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Sample records for product calcium alginate

  1. 21 CFR 582.7187 - Calcium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium alginate. 582.7187 Section 582.7187 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium alginate. (a) Product. Calcium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. Production of a calcium silicate cement material from alginate impression material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washizawa, Norimasa; Narusawa, Hideaki; Tamaki, Yukimichi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize biomaterials from daily dental waste. Since alginate impression material contains silica and calcium salts, we aimed to synthesize calcium silicate cement from alginate impression material. Gypsum-based investment material was also investigated as control. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that although firing the set gypsum-based and modified investment materials at 1,200°C produced calcium silicates, firing the set alginate impression material did not. However, we succeeded when firing the set blend of pre-fired set alginate impression material and gypsum at 1,200°C. SEM observations of the powder revealed that the featured porous structures of diatomite as an alginate impression material component appeared useful for synthesizing calcium silicates. Experimentally fabricated calcium silicate powder was successfully mixed with phosphoric acid solution and set by depositing the brushite. Therefore, we conclude that the production of calcium silicate cement material is possible from waste alginate impression material.

  3. Application of Response Surface Methodology to study the effect of different calcium sources in fish muscle-alginate restructured products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena María Moreno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium alginate needs the presence of calcium ions to gelify. For this reason, the contribution of the calcium source in a fish muscle mince added by sodium alginate, makes gelification possible, resulting a restructured fish product. The three different calcium sources considered were: Calcium Chloride (CC; Calcium Caseinate (CCa; and Calcium lactate (CLa. Several physical properties were analyzed, including mechanical properties, colour and cooking loss. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was used to determine the contribution of different calcium sources to a restructured fish muscle. The calcium source that modifies the system the most is CC. A combination of CC and sodium alginate weakened mechanical properties as reflected in the negative linear contribution of sodium alginate. Moreover, CC by itself increased lightness and cooking loss. The mechanical properties of restructured fish muscle elaborated were enhanced by using CCa and sodium alginate, as reflected in the negative linear contribution of sodium alginate. Also, CCa increased cooking loss. The role of CLa combined with sodium alginate was not so pronounced in the system discussed here.

  4. Production optimization of flying fish roe analogs using calcium alginate hydrogel beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bom-Bi Ha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to decreased supplies of marine resources and byproducts, new processing technologies for the development of analogs for natural fishery products are becoming increasingly important in the fishing industry. In the present study, we investigated the optimal processing conditions for flying fish roe analogs based on alginate hydrogels. Optimized processing of these analogs was performed by response surface methodology. The optimal processing conditions for the flying fish roe analogs (based on sphericity were at a sodium alginate concentration of 2.41 %, calcium chloride solution curing time of 40.65 min, calcium chloride concentration of 1.51 %, and a reactor stir speed of 254×g. When the experiment was performed under these optimized conditions, the size (mm, sphericity (%, and rupture strength (kPa of the analogs were 2.2 ± 0.12, 98.2 ± 0.2, and 762 ± 24.68, respectively, indicating physical properties similar to their natural counterparts.

  5. Bioethanol Production by Calcium Alginate-Immobilised St1 Yeast System: Effects of Size of Beads, Ratio and Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masniroszaime Md Zain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized yeast-cell technology posses several advantages in bioethanol production due to its potential to increase the ethanol yield by eliminating unit process used. Thus, process expenses in cell recovery and reutilization can be minimised. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of three parameters (substrate concentrations, size of alginate beads and ratio of volume of beads to volume of medium on local isolated yeast (ST1 which immobilized using calcium alginate fermentation system. The most affected ethanol production by calcium alginate-immobilised ST1 yeast system were ratio of volume of the beads to the volume of substrate and concentration of LBS. Highest theoretical yield, 78% was obtained in ST1-alginate beads with the size of beads 0.5cm, ratio volume of beads to the volume of LBS media 0.4 and 150g/l concentration of LBS.ABSTRAK: Teknologi sel yis pegun memiliki beberapa kelebihan dalam penghasilan bioetanol kerana ia berpotensi meningkatkan pengeluaran etanol dengan menyingkirkan unit proses yang digunakan. Maka, proses pembiayaan dalam perolehan sel dan penggunaan semula boleh dikurangkan. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk mengkaji pengaruh tiga parameter (kepekatan substrat, saiz manik alginat dan nisbah isipadu manik terhadap isipadu bahantara ke atas sel tempatan terasing (local isolated yeast (ST1 yang dipegun menggunakan sistem penapaian kalsium alginat. Penghasilan etanol yang paling berkesan dengan menggunakan sistem yis ST1 kalsium alginat-pegun adalah dengan kadar nisbah isipadu manik terhadap isipadu substrat dan kepekatan LBS. Kadar hasil teori tertinggi iaitu 78% didapati menerusi manik alginat-ST1 dengan saiz manik 0.5cm, nisbah isipadu 0.4 terhadap perantara LBS dan kepekatan LBS sebanyak 150g/l. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  6. 21 CFR 184.1187 - Calcium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient is used in food only within the following specific limitations: Category of food Maximum level of... other food categories 0.3 Do. (d) Prior sanctions for calcium alginate different from the uses... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium alginate. 184.1187 Section 184.1187 Food...

  7. Drying and Rehydration of Calcium Alginate Gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeker, R.; Li, L.; Fang, Y.; Appelqvist, I.; Mendes, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the rehydration properties of air-dried calcium alginate gel beads. Rehydration is shown to depend on alginate source (i.e. mannuronic to guluronic acid ratio) and the salt concentration in the rehydration medium. Rehydration curves are described adequately by the empirical

  8. Improved production of isomaltulose by a newly isolated mutant of Serratia sp. cells immobilized in calcium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yonghwan; Koo, Bong-Seong; Lee, Hyeon-Cheol; Yoon, Youngdae

    2015-03-01

    Isomaltulose, also known as palatinose, is produced by sucrose isomerase and has been highlighted as a sugar substitute due to a number of advantageous properties. For the massive production of isomaltulose, high resistance to sucrose and stability of sucrose isomerase as well as sucrose conversion yields would be critical factors. We describe a series of screening procedures to isolate the mutant strain of Serratia sp. possessing enhanced isomaltulose production with improved stability. The new Serratia sp. isolated from a series of screening procedures allowed us to produce isomaltulose from 60% sucrose solution, with over 90% conversion yield. Moreover, when this strain was immobilized in calcium alginate beads and placed in a medium containing 60% sucrose, it showed over 70% sucrose conversion yields for 30 cycles of repeated-batch reactions. Thus, improved conversion activity and stability of the newly isolated Serratia sp. strain in the present study would be highly valuable for industries related to isomaltulose production.

  9. Enhanced production of alkaline thermostable keratinolytic protease from calcium alginate immobilized cells of thermoalkalophilic Bacillus halodurans JB 99 exhibiting dehairing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrinivas, Dengeti; Kumar, Raghwendra; Naik, G R

    2012-01-01

    The thermoalkalophilic Bacillus halodurans JB 99 cells known for production of novel thermostable alkaline keratinolytic protease were immobilized in calcium alginate matrix. Batch and repeated batch cultivation using calcium alginate immobilized cells were studied for alkaline protease production in submerged fermentation. Immobilized cells with 2.5% alginate and 350 beads/flask of initial cell loading showed enhanced production of alkaline protease by 23.2% (5,275 ± 39.4 U/ml) as compared to free cells (4,280 ± 35.4 U/ml) after 24 h. In the semicontinuous mode of cultivation, immobilized cells under optimized conditions produced an appreciable level of alkaline protease in up to nine cycles and reached a maximal value of 5,975 U/ml after the seventh cycle. The enzyme produced from immobilized cells efficiently degraded chicken feathers in the presence of a reducing agent which can help the poultry industry in the management of keratin-rich waste and obtaining value-added products.

  10. Variations in Calcium and Alginate Ions Concentration in Relation to the Properties of Calcium Alginate Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Daemi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alginate belongs to a group of natural polymers called polysaccharides. They have carboxylic functional groups beside hydroxyls which are common in all polysaccharides. These materials show interesting properties due to theirfunctional groups. One of these properties is the ability of this polymer as a suitable carrier of protecting and transferring drugs and biomolecules. The particle sizes of these polymers are very important for their applications, so different techniques were used for preparation of these materials. In this way polymeric nanoparticles of calcium alginate which are excellent carriers in drug delivery systems were prepared by addition of calcium chloride solution to dilute solution of sodium alginate. Investigation of the size and distribution of nanoparticles were analyzed by SEM method. The concentration effects of both alginate and calcium ions on the size and distribution of  nanoparticles were studied in this research. Results showed that the size of nanoparticles obviously decreased with decreasing polymeric alginate concentration because of lower active sites in polymer chain. On the other hand, thesize and distribution of nanoparticles are significantly improved with increase of calcium cation concentrations. The mean particle size 40-70 nm and spherical shape are the main characteristics of the prepared nanoparticles.

