some insight can also be obtained on the basis of a profound analysis of micro- and macrostructure of the solid product. Detailed knowledge of the structure makes it easier to evaluate the final product. In this paper an effort is made to find a relationship between composition and structure of the system and the properties of the product obtained under the specific conditions of the process. The results are demonstrated using a phosphate matrix in which fission products and corrosion products are included in a wide range of concentrations. For analysis of the structure properties, X-ray diffraction, microscopic and electron probe microanalysis (back-scattered electrons and characteristic X-radiation detection) have been used. Using standard methods, the hydrolytical resistance of the product and the selective leachability of caesium, strontium and rare-earth ions have been measured. The results obtained so far have confirmed the usefulness of structure analysis as a parallel method for product evaluation in the development of the process and probably also for large-scale application. (author)

  20. RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH INVESTMENTS IN STRUCTURED INVESTMENT PRODUCTS, SELECTION CRITERIA OF SIP`S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatyuk Aleksandr Sergeevich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To identify and classify the major risks affecting on the structured investment products, to submit proposals to limit their impact. Methodology The work is based on a studying of the practice of investments in structured investment products, detection and investigation of sources of market risk of structured investment products. Results Structured investment products, as any other investment product, has a significant set of risks that could affect to a large extent on its evaluation and determine the behavior of the investor. Financial engineers have the ability to control most of these risks, as well as to limit their impact. Thus, the structured investment product, unlike most classic investment instruments can provide investors with highly transparent mechanism to determining the ratio of investment risk and potential income. Practical implications The results can be used in a scientific investigation of the phenomenon of structured investment products, as well as practical work on the formation of the structured products by investment banks and brokerage firms.

  1. Recycled Concrete as Aggregate for Structural Concrete Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Malešev

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the experimental results of the properties of fresh and hardened concrete with different replacement ratios of natural with recycled coarse aggregate is presented in the paper. Recycled aggregate was made by crushing the waste concrete of laboratory test cubes and precast concrete columns. Three types of concrete mixtures were tested: concrete made entirely with natural aggregate (NAC as a control concrete and two types of concrete made with natural fine and recycled coarse aggregate (50% and 100% replacement of coarse recycled aggregate. Ninety-nine specimens were made for the testing of the basic properties of hardened concrete. Load testing of reinforced concrete beams made of the investigated concrete types is also presented in the paper. Regardless of the replacement ratio, recycled aggregate concrete (RAC had a satisfactory performance, which did not differ significantly from the performance of control concrete in this experimental research. However, for this to be fulfilled, it is necessary to use quality recycled concrete coarse aggregate and to follow the specific rules for design and production of this new concrete type.

  2. Training verb argument structure production in agrammatic aphasia: Behavioral and neural recovery patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Riley, Ellyn A.; den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Meltzer-Asscher, Aya; Lukic, Sladjana

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Neuroimaging and lesion studies indicate a left hemisphere network for verb and verb argument structure processing, involving both frontal and temporoparietal brain regions. Although their verb comprehension is generally unimpaired, it is well known that individuals with agrammatic aphasia often present with verb production deficits, characterized by an argument structure complexity hierarchy, indicating faulty access to argument structure representations for production and integration into syntactic contexts. Recovery of verb processing in agrammatism, however, has received little attention and no studies have examined the neural mechanisms associated with improved verb and argument structure processing. In the present study we trained agrammatic individuals on verbs with complex argument structure in sentence contexts and examined generalization to verbs with less complex argument structure. The neural substrates of improved verb production were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods Eight individuals with chronic agrammatic aphasia participated in the study (four experimental and four control participants). Production of three-argument verbs in active sentences was trained using a sentence generation task emphasizing the verb’s argument structure and the thematic roles of sentential noun phrases. Before and after training, production of trained and untrained verbs was tested in naming and sentence production and fMRI scans were obtained, using an action naming task. Results Significant pre- to post-training improvement in trained and untrained (one- and two-argument) verbs was found for treated, but not control, participants, with between-group differences found for verb naming, production of verbs in sentences, and production of argument structure. fMRI activation derived from post-treatment compared to pre-treatment scans revealed upregulation in cortical regions implicated for verb and argument structure processing

  3. Effective cross-section for dimuon production and experimental determination of the hadronic structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisz, S.

    1982-07-01

    High mass dimuon hadronic production is studied. This study is aimed at pion structure determination. The device is presented. The accessible luminosity is more than one scale order beyond the preceeding experiment one. The performant beam, the great acceptance and the good high mass dimuon selection are described. Parton model is introduced. Drell-Yann mechanism is reviewed. Hadronic structure, revealed during high mass muon pair production, is presented. In particular, pion structure is determined [fr

  4. Collision-Induced Dissociation Mass Spectrometry: A Powerful Tool for Natural Product Structure Elucidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew R; Carlson, Erin E

    2015-11-03

    Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool in natural product structure elucidation, but our ability to directly correlate fragmentation spectra to these structures lags far behind similar efforts in peptide sequencing and proteomics. Often, manual data interpretation is required and our knowledge of the expected fragmentation patterns for many scaffolds is limited, further complicating analysis. Here, we summarize advances in natural product structure elucidation based upon the application of collision induced dissociation fragmentation mechanisms.

  5. Hydrological structure and biological productivity of the tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, U.D.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    Hydrological structure analyses of regions in the tropical Atlantic Ocean have consistently revealed the existence of a typical tropical structure characterized by a nitrate-depleted mixed layer above the thermocline. The important biological...

  6. Design optimization of jacket structures for mass production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Kasper

    This thesis presents models and applications for structural optimization of jacket structures for offshore wind turbines. The motivation is that automatic design procedures can be used to obtain more cost efficient designs, and thus reduce the levelized cost of energy from offshore wind. A struct......This thesis presents models and applications for structural optimization of jacket structures for offshore wind turbines. The motivation is that automatic design procedures can be used to obtain more cost efficient designs, and thus reduce the levelized cost of energy from offshore wind....... A structural finite element model is developed specifically for the analysis and optimization of jacket structures. The model uses Timoshenko beam elements, and assumes thin walled tubular beams and a linear elastic structural response. The finite element model is implemented in a Matlab package called JADOP...... (Jacket Design Optimization), and the static and dynamic structural response is verified with the commercial finite element software Abaqus. A parametric mesh of the offshore wind turbine structure makes it relatively easy to represent various structures from the literature, as well as exploring...

  7. Impact of the structure of agricultural production to the financial health of farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kopta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper deals with the influence of individual commodities on the profitability and risks of farms. Production structure was given thought share of twelve basic crops in total agricultural production yield. Volume of accumulated profit for five-year income was chosen as viability criterion. The research did not show that specialization in one of the commodities had significantly influenced achieved profitability. The only exception is the production of milk, which clearly lead to lower profitability. Production structure determined the risk of farms. Farms were constantly threatened by both negative profitability, and also steep fluctuations of cash flow (in other of long-term positive profitability, leading to temporary loss of solvency. The analysis showed that different types of production structures lead to different types of threats. The probability of falling into production losses, or that the loss is so great that not even cover variable costs (a farm finds itself under the point of termination of production was calculated using the EaR method. The results again supported previous findings. Loss is highly likely to be achieved in commodities of animal production. For commodities of crop production the probability of loss was roughly a half, but the probability of exceeding a period of variable costs is higher.

  8. Comparative analysis of chemical similarity methods for modular natural products with a hypothetical structure enumeration algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinnider, Michael A; Dejong, Chris A; Franczak, Brian C; McNicholas, Paul D; Magarvey, Nathan A

    2017-08-16

    Natural products represent a prominent source of pharmaceutically and industrially important agents. Calculating the chemical similarity of two molecules is a central task in cheminformatics, with applications at multiple stages of the drug discovery pipeline. Quantifying the similarity of natural products is a particularly important problem, as the biological activities of these molecules have been extensively optimized by natural selection. The large and structurally complex scaffolds of natural products distinguish their physical and chemical properties from those of synthetic compounds. However, no analysis of the performance of existing methods for molecular similarity calculation specific to natural products has been reported to date. Here, we present LEMONS, an algorithm for the enumeration of hypothetical modular natural product structures. We leverage this algorithm to conduct a comparative analysis of molecular similarity methods within the unique chemical space occupied by modular natural products using controlled synthetic data, and comprehensively investigate the impact of diverse biosynthetic parameters on similarity search. We additionally investigate a recently described algorithm for natural product retrobiosynthesis and alignment, and find that when rule-based retrobiosynthesis can be applied, this approach outperforms conventional two-dimensional fingerprints, suggesting it may represent a valuable approach for the targeted exploration of natural product chemical space and microbial genome mining. Our open-source algorithm is an extensible method of enumerating hypothetical natural product structures with diverse potential applications in bioinformatics.

  9. Product (RED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    ) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help ‘distant others’. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems ‘prove’ that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification...... of complex social, economic, and environmental processes. At the same time, we argue that there are important distinctions as well—labels and certifications are ultimately about improving the conditions of production, whereas RED is about accepting existing production and trade systems and donating......(PRODUCT)RED™ (hereafter RED) is a cobranding initiative launched in 2006 by the aid celebrity Bono to raise money from product sales to support The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. In this paper we argue that RED is shifting the boundaries of ‘causumerism’ (shopping...

  10. Multidisciplinary Product Decomposition and Analysis Based on Design Structure Matrix Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Tufail

    2014-01-01

    Design structure matrix (DSM) modeling in complex system design supports to define physical and logical configuration of subsystems, components, and their relationships. This modeling includes product decomposition, identification of interfaces, and structure analysis to increase the architectural...... interactions across subsystems and components. For this purpose, Cambridge advanced modeler (CAM) software tool is used to develop the system matrix. The analysis of the product (printer) architecture includes clustering, partitioning as well as structure analysis of the system. The DSM analysis is helpful...... understanding of the system. Since product architecture has broad implications in relation to product life cycle issues, in this paper, mechatronic product is decomposed into subsystems and components, and then, DSM model is developed to examine the extent of modularity in the system and to manage multiple...

  11. Structure of a low-population intermediate state in the release of an enzyme product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Alfonso; Aprile, Francesco A; Dhulesia, Anne; Dobson, Christopher M; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2015-01-09

    Enzymes can increase the rate of biomolecular reactions by several orders of magnitude. Although the steps of substrate capture and product release are essential in the enzymatic process, complete atomic-level descriptions of these steps are difficult to obtain because of the transient nature of the intermediate conformations, which makes them largely inaccessible to standard structure determination methods. We describe here the determination of the structure of a low-population intermediate in the product release process by human lysozyme through a combination of NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. We validate this structure by rationally designing two mutations, the first engineered to destabilise the intermediate and the second to stabilise it, thus slowing down or speeding up, respectively, product release. These results illustrate how product release by an enzyme can be facilitated by the presence of a metastable intermediate with transient weak interactions between the enzyme and product.

  12. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  13. Swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plain, Ronald L; Lawrence, John D

    2003-07-01

    The US swine industry is large and growing. The quantity of pork desired by consumers of US pork is growing at the rate of 1.5%/y. New production systems and new technology have enabled production per sow to grow at a rate of 4% annually in recent years. Consequently, the number of sows in the United States is declining. Because productivity growth is outpacing demand growth, the deflated price of hogs and pork is declining. Hog production and prices continue to exhibit strong seasonal and cyclic patterns. Pork production is usually lowest in the summer and highest in the fall. Production and prices tend to follow 4-year patterns. The US swine industry continues to evolve toward fewer and larger producers who rely on contracts for both hog production and marketing. In 2000, over half of the hogs marketed were from approximately 156 firms marketing more than 50,000 head annually. These producers finished 60% of their production in contract facilities. Over 90% of their marketings were under contract or were owned by a packer. These producers expressed a high level of satisfaction with hog production. Both they and their contract growers were satisfied with production contracts. These large producers were satisfied with their marketing contracts and planned to continue them in the future. The hog industry has changed a great deal in the last decade. There is little reason to believe this rapid rate of change will not continue. This swine industry is highly competitive and profit driven. Profit margins are too small to allow producers the luxury of ignoring new technology and innovative production systems. Consequently, hog production will continue its rapid evolution from traditional agriculture to typical industry.

  14. A Bayesian Network Based Adaptability Design of Product Structures for Function Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Structure adaptability design is critical for function evolution in product families, in which many structural and functional design factors are intertwined together with manufacturing cost, customer satisfaction, and final market sales. How to achieve a delicate balance among all of these factors to maximize the market performance of the product is too complicated to address based on traditional domain experts’ knowledge or some ad hoc heuristics. Here, we propose a quantitative product evolution design model that is based on Bayesian networks to model the dynamic relationship between customer needs and product structure design. In our model, all of the structural or functional features along with customer satisfaction, manufacturing cost, sale price, market sales, and indirect factors are modeled as random variables denoted as nodes in the Bayesian networks. The structure of the Bayesian model is then determined based on the historical data, which captures the dynamic sophisticated relationship of customer demands of a product, structural design, and market performance. Application of our approach to an electric toothbrush product family evolution design problem shows that our model allows for designers to interrogate with the model and obtain theoretical and decision support for dynamic product feature design process.

  15. Suppression of acyl migration in enzymatic production of structured lipids through temperature programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Tiankui; Fruekilde, Maj-Britt; Xu, Xuebing

    2005-01-01

    Acyl migration in the glycerol backbone often leads to the increase of by-products in the enzymatic production of specific structured lipids. Acyl migration is a thermodynamic process and is very difficult to stop fully in actual reactions. The objective of this study was to investigate...

  16. Heat resistant soy adhesives for structural wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher G. Hunt; Charles Frihart; Jane O' Dell

    2009-01-01

    Because load-bearing bonded wood assemblies must support the structure during a fire, the limited softening and depolymerization of biobased polymers at elevated temperatures should be an advantage of biobased adhesives compared to fossil fuel-based adhesives. Because load-bearing bonded wood assemblies must support the structure during a fire, the limited softening...

  17. Structured catalyst bed and method for conversion of feed materials to chemical products and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong , Liu; Wei, [Richland, WA

    2012-01-24

    The present invention is a structured monolith reactor and method that provides for controlled Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The invention controls mass transport limitations leading to higher CO conversion and lower methane selectivity. Over 95 wt % of the total product liquid hydrocarbons obtained from the monolithic catalyst are in the carbon range of C.sub.5-C.sub.18. The reactor controls readsorption of olefins leading to desired products with a preselected chain length distribution and enhanced overall reaction rate. And, liquid product analysis shows readsorption of olefins is reduced, achieving a narrower FT product distribution.

  18. Structure-guided modification of Rhizomucor miehei lipase for production of structured lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hui Zhang

    Full Text Available To improve the performance of yeast surface-displayed Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RML in the production of human milk fat substitute (HMFS, we mutated amino acids in the lipase substrate-binding pocket based on protein hydrophobicity, to improve esterification activity. Five mutants: Asn87Ile, Asn87Ile/Asp91Val, His108Leu/Lys109Ile, Asp256Ile/His257Leu, and His108Leu/Lys109Ile/Asp256Ile/His257Leu were obtained and their hydrolytic and esterification activities were assayed. Using Discovery Studio 3.1 to build models and calculate the binding energy between lipase and substrates, compared to wild-type, the mutant Asp256Ile/His257Leu was found to have significantly lower energy when oleic acid (3.97 KJ/mol decrease and tripalmitin (7.55 KJ/mol decrease were substrates. This result was in accordance with the esterification activity of Asp256Ile/His257Leu (2.37-fold of wild-type. The four mutants were also evaluated for the production of HMFS in organic solvent and in a solvent-free system. Asp256Ile/His257Leu had an oleic acid incorporation of 28.27% for catalyzing tripalmitin and oleic acid, and 53.18% for the reaction of palm oil with oleic acid. The efficiency of Asp256Ile/His257Leu was 1.82-fold and 1.65-fold that of the wild-type enzyme for the two reactions. The oleic acid incorporation of Asp256Ile/His257Leu was similar to commercial Lipozyme RM IM for palm oil acidolysis with oleic acid. Yeast surface-displayed RML mutant Asp256Ile/His257Leu is a potential, economically feasible catalyst for the production of structured lipids.

  19. Structure-guided modification of Rhizomucor miehei lipase for production of structured lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Hui; Jiang, Yu-Yan; Lin, Ying; Sun, Yu-Fei; Zheng, Sui-Ping; Han, Shuang-Yan

    2013-01-01

    To improve the performance of yeast surface-displayed Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RML) in the production of human milk fat substitute (HMFS), we mutated amino acids in the lipase substrate-binding pocket based on protein hydrophobicity, to improve esterification activity. Five mutants: Asn87Ile, Asn87Ile/Asp91Val, His108Leu/Lys109Ile, Asp256Ile/His257Leu, and His108Leu/Lys109Ile/Asp256Ile/His257Leu were obtained and their hydrolytic and esterification activities were assayed. Using Discovery Studio 3.1 to build models and calculate the binding energy between lipase and substrates, compared to wild-type, the mutant Asp256Ile/His257Leu was found to have significantly lower energy when oleic acid (3.97 KJ/mol decrease) and tripalmitin (7.55 KJ/mol decrease) were substrates. This result was in accordance with the esterification activity of Asp256Ile/His257Leu (2.37-fold of wild-type). The four mutants were also evaluated for the production of HMFS in organic solvent and in a solvent-free system. Asp256Ile/His257Leu had an oleic acid incorporation of 28.27% for catalyzing tripalmitin and oleic acid, and 53.18% for the reaction of palm oil with oleic acid. The efficiency of Asp256Ile/His257Leu was 1.82-fold and 1.65-fold that of the wild-type enzyme for the two reactions. The oleic acid incorporation of Asp256Ile/His257Leu was similar to commercial Lipozyme RM IM for palm oil acidolysis with oleic acid. Yeast surface-displayed RML mutant Asp256Ile/His257Leu is a potential, economically feasible catalyst for the production of structured lipids.

  20. Brick and Structural Clay Products: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NESHAP regulation for brick and structural clay products by reading the rule summary, rule history, code of federal regulations, and the additional resources like fact sheets and background information documents

  1. Advanced fusion welding processes, solid state joining and a successful marriage. [production of aerospace structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, F. R.

    1972-01-01

    Joining processes for aerospace systems combine fusion welding and solid state joining during production of metal structures. Detailed characteristics of electron beam welding, plasma arc welding, diffusion welding, inertia welding and weldbond processes are discussed.

  2. Design of compound libraries based on natural product scaffolds and protein structure similarity clustering (PSSC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balamurugan, Rengarajan; Dekker, Frank J; Waldmann, Herbert; Dekker, Frans

    Recent advances in structural biology, bioinformatics and combinatorial chemistry have significantly impacted the discovery of small molecules that modulate protein functions. Natural products which have evolved to bind to proteins may serve as biologically validated starting points for the design

  3. COTTAGE CHEESE PRODUCTS FUNCTIONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cottage cheese products holds a significant place among the dairy and milk-containing products. The range of products includes cheese: cheese, pastes, creams, cakes, etc. Such diversity can be attributed to their popularity among the population and benefit brought by the body from regular use. Curd protein is much better and easier to digest by the body than protein fish, meat or milk. Rich curd products lysine and methionine. Minerals contained in cheese products have a positive effect on bone formation and structure of tissues. The composition of curd products, in addition to cheese and dairy ingredients may include non-dairy ingredients origin. Today, for the production of cheese products use the most advanced technologies to further enrich its structure and significantly improve the nutritional value. Pine nut is widely used in the manufacture of many dairy products. But, in most cases, the production of dairy products as a filler used pine nut cake, which deprives the finished product valuable cedar oil. The authors proposed a technology for producing curd product with the addition of pine nuts and honey (pine nuts and fructose. Compatible with cream cheese filling insertion determined sensory organoleptic point scale. he optimum dosage of components: pine nuts – 5 %, honey – 10 % fructose – 7 %. Technological process of cottage cheese product is different from the traditional operations training components and their introduction into the finished cheese. Identify indicators of quality of the new product. Production of curd products thus expanding the range of dairy products functional orientation.

  4. Fuel element structure - design, production and operational behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pott, G.; Dietz, W.

    1985-01-01

    The lectures held at the meeting of the fuel element section of the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft gives a survey of developments in fuel element structure design for PWR-type, BWR-type and fast breeder reactors. For better utilization of the fuel, concepts have been developed for re-usable, removable and thus repairable fuel elements. Furthermore, the manufacturing methods for fuel element structures were refined to achieve better quality and more efficient manufacturing methods. Statements on the dimensional behaviour and on the mechanical stability of fuel element structures in normal and accident operation could be made on the basis of post-irradiation inspections. Finally, the design, manufacture and irradiation behaviour of graphite reflectors in HTGR-type reactors are described. The 12 lectures have been recorded in the data base separately. (RF) [de

  5. Demand structure and willingness to pay for organic dairy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses if the introduction of a new and “low fat” organic variety of fluid milk has any effect on consumers’ valuation of organic milk in general and can rewind the stagnating trend in the demand for organic milk. In order to analyse this, the consumers’ purchasing structure was anal......This paper analyses if the introduction of a new and “low fat” organic variety of fluid milk has any effect on consumers’ valuation of organic milk in general and can rewind the stagnating trend in the demand for organic milk. In order to analyse this, the consumers’ purchasing structure...... was analysed and it was found that consumers first chose between different types of milk and secondly, decided of whether this milk was organic or conventional. Elasticities indicated a greater temporary flexibility in the demand structure and a permanent change of substitution patterns through...

  6. Antiproton production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaby, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    The basic definitions used in the physics literature on particle production are reviewed. The data on anti p production are interpreted in order to provide an estimate of the yield of anti p's from typical target at the antiproton accumulator, including the effects of re-absorption in the target. (orig.)

  7. Quark structure from the lattice operator product expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bietenholz, W.; Cundy, N.; Goeckeler, M.

    2009-11-01

    We have reported elsewhere in this conference on our continuing project to determine nonperturbative Wilson coefficients on the lattice, as a step towards a completely non-perturbative determination of the nucleon structure. In this talk we discuss how these Wilson coefficients can be used to extract Nachtmann moments of structure functions, using the case of off-shell Landau-gauge quarks as a first simple example. This work is done using overlap fermions, because their improved chiral properties reduce the difficulties due to operator mixing. (orig.)

  8. Sequencing of Dust Filter Production Process Using Design Structure Matrix (DSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, R. M.; Matondang, A. R.; Syahputri, K.; Anizar; Siregar, I.; Rizkya, I.; Ursula, C.

    2018-01-01

    Metal casting company produces machinery spare part for manufactures. One of the product produced is dust filter. Most of palm oil mill used this product. Since it is used in most of palm oil mill, company often have problems to address this product. One of problem is the disordered of production process. It carried out by the job sequencing. The important job that should be solved first, least implement, while less important job and could be completed later, implemented first. Design Structure Matrix (DSM) used to analyse and determine priorities in the production process. DSM analysis is sort of production process through dependency sequencing. The result of dependency sequences shows the sequence process according to the inter-process linkage considering before and after activities. Finally, it demonstrates their activities to the coupled activities for metal smelting, refining, grinding, cutting container castings, metal expenditure of molds, metal casting, coating processes, and manufacture of molds of sand.

  9. Applying total interpretive structural modeling to study factors affecting construction labour productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayali Shrikrishna Sandbhor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Construction sector has always been dependent on manpower. Most of the activities carried out on any construction site are labour intensive. Since productivity of any project depends directly on productivity of labour, it is a prime responsibility of the employer to enhance labour productivity. Measures to improve the same depend on analysis of positive and negative factors affecting productivity. Major attention should be given to factors that decrease the productivity of labour. Factor analysis thus is an integral part of any study aiming to improve productivity.  Interpretive structural modeling is a methodology for identifying and summarizing relationships among factors which define an issue or problem. It provides a means to arrange the factors in an order as per their complexity. This study attempts to use the latest version of interpretive structural modeling i.e. total interpretive structural modeling to analyze factors negatively affecting construction labour productivity. It establishes interpretive relationship among these factors facilitating improvement in the overall productivity of construction site.

  10. Engineering Mathematical Analysis Method for Productivity Rate in Linear Arrangement Serial Structure Automated Flow Assembly Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chan Sin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Productivity rate (Q or production rate is one of the important indicator criteria for industrial engineer to improve the system and finish good output in production or assembly line. Mathematical and statistical analysis method is required to be applied for productivity rate in industry visual overviews of the failure factors and further improvement within the production line especially for automated flow line since it is complicated. Mathematical model of productivity rate in linear arrangement serial structure automated flow line with different failure rate and bottleneck machining time parameters becomes the basic model for this productivity analysis. This paper presents the engineering mathematical analysis method which is applied in an automotive company which possesses automated flow assembly line in final assembly line to produce motorcycle in Malaysia. DCAS engineering and mathematical analysis method that consists of four stages known as data collection, calculation and comparison, analysis, and sustainable improvement is used to analyze productivity in automated flow assembly line based on particular mathematical model. Variety of failure rate that causes loss of productivity and bottleneck machining time is shown specifically in mathematic figure and presents the sustainable solution for productivity improvement for this final assembly automated flow line.

  11. Structural modeling of the production quality as a multidimensional object of measurement and control

    OpenAIRE

    Зубрецкая, Наталья Анатольевна

    2015-01-01

    The structural-analytical models of product quality as a multidimensional process of evaluation, measurement and control are developed. The product quality is represented as a multi-factor, multi-criteria and multi-parameter estimation object. This structural formalization of quality demonstrates the multidimensional qualities: comprehensiveness due to a set of environmental factors; multicriteriality due collectively evaluated quality criteria; multiparameter information models that describe...

  12. An Analysis of Malaysia’s Regulatory Framework and Challenges in the Structured Product Market

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Eu Meng

    2008-01-01

    Structured products are becoming increasingly popular and important to the development of Malaysia’s capital market and had experience impressive growth over the last few years after it was first introduced to the Malaysian market in 2004. Like any industry in its early stage, issues and challenges are expected but for structured products, such challenges require more attention due to the complexity inherent in these instruments. This study uses a qualitative research approach in an attempt t...

  13. Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Ion Mobility Reveals Structural Insight into Eicosanoid Product Ion Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giovanni, James P; Barkley, Robert M; Jones, David N M; Hankin, Joseph A; Murphy, Robert C

    2018-04-23

    Ion mobility measurements of product ions were used to characterize the collisional cross section (CCS) of various complex lipid [M-H] - ions using traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry (TWIMS). TWIMS analysis of various product ions derived after collisional activation of mono- and dihydroxy arachidonate metabolites was found to be more complex than the analysis of intact molecular ions and provided some insight into molecular mechanisms involved in product ion formation. The CCS observed for the molecular ion [M-H] - and certain product ions were consistent with a folded ion structure, the latter predicted by the proposed mechanisms of product ion formation. Unexpectedly, product ions from [M-H-H 2 O-CO 2 ] - and [M-H-H 2 O] - displayed complex ion mobility profiles suggesting multiple mechanisms of ion formation. The [M-H-H 2 O] - ion from LTB 4 was studied in more detail using both nitrogen and helium as the drift gas in the ion mobility cell. One population of [M-H-H 2 O] - product ions from LTB 4 was consistent with formation of covalent ring structures, while the ions displaying a higher CCS were consistent with a more open-chain structure. Using molecular dynamics and theoretical CCS calculations, energy minimized structures of those product ions with the open-chain structures were found to have a higher CCS than a folded molecular ion structure. The measurement of product ion mobility can be an additional and unique signature of eicosanoids measured by LC-MS/MS techniques. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Ion Mobility Reveals Structural Insight into Eicosanoid Product Ion Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giovanni, James P.; Barkley, Robert M.; Jones, David N. M.; Hankin, Joseph A.; Murphy, Robert C.

    2018-04-01

    Ion mobility measurements of product ions were used to characterize the collisional cross section (CCS) of various complex lipid [M-H]- ions using traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry (TWIMS). TWIMS analysis of various product ions derived after collisional activation of mono- and dihydroxy arachidonate metabolites was found to be more complex than the analysis of intact molecular ions and provided some insight into molecular mechanisms involved in product ion formation. The CCS observed for the molecular ion [M-H]- and certain product ions were consistent with a folded ion structure, the latter predicted by the proposed mechanisms of product ion formation. Unexpectedly, product ions from [M-H-H2O-CO2]- and [M-H-H2O]- displayed complex ion mobility profiles suggesting multiple mechanisms of ion formation. The [M-H-H2O]- ion from LTB4 was studied in more detail using both nitrogen and helium as the drift gas in the ion mobility cell. One population of [M-H-H2O]- product ions from LTB4 was consistent with formation of covalent ring structures, while the ions displaying a higher CCS were consistent with a more open-chain structure. Using molecular dynamics and theoretical CCS calculations, energy minimized structures of those product ions with the open-chain structures were found to have a higher CCS than a folded molecular ion structure. The measurement of product ion mobility can be an additional and unique signature of eicosanoids measured by LC-MS/MS techniques. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. The impact of ownership structure on bank productivity and efficiency: Evidence from semi-parametric Malmquist Productivity Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzlan Sufian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study employs the state of the art bias-corrected Malmquist Productivity Index method to examine the sources of efficiency and productivity of the foreign and domestic banks operating in the Malaysian banking sector. The preferred methodology enables us to isolate efforts to catch up to the frontier (efficiency change from shifts in the frontier (technological change [TECHCH]. The results indicate that the Malaysian banking sector has exhibited productivity progress mainly attributed to technological progress. The empirical findings suggest that both the domestic and foreign banks have exhibited productivity progress albeit at different quantum attributed mainly to progress in TECHCH.

  16. 75 FR 66734 - Proposed Voluntary Product Standard PS 2-10, Structural Plywood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... acceptability of wood-based structural-use panels for construction sheathing and single-floor applications. It... acceptability of wood-based structural-use panels for construction sheathing and single- floor application, and... to Voluntary Product Standard (PS) 2-04, Performance Standard for Wood-Based Structural-Use Panels...

  17. In Situ Production of Graphene-Fiber Hybrid Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akia, Mandana; Cremar, Lee; Chipara, Mircea

    2017-01-01

    We report a scalable method to obtain a new material where large graphene sheets form webs linking carbon fibers. Film-fiber hybrid nonwoven mats are formed during fiber processing and converted to carbon structures after a simple thermal treatment. This contrasts with multistep methods...... that attempt to mix previously prepared graphene and fibers, or require complicated and costly processes for deposition of graphene over carbon fibers. The developed graphene-fiber hybrid structures have seamless connections between graphene and fibers, and in fact the graphene "veils" extend directly from one...... a capillarity effect that promoted the formation of thin veils, which become graphene sheets upon dehydration by sulfuric acid vapor followed by carbonization (at relatively low temperatures, below 800 °C). These veils extend over several micrometers within the pores of the fiber network, and consist...

  18. Entry Regulations, Product Differentiation and Determinants of Market Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Maican, Florin; Orth, ´Matilda

    2013-01-01

    We use a dynamic oligopoly model of entry and exit to evaluate how entry regulations affect profitability and market structure in retail. The model incorporates demand and store-level heterogeneity. Based on unique data for all retail food stores in Sweden, we find that the average entry costs for small and large stores are 10 and 18 percent lower, respectively, in markets with liberal compared with restrictive regulations. Counterfactual simulations show that lower entry costs in restrictive...

  19. How NASA KSC Controls Interfaces with the use of Motion Skeletons and Product Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will show how NASA KSC controls interfaces for Modular Product Architecture (MPA) using Locator Skeletons, Interface Skeletons, and Product Structure, to be combined together within a Motion Skeleton. The user will learn how to utilize skeleton models to communicate interface data, as successfully done at NASA KSC in their use of Motion Skeletons to control interfaces for multi-launch systems. There will be discussion of the methodology used to control design requirements through WTParts, and how to utilize product structure for non-CAD documents.

  20. Estimates of production and structure of nuclei with Z = 119

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Lenske, H.

    2018-02-01

    The comparative analysis of the hot fusion reactions 50Ti +247-249Bk and 51V +246-248Cm for synthesis of element 119 is made with the dinuclear system model and the prediction of nuclear properties of the microscopic-macroscopic approach, where the closed proton shell at Z ≥ 120 is expected. The quasiparticle structures of nuclei in the α-decay chain of 295119 and a possible spread of alpha energies are studied. The calculated values of Qα are compared with available experimental data. The termination of the α-decay chain of 295119 is revealed.

  1. Production cost structure in US outpatient physical therapy health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubiani, Gregory G; Okunade, Albert A

    2013-02-01

    This paper investigates the technology cost structure in US physical therapy care. We exploit formal economic theories and a rich national data of providers to tease out implications for operational cost efficiencies. The 2008-2009 dataset comprising over 19 000 bi-weekly, site-specific physical therapy center observations across 28 US states and Occupational Employment Statistics data (Bureau of Labor Statistics) includes measures of output, three labor types (clinical, support, and administrative), and facilities (capital). We discuss findings from the iterative seemingly unrelated regression estimation system model. The generalized translog cost estimates indicate a well-behaved underlying technology structure. We also find the following: (i) factor demands are downwardly sloped; (ii) pair-wise factor relationships largely reflect substitutions; (iii) factor demand for physical therapists is more inelastic compared with that for administrative staff; and (iv) diminishing scale economies exist at the 25%, 50%, and 75% output (patient visits) levels. Our findings advance the timely economic understanding of operations in an increasingly important segment of the medical care sector that has, up-to-now (because of data paucity), been missing from healthcare efficiency analysis. Our work further provides baseline estimates for comparing operational efficiencies in physical therapy care after implementations of the 2010 US healthcare reforms. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The trial production runs started in the previous report period were continued and have been extended to 67 Ga, 81 Rb/ 81m Kr and 111 In, the production of which will be taken over from the Pretoria cyclotron at the end of this year, when that machine is scheduled to be shut down. After commissioning of the target water cooling system and the helium cooling system for beam foil windows at the beginning of this year, these production runs could also be extended to high beam currents (up to 50 μA). Test consignments of a number of products have been supplied to various potential future users, and 123 I, in the form of Na 123 I capsules as well as 123 I-sodium hippurate, and 52 Fe-citrate have actually been used with success in trial diagnostic studies on patients. A procedure for labelling IPPA and 3-IPMPA with 123 I has been developed, while initial work has also been done on the radioiodination of monoclonal antifibrine antibodies. The last major facility needed for the commencement of the routine radioisotope production programme, namely the multiple-target facility, is now ready for installation in the production vault within the next few weeks, and routine production runs are expected to start in November 1988. 4 figs., 18 refs

  3. Ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolleurp, F; Daugulis, A J

    1985-05-01

    Extractive fermentation is a technique that can be used to reduce the effect of end-product inhibition through the use of a water-immiscible phase which removes fermentation products in situ. This has the beneficial effect of not only removing inhibitory products as they are formed (thus keeping reaction rates high) but also has the potential for reducing product recovery costs. We have chosen to examine the ethanol fermentation as a model system for end product inhibition and extractive fermentation, and have developed a computer model predicting the productivity enhancement possible with this technique. The model predicts an ethanol productivity of 82.6 g/L-h if a glucose feed of 750 g/L is fermented with a solvent having a distribution coefficient of 0.5 at a dilution rate of 5.0 h . This is more than 10 times higher than for a conventional chemostat fermentation of a 250 g/L glucose feed. In light of this, a systematic approach to extractive fermentation has been undertaken involving the screening of more than 1,000 solvents for their extractive properties. UNIFAC and UNIQUAC estimates of distribution coefficients and selectivities were compiled and ranked in a database, together with other important physical properties, such as density, surface tension and viscosity. Preliminary shake-flask and chemostat biocompatibility studies on the most promising solvents have been undertaken. The previous predictive, data base and experimental results are discussed.

  4. STUDY OF GUSTATORY AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF KEFIR PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILENA H. MOMCHILOVA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the study is the improvement of Kefir culture. For this investigation it was used Kefir culture and two series of experiments were carried out. Yeasts from probiotic strain Saccharomyces boulardii were added in the first series and the lactic acid bacteria (LAB of Streptococcus thermophilus strain, with a polysaccharide activity were added to Kefir culture in the second series. The fermentation conditions were 30°C, duration 16 hours and cooling 4 hours up to 4°C. The characteristics of Kefir were analyzed by determination of: pH, acidity, qualitative reaction for existence of diacetyl, cell number of LAB and yeasts. The structural properties of Kefir were evaluated by microscopic study.

  5. Using embedded design structures to unravel a complex decision in a product development system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKay, Alison; Sammonds, George; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2017-01-01

    because of ambiguity in available design definitions. This paper reports research that investigated the role of complex decision making in a quality incident that occurred in the development of a complex product system. A case study approach with document analysis and semi-structured interviews was used....... Data were analysed using lenses from both social sciences and engineering design. In this paper, we report the use of embedded design structures to gain insights into the downstream consequences of design decisions. Results indicate that embedded product, process and supply network structures have......Early design decisions have an impact on downstream product development processes. Poor decisions can reduce efficiency and effectiveness, and have a detrimental effect on product quality, delivery time, and cost. However, the range of tools suitable for use in early design is limited, in part...

  6. Product plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Hadley; Hofmann, Heike

    2011-12-01

    We propose a new framework for visualising tables of counts, proportions and probabilities. We call our framework product plots, alluding to the computation of area as a product of height and width, and the statistical concept of generating a joint distribution from the product of conditional and marginal distributions. The framework, with extensions, is sufficient to encompass over 20 visualisations previously described in fields of statistical graphics and infovis, including bar charts, mosaic plots, treemaps, equal area plots and fluctuation diagrams. © 2011 IEEE

  7. New Faces of Globalization: Market Integration, Production Disintegration, Genesis of New Global Organizational Structures for Production and Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmiza Pencea

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to trade liberalisation and ITC revolution, companies could imagine new and better ways of creating and delivering value. In search of higher efficiency, competitiveness and profits, they reorganise, choosing to focus on their core competencies and to globally outsource, or offshore non-core activities and functions. As a result, reorganisation and relocation became the new forces of change across economies, leading to the rise of new, more diverse and more efficient global organisational structures for investment, production and trade. A number of developing countries with adequate comparative advantages could better benefit from these processes, accelerating their own industralization and modernization, increasing their access to new technologies and managerial know-how and turning themselves into successful, high-rate growing, „ emerging” economies. The paper concludes that under such a global backdrop, taking part in global value chains (GVC and in international production networks (IPNs could be the best strategic option for both company strategies and governmental catch-up policies, provided that, or especially if companies enjoy high competences and tacit skills which make them capable of assuming complex tasks and of climbing further the technological ladder.

  8. Community Structure and Productivity in Western Mongolian Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyokazu Kawada

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The people of the Mongolian steppe have maintained a sustainable, nomadic lifestyle. However, several ecological processes are threatening their way of life. Ecological changan be detected through the analysis of quantitative and qualitative data. It is therefore, imperative to develop a sustainable rangeland management system aimed at combating desertifi cation. In this study we quantitatively and qualitatively describe several western Mongolian steppe plant communities by examining species composition, plant volume and community structure. Study sites were located in the Uvs and Khovd provinces and had all been affected by livestock grazing. A total of 48 species were found. Stipa krylovii , S . gobica , Cleistogenes songorica , Koeleria cristata and Ajania achilleoides were dominant. There was a signifi cant relationship between biomass and plant volume at all sites. Study sites were classifi ed into four groups using cluster analysis, based on the presence or absence of several species. More than 90% of plant volumes at all groups were perennial grasses and perennial forbs. The ratio of C 3 to C 4 plants at site 3 was reversed in comparison to the other sites. Species highly palatable to livestock were dominant at all sites. To ensure the sustainable use of biological resources in these arid areas, these fi ndings should be taken into account in designing land-use plans.

  9. Tanning Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... must obtain a signed, FDA-prescribed risk acknowledgement certification before use that states that they have been informed of the risks to health that may result from use of sunlamp products. Using tanning lamps, booths, or beds: If you ...

  10. Bc production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusignoli, M.; Masetti, M.; Petrarca, S.

    1991-01-01

    The pseudoscalar meson B c is the simplest particle containing more than one heavy quark of different flavours. Its production cross sections at accelerators presently running or in project are estimated using the HERWIG parton shower Monte Carlo code. (orig.)

  11. Production models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    The Project is co-financed with Nilpeter A/S and investigates the industrialization of build to order production. Project content: - Enterprise engineering - Specification processes - Mass Customization/ Build To Order - Knowledge/information management - Configuration - Supply Chain Management...

  12. Marketplace Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Enterprise Data and Analytics, within the Centers for Medicare aqnd Medicaid Services (CMS), has developed a set of information products and analytics...

  13. Lean production

    OpenAIRE

    Veselková, Jana

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this Bachelor's Thesis is to describe the general principles of lean production and afterwards apply these principles in a particular company. Due to the changing conditions on the world market is among companies growing concern about such innovative business systems. The theoretical part of this work deals with the general characteristics of lean production, including their history and focus on Toyota, as the originator of most lean systems. Mentioned are also the economic aspect...

  14. Productive Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Brandstätter , Ulrich; Sommerer , Christa

    2016-01-01

    Part 4: Short Papers; International audience; Video games can be appropriated for productive purposes. Commercial games and game engines are often used for video productions, and game development companies provide development kits and modding environments to gaming communities and independent developers. With gamification, game principles are deployed in non-game contexts for benefits beyond pure entertainment. Most approaches are more focused on using games and their design elements rather t...

  15. SPIE Smart Structures Product Implementation Award: a review of the first ten years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric H.; Sater, Janet M.

    2007-04-01

    The research field of smart materials and structures has been a distinct entity for two decades. Over the past ten years, the SPIE Industrial and Commercial Applications Conference has presented a Smart Structures Product Implementation Award at its annual symposium. This paper revisits the nine winning entries to date (1998-2007) and updates their status. The paper begins with a brief description of the original and current intent of the award and follows with a short overview of the evolution of smart structures, from research to products. The winning teams and their respective products are then described. The current status of the products is discussed based on publicly available information and input from the respective companies. Note however that it is not the purpose of the paper to rank the product winners in terms of success or sales. The paper concludes with an assessment of the larger trends in productization of smart structures technologies. The application "form" for the award as well as the evaluation criteria and suggestions for improving award application packages can be found in the appendix.