  11. Production of isomaltulose obtained by Erwinia sp. cells submitted to different treatments and immobilized in calcium alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Yukio Kawaguti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, there has been an increase in the studies of isomaltulose obtainment, due to its physicochemical properties and physiological health benefits. These properties, which include low cariogenicity, low glycemic index and greater stability, allow the use of this sweetener as a substitute for sucrose in foods; besides the fact that it can be converted to isomalt, a dietary non-cariogenic sugar alcohol used in pharmaceuticals as well as in the food industry. Isomaltulose (6-O-α-D-glucopyronosyl-1-6-D-fructofuranose is a disaccharide reducer obtained by the enzymatic conversion of sucrose - the α-glucosyltransferase enzyme. Different treatments were performed for the preparation of whole cells; lysed cells; and crude enzyme extract of Erwinia sp. D12 strain immobilized in calcium alginate. The packed bed column of granules, containing Erwinia sp. cells sonicated and immobilized in calcium alginate (CSI, reached a maximum conversion of 53-59% sucrose into isomaltulose and it presented activity for 480 hours. The converted syrup was purified and the isomaltulose crystallization was performed through the lowering of temperature. The isomaltulose crystals presented purity of 96.5%.

  12. THERMAL DEGRADATION AND FLAME RETARDANCY OF CALCIUM ALGINATE FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于建; 夏延致

    2009-01-01

    Calcium alginate fibers were prepared by wet spinning of sodium alginate into a coagulating bath containing calcium chloride.The thermal degradation and flame retardancy of calcium alginate fibers were investigated with thermal gravimetry(TG),X-ray diffraction(XRD),limiting oxygen index(LOI) and cone calorimeter(CONE).The results show that calcium alginate fibers are inherently flame retardant with a LOI value of 34,and the heat release rate(HRR),total heat release(THR),CO and CO_2 concentrations during ...

  13. Controlled release studies of calcium alginate hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendevski, S.; Andonovski, A.; Mahmudi, N.

    2012-01-01

    Controlled release of substances in many cases may be achieved from calcium alginate hydrogels. In this research, the time dependence of the mass of released model substance bovine serum albumin (BSA) from calcium alginate spherical hydrogels of three different types (G/M ratio) have been investigated. The hydrogels were prepared with the drop-wise method of sodium alginate aqueous solutions with concentration of 0.02 g/cm 3 with 0.01 g/cm 3 BSA and a gelling water bath of chitosan in 0.2 M CH 3 COOH/0.4 M CH 3 COONa with added 0.2 M CaCl 2 .The hydrogel structures were characterized by dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. The controlled release studies were conducted by UV-Vis spectrophotometry of the released medium with p H=7 at 37 °C. The results showed that the model of osmotic pumping is the dominant mechanism of the release. Also, large dependences of the release profile on the homogeneity of the hydrogels were found. (Author)

  14. Adsorption studies of phosphate ions on alginate- calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    osmosis, electro dialysis, phytoremediation and phyto- extraction, ion-exchange .... occurred between functional groups of alginate and host material, that is, calcium .... metal ions using wheat based biosorbent; a review of the recent literature.

  15. The Effect of Cell Immobilization by Calcium Alginate on Bacterially Induced Calcium Carbonate Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Seifan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbially induced mineral precipitation is recognized as a widespread phenomenon in nature. A diverse range of minerals including carbonate, sulphides, silicates, and phosphates can be produced through biomineralization. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3 is one of the most common substances used in various industries and is mostly extracted by mining. In recent years, production of CaCO3 by bacteria has drawn much attention because it is an environmentally- and health-friendly pathway. Although CaCO3 can be produced by some genera of bacteria through autotrophic and heterotrophic pathways, the possibility of producing CaCO3 in different environmental conditions has remained a challenge to determine. In this study, calcium alginate was proposed as a protective carrier to increase the bacterial tolerance to extreme environmental conditions. The model showed that the highest concentration of CaCO3 is achieved when the bacterial cells are immobilized in the calcium alginate beads fabricated using 1.38% w/v Na-alginate and 0.13 M CaCl2.

  16. Injectable hydrogels derived from phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han-Sem; Song, Minsoo, E-mail: minsoosong00@gmail.com; Lee, Eun-Jung; Shin, Ueon Sang, E-mail: usshin12@dankook.ac.kr

    2015-06-01

    Phosphorylation of sodium alginate salt (NaAlg) was carried out using H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Et{sub 3}PO{sub 4} followed by acid–base reaction with Ca(OAc){sub 2} to give phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes (CaPAlg), as a water dispersible alginic acid derivative. The modified alginate derivatives including phosphorylated alginic acid (PAlg) and CaPAlg were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for {sup 1}H, and {sup 31}P nuclei, high resolution inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. CaPAlg hydrogels were prepared simply by mixing CaPAlg solution (2 w/v%) with NaAlg solution (2 w/v%) in various ratios (2:8, 4:6, 6:4, 8:2) of volume. No additional calcium salts such as CaSO{sub 4} or CaCl{sub 2} were added externally. The gelation was completed within about 3–40 min indicating a high potential of hydrogel delivery by injection in vivo. Their mechanical properties were tested to be ≤ 6.7 kPa for compressive strength at break and about 8.4 kPa/mm for elastic modulus. SEM analysis of the CaPAlg hydrogels showed highly porous morphology with interconnected pores of width in the range of 100–800 μm. Cell culture results showed that the injectable hydrogels exhibited comparable properties to the pure alginate hydrogel in terms of cytotoxicity and 3D encapsulation of cells for a short time period. The developed injectable hydrogels showed suitable physicochemical and mechanical properties for injection in vivo, and could therefore be beneficial for the field of soft tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Preparation of water-soluble alginic acid complexes with calcium phosphate • Self-assembly of the phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes with sodium alginate • Preparation of injectable hydrogels with diverse gelation times within about 3–40 min.

  17. Butyl acetate synthesis using immobilized lipase in calcium alginate beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zulkhairi Abdul Rahim; Lee, Pat M.; Lee, Kong H.

    2008-01-01

    The esterification reaction of acetic acid and n-butanol using immobilized lipase encapsulated in calcium alginate beads (Lipase - CAB) and in chitosan coated calcium alginate beads (Lipase-CCAB) in n-hexane under mild reaction conditions were studied. Effects of temperature and substrate concentration (acetic acid and n-butanol) using Lipase - CAB, Lipase - CCAB and free lipase on the esterification reaction and their thermal stability towards esterification reaction were investigated. Results of temperature studies showed that the butyl acetate conversion increased with increase of temperature and reached the highest yield of about 70% around 50 degree Celsius for both immobilized systems but the yield of product catalyzed by free enzyme decreased as temperature was increased. Thermal stabilities studies showed that the Lipase-CCAB and Lipase-CAB were stable throughout the temperature range of 30-60 degree Celsius. However, free lipase became less stable at temperatures higher than 50 degree Celsius. The substrates, n-butanol and acetic acid exerted different effects on the esterification reaction and the reaction was favoured by higher acetic acid concentration than butanol. Kinetics parameters, Km and Vmax values for both substrates and the specific activities of the three enzyme system were also determined. The beads morphology was examined using SEM. Batch-wise operational stability studies for both immobilized systems demonstrated that the immobilized lipase performed better in the batch wise reactor system than the continuous bioreactor system and that the immobilized lipase remained active for at least 5 cycles of batch wise esterification reactions. (author)

  18. Adsorption of ochratoxin A from grape juice by yeast cells immobilised in calcium alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbo, Maria Grazia; Urgeghe, Pietro Paolo; Fiori, Stefano; Marceddu, Salvatore; Jaoua, Samir; Migheli, Quirico

    2016-01-18

    Grape juice can be easily contaminated with ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the known mycotoxins with the greatest public health significance. Among the different approaches to decontaminate juice from this mycotoxin, microbiological methods proved efficient, inexpensive and safe, particularly the use of yeast or yeast products. To ascertain whether immobilisation of the yeast biomass would lead to successful decontamination, alginate beads encapsulating Candida intermedia yeast cells were used in our experiments to evaluate their OTA-biosorption efficacy. Magnetic calcium alginate beads were also prepared by adding magnetite in the formulation to allow fast removal from the aqueous solution with a magnet. Calcium alginate beads were added to commercial grape juice spiked with 20 μg/kg OTA and after 48 h of incubation a significant reduction (>80%), of the total OTA content was achieved, while in the subsequent phases (72-120 h) OTA was slowly released into the grape juice by alginate beads. Biosorption properties of alginate-yeast beads were tested in a prototype bioreactor consisting in a glass chromatography column packed with beads, where juice amended with OTA was slowly flowed downstream. The adoption of an interconnected scaled-up bioreactor as an efficient and safe tool to remove traces of OTA from liquid matrices is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of selected physico-chemical properties of calcium alginate films prepared by two different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossingham, Yazmin J; Kerr, Philip G; Kennedy, Ross A

    2014-10-01

    Sodium alginate (SA) is a naturally occurring, non-toxic, polysaccharide that is able to form gels after exposure to calcium. These gels have been used in food and biomedical industries. This is the first direct comparison of two different methods of calcium alginate film production, namely interfacial gelation (IFG) and dry cast gelation (DCG). IFG films were significantly thicker than DCG films, and were more extensively rehydrated in water and 0.1M HCl than the DCG films. During rehydration in 0.1M HCl almost all calcium ions were lost. Under scanning electron microscopy, IFG films appeared less dense than DCG films. IFG films were mechanically weaker than DCG films, and both types of film were weaker after rehydration in 0.1M HCl compared with deionized water. Permeation of theophylline (TPL) was evaluated in-vitro; the diffusion coefficient (D) of the TPL was almost 90 times lower in DCG films than IFG films when both were rehydrated in water. Although the 0.1M HCl rendered both gels more permeable to TPL, D of TPL was still about five times lower in DCG compared to IFG films. The evaluation of selected physico-chemical properties of films is important, since this information may inform the choice of gelation technique used to produce calcium alginate coatings on pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Production, deformation and mechanical investigation of magnetic alginate capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwar, Elena; Kemna, Andre; Richter, Lena; Degen, Patrick; Rehage, Heinz

    2018-02-01

    In this article we investigated the deformation of alginate capsules in magnetic fields. The sensitivity to magnetic forces was realised by encapsulating an oil in water emulsion, where the oil droplets contained dispersed magnetic nanoparticles. We solved calcium ions in the aqueous emulsion phase, which act as crosslinking compounds for forming thin layers of alginate membranes. This encapsulating technique allows the production of flexible capsules with an emulsion as the capsule core. It is important to mention that the magnetic nanoparticles were stable and dispersed throughout the complete process, which is an important difference to most magnetic alginate-based materials. In a series of experiments, we used spinning drop techniques, capsule squeezing experiments and interfacial shear rheology in order to determine the surface Young moduli, the surface Poisson ratios and the surface shear moduli of the magnetically sensitive alginate capsules. In additional experiments, we analysed the capsule deformation in magnetic fields. In spinning drop and capsule squeezing experiments, water droplets were pressed out of the capsules at elevated values of the mechanical load. This phenomenon might be used for the mechanically triggered release of water-soluble ingredients. After drying the emulsion-filled capsules, we produced capsules, which only contained a homogeneous oil phase with stable suspended magnetic nanoparticles (organic ferrofluid). In the dried state, the thin alginate membranes of these particles were rather rigid. These dehydrated capsules could be stored at ambient conditions for several months without changing their properties. After exposure to water, the alginate membranes rehydrated and became flexible and deformable again. During this swelling process, water diffused back in the capsule. This long-term stability and rehydration offers a great spectrum of different applications as sensors, soft actuators, artificial muscles or drug delivery systems.

  1. Calcium alginate dressings promote healing of split skin graft donor sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, J M

    2012-02-03

    A prospective controlled trial was carried out to assess the healing efficacy of calcium alginate and paraffin gauze on split skin graft donor sites. Thirty patients were randomised to the calcium alginate group and 21 to the paraffin gauze group. The donor sites were assessed at 10 days post harvesting to determine if they were completely healed (100%) or not. Twenty one of the 30 patients dressed with calcium alginate were completely healed at day 10, while only 7\\/21 in the paraffin gauze group were healed (p < 0.05). There were two infections in the study, both occurring in the alginate group while there was no difference in dressing slippage between the two groups. Calcium alginate dressings provide a significant improvement in healing split skin graft donor sites.

  2. The Drug Release Profile from Calcium-induced Alginate Gel Beads Coated with an Alginate Hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Kawashima

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-induced alginate gel bead (Alg-Ca coated with an alginate hydrolysate(Alg, e.g. the guluronic acid block (GB was prepared and the model drug, hydrocortisonerelease profiles were investigated under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Theirmolecular weights were one sixth or one tenth that of Alg and the diffraction patterns of thehydrolysates resembled that of Alg. The drug release rate from Alg-Ca coated with GBapparently lowered than that of Alg-Ca (coating-free in the gastric juice (pH1.2. And thecoating did not resist the disintegration of Alg-Ca in the intestinal juice (pH 6.8 and thegel erosion accelerated the drug release. On the other hand, for the coated Alg-Cacontaining chitosan, the drug release showed zero-order kinetics without rapid erosion ofAlg-Ca. The drug release rate from Alg-Ca was able to be controlled by the coating andmodifying the composition of the gel matrix.

  3. A comparative study on the raft chemical properties of various alginate antacid raft-forming products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmar, Peter W; Gil-Gonzalez, Diana; Fisher, Jeanine; Flint, Lucy; Rainforth, Daniel; Moreno-Herrera, Antonio; Potts, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Research to measure the chemical characterization of alginate rafts for good raft performance and ascertain how formulation can affect chemical parameters. A selection of alginate formulations was investigated all claiming to be proficient raft formers with significance between products established and ranked. Procedures were selected which demonstrated the chemical characterization allowing rafts to effectively impede the reflux into the esophagus or in severe cases to be refluxed preferentially into the esophagus and exert a demulcent effect, with focus of current research on methods which complement previous studies centered on physical properties. The alginate content was analyzed by a newly developed HPLC method. Methods were used to determine the neutralization profile and the acid neutralization within the raft determined along with how raft structure affects neutralization. Alginate content of Gaviscon Double Action (GDA) within the raft was significantly superior (p raft acid neutralization capacity were GDA and Rennie Duo, the latter product not being a raft former. Raft structure was key and GDA had the right level of porosity to allow for longer duration of neutralization. Alginate formulations require three chemical reactions to take place simultaneously: transformation to alginic acid, sodium carbonate reacting to form carbon dioxide, calcium releasing free calcium ions to bind with alginic acid providing strength to raft formation. GDA was significantly superior (p <.0001) to all other comparators.

  4. In vitro evaluation of calcium alginate gels as matrix for iontophoresis electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haida, Haruka; Ando, Shizuka; Ogami, Saori; Wakita, Ryo; Kohase, Hikaru; Saito, Norio; Yoshioka, Tomohiko; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Junzo; Umino, Masahiro; Fukayama, Haruhisa

    2012-03-13

    Calcium alginate gel has some unique properties, such as the capability to keep the drugs, bioadhesiveness, safety, and low cost. The purpose of this study is to determine whether calcium alginate gel can be used as a matrix of electrodes for iontophoresis (IOP). We measured the concentration of lidocaine transported from calcium alginate gels with various concentrations of alginic acid using an in vitro experimental cell with square-wave alternating current (AC) application. Temperature and pH changes were also determined during AC-IOP. The results revealed that lidocaine was released from calcium alginate gels at concentrations nearly 1.71-fold larger at 5 V, 60 min after AC application than in the case of passive diffusion. Lidocaine transport depended on the alginic acid concentration in the gels. Although there were slight increases in temperature and pH, chemical and thermal burns were not severe enough to be a concern. In conclusion, the calcium alginate gel can be used as a possible matrix for IOP electrodes.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan impregnated calcium alginate beads for removal of uranium from aquatic stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, R.K.; Basu, H.; Manisha, V.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Sawant, Manjiri; Kamane, Suman

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to study the feasibility of chitosan impregnated calcium alginate beads (Cal-Alg-Chi) to sorb the excess uranium from the aquatic stream. Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1-4)-linked D glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated unit). The optimal composition of calcium alginate chitosan beads is 4 % (wt/vol) alginate gel having 5% loading of chitosan. The nature and morphology of pure and uranium sorbed calcium alginate chitosan beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATRFTIR). The results of batch sorption experiments suggest that Cal-Alg-Chi beads are very effective for removal of uranium in the pH range of 2.0-5.0 and sorption is more than 80 % in the concentration range of 1-100 mgL -1

  6. Preparation of in situ hardening composite microcarriers: Calcium phosphate cement combined with alginate for bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Hui; Lee, Eun-Jung; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2014-01-01