  16. Importance of structure and density of macroalgae communities (Fucus serratus) for photosynthetic production and light utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    at high light depended on community density. Therefore, while the determination of the production of individual algal thalli is useful for evaluating differences in acclimatisation and adaptation between species and stands, it is not useful for evaluating production rates for entire plants and communities......Determination of photosynthetic production in plant communities is essential for evaluating plant growth rates and carbon fluxes in ecosystems, but it cannot easily be derived from the photosynthetic response of individual leaves or thalli, which has been the focus of virtually all previous aquatic...... studies. To evaluate the regulation of aquatic community production, we measured the photosynthetic production of thallus parts and entire communities of Fucus serratus (L.) of different density and spatial structure exposed to varying photon flux density and dissolved CO2 concentration. Photosynthetic...

  17. Analysis of interactions among the barriers to JIT production: interpretive structural modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, J. R.; Mantha, S. S.; Rane, S. B.

    2015-09-01

    `Survival of the fittest' is the reality in modern global competition. Organizations around the globe are adopting or willing to embrace just-in-time (JIT) production to reinforce the competitiveness. Even though JIT is the most powerful inventory management methodologies it is not free from barriers. Barriers derail the implementation of JIT production system. One of the most significant tasks of top management is to identify and understand the relationship between the barriers to JIT production for alleviating its bad effects. The aims of this paper are to study the barriers hampering the implementation of successful JIT production and analysing the interactions among the barriers using interpretive structural modelling technique. Twelve barriers have been identified after reviewing literature. This paper offers a roadmap for preparing an action plan to tackle the barriers in successful implementation of JIT production.

  18. Effects of shearing on biogas production and microbial community structure during anaerobic digestion with recuperative thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shufan; Phan, Hop V; Bustamante, Heriberto; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Nghiem, Long D

    2017-06-01

    Recuperative thickening can intensify anaerobic digestion to produce more biogas and potentially reduce biosolids odour. This study elucidates the effects of sludge shearing during the thickening process on the microbial community structure and its effect on biogas production. Medium shearing resulted in approximately 15% increase in biogas production. By contrast, excessive or high shearing led to a marked decrease in biogas production, possibly due to sludge disintegration and cell lysis. Microbial analysis using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that medium shearing increased the evenness and diversity of the microbial community in the anaerobic digester, which is consistent with the observed improved biogas production. By contrast, microbial diversity decreased under either excessive shearing or high shearing condition. In good agreement with the observed decrease in biogas production, the abundance of Bacteroidales and Syntrophobaterales (which are responsible for hydrolysis and acetogenesis) decreased due to high shearing during recuperative thickening. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The impact of information technology on productivity using structural equations technique in Iran Behnoush Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Beig

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Information technology plays an important role on increasing productivity in many organizations. The primary objective of the present survey is to study the impact of information technology on productivity and find a positive and significant relationship between these two factors. Structural equations technique and LISREL software are used for analysis of the questionnaires distributed among managers and some employees of Iran Behnoush Company. Organizations try to improve their performance by investment in information technology. However, many of the previous studies indicate insignificance of the impact of information technology on productivity of the organizations. The present survey studies the impact of information technology on organizations' productivity through the collected data from the above company. Results confirm existence of a positive relationship between information technology and productivity.

  20. Analysis on the cost structure of product recall for reverse supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanhua, Feng; Xuhui, Xia; Zheng, Yang

    2017-12-01

    The research on the reverse supply chain of product recall mainly focused on the recall network structure, logistics mode and so on. In this paper, when product recall and supply channel are fixed, the specific structure and function expression of cost are analyzed according to the peak season and off-season of recall activities, and whether the assembly manufacturer, supplier and recyclers are cooperated situation, respectively, to build the total cost structure of the function model. Finally, the model is validated correctly through the automotive industry and the electromechanical industry.

  1. The importance of asking "how and why?" in natural product structure elucidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick D; Lawrence, Andrew L

    2017-10-18

    Covering: up to 2017This review highlights why careful consideration of the biosynthetic origin (the how) and the biological function (the why) of a natural product can be so useful during the determination of its structure. Recent examples of structural reassignments inspired by biosynthetic and functional insights will be presented. This review will demonstrate the importance of viewing the origin, structure and function of a natural product as intertwined threads of a single story, best viewed as a whole rather than as discrete topics.

  2. Production capacity of metallurgical enterprises in modular structure of management accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambrzhitskaia E.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of constant research in development of management accounting at modern Russian metallurgical works. The required steps of renovation are presented for the modernization of management accounting system in the case of production capacity. The necessary factors with defined values are systematized for modern enterprises. The main ones are those which are regulate the measure of the payload of production capacity. For the purposes of effective management accounting at metallurgical enterprises it is suggested to use the system of controlling parameters which were formulated for the enterprise for production of rolls. Later in the article the necessary changes to the modular structure of management accounting business are described and expanded with new structural element – “Management of production capacity”. The suggested methodical approach will allow the company management to respond quickly to rapidly changing external environment and, as a consequence, to make effective management decisions.

  3. The role of milk proteins in the structure formation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rybak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The structure of dairy products is a complex of proteins, fat, minerals and water that determines the texture and sensory properties of the product. Material and methods. The fermented milks (using the example of yogurt, cheese, ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts have been researched. Scientific articles, published during 2000 and 2014 years, as well as theses and monographs of dairy science have been analysed too. Methodology of the investigation is based upon the use of the methods of analysis, comparison and synthesis. Results and discussion. The scientific understanding of the milk proteins’ role in the structure formation of dairy product has been summarized. Negligible changes of structure as a result of compositional or technological changes can lead to shifts in the stability, texture and rheology of products, which are closely related to each other. The allowance of these properties has significant influence on the manufacturing. Acid coagulation is a major functional property of milk proteins, which used in the structure formation of cheese and fermented dairy products. However, the form and properties of milk curd depend on the heat treatment of milk before fermentation. Milk proteins exhibit other functional properties (emulsification and partial coalescence of fat globules, aeration and foam stability during a churning, viscosity increasing of external phase in the development of structure in the ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts. Conclusions. It is expedient to use results into a further study of the structure formation mechanism of dairy products and the development of recommendations in order to an efficient production.

  4. The role of milk proteins in the structure formation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rybak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The structure of dairy products is a complex of proteins, fat, minerals and water that determines the texture and sensory properties of the product. Material and methods. The fermented milks (using the example of yogurt, cheese, ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts have been researched. Scientific articles, published during 2000 and 2014 years, as well as theses and monographs of dairy science have been analysed too. Methodology of the investigation is based upon the use of the methods of analysis, comparison and synthesis. Results and discussion. The scientific understanding of the milk proteins’ role in the structure formation of dairy product has been summarized. Negligible changes of structure as a result of compositional or technological changes can lead to shifts in the stability, texture and rheology of products, which are closely related to each other. The allowance of these properties has significant influence on the manufacturing. Acid coagulation is a major functional property of milk proteins, which used in the structure formation of cheese and fermented dairy products. However, the form and properties of milk curd depend on the heat treatment of milk before fermentation. Milk proteins exhibit other functional properties (emulsification and partial coalescence of fat globules, aeration and foam stability during a churning, viscosity increasing of external phase in the development of structure in the ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts. Conclusions. It is expedient to use results into a further study of the structure formation mechanism of dairy products and the development of recommendations in order to an efficient production.

  5. The role of milk proteins in the structure formation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Rybak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The structure of dairy products is a complex of proteins, fat, minerals and water that determines the texture and sensory properties of the product. Material and methods. The fermented milks (using the example of yogurt, cheese, ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts have been researched. Scientific articles, published during 2000 and 2014 years, as well as theses and monographs of dairy science have been analysed too. Methodology of the investigation is based upon the use of the methods of analysis, comparison and synthesis. Results and discussion. The scientific understanding of the milk proteins’ role in the structure formation of dairy product has been summarized. Negligible changes of structure as a result of compositional or technological changes can lead to shifts in the stability, texture and rheology of products, which are closely related to each other. The allowance of these properties has significant influence on the manufacturing. Acid coagulation is a major functional property of milk proteins, which used in the structure formation of cheese and fermented dairy products. However, the form and properties of milk curd depend on the heat treatment of milk before fermentation. Milk proteins exhibit other functional properties (emulsification and partial coalescence o f fatglobules, aeration and foam stability during a churning, viscosity increasing of external phase in the development of structure in the ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts. Conclusions.It is expedient to use results into a further study of the structure formation mechanism of dairy products and the development of recommendations in order to an efficient production.

  6. Issues on the Development and Application of Computer Tools to Support Product Structuring and Configuring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Riitahuhta, A.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this article is to make a balance on the results and challenges in the efforts to develop computer tools to support product structuring and configuring in product development projects. The balance will be made in two dimensions, a design science and an industrial dimension. The design ...... that there are large positive effects to be gained for industrial companies by conscious implementing computer tools based on the results of design science. The positive effects will be measured by e.g. predictable product quality, reduced lead time, and reuse of design solutions....

  7. Visual product architecture modelling for structuring data in a PLM system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Peter Lomholt; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to determine the role of a product architecture model to support communication and to form the basis for developing and maintaining information of product structures in a PLM system. This paper contains descriptions of a modelling tool to represent a product architecture....... Moreover, it is discussed how the sometimes intangible elements and phenomena within an architecture model can be visually modeled in order to form the basis for a data model in a PLM system. © 2012 International Federation for Information Processing....

  8. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SUPPLEMENTS INCLUSION OF THE ENRICHED DIET ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND EGG STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha Trajan Gjorgovska; Kiril Filev; Vesna Levkov; Rodne Nastova; Vasil Kostov; Srekjko Gjorgjievski; Svetlana Grigorova

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional manipulation and genetic selection for egg size and production may lead to changes in egg components. This experiment was carried out to analyze the egg structure parameters of eggs produced by Hisex Brown laying hens fed with diet with different supplements inclusion. The intensity of egg production was significantly higher in the groups fed with enriched feed with iodine (90.00%), vitamin E (90.00%) and selenium (91.98%), and significantly lower in the group fed with DHA inclusi...

  9. Sucrose Fermentation by Brazilian Ethanol Production Yeasts in Media Containing Structurally Complex Nitrogen Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Junior, Messias [UNESP; Batistote, Margareth [UNESP; Cilli, Eduardo Maffud [UNESP; Ernandes, Jose Roberto [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    Four Saccharomyces cerevisiae Brazilian industrial ethanol production strains were grown, under shaken and static conditions, in media containing 22% (w/v) sucrose supplemented with nitrogen sources varying from a single ammonium salt (ammonium sulfate) to free amino acids (casamino acids) and peptides (peptone). Sucrose fermentations by Brazilian industrial ethanol production yeasts strains were strongly affected by both the structural complexity of the nitrogen source and the availability o...

  10. Productive Systems and the Structuring Role of Economic and Social Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Wilkinson

    2002-01-01

    The institutions of productive systems are structured by mutual interests and relative power. Securing mutually beneficial cooperation in production requires resolving distributional differences. These objectives are secured in liberal economic theory by the working of markets which mediate the power of individuals and reward individual success. The centrality of individuals and hierarchies in market theory contrasts with developments in labour management theory which identifies group activit...

  11. Biocidal Products and Borderline Products

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Biocidal product is defined as preparations sold in ready form to use that contains one or more active substances and has control effect, movement restriction or destruction against harmful organisms which has harmful effect on products that people use or produce or animals or environment. These substances which are composed mostly chemicals and ease our lifes are used in increasingly every areas of our life on the other hand they carry variety of risks and threaten our lives. In terms of env...

  12. Environmental products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This volume in the series of directories of Quebec organizations doing research and development involving biomass-based products or processes focused on environmental products and services. The objective of this, and other directories in the series, was to stimulate interaction, and hence more aggressive development, of products and processes capable of being commercialized, to facilitate interaction between those who possess and those who could utilize biomass resources, and in general, to encourage the development of biomass-based industries. A total of 83 organizations were included in standardized format, describing areas of research interest, principal areas of technological expertise, major equipment, personnel and name and address of contact person. In this volume fields of research interest included environmental audits, waste treatment, biodegradation, composting, oxidation, photodegradation, disinfection and combustion. tabs

  13. Uranium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spriggs, M.

    1980-01-01

    The balance between uranium supply and demand is examined. Should new resources become necessary, some unconventional sources which could be considered include low-grade extensions to conventional deposits, certain types of intrusive rock, tuffs, and lake and sea-bed sediments. In addition there are large but very low grade deposits in carbonaceous shales, granites, and seawater. The possibility of recovery is discussed. Programmes of research into the feasibility of extraction of uranium from seawater, as a by-product from phosphoric acid production, and from copper leach solutions, are briefly discussed. Other possible sources are coal, old mine dumps and tailings, the latter being successfully exploited commercially in South Africa. The greatest constraints on increased development of U from lower grade sources are economics and environmental impact. It is concluded that apart from U as a by-product from phosphate, other sources are unlikely to contribute much to world requirements in the foreseeable future. (U.K.)

  14. Bottom production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-01-01

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations

  15. Bottom production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  16. Parameters affecting incorporation and by-product formation during the production of structured phospholipids by lipase-catalyzed acidolysis in solvent free system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikbjerg, Anders Falk; Mu, Huiling; Xu, Xuebing

    2005-01-01

    By-product formation is a serious problem in the lipase-catalyzed acyl exchange of phospholipids (PL). By-products are formed due to parallel hydrolysis reactions and acyl migration in the reaction system. A clear elucidation of these side reactions is important for practical operation in order...... to minimize by-products during reaction. In the present study we examined the Lipozyme RM IM-catalyzed acidolysis for the production of structured phospholipids between phosphatidylcholine (PC) and caprylic acid in the solvent free system. A five-factor response surface design was used to evaluate...

  17. Phytosanitary products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    One of a series of directories of Quebec universities, industrial and governmental agencies in Quebec actively involved in research and development of phytosanitary products or services derived from or associated with biomass products. This directory contained standardized entries for 79 organizations from the agriculture, forestry and environmental sectors, active in fields ranging from genetic engineering, fertilizers, crop diseases and pest management, forestry management, harvesting methods and bioconversion. Each entry provided information about major fields of research interest, principal technologies utilized, major equipment, personnel, and name and address of person to be contacted for further information. tabs

  18. Aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, B.; Ayers, J.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Aluminium is the most important non-ferrous metal by quantity. Aluminium is produced by electrolysis of aluminium oxide (also known as alumina). Alumina is produced by refining bauxite. The quantity of primary and secondary aluminium production in ECE-countries between 1992 and 1998 is shown. The European aluminium industry employs approximately 200 000 employees. The annual aluminium production in the European Union was 3.58 million tonnes in 1994, of which 44 % was secondary aluminium. In 1996 3.96 million tonnes of aluminium were produced in the EU, of which 44 % was secondary aluminium. (author)

  19. Structural wood products in onshore buildings at Naval Station Norfolk, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever

    2003-01-01

    As of December 31, 2000, there were 603 buildings at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Norfolk with a combined floor area of nearly 17.3 million ft2. In one-third of these buildings, structural wood products were used in one or more major structural building applications, utilizing an estimated 11.6 million board feet of lumber, 0.4 million ft2 (3/8-in. basis) of structural...

  20. Structural brain aging and speech production: a surface-based brain morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pascale; Deschamps, Isabelle

    2016-07-01

    While there has been a growing number of studies examining the neurofunctional correlates of speech production over the past decade, the neurostructural correlates of this immensely important human behaviour remain less well understood, despite the fact that previous studies have established links between brain structure and behaviour, including speech and language. In the present study, we thus examined, for the first time, the relationship between surface-based cortical thickness (CT) and three different behavioural indexes of sublexical speech production: response duration, reaction times and articulatory accuracy, in healthy young and older adults during the production of simple and complex meaningless sequences of syllables (e.g., /pa-pa-pa/ vs. /pa-ta-ka/). The results show that each behavioural speech measure was sensitive to the complexity of the sequences, as indicated by slower reaction times, longer response durations and decreased articulatory accuracy in both groups for the complex sequences. Older adults produced longer speech responses, particularly during the production of complex sequence. Unique age-independent and age-dependent relationships between brain structure and each of these behavioural measures were found in several cortical and subcortical regions known for their involvement in speech production, including the bilateral anterior insula, the left primary motor area, the rostral supramarginal gyrus, the right inferior frontal sulcus, the bilateral putamen and caudate, and in some region less typically associated with speech production, such as the posterior cingulate cortex.

  1. CHARACTERISTICS OF STRUCTURE FORMATION IN COOKED SAUSAGE PRODUCTS USING SONOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Yevtushenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the features of formation of sausage product structure in the process of cooking. It is shown that the viscosity of sausage meat varies in a complex manner and has three characteristic areas. The characteristic parameters that determine the formation of the structure of sausages for each area were found. It is established that the use of the cavitation brine gives the finished product a gentle consistence, elasticity and distinct taste that makes it more preferable for the consumer.

  2. Epoxide hydrolase-lasalocid a structure provides mechanistic insight into polyether natural product biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fong T; Hotta, Kinya; Chen, Xi; Fang, Minyi; Watanabe, Kenji; Kim, Chu-Young

    2015-01-14

    Biosynthesis of some polyether natural products involves a kinetically disfavored epoxide-opening cyclic ether formation, a reaction termed anti-Baldwin cyclization. One such example is the biosynthesis of lasalocid A, an ionophore antibiotic polyether. During lasalocid A biosynthesis, an epoxide hydrolase, Lsd19, converts the bisepoxy polyketide intermediate into the tetrahydrofuranyl-tetrahydropyran product. We report the crystal structure of Lsd19 in complex with lasalocid A. The structure unambiguously shows that the C-terminal domain of Lsd19 catalyzes the intriguing anti-Baldwin cyclization. We propose a general mechanism for epoxide selection by ionophore polyether epoxide hydrolases.

  3. Production of structured lipids: acyl migration during enzymatic interesterification and downstream processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing

    1997-01-01

    Production of structured lipids by lipase-catalyzed interesterification attracts great interests recently. Structured lipids are defined, in this article, as triacylglycerols which contain both medium or short chain fatty acids and long chain fatty acids, each groups locating specifically in the sn......-2 position or sn-1,3 positions of glycerol backbone. These kinds of lipids are reported to be promising for both enteral and parenteral nutrition. However, acyl migration occurs in the reaction stage and downstream purification process. This side-reaction causes by-products which are harmful...

  4. Investigating the Structure-Activity Relationship of the Insecticidal Natural Product Rocaglamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Roger G; Bruce, Ian; Cooke, Nigel G; Diorazio, Louis J; Cederbaum, Fredrik; Dobler, Markus R; Irving, Ed

    2017-12-01

    The natural product Rocaglamide (1), isolated from the tree Aglaia elliptifolia, is a compelling but also challenging lead structure for crop protection. In laboratory assays, the natural product shows highly interesting insecticidal activity against chewing pests and beetles, but also phytotoxicity on some crop plants. Multi-step syntheses with control of stereochemistry were required to probe the structure-activity relationship (SAR), and seek simplified analogues. After a significant research effort, just two areas of the molecule were identified which allow modification whilst maintaining activity, as will be highlighted in this paper.

  5. Proton structure function and Bc meson production in γγ collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, A.P.; Saleev, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    Using nonrelativistic quark model and perturbative QCD the production of B c (B* c ) mesons via resolved-photon interaction in γγ-collisions is studied. It is shown that the resolved-photon contribution via partionic subprocess cγ→B c (B* c )b is very important both near threshold of the B c (B* c )-meson production, where the hadron-like part of the photon structure function dominates, and at large energies, where only the point-like part of the photon structure function give the contribution increased versus energy. 18 refs., 5 figs

  6. Uranium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.Q.

    1981-01-01

    The domestic uranium industry is in a state of stagflation. Costs continue to rise while the market for the product remains stagnant. During the last 12 months, curtailments and closures of mines and mills have eliminated over 5000 jobs in the industry, plus many more in those industries that furnish supplies and services. By January 1982, operations at four mills and the mines that furnish them ore will have been terminated. Other closures may follow, depending on cost trends, duration of current contracts, the degree to which mills have been amortized, the feasibility of placing mines on standby, the grade of the ore, and many other factors. Open-pit mines can be placed on standby without much difficulty, other than the possible cost of restoration before all the ore has been removed. There are a few small, dry, underground mines that could be mothballed; however, the major underground producers are wet sandstone mines that in most cases could not be reopened after a prolonged shutdown; mills can be mothballed for several years. Figure 8 shows the location of all the production centers in operation, as well as those that have operated or are on standby. Table 1 lists the same production centers plus those that have been deferred, showing nominal capacity of conventional mills in tons of ore per calendar day, and the industry production rate for those mills as of October 1, 1981

  7. Novolak Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Hiroshi

    Novolak resins are produced by reacting formaldehyde (30-55% concentration) with phenol under acidic conditions, with oxalic acid as the preferred catalyst and in special conditions, sulfuric acid. Depending on the batch size, all raw material components can be introduced into the reactor, or when there is an increase in the batch size as well as in the reactor volume, the reaction exotherm is controlled by a gradual addition of formaldehyde. Modern novolak production facilities are automated and programmed for reduced operational cost. A flow diagram of a general production line for the manufacture of novolak is shown. Recovery of the novolak is accomplished by the removal of water and devolatilization of crude novolak to molten, low-free phenol novolak resin which can be isolated as flake or pastille or dissolved in appropriate solvents. Novolak is stored either in a solid flake or pastille form or in solution. Most production is conducted under atmospheric conditions, but there are some recent, novel activities such as pressure in a hermetically-closed reactor reaching 0.1-10 MPa by using the heat of reaction without reflux to shorten reaction time, accelerating dehydration time by flash distillation, and providing economic benefit in the cost of novolak production.

  8. Expression of Recombinant Potato leafroll virus Structural and Non-structural Proteins for Antibody Production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plchová, Helena; Moravec, Tomáš; Dědič, P.; Čeřovská, Noemi

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 2 (2011), s. 130-132 ISSN 0931-1785 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030; GA MZe QH71123 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Potato leafroll virus * recombinant viral antigen * antibody production Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.791, year: 2011

  9. Duality on Geodesics of Cartan Distributions and Sub-Riemannian Pseudo-Product Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa Goo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given a five dimensional space endowed with a Cartan distribution, the abnormal geodesics form another five dimensional space with a cone structure. Then it is shown in (15, that, if the cone structure is regarded as a control system, then the space of abnormal geodesics of the cone structure is naturally identified with the original space. In this paper, we provide an exposition on the duality by abnormal geodesics in a wider framework, namely, in terms of quotients of control systems and sub-Riemannian pseudo-product structures. Also we consider the controllability of cone structures and describe the constrained Hamiltonian equations on normal and abnormal geodesics.

  10. Micro-structured nuclear fuel and novel nuclear reactor concepts for advanced power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa-Simil, Liviu

    2008-01-01

    Many applications (e.g. terrestrial and space electric power production, naval, underwater and railroad propulsion and auxiliary power for isolated regions) require a compact-high-power electricity source. The development of such a reactor structure necessitates a deeper understanding of fission energy transport and materials behavior in radiation dominated structures. One solution to reduce the greenhouse-gas emissions and delay the catastrophic events' occurrences may be the development of massive nuclear power. The actual basic conceptions in nuclear reactors are at the base of the bottleneck in enhancements. The current nuclear reactors look like high security prisons applied to fission products. The micro-bead heterogeneous fuel mesh gives the fission products the possibility to acquire stable conditions outside the hot zones without spilling, in exchange for advantages - possibility of enhancing the nuclear technology for power production. There is a possibility to accommodate the materials and structures with the phenomenon of interest, the high temperature fission products free fuel with near perfect burning. This feature is important to the future of nuclear power development in order to avoid the nuclear fuel peak, and high price increase due to the immobilization of the fuel in the waste fuel nuclear reactor pools. (author)

  11. COMPETITIVENESS OF THE PRODUCTS AND ITS IMPACT ON THE STRUCTURE OF EXPORTS - THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyse the evolution of the competitive advantages of the main products exported by Romania in the 2000-2014 period and the connection between this evolution and the current structure of Romanian exports. In the first part we calculated the Revealed Comparative Advantage Index (RCA of Balassa, index for main groups of products exported by Romania the period 1990 to 2014 and we analysed the competitive advantage evolution. In the second part we presented the evolution of the structure of Romanian exports in 2010-2014 and we noticed that the recorded changes in structure of Romanian exports is in close correlation with the changing competitiveness of products exported by Romania. In this sense one of the most significant examples is given by the evolution recorded in exports of machinery and transport equipment that not only was raised every year but the sector succeeded and currently holds a competitive advantage in the market of these products - a market where it is knows is stiff competition. Although garment exports have recorded during the analyzed period the largest decrease, the advantages of the Romanian garment industry - labor force highly qualified endowing companies with machinery efficient, product quality achieved, flexibility and quick response to orders but also geographical position the country - still cause this sector recording still comparative advantages though its values are declining during the whole period analyzed.

  12. Crystal structure of the Epithiospecifier Protein, ESP from Arabidopsis thaliana provides insights into its product specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Wenhe; Liu, Zihe; Xie, Yongchao; Wang, Hao; Mu, Yajuan; Huang, Yao; Feng, Yue

    2016-09-16

    Specifier proteins are important components of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system, which mediate plant defense against herbivory and pathogen attacks. Upon tissue disruption, glucosinolates are hydrolyzed to instable aglucones by myrosinases, and then aglucones will rearrange to form defensive isothiocyanates. Specifier proteins can redirect this reaction to form other products, such as simple nitriles, epithionitriles and organic thiocyanates instead of isothiocyanates based on the side chain structure of glucosinolate and the type of the specifier proteins. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism underlying the different product spectrums of various specifier proteins was not fully understood. Here in this study, we solved the crystal structure of the Epithiospecifier Protein, ESP from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtESP) at 2.3 Å resolution. Structural comparisons with the previously solved structure of thiocyanate forming protein, TFP from Thlaspi arvense (TaTFP) reveal that AtESP shows a dimerization pattern different from TaTFP. Moreover, AtESP harbors a slightly larger active site pocket than TaTFP and several residues around the active site are different between the two proteins, which might account for the different product spectrums of the two proteins. Together, our structural study provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms of specifier proteins and shed light on the basis of their different product spectrums. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Photon structure and the production of jets, hadrons, and prompt photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasen, M.

    1999-01-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to hard photoproduction processes at HERA, including the production of jets, hadrons, and prompt photons. Recent theoretical developments in the three areas are reviewed. In summary, hard photoproduction processes can provide very useful information on the hadronic structure of the photon, in particular on the gluon density, which is complimentary to the information coming from deep inelastic photon-photon scattering at electron-positron colliders. Among the different hadronic final states, jets are most easily accessible experimentally and phenomenologically. On the other hand, inclusive hadron production offers the possibility to test the universality of hadron fragmentation functions and measure the photon structure down to very low values of p T and x γ . Prompt photon production suffers from a reduced cross section and limited data, but allows for the additional testing of photon fragmentation functions

  14. Structures of the particles of the condensed dispersed phase in solid fuel combustion products plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaryan, A.A.; Chernyshev, A.V.; Nefedov, A.P.; Petrov, O.F.; Fortov, V.E.; Mikhailov, Yu.M.; Mintsev, V.B.

    2000-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of a type of dusty plasma which has been least studied--the plasma of solid fuel combustion products--were presented. Experiments to determine the parameters of the plasma of the combustion products of synthetic solid fuels with various compositions together with simultaneous diagnostics of the degree of ordering of the structures of the particles of the dispersed condensed phase were performed. The measurements showed that the charge composition of the plasma of the solid fuels combustion products depends strongly on the easily ionized alkali-metal impurities which are always present in synthetic fuel in one or another amount. An ordered arrangement of the particles of a condensed dispersed phase in structures that form in a boundary region between the high-temperature and condensation zones was observed for samples of aluminum-coated solid fuels with a low content of alkali-metal impurities

  15. Analysis of the structure of a product line of alcoholic beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agalarova, C.; Askadullina, A.; Tilburg, van A.

    2012-01-01

    AB This article deals with marketing decisions on the optimal product line of alcoholic beverages manufactured under the brand name «Praskoveyskoe». KEY WORDS Product line, turnover analysis, ABC-analysis, production of alcoholic beverages, policy to optimize a product line INTRODUCTION A product

  16. Species composition and forest structure explain the temperature sensitivity patterns of productivity in temperate forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Bohn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rising temperatures due to climate change influence the wood production of forests. Observations show that some temperate forests increase their productivity, whereas others reduce their productivity. This study focuses on how species composition and forest structure properties influence the temperature sensitivity of aboveground wood production (AWP. It further investigates which forests will increase their productivity the most with rising temperatures. We described forest structure by leaf area index, forest height and tree height heterogeneity. Species composition was described by a functional diversity index (Rao's Q and a species distribution index (ΩAWP. ΩAWP quantified how well species are distributed over the different forest layers with regard to AWP. We analysed 370 170 forest stands generated with a forest gap model. These forest stands covered a wide range of possible forest types. For each stand, we estimated annual aboveground wood production and performed a climate sensitivity analysis based on 320 different climate time series (of 1-year length. The scenarios differed in mean annual temperature and annual temperature amplitude. Temperature sensitivity of wood production was quantified as the relative change in productivity resulting from a 1 °C rise in mean annual temperature or annual temperature amplitude. Increasing ΩAWP positively influenced both temperature sensitivity indices of forest, whereas forest height showed a bell-shaped relationship with both indices. Further, we found forests in each successional stage that are positively affected by temperature rise. For such forests, large ΩAWP values were important. In the case of young forests, low functional diversity and small tree height heterogeneity were associated with a positive effect of temperature on wood production. During later successional stages, higher species diversity and larger tree height heterogeneity were an advantage. To achieve such a

  17. Species composition and forest structure explain the temperature sensitivity patterns of productivity in temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Friedrich J.; May, Felix; Huth, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Rising temperatures due to climate change influence the wood production of forests. Observations show that some temperate forests increase their productivity, whereas others reduce their productivity. This study focuses on how species composition and forest structure properties influence the temperature sensitivity of aboveground wood production (AWP). It further investigates which forests will increase their productivity the most with rising temperatures. We described forest structure by leaf area index, forest height and tree height heterogeneity. Species composition was described by a functional diversity index (Rao's Q) and a species distribution index (ΩAWP). ΩAWP quantified how well species are distributed over the different forest layers with regard to AWP. We analysed 370 170 forest stands generated with a forest gap model. These forest stands covered a wide range of possible forest types. For each stand, we estimated annual aboveground wood production and performed a climate sensitivity analysis based on 320 different climate time series (of 1-year length). The scenarios differed in mean annual temperature and annual temperature amplitude. Temperature sensitivity of wood production was quantified as the relative change in productivity resulting from a 1 °C rise in mean annual temperature or annual temperature amplitude. Increasing ΩAWP positively influenced both temperature sensitivity indices of forest, whereas forest height showed a bell-shaped relationship with both indices. Further, we found forests in each successional stage that are positively affected by temperature rise. For such forests, large ΩAWP values were important. In the case of young forests, low functional diversity and small tree height heterogeneity were associated with a positive effect of temperature on wood production. During later successional stages, higher species diversity and larger tree height heterogeneity were an advantage. To achieve such a development, one could plant

  18. Degradation study of pesticides by direct photolysis - Structural characterization and potential toxicity of photo products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rifai, A.

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides belong to the large family of organic pollutants. In general, they are intended to fight against crop pests. Distribution of pesticides in nature creates pollution in DIFFERENT compartments of the biosphere (water, soil and air) and can induce acute toxic effects on human beings of the terrestrial and aquatic living biomass. It is now shown that some pesticides are endocrine disruptors and are particularly carcinogenic and mutagenic effects in humans. Pesticides can undergo various processes of transformation in the natural life cycle (biodegradation, volatilization, solar radiation ...) or following applied in the sectors of natural water purification and treatment stations sewage treatment. The presence of degradation products of pesticides in our environment is even more alarming that their structures and potential toxicities generally unknown. Molecules belonging to two families of pesticides were selected for this study: herbicides, represented by metolachlor, and fungicides represented by procymidone, pyrimethanil and boscalid. The first part of the thesis focused on the development of an analytical strategy to characterize the structures of compounds from degradation by photolysis of pesticides. The second part focused on estimating the toxicity of degradation products using a test database in silico. Identification of degradation products was achieved through two complementary analysis techniques: the gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer ''multi-stage'' (GC-MSn) and liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). The estimation of the toxicity of the degradation products was performed using the TEST program QSAR recently developed to try to predict the toxicity of molecules. The strategy of the structural elucidation of degradation products of pesticides studied is based on studying of the mechanisms of fragmentation of parent molecules of the degradation products. The molar mass of parent

  19. Product Configuration Systems and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Twelve companies have been interviewed with the purpose to get information about technical, economic and organisational matters in respect of Product Configuration Systems (PCS).Combinations of qualitative interviews and quantitative scoring have been used in ranking expected and realized results...

  20. Tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño, M

    1995-01-01

    Tequila is obtained from the distillation of fermented juice of agave plant, Agave tequilana, to which up to 49% (w/v) of an adjunct sugar, mainly from cane or corn, could be added. Agave plants require from 8 to 12 years to mature and during all this time cleaning, pest control, and slacken of land are required to produce an initial raw material with the appropriate chemical composition for tequila production. Production process comprises four steps: cooking to hydrolyze inulin into fructose, milling to extract the sugars, fermentation with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert the sugars into ethanol and organoleptic compounds, and, finally, a two-step distillation process. Maturation, if needed, is carried out in white oak barrels to obtain rested or aged tequila in 2 or 12 months, respectively.

  1. Lepton production

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment aims to settle open questions in the hadronic production of electrons, muons and neutrinos. Prominent among these are $e/\\mu$ universality, the contribution of charm decay to lepton pair production, and the "anomalous" low mass pairs.\\\\ The experimental design aims to optimize the combination of:\\\\- electron identification\\\\ - muon identification \\\\ - missing energy measurement for neutrinos \\\\ - vertex identification (for $\\tau \\simeq \\tau_{charm}$). \\\\ \\\\ The major components of the apparatus are shown in the figure. In the vertex region a proton beam of transverse size $\\simeq 50 \\mu$ impinges on a beryllium target of diameter $50 \\mu$, and high precision tracking in the vertex region is achieved by silicon strip detectors. Charged particle momenta are measured using a dipole magnet and high resolution drift chambers. Electrons are identified by the combination of the transition radiation detector and the finely segmented front section of the Uranium/Liquid Argon calorimeter. Essentially t...

  2. Electricity production of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czodor, T.

    2003-01-01

    Here is examined the spatial structure of electric energy production divided in hydropower plants (through-flow and re-pumping), thermal power plants as the most expensive way of electric energy production and nuclear power plants where high difficulty and long-term realisation of construction projects and spent financial resources are pointed out. Work describes present structure of electric energy production and consumption and refers to alternative electric energy sources

  3. Product customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    This case study deals with the extension, customization, and profitability of two new product lines of a bicycle manufacturer. It can serve both as a discussion basis in class as well as an exam for advanced Master students in management, marketing, and ccounting. The case illustrates how variance...... application of financial analysis can lead to dysfunctional decisions that run counter to a company’s business model....

  4. Isotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Dewi M.

    1995-07-15

    Some 2 0% of patients using radiopharmaceuticals receive injections of materials produced by cyclotrons. There are over 200 cyclotrons worldwide; around 35 are operated by commercial companies solely for the production of radio-pharmaceuticals with another 25 accelerators producing medically useful isotopes. These neutron-deficient isotopes are usually produced by proton bombardment. All commonly used medical isotopes can be generated by 'compact' cyclotrons with energies up to 40 MeV and beam intensities in the range 50 to 400 microamps. Specially designed target systems contain gram-quantities of highly enriched stable isotopes as starting materials. The targets can accommodate the high power densities of the proton beams and are designed for automated remote handling. The complete manufacturing cycle includes large-scale target production, isotope generation by cyclotron beam bombardment, radio-chemical extraction, pharmaceutical dispensing, raw material recovery, and labelling/packaging prior to the rapid delivery of these short-lived products. All these manufacturing steps adhere to the pharmaceutical industry standards of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). Unlike research accelerators, commercial cyclotrons are customized 'compact' machines usually supplied by specialist companies such as IBA (Belgium), EBCO (Canada) or Scanditronix (Sweden). The design criteria for these commercial cyclotrons are - small magnet dimensions, power-efficient operation of magnet and radiofrequency systems, high intensity extracted proton beams, well defined beam size and automated computer control. Performance requirements include rapid startup and shutdown, high reliability to support the daily production of short-lived isotopes and low maintenance to minimize the radiation dose to personnel. In 1987 a major step forward in meeting these exacting industrial requirements came when IBA, together with the University of Louvain-La-Neuve in Belgium, developed the Cyclone-30

  5. Diboson production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans D.L.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of diboson production cross sections in pp collisions at the LHC at a centre of mass energy √s = 7 and 8 TeV, and in pp̅ collisions at the Tevatron at √s = 1.96 TeV are reviewed and compared with standard model predictions. Limits on charged and neutral anomalous triple gauge couplings extracted from the selected diboson event samples are also compared.

  6. Structure, production and properties of high-melting compounds and systems (hard materials and hard metals)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleck, H.; Thuemmler, F.

    1979-07-01

    The report contains contributions by various authors to the research project on the production, structure, and physical properties of high-melting compounds and systems (hard metals and hard materials), in particular WC-, TaC-, and MoC-base materials. (GSCH) [de

  7. Diversity of condensed tannin structures affects rumen in vitro methane production in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) accessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatew, B.; Hayot Carbonero, C.; Stringano, E.; Sales, L. F.; Smith, L. M J; Mueller-Harvey, I.; Hendriks, W. H.; Pellikaan, W. F.

    2015-01-01

    Sainfoin is a non-bloating temperate forage legume with a moderate-to-high condensed tannin (CT) content. This study investigated whether the diversity of sainfoin accessions in terms of CT structures and contents could be related to rumen in vitro gas and methane (CH4) production and fermentation

  8. Structural features of condensed tannins affect in vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, N.T.; Fryganas, C.; Uittenbogaard, G.; Mueller-Harvey, I.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2016-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to investigate the effects of condensed tannin (CT) structural properties, i.e. average polymer size (or mean degree of polymerization), percentage of cis flavan-3-ols and percentage of prodelphinidins in CT extracts on methane (CH4) production and

  9. Structural features of condensed tannins affect in vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HUYEN, N. T.; FRYGANAS, C.; UITTENBOGAARD, G.; MUELLER-HARVEY, I.; VERSTEGEN, M. W. A.; HENDRIKS, W. H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298620936; PELLIKAAN, W. F.

    2016-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to investigate the effects of condensed tannin (CT) structural properties, i.e. average polymer size (or mean degree of polymerization), percentage of cis flavan-3-ols and percentage of prodelphinidins in CT extracts on methane (CH 4 ) production and fermentation

  10. STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION OF SHAPES IN THE DESIGN OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS, USING GEOMETRICAL TRANSFORMATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    MARIN Dumitru

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the major contribution of geometrical transformations in the structure and organization of the shapes which compose industrial products. Geometrical transformations, such as symmetry, translation, rotation, homology etc. are frequently used in the design activity for filling the plane and the space (plane and spatial equipartitions), in ornaments and also in creating shapes, which are functional and aesthetical at the same time.

  11. Determination of the pion structure function from muon-pair production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, C.B.; Anderson, K.J.; Coleman, R.N.; Hogan, G.E.; Karhi, K.P.; McDonald, K.T.; Pilcher, J.E.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Sanders, G.H.; Smith, A.J.S.; Thaler, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    Data on muon-pair production by pions are used to determine the momentum distribution for valence quarks in the pion. The shape of a nucleon structure function is also obtained and is compared with a calculation based on existing data

  12. PRE-CAST WALL PRODUCTS MADE FROM LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE FOR ENCLOSING STRUCTURES OF BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Hadgiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the actual problem waste dismantling of buildings and structures in the form of brick waste with reception the secondary fine and coarse aggregate and concrete based on them for the manufacture of small-piece wall products

  13. Total synthesis of the putative structure of the novel triquinane natural product isocapnellenone

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Goverdhan; Murthy, Sai Krishna A; Umarye, Jayant D

    2002-01-01

    A total synthesis of the ‘putative structure’ 7, attributed to the novel triquinane sesquiterpene isolated recently from two Buddelia species has been accomplished. The spectral data for 7 is a complete mismatch with those reported for the natural product and warrants a revision of the assigned structure.

  14. The impact of structural and contextual factors on trust formation in product development teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dayan, M.; Benedetto, Di A.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines antecedents of trust formation in new product development (NPD) teams and the effects of trust on NPD team performance. A theoretical framework relating structural and contextual factors to interpersonal trust and project outcomes was built, including task complexity as a

  15. Production of specific structured lipids by enzymatic interesterification: optimization of the reaction by response surface design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Skands, Anja Rebecca Havegaard; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    1998-01-01

    Rapeseed oil and capric acid were interesterified in solvent-free media catalyzed by Lipozyme IM (Rhizomucor miehei) to produce specific-structured lipids (SSLs). The process was optimized by response surface design concerning the effects of acyl migration and the by-products of diacylglycerols...

  16. On the structure of the space of geometric product-form models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayer, Nimrod; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    2002-01-01

    This article deals with Markovian models defined on a finite-dimensional discrete state space and possess a stationary state distribution of a product-form. We view the space of such models as a mathematical object and explore its structure. We focus on models on an orthant [script Z]+n, which are

  17. Using wood products to mitigate climate change: External costs and structural change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, 831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    In this study we examine the use of wood products as a means to mitigate climate change. We describe the life cycle of wood products including forest growth, wood harvest and processing, and product use and disposal, focusing on the multiple roles of wood as both material and fuel. We present a comparative case study of a building constructed with either a wood or a reinforced concrete frame. We find that the production of wood building material uses less energy and emits less carbon than the production of reinforced concrete material. We compare the relative cost of the two building methods without environmental taxation, under the current Swedish industrial energy taxation regime, and in scenarios that incorporate estimates of the full social cost of carbon emission. We find that the inclusion of climate-related external costs improves the economic standing of wood construction vis-a-vis concrete construction. We conclude that policy instruments that internalise the external costs of carbon emission should encourage a structural change toward the increased use of sustainably produced wood products. (author)

  18. Complex nuclear-structure phenomena revealed from the nuclide production in fragmentation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricciardi, M.V.; Kelic, A.; Napolitani, P.; Schmidt, K.H.; Yordanov, O.; Ignatyuk, A.V.; Rejmund, F.

    2003-12-01

    Complex structural effects in the nuclide production from the projectile fragmentation of 1 A GeV 238 U nuclei in a titanium target are reported. The structure seems to be insensitive to the excitation energy induced in the reaction. This is in contrast to the prominent structural features found in nuclear fission and in transfer reactions, which gradually disappear with increasing excitation energy. Using the statistical model of nuclear reactions, relations to structural effects in nuclear binding and in the nuclear level density are demonstrated. (orig.)

  19. Structure, control and regulation of the formal market for medicinal plants' products in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntade, Adegboyega E; Oluwalana, Isaac B

    2011-01-01

    There are informal and formal markets for medicinal plants' products in Nigeria. The formal market is subject to the national regulatory framework for Food and Drug Administration and Control. It is relatively new and underdeveloped. This study was designed to appraise this market with special emphasis on the market participants, market structure, marketing functions performed, conduct of sellers in the market and; standards and regulations to which the market is subject. Information used for this study was collected through personal interviews and interactions with key participants in the market; especially the officials of regulatory agency. The market structure was analysed in terms of the share of market controlled by participants and product types. Concentration Ratios (CR2 and CR4) were used to assess the market share. Marketing functions being performed were described in terms of the exchange, physical and facilitating functions while the conduct was described in terms of pricing and promotional strategies. The regulatory framework under which the market operates was appraised. The market was highly concentrated with a CR2 and CR4 of 58.5% and 80.8 %; respectively. Imported products accounted for only 12.3% of the market. The predominant modes of presentation of the product were capsule (41.6%) and liquid (36.2%). About 20.77% of the products were classified as multivitamins, 13.85% were antibiotics while 10.77% addressed sexual dysfunctional problems. These products were regulated under the Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) decrees, 1993-1999. Only 2.3% of the products have received full registration status while the others were only listed.

  20. Grammatical production deficits in PPA: Relating narrative and structured task performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Barbieri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Grammatical production impairments in primary progressive aphasia (PPA have been investigated using structured language tasks and analysis of narrative language samples (for review see Thompson & Mack, 2014; Wilson et al., 2012. However, little research has examined the relationship between them in PPA. Whereas structured tasks often assess production accuracy at different levels of syntactic complexity (e.g., Thompson et al., 2013, narrative measures typically assess overall lexical and grammatical usage (e.g., % grammatical sentences; noun-to-verb ratio, with lesser emphasis on complexity. The present study investigated the relationship between narrative measures of grammatical production and performance on structured language tests in the domains of syntax, verb morphology, and verb-argument structure (VAS. Materials and methods Data from 101 individuals with PPA were included. Participants completed a test battery including the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS, Thompson, 2011, the Northwestern Assessment of Verb Inflection (NAVI, Lee & Thompson, experimental version and the Northwestern Anagram Test (NAT, Thompson, Weintraub, & Mesulam, 2012. Grammatical production deficits were quantified as follows: for syntax, accuracy of non-canonical sentence production on the NAVS Sentence Production Priming Test (SPPT and the NAT; for morphology, the accuracy on finite verbs on the NAVI; for VAS, the accuracy of sentences produced with 2- and 3-argument verbs on the NAVS Argument Structure Production Test (ASPT. Cinderella narrative samples were analyzed using the Northwestern Narrative Language Analysis system (e.g., Thompson et al., 2012. For syntax, complexity was measured by the ratio of syntactically complex to simple sentences produced, whereas accuracy was indexed by computing the proportion of words with a locally grammatical lexical category. Morphological complexity was measured by mean number of verb

  1. Advances in production technology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This edited volume contains the selected papers presented at the scientific board meeting of the German Cluster of Excellence on “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”,  held in November 2014. The topical structure of the book is clustered in six sessions: Integrative Production Technology, Individualised Production, Virtual Production Systems, Integrated Technologies, Self-Optimising Production Systems and Human Factors in Production Technology. The Aachen perspective on a holistic theory of production is complemented by conference papers from external leading researchers in the fields of production, materials science and bordering disciplines. The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  2. Cybernetic structured modeling of the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Alcaligenes Eutrophus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. FERRAZ

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cybernetic structured mathematical model developed for the fermentation step of the process of production of the copolymer of polyhydroxyalkanoates by the bacteria Alcaligenes eutrophus. This process is performed in two different fermentation stages. The first emphasizes the growth of the microorganism in a batch operation without substrates limitations, while in the second, the focus is on copolymer production by a fed-batch operation in the absence of the nitrogen source. This paper presents the results of the treatment of experimental data and of preliminary parameter estimation. The fitting of the proposed model to the experimental data of a standard experiment showed a good agreement.

  3. Exploiting hydrophobicity for efficient production of transmembrane helices for structure determination by NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Katrine Østergaard; Steinocher, Helena; Brooks, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    -labeled protein. In this work, we have exploited the hydrophobic nature of membrane proteins to develop a simple and efficient production scheme for isotope-labeled single-pass transmembrane domains (TMDs) with or without intrinsically disordered regions. We have evaluated the applicability and limitations...... of the strategy using seven membrane protein variants that differ in their overall hydrophobicity and length and show a recovery for suitable variants of >70%. The developed production scheme is cost-efficient and easy to implement and has the potential to facilitate an increase in the number of structures...

  4. Structure of a putative fluorinated natural product from Streptomyces sp. TC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemir, Hülya; Kohlhepp, Stefanie V; Gulder, Tanja; Gulder, Tobias A M

    2014-11-26

    Fluorine-containing natural products are extremely rare. The recent report on the isolation and biological activity of the bacterial secondary metabolite 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-fluorophenyl)propionic acid was thus highly remarkable. The compound contained the first aromatic fluorine substituent known to date in any natural product. The promise to discover an enzyme capable of aromatic fluorination in the producing strain Streptomyces sp. TC1 prompted our immediate interest. A close inspection of the originally reported analytical data of the fluoro metabolite revealed inconsistencies that triggered us to validate the reported structure. The results of these efforts are presented in this communication.

  5. Structure functions and particle production in the cumulative region: two different exponentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, M.; Vechernin, V.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of the recently proposed (QCD-based parton model for the cumulative phenomena in the interactions with nuclei two mechanisms for particle production, direct and spectator ones, are analyzed. It is shown that due to final-state interactions the leading terms of the direct mechanism contribution are cancelled and the spectator mechanism is the dominant one. It leads to a smaller slope of the cumulative particle production rates compared to the slope of the nuclear structure function in the cumulative region x ≥ 1, in agreement with the recent experimental data

  6. Structuring of Milk Production Basins: Comparison between Brazilian Amazonia and Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Poccard Chapuis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazilian Amazonia, structuring of dairy basins is progressing fast. In Mali, these processes are not engaged, although the activity of cattle keeping is ancient and currently thriving. This difference covers essential stakes: fight against poverty, food production in the face of the demographic challenge, current debates on the theories of the development. The comparative analysis is based on a diachronic model of the successive phases of structuring of the Amazonian dairy basins. This model is then applied to dairy dynamics in Mali to identify blockages in the structuring of basins. Six phases are highlighted in the Amazonian model, from subsistence consumption of raw milk to basin specialization and establishment of an industrial monopoly. The application in Mali shows that the initial situations are similar (territory constraints. But two essential mechanisms are not working: transportation of finished products to distant markets, and fresh milk collection extended beyond the boundaries of the direct sale to urban consumers. These two aspects, essential to ensure the flow upstream and downstream of the products, address the question of dairy unit location as well as the distribution organization in Bamako. In spite of the limits of the comparative analysis, the model shows that the keys to a positive evolution in Mali are more to be found at the industry and distribution levels than at the production level. Public actions (State and collectivities could focus on these two points, notably through training activities and credit policies.

  7. Cytochromes P450 for natural product biosynthesis in Streptomyces: sequence, structure, and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Jeffrey D; Chang, Chin-Yuan; Ma, Ming; Shen, Ben

    2017-08-30

    Covering: up to January 2017Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) are some of the most exquisite and versatile biocatalysts found in nature. In addition to their well-known roles in steroid biosynthesis and drug metabolism in humans, P450s are key players in natural product biosynthetic pathways. Natural products, the most chemically and structurally diverse small molecules known, require an extensive collection of P450s to accept and functionalize their unique scaffolds. In this review, we survey the current catalytic landscape of P450s within the Streptomyces genus, one of the most prolific producers of natural products, and comprehensively summarize the functionally characterized P450s from Streptomyces. A sequence similarity network of >8500 P450s revealed insights into the sequence-function relationships of these oxygen-dependent metalloenzymes. Although only ∼2.4% and structurally characterized, respectively, the study of streptomycete P450s involved in the biosynthesis of natural products has revealed their diverse roles in nature, expanded their catalytic repertoire, created structural and mechanistic paradigms, and exposed their potential for biomedical and biotechnological applications. Continued study of these remarkable enzymes will undoubtedly expose their true complement of chemical and biological capabilities.

  8. The impact of product experience, product involvement and verbal processing style on consumers' cognitive structure with regard to fresh fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Elin; Grunert, Klaus G.; Nielsen, Niels Asger

    1996-01-01

    central cognitive categories like values. A means-end chain consists of concrete product attributes, abstract product attributes, functional consequences, psychosocial consequences, instrumental values, a terminal values. 2) The most common method of measuring means-end chains has been the laddering...... interview technique. Laddering is a semi-qualitative technique which is open for the respondent's own answers without flooding the interviewer with data, as do other qualitative techniques. The results from the laddering interviews are coded and usually presented in a so-called hierarchical value map. 3...... were interviewed. Respondents were asked to rank four meat types, ie, (1) a fresh, whole, gutted plaice, (2) a package of frozen fish fillets, (3) a whole, frozen chicken, and (4) a package of fresh pork chops, according to how likely it would be that they would use them for a hot meal on a work...

  9. Supplier integration in product development: A matter of designing the project structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Danilovic

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In product development close collaboration between systems integrators and suppliers is important. The purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of the work breakdown structure (WBS and work packages (WPs in product development on the possibility of carrying through the strategy of supplier involvement into collaborative practice and to investigate how supplier involvement can be improved by altering the design of collaborative WBS and WP structures. Dependence Structure Matrix (DSM is introduced in order to analyse, visualise and manage interdependencies, in terms of information exchange between the systems integrator and supplier. This article shows how DSM can support the alternative design of integrated and collaborative WBS and integrated WPs following the logic of dependencies and the flow of information in order to support a strategy focusing on integration of suppliers on project and team level.

  10. New Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    铭瑄

    2012-01-01

    Double Coin Holdings Launch New OTR Tire REM-15 With the increase of the demand for large-scale bulldozer in American market, Double Coin Group Co., Ltd. developed the Double Coin REM-15 OTR tire. This product is applicable for large-scale loader and bulldozer. The most remarkable characteristic is that it has good energy-saving performance and durability with low operating cost while the performances of tires aren't lowered. The new REM-15 is currently offered in the 17.5R25 size, which will be expanded to larger sizes in the future.

  11. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  12. Effectiveness of creative and productive instructional method towards students' learning achievement in steel structure course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyanto, Pribadi, Supriyanto, Bambang

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Creative & Productive instructional method compared with conventional method. This research was a quasi-experimental study involving all Civil Engineering students at Universitas Negeri Malang who were taking a course of Steel Structure. The students were randomly assigned to two different treatment groups, 30 students in experimental group and 37 students in the control group. It was assumed that these groups were equal in all relevant aspects; they differed only in the treatment administered. We used the t-test to test the hypothesis. The results of this research suggest that: (l) the use of Creative & Productive instructional method can significantly improve students' learning achievement, (2) the use of Creative & Productive instructional method can significantly improve students' retention, (3) students' motivation has a significant effect on their learning achievement, and (4) students' motivation has a significant effect on their retention.

  13. A multivariate approach for the study of the environmental drivers of wine production structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzetti, Romina; Costantini, Edoardo A. C.; Malorgio, Giulio

    2015-04-01

    Vitivinicultural "terroir" is a concept referring to an area in which the collective knowledge of the interactions between environment and vitivinicultural practices develops, providing distinctive characteristics to the products. The effect of the environment components over the terroir has been already widely demonstrated. What it has not been studied yet is their possible effect on the structure of wine production. Therefore, the aim of this work was to find if environmental drivers influence the wine production structure. This kind of investigation necessarily involves a change of scale towards wide territories. We used the Italian Denomination of Origin territories, which were grouped in Macro-areas (reference scale 1:500,000) with respect of geographic proximity, environmental features, viticultural affinity and tradition. The characterization of the structure of the wine transformation industry was based on the official data reported in the wine production declarations related to the year 2008. Statistics were taken into account about general quantitative variables of wine farms, presence of associative forms, degree of vertical integration of wineries, quality orientation of wine producers, and acreage of vineyard. The environmental variables climate, soil, and vegetation vigour were selected for their direct influence on the vine growing. A second set of variables was chosen to express the effect of land morphology on viticultural management. The third one was intended to discover the possible relationships between viticultural structures and land quality, such as the indexes of sensitivity to desertification, the soil resistance to water erosion, and land vulnerability. A PCA was carried out separately for the environmental and economic data to reduce the database dimensions. The new economic and environmental synthetic descriptors were involved in three multivariate analyses: i) the correlation between economic and environmental descriptors through the

  14. Optimizing productivity, herd structure, environmental performance, and profitability of dairy cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, D; Cabrera, V E

    2015-04-01

    This study used the Integrated Farm System Model to simulate the whole farm performance of a representative Wisconsin dairy farm and predict its economic and environmental outputs based on 25 yr of daily local weather data (1986 to 2010). The studied farm, located in southern Wisconsin, had 100 milking cows and 100 ha of cropland with no replacement heifers kept on the farm. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the effect of management strategies on energy-corrected milk production (ECM; 4.0% fat and 3.5% protein), net return to management, and greenhouse gas (GHG; including biogenic CO2) emission. The management strategies included (1) target milk production, for which the model optimized available resources to attain, and (2) herd structure, represented by the percentage of first-lactation cows. Weather conditions affected the outputs by changing the farm quantity and the quality of produced feed resources. As expected, when target milk production increased, the ECM increased positively and linearly to a certain level, and then it increased nonlinearly at a decreasing rate, constrained by available feed nutrients. Thereafter, the ECM reached the maximum potential milk production and remained flat regardless of higher target milk production input. Greenhouse gas emissions decreased between 3.4 and 7.3% at different first-lactation cow percentages. As the first-lactation cow percent increased from 15 to 45% in 5% intervals, GHG increased between 9.4 and 11.3% at different levels of target milk production. A high percentage of first-lactation cows reduced the maximum potential milk production. Net return to management had a similar changing trend as ECM. As the target milk production increased from 9,979 to 11,793 kg, the net return to management increased between 31 and 46% at different first-lactation cow percentages. Results revealed a win-win situation when increasing milk production or improving herd structure, which concurrently increased farm net

  15. Lagged life cycle structures for food products: Their role in global marketing, their determinants and some problems in their estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baadsgaard, Allan; Gede, Mads Peter; Grunert, Klaus G.

    cycles for different product categories may be lagged (type II lag) because changes in economic and other factors will result in demands for different products. Identifying lagged life cycle structures major importance in global marketing of food products. The problems in arriving at such estimates...

  16. Production of specific-structured lipids by enzymatic interesterification: elucidation of acyl migration by response surface design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Skands, Anja; Høy, Carl-Erik

    1998-01-01

    Production of specific-structured lipids (SSL) by lipase-catalyzed interesterification has been attracting more and more attention recently. However, it was found that acyl migration occurs during the reaction and causes the production of by-products. In this paper, the elucidation of acyl...

  17. Role of transformational leadership on employee productivity of teaching hospitals: using structural equation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatankhah, Soudabeh; Alirezaei, Samira; Khosravizadeh, Omid; Mirbahaeddin, Seyyed Elmira; Alikhani, Mahtab; Alipanah, Mobarakeh

    2017-01-01

    Background In today’s transforming world, increased productivity and efficient use of existing facilities are practically beyond a choice and become a necessity. In this line, attention to change and transformation is one of the affecting factors on the growth of productivity in organizations, especially in hospitals. Aim To examine the effect of transformational leadership on the productivity of employees in teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 254 participants from educational and medical centers affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran) in 2016. The standard questionnaires of Bass & Avolio and of Hersi & Goldsmith were used to respectively assess transformational leadership and level of productivity. The research assumptions were tested in a significance level of 0.05 by applying descriptive statistics and structural equations modeling (SEM) using SPSS 19 and Amos 24. Results Results of the fitting indicators of the assessing model after amending includes Chi-square two to degrees of freedom of 2.756, CFI indicator 0.95, IFI indicator 0.92, Root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) indicator 0.10. These results indicate that the assessing model is well fitting after the amendment. Also, analysis of the model’s assumptions and the final model of the research reveals the effect of transformational leadership on employees’ productivity with a significance level of 0.83 (p=0.001). Conclusion This research indicates that the more the leadership and decision-making style in hospitals lean towards transformational mode, the more positive outcomes it brings among employees and the organization due to increased productivity. Therefore, it is essential to pay focused attention to training/educational programs in organizations to create and encourage transformational leadership behaviors which hopefully lead to more productive employees. PMID:28979731

  18. Role of transformational leadership on employee productivity of teaching hospitals: using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatankhah, Soudabeh; Alirezaei, Samira; Khosravizadeh, Omid; Mirbahaeddin, Seyyed Elmira; Alikhani, Mahtab; Alipanah, Mobarakeh

    2017-08-01

    In today's transforming world, increased productivity and efficient use of existing facilities are practically beyond a choice and become a necessity. In this line, attention to change and transformation is one of the affecting factors on the growth of productivity in organizations, especially in hospitals. To examine the effect of transformational leadership on the productivity of employees in teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 254 participants from educational and medical centers affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran) in 2016. The standard questionnaires of Bass & Avolio and of Hersi & Goldsmith were used to respectively assess transformational leadership and level of productivity. The research assumptions were tested in a significance level of 0.05 by applying descriptive statistics and structural equations modeling (SEM) using SPSS 19 and Amos 24. Results of the fitting indicators of the assessing model after amending includes Chi-square two to degrees of freedom of 2.756, CFI indicator 0.95, IFI indicator 0.92, Root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) indicator 0.10. These results indicate that the assessing model is well fitting after the amendment. Also, analysis of the model's assumptions and the final model of the research reveals the effect of transformational leadership on employees' productivity with a significance level of 0.83 (p=0.001). This research indicates that the more the leadership and decision-making style in hospitals lean towards transformational mode, the more positive outcomes it brings among employees and the organization due to increased productivity. Therefore, it is essential to pay focused attention to training/educational programs in organizations to create and encourage transformational leadership behaviors which hopefully lead to more productive employees.

  19. The impact of culture and employee-focused criteria on productivity: A structural equation modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Hamid, Mohd Rashid; Mustafa, Zainol; Mohd Suradi, Nur Riza; Idris, Fazli; Abdullah, Mokhtar

    2013-04-01

    Culture and employee-focused criteria are important factors for the success of any organization. These factors have to be aligned with the productivity initiatives in the organization in order to gear ahead for excellence. Therefore, this article investigated the impact of culture and employee-focused criteria on productivity in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Malaysia using intangible indicators through core values. The hypothesized relationship was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with the PLS estimation technique. 429 questionnaires were returned from the target population. The results of the modelling revealed that the PLS estimation confirmed all the hypotheses tested as in the hypothesized model. The results generally support significant relationships between culture values, employee-focused values and productivity-focused values. The study also confirmed the mediating role of employee-focused values for the relationship between culture values and productivity-focused values. In conclusion, the empirically validated results supported the adequacy of the hypothezised model of the impact of culture and employee-focused criteria on productivity in HEI through value-based indicators.

  20. Geographical view on agricultural land and structural changes plant production Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rajović

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE This paper analyzes agricultural land and structural changes in plant production Montenegro. The Montenegro represents a significant potential for agricultural development, but plant production insufficiently developed in relation to natural resources and the demands of intensive agricultural production. Average possession by agricultural holdings in 1960 amounts is 5.34 ha with only 2.05 ha arable area per agricultural holdings. Yet more unfavorable is the situation with arable surfaces. Namely, agricultural holdings in the Montenegro in 1960 are on average dispose with maximum of 0.74 ha of arable land. Judging by the size of the cultivated area, production volume, as well as according other parameters, plant production in the Montenegro in 2007, mainly used for meeting need households. A smaller area for is market. The role of the Montenegrin village and agriculture must be first-rate, as are its potentials, the main power future development of Montenegro. This requires radically new relationship between society and science to agriculture and the countryside. Instead of the existing approach in which they observed the preventive as producers of cheap food has to be developed a new concept, a comprehensive agricultural and rural development, which will be based on demographic, natural, economic and socio-cultural potential of Montenegro. 

  1. Microbial community structure and soil pH correspond to methane production in Arctic Alaska soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert; Zona, Donatella; Oechel, Walter; Lipson, David

    2017-08-01

    While there is no doubt that biogenic methane production in the Arctic is an important aspect of global methane emissions, the relative roles of microbial community characteristics and soil environmental conditions in controlling Arctic methane emissions remains uncertain. Here, relevant methane-cycling microbial groups were investigated at two remote Arctic sites with respect to soil potential methane production (PMP). Percent abundances of methanogens and iron-reducing bacteria correlated with increased PMP, while methanotrophs correlated with decreased PMP. Interestingly, α-diversity of the methanogens was positively correlated with PMP, while β-diversity was unrelated to PMP. The β-diversity of the entire microbial community, however, was related to PMP. Shannon diversity was a better correlate of PMP than Simpson diversity across analyses, while rarefied species richness was a weak correlate of PMP. These results demonstrate the following: first, soil pH and microbial community structure both probably control methane production in Arctic soils. Second, there may be high functional redundancy in the methanogens with regard to methane production. Third, iron-reducing bacteria co-occur with methanogens in Arctic soils, and iron-reduction-mediated effects on methanogenesis may be controlled by α- and β-diversity. And finally, species evenness and rare species abundances may be driving relationships between microbial groups, influencing Arctic methane production. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The effect of stimulated fission products on the structure and the mechanical properties of zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holub, F.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of investigation was to study the long-term effects of individual simulated fission products on the mechanical properties and the structure of Zircaloy. Tensile Test specimens of Zircaloy were annealed with important simulated fission products at 350 0 C up to 10,000 hours and at higher temperatures (500, 700 0 C) up to 2,000 hours. The principal methods of investigation on annealed Zircaloy specimens were tension tests at room temperature and at 400 0 C, scanning electron microscopy and microprobe technique, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, optical metallography. The action of fission products at normal temperatures of reactor operation will give rise to a small enhancement of strength and a small drop of ductility of the fuel cladding material only. At high fuel pin temperatures which may be realized under abnormal operation conditions, some of the fission products potentially will produce detrimental consequences on the integrity of fuel pins. The most effective fission products will be: lanthanum oxide, followed by the earth alkaline oxides and the other rare earth oxides, molybdenum, iodine and cadmium

  3. Bioactive Structure of Membrane Lipids and Natural Products Elucidated by a Chemistry-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Michio; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Matsumori, Nobuaki

    2015-08-01

    Determining the bioactive structure of membrane lipids is a new concept, which aims to examine the functions of lipids with respect to their three-dimensional structures. As lipids are dynamic by nature, their "structure" does not refer solely to a static picture but also to the local and global motions of the lipid molecules. We consider that interactions with lipids, which are completely defined by their structures, are controlled by the chemical, functional, and conformational matching between lipids and between lipid and protein. In this review, we describe recent advances in understanding the bioactive structures of membrane lipids bound to proteins and related molecules, including some of our recent results. By examining recent works on lipid-raft-related molecules, lipid-protein interactions, and membrane-active natural products, we discuss current perspectives on membrane structural biology. © 2015 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Structure of Dioclea virgata lectin: relations between carbohydrate binding site and nitric oxide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delatorre, P.; Gadelha, C.A.A.; Santi-Gadelha, T.; Nobrega, R.B.; Rocha, B.A.M.; Nascimento, K.S.; Naganao, C.S.; Sampaio, A.H.; Cavada, B.S.; Pires, A.F.; Assreuy, A.M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Lectins are proteins/glycoproteins with at least one noncatalytic domain binding reversibly to specific monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. By binding to carbohydrate moieties on the cell surface, lectins participate in a range of cellular processes without changing the properties of the carbohydrates involved. The lectin of Dioclea virgata (DvirL), both native and complexed with X-man, was submitted to X-ray diffraction analysis and the crystal structure was compared to that of other Diocleinae lectins in order to better understand differences in biological proper- ties, especially with regard to the ability of lectins to induce nitric oxide (NO) production. The DvirL diffraction analysis revealed that both the native crystal and the X-Man-complexed form are orthorhombic and belong to space group I222. The cell parameters were: a=65.4 , b=86.6 and c=90.2 (native structure), and a=61.89 , b=87.67 and c=88.78 (X-Man-complexed structure). An association was observed between the volume of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), the ability to induce NO production and the relative positions of Tyr12, Arg228 and Leu99. Thus, differences in biological activity induced by Diocleinae lectins are related to the configuration of amino acid residues in the carbohydrate binding site and to the structural conformation of subsequent regions capable of influencing site-ligand interactions. In conclusion, the ability of Diocleinae lectins to induce NO production depends on CRD configuration. (author)

  5. Applying total interpretive structural modeling to study factors affecting construction labour productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Sayali Shrikrishna Sandbhor; Rohan P. Botre

    2014-01-01

    Construction sector has always been dependent on manpower. Most of the activities carried out on any construction site are labour intensive. Since productivity of any project depends directly on productivity of labour, it is a prime responsibility of the employer to enhance labour productivity. Measures to improve the same depend on analysis of positive and negative factors affecting productivity. Major attention should be given to factors that decrease the productivity of labour. Factor anal...

  6. Bottom Production

    CERN Document Server

    Nason, P.; Schneider, O.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Vikas, P.; Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell'Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-01-01

    We review the prospects for bottom production physics at the LHC. Members of the working group who has contributed to this document are: J. Baines, S.P. Baranov, P. Bartalini, A. Bay, E. Bouhova, M. Cacciari, A. Caner, Y. Coadou, G. Corti, J. Damet, R. Dell'Orso, J.R.T. De Mello Neto, J.L. Domenech, V. Drollinger, P. Eerola, N. Ellis, B. Epp, S. Frixione, S. Gadomski, I. Gavrilenko, S. Gennai, S. George, V.M. Ghete, L. Guy, Y. Hasegawa, P. Iengo, A. Jacholkowska, R. Jones, A. Kharchilava, E. Kneringer, P. Koppenburg, H. Korsmo, M. Kraemer, N. Labanca, M. Lehto, F. Maltoni, M.L. Mangano, S. Mele, A.M. Nairz, T. Nakada, N. Nikitin, A. Nisati, E. Norrbin, F. Palla, F. Rizatdinova, S. Robins, D. Rousseau, M.A. Sanchis-Lozano, M. Shapiro, P. Sherwood, L. Smirnova, M. Smizanska, A. Starodumov, N. Stepanov, R. Vogt

  7. Dynamic optimization of the complex adaptive controlling by the structure of enterprise’s product range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Fyodorovich Shorikov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews a methodical approach to solve multi-step dynamic problem of optimal integrated adaptive management of a product portfolio structure of the enterprise. For the organization of optimal adaptive terminal control of the system the recurrent algorithm, which reduces an initial multistage problem to the realization of the final sequence of problems of optimal program terminal control is offered. In turn, the decision of each problem of optimal program terminal control is reduced to the realization of the final sequence only single-step operations in the form of the problems solving of linear and convex mathematical programming. Thus, the offered approach allows to develop management solutions at current information support, which consider feedback, and which create the optimal structure of an enterprise’s product lines, contributing to optimising of profits, as well as maintenance of the desired level of profit for a long period of time

  8. Results from a first production of enhanced Silicon Sensor Test Structures produced by ITE Warsaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Frey, M.; Grabiec, P.; Grodner, M.; Hänsel, S.; Hartmann, F.; Hoffmann, K.-H.; Hrubec, J.; Krammer, M.; Kucharski, K.; Macchiolo, A.; Marczewski, J.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring the manufacturing process of silicon sensors is essential to ensure stable quality of the produced detectors. During the CMS silicon sensor production we were utilising small Test Structures (TS) incorporated on the cut-away of the wafers to measure certain process-relevant parameters. Experience from the CMS production and quality assurance led to enhancements of these TS. Another important application of TS is the commissioning of new vendors. The measurements provide us with a good understanding of the capabilities of a vendor's process. A first batch of the new TS was produced at the Institute of Electron Technology in Warsaw Poland. We will first review the improvements to the original CMS test structures and then discuss a selection of important measurements performed on this first batch.

  9. Results from a first production of enhanced Silicon Sensor Test Structures produced by ITE Warsaw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Dragicevic, M. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: dragicevic@oeaw.ac.at; Frey, M. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP), Universitaet Karlsruhe (Thailand) (Germany); Grabiec, P.; Grodner, M. [Institute of Electron Technology (ITE), Warsaw (Poland); Haensel, S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Hartmann, F.; Hoffmann, K.-H. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP), Universitaet Karlsruhe (Thailand) (Germany); Hrubec, J.; Krammer, M. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Kucharski, K. [Institute of Electron Technology (ITE), Warsaw (Poland); Macchiolo, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (MPI), Munich (Germany); Marczewski, J. [Institute of Electron Technology (ITE), Warsaw (Poland)

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring the manufacturing process of silicon sensors is essential to ensure stable quality of the produced detectors. During the CMS silicon sensor production we were utilising small Test Structures (TS) incorporated on the cut-away of the wafers to measure certain process-relevant parameters. Experience from the CMS production and quality assurance led to enhancements of these TS. Another important application of TS is the commissioning of new vendors. The measurements provide us with a good understanding of the capabilities of a vendor's process. A first batch of the new TS was produced at the Institute of Electron Technology in Warsaw Poland. We will first review the improvements to the original CMS test structures and then discuss a selection of important measurements performed on this first batch.

  10. Optimal Scheme Selection of Agricultural Production Structure Adjustment - Based on DEA Model; Punjab (Pakistan)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeeshan Ahmad; Meng Jun; Muhammad Abdullah; Mazhar Nadeem Ishaq; Majid Lateef; Imran Khan

    2015-01-01

    This paper used the modern evaluation method of DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) to assess the comparative efficiency and then on the basis of this among multiple schemes chose the optimal scheme of agricultural production structure adjustment. Based on the results of DEA model, we dissected scale advantages of each discretionary scheme or plan. We examined scale advantages of each discretionary scheme, tested profoundly a definitive purpose behind not-DEA efficient, which elucidated the system and methodology to enhance these discretionary plans. At the end, another method had been proposed to rank and select the optimal scheme. The research was important to guide the practice if the modification of agricultural production industrial structure was carried on.

  11. Evidence from n=2 fine structure transitions for the production of fast excited state positronium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, R.; Niebling, K.D.; Schwarz, R.; Werth, G.

    1990-01-01

    Fine structure transitions in the first excited state of positronium (Ps) have been measured using 'Backscatter Ps' production on a Mo surface by observation of a change in the emitted Lyman-α intensity under resonant microwave irradiation. Production, fine structure transitions and Lyman-α decay of the Ps atoms took place inside a waveguide designed to transmit the microwave frequencies of 8.6, 13.0 and 18.5 GHz for the transitions from the 2 3 S 1 state to the 2 3 P J , J=2, 1, 0, states, respectively. In the presence of a magnetic field, all transitions observed show a shift to higher frequencies, compared with earlier calculations and measurements in zero magnetic field. The deviations exceed the expected Zeeman shift significantly but may be explained by assuming a motional Stark effect for Ps with kinetic energies of several eV. (author)

  12. Peculiar lithological structure features of a productive horizon of the Shatlyk gas deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gergedava, Sh.K.; Sokolova, T.F.; Friman, Yu.T.

    1975-01-01

    Investigation results on the lithologic heterogeneity of the productive horizon in the Shatlyk gas field are cited. The work was performed by a set of commercial and geophysical procedures involving the method of spontaneous polarization potentials, side electrical sounding with five probes, cavernometry, microsounding, side logging and radiometry (neutron gamma method and gamma method). The structural peculiarity of the Shatlyk horizon was shown to possibly lead to non-uniform movement of seam waters during drilling and to flooding of wells

  13. Analysis of structural changes and characterization of general trends regarding product and technology policy

    OpenAIRE

    Stobbe, Lutz

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The identification of technology strategies is based on the assumption that large Japanese electro and electronics companies are pursuing similar strategies due to their comparable structures and the specific framework conditions they are facing in Japan. That does not mean however that the different companies have identical objectives in their product design or technology development. What it means is that the companies have a similar perception of the upcoming technology and man...

  14. A Review on the Design Structure Matrix as an Analytical Tool for Product Development Management

    OpenAIRE

    Mokudai, Takefumi

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews fundamental concepts and analytical techniques of design structure matrix (DSM) as well as recent development of DSM studies. The DSM is a matrix representation of relationships between components of a complex system, such as products, development organizations and processes. Depending on targets of analysis, there are four basic types of DSM: Component-based DSM, Team-based DSM, Task-based DSM, and Parameter-based DSM. There are two streams of recent DSM studies: 1) ...

  15. Planned Products of the Mars Structure Service for the InSight Mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panning, Mark P.; Lognonné, Philippe; Bruce Banerdt, W.; Garcia, Raphaël; Golombek, Matthew; Kedar, Sharon; Knapmeyer-Endrun, Brigitte; Mocquet, Antoine; Teanby, Nick A.; Tromp, Jeroen; Weber, Renee; Beucler, Eric; Blanchette-Guertin, Jean-Francois; Bozdağ, Ebru; Drilleau, Mélanie; Gudkova, Tamara; Hempel, Stefanie; Khan, Amir; Lekić, Vedran; Murdoch, Naomi; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Rivoldini, Atillio; Schmerr, Nicholas; Ruan, Youyi; Verhoeven, Olivier; Gao, Chao; Christensen, Ulrich; Clinton, John; Dehant, Veronique; Giardini, Domenico; Mimoun, David; Thomas Pike, W.; Smrekar, Sue; Wieczorek, Mark; Knapmeyer, Martin; Wookey, James

    2017-10-01

    The InSight lander will deliver geophysical instruments to Mars in 2018, including seismometers installed directly on the surface (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure, SEIS). Routine operations will be split into two services, the Mars Structure Service (MSS) and Marsquake Service (MQS), which will be responsible, respectively, for defining the structure models and seismicity catalogs from the mission. The MSS will deliver a series of products before the landing, during the operations, and finally to the Planetary Data System (PDS) archive. Prior to the mission, we assembled a suite of a priori models of Mars, based on estimates of bulk composition and thermal profiles. Initial models during the mission will rely on modeling surface waves and impact-generated body waves independent of prior knowledge of structure. Later modeling will include simultaneous inversion of seismic observations for source and structural parameters. We use Bayesian inversion techniques to obtain robust probability distribution functions of interior structure parameters. Shallow structure will be characterized using the hammering of the heatflow probe mole, as well as measurements of surface wave ellipticity. Crustal scale structure will be constrained by measurements of receiver function and broadband Rayleigh wave ellipticity measurements. Core interacting body wave phases should be observable above modeled martian noise levels, allowing us to constrain deep structure. Normal modes of Mars should also be observable and can be used to estimate the globally averaged 1D structure, while combination with results from the InSight radio science mission and orbital observations will allow for constraint of deeper structure.

  16. Morphogenetic, structural and productive traits of buffel grass under different irrigation regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Janiele Ferreira Coutinho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The water restriction conditions in the Brazilian semiarid region are one of the most limiting factors to the establishment and yield of forage grasses. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different irrigation regimes on morphogenetic, structural and productive traits of buffel grass. Arandomized blocks design, with five treatments and six replications, was used. Treatments consisted of five irrigation regimes, corresponding to the intervals of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days. The traits analyzed were: leaf emergence rate, phyllochron, leaf and stem elongation rate, leaf senescence rate, final leaf length, number of green leaves per tiller, number of tillers, stem height, leaf/stem ratio, leaf area index, dry mass of green leaf and stem, dry mass of green, dead and total forage, root dry mass, dry mass and green dry mass/dead dry mass ratio. The final leaf length and dead forage dry mass were not affected by the irrigation regimes. The leaf/stem ratio followed a quadratic model, maintaining the value of 0.51 up to the irrigation regime of four days. The other morphological, structural and productive traits decreased linearly with increasing irrigation frequencies. The irrigation intervals promoted reductions in the morphological, structural and productive parameters of buffel grass, when grown under greenhouse conditions. The irrigation regime of 2 days stands out as the least restrictive to the development of buffel grass.

  17. Free Banking and the Structure of Production: A Contrast of Competing Banking Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Mahoney

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we extend an argument originally developed in Hülsmann (2009 to analyze changes to the structure of production that occur when the demand for money changes. In particular, we show that Hülsmann’s argument, which contrasted such changes under commodity and fiat systems, applies as well to the case of 100% reserve systems contrasted with fractional reserve free banking systems (FR/FB. Specifically, we argue that under a 100% reserve system, the structure of production will change in response to a change in demand for money, and that it will not under FR/FB. In fact, such changes are beneficial. Since one of the central arguments in defense of FR/FB is precisely the fact that it avoids such changes to the structure of production (at least more readily than 100% reserve systems, we conclude that this argument amounts to comparing different mechanisms for attaining different equilibrium states, and hence is invalid as a defense of that mechanism (FR/FB as such.

  18. Crystal structure of an EAL domain in complex with reaction product 5'-pGpG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Robert-Paganin

    Full Text Available FimX is a large multidomain protein containing an EAL domain and involved in twitching motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present here two crystallographic structures of the EAL domain of FimX (residues 438-686: one of the apo form and the other of a complex with 5'-pGpG, the reaction product of the hydrolysis of c-di-GMP. In both crystal forms, the EAL domains form a dimer delimiting a large cavity encompassing the catalytic pockets. The ligand is trapped in this cavity by its sugar phosphate moiety. We confirmed by NMR that the guanine bases are not involved in the interaction in solution. We solved here the first structure of an EAL domain bound to the reaction product 5'-pGpG. Though isolated FimX EAL domain has a very low catalytic activity, which would not be significant compared to other catalytic EAL domains, the structure with the product of the reaction can provides some hints in the mechanism of hydrolysis of the c-di-GMP by EAL domains.

  19. Crystal structure of A. aeolicus LpxC with bound product suggests alternate deacetylation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew D; Gao, Ning; Ross, Philip L; Olivier, Nelson B

    2015-09-01

    UDP-3-O-acyl-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) is the first committed step to form lipid A, an essential component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. As it is essential for the survival of many pathogens, LpxC is an attractive target for antibacterial therapeutics. Herein, we report the product-bound co-crystal structure of LpxC from the acheal Aquifex aeolicus solved to 1.6 Å resolution. We identified interactions by hydroxyl and hydroxymethyl substituents of the product glucosamine ring that may enable new insights to exploit waters in the active site for structure-based design of LpxC inhibitors with novel scaffolds. By using this product structure, we have performed quantum mechanical modeling on the substrate in the active site. Based on our results and published experimental data, we propose a new mechanism that may lead to a better understanding of LpxC catalysis and inhibition. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Crystal structure of an EAL domain in complex with reaction product 5'-pGpG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert-Paganin, Julien; Nonin-Lecomte, Sylvie; Réty, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    FimX is a large multidomain protein containing an EAL domain and involved in twitching motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present here two crystallographic structures of the EAL domain of FimX (residues 438-686): one of the apo form and the other of a complex with 5'-pGpG, the reaction product of the hydrolysis of c-di-GMP. In both crystal forms, the EAL domains form a dimer delimiting a large cavity encompassing the catalytic pockets. The ligand is trapped in this cavity by its sugar phosphate moiety. We confirmed by NMR that the guanine bases are not involved in the interaction in solution. We solved here the first structure of an EAL domain bound to the reaction product 5'-pGpG. Though isolated FimX EAL domain has a very low catalytic activity, which would not be significant compared to other catalytic EAL domains, the structure with the product of the reaction can provides some hints in the mechanism of hydrolysis of the c-di-GMP by EAL domains.

  1. Structure of the Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase TrzD Reveals Product Exit Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Asim K; Aukema, Kelly G; Elias, Mikael; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2017-03-27

    Cyanuric acid hydrolases are of industrial importance because of their use in aquatic recreational facilities to remove cyanuric acid, a stabilizer for the chlorine. Degradation of excess cyanuric acid is necessary to maintain chlorine disinfection in the waters. Cyanuric acid hydrolase opens the cyanuric acid ring hydrolytically and subsequent decarboxylation produces carbon dioxide and biuret. In the present study, we report the X-ray structure of TrzD, a cyanuric acid hydrolase from Acidovorax citrulli. The crystal structure at 2.19 Å resolution shows a large displacement of the catalytic lysine (Lys163) in domain 2 away from the active site core, whereas the two other active site lysines from the two other domains are not able to move. The lysine displacement is proposed here to open up a channel for product release. Consistent with that, the structure also showed two molecules of the co-product, carbon dioxide, one in the active site and another trapped in the proposed exit channel. Previous data indicated that the domain 2 lysine residue plays a role in activating an adjacent serine residue carrying out nucleophilic attack, opening the cyanuric acid ring, and the mobile lysine guides products through the exit channel.

  2. Structural, compositional, and sensorial properties of United States commercial ice cream products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Maya M; Hartel, Richard W

    2014-10-01

    Commercial vanilla ice cream products from the United States (full fat, low fat, and nonfat) were analyzed for their structural, behavioral (i.e., melt rate and drip-through), compositional, and sensorial attributes. Mean size distributions of ice crystals and air cells, drip-through rates, percent partially coalesced fat, percent overrun and total fat, and density were determined. A trained panel carried out sensory analyses in order to determine correlations between ice cream microstructure attributes and sensory properties using a Spectrum(TM) descriptive analysis. Analyses included melt rate, breakdown, size of ice particulates (iciness), denseness, greasiness, and overall creaminess. To determine relationships and interactions, principle component analysis and multivariate pairwise correlation were performed within and between the instrumental and sensorial data. Greasiness and creaminess negatively correlated with drip-through rate and creaminess correlated with percent total fat and percent fat destabilization. Percent fat did not determine the melt rate on a sensorial level. However, drip-through rate at ambient temperatures was predicted by total fat content of the samples. Based on sensory analysis, high-fat products were noted to be creamier than low and nonfat products. Iciness did not correlate with mean ice crystal size and drip-through rate did not predict sensory melt rate. Furthermore, on a sensorial level, greasiness positively correlated with total percent fat destabilization and mean air cell size positively correlated with denseness. These results indicate that commercial ice cream products vary widely in composition, structure, behavior, and sensory properties. There is a wide range of commercial ice creams in the United States market, ranging from full fat to nonfat. In this research we showed that these ice creams vary greatly in their microstructures, behaviors (the melt/drip-though, collapse, and/or stand up properties of ice cream

  3. Production management (1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun Ryong

    1976-03-01

    This book introduces production management theory, which gives descriptions of production and system, systems approach, development of production management, Taylor system, Ford system, types of production system, measuring ingredients model of production management, decision of production management, selection of production facilities, arrangement of facilities design of work method and task, work measure system, demanding fore casting, production quality system and credibility system.