    Novel microcarriers consisting of calcium phosphate cement and alginate were prepared for use as three-dimensional scaffolds for the culture and expansion of cells that are effective for bone tissue engineering. The calcium phosphate cement-alginate composite microcarriers were produced by an emulsification of the composite aqueous solutions mixed at varying ratios (calcium phosphate cement powder/alginate solution = 0.8–1.2) in an oil bath and the subsequent in situ hardening of the compositions during spherodization. Moreover, a porous structure could be easily created in the solid microcarriers by soaking the produced microcarriers in water and a subsequent freeze-drying process. Bone mineral-like apatite nanocrystallites were shown to rapidly develop on the calcium phosphate cement–alginate microcarriers under moist conditions due to the conversion of the α-tricalcium phosphate phase in the calcium phosphate cement into a carbonate–hydroxyapatite. Osteoblastic cells cultured on the microspherical scaffolds were proven to be viable, with an active proliferative potential during 14 days of culture, and their osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity. The in situ hardening calcium phosphate cement–alginate microcarriers developed herein may be used as potential three-dimensional scaffolds for cell delivery and tissue engineering of bone. PMID:23836845

  7. Drug Release Profile from Calcium-Induced Alginate-Phosphate Composite Gel Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Murata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-induced alginate-phosphate composite gel beads were prepared, and model drug release profiles were investigated in vitro. The formation of calcium phosphate in the alginate gel matrix was observed and did not affect the rheological properties of the hydrogel beads. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the calcium phosphate does not exist in crystalline form in the matrix. The initial release amount and release rate of a water-soluble drug, diclofenac, from the alginate gel beads could be controlled by modifying the composition of the matrix with calcium phosphate. In contrast, the release profile was not affected by the modification for hydrocortisone, a drug only slightly soluble in water.

  8. Crystal growth of calcium carbonate in silk fibroin/sodium alginate hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jinfa; Zuo, Baoqi

    2014-01-01

    As known, silk fibroin-like protein plays a pivotal role during the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) crystals in the nacre sheets. Here, we have prepared silk fibroin/sodium alginate nanofiber hydrogels to serve as templates for calcium carbonate mineralization. In this experiment, we report an interesting finding of calcium carbonate crystal growth in the silk fibroin/sodium alginate nanofiber hydrogels by the vapor diffusion method. The experimental results indicate calcium carbonate crystals obtained from nanofiber hydrogels with different proportions of silk fibroin/sodium alginate are mixture of calcite and vaterite with unusual morphologies. Time-dependent growth study was carried out to investigate the crystallization process. It is believed that nanofiber hydrogels play an important role in the process of crystallization. This study would help in understanding the function of organic polymers in natural mineralization, and provide a novel pathway in the design and synthesis of new materials related unique morphology and structure.

  9. Investigation on the biomimetic influence of biopolymers on calcium phosphate precipitation-Part 1: Alginate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira de Lima, Daniel; Gomes Aimoli, Cassiano; Beppu, Marisa Masumi

    2009-01-01

    The understanding of how macromocules act in precipitation of inorganic phases is the key knowledge that is needed to establish the foundation to mimic nature and produce materials with high mechanical modulus besides outstanding optical and thermal properties. This study investigated how addition of small amounts of alginate (7-70 ppm), that presents many carboxylic groups, affects phase distribution and morphology of calcium phosphates, obtained through precipitation and further submitted to calcination and sintering. The results lead to the conclusion that alginate action is dynamic, where alginate molecules act as templates to nucleation, and most of the biopolymer remains in solution even when all calcium phosphate has precipitated. However, despite the effect on phase composition being mainly related to the system's kinetics, alginate does present thermodynamic interaction with the precipitates. It is probable that it acts by reducing the free energy of nucleation, as in heterogeneous nucleation processes.

  10. Drug-Loadable Calcium Alginate Hydrogel System for Use in Oral Bone Tissue Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luyuan; Shen, Renze; Komasa, Satoshi; Xue, Yanxiang; Jin, Bingyu; Hou, Yepo; Okazaki, Joji; Gao, Jie

    2017-05-06

    This study developed a drug-loadable hydrogel system with high plasticity and favorable biological properties to enhance oral bone tissue regeneration. Hydrogels of different calcium alginate concentrations were prepared. Their swelling ratio, degradation time, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) release rate were measured. Human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured with both calcium alginate hydrogels and polylactic acid (PLA), and then we examined the proliferation of cells. Inflammatory-related factor gene expressions of hPDLCs and osteogenesis-related gene expressions of BMSCs were observed. Materials were implanted into the subcutaneous tissue of rabbits to determine the biosecurity properties of the materials. The materials were also implanted in mandibular bone defects and then scanned using micro-CT. The calcium alginate hydrogels caused less inflammation than the PLA. The number of mineralized nodules and the expression of osteoblast-related genes were significantly higher in the hydrogel group compared with the control group. When the materials were implanted in subcutaneous tissue, materials showed favorable biocompatibility. The calcium alginate hydrogels had superior osteoinductive bone ability to the PLA. The drug-loadable calcium alginate hydrogel system is a potential bone defect reparation material for clinical dental application.

  11. Microencapsulation of probiotics in hydrogel particles: enhancing Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris LM0230 viability using calcium alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Timothy W; Arroyo-Maya, Izlia J; McClements, David J; Sela, David A

    2016-04-01

    Probiotics are beneficial microbes often added to food products to enhance the health and wellness of consumers. A major limitation to producing efficacious functional foods containing probiotic cells is their tendency to lose viability during storage and gastrointestinal transit. In this study, the impact of encapsulating probiotics within food-grade hydrogel particles to mitigate sensitivity to environmental stresses was examined. Confocal fluorescence microscopy confirmed that Lactococcus lactis were trapped within calcium alginate beads formed by dripping a probiotic-alginate mixture into a calcium solution. Encapsulation improved the viability of the probiotics during aerobic storage: after seven days, less than a two-log reduction was observed in encapsulated cells stored at room temperature, demonstrating that a high concentration of cells survived relative to non-encapsulated bacteria. These hydrogel beads may have applications for improving the stability and efficacy of probiotics in functional foods.

  12. Characterisation of bare and tannase-loaded calcium alginate beads by microscopic, thermogravimetric, FTIR and XRD analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larosa, Claudio; Salerno, Marco; de Lima, Juliana Silva; Merijs Meri, Remo; da Silva, Milena Fernandes; de Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra; Converti, Attilio

    2018-08-01

    Incorporating enzymes into calcium alginate beads is an effective method to immobilise them and to preserve, at the same time, their catalytic activity. Sodium alginate was mixed with Aspergillus ficuum tannase in aqueous solution, and tannase-loaded calcium alginate beads were prepared using a simple droplet-based microfluidic system. Extensive experimental analysis was carried out to characterise the samples. Microscopic imaging revealed morphological differences between the surfaces of bare alginate matrix and tannase-loaded alginate beads. Thermal analysis allowed assessing the hydration contents of alginate and revealed the presence of tannase entrapped in the loaded beads, which was confirmed by vibrational spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction allowed us to conclude that alginate of tannase-loaded beads is not crystalline, which would make them suitable as carriers for possible controlled release. Moreover, they could be used in food applications to improve tea quality or clarify juices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of calcium chloride concentration on output force in electrical actuator made of sodium alginate gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuda; Zhao, Gang; Wei, Chengye; Liu, Shuang; Fu, Yu; Liu, Xvxiong

    2018-01-01

    As a kind of artificial muscle intelligent material, the biological gel electric driver has the advantages of low driving voltage, large strain, good biological compatibility, good flexibility, low price, etc. The application prospect is broad and it has high academic value. Alginate, as a common substance in sea, has characteristics of low cost, green and pollution-free. Therefore,this paper obtains biological gel electric actuator by sodium alginate and calcium chloride. Effects on output force of the electric actuator is researched by changing the crosslinking of calcium chloride concentration and the output force enhancement mechanism is analyzed in this paper.

  14. Alginate-based pellets prepared by extrusion/spheronization: effect of the amount and type of sodium alginate and calcium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Luangtana-anan, Manee; Weerapol, Yossanun; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2008-05-01

    Pellets containing microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), a model drug (theophylline) and a range of levels of sodium alginate (i.e., 10-50% w/w) were prepared by extrusion/spheronization. Two types of sodium alginate were evaluated with and without the addition of either calcium acetate or calcium carbonate (0, 0.3, 3 and 10% w/w). The effects of amount and type of sodium alginate and calcium salts on pellet properties, e.g., size, shape, morphology and drug release behavior, were investigated. Most pellet formulations resulted in pellets of a sufficient quality with respect to size, size distribution and shape. The results showed that the amounts of sodium alginate and calcium salts influenced the size and shape of the obtained pellets. However, different types of sodium alginate and calcium salt responded to modifications to a different extent. A cavity was observed in the pellet structure, as seen in the scanning electron micrographs, resulting from the forces involved in the spheronization process. Most of pellet formulations released about 75-85% drug within 60 min. Incorporation of calcium salts in the pellet formulations altered the drug release, depending on the solubility of the calcium salts used. The drug release data showed a good fit into both Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas equations.