  4. Crystal structures from the Plasmodium peroxiredoxins: new insights into oligomerization and product binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Dong, Aiping; Pizarro, Juan C; Botchkarsev, Alexei; Min, Jinrong; Wernimont, Amy K; Hills, Tanya; Hui, Raymond; Artz, Jennifer D

    2012-03-19

    Plasmodium falciparum is the protozoan parasite primarily responsible for more than one million malarial deaths, annually, and is developing resistance to current therapies. Throughout its lifespan, the parasite is subjected to oxidative attack, so Plasmodium antioxidant defences are essential for its survival and are targets for disease control. To further understand the molecular aspects of the Plasmodium redox system, we solved 4 structures of Plasmodium peroxiredoxins (Prx). Our study has confirmed PvTrx-Px1 to be a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-sensitive peroxiredoxin. We have identified and characterized the novel toroid octameric oligomer of PyTrx-Px1, which may be attributed to the interplay of several factors including: (1) the orientation of the conserved surface/buried arginine of the NNLA(I/L)GRS-loop; and (2) the C-terminal tail positioning (also associated with the aforementioned conserved loop) which facilitates the intermolecular hydrogen bond between dimers (in an A-C fashion). In addition, a notable feature of the disulfide bonds in some of the Prx crystal structures is discussed. Finally, insight into the latter stages of the peroxiredoxin reaction coordinate is gained. Our structure of PyPrx6 is not only in the sulfinic acid (RSO2H) form, but it is also with glycerol bound in a way (not previously observed) indicative of product binding. The structural characterization of Plasmodium peroxiredoxins provided herein provides insight into their oligomerization and product binding which may facilitate the targeting of these antioxidant defences. Although the structural basis for the octameric oligomerization is further understood, the results yield more questions about the biological implications of the peroxiredoxin oligomerization, as multiple toroid configurations are now known. The crystal structure depicting the product bound active site gives insight into the overoxidation of the active site and allows further characterization of the leaving group

  5. Data on optimum recycle aggregate content in production of new structural concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Suvash Chandra

    2017-12-01

    This data presented herein are the research summary of "mechanical behavior and durability performance of concrete containing recycled concrete aggregate" (Paul, 2011) [1]. The results reported in this article relate to an important parameter of optimum content of recycle concrete aggregate (RCA) in production of new concrete for both structural and non-structural applications. For the purpose of the research various types of physical, mechanical and durability tests are performed for concrete made with different percentages of RCA. Therefore, this data set can be a great help of the readers to understand the mechanism of RCA in relates to the concrete properties.

  6. Stereopermutation on the Putative Structure of the Marine Natural Product Mucosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsen, Simen G; Gallantree-Smith, Harrison; Görbitz, Carl Henrik; Hansen, Trond Vidar; Stenstrøm, Yngve H; Nolsøe, Jens M J

    2017-10-13

    A stereodivergent total synthesis has been executed based on the plausibly misassigned structure of the unusual marine hydrindane mucosin ( 1 ). The topological connectivity of the four contiguous all -carbon stereocenters has been examined by selective permutation on the highlighted core. Thus, capitalizing on an unprecedented stereofacial preference of the cis -fused bicycle[4.3.0]non-3-ene system when a Michael acceptor motif is incorporated, copper-mediated conjugate addition furnished a single diastereomer. Cued by the relative relationship reported for the appendices in the natural product, the resulting anti -adduct was elaborated into a probative target structure 1* .

  7. Playing at Work: The Intersection of Race, Class, and Gender with Power Structures of Work and Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Marisa; Glasberg, Davita Silfen; Merenstein, Beth; Peele, Melanie R.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on an exercise where students were assigned social roles based on gender, class, and race and then selected division of labor and reward structures in order to explore inequality in work and production. Offers a review of literature on the power structure of work and production and an evaluation of the exercise. (CMK)

  8. From Product Models to Product State Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    A well-known technology designed to handle product data is Product Models. Product Models are in their current form not able to handle all types of product state information. Hence, the concept of a Product State Model (PSM) is proposed. The PSM and in particular how to model a PSM is the Research...

  9. Structure models of G72, the product of a susceptibility gene to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yusuke; Fukui, Kiyoshi

    2017-02-01

    The G72 gene is one of the most susceptible genes to schizophrenia and is contained exclusively in the genomes of primates. The product of the G72 gene modulates the activity of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) and is a small protein prone to aggregate, which hampers its structural studies. In addition, lack of a known structure of a homologue makes it difficult to use the homology modelling method for the prediction of the structure. Thus, we first developed a hybrid ab initio approach for small proteins prior to the prediction of the structure of G72. The approach uses three known ab initio algorithms. To evaluate the hybrid approach, we tested our prediction of the structure of the amino acid sequences whose structures were already solved and compared the predicted structures with the experimentally solved structures. Based on these comparisons, the average accuracy of our approach was calculated to be ∼5 Å. We then applied the approach to the sequence of G72 and successfully predicted the structures of the N- and C-terminal domains (ND and CD, respectively) of G72. The predicted structures of ND and CD were similar to membrane-bound proteins and adaptor proteins, respectively. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  10. The formation, composition and structure of corrosion products in CANDU nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummery, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the formation and transport of corrosion products in CANDU-PHW power reactors, and the role played by these products in the generation and subsequent fixation of radioactive species, we have examined in detail several surfaces removed from the Douglas Point Generating Station (Douglas Point, Ontario). Results are given for the surface of the primary-side of a Monel-400 boiler tube, and surfaces of carbon steel piping at the inlet and outlet of the boiler. The experimental techniques that were used included sequential acid stripping, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The corrosion products on the Monel-400 were mainly nickel, copper, nickel oxide and nickel-deficient nickel ferrite and varied in composition and quantity as a function of both distance from the boiler inlet, and depth in the corrosion layer. The radioactive cobalt ( 60 Co) content was localized in 'streaks' deposited in the straight sections of the boiler tube, but distributed uniformly over the whole surface in the downstream bend section. The material covering the carbon steel surface comprised three phases: magnetite, aluminosilicate particles at the outermost surface, and a mixed cation spinel phase uniformly distributed over the surface at the corrosion film-water interface. The formation, composition and structure of the corrosion products are discussed. (author)

  11. On optimal upgrade level for used products under given cost structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, Mahmood; Finkelstein, Maxim; Chukova, Stefanka

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the growing share of the second-hand market, often customers of used products encounter the following three problems: (a) they are uncertain regarding the durability and performance of these products due to lack of information on the item's past usage and maintenance history, (b) they are uncertain about the accurate pricing of warranties and the post-warranty repair costs, and (c) sometimes, right after the sale, used items may have high failure rate and could be harmful to their new owner. Due to these problems, the dealers are currently carrying out actions such as overhaul and upgrade of the used products before their release. Reliability improvement, which is closely related to the concept of warranty, for used products is a relatively new concept and has received very limited attention. This paper also develops a stochastic model which results in the derivation of the optimal expected upgrade level under given structures of the profit and failure rate functions. We provide a numerical study to illustrate our results.

  12. HTTR hydrogen production system. Structure and main specifications of mock-up test facility (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Michio; Aita, Hideki; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Koji; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Takada, Shoji; Inaba, Yoshitomo

    2007-03-01

    The mock-up test facility was fabricated to investigate performance of the steam generator for mitigation of the temperature fluctuation of helium gas and transient behavior of the hydrogen production system for HTTR and to obtain experimental data for verification of a dynamic analysis code. The test facility has an approximate hydrogen production capacity of 120Nm 3 /h and the steam reforming process of methane; CH 4 +H 2 O=3H 2 +CO, was used for hydrogen production of the test facility. An electric heater was used as a heat source instead of the reactor in order to heat helium gas up to 880degC (4MPa) at the chemical reactor inlet which is the same temperature as the HTTR hydrogen production system. Fabrication of the test facility was completed in February in 2002, and seven cycle operations were carried out from March in 2002 to December in 2004. This report describes the structure and main specifications of the test facility. (author)

  13. Governance structures in the production chain Amazônia chestnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Fernanda Sbsczk Pereira Meneguetti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify the structure of governance in the Production Chain Chestnut of the Amazon state of Rondonia in order to know the relationship of its agents. We used secondary data source and qualitative approach, based on the collection of data resulting from the project on nontimber forest products (NTFPs, which included the cities of Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Machadinho do Oeste, Porto Velho and Presidente Médici, located in the state of Rondônia. It was found that producers and middlemen pay a high cost for shipping, however, these costs is not just about the initial link of the chain, but to the end consumer to pay more for the product, due to the difficulties faced during the process. Furthermore, it was also evidenced the low price of the product received by producers and middlemen, however, the transactions show that there is no formal relationship between the parties, contracts are informal, the form of governance found most frequently is the way market.

  14. Soybean Protein Fibres Part 1: Structure, Production and Environmental Effects of Soybean Protein Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Filiz YILDIRIM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean fiber (SPF is a protein based botanic fibre. These fibers exhibit very good physical properties such as brightness, softness and drape. Moreover, SPF has a variety of health functionalities and anti-bacterial properties. Fibers were first produced in the 20th mid-century. However due to the significant challenges encountered during the production of SPF, interest for these fibers was decreased. At the end of the 20 th century, SPF re-captured attention due to an increased awakening on ecological, renewable and sustainable fiber concept. Soybean is cheap and abundant. Tenacity of SPF was improved by including polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. Therefore, the production and the usage of SPF are increasing rapidly because of these key advantages. Soybean fibers usually is used in blends with other fibers. In Turkey, a variety of different products are produced from this special fiber. This review, about SPF, is divided into two sections. In the first part; structure and production stages of SPF and its enviromental effects have been described. In the second part of this review, properties and application areas of SPF have been described. The purpose of this review is to fill a gap in the Turkish literature about this bio-degradable, renewable and sustainable SPF. 

  15. Catalytic biofilms on structured packing for the production of glycolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan Zhong; Hauer, Bernhard; Rosche, Bettina

    2013-02-01

    While structured packing modules are known to be efficient for surface wetting and gas-liquid exchange in abiotic surface catalysis, this model study explores structured packing as a growth surface for catalytic biofilms. Microbial biofilms have been proposed as self-immobilized and self-regenerating catalysts for the production of chemicals. A concern is that the complex and dynamic nature of biofilms may cause fluctuations in their catalytic performance over time or may affect process reproducibility. An aerated continuous trickle-bed biofilm reactor system was designed with a 3 L structured packing, liquid recycling and pH control. Pseudomonas diminuta established a biofilm on the stainless steel structured packing with a specific surface area of 500 m2 m-3 and catalyzed the oxidation of ethylene glycol to glycolic acid for over two months of continuous operation. A steady-state productivity of up to 1.6 gl-1h-1 was achieved at a dilution rate of 0.33 h-1. Process reproducibility between three independent runs was excellent, despite process interruptions and activity variations in cultures grown from biofilm effluent cells. The results demonstrate the robustness of a catalytic biofilm on structured packing, despite its dynamic nature. Implementation is recommended for whole-cell processes that require efficient gas-liquid exchange, catalyst retention for continuous operation, or improved catalyst stability.

  16. Current strategies for protein production and purification enabling membrane protein structural biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Aditya; Shin, Kyungsoo; Patterson, Robin E; Liu, Xiang-Qin; Rainey, Jan K

    2016-12-01

    Membrane proteins are still heavily under-represented in the protein data bank (PDB), owing to multiple bottlenecks. The typical low abundance of membrane proteins in their natural hosts makes it necessary to overexpress these proteins either in heterologous systems or through in vitro translation/cell-free expression. Heterologous expression of proteins, in turn, leads to multiple obstacles, owing to the unpredictability of compatibility of the target protein for expression in a given host. The highly hydrophobic and (or) amphipathic nature of membrane proteins also leads to challenges in producing a homogeneous, stable, and pure sample for structural studies. Circumventing these hurdles has become possible through the introduction of novel protein production protocols; efficient protein isolation and sample preparation methods; and, improvement in hardware and software for structural characterization. Combined, these advances have made the past 10-15 years very exciting and eventful for the field of membrane protein structural biology, with an exponential growth in the number of solved membrane protein structures. In this review, we focus on both the advances and diversity of protein production and purification methods that have allowed this growth in structural knowledge of membrane proteins through X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

  17. TO THE QUESTION OF FORMATION OF EARTHQUAKES OF CORPORATE STRUCTURES OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSTOVSKA О.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of corporate structures in agricultural production, proves the influence of corporate formations on the efficiency of agrarian production. On the basis of the analysis of official information of agro holdings, an assessment was made of the efficiency of their activities and a conclusion was made about the optimal size of their structural subdivisions. The advantages and disadvantages of integrated structures are highlighted, peculiarities of formation of their land relations are determined. Issues of expansion of land masses of agro holdings related to the conclusion of land lease agreements are considered. The association of separate agro-industrial enterprises of various industrial-economic orientation form an independent legal entity - a legal entity. The economic feasibility of the creation and functioning of corporate associations is objective based on obtaining the greatest effect, the essence of which is that the result of the joint corporate activities of economic structures will always be higher compared to the results of the individual work of each of them. Corporate forms of management in agriculture were founded in Ukraine on the basis of the general theoretical model of an open, competitive, multi-faceted agricultural market economy type, aimed at an integrated world economic system. The methodology of construction involves taking into account the world economic trends and the national specificity of the country's agricultural development; it is aimed at finding rational forms of organization of agricultural production, mechanisms for overcoming crisis phenomena, stabilizing the economy and creating conditions for further qualitative and quantitative growth of the agrarian sector of the economy. For many years, leading American co-operators have been distributing concepts and concepts that are perceived and used throughout the world. This work is coordinated by the Organization for International

  18. Ectopic lymphoid structures support ongoing production of class-switched autoantibodies in rheumatoid synovium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humby, Frances; Bombardieri, Michele; Manzo, Antonio; Kelly, Stephen; Blades, Mark C; Kirkham, Bruce; Spencer, Jo; Pitzalis, Costantino

    2009-01-13

    Follicular structures resembling germinal centres (GCs) that are characterized by follicular dendritic cell (FDC) networks have long been recognized in chronically inflamed tissues in autoimmune diseases, including the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, it is debated whether these ectopic structures promote autoimmunity and chronic inflammation driving the production of pathogenic autoantibodies. Anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPA) are highly specific markers of RA, predict a poor prognosis, and have been suggested to be pathogenic. Therefore, the main study objectives were to determine whether ectopic lymphoid structures in RA synovium: (i) express activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), the enzyme required for somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination (CSR) of Ig genes; (ii) support ongoing CSR and ACPA production; and (iii) remain functional in a RA/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) chimera model devoid of new immune cell influx into the synovium. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative Taqman real-time PCR (QT-PCR) in synovial tissue from 55 patients with RA, we demonstrated that FDC+ structures invariably expressed AID with a distribution resembling secondary lymphoid organs. Further, AID+/CD21+ follicular structures were surrounded by ACPA+/CD138+ plasma cells, as demonstrated by immune reactivity to citrullinated fibrinogen. Moreover, we identified a novel subset of synovial AID+/CD20+ B cells outside GCs resembling interfollicular large B cells. In order to gain direct functional evidence that AID+ structures support CSR and in situ manufacturing of class-switched ACPA, 34 SCID mice were transplanted with RA synovium and humanely killed at 4 wk for harvesting of transplants and sera. Persistent expression of AID and Igamma-Cmu circular transcripts (identifying ongoing IgM-IgG class-switching) was observed in synovial grafts expressing FDCs/CD21L. Furthermore, synovial mRNA levels of AID were

  19. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products

    OpenAIRE

    Adrio, Jose-Luis; Demain, Arnold L

    2009-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding...

  20. Dengue Virus Non-structural Protein 1 Modulates Infectious Particle Production via Interaction with the Structural Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Scaturro

    Full Text Available Non-structural protein 1 (NS1 is one of the most enigmatic proteins of the Dengue virus (DENV, playing distinct functions in immune evasion, pathogenesis and viral replication. The recently reported crystal structure of DENV NS1 revealed its peculiar three-dimensional fold; however, detailed information on NS1 function at different steps of the viral replication cycle is still missing. By using the recently reported crystal structure, as well as amino acid sequence conservation, as a guide for a comprehensive site-directed mutagenesis study, we discovered that in addition to being essential for RNA replication, DENV NS1 is also critically required for the production of infectious virus particles. Taking advantage of a trans-complementation approach based on fully functional epitope-tagged NS1 variants, we identified previously unreported interactions between NS1 and the structural proteins Envelope (E and precursor Membrane (prM. Interestingly, coimmunoprecipitation revealed an additional association with capsid, arguing that NS1 interacts via the structural glycoproteins with DENV particles. Results obtained with mutations residing either in the NS1 Wing domain or in the β-ladder domain suggest that NS1 might have two distinct functions in the assembly of DENV particles. By using a trans-complementation approach with a C-terminally KDEL-tagged ER-resident NS1, we demonstrate that the secretion of NS1 is dispensable for both RNA replication and infectious particle production. In conclusion, our results provide an extensive genetic map of NS1 determinants essential for viral RNA replication and identify a novel role of NS1 in virion production that is mediated via interaction with the structural proteins. These studies extend the list of NS1 functions and argue for a central role in coordinating replication and assembly/release of infectious DENV particles.

  1. Effect of structural characteristics of corncob hemicelluloses fractionated by graded ethanol precipitation on furfural production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiling; Dai, Qingqing; Ren, Junli; Jian, Longfei; Peng, Feng; Sun, Runcang; Liu, Guoliang

    2016-01-20

    In the present study, a graded ethanol precipitation technique was employed to obtain hemicelluloses from the alkali-extracted corncob liquid. The relationship between the structural characteristics of alkali-soluble corncob hemicelluloses and the production of furfural was investigated by a heterogeneous process in a biphasic system. Results showed that alkali-soluble corncob hemicelluloses mainly consisted of glucuronoarabinoxylans and L-arabino-(4-O-methylglucurono)-D-xylans, and the drying way had less influence on the sugar composition, molecular weights and the functional groups of hemicelluloses obtained by the different ethanol concentration precipitation except for the thermal property, the amorphous structure and the ability for the furfural production. Furthermore, alkali-soluble corncob hemicelluloses with higher xylose content, lower branch degree, higher polydispersity and crystallinity contributed to the furfural production. A highest furfural yield of 45.41% with the xylose conversion efficiency of 99.06% and the furfural selectivity of 45.84% was obtained from the oven-dried hemicelluloses precipitated at the 30% (v/v) ethanol concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Similarity of High-Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry Spectra of Structurally Related Micropollutants and Transformation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollée, Jennifer E.; Schymanski, Emma L.; Stravs, Michael A.; Gulde, Rebekka; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S.; Hollender, Juliane

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HRMS2) with electrospray ionization is frequently applied to study polar organic molecules such as micropollutants. Fragmentation provides structural information to confirm structures of known compounds or propose structures of unknown compounds. Similarity of HRMS2 spectra between structurally related compounds has been suggested to facilitate identification of unknown compounds. To test this hypothesis, the similarity of reference standard HRMS2 spectra was calculated for 243 pairs of micropollutants and their structurally related transformation products (TPs); for comparison, spectral similarity was also calculated for 219 pairs of unrelated compounds. Spectra were measured on Orbitrap and QTOF mass spectrometers and similarity was calculated with the dot product. The influence of different factors on spectral similarity [e.g., normalized collision energy (NCE), merging fragments from all NCEs, and shifting fragments by the mass difference of the pair] was considered. Spectral similarity increased at higher NCEs and highest similarity scores for related pairs were obtained with merged spectra including measured fragments and shifted fragments. Removal of the monoisotopic peak was critical to reduce false positives. Using a spectral similarity score threshold of 0.52, 40% of related pairs and 0% of unrelated pairs were above this value. Structural similarity was estimated with the Tanimoto coefficient and pairs with higher structural similarity generally had higher spectral similarity. Pairs where one or both compounds contained heteroatoms such as sulfur often resulted in dissimilar spectra. This work demonstrates that HRMS2 spectral similarity may indicate structural similarity and that spectral similarity can be used in the future to screen complex samples for related compounds such as micropollutants and TPs, assisting in the prioritization of non-target compounds. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. The structure of atomic power industry with allowance for energy production other than electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, A.P.; Legasov, V.A.; Sidorenko, V.A.; Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Protsenko, A.N.; Grebennik, V.N.; Glushkov, E.S.

    1977-01-01

    The important tendency in the development of nuclear power is broadening the scope of its application for substitution of mineral fuel by the nuclear one not only at the electrical power production but in other energy consuming fields of industry. The development of large-scale nuclear power plants permits the provision of the significant part of energy supply of all kinds and save on oil and gas. Scales and rates of development of nuclear power are estimated for the model society on the basis of predicted need energy consumption per capita. The possible rates and scales of nuclear power development are determined at some alternative amounts of potential reserves of organic fuel (oil, gas) per capita and within the economically and ecologically reasonable scales of coal utilization. There has been given the analysis of possible scopes of application of nuclear power industry: for production of electricity, central heating, hydrogen generation, gasification of coals, metallurgy, chemistry by means of medium- and high-temperature reactors. The conceivable relation between electrical energy and heat production in energetics and the nuclear power industry and the dynamics of change in this relation is being forecasted. The promising development of high temperature helium reactors has been discussed. Considerations on possible effect of thorium cycle on the structure of nuclear power industry are outlined. The nuclear power industry is being developed mainly on the basis of nuclear power plants with thermal reactors and it should not be expected for the next decade that its structure is to change significantly. However, the development of only this type reactors will require, as early as the end of this century, the significant consumption of natural uranium and considerable increase in capacities of uranium output and uranium enrichment industry. Therefore, in the following stages of development of nuclear power industry it is necessary to introduce fast breeders

  4. Magnesium and aluminium-base products. For use as structural materials; Magnesium, aluminium et alliages. Emploi comme materiaux de structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J; Boudouresques, B; Alfille, L; Klersy, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This paper deals with the ability of some Mg and Al-base products to be used as structural materials in thermal reactors. The results presented here are relating to investigations carried out for completing the design of french reactors. (author)Fren. [French] Les auteurs traitent de l'aptitude de quelques materiaux legers et ultra-legers a l'utilisation comme elements de structure des reacteurs thermiques. Les resultats presentes sont relatifs aux etudes effectuees pour l'etablissement des projets de piles fran ises. (auteur)

  5. Magnesium and aluminium-base products. For use as structural materials; Magnesium, aluminium et alliages. Emploi comme materiaux de structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J.; Boudouresques, B.; Alfille, L.; Klersy, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This paper deals with the ability of some Mg and Al-base products to be used as structural materials in thermal reactors. The results presented here are relating to investigations carried out for completing the design of french reactors. (author)Fren. [French] Les auteurs traitent de l'aptitude de quelques materiaux legers et ultra-legers a l'utilisation comme elements de structure des reacteurs thermiques. Les resultats presentes sont relatifs aux etudes effectuees pour l'etablissement des projets de piles fran ises. (auteur)

  6. Mechanical properties and structure of Zircaloy attached by UO2+x and fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holub, F.

    1987-08-01

    The aim of this project was to determine the combined long-term effect of simulated fission products and hyperstoichiometric uranium dioxide on the mechanical properties and structure of Zircaloy. Three groups of fission product elements or compounds were defined: The rare earth oxides CeO 2 , La 2 O 3 , Nd 2 O 3 , Y 2 O 3 ; The metals No, Ru, Ag; The low melting elements Te, Sb and Cd. Each of these groups of fission products was mixed with UO 2+x in proportion related for burnups of 5, 10 and 30%. The simulated fuel mixtures were filled into tubular Zircaloy casings, plugged and welded. These specimens were annealed at 350, 500 and 700 deg. C up to 17,500 hours. The test results indicate different kinds of action of the simulated fuel constituents. Mixtures of rare earth oxides and UO 2+x embrittle Zircaloy drastically at higher temperatures. There exists a mutual intensifying effect of rare earth oxides and UO 2+x . UO 2+x and (Mo + Ru + Ag) and their mixtures act very similar on Zircaloy. The low melting fission products (Te + Sb + Cd) influence the ductility of Zircaloy in an advantageous manner, compared to pure UO 2+x fuel. The layer of zirconium tellurides seems to protect the Zircaloy metal against the embrittling attack of oxygen from UO 2+x . The most important events of tensile tests at 400 deg. C are the high values of the elongation of specimens which are brittled at room temperature. It should guarantee the integrity of fuel elements, which have been attacked chemically by fission products at temperatures of 400 deg. C and higher

  7. Simultaneous improvement in productivity, water use, and albedo through crop structural modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, Darren T; Kumar, Praveen; Long, Stephen P

    2014-06-01

    Spanning 15% of the global ice-free terrestrial surface, agricultural lands provide an immense and near-term opportunity to address climate change, food, and water security challenges. Through the computationally informed breeding of canopy structural traits away from those of modern cultivars, we show that solutions exist that increase productivity and water use efficiency, while increasing land-surface reflectivity to offset greenhouse gas warming. Plants have evolved to maximize capture of radiation in the upper leaves, thus shading competitors. While important for survival in the wild, this is suboptimal in monoculture crop fields for maximizing productivity and other biogeophysical services. Crop progenitors evolved over the last 25 million years in an atmosphere with less than half the [CO2] projected for 2050. By altering leaf photosynthetic rates, rising [CO2] and temperature may also alter the optimal canopy form. Here using soybean, the world's most important protein crop, as an example we show by applying optimization routines to a micrometeorological leaf canopy model linked to a steady-state model of photosynthesis, that significant gains in production, water use, and reflectivity are possible with no additional demand on resources. By modifying total canopy leaf area, its vertical profile and angular distribution, and shortwave radiation reflectivity, all traits available in most major crop germplasm collections, increases in productivity (7%) are possible with no change in water use or albedo. Alternatively, improvements in water use (13%) or albedo (34%) can likewise be made with no loss of productivity, under Corn Belt climate conditions. © 2014 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  8. The Cost Structure - Key Element in the Development of Product Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jiroveanu

    2016-01-01

    In this regard, planning the launch of new products or services requires a strategic approach, astructural analysis of the costs and the identification of opportunities to increase optimization withthe aim of increasing the effectiveness of the product policy.

  9. Using Labeled Choice Experiments to Analyze Demand Structure and Market Position among Seafood Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Haider, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    Understanding market competition and consumer preferences are important first steps in developing a business. In a competitive market, effectiveness of the various elements of a firm’s marketing mix depends not only on the absolute value of each element but also on the relative values......-employed consumers are the most sensitive to price. Four segments are identified and described in terms of both consumer characteristics and preferences. Our results are meaningful for producers and retailers to develop marketing strategies and production plan....... of the elements with respect to the firm’s position in the market. In this paper we analyze the demand structure and market positions for a variety of seafood products in the French retail market. We use a labeled choice experiment (LCE) to analyze twelve seafood species. The choice options are labeled...

  10. Influence of farming system and production purpose on the morpho structure of Spanish goat breeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, A.; Herrera, M.; Luque, M.; Rodero, E.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of farming systems, based on the morpho structure of 1,571 female goats drawn from 40 flocks containing seven Spanish breeds (Blanca Andaluza, Blanca Celtiberica, Negra Serrana, Pirenaica, Payoya, Murciano-Granadina and Malaguena) raised under four different farming systems. Analysis of morphometric variables showed that the morphostructure of native Spanish goat breeds was linked to the farming system used and thus to the production purpose. The morphostructure of grazing breeds may be more influenced by natural selection within the physical environment and less by human selection. That of stall-fed breeds, by contrast, reflects intense artificial selection aimed at achieving a highly-productive dairy type. For this reason, morphological evaluation systems used in breeding programmes for meat or dual-purpose goat breeds farmed extensively or semiextensively should be specific, and should reflect the influence of the environment in which these goats are farmed. (Author)

  11. The effect of processing parameters on the structure of fermented milk products with transglutaminase addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iličić Mirela D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the effect of concentration of transglutaminase (TG, content of milk fat and starter culture type (probiotic and kombucha on the structure of fermented milk products. The application of TG significantly improved textural characteristics of the fermented milk products. The firmness of the samples produced from milk with 0.1g100g-1 and 0.9g100g-1 fat content with probiotic starter were by 33% and 17.6% higher, respectively, compared to the control samples. During ten days of storage, the value of the hysteresis loop area of all samples produced from milk with 0.9g100g-1 fat content with TG addition, decreased by 14%. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46009

  12. Structure of production costs of different energy sources (fossile fuels and nuclear energy) (group 11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    This article is the work of a group of students from the ''Ecole Nationale d'Administration'', they had to study the structure of the costs of the different energy sources. This analysis shows some common features between the energy sources. The cost is very dependent on the partial costs of technological constraints due to exploration, production, transport and distribution. For primary energies the market appears to be not very competitive, the price depends strongly on the market power of the operator and benefits are generally important. In France, taxes play a role to assure competitiveness of gas and coal against oil. Uranium fuel presents the lowest production and transformation costs at the same energy content. Transport costs are important for natural gas which implies a strong mutual dependence between gas producers and consumers. The irreplaceable use of oil in transport assures regular high revenues for oil companies. (A.C.)

  13. Forest stand structure, productivity, and age mediate climatic effects on aspen decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David M.; Bradford, John B.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2014-01-01

    Because forest stand structure, age, and productivity can mediate the impacts of climate on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) mortality, ignoring stand-scale factors limits inference on the drivers of recent sudden aspen decline. Using the proportion of aspen trees that were dead as an index of recent mortality at 841 forest inventory plots, we examined the relationship of this mortality index to forest structure and climate in the Rocky Mountains and Intermountain Western United States. We found that forest structure explained most of the patterns in mortality indices, but that variation in growing-season vapor pressure deficit and winter precipitation over the last 20 years was important. Mortality index sensitivity to precipitation was highest in forests where aspen exhibited high densities, relative basal areas, quadratic mean diameters, and productivities, whereas sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit was highest in young forest stands. These results indicate that the effects of drought on mortality may be mediated by forest stand development, competition with encroaching conifers, and physiological vulnerabilities of large trees to drought. By examining mortality index responses to both forest structure and climate, we show that forest succession cannot be ignored in studies attempting to understand the causes and consequences of sudden aspen decline.

  14. WYE-120318, a ring contraction product of methylnaltrexone, and structure revision of coniothyrione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fangming; Zhu, Tianmin; Pan, Weitao; Tsao, Russ; Pagano, Thomas G; Nguyen, Bao; Marquez, Brian

    2012-12-01

    A contracted ring degradation product, WYE-120318 (compound 2), was discovered during the development phase for methylnaltrexone bromide (compound 1) drug substance. The compound was isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation, and its structure was determined by spectroscopic data analyses. WYE-120318 is formed from methylnaltrexone through a benzyl-benzilic acid type rearrangement reaction to yield an α-hydroxy-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid substructure. The proposed structure and the formation mechanism are confirmed by the synthesis of WYE-120318 from methylnaltrexone (compound 1). A similar benzyl-benzilic acid type rearrangement reaction can be envisioned as the biological origin of remisporine A (compound 3), a naturally occurring cyclopentadienyl compound that autocatalytically dimerizes to remisporine B (compound 4). The structure of remisporine A was deduced from its dimer 4. Coniothyione (compound 5) can be considered as the first example of a stable natural product bearing the remisporine A skeleton. However, the regiochemistry of the chlorosubstitution in the coniothyrione structure needs to be revised to compound 6 on the basis of the nuclear magnetic resonance data and biogenesis analysis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Product Knowledge Modelling and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y.; MacCallum, K. J.; Duffy, Alex

    1996-01-01

    function-oriented design. Both Specific Product Knowledge and Product Domain Knowledge are modelled at two levels, a meta-model and an information-level.Following that, a computer-based scheme to manage the proposed product lknowledge models within a dynamically changing environment is presented.......The term, Product Knowledge is used to refer to two related but distinct concepts; the knowledge of a specific product (Specific Product Knowledge) and the knowledge of a product domain (Product Domain Knowledge). Modelling and managing Product Knowlege is an essential part of carrying out design.......A scheme is presented in this paper to model, i.e. classify, structure and formalise the product knowledge for the purpose of supporting function-oriented design. The product design specification and four types of required attributes of a specific product have been identified to form the Specific Product...

  16. The structure of a food product assortment modulates the effect of providing choice on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizel, Odile; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Fromentin, Gilles; Delarue, Julien; Labouré, Hélène; Benamouzig, Robert; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès

    2016-09-01

    Several authors showed that providing choice may increase food liking and food intake. However, the impact of choice may be modulated by assortment's characteristics, such as the number of alternatives or their dissimilarity. The present study compared the impact of choice on food liking and intake under the two following conditions: (1) when choosing a product to consume from among similar products versus dissimilar products; and (2) when choosing a product to consume from among pleasant products versus unpleasant products. Two experiments were carried out using the same design: the "apple puree" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among similar products (apple purees varying in texture) and the "dessert" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among dissimilar products (fruit dessert, dairy dessert, custard, pudding). During the first session, participants rated their liking for 12 products (apples purees or desserts). Then the participants were divided into a "pleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three pleasant products, and an "unpleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three unpleasant products. Finally, all of the volunteers participated in a choice session - volunteers were presented with their three assigned products and asked to choose one of the products, and a no-choice session - volunteers were served with one product that was randomly selected from among their three assigned products. Providing choice led to an increase in food liking in both experiments and an increase in food intake only for the desserts, namely only when the volunteers chose the product to consume from among "not too similar" alternatives. No effect of assortment's pleasantness was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlation between potential well structure and neutron production in inertial electrostatic confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yoshikawa, K.; Sato, K.H.

    1997-01-01

    The electrostatic potential well in inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) is studied using two approaches. First, the equilibrium potential profile is obtained by solving the charge neutrality condition, i.e. n i n e , assuming the appropriate distribution functions for the ions and the electrons. The formation of a double well structure is demonstrated, with a depth depending upon the ratio between the focus radii of the electrons and the ions. The correlations between the well depth and the volume integrated neutron production due to deuterium-deuterium (DD) reactions are obtained. Second, in order to study the stability of the well, the dynamic behaviours of the potential well are calculated by performing time advancing numerical simulations on the basis of the particle in cell method. Single, double and triple wells, depending on the amount of injected ion current, are observed to be formed for ions with a monoenergetic distribution. The well in the centre of the multiwell structure is unstable and oscillates with a periods much longer than the inverse ion plasma frequency. A double well structure can be formed even for ions with a spread out energy distribution when the ion current is larger than the threshold value. The time averaged neutron production by DD fusion events is proportional to a power of the ion current involved in forming the double well structure. The results strongly suggest that the high neutron production rate should be attributed to not only the well depth but also the unstable behaviour of the potential, i.e. the intermittent peaking of the density in the centre region. A numerical simulation reveals that IEC possesses a favourable dependence of fusion reactions on the injected ion current for the application to a neutron source or a fusion reactor. (author). 9 refs, 9 figs

  18. The structure and pyrolysis product distribution of lignite from different sedimentary environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Dexiang; Wang, Lanlan; Zhou, Yang; Pan, Tieying; Lu, Xilan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon structure of three lignites was measured by solid "1"3C NMR. • Effect of carbon structure on pyrolysis product distribution was studied. • Tar yield is influenced by aliphatic carbon and oxygen functional group. • C1–C4 content of pyrolysis gas is related to CH_2/CH_3 ratio. - Abstract: Low-temperature pyrolysis is an economically efficient method for lignite to obtain coal tar and improve its combustion calorific value. The research on the distribution of pyrolysis product (especially coal tar yield) plays an important role in energy application and economic development in the now and future. Pyrolysis test was carried out in a tube reactor at 873 K for 15 min. The structure of the lignite was measured by solid "1"3C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The thermal analysis was analyzed by thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer. The results show that the pyrolysis product distribution is related to the breakage of branch structures of aromatic ring in lignites from different sedimentary environment. The gas yield and composition are related to the decomposition of carbonyl group and the breakage of aliphatic carbon. The tar yield derived from lignite pyrolysis follows the order: Xianfeng lignite (XF, 13.67 wt.%) > Xiaolongtan lignite (XLT, 7.97 wt.%) > Inner Mongolia lignite (IM, 6.30 wt.%), which is mainly influenced by the aliphatic carbon contents, the CH_2/CH_3 ratio and the oxygen functional groups in lignite. The pyrolysis water yield depends on the decomposition of oxygen functional groups. IM has the highest content of oxygen-linked carbon so that the pyrolysis water yield derived from IM is the highest (9.20 wt.%), and is far more than that from the other two lignites.

  19. Water footprint of crop production for different crop structures in the Hebei southern plain, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yingmin; Shen, Yanjun; Yuan, Zaijian

    2017-06-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) has a serious shortage of freshwater resources, and crop production consumes approximately 75 % of the region's water. To estimate water consumption of different crops and crop structures in the NCP, the Hebei southern plain (HSP) was selected as a study area, as it is a typical region of groundwater overdraft in the NCP. In this study, the water footprint (WF) of crop production, comprised of green, blue and grey water footprints, and its annual variation were analyzed. The results demonstrated the following: (1) the WF from the production of main crops was 41.8 km3 in 2012. Winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables were the top water-consuming crops in the HSP. The water footprint intensity (WFI) of cotton was the largest, and for vegetables, it was the smallest; (2) the total WF, WFblue, WFgreen and WFgrey for 13 years (2000-2012) of crop production were 604.8, 288.5, 141.3 and 175.0 km3, respectively, with an annual downtrend from 2000 to 2012; (3) winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables consumed the most groundwater, and their blue water footprint (WFblue) accounted for 74.2 % of the total WFblue in the HSP; (4) the crop structure scenarios analysis indicated that, with approximately 20 % of arable land cultivated with winter wheat-summer maize in rotation, 38.99 % spring maize, 10 % vegetables and 10 % fruiters, a sustainable utilization of groundwater resources can be promoted, and a sufficient supply of food, including vegetables and fruits, can be ensured in the HSP.

  20. Structural and magnetic properties of the products of the transformation of ferrihydrite: Effect of cobalt dications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, K.I. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional Unidad Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalúrgica 1062, Parque Industrial Ramos Arizpe, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila C.P.25000, México (Mexico); Pariona, N. [Red de Estudios Moleculares Avanzados, Instituto de Ecología A.C., Carretera Antigua a Coatepec 351, El Haya, 91070 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Martinez, A.I., E-mail: arturo.martinez@cinvestav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional Unidad Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalúrgica 1062, Parque Industrial Ramos Arizpe, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila C.P.25000, México (Mexico); Baggio-Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Río de Janeiro 22290-180 (Brazil); Herrera-Trejo, M. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional Unidad Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalúrgica 1062, Parque Industrial Ramos Arizpe, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila C.P.25000, México (Mexico); Perry, Dale L. [Mailstop 70A1150, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The effect of cobalt dications on the transformation of 2-line ferrihydrite (2LF) has been studied. The products of the transformation reaction were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), magnetometry, and first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams. It was found that the concentration of cobalt dications plays an important role on the structural and magnetic properties of the products; i.e., for low cobalt concentrations, cobalt-substituted hematite is formed, while higher concentrations promote the formation of cobalt-substituted magnetite. Structural results revealed that formation of other iron oxide polymorphs is avoided and residual 2LF is always present in the final products. In this way, hematite/2LF and magnetite/2LF nanocomposites were formed. For all the samples, magnetic measurements yielded non-saturated hysteresis loops at a maximum field of 12 kOe. For cobalt-substituted hematite/2LF samples, FORC diagrams revealed the presence of multiple single-domain (SD) components which generate interaction coupling between SD with low and high coercivity. Moreover, for cobalt-substituted magnetite/2LF samples, the FORC diagrams revealed the components of wasp-waist hysteresis loops which consist of mixtures of SD and superparamagnetic particles. One of the goals of the present study is the rigorous, experimental documentation of ferrihydrite/hematite mixtures as a function of reaction conditions for use as analytical standards research. - Highlights: • Co(II) may stabilize ferrihydrite against transformation to more crystalline oxides. • The transformation is strongly dependent on the Co(II)/Fe(III) atomic ratio. • Cobalt-substituted hematite and cobalt-substituted magnetite were the products. • FORC diagrams identified the interaction coupling between single-domains.

  1. Structural and magnetic properties of the products of the transformation of ferrihydrite: Effect of cobalt dications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho, K.I.; Pariona, N.; Martinez, A.I.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Herrera-Trejo, M.; Perry, Dale L.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of cobalt dications on the transformation of 2-line ferrihydrite (2LF) has been studied. The products of the transformation reaction were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), magnetometry, and first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams. It was found that the concentration of cobalt dications plays an important role on the structural and magnetic properties of the products; i.e., for low cobalt concentrations, cobalt-substituted hematite is formed, while higher concentrations promote the formation of cobalt-substituted magnetite. Structural results revealed that formation of other iron oxide polymorphs is avoided and residual 2LF is always present in the final products. In this way, hematite/2LF and magnetite/2LF nanocomposites were formed. For all the samples, magnetic measurements yielded non-saturated hysteresis loops at a maximum field of 12 kOe. For cobalt-substituted hematite/2LF samples, FORC diagrams revealed the presence of multiple single-domain (SD) components which generate interaction coupling between SD with low and high coercivity. Moreover, for cobalt-substituted magnetite/2LF samples, the FORC diagrams revealed the components of wasp-waist hysteresis loops which consist of mixtures of SD and superparamagnetic particles. One of the goals of the present study is the rigorous, experimental documentation of ferrihydrite/hematite mixtures as a function of reaction conditions for use as analytical standards research. - Highlights: • Co(II) may stabilize ferrihydrite against transformation to more crystalline oxides. • The transformation is strongly dependent on the Co(II)/Fe(III) atomic ratio. • Cobalt-substituted hematite and cobalt-substituted magnetite were the products. • FORC diagrams identified the interaction coupling between single-domains.

  2. Water footprint of crop production for different crop structures in the Hebei southern plain, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain (NCP has a serious shortage of freshwater resources, and crop production consumes approximately 75 % of the region's water. To estimate water consumption of different crops and crop structures in the NCP, the Hebei southern plain (HSP was selected as a study area, as it is a typical region of groundwater overdraft in the NCP. In this study, the water footprint (WF of crop production, comprised of green, blue and grey water footprints, and its annual variation were analyzed. The results demonstrated the following: (1 the WF from the production of main crops was 41.8 km3 in 2012. Winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables were the top water-consuming crops in the HSP. The water footprint intensity (WFI of cotton was the largest, and for vegetables, it was the smallest; (2 the total WF, WFblue, WFgreen and WFgrey for 13 years (2000–2012 of crop production were 604.8, 288.5, 141.3 and 175.0 km3, respectively, with an annual downtrend from 2000 to 2012; (3 winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables consumed the most groundwater, and their blue water footprint (WFblue accounted for 74.2 % of the total WFblue in the HSP; (4 the crop structure scenarios analysis indicated that, with approximately 20 % of arable land cultivated with winter wheat–summer maize in rotation, 38.99 % spring maize, 10 % vegetables and 10 % fruiters, a sustainable utilization of groundwater resources can be promoted, and a sufficient supply of food, including vegetables and fruits, can be ensured in the HSP.

  3. Tobacco Products Production and Operations Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Monthly statistical reports on tobacco products production and operations. Data for Tobacco Statistical Release is derived directly from the Report – Manufacturer of...

  4. Micro structural characteristics of minced meat products from use of protein-mineral additive

    OpenAIRE

    M. Golovko; M. Serik; T. Golovko; V. Polupan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Infringement of balance mineral substances is widely manifested in the meat products which is much wealthier in phosphorus than calcium. List of additives that containing calcium and technology meat products with their using are limited. Purpose of the work is studying and scientific substantiation of influence proteinmineral additive (PMA) on the technological microstructural properties of minced meat products. Matherials and...

  5. Optimizing the order processing of customized products using product configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Bonev, Martin; Denkena, B.

    2011-01-01

    . Product configuration based on integrated modular product structure and product family architecture has been recognized as an effective means for implementing mass customization. In order to evaluate the effects of product configuration on order processing, a study has been conducted by the Department...... and its benefits for the order processing have been evaluated....

  6. Population structure of Lactobacillus helveticus isolates from naturally fermented dairy products based on multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhihong; Liu, Wenjun; Song, Yuqin; Xu, Haiyan; Yu, Jie; Bilige, Menghe; Zhang, Heping; Chen, Yongfu

    2015-05-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus is an economically important lactic acid bacterium used in industrial dairy fermentation. In the present study, the population structure of 245 isolates of L. helveticus from different naturally fermented dairy products in China and Mongolia were investigated using an multilocus sequence typing scheme with 11 housekeeping genes. A total of 108 sequence types were detected, which formed 8 clonal complexes and 27 singletons. Results from Structure, SplitsTree, and ClonalFrame software analyses demonstrated the presence of 3 subpopulations in the L. helveticus isolates used in our study, namely koumiss, kurut-tarag, and panmictic lineages. Most L. helveticus isolates from particular ecological origins had specific population structures. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Innovation in Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2005-01-01

    The course on Innovation in Product Development attempts to identify and understand the nature of innovation and product development and their important factors. The course takes both a theoretical and a practical approach and employs a mix of lectures, project work and group discussion. Format...... insight. Course content The following aspects of innovation in product development are considered: - Humans and products - Needs and products - Product life - Teams creating products - Products creating business - Product development models - Organising product development - Product development tools...... - The future of product development....

  8. Structuring requirements as necessary premise for customer-oriented development of complex products: A generic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Klute

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Complex products like for example intra-logistical facilities make high demands on developers and producers and involve high investment and operating costs. When planning and developing and also making buying decisions the facility utilization and the thus ensuing requirements on the facility and its components are inadequately considered to date. Nevertheless, with regard to customer-directed product design, these requirements must all be taken into account – especially as they can contribute to possible savings. In this context, it is necessary to survey and systematically regard requirements from a large number of areas like for example the operator, the facility producer and also requirements of external parties such as the law and to implement into adequate product characteristics to produce customer-oriented products. This is, however, a difficult task because of the diversity of stakeholders involved and their numerous and often divergent requirements. Therefore, it is essential to structure the requirements, so that planners and developers are able to manage the large amount of information. Structure models can be used in this context to cluster requirements. Within the German Collaborative Research Centre 696 a 10-dimensional model has been developed. This model allows structuring of all requirements on intra-logistical facilities or respectively complex products in general. In the context of dealing with hundreds of data records, structuring requirements is mandatory to achieve accuracy, clarity and consequently satisfactory results when transforming requirements into product characteristics which fit customer needs. In the paper an excerpt of this model is presented. Design/methodology/approach: In literature a multitude of methods which deal with the topic of structuring exist. The methods have been analysed regarding their purpose and their level of specification, i.e. the number of differentiated categories, to check if

  9. Effects of heat on meat proteins - Implications on structure and quality of meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornberg, E

    2005-07-01

    Globular and fibrous proteins are compared with regard to structural behaviour on heating, where the former expands and the latter contracts. The meat protein composition and structure is briefly described. The behaviour of the different meat proteins on heating is discussed. Most of the sarcoplasmic proteins aggregate between 40 and 60 °C, but for some of them the coagulation can extend up to 90°C. For myofibrillar proteins in solution unfolding starts at 30-32°C, followed by protein-protein association at 36-40°C and subsequent gelation at 45-50°C (conc.>0.5% by weight). At temperatures between 53 and 63°C the collagen denaturation occurs, followed by collagen fibre shrinkage. If the collagen fibres are not stabilised by heat-resistant intermolecular bonds, it dissolves and forms gelatine on further heating. The structural changes on cooking in whole meat and comminuted meat products, and the alterations in water-holding and texture of the meat product that it leads to, are then discussed.

  10. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE WITHIN THE STRUCTURE OF EMPLOYMENT AND PRODUCTION IN THE MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Piecuch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the European Union during the 1980s with the Mediterranean region countries was a major challenge both for the new Member States and for the Community as a whole. The new Member States, i.e. Greece, Spain and Portugal, were poorly developed in economic terms, with a high proportion of the agricultural sector in overall production and employment structure. Still, the concerns about the future turned out to be unfounded, and the impulse of the accession process and the necessity to compete on the common market brought certain advantages both to existing and to new Member States, thus enforcing certain changes in the structure of production and employment in the economies discussed in this paper. Today, the Mediterranean region states, irrespective of the success achieved in the past years, are again facing the need to resolve certain important economic problems related to the global fi nancial crisis. This paper discusses one of the aspects that strongly contributes to the present diffi cult socioeconomic situation of the contemplated region, i.e. evolution of the sectoral structure of employment and GDP during the European Union membership, with special consideration of the situation in agriculture. 

  11. Aspergillus niger biofilms for celulasas production: some structural and physiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretty K. Villena

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger biofilms developed on polyester cloth were evaluated considering two aspects related to the growth on surfaces: structure and physiological behavior focused on cellulase production. The biofilm structure was assessed by using electron scanning microphotographs from inoculation and adsorption to 120 h growth. The microphotographs show that biofilm formation can be divided into three phases: 1 Adhesion, which is strongly increased by Aspergillus spore hydrophobicity; 2 Initial growth and development phase from spore germination, that begins 4 to 10 h after inoculation and continues up to 24 h when almost all available surface has been colonized; 3 Maturation phase in which biomass density is highly increased from 48 h after inoculation until 120 h growth when an internal channel organization that assures medium flow through biofilm is clearly evident as it is frequently reported for bacterial biofilms.Biofilm cellulolytic enzyme activity and productivity were also evaluated, being up to 40% and 55%, respectively, higher than that attained by freely suspended cultures. These results are in agreement with the behavior of most surface living microorganisms, which generally show a higher metabolic activity because of a differential gene expression. This work is a first attempt to understand the structure and physiology of industrial filamentous fungal biofilms as a response to the scarce available information in comparison with the vast and detailed information related to bacterial and pathogenic yeast biofilms.

  12. A dataset of 200 structured product labels annotated for adverse drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demner-Fushman, Dina; Shooshan, Sonya E; Rodriguez, Laritza; Aronson, Alan R; Lang, Francois; Rogers, Willie; Roberts, Kirk; Tonning, Joseph

    2018-01-30

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs), unintended and sometimes dangerous effects that a drug may have, are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality during medical care. To date, there is no structured machine-readable authoritative source of known ADRs. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) partnered with the National Library of Medicine to create a pilot dataset containing standardised information about known adverse reactions for 200 FDA-approved drugs. The Structured Product Labels (SPLs), the documents FDA uses to exchange information about drugs and other products, were manually annotated for adverse reactions at the mention level to facilitate development and evaluation of text mining tools for extraction of ADRs from all SPLs. The ADRs were then normalised to the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and to the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA). We present the curation process and the structure of the publicly available database SPL-ADR-200db containing 5,098 distinct ADRs. The database is available at https://bionlp.nlm.nih.gov/tac2017adversereactions/; the code for preparing and validating the data is available at https://github.com/lhncbc/fda-ars.

  13. The exploit of cereal embryo structure for productive reasons by in vitro techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaskan, C.

    2017-07-01

    There are two main sides of our works exploiting embryo structure in durum wheat and some other cereals. First is haploid (or doubled haploid) embryo production using anther or microspore culture or intergeneric crosses, to ameliorate desirable characters genetically homozygote. Secondly, to develope convenient embryo culture technique in order to be stored and cultivated longer time of genotypes without being alien pollination etc. in field conditions. For that reason, two different auxin and also their combination with kinetin were used for mature embryos of wheat genotypes (hexaploid and tetraploid), to understand efficient dose for calli production and plant regeneration in plant tissue culture. Modified MS media were used adding a single dose of arabinogalactan protein (AGP) and without adding for regeneration. In further step of this study, most efficient auxin+kinetin combination which is determined previous research, it was used in the same modified MS medium to produce calli production and plant regeneration in three different genotypes (hexaploid and tetraploid wheat and diploid barley). Data were calculated in five different developmental stages of treatments. All statistical analysis of data were performed and means were compared with Duncan's test. Genetics and morphological effects of AGP on genotypes were discussed with the results of variance analysis. Simple correlation coefficient (r) was calculated base on the main values of replications.

  14. Stand Structure, Productivity and Carbon Sequestration Potential of Oak Dominated Forests in Kumaun Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Bijendra Lal; L.S. Lodhiyal

    2016-01-01

    Present study deals with stand structure, biomass, productivity and carbon sequestration in oak dominated forests mixed with other broad leaved tree species. The sites of studied forests were located in Nainital region between 29058’ N lat. and 79028’ E long at 1500-2150 m elevation. Tree density of forests ranged from 980-1100 ind.ha-1. Of this, oak trees shared 69-97%. The basal area of trees was 31.81 to 63.93 m2 ha-1. R. arboreum and Q. floribunda shared maximum basal area 16.45 and 16.32...

  15. Production Method that Leads to TiO2 Nanofibrous Structure Usable in Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovář Radovan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Burned inorganic nanofibers most often occur in the nature in two forms: rutile and anatase. Today, the production of rutile is about to end, while anatase provides more application possibilities. The resulting fiber structure is determined by calcination. It is necessary to find the optimal temperature as well as time, during which the fibers must withstand temperature load. For such method of calcination, it is necessary to create a special design of continuous furnace. Anatase has application in food packaging. Packages containing anatase are used for: food safety, improved packaging for spoilage reduction, sensors for detection of pathogens and spoilage, disinfectants and antimicrobial surfaces.

  16. Structure elucidation and toxicity analyses of the radiolytic products of aflatoxin B{sub 1} in methanol-water solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng [Institute of Agro-food Science and Technology of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 2nd Yuanmingyuan West Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100193 (China); Key Opening Laboratory of Agricultural Products Processing and Quality Control, Ministry of Agriculture, 2nd Yuanmingyuan West Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100193 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 12th Zhongguancun South Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Xie, Fang [Institute of Agro-food Science and Technology of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 2nd Yuanmingyuan West Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100193 (China); Key Opening Laboratory of Agricultural Products Processing and Quality Control, Ministry of Agriculture, 2nd Yuanmingyuan West Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100193 (China); Xue, Xiaofeng [Bee Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 1st Xiangshan North Ditch, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100093 (China); Wang, Zhidong; Fan, Bei [Institute of Agro-food Science and Technology of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 2nd Yuanmingyuan West Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100193 (China); Key Opening Laboratory of Agricultural Products Processing and Quality Control, Ministry of Agriculture, 2nd Yuanmingyuan West Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100193 (China); Ha, Yiming, E-mail: wxfay2011@hotmail.com [Institute of Agro-food Science and Technology of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 2nd Yuanmingyuan West Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100193 (China); Key Opening Laboratory of Agricultural Products Processing and Quality Control, Ministry of Agriculture, 2nd Yuanmingyuan West Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Radiolytic products of aflatoxin B{sub 1} were produced under gamma irradiation. {yields} Seven key radiolytic products were structure-elucidated. {yields} Free-radical species in radiolytic solution resulted in the formation of products. {yields} Based on the structure-activity relationship analysis, the toxicity of radiolytic products was significantly reduced compared with that of AFB{sub 1}. {yields} The addition reaction on furan ring double bond was the reason for the reduced toxicity. - Abstract: The identification of the radiolytic products of mycotoxins is a key issue in the feasibility study of gamma ray radiation detoxification. Methanol-water solution (60:40, v/v) spiked with aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}; 20 mg L{sup -1}) was irradiated with Co{sup 60} gamma ray to generate radiolytic products. Liquid chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry was applied to identify the radiolytic products of AFB{sub 1}. Accurate mass and proposed molecular formulas with a high-matching property of more than 20 radiolytic products were obtained. Seven key radiolytic products were proposed based on the molecular formulas and tandem mass spectrometry spectra. The analyses of toxicity and formation pathways were proposed based on the structure of the radiolytic products. The addition reaction caused by the free-radical species in the methanol-water solution resulted in the formation of most radiolytic products. Based on the structure-activity relationship analysis, the toxicity of radiolytic products was significantly reduced compared with that of AFB{sub 1} because of the addition reaction that occurred on the double bond in the terminal furan ring. For this reason, gamma irradiation is deemed an effective tool for the detoxification of AFB{sub 1}.

  17. Impacts of temperature on primary productivity and respiration in naturally structured macroalgal assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh W Tait

    Full Text Available Rising global temperatures caused by human-mediated change has already triggered significant responses in organismal physiology, distribution and ecosystem functioning. Although the effects of rising temperature on the physiology of individual organisms are well understood, the effect on community-wide processes has remained elusive. The fixation of carbon via primary productivity is an essential ecosystem function and any shifts in the balance of primary productivity and respiration could alter the carbon balance of ecosystems. Here we show through a series of tests that respiration of naturally structured algal assemblages in southern New Zealand greatly increases with rising temperature, with implications for net primary productivity (NPP. The NPP of in situ macroalgal assemblages was minimally affected by natural temperature variation, possibly through photo-acclimation or temperature acclimation responses, but respiration rates and compensating irradiance were negatively affected. However, laboratory experiments testing the impacts of rising temperature on several photosynthetic parameters showed a decline in NPP, increasing respiration rates and increasing compensating irradiance. The respiration Q10 of laboratory assemblages (the difference in metabolic rates over 10°C averaged 2.9 compared to a Q10 of 2 often seen in other autotrophs. However, gross primary productivity (GPP Q10 averaged 2, indicating that respiration was more severely affected by rising temperature. Furthermore, combined high irradiance and high temperature caused photoinhibition in the laboratory, and resulted in 50% lower NPP at high irradiance. Our study shows that communities may be more severely affected by rising global temperatures than would be expected by responses of individual species. In particular, enhanced respiration rates and rising compensation points have the potential to greatly affect the carbon balance of macroalgal assemblages through declines in

  18. Production structure and international competition position of the German environmental protection economy; Produktionsstruktur und internationale Wettbewerbsposition der deutschen Umweltschutzwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Schasse, Ulrich [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung e.V., Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    There exists a connection between the economic structural orientation and international competitiveness on the one hand as well as the environmental political requirements on the other hand. The environmental protection economy fits quite well the profile that Germany is demanded in the international change. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the production structure and on the international competition position of the German environmental protection economy. The authors report on (a) the production structure and production dynamics of the environmental protection industry; (b) German environmental protection economy in the international comparison; (c) Goods, building works and services for environmental protection in Germany.

  19. MAISTAS: a tool for automatic structural evaluation of alternative splicing products.

    KAUST Repository

    Floris, Matteo; Raimondo, Domenico; Leoni, Guido; Orsini, Massimiliano; Marcatili, Paolo; Tramontano, Anna

    2011-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Analysis of the human genome revealed that the amount of transcribed sequence is an order of magnitude greater than the number of predicted and well-characterized genes. A sizeable fraction of these transcripts is related to alternatively spliced forms of known protein coding genes. Inspection of the alternatively spliced transcripts identified in the pilot phase of the ENCODE project has clearly shown that often their structure might substantially differ from that of other isoforms of the same gene, and therefore that they might perform unrelated functions, or that they might even not correspond to a functional protein. Identifying these cases is obviously relevant for the functional assignment of gene products and for the interpretation of the effect of variations in the corresponding proteins. RESULTS: Here we describe a publicly available tool that, given a gene or a protein, retrieves and analyses all its annotated isoforms, provides users with three-dimensional models of the isoform(s) of his/her interest whenever possible and automatically assesses whether homology derived structural models correspond to plausible structures. This information is clearly relevant. When the homology model of some isoforms of a gene does not seem structurally plausible, the implications are that either they assume a structure unrelated to that of the other isoforms of the same gene with presumably significant functional differences, or do not correspond to functional products. We provide indications that the second hypothesis is likely to be true for a substantial fraction of the cases. AVAILABILITY: http://maistas.bioinformatica.crs4.it/.

  20. MAISTAS: a tool for automatic structural evaluation of alternative splicing products.

    KAUST Repository

    Floris, Matteo

    2011-04-15

    MOTIVATION: Analysis of the human genome revealed that the amount of transcribed sequence is an order of magnitude greater than the number of predicted and well-characterized genes. A sizeable fraction of these transcripts is related to alternatively spliced forms of known protein coding genes. Inspection of the alternatively spliced transcripts identified in the pilot phase of the ENCODE project has clearly shown that often their structure might substantially differ from that of other isoforms of the same gene, and therefore that they might perform unrelated functions, or that they might even not correspond to a functional protein. Identifying these cases is obviously relevant for the functional assignment of gene products and for the interpretation of the effect of variations in the corresponding proteins. RESULTS: Here we describe a publicly available tool that, given a gene or a protein, retrieves and analyses all its annotated isoforms, provides users with three-dimensional models of the isoform(s) of his/her interest whenever possible and automatically assesses whether homology derived structural models correspond to plausible structures. This information is clearly relevant. When the homology model of some isoforms of a gene does not seem structurally plausible, the implications are that either they assume a structure unrelated to that of the other isoforms of the same gene with presumably significant functional differences, or do not correspond to functional products. We provide indications that the second hypothesis is likely to be true for a substantial fraction of the cases. AVAILABILITY: http://maistas.bioinformatica.crs4.it/.

  1. Advanced glycation end products induce differential structural modifications and fibrillation of albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Saurabh; Sankaranarayanan, Kamatchi; Saraswathi, N. T.

    2016-06-01

    Glycation induced amyloid fibrillation is fundamental to the development of many neurodegenerative and cardiovascular complications. Excessive non-enzymatic glycation in conditions such as hyperglycaemia results in the increased accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are highly reactive pro-oxidants, which can lead to the activation of inflammatory pathways and development of oxidative stress. Recently, the effect of non-enzymatic glycation on protein structure has been the major research area, but the role of specific AGEs in such structural alteration and induction of fibrillation remains undefined. In this study, we determined the specific AGEs mediated structural modifications in albumin mainly considering carboxymethyllysine (CML), carboxyethyllysine (CEL), and argpyrimidine (Arg-P) which are the major AGEs formed in the body. We studied the secondary structural changes based on circular dichroism (CD) and spectroscopic analysis. The AGEs induced fibrillation was determined by Congo red binding and examination of scanning and transmission electron micrographs. The amyloidogenic regions in the sequence of BSA were determined using FoldAmyloid. It was observed that CEL modification of BSA leads to the development of fibrillar structures, which was evident from both secondary structure changes and TEM analysis.

  2. Structural control over well productivity in the Jundiaí River Catchment, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna A. Neves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The well productivity in crystalline terrains is extremely changeable and depends on external factors, in addition to the intrinsic properties of rocks. In the Jundiaí River Catchment, Southeastern Brazil, the main factor that influences well productivity is the existence of open discontinuities permeability in geologic environments that favor groundwater recharge. In that area, Pre-Cambrian shear and fault zones were reactivated throughout geologic time, controlling the morphostructural compartments and the Cenozoic sedimentary deposition. Superposition of productivity data and structural maps showed that more productive wells are concentrated mainly along the regional geologic structures. The structural control over well productivity is also noticeable in detailed scale. Using fine scale maps we show that the most productive wells are located in areas where brittle structures with NW-SE and E-W directions denote the action of neotectonic transtensional stress. The comprehension of evolutionary geologic history allied to fracturing analysis proved to be an efficient and a low cost technique, which is adequate for selecting areas for further developments using more expensive methods.A produtividade dos poços tubulares profundos em terrenos cristalinos é extremamente variável e depende, além das propriedades intrínsecas da rocha, de fatores externos a ela. Na bacia do rio Jundiaí, Região Sudeste do Brasil, a existência de descontinuidades abertas em situações geológicas favoráveis à recarga constitui o principal fator que influencia a produtividade dos poços. Nesta área, zonas de cisalhamento e zonas de falhas pré-cambrianas reativadas ao longo do tempo geológico controlam a compartimentação morfoestrutural e a deposição de sedimentos cenozóicos. O cruzamento do mapa estrutural com os dados dos poços que explotam o Sistema Aqüífero Cristalino mostrou que poços com produtividade elevada em relação aos demais concentram

  3. SaferProducts API

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — On March 11, 2011, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission launched SaferProducts.gov. This site hosts the agency's new Publicly Available Consumer Product...

  4. Software package to automate the design and production of translucent building structures made of pvc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova Irina Yur’evna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of the design and production of translucent building structures made of PVC. The analysis of the automation systems of this process currently existing on the market is carried out, their advantages and disadvantages are identified. Basing on this analysis, a set of requirements for automation systems for the design and production of translucent building structures made of PVC is formulated; the basic entities are involved in those business processes. The necessary functions for the main application and for dealers’ application are specified. The main application is based on technological platform 1C: Enterprise 8.2. The dealers’ module is .NET application and is developed with the use of Microsoft Visual Studio and Microsoft SQL Server because these software products have client versions free for end users (.NET Framework 4.0 Client Profile and Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Express. The features of the developed software complex implementation are described; the relevant charts are given. The scheme of system deployment and protocols of data exchange between 1C server, 1C client and dealer is presented. Also the functions supported by 1C module and .NET module are described. The article describes the content of class library developed for .NET module. The specification of integration of the two applications in a single software package is given. The features of the GUI organization are described; the corresponding screenshots are given. The possible ways of further development of the described software complex are presented and a conclusion about its competitiveness and expediency of new researches is made.

  5. Structural changes and productivity in the crisis period in Romania. The industry case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca DACHIN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present crisis is a new case study for the theories regarding economic fluctuations. The interpretation of this phenomenon varies from the acceptance of its character of rule in the history of capitalism, which brings corrections to excess in human behaviour, to the emphasis on its uniqueness determined by the effects of unprecedented globalization. The Romanian economy went through the crisis by having persistent structural problems which were partially masked by the expansion during the previous period of sustained economic growth. Considering that productivity is a significant parameter for the competitiveness of the national economy and that the healthy economic growth is a chance for diminishing the gap to other European countries, the paper aims at the identification of the economic activities which have contributed to economic growth until 2008 and of the potential sources of economic recovery in the next period. The research uses the empirical analysis in order to see the effects of the crisis, as well as to understand the signals given by the productivity trend regarding structural changes after the crisis started. Since the industry had a fast recovery in 2011 compared to other EU countries, the analysis is extended to the contribution of this activity to economic growth.

  6. A Hierarchical structure of key performance indicators for operation management and continuous improvement in production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ningxuan; Zhao, Cong; Li, Jingshan; Horst, John A

    2016-01-01

    Key performance indicators (KPIs) are critical for manufacturing operation management and continuous improvement (CI). In modern manufacturing systems, KPIs are defined as a set of metrics to reflect operation performance, such as efficiency, throughput, availability, from productivity, quality and maintenance perspectives. Through continuous monitoring and measurement of KPIs, meaningful quantification and identification of different aspects of operation activities can be obtained, which enable and direct CI efforts. A set of 34 KPIs has been introduced in ISO 22400. However, the KPIs in a manufacturing system are not independent, and they may have intrinsic mutual relationships. The goal of this paper is to introduce a multi-level structure for identification and analysis of KPIs and their intrinsic relationships in production systems. Specifically, through such a hierarchical structure, we define and layer KPIs into levels of basic KPIs, comprehensive KPIs and their supporting metrics, and use it to investigate the relationships and dependencies between KPIs. Such a study can provide a useful tool for manufacturing engineers and managers to measure and utilize KPIs for CI.

  7. Structure of Quinolinate Synthase from Pyrococcus horikoshii in the Presence of Its Product, Quinolinic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esakova, Olga A; Silakov, Alexey; Grove, Tyler L; Saunders, Allison H; McLaughlin, Martin I; Yennawar, Neela H; Booker, Squire J

    2016-06-15

    Quinolinic acid (QA) is a common intermediate in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and its derivatives in all organisms that synthesize the molecule de novo. In most prokaryotes, it is formed from the condensation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and aspartate-enamine by the action of quinolinate synthase (NadA). NadA contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster cofactor with a unique, non-cysteinyl-ligated, iron ion (Fea), which is proposed to bind the hydroxyl group of a postulated intermediate in the last step of the reaction to facilitate a dehydration. However, direct evidence for this role in catalysis has yet to be provided. Herein, we present the structure of NadA in the presence of the product of its reaction, QA. We find that N1 and the C7 carboxylate group of QA ligate to Fea in a bidentate fashion, which is confirmed by Hyperfine Sublevel Correlation (HYSCORE) spectroscopy. This binding mode would place the C5 hydroxyl group of the postulated final intermediate distal to Fea and virtually incapable of coordinating to it. The structure shows that three strictly conserved amino acids, Glu198, Tyr109, and Tyr23, are in close proximity to the bound product. Substitution of these amino acids with Gln, Phe, and Phe, respectively, leads to complete loss of activity.

  8. Increasing production, the sustained yield method, and reserve structure of agrisilvicultural ecosystems in the moist tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruenig, E F

    1980-09-01

    While substantial improvements first of all require a profound change of political attitudes and the replacement of irrational ideological creeds, improvements of the food situation in addition needs the application of ecologically adapted and economically sound land use techniques. This in turn requires scientific knowledge of the interrelationships between site factors and the structure and functions of crop types. The principles of the structural design of tropical virgin forest ecosystems can be usefully adapted for the development of agroforestry crop types. Such crop types should be capable of producing a sustained yield of food, timber, fuel, medicinal substances, spices and other useful products and, in addition, produce favourable, stabilizing effects on the local, regional and finally global biosphere.

  9. Two-photon polymerization as a structuring technology in production: future or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnisch, Emely Marie; Schmitt, Robert

    2017-02-01

    Two-photon polymerization (TPP) has become an established generative fabrication technique for individual, up to three-dimensional micro- and nanostructures. Due to its high resolution beyond the diffraction limit, its writing speed is limited and in most cases, very special structures are fabricated in small quantities. With regard to the trends of the optical market towards higher efficiencies, miniaturization and higher functionalities, there is a high demand for so called intelligent light management systems, including also individual optical elements. Here, TPP could offer a fabrication technique, enabling higher complexities of structures than conventional cutting and lithographic technologies do. But how can TPP opened up for production? In the following, some approaches to establish TPP as a mastering technique for molding are presented against this background.

  10. Product and labour market regulations, production prices, wages and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cette, G.; Lopez, J.; Mairesse, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the effects of product and labour market regulations on industry productivity through their various impacts on changes in production prices and wages. In a first stage, the estimation of a regression equation on an industry*country panel, with controls for

  11. Controls of vegetation structure and net primary production in restored grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Seth M.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2014-01-01

    1. Vegetation structure and net primary production (NPP) are fundamental properties of ecosystems. Understanding how restoration practices following disturbance interact with environmental factors to control these properties can provide insight on how ecosystems recover and guide management efforts. 2. We assessed the relative contribution of environmental and restoration factors in controlling vegetation structure, above- and below-ground investment in production across a chronosequence of semiarid Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields recovering from dryland wheat cropping relative to undisturbed grassland. Importantly, we determined the role of plant diversity and how seeding either native or introduced perennial grasses influenced the recovery of vegetation properties. 3. Plant basal cover increased with field age and was highest in CRP fields seeded with native perennial grasses. In contrast, fields seeded with introduced perennial grasses had tall-growing plants with relatively low basal cover. These vegetation structural characteristics interacted with precipitation, but not soil characteristics, to influence above-ground NPP (ANPP). Fields enrolled in the CRP program for >7 years supported twice as much ANPP as undisturbed shortgrass steppe in the first wet year of the study, but all CRP fields converged on a common low amount of ANPP in the following dry year and invested less than half as much as the shortgrass steppe in below-ground biomass. 4. ANPP in CRP fields seeded with native perennial grasses for more than 7 years was positively related to species richness, whereas ANPP in CRP fields seeded with introduced perennial grasses were controlled more by dominant species. 5. Synthesis and applications. Seeding with introduced, instead of native, perennial grasses had a strong direct influence on vegetation structure, including species richness, which indirectly affected NPP through time. However, the effects of restoring either native or introduced

  12. Model for economical analysis of oil and gas deepwater production concepts : Comparisons of life cycle cost of subsea production systems vs. floating structures with dry wellheads.

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Mata, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore technology The scope of the work was to create a model that will allow the comparison of Life Cycle Costs (LCC) for subsea production systems and floating structures with dry wellheads for the Mexican territorial waters of the Gulf of Mexico. To give validity to the model, an empirical comparison on the resulting recovery factor based on data of the US Gulf of Mexico was included. This comparison is intended to answer ¿Is there a significant diffe...

  13. Accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in eye structures of mice subjected to whole-body X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakina, N.L.; Dontsov, A.E.; Afanas'ev, G.G.; Ostrovskij, M.A.; Pelevina, I.I.

    1990-01-01

    In studying the effect of whole-body X-irradiation on the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products (conjugated dienes, TBA-active products, and Sciff bases) in retina and retinal pigmented epithelium of pigmented and nonpigmented mice it was shown that irradiation of dark-pigmented mice does not cause even a slight accumulation of lipid peroxidation products as compared to that in the controls. Albino mice exhibited a marked increase in the level of lipid peroxidation products which was manifested soon after irradiation and persisted for at least 3 months after irradiation. Melanine is suggested to participate in protecting eye structures against pro-oxidizing action of ionizing radiation

  14. Production management (2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Chung Yeong

    2000-08-01

    This book includes basic concept of production management, production system, strategy and mission of production, decision of production management, operation of decision making, life cycle of items and development, value of productions, design for reliability of productions, equipment layout and manufacturing process, quantitative forecast, schedule plan, inventory system, concept, input and output of MRP, Montekalo simulation, quality management, and automation system.

  15. Product Service Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems......Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems...

  16. NMR spectroscopy: structure elucidation of cycloelatanene A: a natural product case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Sylvia; Dias, Daniel Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The structure elucidation of new secondary metabolites derived from marine and terrestrial sources is frequently a challenging task. The hurdles include the ability to isolate stable secondary metabolites of sufficient purity that are often present in products that the compound may rapidly degrade during and/or after the isolation, due to sensitivity to light, air oxidation, and/or temperature. In this way, precautions need to be taken, as much as possible to avoid any such chemical inter-conversions and/or degradations. Immediately after purification, the next step is to rapidly acquire all analytical spectroscopic data in order to complete the characterization of the isolated secondary metabolite(s), prior to any possible decomposition. The final hurdle in this multiple step process, especially in the acquisition of the NMR spectroscopic and other analytical data (mass spectra, infrared and ultra-violet spectra, optical rotation, etc.), is to assemble the structural moieties/units in an effort to complete the structure elucidation. Often ambiguity with the elucidation of the final structure remains when structural fragments identified are difficult to piece together on the basis of the HMBC NMR correlations or when the relative configuration cannot be unequivocally identified on the basis of NOE NMR enhancements observed. Herein, we describe the methodology used to carry out the structure elucidation of a new C16 chamigrene, cycloelatanene A (5) which was isolated from the southern Australian marine alga Laurencia elata (Rhodomelaceae). The general approach and principles used in the structure determination of this compound can be applied to the structure elucidation of other small molecular weight compounds derived from either natural or synthetic sources.

  17. Threshold resummation for the LHC: all order colour structure and application to squark production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinn, Ch.; Falgari, P.; Benke, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a factorization formula for the production of pairs of heavy coloured particles in hadronic collision at the production threshold. We construct a basis in colour space that diagonalized the soft function appearing in the factorization formula to all orders in perturbation theory. We perform a resummation of soft gluon effects in momentum space and present results for the example of squark-antisquark production at the LHC. (author)

  18. Ectopic lymphoid structures support ongoing production of class-switched autoantibodies in rheumatoid synovium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Humby

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular structures resembling germinal centres (GCs that are characterized by follicular dendritic cell (FDC networks have long been recognized in chronically inflamed tissues in autoimmune diseases, including the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, it is debated whether these ectopic structures promote autoimmunity and chronic inflammation driving the production of pathogenic autoantibodies. Anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPA are highly specific markers of RA, predict a poor prognosis, and have been suggested to be pathogenic. Therefore, the main study objectives were to determine whether ectopic lymphoid structures in RA synovium: (i express activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, the enzyme required for somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination (CSR of Ig genes; (ii support ongoing CSR and ACPA production; and (iii remain functional in a RA/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID chimera model devoid of new immune cell influx into the synovium.Using immunohistochemistry (IHC and quantitative Taqman real-time PCR (QT-PCR in synovial tissue from 55 patients with RA, we demonstrated that FDC+ structures invariably expressed AID with a distribution resembling secondary lymphoid organs. Further, AID+/CD21+ follicular structures were surrounded by ACPA+/CD138+ plasma cells, as demonstrated by immune reactivity to citrullinated fibrinogen. Moreover, we identified a novel subset of synovial AID+/CD20+ B cells outside GCs resembling interfollicular large B cells. In order to gain direct functional evidence that AID+ structures support CSR and in situ manufacturing of class-switched ACPA, 34 SCID mice were transplanted with RA synovium and humanely killed at 4 wk for harvesting of transplants and sera. Persistent expression of AID and Igamma-Cmu circular transcripts (identifying ongoing IgM-IgG class-switching was observed in synovial grafts expressing FDCs/CD21L. Furthermore, synovial mRNA levels of AID

  19. Ultraviolet Light Surface Treatment as an Environmentally Benign Process for Production, Maintenance and Repair of Military Composite Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drzal, Lawrence T

    2002-01-01

    The principal objective of this work is to develop a low-cost, high-speed, environmentally benign, dry surface treatment method for production, and repair of military composite structures using ultraviolet (UV...

  20. [Production of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njaine; Souza; Minayo; Assis

    1997-07-01

    We propose a critical reflection on quality of information concerning violence in Brazil, emphasizing some of the main sources of primary data: Public Law Enforcement Departments, Police, and Municipal and State Secretaries of Health. The city of Rio de Janeiro is taken as a typical "case" in this analysis. The hypotheses are: (a) in the process of producing this information, its generation, systematization, and dissemination are poor quality, thus becoming banal and revealing their discriminatory bias; (b) data are treated as private tools and not as a public service, thus reflecting an authoritarian and bureaucratic institutional structure. They themselves become a form of (mis)information, void of any valid social or political meaning and insufficient to inform society about the real expression of violence and to aid in formulating effective public policies. Conclusions are as follows: 1) that information on violent events be valued from the time it is recorded until it is put to social use: 2) that professionals and institutions dealing with the issue transform structures and ideas with a view towards an integrated and conscious fulfillment of their social roles; and 3) that society organize and work collectively against violence, bolstering the value of human life.

  1. Structural Change of Gross Regional Product in the Subjects of Ural Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Vladimirovich Gamukin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The important factor of the stability of the national economy is the adaptive capability of regional economies to damping of external and internal factors of risk. It occurs thanks to the variety of the developed industry structures of the economy in regions as well as to the constant process of their transformation that finds reflection in the structure of the gross regional product (GRP. It is possible to consider three main strategies of the development of the structure of regional economy: 1 the reduction of the economies of regions to the balanced condition; 2 the emphasis on the individualization of the structure of regional economy; 3 the combined strategy, when regions with various structure of economy are integrated into macro-regions in which there is a compilation of structure. In the latter case, this can result in both the leveling of the GRP structure of the territorial subjects of the Russian Federation included in the region and its convergence to macro-region indicators, in general (for example, to the federal district’s indicators. For the confirmation of this hypothesis, the analysis of GRP of the subjects included in the Ural Federal District for the period of 2005–2014 is carried out. As a result, a number of conclusions are formulated. Thus, the measurements with the use of the Ryabtsev Index and Szalai Index have shown that the GRP structure of autonomous areas is most close to the GRP structure of the federal district. At the same time, during the analyzed period, there was a reducing in a share of mining operations along with the increase in a share of GRP types referred to the auxiliary and social component of economic activity. In the federal district, there is a slow movement to a more balanced participation of regions of the district in the generation of GRP total amount. When using the author’s index of the structure determined by the double calculation of the sum of squared deviations, the tendency towards

  2. Surface biofunctionalization and production of miniaturized sensor structures using aerosol printing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, Ingo; Groth, Esther; Wirth, Ingo; Schumacher, Julian; Maiwald, Marcus; Zoellmer, Volker; Busse, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The work described in this paper demonstrates that very small protein and DNA structures can be applied to various substrates without denaturation using aerosol printing technology. This technology allows high-resolution deposition of various nanoscaled metal and biological suspensions. Before printing, metal and biological suspensions were formulated and then nebulized to form an aerosol which is aerodynamically focused on the printing module of the system in order to achieve precise structuring of the nanoscale material on a substrate. In this way, it is possible to focus the aerosol stream at a distance of about 5 mm from the printhead to the surface. This technology is useful for printing fluorescence-marked proteins and printing enzymes without affecting their biological activity. Furthermore, higher molecular weight DNA can be printed without shearing. The advantages, such as printing on complex, non-planar 3D structured surfaces, and disadvantages of the aerosol printing technology are also discussed and are compared with other printing technologies. In addition, miniaturized sensor structures with line thicknesses in the range of a few micrometers are fabricated by applying a silver sensor structure to glass. After sintering using an integrated laser or in an oven process, electrical conductivity is achieved within the sensor structure. Finally, we printed BSA in small micrometre-sized areas within the sensor structure using the same deposition system. The aerosol printing technology combined with material development offers great advantages for future-oriented applications involving biological surface functionalization on small areas. This is important for innovative biomedical micro-device development and for production solutions which bridge the disciplines of biology and electronics.

  3. Surface biofunctionalization and production of miniaturized sensor structures using aerosol printing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Ingo; Groth, Esther; Wirth, Ingo; Schumacher, Julian; Maiwald, Marcus; Zoellmer, Volker; Busse, Matthias

    2010-03-01

    The work described in this paper demonstrates that very small protein and DNA structures can be applied to various substrates without denaturation using aerosol printing technology. This technology allows high-resolution deposition of various nanoscaled metal and biological suspensions. Before printing, metal and biological suspensions were formulated and then nebulized to form an aerosol which is aerodynamically focused on the printing module of the system in order to achieve precise structuring of the nanoscale material on a substrate. In this way, it is possible to focus the aerosol stream at a distance of about 5 mm from the printhead to the surface. This technology is useful for printing fluorescence-marked proteins and printing enzymes without affecting their biological activity. Furthermore, higher molecular weight DNA can be printed without shearing. The advantages, such as printing on complex, non-planar 3D structured surfaces, and disadvantages of the aerosol printing technology are also discussed and are compared with other printing technologies. In addition, miniaturized sensor structures with line thicknesses in the range of a few micrometers are fabricated by applying a silver sensor structure to glass. After sintering using an integrated laser or in an oven process, electrical conductivity is achieved within the sensor structure. Finally, we printed BSA in small micrometre-sized areas within the sensor structure using the same deposition system. The aerosol printing technology combined with material development offers great advantages for future-oriented applications involving biological surface functionalization on small areas. This is important for innovative biomedical micro-device development and for production solutions which bridge the disciplines of biology and electronics.

  4. Surface biofunctionalization and production of miniaturized sensor structures using aerosol printing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Ingo; Groth, Esther; Wirth, Ingo; Schumacher, Julian; Maiwald, Marcus; Zoellmer, Volker; Busse, Matthias, E-mail: ingo.wirth@ifam.frauhofer.d [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Applied Materials Research (IFAM), Wiener Strasse 12, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The work described in this paper demonstrates that very small protein and DNA structures can be applied to various substrates without denaturation using aerosol printing technology. This technology allows high-resolution deposition of various nanoscaled metal and biological suspensions. Before printing, metal and biological suspensions were formulated and then nebulized to form an aerosol which is aerodynamically focused on the printing module of the system in order to achieve precise structuring of the nanoscale material on a substrate. In this way, it is possible to focus the aerosol stream at a distance of about 5 mm from the printhead to the surface. This technology is useful for printing fluorescence-marked proteins and printing enzymes without affecting their biological activity. Furthermore, higher molecular weight DNA can be printed without shearing. The advantages, such as printing on complex, non-planar 3D structured surfaces, and disadvantages of the aerosol printing technology are also discussed and are compared with other printing technologies. In addition, miniaturized sensor structures with line thicknesses in the range of a few micrometers are fabricated by applying a silver sensor structure to glass. After sintering using an integrated laser or in an oven process, electrical conductivity is achieved within the sensor structure. Finally, we printed BSA in small micrometre-sized areas within the sensor structure using the same deposition system. The aerosol printing technology combined with material development offers great advantages for future-oriented applications involving biological surface functionalization on small areas. This is important for innovative biomedical micro-device development and for production solutions which bridge the disciplines of biology and electronics.