  15. Production of tannase by the immobilized cells of Bacillus licheniformis KBR6 in Ca-alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, P K D; Mondal, K C; Pati, B R

    2007-06-01

    The present study was aimed at finding the optimal conditions for immobilization of Bacillus licheniformis KBR6 cells in calcium-alginate (Ca-alginate) beads and determining the operational stability during the production of tannin-acyl-hydrolase (tannase) under semicontinous cultivation. The active cells of B. licheniformis KBR6 were immobilized in Ca-alginate and used for the production of tannase. The influence of alginate concentration (5, 10, 20 and 30 g l(-1)) and initial cell loading on enzyme production were studied. The production of tannase increased significantly with increasing alginate concentration and reached a maximum enzyme yield of 0.56 +/- 0.03 U ml(-1) at 20 g l(-1). This was about 1.70-fold higher than that obtained by free cells. The immobilized cells produced tannase consistently over 13 repeated cycles and reached a maximum level at the third cycle. Scanning electron microscope study indicated that the cells in Ca-alginate beads remain in normal shape. The Ca-alginate entrapment is a promising immobilization method of B. licheniformis KBR6 for repeated tannase production. Tannase production by immobilized cells is superior to that of free cells because it leads to higher volumetric activities within the same period of fermentation. This is the first report of tannase production from immobilized bacterial cells. The bacterium under study can produce higher amounts of tannase with respect to other fungal strains within a short cultivation period.

  16. Optimized spray drying process for preparation of one-step calcium-alginate gel microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popeski-Dimovski, Riste [Department of physic, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, “ss. Cyril and Methodius” University, Arhimedova 3, 1000 Skopje, R. Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2016-03-25

    Calcium-alginate micro particles have been used extensively in drug delivery systems. Therefore we establish a one-step method for preparation of internally gelated micro particles with spherical shape and narrow size distribution. We use four types of alginate with different G/M ratio and molar weight. The size of the particles is measured using light diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Measurements showed that with this method, micro particles with size distribution around 4 micrometers can be prepared, and SEM imaging showed that those particles are spherical in shape.

  17. Calcium Alginate and Salt/Phosphate as Binding Agents in Restructured Lamb

    OpenAIRE

    Setyawardani, Triana; Raharjo, Sri; sudarmadji, purnama

    2001-01-01

    A study on  restructurization of lamb meat using several binding agents were conducted. Objectives of the study were evaluate  effectivity of Ca–alginate, salt and phosphate as binding agent and their effect on physical properties of the restructured meat stored at -20⁰C for up to 12 weeks. Three binding agents were added to the restructured products, which include NaCl 0.3 %/ NTPP 0.3 %; alginate 0.5 %/Ca-lactate 0.5%; NaCl 0.3 % / NTPP 0.5 %/alginate 0.5% and no binding agent as a control. ...

  18. Calcium alginate entrapment of the yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides for the kinetic resolution of 1, 2-epoxyoctane

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maritz, J

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available -centrifuge tube. The epoxide substrate was added to give 20 mM in the aqueous phase. The reaction mixtures were incub- ated (20 min, 30 openbulletC) on a shaking water-bath. Liquid samples were removed from the reaction mixtures and the product (R,S-1,2-octanediol...)represent 0.5% (w/v) alginate, the closed squares (squaresolid) 0.75% (w/v) algin- ate, and the closed triangleS (trianglesolid) 1.0% (w/v) alginate concentration combinations. Fig. 8. Repeated batch biotransformation. Twenty percent (w/v) biomass...

  19. Fabrication of highly porous keratin sponges by freeze-drying in the presence of calcium alginate beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamasaki, Shinichi; Tachibana, Akira; Tada, Daisuke; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Tanabe, Toshizumi

    2008-01-01

    Novel fabrication method of highly porous and flexible keratin sponges was developed by combining a particulate-leaching method and a freeze-drying method. Reduced keratin aqueous solution was mixed with dried calcium alginate beads and was lyophilized to give keratin/calcium alginate complex, which was subsequently treated with EDTA solution to leach out calcium alginate beads. The resultant keratin sponge was flexible enough to handle even in dried state because of its quite high porosity (98.9 ± 0.1%), which was brought about by the large and small pores formed by the elimination of calcium alginate beads and water. The sponge supported the attachment and the proliferation of mouse fibroblast cells. Thus, the keratin sponge given by the present fabrication method afforded one alternative as a cell scaffold for tissue engineering

  20. Synthesis of calcium silicates by Pechini method and exchanging ions of sodium alginate-calcium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Garay, K.A.; Martinez-Luevanos, A.; Cruz-Ortiz, B.R.; Garcia-Cerda, L.A.; Lopez-Badillo, C.M.

    2016-07-01

    Calcium silicates samples were synthesized using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and by Pechini methodology assisted with ion-exchange of sodium alginate, followed by a heat treatment of 800°C by two hours. A, B and C samples were obtained using 1.7×10−3M, 3.4×10−3M and 5.1×10−3M of TEOS, respectively, and without heat treatment; these samples were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR). Furthermore, samples A800, B800 and C800 obtained using a heat treatment of 800° by two hours were characterized by FTIR-ATR, absorption technique (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy. The XRD patterns indicate that sample A800 contains olivine (Ca2SiO4) in orthorhombic phase and wollastonite-2M (CaSiO3); sample B800 showed the earlier phases and quartz (SiO2), whereas sample C800 contains wollastonite phases and larnite-2M (Ca2SiO4). (Author)

  1. Physicochemical Characterization of a Heat Treated Calcium Alginate Dry Film Prepared with Chicken Stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez, Germán D; Piccirilli, Gisela N; Ballerini, Griselda A; Frattini, Agustín; Busti, Pablo A; Verdini, Roxana A; Delorenzi, Néstor J

    2017-04-01

    Solid sodium alginate was dissolved into chicken stock in order to give a final alginate concentration of 0.9 percent (w/v). Calcium ions present in chicken stock were enough to induce ionic gelation. After drying, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thickness and mechanical properties of films obtained were determined. Calcium alginate-chicken stock films were heated at 130 °C for different times between 0 and 15 min. Mechanical and optical studies, differential scanning calorimetry, visual aspect and scanning electron microscopy were carried out to describe physicochemical properties of heat treated films. Heating developed a maroon ochre color and increased the brittleness (crispness) of the films related to the intensity of the treatment. Differential scanning thermometry and study on appearance of the films suggested that Maillard reactions may be responsible for the observed changes. Maillard reactions mainly occurred between reducing sugar monomers and free amino groups of gelatin peptides present in the chicken stock, and between alginate and gelatin peptides to a lesser extent. In addition, the plasticizing effect of fat added with chicken stock was also studied. These studies suggest a potential use of heat treated chicken stock films as a substitute of roasted chicken skin. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Flicking technique for microencapsulation of cells in calcium alginate leading to the microtissue formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Soon Chuan; Soon, Chin Fhong; Leong, Wai Yean; Tee, Kian Sek

    2016-01-01

    Microbeads have wide applications in biomedical engineering field that include drug delivery, encapsulation of biomolecules, tissue padding and tissue regeneration. In this paper, we report a simple, yet efficient, flicking technique to produce microcapsules of calcium alginate at a narrow distribution of size. The system consists of an infusion pump and a customised flicker that taps the syringe needle for dispersing microcapsules of sodium alginate that polymerised in the calcium chloride solution. The flow rate of the syringe pump and the velocity of the flicker were studied to achieve a well controlled and tunable size distribution of microbeads ranging from 200 to 400 μm. At a flow rate of 4 μl/min and flicking rate of 80 rpm, a narrow size distribution of microbeads were produced. Via this technique, HaCaT cells were encapsulated in calcium alginate microbeads that grown into microtissues with a size ranging from 100 to 300 μm after two weeks of culture. These microtissues could be potentially useful for pharmacological application.