  5. Study on structural design technique of silicon carbide applied for thermochemical hydrogen production IS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takegami, Hiroaki; Terada, Atsuhiko; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Ishikura, Syuichi

    2011-03-01

    The IS process is the hydrogen production method which used the thermochemical reaction cycle of sulfuric acid and iodyne. Therefore, the design to endure the high temperature and moreover corrode-able environment is required to the equipment. Specifically, the sulfuric acid decomposer which is one of the main equipment of the IS process is the equipment to heat with hot helium and for the sulfuric acid of 90 wt% to evaporate. Moreover, it is the important equipment to supply the SO 3 decomposer which is the following process, resolving the part of sulfuric acid vapor into SO 3 with. The heat exchanger that sulfuric acid evaporates must be made pressure-resistant structure because it has the high-pressure helium of 4 MPa and the material that the high temperature and the corrosion environment of equal to or more than 700degC can be endured must be used. As the material, it is selected from the corrosion experiment and so on when SiC which is carbonization silicone ceramics is the most excellent material. However, even if it damages the ceramic block which is a heat exchanger because it becomes the structure which is stored in pressure-resistant metallic container, fluid such as sulfuric acid becomes the structure which doesn't leak out outside. However, the structure design technique to have been unified when using ceramics as the structure part isn't serviced as the standard. This report is the one which was studied about the structural design technique to have taken the material strength characteristic of the ceramics into consideration, refer to existing structural design standard. (author)

  6. Porous materials with gradient and biporous structure, methods of their production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyuschenko, A.; Savich, V.; Pilinevich, L.; Rak, A.

    2001-01-01

    We have worked out the technology of production porous powder materials (PPMs) of bronze, nickel, corrosion resistant steel and titanium powders with gradient and (or) biporous structure: vibrating forming of metal powders (including in electromagnetic field); layer-by-layer forming of metal powders with pore-maker while different proportion of the latter in the layer; forming of powder polymer layer on the preliminary sintered metal PPM surface. We have worked out the technology of production biporous structure by the following methods: metal granules forming and sintering; forming and sintering of metal powder with granules (2-3 mm) and pores-forming powder (size of particles is 0,4-0,63 mm). The novelty is in creation of technological bases of pores sizes regulation from 5 mkm on one PPM surface to 120 mkm on the opposite PPM surface which thickness can be 2-6 mm. PPM porosity can be constant within 0,3-0,6 relative units. More effective are those PPM which pores sizes are changeable and also porosity (from 0,35 to 0,60) from one surface o the opposite one. Two-layer metal-polymer PPM have pores sizes of 20-40 mkm in polymer layer and porosity 0,4-0,5 and, correspondingly, in metal layer 80-100 mkm and 0,45-0,55. In biporous structures made of 2-3 mm metal granules the distance between granules is 300-600 mkm and in granules - 14-30 mkm. The integral porosity of such PPM is 0,55-0,70. The technology of forming and sintering metal powder with granules and pores-making powder (carbamide) enables to regulate the integral porosity within 0,7-0,8 and average pores sizes within 100-1000 mkm with average size of metal powder particles of 0,63-1,0 mm. (author)

  7. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION AND AUTOMATION OF PROCESS ENGINEERING FOR WELDED STRUCTURE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Zankovets

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Models and methods for presentation of database and knowledge base have been developed on the basis of composition and structure of data flow in technological process of welding. The information in data and knowledge base is presented in the form of multilevel hierarchical structure and it is organized according to its functionality in the form of separate files. Each file contains a great number of tables. While using mathematical simulation and information technologies an expert system has been developed with the purpose to take decisions in designing and process engineering for production of welded ructures. The system makes it possible to carry out technically substantiated selection of welded and welding materials, sttypes of welded connections, welding methods, parameters and modes of welding. The developed system allows to improve quality of the accepted design decisions due to reduction of manual labour costs for work with normative-reference documentation, analysis and evaluation of dozens of possible alternatives. The system also permits to reduce labour inputs for testing structures on technological effectiveness, to ensure reduction of materials consumption for welded structures, to guarantee faultless formation of welded connections at this stage.

  8. Structural study and properties of peraluminous formulations for the fission products and minor actinides confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasnier, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, peraluminous glasses (lack of alkaline and alkaline earth ions regarding aluminum) are under study to assess the potentiality of these matrices to confine fission products and minor actinides (FPA) at higher rate than current R7T7 glass (18,5 wt % FPA). The first part of this work aims at studying the physical and chemical properties of complex peraluminous glasses containing increasing FPA rate (18.5 to 32 wt %) to compare them with the specifications. The very low crystallization tendency of complex glasses containing up to 22.5 wt % as well as the very good chemical durability observed are major assets. The other part focuses on the lanthanides incorporation in simplified glass compositions in the SiO 2 -B 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 -Na 2 O-CaO-Ln 2 O 3 system (Ln = Nd or La). The glass homogeneity and devitrification tendency are investigated at different scales by XRD, SEM, TEM and structural techniques such as NMR (MAS, MQMAS, REDOR, HMQC, DHMQC) and neodymium optical spectroscopy that appear very powerful to determine the lanthanides structural role regarding aluminum and describe more precisely the structural organization of peraluminous network, as still unknown in such systems. The glass homogeneity was demonstrated in a large composition domain and new structural data were put in evidence at high lanthanides content. (author) [fr

  9. Production of specifically structured lipids by enzymatic interesterification in a pilot enzyme bed reactor: process optimization by response surface methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    1999-01-01

    Pilot production of specifically structured lipids by Lipozyme IM-catalyzed interesterification was carried out in a continuous enzyme bed reactor without the use of solvent. Medium chain triacylglycerols and oleic acid were used as model substrates. Response surface methodology was applied...... and the production of mono-incorporated and di-incorporated structured lipids with multiple regression and backward elimination. The coefficient of determination (R2) for the incorporation was 0.93, and that for the di-incorporated products was 0.94. The optimal conditions were flow rate, 2 ml/min; temperature, 65...

  10. Genetic Population Structure of Cacao Plantings within a Young Production Area in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trognitz, Bodo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hansel-Hohl, Karin; Kuant, Aldo; Grebe, Hans; Hermann, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Significant cocoa production in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, began in 1961. Since the 1980s, its economic importance to rural smallholders increased, and the region now contributes more than 50% of national cocoa bean production. This research aimed to assist local farmers to develop production of high-value cocoa based on optimal use of cacao biodiversity. Using microsatellite markers, the allelic composition and genetic structure of cacao was assessed from 44 representative plantings and two unmanaged trees. The population at Waslala consists of only three putative founder genotype spectra (lineages). Two (B and R) were introduced during the past 50 years and occur in >95% of all trees sampled, indicating high rates of outcrossing. Based on intermediate allelic diversity, there was large farm-to-farm multilocus genotypic variation. GIS analysis revealed unequal distribution of the genotype spectra, with R being frequent within a 2 km corridor along roads, and B at more remote sites with lower precipitation. The third lineage, Y, was detected in the two forest trees. For explaining the spatial stratification of the genotype spectra, both human intervention and a combination of management and selection driven by environmental conditions, appear responsible. Genotypes of individual trees were highly diverse across plantings, thus enabling selection for farm-specific qualities. On-farm populations can currently be most clearly recognized by the degree of the contribution of the three genotype spectra. Of two possible strategies for future development of cacao in Waslala, i.e. introducing more unrelated germplasm, or working with existing on-site diversity, the latter seems most appropriate. Superior genotypes could be selected by their specific composite genotype spectra as soon as associations with desired quality traits are established, and clonally multiplied. The two Y trees from the forest share a single multilocus genotype, possibly representing the

  11. Floral nectar production and nectary structure of a bee-pollinated shrub from Neotropical savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, E; Nogueira, A; Machado, S R

    2016-01-01

    Biotic pollination is critical for tropical ecosystem functioning, and nectar plays an essential role as it represents the main trophic resource for pollinators. Nevertheless, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie its production, which is essential for understanding the basis of nectar-mediated interactions in ecological and evolutionary approaches. Therefore, this study explores the relationship between the nectar secretion pattern and nectary functional changes in Anemopaegma album, a bee-pollinated species. We analysed the pattern of nectar production under field conditions and investigated floral nectary structural changes in two different developmental stages using light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. We measured 30.95 ± 23.02 μl (mean ± SD, n = 30) of nectar accumulated inside the nectar chamber (29.26 ± 3.48% sucrose equivalents) at the moment of flower opening. Nectar removal did not influence the pattern of floral nectar production in terms of volume or total sugar but reduced the concentration of the nectar produced during the first 24 h of anthesis. The nectary consisted of an epidermis, a nectary parenchyma and a subnectary parenchyma supplied only by phloem. Starch grains decreased in size and abundance from the subnectary parenchyma toward the epidermis. We observed the degradation of starch grains and incorporation of amyloplasts into vacuoles at the pre-anthesis stage as well as the transformation of amyloplasts into elaioplasts during anthesis. Nectar secretion was continuous during the A. album flower life span, which was related to the functional features of its floral nectary, especially the presence of starch stored in the parenchyma. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Defining the Structural Basis for Allosteric Product Release from E. coli Dihydrofolate Reductase Using NMR Relaxation Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyen, David; Fenwick, R Bryn; Aoto, Phillip C; Stanfield, Robyn L; Wilson, Ian A; Dyson, H Jane; Wright, Peter E

    2017-08-16

    The rate-determining step in the catalytic cycle of E. coli dihydrofolate reductase is tetrahydrofolate (THF) product release, which can occur via an allosteric or an intrinsic pathway. The allosteric pathway, which becomes accessible when the reduced cofactor NADPH is bound, involves transient sampling of a higher energy conformational state, greatly increasing the product dissociation rate as compared to the intrinsic pathway that obtains when NADPH is absent. Although the kinetics of this process are known, the enzyme structure and the THF product conformation in the transiently formed excited state remain elusive. Here, we use side-chain proton NMR relaxation dispersion measurements, X-ray crystallography, and structure-based chemical shift predictions to explore the structural basis of allosteric product release. In the excited state of the E:THF:NADPH product release complex, the reduced nicotinamide ring of the cofactor transiently enters the active site where it displaces the pterin ring of the THF product. The p-aminobenzoyl-l-glutamate tail of THF remains weakly bound in a widened binding cleft. Thus, through transient entry of the nicotinamide ring into the active site, the NADPH cofactor remodels the enzyme structure and the conformation of the THF to form a weakly populated excited state that is poised for rapid product release.

  13. Cannabis—XV . Pyrolysis of cannabidiol. Structure elucidation of four pyrolytic products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppers, F.J.E.M.; Bercht, C.A.L.; Salemink, C.A.; Lousberg, R.J.J.Ch.

    1975-01-01

    Pyrolysis of cannabidiol in nitrogen atmosphere affords at least six more products with longer GC-retention times than CBD, next to unconverted CBD. Two of these could be identified as Δ1(2)THC and CBN Two further products were investigated and their mass spectrometrical fragmentations and

  14. Supporting conceptual product design by hybrid simulation of use processes with scenario structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegte, W.F.; Horváth, I.

    2007-01-01

    The approach described in this paper aims to offer designers a new way to investigate use processes of products by integrating scenarios of expected user behaviour with simulations of physical artefact behaviour. Use is considered a key process in the life cycle of a product, being the phase in

  15. A chain information model for structured knowledge management: towards effective and efficient food product improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benner, M.; Geerts, R.F.R.; Linnemann, A.R.; Jongen, W.M.F.; Folstar, P.; Cnossen, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    New food products often fail, because they are not designed according to consumers' wishes or not produced efficiently. Frequently, the information required for an effective and efficient product development process is not relayed to the appropriate actor in the chain. This article presents a

  16. A chain information model for structured knowledge management: Towards effective and efficient food product improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benner, M.; Geerts, R.F.R.; Linnemann, A.R.; Jongen, W.M.F.; Folstar, P.; Cnossen, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    New food products often fail, because they are not designed according to consumers' wishes or not produced efficiently. Frequently, the information required for an effective and efficient product development process is not relayed to the appropriate actor in the chain. This article presents a

  17. Perspectives on the production, structural characteristics and potential applications of bioplastics derived from polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Malafaia, Carolina B

    2018-02-01

    Since the last two decades, the use of synthetic materials has increased and become more frequent in this capitalist system. Polymers used as raw materials are usually disposed very rapidly and considered serious damages when they return to the environment. Because of this behaviour, there was an increasing in the global awareness by minimizing the waste generated, in addition to the scientific community concern for technological alternatives to solve this problem. Alternatively, biodegradable polymers are attracting special interest due to their inherent properties, which are similar to the ones of the conventional plastics. Bioplastics covers plastics made from renewable resources, including plastics that biodegrade under controlled conditions at the end of their use phase. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polyesters composed of hydroxy acids, synthesized by a variety of microorganisms as intracellular carbon and energy storage. These environmentally friendly biopolymers have excellent potential in domestic, agricultural, industrial and medical field, however their production on a large scale is still limited. This review considered the most recent scientific publications on the production of bioplastics based on PHAs, their structural characteristics and the exploitation of different renewable sources of raw materials. In addition, there were also considered the main biotechnological applications of these biopolymers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Methane Production in Dairy Cows Correlates with Rumen Methanogenic and Bacterial Community Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Rebecca; Dicksved, Johan; Sun, Li; Gonda, Horacio; Müller, Bettina; Schnürer, Anna; Bertilsson, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Methane (CH 4 ) is produced as an end product from feed fermentation in the rumen. Yield of CH 4 varies between individuals despite identical feeding conditions. To get a better understanding of factors behind the individual variation, 73 dairy cows given the same feed but differing in CH 4 emissions were investigated with focus on fiber digestion, fermentation end products and bacterial and archaeal composition. In total 21 cows (12 Holstein, 9 Swedish Red) identified as persistent low, medium or high CH 4 emitters over a 3 month period were furthermore chosen for analysis of microbial community structure in rumen fluid. This was assessed by sequencing the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene and by quantitative qPCR of targeted Methanobrevibacter groups. The results showed a positive correlation between low CH 4 emitters and higher abundance of Methanobrevibacter ruminantium clade. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) on operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level of bacteria showed two distinct clusters ( P microbial population or host genetic differences that is reflected in bacterial and archaeal (or methanogens) populations.

  19. Effect of grazers and viruses on bacterial community structure and production in two contrasting trophic lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domaizon Isabelle

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last 30 years, extensive studies have revealed the crucial roles played by microbes in aquatic ecosystems. It has been shown that bacteria, viruses and protozoan grazers are dominant in terms of abundance and biomass. The frequent interactions between these microbiological compartments are responsible for strong trophic links from dissolved organic matter to higher trophic levels, via heterotrophic bacteria, which form the basis for the important biogeochemical roles of microbial food webs in aquatic ecosystems. To gain a better understanding of the interactions between bacteria, viruses and flagellates in lacustrine ecosystems, we investigated the effect of protistan bacterivory on bacterial abundance, production and structure [determined by 16S rRNA PCR-DGGE], and viral abundance and activity of two lakes of contrasting trophic status. Four experiments were conducted in the oligotrophic Lake Annecy and the mesotrophic Lake Bourget over two seasons (early spring vs. summer using a fractionation approach. In situ dark vs. light incubations were performed to consider the effects of the different treatments in the presence and absence of phototrophic activity. Results The presence of grazers (i.e. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of a synergistic effect, i.e. the positive influence of grazers on viral activities in sustaining (directly and indirectly bacterial production and affecting composition, in both oligotrophic and mesotrophic lakes.

  20. Methylation of flavonoids: Chemical structures, bioactivities, progress and perspectives for biotechnological production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Niranjan; Thuan, Nguyen Huy; Ghimire, Gopal Prasad; Thang, Duong Van; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2016-05-01

    Among the natural products, flavonoids have been particularly attractive, highly studied and become one of the most important promising agent to treat cancer, oxidant stress, pathogenic bacteria, inflammations, cardio-vascular dysfunctions, etc. Despite many promising roles of flavonoids, expectations have not been fulfilled when studies were extended to the in vivo condition, particularly in humans. Instability and very low oral bioavailability of dietary flavonoids are the reasons behind this. Researches have demonstrated that the methylation of these flavonoids could increase their promise as pharmaceutical agents leading to novel applications. Methylation of the flavonoids via theirs free hydroxyl groups or C atom dramatically increases their metabolic stability and enhances the membrane transport, leading to facilitated absorption and highly increased oral bioavailability. In this paper, we concentrated on analysis of flavonoid methoxides including O- and C-methoxide derivatives in aspect of structure, bioactivities and description of almost all up-to-date O- and C-methyltransferases' enzymatic characteristics. Furthermore, modern biological approaches for synthesis and production of flavonoid methoxides using metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have been focused and updated up to 2015. This review will give a handful information regarding the methylation of flavonoids, methyltransferases and biotechnological synthesis of the same. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Opportunities and challenges for the sustainable production of structurally complex diterpenoids in recombinant microbial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Katarina; Hirte, Max; Reinbold, Markus; Fuchs, Monika; Brück, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    With over 50.000 identified compounds terpenes are the largest and most structurally diverse group of natural products. They are ubiquitous in bacteria, plants, animals and fungi, conducting several biological functions such as cell wall components or defense mechanisms. Industrial applications entail among others pharmaceuticals, food additives, vitamins, fragrances, fuels and fuel additives. Central building blocks of all terpenes are the isoprenoid compounds isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Bacteria like Escherichia coli harbor a native metabolic pathway for these isoprenoids that is quite amenable for genetic engineering. Together with recombinant terpene biosynthesis modules, they are very suitable hosts for heterologous production of high value terpenes. Yet, in contrast to the number of extracted and characterized terpenes, little is known about the specific biosynthetic enzymes that are involved especially in the formation of highly functionalized compounds. Novel approaches discussed in this review include metabolic engineering as well as site-directed mutagenesis to expand the natural terpene landscape. Focusing mainly on the validation of successful integration of engineered biosynthetic pathways into optimized terpene producing Escherichia coli , this review shall give an insight in recent progresses regarding manipulation of mostly diterpene synthases.

  2. Structure-guided mutational analysis reveals the functional requirements for product specificity of DOT1 enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindar, Gülcin; Anger, Andreas M; Mehlhorn, Christine; Hake, Sandra B; Janzen, Christian J

    2014-11-12

    DOT1 enzymes are conserved methyltransferases that catalyse the methylation of lysine 79 on histone H3 (H3K79). Most eukaryotes contain one DOT1 enzyme, whereas African trypanosomes have two homologues, DOT1A and DOT1B, with different enzymatic activities. DOT1A mediates mono- and dimethylation of H3K76, the homologue of H3K79 in other organisms, whereas DOT1B additionally catalyses H3K76 trimethylation. However, it is unclear how these different enzymatic activities are achieved. Here we employ a trypanosomal nucleosome reconstitution system and structure-guided homology modelling to identify critical residues within and outside the catalytic centre that modulate product specificity. Exchange of these residues transfers the product specificity from one enzyme to the other, and reveals the existence of distinct regulatory domains adjacent to the catalytic centre. Our study provides the first evidence that a few crucial residues in DOT1 enzymes are sufficient to catalyse methyl-state-specific reactions. These results might also have far-reaching consequences for the functional understanding of homologous enzymes in higher eukaryotes.

  3. Structural Analysis of the Selected Products From the Suspension Furnace Produced in the Internal Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bydałek A. W.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There are presents the internal recycling in anode furnace, in addition to mainly blister copper and converter copper. During the process there arise the two types of semi-finished products intended for further pyro metallurgical processing: anode copper and anode slag. The stream of liquid blister copper enters into the anode furnace treatment, in which the losses are recovered, e.g. copper, resulting from oxidation and reduction of sulfides, oxides and the oxidation of metallic compounds of lead, zinc and iron. In the liquid phase there are still gaseous states, which gives the inverse relationship relating to the solid phase, wherein the gases found an outlet in waste gas or steam. The results of chemical analysis apparently differ from each other, because crystallite placement, the matrix structure and the presence of other phases and earth elements are not compared, which can be regained in the process of electrorefining. One should not interpret negatively smaller proportion of copper in the alloy, since during the later part of the production more elements can be obtained, for example from sludge, such as platinum group metals and lanthanides. According to the research the quality of blister copper, to a large extent, present in the alloy phase to many other elements, which can be recovered.

  4. Opportunities and challenges for the sustainable production of structurally complex diterpenoids in recombinant microbial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Kemper

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With over 50.000 identified compounds terpenes are the largest and most structurally diverse group of natural products. They are ubiquitous in bacteria, plants, animals and fungi, conducting several biological functions such as cell wall components or defense mechanisms. Industrial applications entail among others pharmaceuticals, food additives, vitamins, fragrances, fuels and fuel additives. Central building blocks of all terpenes are the isoprenoid compounds isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Bacteria like Escherichia coli harbor a native metabolic pathway for these isoprenoids that is quite amenable for genetic engineering. Together with recombinant terpene biosynthesis modules, they are very suitable hosts for heterologous production of high value terpenes. Yet, in contrast to the number of extracted and characterized terpenes, little is known about the specific biosynthetic enzymes that are involved especially in the formation of highly functionalized compounds. Novel approaches discussed in this review include metabolic engineering as well as site-directed mutagenesis to expand the natural terpene landscape. Focusing mainly on the validation of successful integration of engineered biosynthetic pathways into optimized terpene producing Escherichia coli, this review shall give an insight in recent progresses regarding manipulation of mostly diterpene synthases.

  5. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SUPPLEMENTS INCLUSION OF THE ENRICHED DIET ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND EGG STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Trajan Gjorgovska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional manipulation and genetic selection for egg size and production may lead to changes in egg components. This experiment was carried out to analyze the egg structure parameters of eggs produced by Hisex Brown laying hens fed with diet with different supplements inclusion. The intensity of egg production was significantly higher in the groups fed with enriched feed with iodine (90.00%, vitamin E (90.00% and selenium (91.98%, and significantly lower in the group fed with DHA inclusion feed (76.00% in respect to the control group (82.00%, confidence interval of 95%. Concerning diet supplemented with selenium and diet supplemented with vitamin E, the egg yolk weight was statistically different compared with the control group (confidence interval of 95%. The yolk weight averaged 1.80 g and 1.29 g more than yolk weight in the control eggs, respectively. The egg shell weight was statistically different in diet enriched with iodine compared with the control. The egg shell weight averaged 1.48 g less per egg for the eggs enriched with iodine with 17.45% less underweight than the control eggs. Enriched eggs offer consumer a variety of value-added options for their egg purchase. Although enriched eggs may provide consumers with a specific quality attribute or healthful ingredient, they do not appear to provide quality and value in a traditional sense as defined by the standards of quality and grade.

  6. Production monitoring system for understanding product robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    study is used to demonstrate how the monitoring system can be used to efficiently guide corrective action to improve product performance. It is claimed that the monitoring system can be used to dramatically cut the time taken to identify, planand execute corrective action related to typical quality......In the current quality paradigm, the performance of a product is kept within specification by ensuring that its parts are within specification. Product performance is then validated after final assembly. However, this does not control how robust the product performance is, i.e. how much...... it will vary between the specification limits. In this paper, a model for predicting product performance is proposed, taking into account design, assembly and process parameters live from production. This empowers production to maintain final product performance, instead of part quality. The PRECI‐IN case...

  7. Structure and productivity of mixed spruce and fir forests on Mt. Kopaonik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljukić Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this research are mixed forests of spruce and fir in the area of NP Kopaonik, which belong to the community of spruce and fir - Abieti-Piceetum abietis Mišić et Popović, 1978. The basis for the study of the structural development and production potential of these forests are data from 12 sample plots, with the average size of 0.18 ha. In terms of coenoecological affiliation all the sample plots belong to the group of ecological units - forests of spruce and fir (Abieti-Piceetum abietis, Mišić et Popović, 1978 on acid brown and brown podzolic soils, which are differentiated into 5 ecological units: Abieti-Piceetum abietis oxalidetosum on brown podzolic soil, Abieti-Piceetum abietis oxalidetosum on acid brown soil, Abieti-Piceetum abietis vaccinietosum on brown podzolic soil, Abieti-Piceetum abietis typicum on brown podzolic soil and Abieti-Piceetum abietis Dr.ymetosum on brown pozolic soil. In structural terms, these forests are characterized by very diverse structural forms, ranging from the structure of even-aged stands to typical multi-storey, unevenaged-aged stands. The form of cumulative curves of tree distribution is in most cases determined by spruce as the dominant species. At the same time, thin and medium-thick trees dominate, while the presence of stems with large dimensions is minimal. The average volume of these forestse is 777 m3•ha-1, with a mixture ratio of 0.7: 0.3 in favor of spruce. The average value of the current volume increment is 14 m3•ha-1, with a 68% share of spruce and 32% of fir. The percentage of increment ranges from 1.6% to 2.5% in all sample plots and is somewhat higher for fir. The site potential, stand characteristics and relations among the tree species have resulted in structural complexity, high productivity and ecological stability of these forests. Therefore, future forest management should avoid radical measures and procedures that would violate the established relationships and

  8. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrio, Jose-Luis

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products. PMID:21326937

  9. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrio, Jose-Luis; Demain, Arnold L

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  10. Entanglement beyond tensor product structure: algebraic aspects of quantum non-separability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derkacz, Łukasz; Gwóźdź, Marek; Jakóbczyk, Lech

    2012-01-01

    An algebraic approach to quantum non-separability is applied to the case of two qubits. It is based on the partition of the algebra of observables into independent subalgebras and the tensor product structure of the Hilbert space is not exploited. Even in this simple case, such a general formulation has some advantages. Using algebraic formalism, we can explicitly show the relativity of the notion of entanglement to the observables measured in the system and characterize separable and non-separable pure states. As a universal measure of non-separability of pure states, we propose to take the so-called total correlation. This quantity depends on the state as well as on the algebraic partition. Its numerical value is given by the norm of the corresponding correlation matrix. (paper)

  11. Structural stability and fission product behaviour in U{sub 3}Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleburgh, S.C., E-mail: simon.middleburgh@hotmail.co.uk [IME, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, New South Wales (Australia); Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, SE-72163 Västerås (Sweden); Burr, P.A. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); King, D.J.M.; Edwards, L.; Lumpkin, G.R. [IME, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, New South Wales (Australia); Grimes, R.W. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    The crystalline and amorphous structures of U{sub 3}Si have been investigated using density functional theory techniques for the first time. The effects of disorder and the impact of fission products has been separated to understand the swelling characteristics of U{sub 3}Si in both crystalline and amorphous U{sub 3}Si. Initially, the stability of the three experimentally observed polymorphs of U{sub 3}Si were explored. Subsequently, we modelled the amorphous U{sub 3}Si system and conclude that initial increase in volume observed experimentally at low temperature corresponds well with the volume change that occurs with the observed amorphisation of the material. The solubility of Xe and Zr into both the crystalline and amorphous systems was subsequently investigated.

  12. Mosquito densonucleosis virus non-structural protein NS2 is necessary for a productive infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarkh, Eugene; Robinson, Erin; Hirunkanokpun, Supanee; Afanasiev, Boris; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Carlson, Jonathan; Corsini, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Mosquito densonucleosis viruses synthesize two non-structural proteins, NS1 and NS2. While NS1 has been studied relatively well, little is known about NS2. Antiserum was raised against a peptide near the N-terminus of NS2, and used to conduct Western blot analysis and immuno-fluorescence assays. Western blots revealed a prominent band near the expected size (41 kDa). Immuno-fluorescence studies of mosquito cells transfected with AeDNV indicate that NS2 has a wider distribution pattern than does NS1, and the distribution pattern appears to be a function of time post-infection. Nuclear localization of NS2 requires intact C-terminus but does not require additional viral proteins. Mutations ranging from complete NS2 knock-out to a single missense amino acid substitution in NS2 can significantly reduce viral replication and production of viable progeny

  13. Tests of structure functions using leptons at CDF: W asymmetry and Drell-Yan production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The charge asymmetry as a function of lepton rapidity, A(y l ), has been measured at √s = 1.8 TeV for |y l | -1 , and detector improvements resulted in a seven fold increase in statistics relative to the 1988-1989 data. The increased statistics in the 1992-1993 data allow for discrimination between sets of modern parton distribution functions. The results of this analysis demonstrate the value of collider data in the measurement of the proton's structure. In addition, the Drell-Yan cross section has been measured using ∼ 4 pb -1 of dielectron and ∼ 2.5 pb -1 of dimuon data taken during the 1988-1989 run. These measurements probe the quark distributions to x 2 where nonperturbative effects are minimal. Studies of Drell-Yan production in the ∼ 20 pb -1 data from the 1992-1993 run are currently underway

  14. Streptomyces rimosus GDS(L Lipase: Production, Heterologous Overexpression and Structure-Stability Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Abramić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces rimosus lipase gene has been overexpressed in a heterologous host, S. lividans TK23. The maximal lipase activity was determined in the culture filtrates of the late stationary phase. Time course of lipase production was monitored by a modified plate assay. S. rimosus lipase gene has been located on the AseI B fragment approximately 2 Mb far from the left end of the S. rimosus linear chromosome. Out of eight examined streptomycetes, the presence of this rare type of bacterial lipase gene was detected in two belonging to the S. rimosus taxonomic cluster, and in one non-related species. Comparison of protein sequences of the Streptomyces lipolytic enzymes was performed. The result indicated the best structural stability of the putative S. coelicolor lipase-2.

  15. Skylab and solar exploration. [chromosphere-corona structure, energy production and heat transport processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Puttkamer, J.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the findings concerning solar structure, energy production, and heat transport obtained with the aid of the manned Skylab space station observatory launched on May 14, 1973. Among the topics discussed are the observation of thermonuclear fusion processes which cannot be simulated on earth, the observation of short-wave solar radiation not visible to observers on earth, and the investigation of energy-transport processes occurring in the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona. An apparent paradox is noted in that the cooler chromosphere is heating the hotter corona, seemingly in defiance of the second law of thermodynamics, thus suggesting that a nonthermal mechanism underlies the energy transport. Understanding of this nonthermal mechanism is regarded as an indispensable prerequisite for future development of plasma systems for terrestrial applications.

  16. Specificities of micro-structured reactors for hydrogen production and purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, N.; Germani, G.; Van Veen, A.C.; Schuurman, Y.; Mirodatos, C. [Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse - CNRS, 2, Avenue Albert Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Schaefer, G. [Atotech Deutschland GmbH, PO Box 210780, 10507 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    This paper presents the specificities of micro-structured reactors as compared to conventional fixed-bed reactors through two case studies devoted to (i) hydrogen production by methanol steam reforming, (ii) hydrogen purification by water-gas shift (WGS). Key features like catalyst coating stability, temperature and pressure management, effects of operating conditions (residence time, pressure drops, etc.) are well identified as controlling the micro-reactor performances for methanol reforming. These devices are also shown to be excellent tools for fast access to reaction kinetics as exemplified for the WGS reaction, subject to operating conditions carefully chosen to ensure proper hydrodynamics, in order to use conventional plug flow reactor models for extracting rate constants. (author)

  17. Nuclear structure and shapes from prompt gamma ray spectroscopy of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Morss, L.R.; Durell, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Many nuclear shape phenomena are predicted to occur in neutron-rich nuclei. The best source for the production of these nuclides is the spontaneous fission which produces practically hundreds of nuclides with yields of greater than 0.1 % per decay. Measurements of coincident gamma rays with large Ge arrays have recently been made to obtain information on nuclear structures and shapes of these neutron- rich nuclei. Among the important results that have been obtained from such measurements are octupole correlations in Ba isotopes, triaxial shapes in Ru nuclei, two-phonon vibrations in 106 Mo and level lifetimes and quadrupole moments in Nd isotopes and A=100 nuclei. These data have been used to test theoretical models

  18. Production of three-dimensional structures of PHB using selective laser sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Tatiana F.; Costa, Marysilvia F.; Thire, Rossana M.S.M.; Oliveira, Marcelo F.; Maia, Izaque A.; Silva, Jorge V.L.

    2011-01-01

    Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is a technology of layer-by-layer fabrication of three-dimensional physical models directly from their computational design. The poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is a microbial, biodegradable and semicrystalline polyester. The objective of this work was to produce PHB parts, evaluating the reuse of material in the production of the new parts. Images of SEM of part surface showed the formation of neck that indicates sintering between PHB particles during processing. Analysis of NMR and DSC of the reused polymer showed no changes in the chemical structure and thermal properties of PHB. The parts produced from virgin and reused PHB showed no significant difference in their thermal properties. This could suggest that the reuse of raw material did not influence the process reproducibility. (author)

  19. Measurement of internal jet structure in dijet production in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adloff, C.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Ayyaz, I.; Babaev, A.; Baehr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Behrend, H.-J.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bernardi, G.; Berndt, T.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Biddulph, P.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Brown, D.P.; Brueckner, W.; Bruel, P.; Bruncko, D.; Buerger, J.; Buesser, F.W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Calvet, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Carli, T.; Chabert, E.; Charlet, M.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Cocks, S.; Contreras, J.G.; Cormack, C.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Davidsson, M.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; Diaconu, C.; Dirkmann, M.; Dixon, P.; Dlugosz, W.; Donovan, K.T.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Ebert, J.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Elsen, E.; Enzenberger, M.; Erdmann, M.; Farh, A.B.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Fleischer, M.; Fluegge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Gaede, F.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Gorelov, I.; Grab, C.; Graessler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Griffiths, R.K.; Grindhammer, G.; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hampel, M.; Haustein, V.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herynek, I.; Hewitt, K.; Hiller, K.H.; Hilton, C.D.; Hladky, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Holtom, T.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C.; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Jansen, D.M.; Joensson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, H.; Kaestli, H.K.; Kander, M.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnik, O.; Katzy, J.; Kaufmann, O.; Kausch, M.; Keller, N.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Koehne, J.H.; Kolanoski, H.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Kraemerkaemper, T.; Krasny, M.W.; Krehbiel, H.; Kruecker, D.; Krueger, K.; Kuepper, A.; Kuester, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kurca, T.; Lachnit, W.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Langenegger, U.; Lebedev, A.; Lehner, F.; Lemaitre, V.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; Lobo, G.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, S.; Lueke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Magnussen, N.; Mahlke-Krueger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovsky, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; McMahon, S.J.; McMahon, T.R.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Metlica, F.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.-O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mueller, D.; Mueller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Negri, I.; Newman, P.R.; Nguyen, H.K.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Niedzballa, Ch.; Niggli, H.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Oberlack, H.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Palmen, P.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Passaggio, S.; Patel, G.D.; Pawletta, H.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pieuchot, A.; Pitzl, D.; Poeschl, R.; Pope, G.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Rick, H.; Riess, S.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rosenbauer, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rouse, F.; Royon, C.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Schacht, P.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schleif, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, D.; Schoeffel, L.; Schroeder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Siegmon, G.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, M.; Solochenko, V.; Soloviev, Y.; Sonnenschein, L.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Spitzer, H.; Squinabol, F.; Stamen, R.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Steinhart, J.; Stella, B.; Ste llberger, A.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J.P.; Swart, M.; Tapprogge, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Tchernyshov, V.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Theissen, J.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Todenhagen, R.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, P.; Tsipolitis, G.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Esch, P.; Van Haecke, A.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Villet, G.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Walter, T.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wengler, T.; Werner, M.; West, L.R.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Willard, S.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.; Wittek, C.; Wittmann, E.; Wobisch, M.; Wollatz, H.; Wuensch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zini, P.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    1999-01-01

    Internal jet structure in dijet production in deep-inelastic scattering is measured with the H1 detector at HERA. Jets with transverse energies E T,Breit > 5 GeV are selected in the Breit frame employing k perpendicular and cone jet algorithms. In the kinematic region of ssquared momentum transfers 10 2 2 and Bjorken-x values 2 -4 Bj -3 , jet shapes and subjet multiplicities are measured as a function of a resolution parameter. Distributions of both observables are corrected for detector effects and presented as functions of the transverse jet energy and jet pseudo-rapidity. Dependences of the jet shape and the average number of subjets on the transverse energy and the pseudo-rapidity of the jet are observed. With increasing transverse jet energies and decreasing pseudo-rapidities, i.e. towards the photon hemisphere, the jets are more collimated. QCD models give a fair description of the data

  20. Ownership options, financing structures, and regulatory considerations affecting independent power production projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper is a framework for analysis of the legal, financing, and policy differences between independent power production projects (IPPs) and projects with qualifying facility status (QFs) under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). At a basic level, there is no fundamental difference in types of ownership and financing structures available to IPPs and QFS. The key consideration, though, is the regulatory and legal implications to project participants. Significant issues arise for equity participants, lenders, developers, and project operators that are considering IPP projects. Of course, many of these same issues apply to certain types of QF projects that are not fully exempt from the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) and the Federal Power Act (FPA)

  1. Activation Product Inverse Calculations with NDI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Mark Girard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-27

    NDI based forward calculations of activation product concentrations can be systematically used to infer structural element concentrations from measured activation product concentrations with an iterative algorithm. The algorithm converges exactly for the basic production-depletion chain with explicit activation product production and approximately, in the least-squares sense, for the full production-depletion chain with explicit activation product production and nosub production-depletion chain. The algorithm is suitable for automation.

  2. Block-induced Complex Structures Building the Flare-productive Solar Active Region 12673

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun [CAS Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhu, Xiaoshuai [Max-Planck Institute for Solar System Research, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Song, Qiao, E-mail: shuhongyang@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Center for Space Weather, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2017-11-10

    Solar active region (AR) 12673 produced 4 X-class, 27 M-class, and numerous lower-class flares during its passage across the visible solar disk in 2017 September. Our study is to answer the questions why this AR was so flare-productive and how the X9.3 flare, the largest one of the past decade, took place. We find that there was a sunspot in the initial several days, and then two bipolar regions emerged nearby it successively. Due to the standing of the pre-existing sunspot, the movement of the bipoles was blocked, while the pre-existing sunspot maintained its quasi-circular shaped umbra only with the disappearance of a part of penumbra. Thus, the bipolar patches were significantly distorted, and the opposite polarities formed two semi-circular shaped structures. After that, two sequences of new bipolar regions emerged within the narrow semi-circular zone, and the bipolar patches separated along the curved channel. The new bipoles sheared and interacted with the previous ones, forming a complex topological system, during which numerous flares occurred. At the highly sheared region, a great deal of free energy was accumulated. On September 6, one negative patch near the polarity inversion line began to rapidly rotate and shear with the surrounding positive fields, and consequently the X9.3 flare erupted. Our results reveal that the block-induced complex structures built the flare-productive AR and the X9.3 flare was triggered by an erupting filament due to the kink instability. To better illustrate this process, a block-induced eruption model is proposed for the first time.

  3. Structural Basis for Inhibitor-Induced Hydrogen Peroxide Production by Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Tae; Na, Byeong Kwan; Chung, Jiwoung; Kim, Sulhee; Kwon, Sool Ki; Cha, Hyunju; Son, Jonghyeon; Cho, Joong Myung; Hwang, Kwang Yeon

    2018-04-19

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms of flavin reduction and hydrogen peroxide production by KMO inhibitors are unknown. Herein, we report the structure of human KMO and crystal structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (sc) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (pf) KMO with Ro 61-8048. Proton transfer in the hydrogen bond network triggers flavin reduction in p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase, but the mechanism triggering flavin reduction in KMO is different. Conformational changes via π-π interactions between the loop above the flavin and substrate or non-substrate effectors lead to disorder of the C-terminal α helix in scKMO and shifts of domain III in pfKMO, stimulating flavin reduction. Interestingly, Ro 61-8048 has two different binding modes. It acts as a competitive inhibitor in scKMO and as a non-substrate effector in pfKMO. These findings provide understanding of the catalytic cycle of KMO and insight for structure-based drug design of KMO inhibitors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Productivity and Performance Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Spring, Martin

    This study explores conceptually how performance measurement as discussed in the literature, enables or constrains the ability to manage and improve productivity. It uses an inter-disciplinary literature review to identify five areas of concern relating productivity accounting to the ability...... to improve productivity: “Productivity representation”; “productivity incentives”, “productivity intervention”; “productivity trade-off or synergy” and “productivity strategy and context”. The paper discusses these areas of concern and expands our knowledge of how productivity and performance measurement...

  5. The influence of common stimulus parameters on distortion product otoacoustic emission fine structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tiffany A; Baranowski, Lauren G

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether common approaches to setting stimulus parameters influence the depth of fine structure present in the distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) response. Because the presence of fine structure has been suggested as a possible source of errors, if one of the common parametric approaches results in reduced fine-structure depth, it may be preferred over other approaches. DPOAE responses were recorded in a group of 21 subjects with normal hearing for 1/3-octave intervals surrounding 3 f2s (1, 2, and 4 kHz) at three L2s (30, 45, and 55 dB SPL). For each f2 and L2 combination, L1 and f2/f1 were set according to three commonly used parametric approaches. These included a simple approach, the approach recommended by Kummer et al., and the approach described by Johnson et al. These three approaches primarily differ in the recommended relationship between L1 and L2. For each parametric approach, DPOAE fine structure was evaluated by varying f2 in small steps. Differences in DPOAE level and DPOAE fine-structure depth across f2, L2, and the various stimulus parameters were evaluated using repeated-measures analysis of variance. As expected, significant variations in DPOAE level were observed across the three parametric approaches. For stimulus levels #45 dB SPL, the simple stimuli resulted in lower DPOAE levels than were observed for other approaches. An unexpected finding was that stimulus parameters developed by Johnson et al., which were believed to produce higher DPOAE levels than other approaches, produced the lowest DPOAE levels of the three approaches when f2 = 4 kHz. Significant differences in fine-structure depth were also observed. Greater fine-structure depth was observed with the simple parameters, although this effect was restricted to L2 # 45 dB SPL. When L2 = 55 dB SPL, all three parametric approaches resulted in equivalent fine-structure depth. A significant difference in fine-structure depth across the 3 f2s was also observed. The

  6. Mechanism of the Quorum-Quenching Lactonase (AiiA) from Bacillus thuringiensis. 1. Product-Bound Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dali; Momb, Jessica; Thomas, Pei W.; Moulin, Aaron; Petsko, Gregory A.; Fast, Walter; Ringe, Dagmar (Brandeis); (Texas)

    2008-08-06

    Enzymes capable of hydrolyzing N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones (AHLs) used in some bacterial quorum-sensing pathways are of considerable interest for their ability to block undesirable phenotypes. Most known AHL hydrolases that catalyze ring opening (AHL lactonases) are members of the metallo-{beta}-lactamase enzyme superfamily and rely on a dinuclear zinc site for catalysis and stability. Here we report the three-dimensional structures of three product complexes formed with the AHL lactonase from Bacillus thuringiensis. Structures of the lactonase bound with two different concentrations of the ring-opened product of N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone are determined at 0.95 and 1.4 {angstrom} resolution and exhibit different product configurations. A structure of the ring-opened product of the non-natural N-hexanoyl-l-homocysteine thiolactone at 1.3 {angstrom} resolution is also determined. On the basis of these product-bound structures, a substrate-binding model is presented that differs from previous proposals. Additionally, the proximity of the product to active-site residues and observed changes in protein conformation and metal coordination provide insight into the catalytic mechanism of this quorum-quenching metalloenzyme.