  3. The Use of Alginate in Lemon Extract Effervescent Powder Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdinah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Study on the use of alginate in lemon (Citrus medica var lemon extract effervescent powder production has conducted. The aims of the research are to determine the optimum concentration of alginate used in lemon extract effervescent powder to produced best product and acceptance consumen.The lemon extract effervescent powder formula consisted of lemon extract powder, sucrose, aspartame, salt and effervescent mix (citric acid-tartrat acid-sodium bicarbonat. The alginate used in this study was extracted from Sargassum filipendula sea weed. The concentration of alginate used in lemon effervescent powder production was varied from 1; 2; 3 and 4%. The parameters observed to see the quality of the product were moisture content, ash content, pH, viscosity and organoleptic value (flavor, taste, viscosity, effec effervescent, effect sparkle and acceptance. Analysis of dietary fiber, sugar content, vitamin C content, total titratable acids, TPC and E.Coli to the best product. The result showed that the higher the concentration of alginate used in lemon effervescent powder production, the higher viscousness and the lower the organoleptic value. The optimum concentration of alginate used in the lemon extract effervescent powder processing was 1%. The characteristic this product 7.60% moisture content, 0.86% insoluble dietary fiber , 7.92% soluble dietary fiber, 3.74% sugar content, 55,26 mg/100 g vitamin C, 134.15 mL 0.1 NaOH/100 mL total titratable acids, 20 cPs viscosity, <2.5x102 coloni/mL TPC and E.Coli negative.

  4. Calcium Alginate and Salt/Phosphate as Binding Agents in Restructured Lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triana Setyawardani

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on restructurization of lamb meat using several binding agents were conducted. Objectives of the study were evaluate effectivity of Ca–alginate, salt and phosphate as binding agent and their effect on physical properties of the restructured meat stored at -20⁰C for up to 12 weeks. Three binding agents were added to the restructured products, which include NaCl 0.3 %/ NTPP 0.3 %; alginate 0.5 %/Ca-lactate 0.5%; NaCl 0.3 % / NTPP 0.5 %/alginate 0.5% and no binding agent as a control. The products were evaluated at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of storage. The result showed that treatment with alginate 0.5%/Ca-lactate 0.5% had the least purge loss value of 4.3±0.2%. The least cooking losses of 30.2±3.79% and the highest shear force 61.6±13.77 N. (Animal Production 3(1: 20-25 (2001Key Words: Alginate/Ca-lactate, purge loss, cooking losses, shear force.

  5. Calcium Alginate and Salt/Phosphate as Binding Agents in Restructured Lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triana Setyawardani

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on  restructurization of lamb meat using several binding agents were conducted. Objectives of the study were evaluate  effectivity of Ca–alginate, salt and phosphate as binding agent and their effect on physical properties of the restructured meat stored at -20⁰C for up to 12 weeks. Three binding agents were added to the restructured products, which include NaCl 0.3 %/ NTPP 0.3 %; alginate 0.5 %/Ca-lactate 0.5%; NaCl 0.3 % / NTPP 0.5 %/alginate 0.5% and no binding agent as a control. The products were evaluated at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of storage. The result showed that treatment with alginate 0.5%/Ca-lactate 0.5% had the least purge loss value of 4.3±0.2%. The least cooking losses of 30.2±3.79% and the highest shear force 61.6±13.77 N. (Animal Production 3(1: 20-25 (2001 Key Words: Alginate/Ca-lactate, purge loss, cooking losses, shear  force.

  6. Optimisation of nutritional requirements for dopamine synthesis by calcium alginate-entrapped mutant strain of Aspergillus oryzae EMS-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sikander; Nawaz, Wajeeha

    2017-02-01

    The optimisation of nutritional requirements for dopamine (DA) synthesis by calcium alginate-entrapped mutant variant of Aspergillus oryzae EMS-6 using submerged fermentation technique was investigated. A total of 13 strains were isolated from soil. Isolate I-2 was selected as a better producer of DA and improved by exposing with ethyl methylsulphonate (EMS). EMS-6 was selected as it exhibited 43 μg/mL DA activity. The mutant variable was further treated with low levels of l-cysteine HCl to make it resistant against diversion and environmental stress. The conidiospores of mutant variant were entrapped in calcium alginate beads for stable product formation. EMS-6 gave maximum DA activity (124 μg/mL) when supplemented with 0.1% peptone and 0.2% sucrose, under optimised parameters viz. pH 3, temperature of 55 °C and incubation time of 70 min. The study involves the high profile of DA activity and is needed, as DA is capable to control numerous neurogenic disorders.

  7. Addition of 1, 2 and 3% in mass of sodium alginate in calcium phosphate cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, W.T.; Fernandes, J.M.; Vieira, R.S.; Thurmer, M.B.; Santos, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    The calcium phosphate cement (CFC) are bone substitutes with great potential for use in orthopedics, traumatology and dentistry because of their biocompatibility, bioactivity, osteoconductivity and osteotransdutivity, and a paste that can be easily molded and placed into the surgical site. However, CFCs have low mechanical strength, which equals the maximum mechanical strength of trabecular bone. Aiming to evaluate the strength and time to handle a CFC phase composed mainly of alpha were added to sodium alginate (1%, 2% and 3% wt) and an accelerator handle in an aqueous medium. The cement powder was mixed with liquid takes 2 minutes and resigned in specimens and assessed for apparent density and porosity by the Archimedes method, X-ray diffraction and mechanical strength. We noticed a significant increase in mechanical properties of cement added sodium alginate. (author)

  8. Modifications on the properties of a calcium phosphate cement by additions of sodium alginate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, W.T.; Fernandes, J.M.; Vieira, R.S.; Thurmer, M.B.; Santos, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Calcium Phosphate Cement (CPC) are bone substitutes with great potential for use in orthopedics, traumatology and dentistry due to its biocompatibility, bioactivity and osteoconductivity, and form a paste that can be easily shaped and placed into the surgical site. However, CPCs have low mechanical strength, which equals the maximum mechanical strength of trabecular bone. In order to assess the strength and time to handle a CPC composed primarily of alpha phase, were added sodium alginate (1%, 2% and 3% wt) and an accelerator in an aqueous solution. The cement powder was mixed with liquid of setting, shaped into specimens and evaluated for apparent density and porosity by Archimedes method, X-ray diffraction and compressive strength. A significant increase in compressive strength by adding sodium alginate was verified. (author)

  9. Improving the Stability of Astaxanthin by Microencapsulation in Calcium Alginate Beads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Fu Lin

    Full Text Available There has been considerable interest in the biological functions of astaxanthin and its potential applications in the nutraceutical, cosmetics, food, and feed industries in recent years. However, the unstable structure of astaxanthin considerably limits its application. Therefore, this study reports the encapsulation of astaxanthin in calcium alginate beads using the extrusion method to improve its stability. This study also evaluates the stability of the encapsulated astaxanthin under different storage conditions. The evaluation of astaxanthin stability under various environmental factors reveals that temperature is the most influential environmental factor in astaxanthin degradation. Stability analysis shows that, regardless of the formulation used, the content of astaxanthin encapsulated in alginate beads remains above 90% of the original amount after 21 days of storage at 25°C. These results suggest that the proposed technique is a promising way to enhance the stability of other sensitive compounds.

  10. Molecular models of alginic acid: Interactions with calcium ions and calcite surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Thomas D.; Cygan, Randall T.; Mitchell, Ralph

    2006-07-01

    Cation binding by polysaccharides is observed in many environments and is important for predictive environmental modeling, and numerous industrial and food technology applications. The complexities of these cation-organic interactions are well suited for predictive molecular modeling and the analysis of conformation and configuration of polysaccharides and their influence on cation binding. In this study, alginic acid was chosen as a model polymer system and representative disaccharide and polysaccharide subunits were developed. Molecular dynamics simulation of the torsion angles of the ether linkage between various monomeric subunits identified local and global energy minima for selected disaccharides. The simulations indicate stable disaccharide configurations and a common global energy minimum for all disaccharide models at Φ = 274 ± 7°, Ψ = 227 ± 5°, where Φ and Ψ are the torsion angles about the ether linkage. The ability of disaccharide subunits to bind calcium ions and to associate with the (101¯4) surface of calcite was also investigated. Molecular models of disaccharide interactions with calcite provide binding energy differences for conformations that are related to the proximity and residence densities of the electron-donating moieties with calcium ions on the calcite surface, which are controlled, in part, by the torsion of the ether linkage between monosaccharide units. Dynamically optimized configurations for polymer alginate models with calcium ions were also derived.

  11. [Optimization of riboflavin sodium phosphate loading to calcium alginate floating microspheres by response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An-yang; Fan, Tian-yuan

    2009-12-18

    To investigate the preparation, optimization and in vitro properties of riboflavin sodium phosphate floating microspheres. The floating microspheres composed of riboflavin sodium phosphate and calcium alginate were prepared using ion gelatin-oven drying method. The properties of the microspheres were investigated, including the buoyancy, release, appearance and entrapment efficiency. The formulation was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized microspheres were round. The entrapment efficiency was 57.49%. All the microspheres could float on the artificial gastric juice over 8 hours. The release of the drug from the microspheres complied with Fick's diffusion.