  7. Effects of aspirin on distortion product fine structure: interpreted by the two-source model for distortion product otoacoustic emissions generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Aparna; Long, Glenis R

    2011-02-01

    Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure is due to the interaction of two major components coming from different places in the cochlea. One component is generated from the region of maximal overlap of the traveling waves generated by the two primaries and is attributed to nonlinear distortion (nonlinear component). The other component arises predominantly from the tonotopic region of the distortion product and is attributed to linear coherent reflection (reflection component). Aspirin (salicylate) ototoxicity can cause reversible hearing loss and reduces otoacoustic emission generation in the cochlea. The two components are expected to be affected differentially by cochlear health. Changes in DPOAE fine structure were recorded longitudinally in three subjects before, during, and after aspirin consumption. Full data sets were analyzed for two subjects, but only partial data could be analyzed from the third subject. Resulting changes in the two components of DPOAE fine structure revealed variability among subjects and differential effects on the two components. For low-intensity primaries, both components were reduced with the reflection component being more vulnerable. For high-intensity primaries, the nonlinear component showed little or no change, but the reflection component was always reduced.

  8. Synthesis, Structure, Characterization, and Decomposition of Nickel Dithiocarbamates: Effect of Precursor Structure and Processing Conditions on Solid-State Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.; Duffy, Norman V.; Hoops, Michael D.; Gorse, Elizabeth; Fanwick, Philip E.; Masnovi, John; Cowen, Jonathan E.; Dominey, Raymond N.

    2016-01-01

    Single-crystal X-ray structures of four nickel dithiocarbamate complexes, the homoleptic mixed-organic bis-dithiocarbamates Ni[S2CN(isopropyl)(benzyl)]2, Ni[S2CN(ethyl)(n-butyl)]2, and Ni[S2CN(phenyl)(benzyl)]2, as well as the heteroleptic mixed-ligand complex NiCl[P(phenyl)3][(S2CN(phenyl)(benzyl)], were determined. Synthetic, spectroscopic, structural, thermal, and sulfide materials studies are discussed in light of prior literature. The spectroscopic results are routine. A slightly distorted square-planar nickel coordination environment was observed for all four complexes. The organic residues adopt conformations to minimize steric interactions. Steric effects also may determine puckering, if any, about the nickel and nitrogen atoms, both of which are planar or nearly so. A trans-influence affects the Ni-S bond distances. Nitrogen atoms interact with the CS2 carbons with a bond order of about 1.5, and the other substituents on nitrogen display transoid conformations. There are no strong intermolecular interactions, consistent with prior observations of the volatility of nickel dithiocarbamate complexes. Thermogravimetric analysis of the homoleptic species under inert atmosphere is consistent with production of 1:1 nickel sulfide phases. Thermolysis of nickel dithiocarbamates under flowing nitrogen produced hexagonal or -NiS as the major phase; thermolysis under flowing forming gas produced millerite (-NiS) at 300 C, godlevskite (Ni9S8) at 325 and 350 C, and heazlewoodite (Ni3S2) at 400 and 450 C. Failure to exclude oxygen results in production of nickel oxide. Nickel sulfide phases produced seem to be primarily influenced by processing conditions, in agreement with prior literature. Nickel dithiocarbamate complexes demonstrate significant promise to serve as single-source precursors to nickel sulfides, a quite interesting family of materials with numerous potential applications.

  9. A structure-based approach to evaluation product adaptability in adaptable design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Qiang; Liu, Zhifeng; Cai, Ligang; Zhang, Guojun; Gu, Peihua

    2011-01-01

    Adaptable design, as a new design paradigm, involves creating designs and products that can be easily changed to satisfy different requirements. In this paper, two types of product adaptability are proposed as essential adaptability and behavioral adaptability, and through measuring which respectively a model for product adaptability evaluation is developed. The essential adaptability evaluation proceeds with analyzing the independencies of function requirements and function modules firstly based on axiomatic design, and measuring the adaptability of interfaces secondly with three indices. The behavioral adaptability reflected by the performance of adaptable requirements after adaptation is measured based on Kano model. At last, the effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by an illustrative example of the motherboard of a personal computer. The results show that the method can evaluate and reveal the adaptability of a product in essence, and is of directive significance to improving design and innovative design

  10. Ensuring production-worthy OPC recipes using large test structure arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cork, Christopher; Zimmermann, Rainer; Mei, Xin; Shahin, Alexander

    2007-03-01

    . An OPC correction recipe which gives acceptable verification results, based solely on one customer GDS is clearly not sufficient to guarantee that all future tape-outs from multiple customers will be similarly clean. Ad hoc changes made in reaction to problems seen at verification are risky, while they may solve one particular layout issue on one product there is no guarantee that the problem may simply shift to another configuration on a yet to be manufactured part. The need to re-qualify a recipe over multiple products at each recipe change can easily results in excessive computational requirements. A single layer at an advanced node typically needs overnight runs on a large processor farm. Much of this layout, however, is extremely repetitive, made from a few standard cells placed tens of thousands of times. An alternative and more efficient approach, suggested by this paper as a screening methodology, is to encapsulate the problematic structures into a programmable test structure array. The dimensions of these test structures are parameterized in software such that they can be generated with these dimensions varied over the space of the design rules and conceivable design styles. By verifying the new recipe over these test structures one could more quickly gain confidence that this recipe would be robust over multiple tape-outs. This paper gives some examples of the implementation of this methodology.

  11. Poly-m-aramid nanofiber mats: Production for application as structural modifiers in CFRP laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocchetti, Laura; D'Angelo, Emanuele; Benelli, Tiziana; Belcari, Juri; Brugo, Tommaso Maria; Zucchelli, Andrea; Giorgini, Loris

    2016-05-01

    Poly(m-phenylene isophtalamide) electrospun nanofibrous membranes were produced to be used as structural reinforcements for carbon fiber reinforced composites production. In order for the polymer to be electrospun, it needs however to be fully solubilized, so the addition of some salts is required to help disrupt the tight macromolecular packing based on intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonding. Such salts may also contribute to the electrospinnability of the overall solution, since the provide it with a higher conductivity, whatever the solvent might be. The salt haobwever stays in the final nanofibrous mat. The membranes containing the salt are also observed to be highly hygroscopic, with a water content up to 26%, in the presence of 20%wt LiCl in the nanofibrous mat. When those membranes were interleaved among prepregs to produce a laminates, the obtained composite displayed thermal properties comparable to those of a reference nanofiber-free composite, though the former showed also easier delamination. Hence the removal of the hygroscopic salt was performed, that lead to thinner membranes, whose water content matched that of the pristine polymer. The washing step induced a thinning of the layers and of the fibers diameters, though no fiber shrinking nor membrane macroscopic damages were observed. These preliminary encouraging results thus pave the way to a deeper study of the optimized condition for producing convenient poly(m-phenylene isophtalamide) electrospun nanofibrous membranes to be used for carbon fiber reinforced composites structural modification.

  12. THE BEST STRUCTURE OF VARIETIES AND STUMPS IN A COOPERATIVE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Rodríguez-Betancourt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work is part of the generalization called "Introduction and spread of computer systems and SACOD  OPESVAR-10-III Base Business Units (BSU selected from the province of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo", approved by the Ministry of Science Technology and Environment (CITMA. Was carried out in the Agricultural Production Cooperative (CPA "July 26", with direct subordination to the UEB "Paquito Rosales", located in the municipality of San Luis, Santiago de Cuba province. Its main objective is the Determining the optimal structure of varieties and strains, based on the introduction of the computer system structure optimization Variety OPESVAR-10 which, based on the Economic-Mathematical modeling allows to increase the impact of adaptation varieties and strains, resulting in an increase in agricultural yields and sugar content, which represents a significant contribution to the planning process. The application of this computer system in the CPA above, allow cane growers get 127,13 tons (t were added, representing an addition of 61 660,20 USD currency. 

  13. Hospital structure and technical efficiency in the production of nuclear medicine. Doctoral thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    The relationship of hospital structure to production efficiency is explored. The hospital subindustry on which this research centers is nuclear medicine. The hypotheses generated were that technical efficiency is reduced by increased competitive intensity, by a lack of profit incentive, by a broader service range, and by in-house training of technical personnel. Most data employed in the study were gathered from the American College of Radiology and the Energy Research and Development Administration Census of Nuclear Medicine. More specific information came from questionnaires sent to 2,050 short-term general hospitals known to have a nuclear medicine facility. Of the responses 1,362 were usable for the study. A major study finding was that over half of the variations observed in technical efficiency were attributable to the structural elements being studied. The research indicated that competition for staff physicians has a role in reducing technical efficiency; that the output effect of in-house manpower training was relatively unimportant; and that profit incentives do have a significant impact. It is suggested that increased technical efficiency could be achieved through reduced competitive intensity, stronger profit orientation, and reduced service range. A bibliography is included

  14. Structural Analysis of Substrate, Reaction Intermediate, and Product Binding in Haemophilus influenzae Biotin Carboxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Tyler C.; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Neau, David B.; Bonnot, Ross; Waldrop, Grover L.

    2015-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the first and regulated step in fatty acid synthesis. In most Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, the enzyme is composed of three proteins: biotin carboxylase, a biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and carboxyltransferase. The reaction mechanism involves two half-reactions with biotin carboxylase catalyzing the ATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin-BCCP in the first reaction. In the second reaction, carboxyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of the carboxyl group from biotin-BCCP to acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA. In this report, high-resolution crystal structures of biotin carboxylase from Haemophilus influenzae were determined with bicarbonate, the ATP analogue AMPPCP; the carboxyphosphate intermediate analogues, phosphonoacetamide and phosphonoformate; the products ADP and phosphate; and the carboxybiotin analogue N1′-methoxycarbonyl biotin methyl ester. The structures have a common theme in that bicarbonate, phosphate, and the methyl ester of the carboxyl group of N1′-methoxycarbonyl biotin methyl ester all bound in the same pocket in the active site of biotin carboxylase and as such utilize the same set of amino acids for binding. This finding suggests a catalytic mechanism for biotin carboxylase in which the binding pocket that binds tetrahedral phosphate also accommodates and stabilizes a tetrahedral dianionic transition state resulting from direct transfer of CO2 from the carboxyphosphate intermediate to biotin. PMID:26020841

  15. Identification of Enzyme Genes Using Chemical Structure Alignments of Substrate-Product Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Yuki; Yamada, Takuji; Okuda, Shujiro; Nakagawa, Zenichi; Kotera, Masaaki; Tokimatsu, Toshiaki; Kanehisa, Minoru; Goto, Susumu

    2016-03-28

    Although there are several databases that contain data on many metabolites and reactions in biochemical pathways, there is still a big gap in the numbers between experimentally identified enzymes and metabolites. It is supposed that many catalytic enzyme genes are still unknown. Although there are previous studies that estimate the number of candidate enzyme genes, these studies required some additional information aside from the structures of metabolites such as gene expression and order in the genome. In this study, we developed a novel method to identify a candidate enzyme gene of a reaction using the chemical structures of the substrate-product pair (reactant pair). The proposed method is based on a search for similar reactant pairs in a reference database and offers ortholog groups that possibly mediate the given reaction. We applied the proposed method to two experimentally validated reactions. As a result, we confirmed that the histidine transaminase was correctly identified. Although our method could not directly identify the asparagine oxo-acid transaminase, we successfully found the paralog gene most similar to the correct enzyme gene. We also applied our method to infer candidate enzyme genes in the mesaconate pathway. The advantage of our method lies in the prediction of possible genes for orphan enzyme reactions where any associated gene sequences are not determined yet. We believe that this approach will facilitate experimental identification of genes for orphan enzymes.

  16. Biosynthetically Guided Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Merochlorin A, an Antibiotic Marine Natural Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pérez, Borja; Pepper, Henry P; Ma, Rong; Fawcett, Benjamin J; Pehere, Ashok D; Wei, Qi; Ji, Zengchun; Polyak, Steven W; Dai, Huanqin; Song, Fuhang; Abell, Andrew D; Zhang, Lixin; George, Jonathan H

    2017-12-07

    The onset of new multidrug-resistant strains of bacteria demands continuous development of antibacterial agents with new chemical scaffolds and mechanisms of action. We present the first structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of 16 derivatives of a structurally novel antibiotic merochlorin A that were designed using a biosynthetic blueprint. Our lead compounds are active against several Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (SA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) and Bacillus subtilis, inhibit intracellular growth of Mycobacterium bovis, and are relatively nontoxic to human cell lines. Furthermore, derivative 12 c {(±)-(3aR,4S,5R,10bS)-5-bromo-7,9-dimethoxy-4-methyl-4-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)-2-(propan-2-ylidene)-1,2,3,3a,4,5-hexahydro-6H-5,10b-methanobenzo[e]azulene-6,11-dione} was found to inhibit the growth of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-infected cells at concentrations similar to rifampicin. These results outperform the natural product, underscoring the potential of merochlorin analogues as a new class of antibiotics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Regulatory structures for gene therapy medicinal products in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Bettina; Celis, Patrick; Carr, Melanie; Reinhardt, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Taking into account the complexity and technical specificity of advanced therapy medicinal products: (gene and cell therapy medicinal products and tissue engineered products), a dedicated European regulatory framework was needed. Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007, the "ATMP Regulation" provides tailored regulatory principles for the evaluation and authorization of these innovative medicines. The majority of gene or cell therapy product development is carried out by academia, hospitals, and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Thus, acknowledging the particular needs of these types of sponsors, the legislation also provides incentives for product development tailored to them. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) and, in particular, its Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) provide a variety of opportunities for early interaction with developers of ATMPs to enable them to have early regulatory and scientific input. An important tool to promote innovation and the development of new medicinal products by micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises is the EMA's SME initiative launched in December 2005 to offer financial and administrative assistance to smaller companies. The European legislation also foresees the involvement of stakeholders, such as patient organizations, in the development of new medicines. Considering that gene therapy medicinal products are developed in many cases for treatment of rare diseases often of monogenic origin, the involvement of patient organizations, which focus on rare diseases and genetic and congenital disorders, is fruitful. Two such organizations are represented in the CAT. Research networks play another important role in the development of gene therapy medicinal products. The European Commission is funding such networks through the EU Sixth Framework Program. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Process Innovation, Product Differentiation, and Channel Structure: Strategic Incentives in a Duopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Sudheer Gupta; Richard Loulou

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the joint implications of two effects: (a) inserting independent profit-maximizing retailers into the channel system provides “buffering” to the manufacturers from price competition when their products are highly substitutable and intrachannel contracts are observable (as shown by McGuire and Staelin 1983 under the assumption of constant marginal production costs), and, (b) lack of channel coordination results in a reduction in manufacturer's incentives to invest in e...

  19. Profiling structured product labeling with NDF-RT and RxNorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Structured Product Labeling (SPL) is a document markup standard approved by Health Level Seven (HL7) and adopted by United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a mechanism for exchanging drug product information. The SPL drug labels contain rich information about FDA approved clinical drugs. However, the lack of linkage to standard drug ontologies hinders their meaningful use. NDF-RT (National Drug File Reference Terminology) and NLM RxNorm as standard drug ontology were used to standardize and profile the product labels. Methods In this paper, we present a framework that intends to map SPL drug labels with existing drug ontologies: NDF-RT and RxNorm. We also applied existing categorical annotations from the drug ontologies to classify SPL drug labels into corresponding classes. We established the classification and relevant linkage for SPL drug labels using the following three approaches. First, we retrieved NDF-RT categorical information from the External Pharmacologic Class (EPC) indexing SPLs. Second, we used the RxNorm and NDF-RT mappings to classify and link SPLs with NDF-RT categories. Third, we profiled SPLs using RxNorm term type information. In the implementation process, we employed a Semantic Web technology framework, in which we stored the data sets from NDF-RT and SPLs into a RDF triple store, and executed SPARQL queries to retrieve data from customized SPARQL endpoints. Meanwhile, we imported RxNorm data into MySQL relational database. Results In total, 96.0% SPL drug labels were mapped with NDF-RT categories whereas 97.0% SPL drug labels are linked to RxNorm codes. We found that the majority of SPL drug labels are mapped to chemical ingredient concepts in both drug ontologies whereas a relatively small portion of SPL drug labels are mapped to clinical drug concepts. Conclusions The profiling outcomes produced by this study would provide useful insights on meaningful use of FDA SPL drug labels in clinical applications through

  20. Profiling structured product labeling with NDF-RT and RxNorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Qian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structured Product Labeling (SPL is a document markup standard approved by Health Level Seven (HL7 and adopted by United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA as a mechanism for exchanging drug product information. The SPL drug labels contain rich information about FDA approved clinical drugs. However, the lack of linkage to standard drug ontologies hinders their meaningful use. NDF-RT (National Drug File Reference Terminology and NLM RxNorm as standard drug ontology were used to standardize and profile the product labels. Methods In this paper, we present a framework that intends to map SPL drug labels with existing drug ontologies: NDF-RT and RxNorm. We also applied existing categorical annotations from the drug ontologies to classify SPL drug labels into corresponding classes. We established the classification and relevant linkage for SPL drug labels using the following three approaches. First, we retrieved NDF-RT categorical information from the External Pharmacologic Class (EPC indexing SPLs. Second, we used the RxNorm and NDF-RT mappings to classify and link SPLs with NDF-RT categories. Third, we profiled SPLs using RxNorm term type information. In the implementation process, we employed a Semantic Web technology framework, in which we stored the data sets from NDF-RT and SPLs into a RDF triple store, and executed SPARQL queries to retrieve data from customized SPARQL endpoints. Meanwhile, we imported RxNorm data into MySQL relational database. Results In total, 96.0% SPL drug labels were mapped with NDF-RT categories whereas 97.0% SPL drug labels are linked to RxNorm codes. We found that the majority of SPL drug labels are mapped to chemical ingredient concepts in both drug ontologies whereas a relatively small portion of SPL drug labels are mapped to clinical drug concepts. Conclusions The profiling outcomes produced by this study would provide useful insights on meaningful use of FDA SPL drug labels in clinical

  1. Profiling structured product labeling with NDF-RT and RxNorm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qian; Jiang, Guoqian; Chute, Christopher G

    2012-12-20

    Structured Product Labeling (SPL) is a document markup standard approved by Health Level Seven (HL7) and adopted by United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a mechanism for exchanging drug product information. The SPL drug labels contain rich information about FDA approved clinical drugs. However, the lack of linkage to standard drug ontologies hinders their meaningful use. NDF-RT (National Drug File Reference Terminology) and NLM RxNorm as standard drug ontology were used to standardize and profile the product labels. In this paper, we present a framework that intends to map SPL drug labels with existing drug ontologies: NDF-RT and RxNorm. We also applied existing categorical annotations from the drug ontologies to classify SPL drug labels into corresponding classes. We established the classification and relevant linkage for SPL drug labels using the following three approaches. First, we retrieved NDF-RT categorical information from the External Pharmacologic Class (EPC) indexing SPLs. Second, we used the RxNorm and NDF-RT mappings to classify and link SPLs with NDF-RT categories. Third, we profiled SPLs using RxNorm term type information. In the implementation process, we employed a Semantic Web technology framework, in which we stored the data sets from NDF-RT and SPLs into a RDF triple store, and executed SPARQL queries to retrieve data from customized SPARQL endpoints. Meanwhile, we imported RxNorm data into MySQL relational database. In total, 96.0% SPL drug labels were mapped with NDF-RT categories whereas 97.0% SPL drug labels are linked to RxNorm codes. We found that the majority of SPL drug labels are mapped to chemical ingredient concepts in both drug ontologies whereas a relatively small portion of SPL drug labels are mapped to clinical drug concepts. The profiling outcomes produced by this study would provide useful insights on meaningful use of FDA SPL drug labels in clinical applications through standard drug ontologies such as NDF-RT and

  2. Heavy Flavour Production

    CERN Document Server

    Nason, Paolo; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1995-01-01

    We review the status of heavy flavour production in QCD. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results for top and bottom production are given. Selected topics in charm production are also discussed.

  3. Animal Product Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Product Safety Information Product Safety Information Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... to report adverse experiences with veterinary drugs. Additional Product Information Questions and Answers: Evanger’s Dog and Cat ...

  4. Urinary incontinence products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003973.htm Urinary incontinence products To use the sharing features on this ... There are many products to help you manage urinary incontinence . You can decide which product to choose based ...

  5. Income Inequalities, Productive Structure and Macroeconomic Dynamics. A Regional Approach to the Russian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Vercueil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, sustained economic growth in emerging countries (and among them, BRICS countries has attracted much attention in the western world. Multinational companies have been lured by the growing purchasing power of a significant part of the population, often presented as the “promised land” of consumer spending in durable goods, high tech services and fashion products. Of course, increasing incomes imply also significant socio-economic changes within these countries as well. A growing number of studies have been carried in order to track the evolution of income distribution in BRICS countries, and the formation and composition of a social group usually called “middle class” in western countries (Kharas (2010, SIEMS (2010, Levada (2012, Ernst and Young (2013, Kochhar R., Oates R. (2015. In this paper we try to assess the impact of recent macroeconomic fluctuations on Russian households income levels. We analyse the Russian trajectory in three different ways. First, we compare the evolution of the “middle class” in Russia with other (BRIC and western countries, using the wealthbased definition of this group proposed in the Global Wealth Report (Crédit Suisse Research Institute, 2015. Second, we go deeper into the Russian case in order to show how regional disparities regarding incomes distribution can be interpreted, considering the country’s recent macroeconomic trajectory. For this purpose, we build a productive typology of the Russian regions and study the link between each type and the level of income inequalities, using the varying structures in sources of household’s incomes as a possible explanation of regional variations. We conclude by an assessment of the remaining challenges for incomes policy in Russia

  6. Amateur Creation and Entrepreneurialism: A Critical Study of Artistic Production in Post-Fordist Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannis Mylonas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an interview with a hip-hop artist from Eastern Poland, this article critically assesses amateur art pro-duction proliferating throughout the globe today through individuals’ creative usages of new ICTs and new media affordances. The post-Fordist material and ideological context of contemporary social life is the main focus point of the article’s critique. Scarcity, dispossession, and entrepreneurship are the main analytical concepts used to develop a critical analysis and explanation of mainstream realities of amateur artistic production today. Within a context defined by precarious work conditions and prospects, material scarcity, and consumerist aspirations, media and technological potentialities are strategically used by the amateur artist-entrepreneur a as resources where creativity is put to work for potential socio-economic elevation and inclusion in the global industrial artistic scene (in the case of private ICT, b as “free” resources, appropriated for entrepreneurial aspirations (in the case of “free“ digital material circulating online, particularly through peer to peer networks, c as channels for self promotion and networking (in the case of web 2.0 structures. What is often less apparent to the amateur artists, though, concerns the exploitative capacities of corporate Internet to dispossess amateur work and online social relations for the purposes of capital accumulation and reproduction. Unless critiqued, “free culture” -generated by new ICTs and new media- is assimilated by the material and ideological power of late capitalism and is “put to work” for the (reproduction of late capitalism. The article concludes by suggesting the critical challenging of the mainstream artistic identity and the critical use and appropriation of new media/ICT’s potentialities.

  7. Soft radiation in heavy-particle pair production: All-order colour structure and two-loop anomalous dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneke, M.; Falgari, P.; Schwinn, C.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the total production cross section of heavy coloured particle pairs in hadronic collisions at the production threshold. We construct a basis in colour space that diagonalizes to all orders in perturbation theory the soft function, which appears in a new factorization formula for the combined resummation of soft gluon and Coulomb gluon effects. This extends recent results on the structure of soft anomalous dimensions and allows us to determine an analytic expression for the two-loop soft anomalous dimension at threshold for all production processes of interest.

  8. Structural Forces and the Production of TB-related Stigma among Haitians in Two Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coreil, Jeannine; Mayard, Gladys; Simpson, Kelly M; Lauzardo, Michael; Zhu, Yiliang; Weiss, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    In recent years renewed interest in health-related stigma has underscored the importance of better understanding the structural underpinnings of stigma processes. This study investigated the influence of sociocultural context on perceived components of tuberculosis-related stigma in non-affected persons by comparing Haitians living in South Florida, USA, with Haitians residing in Léogane Commune, Haiti. Using the methods of cultural epidemiology, a two-phase study based on fieldwork between 2004–07 collected ethnographic data on the cultural context and components of tuberculosis (TB) stigma, and administered a stigma scale developed specifically for these populations. Thematic analysis of stigma components expressed in interviews, focus groups and observation revealed commonalities as well as distinctive emphases of TB stigma in the two comparison groups. Factor analyses of stigma scale scores confirmed the thematic differences revealed in ethnographic findings and highlight the influence of political and economic factors in shaping the meaning and experience of illness. Perceived components of TB stigma among Haitians in South Florida incorporated aspects of Haitian identity as a negatively stereotyped minority community within the larger society, while in Haiti, stigma was associated primarily with poverty, malnutrition, and HIV co-infection. Discussion of findings focuses on the social production of perceived and anticipated stigma as it is influenced by structural forces including the influences of politics, economics, institutional policies, and health service delivery structures. The findings also demonstrate the value of a transnational framework encompassing both sending and receiving countries for understanding TB related stigma in immigrant communities. PMID:20724052

  9. Hadron coherent production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dremin, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    The process of the coherent production of hadrons analogous to Cherenkov radiation of photons is considered. Its appearence and qualitative treatment are possible now because it is known from experiment that the real part of the πp (and pp) forward elastic scattering amplitude is positive at high energies. The threshold behaviour of the process as well as very typical angular and psub(T)-distributions where psub(t)-transverse momentum corresponding to the ring structure of the target diagram at rather large angles and to high-psub(T) jet production are emphasized [ru

  10. Analysis of ABCB phosphoglycoproteins (PGPs) and their contribution to monocot biomass, structural stability, and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Angus Stuart [Purdue University

    2014-09-23

    Efforts to manipulate production of plant secondary cell walls to improve the quality of biofuel feedstocks are currently limited by an inability to regulate the transport of small molecule components out of the cell. Plant ABCB p-glycoproteins are a small family of plasma membrane organic molecule transporters that have become primary targets for this effort, as they can potentially be harnessed to control the export of aromatic compounds and organic acids. However, unlike promiscuous mammalian ABCBs that function in multidrug resistance, all plant ABCB proteins characterized to date exhibit relatively narrow substrate specificity. Although ABCBs exhibit a highly conserved architecture, efforts to modify ABCB activity have been hampered by a lack of structural information largely because an eukaryotic ABCB protein crystal structure has yet to be obtained. Structure/ function analyses have been further impeded by the lack of a common heterologous expression system that can be used to characterize recombinant ABCB proteins, as many cannot be functionally expressed in S. cereviseae or other systems where proteins with analogous function can be readily knocked out. Using experimentally-determined plant ABCB substrate affinities and the crystal structure of the bacterial Sav1866 “half” ABC transporter, we have developed sequence/structure models for ABCBs that provide a testable context for mutational analysis of plant ABCB transporters. We have also developed a flexible heterologous expression system in Schizosaccharomyces pombe in which all endogenous ABC transporters have been knocked out. The effectiveness of this system for transport studies has been demonstrated by the successful functional expression all of the known PIN, AUX/LAX and ABCB auxin transporters. Our central hypothesis is that the domains of the ABCB proteins that we have identified as substrate docking sites and regulators of transport directionality can be altered or swapped to alter the

  11. Product and Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian T.; Gani, Rafiqul

    . These approaches are put into the context of life cycle modelling, where multiscale and multiform modelling is increasingly prevalent in the 21st century. The book commences with a discussion of modern product and process modelling theory and practice followed by a series of case studies drawn from a variety......This book covers the area of product and process modelling via a case study approach. It addresses a wide range of modelling applications with emphasis on modelling methodology and the subsequent in-depth analysis of mathematical models to gain insight via structural aspects of the models...... to biotechnology applications, food, polymer and human health application areas. The book highlights to important nature of modern product and process modelling in the decision making processes across the life cycle. As such it provides an important resource for students, researchers and industrial practitioners....

  12. Antiplasmodial Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio R. Nogueira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a human infectious disease that is caused by four species of Plasmodium. It is responsible for more than 1 million deaths per year. Natural products contain a great variety of chemical structures and have been screened for antiplasmodial activity as potential sources of new antimalarial drugs. This review highlights studies on natural products with antimalarial and antiplasmodial activity reported in the literature from January 2009 to November 2010. A total of 360 antiplasmodial natural products comprised of terpenes, including iridoids, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, terpenoid benzoquinones, steroids, quassinoids, limonoids, curcubitacins, and lanostanes; flavonoids; alkaloids; peptides; phenylalkanoids; xanthones; naphthopyrones; polyketides, including halenaquinones, peroxides, polyacetylenes, and resorcylic acids; depsidones; benzophenones; macrolides; and miscellaneous compounds, including halogenated compounds and chromenes are listed in this review.

  13. Micro structural characteristics of minced meat products from use of protein-mineral additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Golovko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infringement of balance mineral substances is widely manifested in the meat products which is much wealthier in phosphorus than calcium. List of additives that containing calcium and technology meat products with their using are limited. Purpose of the work is studying and scientific substantiation of influence proteinmineral additive (PMA on the technological microstructural properties of minced meat products. Matherials and methods. Studies water-and fat-holding ability (WHA, FHA of samples carried out by gravimetric and refract metric methods. Histological sections were produced at microtome, followed by coloring with hematoxylin and eosin and by the method of Mallory. Results and discussion. Created a technology of the minced meat products for health improvement using the PMA which is a carrier of Bioorganic calcium. Rational is the addition of PMA in powder form in amount of 7,5 % of the meat systems. Technological parameters of minced meat increase when making additions in particular WHA and FHA approx about 5 and 10 % respectively. Histological studies have shown that PMA promotes the preservation of meat juice and sarcoplasmic proteins in the meat systems during thermal processing. Conclusions. PMA has a positive impact on the properties of water-holding properties of minced meat and output the finished product.

  14. Primary structure of the human fgr proto-oncogene product p55/sup c-fgr/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katamine, S.; Notario, V.; Rao, C.D.; Miki, T.; Cheah, M.S.C.; Tronick, S.R.; Robbins, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    Normal human c-fgr cDNA clones were constructed by using normal peripheral blood mononuclear cell mRNA as a template. Nucleotide sequence analysis of two such clones revealed a 1,587-base-pair-long open reading frame which predicted the primary amino acid sequence of the c-fgr translational product. Homology of this protein with the v-fgr translational product stretched from codons 128 to 516, where 32 differences among 388 codons were observed. Sequence similarity with human c-src, c-yes, and fyn translations products began at amino acid position 76 of the predicted c-fgr protein and extended nearly to its C-terminus. In contrast, the stretch of 75 amino acids at the N-terminus demonstrated a greatly reduced degree of relatedness to these same proteins. To verify the deduced amino acid sequence, antibodies were prepared against peptides representing amino- and carboxy-terminal regions of the predicted c-fgr translational product. Both antibodies specifically recognized a 55-kilodalton protein expressed in COS-1 cells transfected with a c-fgr cDNA expression plasmid. Moreover, the same protein was immunoprecipitated from an Epstein-Barr virus-infected Burkitt's lymphoma cell line which expressed c-fgr mRNA but not in its uninfected fgr mRNA-negative counterpart. These findings identified the 55-kilodalton protein as the product of the human fgr proto-oncogene.

  15. STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY IN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pacheco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to point a set of practical strategies that can be adopted to increase the capacity of constraints resources on production systems, when the constraint is inside the factory and not is in the market. To serve this purpose will be presented strategies based on best practices of the Theory of Constraints, Lean Manufacturing and Total Productive Maintenance. This article also presents the mains tools for the deployment of these methodologies. The survey results have provided an objective set of practical strategy that can be used to increase the capacity and productivity of production systems according to the needs of each manufacturing system.

  16. PDT (Product Data Technology), Production and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Johan

    1997-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) constitute a genuine technical revolution by enabling a dynamic and flexible support or automation of knowledge and information work. Bearing in mind that products are frozen knowledge, ICT as known will change the way we produce products dramatically....... The use of ICT in engineering of products constitutes product data technology (PDT).This paper presents a a basic platform for an understanding the ongoing revolution with focus on the PDT-area taking outset in the fundamental elements of knowledge and information work: creation, transformation...

  17. Framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge which supports product modelling for mass customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Jesper; Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2003-01-01

    on experience from product modelling projects in several companies. Among them for example companies manufacturing electronic switchboards, spray dryer systems and air conditioning equipment. The framework is divided into three views: the product knowledge view, the life phase system view and the transformation...... and personalization. The framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge is based on the following theories: axiomatic design, technical systems, theory of domains, theory of structuring, theory of properties and the framework for the content of product and product related models. The framework is built......The article presents a framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge which can be used to support the product modelling process which is needed for developing IT systems. These IT systems are important tools for many companies when they aim at achieving mass customization...

  18. Do ecohydrology and community dynamics feed back to banded-ecosystem structure and productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegaro, Chiara; Ursino, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    Mixed communities including grass, shrubs and trees are often reported to populate self-organized vegetation patterns. Patterns of survey data suggest that species diversity and complementarity strengthen the dynamics of banded environments. Resource scarcity and local facilitation trigger self organization, whereas coexistence of multiple species in vegetated self-organizing patches, implying competition for water and nutrients and favorable reproduction sites, is made possible by differing adaptation strategies. Mixed community spatial self-organization has so far received relatively little attention, compared with local net facilitation of isolated species. We assumed that soil moisture availability is a proxy for the environmental niche of plant species according to Ursino and Callegaro (2016). Our modelling effort was focused on niche differentiation of coexisting species within a tiger bush type ecosystem. By minimal numerical modelling and stability analysis we try to answer a few open scientific questions: Is there an adaptation strategy that increases biodiversity and ecosystem functioning? Does specific adaptation to environmental niches influence the structure of self-organizing vegetation pattern? What specific niche distribution along the environmental gradient gives the highest global productivity?

  19. Consumers’ Preferences for Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Product Features: A Structured Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Kistler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To inform potential governmental regulations, we aimed to develop a list of electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS product features important to U.S. consumers by age and gender. We employed qualitative data methods. Participants were eligible if they had used an ENDS at least once. Groups were selected by age and gender (young adult group aged 18–25, n = 11; middle-age group aged 26–64, n = 9; and women’s group aged 26–64, n = 9. We conducted five individual older adult interviews (aged 68–80. Participants discussed important ENDS features. We conducted a structured content analysis of the group and interview responses. Of 34 participants, 68% were white and 56% were female. Participants mentioned 12 important ENDS features, including: (1 user experience; (2 social acceptability; (3 cost; (4 health risks/benefits; (5 ease of use; (6 flavors; (7 smoking cessation aid; (8 nicotine content; (9 modifiability; (10 ENDS regulation; (11 bridge between tobacco cigarettes; (12 collectability. The most frequently mentioned ENDS feature was modifiability for young adults, user experience for middle-age and older adults, and flavor for the women’s group. This study identified multiple features important to ENDS consumers. Groups differed in how they viewed various features by age and gender. These results can inform ongoing regulatory efforts.

  20. CamMedNP: building the Cameroonian 3D structural natural products database for virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Mbah, James A; Mbaze, Luc Meva'a; Lifongo, Lydia L; Scharfe, Michael; Hanna, Joelle Ngo; Cho-Ngwa, Fidelis; Onguéné, Pascal Amoa; Owono Owono, Luc C; Megnassan, Eugene; Sippl, Wolfgang; Efange, Simon M N

    2013-04-16

    Computer-aided drug design (CADD) often involves virtual screening (VS) of large compound datasets and the availability of such is vital for drug discovery protocols. We present CamMedNP - a new database beginning with more than 2,500 compounds of natural origin, along with some of their derivatives which were obtained through hemisynthesis. These are pure compounds which have been previously isolated and characterized using modern spectroscopic methods and published by several research teams spread across Cameroon. In the present study, 224 distinct medicinal plant species belonging to 55 plant families from the Cameroonian flora have been considered. About 80 % of these have been previously published and/or referenced in internationally recognized journals. For each compound, the optimized 3D structure, drug-like properties, plant source, collection site and currently known biological activities are given, as well as literature references. We have evaluated the "drug-likeness" of this database using Lipinski's "Rule of Five". A diversity analysis has been carried out in comparison with the ChemBridge diverse database. CamMedNP could be highly useful for database screening and natural product lead generation programs.

  1. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Henning

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw for these processes without the application of additional chemicals. In the current work, the effect of the pretreatment on the straw cell-wall matrix and its components are characterised microscopically (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopically (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in order to understand this increase in digestibility. Results The hydrothermal pretreatment does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes profound lignin re-localisation. Results from the current work indicate that wax has been removed and hemicellulose has been partially removed. Similar changes were found in wheat straw pretreated by steam explosion. Conclusion Results indicate that hydrothermal pretreatment increases the digestibility by increasing the accessibility of the cellulose through a re-localisation of lignin and a partial removal of hemicellulose, rather than by disruption of the cell wall.

  2. Oleogels, a promising structured oil for decreasing saturated fatty acid concentrations: Production and food-based applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivanoğlu, Halime; Demirci, Mehmet; Toker, Omer Said; Konar, Nevzat; Karasu, Salih; Sagdic, Osman

    2018-05-24

    Oils and fats are widely used in the food formulations in order to improve nutritional and some quality characteristics of food products. Solid fats produced from oils by hydrogenization, interesterification, and fractionation processes are widely used in different foodstuffs for these aims. In recent years, consumer awareness of relation between diet and health has increased which can cause worry about solid fat including products in terms of their high saturated fatty acid and trans fatty acid contents. Therefore, different attempts have been carried out to find alternative ways to produce solid fat with low saturated fatty acid content. One of the promising ways is using oleogels, structuring oils with oleogelators. In this review, history, raw materials and production methods of the oleogels and their functions in oleogel quality were mentioned. Moreover, studies related with oleogel usage in different products were summarized and positive and negative aspects of oleogel were also mentioned. Considering the results of the related studies, it can be concluded that oleogels can be used in the formulation of bakery products, breakfast spreads, margarines, chocolates and chocolate-derived products and some of the meat products.

  3. Bond dimension witnesses and the structure of homogeneous matrix product states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Navascues

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past twenty years, Matrix Product States (MPS have been widely used in solid state physics to approximate the ground state of one-dimensional spin chains. In this paper, we study homogeneous MPS (hMPS, or MPS constructed via site-independent tensors and a boundary condition. Exploiting a connection with the theory of matrix algebras, we derive two structural properties shared by all hMPS, namely: a there exist local operators which annihilate all hMPS of a given bond dimension; and b there exist local operators which, when applied over any hMPS of a given bond dimension, decouple (cut the particles where they act from the spin chain while at the same time join (glue the two loose ends back again into a hMPS. Armed with these tools, we show how to systematically derive `bond dimension witnesses', or 2-local operators whose expectation value allows us to lower bound the bond dimension of the underlying hMPS. We extend some of these results to the ansatz of Projected Entangled Pairs States (PEPS. As a bonus, we use our insight on the structure of hMPS to: a derive some theoretical limitations on the use of hMPS and hPEPS for ground state energy computations; b show how to decrease the complexity and boost the speed of convergence of the semidefinite programming hierarchies described in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 020501 (2015] for the characterization of finite-dimensional quantum correlations.

  4. Multi-Scale Ordered Cell Structure for Cost Effective Production of Hydrogen by HTWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elangovan, Elango [Ceramatec, Inc., West Valley City, UT (United States); Rao, Ranjeet [PARC, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Colella, Whitney [Gaia Energy Research Inst. LLC, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2017-12-20

    Production of hydrogen using an electrochemical device provides for large scale, high efficiency conversion and storage of electrical energy. When renewable electricity is used for conversion of steam to hydrogen, a low-cost and low emissions pathway to hydrogen production emerges. This project was intended to demonstrate a high efficiency High Temperature Water Splitting (HTWS) stack for the electrochemical production of low cost H2. The innovations investigated address the limitations of the state of the art through the use of a novel architecture that introduces macro-features to provide mechanical support of a thin electrolyte, and micro-features of the electrodes to lower polarization losses. The approach also utilizes a combination of unique sets of fabrication options that are scalable to achieve manufacturing cost objectives. The development of HTWS process and device is guided by techno-economic and life cycle analyses.

  5. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal production and ...

  6. Intelligent products : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, G.G.; Främling, K.; Holmström, J.

    This paper presents an overview of the field of Intelligent Products. As Intelligent Products have many facets, this paper is mainly focused on the concept behind Intelligent Products, the technical foundations, and the achievable practical goals of Intelligent Products. A novel classification of

  7. Making Product Customization Profitable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The main result presented in this paper is the Framework for Product Family Master Plan. This framework supports the identification of a product architecture for companies that customize products and services. The framework has five coherent aspects, the market, product assortment, supply...