  12. Biosorption of uranium from wastewater by ZVI-SRB immobilized in calcium alginate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Aihe; Zhang Wei; Hu Kaiguang

    2009-01-01

    A ZVI-SRB was immobilized in calcium alginate gel beads,and the immobilized ZVI-SRB was used for removing uranium from wasterwater. The kinetics of uranium biosorption by the immobilized ZVI-SRB and the immobilized SRB was investigated. The results show that the immobilized ZVI-SRB and SRB were effective in removing uranium from wasterwater, and their maximal absorption capacities were up to 312.50 and 256.41 mg/g respectively. The kinetics of uranium biosorption onto the immobilized ZVI-SRB and SRB followed pseudo-second order model. (authors)

  13. Novel biochar-impregnated calcium alginate beads with improved water holding and nutrient retention properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Gao, Bin; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Zheng, Yulin; Lyu, Honghong

    2018-03-01

    Drought conditions and nutrients loss have serious impacts on soil quality as well as crop yields in agroecosystems. New techniques are needed to carry out effective soil water and nutrient conservation and fertilizer application tools. Here, calcium alginate (CA) beads impregnated with ball-milled biochar (BMB) were investigated as a new type of water/nutrients retention agent. Both CA and Ca-alginate/ball milled biochar composite (CA-BMB) beads showed high kinetic swelling ratios in KNO 3 solution and low kinetic swelling ratios in water, indicating that CA-BMB beads have the potential to retain mineral nitrogen and nutrients by ion exchange. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model well-described the swelling kinetics of both beads in KNO 3 solution. Over a range of temperatures, the characteristics of dehydration suggested that impregnation with BMB improved the water holding capacity and postponed the dehydration time of Ca-alginate. The cumulative swelling and release characteristics of water, K + , and NO 3 - indicated that CA-BMB beads have great potential as a soil amendment to improve its nutrient retention and water holding capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Measuring of the Chlorophyll a Fluorescence in Calcium Alginate-Encapsulated Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibeth Paola Delgadillo Rodríguez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Immobilization of algae has many applications, such as water bioremediation and production of metabolites. One of the variables that can be determined in the immobilized algae is chlorophyll a fluorescence, because this parameter is related to the physiological response of these organisms. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore a method for measuring the chlorophyll a fluorescence in calcium alginate-encapsulated algae. To do this, two species of microalgae (Scenedesmus ovalternus LAUN 001 and Parachlorella kessleri LAUN 002 were grown in monocultures in both free culture conditions (10 mL of algae preparation in 250 mL of Basal Bold Medium and encapsulated (250 spheres in 250 mL of Basal Bold Medium. Different measurement protocols of chlorophyll a fluorescence of photosystem II (PSII were performed by varying a the preadaptation time to darkness (10, 15 and 30 min, b the light intensity of the non-modulated fluorometer (between 1000 and 3500 μmoles m-2s-1, and c the time of exposure to actinic light (1, 2 and 5 s. The optimal conditions for the measurement of the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm in encapsulated algae were established as follow: a 30 min of preadaptation time; b 3000 μmoles m-2s-1 of the fluorometer light intensity; and c 1 to 2 s of exposure to actinic light. The following values in the photochemical activity of algae in non-stressful conditions were found: 0.760 – 0.764 for S. ovalternus, and 0.732 – 0.748 for P. kessleri. This methodology allows to observe some changes in the photochemical activity related with variations in the factors under which are the immobilized algae.

  15. The effect on lactic fermentation of concentrating inert material with immobilised cells in a calcium alginate biocatalyser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Serrato

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Colombia is one of the world’s main sugarcane cultivating countries but it has not diversified its fermentation industry; a few fermentation industries produce alcohol and yeasts. Lactic acid and its derivatives then become alternatives providing added value to the sugar produced, thus benefiting the regions producing the sugar.This work evaluated the kinetics of lactic acid production using immobilised cells in calcium alginate at different concentrations of inert material. Lactobacillus delbrueckiI was the microorganism used and fermentation broth mainly consisted of sucrose and yeast exact. CSTR reactors were used without pH control. The results suggested that 2% to 3% inert material in the biocatalyst increased cellular retention and diffusiveness, leading to improved conversion and reaction rate.

  16. Adsorption of arsenic by activated carbon, calcium alginate and their composite beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, A F; Abdel-Mohsen, A M; Elhadidy, H

    2014-07-01

    The present investigation deals with preparation of three different adsorbent materials namely; potassium hydroxide activated carbon based apricot stone (C), calcium alginate beads (G) and calcium alginate/activated carbon composite beads (GC) were used for the removal of arsenic. The prepared adsorbent materials were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), N2-adsorption at -196°C and point of zero charge. From the obtained results, it was found that the porosity, surface area and total pore volume of the adsorbent material C>GC>G respectively, however, the G adsorbent has more acidic function group than the other adsorbents. The influence of pH, time, temperature and initial concentration of arsenic(V) were studied and optimized. GC exhibits the maximum As(V) adsorption (66.7mg/g at 30°C). The adsorption of arsenic ions was observed to follow pseudo-second order mechanism as well as the thermodynamic parameters confirm also the endothermic spontaneous and a physisorption process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Treatment of pressure sores in spina bifida patients with calcium alginate and foam dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausili, E; Paolucci, V; Triarico, S; Maestrini, C; Murolo, D; Focarelli, B; Rendeli, C

    2013-06-01

    Prospective study on local treatment of pressure sores using calcium alginate and foam dressings in spina bifida patients. Investigate if this sequential approach is valid and safe for selected patients with neurological impairments. Using European Pressure Ulcer Grading System, after clinical evaluation of local sore, selected patients of Spina Bifida Center of Rome were treated with sequential calcium alginate and foam dressings for 12 weeks. Pressure ulcere surfaces were measured monthly by ulcer tracing. The endpoints were the mean absolute areas surface reduction during every month and number of patients achieving a 50% or more during study. 14 patients (7 males aged 12-24 years) with spina bifida and pressure sores were treated. Mean and standard deviation of mean surface area reduction were 12.5 ± 7.5 cm 2 at start of the study versus 3.7 ± 5.2 cm 2 after 12 weeks, p pressure sores in selected patients with spina bifida. In fact, they protect the wound and create an environment favorable to healing.

  18. Preservation of viability and antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus spp. in calcium alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachkova, Mariya I; Duarte, Maria A; Pinto, João F

    2010-12-23

    The objective of the study was to produce calcium alginate beads able to deliver Lactobacillus spp. (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus lactis) with preserved viability and antibacterial activity. Four types of beads, containing entrapped (E), surface and entrapped (ES), surface (S) and concentrated surface and entrapped lactobacilli (C(ES)) were prepared and physically characterized. The antibacterial activity of lactobacilli cultures before and after immobilization, freeze-drying and throughout storage was studied in relationship to the viable number of lactobacilli. Multi-resistant clinical isolates (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycine-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, VIM-2-metalo-β-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and CTX-M-15-β-lactamase producing strains: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) were used as indicator strains. Alginate beads in which lactobacilli proliferated to the beads surface (ES and C(ES)) differed significantly from the other types of beads in their physicochemical properties, showing smoother surface morphology, more spherical shape, bigger weight, lower calcium content, density and crushing force. Lactobacilli cultures, at high cell concentrations (10(8)cfu/ml) were active against both Gram-positive and negative multi-resistant bacteria. Beads containing both entrapped and surface lactobacilli (ES) resulted in viability and antibacterial activity most similar to non-processed lactobacilli cultures. The viability and antibacterial activity of the immobilized lactobacilli remained stable after 6 months storage. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Calcium-Alginate-Inulin Microbeads as Carriers for Aqueous Carqueja Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanč, Bojana; Kalušević, Ana; Drvenica, Ivana; Coelho, Maria Teresa; Djordjević, Verica; Alves, Vitor D; Sousa, Isabel; Moldão-Martins, Margarida; Rakić, Vesna; Nedović, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2016-01-01