  8. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  9. The structure, function, and importance of ceramides in skin and their use as therapeutic agents in skin-care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckfessel, Matthew H; Brandt, Staci

    2014-07-01

    Ceramides (CERs) are epidermal lipids that are important for skin barrier function. Much research has been devoted to identifying the numerous CERs found in human skin and their function. Alterations in CER content are associated with a number of skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis. Newer formulations of skin-care products have incorporated CERs into their formulations with the goal of exogenously applying CERs to help skin barrier function. CERs are a complex class of molecules and because of their growing ubiquity in skin-care products, a clear understanding of their role in skin and use in skin-care products is essential for clinicians treating patients with skin diseases. This review provides an overview of the structure, function, and importance of skin CERs in diseased skin and how CERs are being used in skin-care products to improve or restore skin barrier function. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Kronecker Products on Preconditioning

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Longfei

    2013-08-01

    Numerical techniques for linear systems arising from discretization of partial differential equations are nowadays essential for understanding the physical world. Among these techniques, iterative methods and the accompanying preconditioning techniques have become increasingly popular due to their great potential on large scale computation. In this work, we present preconditioning techniques for linear systems built with tensor product basis functions. Efficient algorithms are designed for various problems by exploiting the Kronecker product structure in the matrices, inherited from tensor product basis functions. Specifically, we design preconditioners for mass matrices to remove the complexity from the basis functions used in isogeometric analysis, obtaining numerical performance independent of mesh size, polynomial order and continuity order; we also present a compound iteration preconditioner for stiffness matrices in two dimensions, obtaining fast convergence speed; lastly, for the Helmholtz problem, we present a strategy to `hide\\' its indefiniteness from Krylov subspace methods by eliminating the part of initial error that corresponds to those negative generalized eigenvalues. For all three cases, the Kronecker product structure in the matrices is exploited to achieve high computational efficiency.

  11. Methane production potential and microbial community structure for different forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Ueyama, M.; Kominami, Y.; Endo, R.; Tokumoto, H.; Hirano, T.; Takagi, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Iwata, H.; Harazono, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Forest soils are often considered as a methane (CH4) sink, but anaerobic microsites potentially decrease the sink at the ecosystem scale. In this study, we measured biological CH4 production potential of soils at various ecosystems, including upland forests, a lowland forest, and a bog, and analyzed microbial community structure using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Three different types of soil samples (upland, bank of the stream, and center of the stream) were collected from Yamashiro forest meteorology research site (YMS) at Kyoto, Japan, on 11 May 2017. The soils were incubated at dark and anaerobic conditions under three different temperatures (37°C, 25°C, and 10°C) from 9 June 2017. The upland soils emitted CH4 with largest yields among the three soils at 37°C and 25°C, although no CH4 emission was observed at 10°C. For all temperature ranges, the emission started to increase with a 14- to 20-days lag after the start of the incubation. The lag indicates a slow transition to anaerobic conditions; as dissolved oxygen in water decreased, the number and/or activity of anaerobic bacteria like methanogens increased. The soils at the bank and center of the stream emitted CH4 with smaller yields than the upland soils in the three temperature ranges. The microbial community analyses indicate that methanogenic archaea presented at the three soils including the aerobic upland soil, but compositions of methanogenic archaea were different among the soils. In upland soils, hydrogenotrophic methanogens, such as Methanobacterium and Methanothermobacter, consisted almost all of the total methanogen detected. In the bank and center of the stream, soils contained approximately 10-25% of acetoclastic methanogens, such as Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta, among the total methanogen detected. Methanotrophs, a genus of Methanobacteriaceae, was appeared in the all types of soils. We will present results from same incubation and 16S rRNA analyses for other ecosystems, including

  12. Ergonomic Product Design 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Guk

    1996-09-01

    This book explains basic of ergonomic product design with human engineering, image engineering and strategy of that design, ergonomic industrial design, which includes product design to access the human engineering in development of new product and customer satisfaction, application technology of image engineering, industrial design of human engineering item and strategy of human engineering, a good ergonomic design. It also tells of examples of convenient design for human such as hardware product and software product in automobile, telephones for ergonomic product in the future, new goods and new technology, ergonomic product in house and office, and computers and robots in the future.

  13. Product Family Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Morten

    their focus from single products to entire product families and try to incorporate the development of product variety into a future product family. The key is to create fit between the product design and production setup. The challenge of understanding this fit and modelling dispositional relations between...... and on the ideas of lean production, plus experiences from the industrial collaboration. The idea of waste from the lean philosophy is brought into a product variety context, and discussed in relation to product development. Verification of the model has been carried out in an industrial setting at Danfoss......This thesis reports the results of a PhD project from the Technical University of Denmark. The research has been carried out in a collaborative project with the Danish company Danfoss Automatic Controls. In the global market companies are struggling to meet customers’ expectation of products...

  14. Designing Product Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1998-01-01

    Manufacturing companies that operate with products aimed at different market segments and applications are experiencing an increasing demand from customers who expect products to be tailored to their exact needs rather than accepting general products based on average customer needs. This trend ha......: Variety, Design Principles, and Product Maturity.......Manufacturing companies that operate with products aimed at different market segments and applications are experiencing an increasing demand from customers who expect products to be tailored to their exact needs rather than accepting general products based on average customer needs. This trend has...... led to a new business paradigm, "mass customization", where companies strive to provide highly customized products while still maintaining the efficiency of the classical mass production enterprise. One of the key factors in mass customization has been efficient use of product platforms...

  15. Evidence for the distortion product frequency place as a source of distribution product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure in humans : I. Fine structure and higher-order DPOAE as a function of the frequency ratio f2/f1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauermann, M; Uppenkamp, S; van Hengel, P.W.J.; Kollmeier, B

    1999-01-01

    Critical experiments were performed in order to validate the two-source hypothesis of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) generation. Measurements of the spectral fine structure of DPOAE in response to stimulation with two sinusoids have been:performed with normal-hearing subjects. The

  16. Relationships between structural fat properties with sensory, physical and textural attributes of yeast-leavened laminated salty baked product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Horra, Ana E; Barrera, Gabriela N; Steffolani, Eugenia M; Ribotta, Pablo D; León, Alberto E

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish relationships between structural fat properties and sensory, physical and textural attributes of yeast-leavened laminated salty products. Refined bovine fat (MG1) and shortening (MG2), with a solid fat content (SFC) higher than 20% at temperature range of 15-35 °C were more viscous and less sensitive to temperature changes. The micrographs of dough|fat|dough sections corresponding to samples with MG1 and MG2 revealed a lower penetration of the fat sheet in the dough section due to the more entangled fat structures that did not allow a great flow throughout the dough layer. Consequently, the structure of laminated dough pieces made the systems highly resistant to deformation. The laminated dough pieces elaborated with these fats showed the highest increments in their height and maintained symmetry. Products with fat with least SFC and higher destructuration rate produced smoother laminated structures due to the presence of pores. While products with MG1 and MG2 showed tortuous images and complex structures, associated to layers and extended pores. MG1 and MG2 products were preferred (flavor and appearance) over those with MG3. The highest ranking samples in the acceptability analysis were symmetric, presented very flaky crusts and had a high level of lamination.

  17. Consequences of buffelgrass pasture development for primary productivity, perennial plant richness, and vegetation structure in the drylands of Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Kimberly; Molina-Freaner, Francisco

    2010-12-01

    In large parts of northern Mexico native plant communities are being converted to non-native buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) pastures, and this conversion could fundamentally alter primary productivity and species richness. In Sonora, Mexico land conversion is occurring at a regional scale along a rainfall-driven gradient of primary productivity, across which native plant communities transition from desert scrub to thorn scrub. We used a paired sampling design to compare a satellite-derived index of primary productivity, richness of perennial plant species, and canopy-height profiles of native plant communities with buffelgrass pastures. We sampled species richness across a gradient of primary productivity in desert scrub and thorn scrub vegetation to examine the influence of site productivity on the outcomes of land conversion. We also examined the influence of pasture age on species richness of perennial plants. Index values of primary productivity were lower in buffelgrass pastures than in native vegetation, which suggests a reduction in primary productivity. Land conversion reduced species richness by approximately 50% at local and regional scales, reduced tree and shrub cover by 78%, and reduced canopy height. Land conversion disproportionately reduced shrub species richness, which reflects the common practice among Sonoran ranchers of conserving certain tree and cactus species. Site productivity did not affect the outcomes of land conversion. The age of a buffelgrass pasture was unrelated to species richness within the pasture, which suggests that passive recovery of species richness to preconversion levels is unlikely. Our findings demonstrate that land conversion can result in large losses of plant species richness at local and regional scales and in substantial changes to primary productivity and vegetation structure, which casts doubt on the feasibility of restoring native plant communities without active intervention on the part of land managers.

  18. Community structure and carbonate production of a temperate rhodolith bank from Arvoredo Island, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas F. M. Gherardi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A small (100,000 m² rhodolith bank located at the Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve (Santa Catarina, Brazil has been surveyed to determine the main bank components, the community structure, and carbonate production rates. Data from five photographic transects perpendicular to Arvoredo Island shore were complemented with sediment samples and shallow cores, all collected by scuba diving. The main bank component is the unattached, nongeniculate, coralline red algae Lithophyllum sp., used as substrate by the zoanthid Zoanthus sp. Percentage cover of living and dead coralline algae, zoanthids and sediment patches account for nearly 98% of the investigated area. Classification and ordination of samples showed that differences in the proportion of live and dead thalli of Lithophyllum sp. determine the relative abundances of zoanthids. Results also indicate that similarity of samples is high and community gradients are subtle. Significant differences in percentage cover along transects are concentrated in the central portion of the bank. Low carbonate content of sediments from deeper samples suggests low rates of recruitment and dispersal of coralline algae via fragmentation. However, carbonate production of Lithophyllum sp ranging from 55-136.3 g m-2 yr-1 agrees with production rates reported for other temperate settings. In the long run, rhodolith density at Arvoredo Is. is likely to be dependent upon random dispersal of spores and/or fragments from other source areas.Investigou-se um pequeno (100,000 m² banco de rodolitos localizado na Reserva Biológica Marinha do Arvoredo (Santa Catarina, Brasil para se determinar os pricipais componentes do banco, a estrutura da comunidade e a produção de carbonato de cálcio. Dados de cobertura relativa foram obtidos ao longo de cinco transectos fotográficos perpendiculares à ilha do Arvoredo, e complementados com amostras de sedimento superficial e testemunhos rasos. O principal componente do banco é a

  19. Production Function Geometry with "Knightian" Total Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truett, Dale B.; Truett, Lila J.

    2007-01-01

    Authors of principles and price theory textbooks generally illustrate short-run production using a total product curve that displays first increasing and then diminishing marginal returns to employment of the variable input(s). Although it seems reasonable that a temporary range of increasing returns to variable inputs will likely occur as…

  20. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj

    2003-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  1. Software product quality measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Godliauskas, Eimantas

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses Ruby product quality measures, suggesting three new measures for Ruby product quality measurement tool Rubocop to measure Ruby product quality characteristics defined in ISO 2502n standard series. This paper consists of four main chapters. The first chapter gives a brief view of software product quality and software product quality measurement. The second chapter analyses object oriented quality measures. The third chapter gives a brief view of the most popular Ruby qualit...

  2. Population structure, growth and production of a recent brachiopod from the Chilean fjord region

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgarten, Sebastian; Laudien, Jü rgen; Jantzen, Carin; Hä ussermann, Verena; Fö rsterra, Gü nter

    2013-01-01

    -57% of that of A. atra in the respective fjords). The high shell growth rate of M. venosa, together with its high overall growth performance may explain the locally high population density of this brachiopod in Comau Fjord. However, the production per biomass

  3. Structure and dynamics of the microbial communities underlying the carboxylate platform for biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollister, Emily B.; Gentry, Terry J. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Forrest, Andrea K.; Holtzapple, Mark T. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Wilkinson, Heather H.; Ebbole, Daniel J. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Plant Pathology and Microbiology; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Tringe, Susannah G. [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2010-09-15

    The carboxylate platform utilizes a mixed microbial community to convert lignocellulosic biomass into chemicals and fuels. While much of the platform is well understood, little is known about its microbiology. Mesophilic (40 C) and thermophilic (55 C) fermentations employing a sorghum feedstock and marine sediment inoculum were profiled using 16S rRNA tag-pyrosequencing over the course of a 30-day incubation. The contrasting fermentation temperatures converted similar amounts of biomass, but the mesophilic community was significantly more productive, and the two temperatures differed significantly with respect to propionic and butyric acid production. Pyrotag sequencing revealed the presence of dynamic communities that responded rapidly to temperature and changed substantially over time. Both temperatures were dominated by bacteria resembling Clostridia, but they shared few taxa in common. The species-rich mesophilic community harbored a variety of Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and {gamma}-Proteobacteria, whereas the thermophilic community was composed mainly of Clostridia and Bacilli. Despite differences in composition and productivity, similar patterns of functional class dynamics were observed. Over time, organisms resembling known cellulose degraders decreased in abundance, while organisms resembling known xylose degraders increased. Improved understanding of the carboxylate platform's microbiology will help refine platform performance and contribute to our growing knowledge regarding biomass conversion and biofuel production processes. (orig.)

  4. Existence and uniqueness of the maximum likelihood estimator for models with a Kronecker product covariance structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, B.P.; Bijma, F.; de Munck, J.C.; de Gunst, M.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with multivariate Gaussian models for which the covariance matrix is a Kronecker product of two matrices. We consider maximum likelihood estimation of the model parameters, in particular of the covariance matrix. There is no explicit expression for the maximum likelihood estimator

  5. Missing Links... Production Structures and Quality of Working Life in the Clothing Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.; Benders, J.G.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Dutch version of sociotechnical systems design called “modern sociotechnology” stresses that the quality of working life is dependent on the choice for a certain “production structure”, i.e. the physical layout of operations. Two propositions about this relationship are derived from modern

  6. Recreational drug discovery: natural products as lead structures for the synthesis of smart drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appendino, Giovanni; Minassi, Alberto; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

    2014-07-01

    Covering: up to December 2013. Over the past decade, there has been a growing transition in recreational drugs from natural materials (marijuana, hashish, opium), natural products (morphine, cocaine), or their simple derivatives (heroin), to synthetic agents more potent than their natural prototypes, which are sometimes less harmful in the short term, or that combine properties from different classes of recreational prototypes. These agents have been named smart drugs, and have become popular both for personal consumption and for collective intoxication at rave parties. The reasons for this transition are varied, but are mainly regulatory and commercial. New analogues of known illegal intoxicants are invisible to most forensic detection techniques, while the alleged natural status and the lack of avert acute toxicity make them appealing to a wide range of users. On the other hand, the advent of the internet has made possible the quick dispersal of information among users and the on-line purchase of these agents and/or the precursors for their synthesis. Unlike their natural products chemotypes (ephedrine, mescaline, cathinone, psilocybin, THC), most new drugs of abuse are largely unfamiliar to the organic chemistry community as well as to health care providers. To raise awareness of the growing plague of smart drugs we have surveyed, in a medicinal chemistry fashion, their development from natural products leads, their current methods of production, and the role that clandestine home laboratories and underground chemists have played in the surge of popularity of these drugs.

  7. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan B. Kristensen; G. Thygesen Lisbeth; Claus Felby; Henning Jorgensen; Thomas Elder

    2008-01-01

    Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw...

  8. Just-in-time - Its Fingerprint on Structures in Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm

    1998-01-01

    s saw JIT at Toyota. This description is hold up agains Hayes and Wheelwright’s ramework with eight decision categories, and by this it is seen where differences exist, and what the implications has been for present days production systems. This paper, though, is only the first half of a complete...

  9. Application of a Taxonomical Structure to Measure Worker Productivity for Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Recreational & Athletic Equipment 1. Athletic & Sporting Equipment (7810) 1 2 3 4 5 2. Games, Toys & Wheeled Goods (7820) 1 2 3 4 5 3. Recreational & Gymnastic ...Varnishes & Related Products (8010) 1 2 3 4 5 2. Paint & Artist Brushes (8020) 1 2 3 4 5 3. Preservative & Sealing Compounds (8030) 1 2 3 4 5 4. Adhesives

  10. Benthic macrofaunal structure and secondary production in tropical estuaries on the Eastern Marine Ecoregion of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissoli, Lorena B; Bernardino, Angelo F

    2018-01-01

    Tropical estuaries are highly productive and support diverse benthic assemblages within mangroves and tidal flats habitats. Determining differences and similarities of benthic assemblages within estuarine habitats and between regional ecosystems may provide scientific support for management of those ecosystems. Here we studied three tropical estuaries in the Eastern Marine Ecoregion of Brazil to assess the spatial variability of benthic assemblages from vegetated (mangroves) and unvegetated (tidal flats) habitats. A nested sampling design was used to determine spatial scales of variability in benthic macrofaunal density, biomass and secondary production. Habitat differences in benthic assemblage composition were evident, with mangrove forests being dominated by annelids (Oligochaeta and Capitellidae) whereas peracarid crustaceans were also abundant on tidal flats. Macrofaunal biomass, density and secondary production also differed between habitats and among estuaries. Those differences were related both to the composition of benthic assemblages and to random spatial variability, underscoring the importance of hierarchical sampling in estuarine ecological studies. Given variable levels of human impacts and predicted climate change effects on tropical estuarine assemblages in Eastern Brazil, our data support the use of benthic secondary production to address long-term changes and improved management of estuaries in Eastern Brazil.

  11. The Production System's Formulation of Relative Clause Structures: Evidence from Polish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Dana; Lech, Dorota

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we focused on the formulation of relative clauses with preposition and genitive pied-piping. Thirty child (5;9 to 8;4) and 30 adult Polish speakers were given an elicited production task and a grammaticality judgment task. Almost all of the children accepted preposition pied-piping, but only half of them produced it. We suggest that…

  12. Structure and dynamics of the microbial communities underlying the carboxylate platform for biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollister, Emily B; Gentry, Terry J [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Forrest, Andrea K; Holtzapple, Mark T [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Wilkinson, Heather H; Ebbole, Daniel J [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Plant Pathology and Microbiology; Malfatti, Stephanie A; Tringe, Susannah G [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2010-09-15

    The carboxylate platform utilizes a mixed microbial community to convert lignocellulosic biomass into chemicals and fuels. While much of the platform is well understood, little is known about its microbiology. Mesophilic (40 C) and thermophilic (55 C) fermentations employing a sorghum feedstock and marine sediment inoculum were profiled using 16S rRNA tag-pyrosequencing over the course of a 30-day incubation. The contrasting fermentation temperatures converted similar amounts of biomass, but the mesophilic community was significantly more productive, and the two temperatures differed significantly with respect to propionic and butyric acid production. Pyrotag sequencing revealed the presence of dynamic communities that responded rapidly to temperature and changed substantially over time. Both temperatures were dominated by bacteria resembling Clostridia, but they shared few taxa in common. The species-rich mesophilic community harbored a variety of Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and {gamma}-Proteobacteria, whereas the thermophilic community was composed mainly of Clostridia and Bacilli. Despite differences in composition and productivity, similar patterns of functional class dynamics were observed. Over time, organisms resembling known cellulose degraders decreased in abundance, while organisms resembling known xylose degraders increased. Improved understanding of the carboxylate platform's microbiology will help refine platform performance and contribute to our growing knowledge regarding biomass conversion and biofuel production processes. (orig.)

  13. Population Genetic Structure of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated From the Pig and Pork Production Chain in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Félix

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is an ubiquitous pathogenic bacterium, transmissible to humans through the consumption of contaminated food. The pork production sector has been hit hard by a series of L. monocytogenes-related food poisoning outbreaks in France. An overview of the diversity of strains circulating at all levels of the pork production chain, from pig farming (PF to finished food products (FFP, is needed to identify the contamination routes and improve food safety. Until now, no typing data has been available on strains isolated across the entire pig and pork production chain. Here, we analyzed the population genetic structure of 687 L. monocytogenes strains isolated over the last 20 years in virtually all the French départements from three compartments of this production sector: PF, the food processing environment (FPE, and FFP. The genetic structure was described based on Multilocus sequence typing (MLST clonal complexes (CCs. The CCs were obtained by mapping the PFGE profiles of the strains. The distribution of CCs was compared firstly between the three compartments and then with CCs obtained from 1106 strains isolated from other food production sectors in France. The predominant CCs of pig and pork strains were not equally distributed among the three compartments: the CC37, CC59, and CC77 strains, rarely found in FPE and FFP, were prevalent in PF. The two most prevalent CCs in the FPE and FFP compartments, CC9 and CC121, were rarely or never detected in PF. No CC was exclusively associated with the pork sector. Three CCs (CC5, CC6, and CC2 were considered ubiquitous, because they were observed in comparable proportions in all food production sectors. The two most prevalent CCs in all sectors were CC9 and CC121, but their distribution was disparate. CC9 was associated with meat products and food products combining several food categories, whereas CC121 was not associated with any given sector. Based on these results, CC121 is likely able

  14. Population Genetic Structure of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated From the Pig and Pork Production Chain in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Benjamin; Feurer, Carole; Maillet, Aurelien; Guillier, Laurent; Boscher, Evelyne; Kerouanton, Annaëlle; Denis, Martine; Roussel, Sophie

    2018-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an ubiquitous pathogenic bacterium, transmissible to humans through the consumption of contaminated food. The pork production sector has been hit hard by a series of L. monocytogenes-related food poisoning outbreaks in France. An overview of the diversity of strains circulating at all levels of the pork production chain, from pig farming (PF) to finished food products (FFP), is needed to identify the contamination routes and improve food safety. Until now, no typing data has been available on strains isolated across the entire pig and pork production chain. Here, we analyzed the population genetic structure of 687 L. monocytogenes strains isolated over the last 20 years in virtually all the French départements from three compartments of this production sector: PF, the food processing environment (FPE), and FFP. The genetic structure was described based on Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) clonal complexes (CCs). The CCs were obtained by mapping the PFGE profiles of the strains. The distribution of CCs was compared firstly between the three compartments and then with CCs obtained from 1106 strains isolated from other food production sectors in France. The predominant CCs of pig and pork strains were not equally distributed among the three compartments: the CC37, CC59, and CC77 strains, rarely found in FPE and FFP, were prevalent in PF. The two most prevalent CCs in the FPE and FFP compartments, CC9 and CC121, were rarely or never detected in PF. No CC was exclusively associated with the pork sector. Three CCs (CC5, CC6, and CC2) were considered ubiquitous, because they were observed in comparable proportions in all food production sectors. The two most prevalent CCs in all sectors were CC9 and CC121, but their distribution was disparate. CC9 was associated with meat products and food products combining several food categories, whereas CC121 was not associated with any given sector. Based on these results, CC121 is likely able to colonize a

  15. Transdisciplinary product development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Savšek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How can transdisciplinary approach increase the product development process in future industry? Purpose: The aim of the research is to develop a model of an effective product development in the automotive industry based on the transdisciplinary approach. Method: We used a qualitative research approach in order to develop a theoretical framework of transdisciplinarity. The framework comprises the concurrent engineering and experts from different disciplines. The framework was represented by a mathematical model which based on stochastic dynamic programming. Results: We developed a theoretical frameworkand a practical case of transdisciplinary product development in the automotive industry. We presented a mathematical model and information environment which supports such a model. Organization: The findings of the research will provide higher productivity, lower operating costs, change in personnel structure, higher added value, lower sales costs, lower administration costs, reduction in growth of expenses, and lower costs of work equipment. Society: The research impact on higher customer’s satisfaction, increased flexibility of operations, better quality of information, improved control of sources, less waste materials and less pollution, improved planning process, more favourable consideration of employees , improved portfolio management, and better corporate presentation of company. Originality: Transdisciplinary framework combines methods of concurrent engineering and interdisciplinary approach in a process of product development. The development of such a framework is a complete novelty and represents an original approach to product development, which will be particularly suitable for the smart factories of the future. Transdisciplinary framework was transformed in to a mathematical model based on stochastic dynamic programming. Model is supported by the existing information warehouse and represents a potential for

  16. Simultaneous improvement in water use, productivity and albedo through canopy structural modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, Darren; Kumar, Praveen; Long, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural lands provide a tremendous opportunity to address challenges at the intersection of food and water security and climate change. Global demand for the major grain and seed crops is beginning to outstrip production, while population growth and the expansion of the global middle class have motivated calls for a doubling of food production by the middle of this century. This is occurring as yield gains for the major food crops have stagnated. At current rates of yield improvement this doubling will not be achieved. Plants have evolved to maximize the capture of radiation in the upper leaves, resulting in sub-optimal monoculture crop fields for maximizing productivity and other biogeophysical services. Using the world's most important protein crop, soybean, as an example, we show that by applying numerical optimization to a micrometeorological crop canopy model that significant, simultaneous gains in water use, productivity and reflectivity are possible with no increased demand on resources. Here we apply the MLCan multi-layer canopy biophysical model, which vertically resolves the radiation and micro-environmental variations that stimulate biochemical and ecophysiological functions that govern canopy-atmosphere exchange processes. At each canopy level photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and energy balance are solved simultaneously for shaded and sunlit foliage. A multi-layer sub-surface model incorporates water availability as a function of root biomass distribution. MLCan runs at sub-hourly temporal resolution, allowing it to capture variability in CO2, water and energy exchange as a function of environmental variability. By modifying total canopy leaf area, its vertical distribution, leaf angle, and shortwave radiation reflectivity, all traits available in most major crop germplasm collections, we show that increases in either productivity (7%), water use (13%) or albedo (34%) could be achieved with no detriment to the other objectives, under climate

  17. Simultaneous Improvement in Water Use, Productivity and Albedo Through Crop Structural Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, D.; Kumar, P.; Long, S.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural lands provide a tremendous opportunity to address challenges at the intersection of climate change, food and water security. Global demand for the major grain and seed crops is beginning to outstrip production, while population growth and the expansion of the global middle class have motivated calls for a doubling of food production by the middle of this century. This is occurring as yield gains for the major food crops have stagnated. At current rates of yield improvement this doubling will not be achieved. Plants have evolved to maximize the capture of radiation in the upper leaves, resulting in sub-optimal monoculture crop fields for maximizing productivity and other biogeophysical services. Using the world's most important protein crop, soybean, as an example, we show that by applying numerical optimization to a micrometeorological crop canopy model that significant, simultaneous gains in water use, productivity and reflectivity are possible with no increased demand on resources. Here we apply the MLCan multi-layer canopy biophysical model, which vertically resolves the radiation and micro-environmental variations that stimulate biochemical and ecophysiological functions that govern canopy-atmosphere exchange processes. At each canopy level photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and energy balance are solved simultaneously for shaded and sunlit foliage. A multi-layer sub-surface model accounts for water availability as a function of root biomass distribution. MLCan runs at sub-hourly temporal resolution, allowing it to capture variability in CO2, water and energy exchange as a function of environmental variability. By modifying total canopy leaf area, its vertical distribution, leaf angle, and shortwave radiation reflectivity, all traits available in most major crop germplasm collections, we show that increases in either productivity (7%), water use (13%) or albedo (34%) could be achieved with no detriment to the other objectives, under United

  18. Total Productive Maintenance And Role Of Interpretive Structural Modeling And Structural Equation Modeling In Analyzing Barriers In Its Implementation A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanth S. Poduval; Dr. Jagathy Raj V. P.; Dr. V. R. Pramod

    2015-01-01

    Abstract - The aim of the authors is to present a review of literature of Total Productive Maintenance and the barriers in implementation of Total Productive Maintenance TPM. The paper begins with a brief description of TPM and the barriers in implementation of TPM. Interpretive Structural Modeling ISM and its role in analyzing the barriers in TPM implementation is explained in brief. Applications of ISM in analyzing issues in various fields are highlighted with special emphasis on TPM. T...

  19. Effect of microwell chip structure on cell microsphere production of various animal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yusuke; Yoshida, Shirou; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Mori, Rhuhei; Tamura, Tomoko; Yahiro, Kanji; Mori, Hideki; Kanemura, Yonehiro; Yamasaki, Mami; Nakazawa, Kohji

    2010-08-01

    The formation of three-dimensional cell microspheres such as spheroids, embryoid bodies, and neurospheres has attracted attention as a useful culture technique. In this study, we investigated a technique for effective cell microsphere production by using specially prepared microchip. The basic chip design was a multimicrowell structure in triangular arrangement within a 100-mm(2) region in the center of a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) plate (24x24 mm(2)), the surface of which was modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to render it nonadhesive to cells. We also designed six similar chips with microwell diameters of 200, 300, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 microm to investigate the effect of the microwell diameter on the cell microsphere diameter. Rat hepatocytes, HepG2 cells, mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, and mouse neural progenitor/stem (NPS) cells formed hepatocyte spheroids, HepG2 spheroids, embryoid bodies, and neurospheres, respectively, in the microwells within 5 days of culture. For all the cells, a single microsphere was formed in each microwell under all the chip conditions, and such microsphere configurations remained throughout the culture period. Furthermore, the microsphere diameters of each type of cell were strongly positively correlated with the microwell diameters of the chips, suggesting that microsphere diameter can be factitiously controlled by using different chip conditions. Thus, this chip technique is a promising cellular platform for tissue engineering or regenerative medicine research, pharmacological and toxicological studies, and fundamental studies in cell biology. Copyright 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Production of Curved Precast Concrete Elements for Shell Structures and Free-form Architecture using the Flexible Mould Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, H.R.; Grünewald, S.; Eigenraam, P.; Raghunath, P.; Kok, M.A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Free-form buildings tend to be expensive. By optimizing the production process, economical and well-performing precast concrete structures can be manufactured. In this paper, a method is presented that allows producing highly accurate double curved-elements without the need for milling two expensive

  1. Production of structured soy-based meat analogues using simple shear and heat in a Couette Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krintiras, G.A.; Gobel, T.W.; Goot, van der A.J.; Stefanidis, G.D.

    2015-01-01

    A Couette Cell device was employed to provide proof of concept for the production of structured meat analogues by application of simple shear flow and heat to a 31 wt% Soy Protein Isolate (SPI)–Wheat Gluten (WG) dispersion. Three relevant process parameters (temperature, time and rotation rate) were

  2. Wood-based composite materials : panel products, glued-laminated timber, structural composite lumber, and wood-nonwood composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Zhiyong Cai; Charles Carll

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the general types and composition of wood-based composite products and the materials and processes used to manufacture them. It describes conventional wood-based composite panels and structural composite materials intended for general construction, interior use, or both. This chapter also describes wood–nonwood composites. Mechanical...

  3. A modelling and control structure for product quality control in climate-controlled processing of agro-material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdijck, G.J.C.; Straten, van G.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper a modelling and control structure for product quality control is presented for a class of operations that processes agro-material. This class can be characterised as climate-controlled operations, such as storage, transport and drying. The basic model consists of three parts. These are

  4. pH-Controlled Oxidation of an Aromatic Ketone: Structural Elucidation of the Products of Two Green Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, C. Eric

    2010-01-01

    A laboratory experiment emphasizing the structural elucidation of organic compounds has been developed as a discovery exercise. The "unknown" compounds are the products of the pH-controlled oxidation of 4'-methoxyacetophenone with bleach. The chemoselectivity of this reaction is highly dependent on the pH of the reaction media: under basic…

  5. Reassigning the Structures of Natural Products Using NMR Chemical Shifts Computed with Quantum Mechanics: A Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Teresa A.; Truong, Tiana T.; Wong, Shirley M. T.; Mack, Emma T.; Lodewyk, Michael W.; Harrison, Jason G.; Gamage, R. Alan; Siegel, Justin B.; Kurth, Mark J.; Tantillo, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    An applied computational chemistry laboratory exercise is described in which students use modern quantum chemical calculations of chemical shifts to assign the structure of a recently isolated natural product. A pre/post assessment was used to measure student learning gains and verify that students demonstrated proficiency of key learning…

  6. Process Features in Writing: Internal Structure and Incremental Value over Product Features. Research Report. ETS RR-15-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mo; Deane, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In educational measurement contexts, essays have been evaluated and formative feedback has been given based on the end product. In this study, we used a large sample collected from middle school students in the United States to investigate the factor structure of the writing process features gathered from keystroke logs and the association of that…

  7. Fission products collecting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable fission products trap with no contamination to coolants and cover gas by the provision of a fission products trap above the upper part of a nuclear power plant. Constitution: Upon fuel failures in a reactor core, nuclear fission products leak into coolants and move along the flow of the coolants to the coolants above the reactor core. The fission products are collected in a trap container and guided along a pipeline into fission products detector. The fission products detector monitors the concentration of the fission products and opens the downstream valve of the detector when a predetermined concentration of the fission products is detected to introduce the fission products into a waste gas processing device and release them through the exhaust pipe. (Seki, T.)

  8. Influence of the Phytoplankton Community Structure on the Spring and Annual Primary Production in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayot, Nicolas; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Uitz, Julia; Gentili, Bernard; Ras, Joséphine; Vellucci, Vincenzo; Golbol, Melek; Antoine, David; Claustre, Hervé

    2017-12-01

    Satellite ocean color observations revealed that unusually deep convection events in 2005, 2006, 2010, and 2013 led to an increased phytoplankton biomass during the spring bloom over a large area of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (NWM). Here we investigate the effects of these events on the seasonal phytoplankton community structure, we quantify their influence on primary production, and we discuss the potential biogeochemical impact. For this purpose, we compiled in situ phytoplankton pigment data from five ship surveys performed in the NWM and from monthly cruises at a fixed station in the Ligurian Sea. We derived primary production rates from a light photosynthesis model applied to these in situ data. Our results confirm that the maximum phytoplankton biomass during the spring bloom is larger in years associated with intense deep convection events (+51%). During these enhanced spring blooms, the contribution of diatoms to total phytoplankton biomass increased (+33%), as well as the primary production rate (+115%). The occurrence of a highly productive bloom is also related to an increase in the phytoplankton bloom area (+155%) and in the relative contribution of diatoms to primary production (+63%). Therefore, assuming that deep convection in the NWM could be significantly weakened by future climate changes, substantial decreases in the spring production of organic carbon and of its export to deep waters can be expected.

  9. Multi-pion production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavis, D.; Fung, S.Y.; Gorn, W.; Keane, D.; Liu, Y.M.; Poe, R.T.; VanDalen, G.; Vient, M.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary analysis of pion production in 1.2 GeV/nucleon Kr-RbBr collisions is presented. The negative pion multiplicity is consistent with a convolution of Poisson distributions and a freeze-out density between 1/3 and 1/2 normal nuclear density is extracted. Global negative pion kinematic variables are used to search for possible structure in the multi-pion emission. No evidence for structured emission or conservation constraints is found. Pion interferometry analysis gives a source radius of 5.4 +- 1.2 Fermi and a freeze-out density of .3 +- .2 times normal nuclear density. 10 refs., 5 figs

  10. Analyse économique de la structure des coûts de production apicole au Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muluh, GA.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic Analysis of the Bee Farming Costs Structure in Cameroon. Beekeeping is spreading in Cameroon, and contributes to the sustainable management of the non timber forest products. This study presents the structure of the bee farms production factors in the North-West of the aforesaid country. The assumption is that there would be a significant difference in the production costs components between the types of bee-farms in the North-West of Cameroon. The data collected in 2005 related to the operation of the exploitations, the cost factors and income. The analyses were made using Excel and SPSS software, and the principal results are the following. Bee farming returns to scale are decreasing in the North-West of Cameroon. The bee farms of this zone invest more in the capital factor. Their follow-up is very insufficient, whereas all can maximize profit. Although there is a significant difference of the total fixed costs of production between the traditional bee exploitations and the semi modern ones, there is no difference in variable costs, nor in total cost of production between them. The setting-up of an apiculture policy which insists on extension services close to the bee-farmers is essential for the rise of this sub sector.

  11. Zambian charcoal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidumayo, E.N.

    1993-01-01

    The recovery of miombo woodlands following clearance for woodfuel is being monitored at four sites in central Zambia. Charcoal production removes 50% of the total woody biomass and the woodland regenerates from a pool of stunted old seedlings and stumps of cut trees. Productivity is correlated to tree density before felling. Clearing of successive regrowth miombo does not appear to affect productivity. Annual wood biomass increment in unmanaged regrowth miombo is estimated at 2-3 t/ha pa of which about 1.1 t is cord wood suitable for charcoal production. However, the charcoal spots within the deforested area are severely impacted by the carbonization process which destroys soil structure, seedlings and root stocks. Woodland regeneration on such spots is protracted. Fortunately, charcoal spots only cover 2-3% of the deforested area. The concern about land degradation due to deforestation caused by woodfuel harvesting for urban charcoal in the miombo woodland region of central and southern Africa is not supported by the results of this study. (author)

  12. Crystal structure of product-bound complex of UDP-N-acetyl-d-mannosamine dehydrogenase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampa, K J; Lokanath, N K; Girish, T U; Kunishima, N; Rai, V R

    2014-10-24

    UDP-N-acetyl-d-mannosamine dehydrogenase (UDP-d-ManNAcDH) belongs to UDP-glucose/GDP-mannose dehydrogenase family and catalyzes Uridine-diphospho-N-acetyl-d-mannosamine (UDP-d-ManNAc) to Uridine-diphospho-N-acetyl-d-mannosaminuronic acid (UDP-d-ManNAcA) through twofold oxidation of NAD(+). In order to reveal the structural features of the Pyrococcus horikoshii UDP-d-ManNAcADH, we have determined the crystal structure of the product-bound enzyme by X-ray diffraction to resolution of 1.55Å. The protomer folds into three distinct domains; nucleotide binding domain (NBD), substrate binding domain (SBD) and oligomerization domain (OD, involved in the dimerization). The clear electron density of the UDP-d-ManNAcA is observed and the residues binding are identified for the first time. Crystal structures reveal a tight dimeric polymer chains with product-bound in all the structures. The catalytic residues Cys258 and Lys204 are conserved. The Cys258 acts as catalytic nucleophile and Lys204 as acid/base catalyst. The product is directly interacts with residues Arg211, Thr249, Arg244, Gly255, Arg289, Lys319 and Arg398. In addition, the structural parameters responsible for thermostability and oligomerization of the three dimensional structure are analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. BRAND - PRODUCT INTERDEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor NISTORESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we conceptually discussed the brands’ role in the society, the dimensions of branding and the relationship between the brand and the products. We adhere to the main ideas expressed in the literature, that the brand is more than a product. However the product is needed to render the brand tangible. The product is the magic box that delivers the brand experience. Without the product, the brand meaning would have difficulties in attracting customers. More studies are needed to investigate the brand-product relationship.

  14. Structure of edge-state inner products in the fractional quantum Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, R.; Bondesan, R.; Simon, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the inner products of edge state wave functions in the fractional quantum Hall effect, specifically for the Laughlin and Moore-Read states. We use an effective description for these inner products given by a large-N expansion ansatz proposed in a recent work by J. Dubail, N. Read, and E. Rezayi [Phys. Rev. B 86, 245310 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.245310]. As noted by these authors, the terms in this ansatz can be constrained using symmetry, a procedure we perform to high orders. We then check this conjecture by calculating the overlaps exactly for small system sizes and compare the numerics with our high-order expansion. We find the effective description to be very accurate.

  15. Novel bamboo structured TiO2 nanotubes for energy storage/production applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, J. J.; Beh, K. P.; Cheong, Y. L.; Yusuf, W. A. A.; Yam, F. K.

    2018-04-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 received much attention owing to its high surface-to-volume ratio, which can be advantageous in energy storage and production applications. However, the increase in energy consumption at present and possibly the foreseeable future has demanded energy storage and production devices of even higher performance. A direct approach would be manipulating the physical aspects of TiO2 nanostructures, particularly, nanotubes. In this work, dual voltage anodization system has been implemented to fabricate bamboo shaped TiO2 nanotubes, which offers even greater surface area. This unique nanostructure would be used in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) fabrication and its performance will be evaluated and compared along other forms of TiO2 nanotubes. The results showed that bamboo shaped nanotubes indeed are superior morphologically, with an increase of efficiency of 107% at 1.130% efficiency when compared to smooth walled nanotubes at 0.546% efficiency.

  16. The effective factors on the structure of butter and other milk fat-based products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønholt, Stine; Mortensen, Kell; Knudsen, Jes Christian

    2013-01-01

    . Parameters such as thermal treatment of cream prior to butter making, water content, and chemical composition influence not only crystal polymorphism, but also the number and sizes of fat crystals. The number of crystal–crystal interactions formed within the products is related to product hardness. During...... storage, however, postcrystallization increases the solid fat content and strengthens the fat crystal network. The fat crystal network is strengthened by the formation of more and stronger crystal–crystal interactions due to mechanically interlinking of fat crystals, which occurs during crystal growth....... Postcrystallization is directly linked to chemical composition. The initially observed microstructural difference causing different rheological behavior will disappear during storage due to postcrystallization and formation of more crystal–crystal interactions....

  17. Amateur Creation and Entrepreneurialism: A Critical Study of Artistic Production in Post-Fordist Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Yiannis Mylonas

    2012-01-01

    Based on an interview with a hip-hop artist from Eastern Poland, this article critically assesses amateur art pro-duction proliferating throughout the globe today through individuals’ creative usages of new ICTs and new media affordances. The post-Fordist material and ideological context of contemporary social life is the main focus point of the article’s critique. Scarcity, dispossession, and entrepreneurship are the main analytical concepts used to develop a critical analysis and explanatio...

  18. EXPLAINING CORPORATE STRUCTURE:THE MD MATRIX, PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION AND SIZE OF MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Sembenelli; Laura Rondi; Stephen W. Davies

    1995-01-01

    Conventional explanations of diversification and multinationality both point to the existence of intangible assets as a driving force. Using a new database of leading EU firms in 100 NACE 3-digit industries, we devise a classificatory scheme which allows us to analyze multinationality and diversification jointly. We find that product differentiation and home market primary industry size constraints impact differently on different types of diversified firms. For instance, it appears that the c...

  19. Manipulating stand structure of Douglas-fir plantations for wildlife habitat and wood production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy B. Harrington

    2010-01-01

    In southwestern Oregon, a study was initiated by Oregon State University (OSU) in 1983 to determine effects of hardwood competition on Douglas-fir plantation development. The use of herbicides to uniformly suppress competing vegetation—especially fast-growing hardwoods—proved to be an effective approach to ensure dominance and a high level of productivity for planted...

  20. Reshaping production structure in Patagonia Austral. Development options in Santa Cruz and its labor markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Vacca

    2015-12-01

    None the less, the model that has prevailed in the province of Santa Cruz has been characterized by the same research team as subsidizer and of rentier character, noting that most of the population don’t receive their income from their own work on regional productions (coal, oil, gas, mining and industry, but receive income via state transfers, that come from royalties paid by companies from the primary sector, thus ensuring better living conditions for its inhabitants.