    Carqueja (Pterospartum tridentatum) is an endemic species and various bioactive compounds have been identified in its aqueous extract. The aim of this study was to protect the natural antioxidants from the aqueous extract of carqueja by encapsulation in Ca-alginate microbeads and Ca-alginate microbeads containing 10% and 20% (w/v) of inulin. The microbeads produced by electrostatic extrusion technique had an average diameter from 625 μm to 830 μm depending on the portion of inulin. The sphericity factor of the hydrogel microbeads had values between 0.014 and 0.026, while freeze dried microbeads had irregular shape, especially those with no excipient. The reduction in microbeads size after freeze drying process (expressed as shrinkage factor) ranged from 0.338 (alginate microbeads with 20% (w/v) of inulin) to 0.523 (plain alginate microbeads). The expressed radical scavenging activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals was found to be between 30% and 40% for encapsulated extract, while the fresh extract showed around 47% and 57% of radical scavenging activity for ABTS and DPPH radicals, respectively. The correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content were found to be positive (in both assay methods, DPPH and ABTS), which indicate that the addition of inulin didn't have influence on antioxidant activity. The presence of inulin reduced stiffness of the hydrogel, and protected bead structure from collapse upon freeze-drying. Alginate-inulin beads are envisaged to be used for delivery of aqueous P. tridentatum extract in functional food products. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. A comparative assessment of the potential use of alginates and dietary calcium manipulation as countermeasures to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium to the milk of dairy animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Mayes, R.W.; Colgrove, P.M.; Barnett, C.L.; Bryce, L.; Dodd, B.A.; Lamb, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    The potential of using different alginates or supplementary calcium as feed-additives to reduce the transfer of ingested radiostrontium to milk was assessed in dairy cattle fed a haylage/concentrate diet. The feed-additives compared were: calcium alginate (4% by dry matter), sodium alginate (4% by dry matter) and four levels of supplementation with CaCO 3 . Both alginates reduced the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by 30-40% without effecting diet palatability. However, the high present cost of alginates precludes their use as countermeasures. Dietary calcium supplementation reduced the transfer of 85 Sr to milk broadly in agreement with previous predictions. From data relevant to dairy cattle in the United Kingdom it is suggested that dietary calcium intake could be doubled without exceeding recommended maximum intakes, thus decreasing the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by approximately 50%

  1. A comparative assessment of the potential use of alginates and dietary calcium manipulation as countermeasures to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium to the milk of dairy animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A. E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.uk; Mayes, R.W.; Colgrove, P.M.; Barnett, C.L.; Bryce, L.; Dodd, B.A.; Lamb, C.S

    2000-12-01

    The potential of using different alginates or supplementary calcium as feed-additives to reduce the transfer of ingested radiostrontium to milk was assessed in dairy cattle fed a haylage/concentrate diet. The feed-additives compared were: calcium alginate (4% by dry matter), sodium alginate (4% by dry matter) and four levels of supplementation with CaCO{sub 3}. Both alginates reduced the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by 30-40% without effecting diet palatability. However, the high present cost of alginates precludes their use as countermeasures. Dietary calcium supplementation reduced the transfer of {sup 85}Sr to milk broadly in agreement with previous predictions. From data relevant to dairy cattle in the United Kingdom it is suggested that dietary calcium intake could be doubled without exceeding recommended maximum intakes, thus decreasing the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by approximately 50%.

  2. Effect of free calcium concentration and ionic strength on alginate fouling in cross-flow membrane filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den P.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Smith, G.; Temmink, B.G.; Loosdrecht, van M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are generally negatively charged polymers. Membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) by EPS is therefore influenced by the water chemistry of the mixed liquor (calcium concentration, foulant concentration and ionic strength). We used alginate as a model

  3. Evaluation of calcium alginate gel as electrode material for alternating current iontophoresis of lidocaine using excised rat skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisawa, Tomoko; Nakajima, Atsushi; Haida, Haruka; Wakita, Ryo; Ando, Shizuka; Yoshioka, Tomohiko; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Junzo; Fukayama, Haruhisa

    2014-06-27

    Iontophoresis (IOP) is a noninvasive method of delivering medication transcutaneously through the skin. The electrodes used in this method should tightly fit to rough and irregular surfaces and be biologically safe, easy to handle and prepare, and cost-effective. To satisfy these requirements, calcium alginate gel can be a candidate electrode for IOP. Using calcium alginate gel electrodes, we examined whether lidocaine can be effectively transported across an excised rat skin by squarewave alternating current (AC) application. A squarewave AC with either a 70% or 80% duty cycle was continuously applied to 0.5% calcium alginate gel electrodes containing 10% lidocaine at 10 V and 1 kHz for 60 min. Lidocaine concentration was measured using a spectrophotometer and the temperature of the gel was determined. The lidocaine concentrations for AC-IOP at the 70% and 80% duty cycles were significantly higher than that without AC-IOP. Furthermore, the group with the 80% duty cycle showed higher lidocaine concentrations than the group with the 70% duty cycle. The temperatures of all the groups were lower than 28 °C throughout the procedure. In conclusion, the calcium alginate gel can be used as a possible matrix for IOP electrodes.

  4. Membrane-anchored MucR mediates nitrate-dependent regulation of alginate production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yajie; Hay, Iain D.; Rehman, Zahid Ur; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2015-01-01

    of MucR impaired alginate promoter activity and global c-di-GMP levels, alginate yields were not directly correlated with alginate promoter activity or c-di-GMP levels, suggesting that nitrate and MucR modulate alginate production at a post

  5. Calcium alginate microspheres containing metformin hydrochloride niosomes and chitosomes aimed for oral therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrelli, Francesca; Mura, Paola; González-Rodríguez, María Luisa; Cózar-Bernal, María José; Rabasco, Antonio María; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Ghelardini, Carla

    2017-09-15

    Metformin is an oral hypoglycemic agent used in the type 2 diabetes, whose poor bioavailability and short half-life make the development of effective extended-release formulations highly desirable. Different metformin-loaded chitosomal and niosomal formulations were developed and suitably characterized, but were unable to provide the desired sustained release. The entrapment of both kinds of colloidal dispersions in calcium alginate beads enabled to strongly reduce the amount of drug released at gastric level (from 18 up to a maximum of 30%), and to obtain a sustained release in simulated intestinal fluid, which was properly tuned by varying the percentage of calcium alginate in the beads. In vivo studies on rats revealed a significant improvement of metformin hypoglycemic effect when orally administered as chitosomal and even more as niosomal dispersion entrapped in alginate beads, not only with respect to the drug as such, but also to the alginate beads loaded with the plain drug. The more intense and sustained therapeutic effect with time provided by the drug-in niosomes-in alginate bead formulation could be very profitable for maintaining tight blood glucose levels over prolonged period of time after oral administration, allowing a reduction of its dose and related collateral effects, and improving patient compliance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibition of PCR-based assay for Bordetella pertussis by using calcium alginate fiber and aluminum shaft components of a nasopharyngeal swab.

    OpenAIRE

    Wadowsky, R M; Laus, S; Libert, T; States, S J; Ehrlich, G D

    1994-01-01

    A PCR-based assay for Bordetella pertussis was inhibited by using a calcium alginate fiber-tipped swab with an aluminum shaft but not by using a Dacron fiber-tipped swab with a plastic shaft. The calcium alginate fiber component inhibited the assay following storage for less than 1 min in a suspension of 10(3) CFU of B. pertussis per ml, whereas the aluminum shaft component required storage for at least 48 h in order to cause inhibition. We recommend the Dacron swab over the calcium alginate ...

  7. Inhibition of PCR-based assay for Bordetella pertussis by using calcium alginate fiber and aluminum shaft components of a nasopharyngeal swab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, R M; Laus, S; Libert, T; States, S J; Ehrlich, G D

    1994-04-01

    A PCR-based assay for Bordetella pertussis was inhibited by using a calcium alginate fiber-tipped swab with an aluminum shaft but not by using a Dacron fiber-tipped swab with a plastic shaft. The calcium alginate fiber component inhibited the assay following storage for less than 1 min in a suspension of 10(3) CFU of B. pertussis per ml, whereas the aluminum shaft component required storage for at least 48 h in order to cause inhibition. We recommend the Dacron swab over the calcium alginate swab for collecting specimens for testing in PCR-based assays.

  8. Entrapment of active ion-permeable cyanobacteria (Anacystis nidulans) in calcium alginate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papageorgiou, G.C.; Kalosaka, K.; Sotiropoulou, G.; Barbotin, J.N.; Thomasset, B.; Thomas, T.

    1988-12-01

    Cells of the unicellular cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans were made permeable to ions by treating them with lysozyme and EDTA in a way that leaves the photosynthetic water-splitting function, the photoreduction of exogenous oxidants and the peptidoglycan exoskeleton of the cell virtually intact. The permeabilized cells (permeaplasts) were subsequently immobilized by entrapment in calcium alginate beads. The immobilized preparation exhibits remarkable stability both on storage and in action. On prolonged storage at room temperature in darkness, its photosynthetic activity deteriorates one-third as fast as the activity of immobilized intact cells. Illumination accelerates deactivation. Tested in prolonged runs, however, performed in an illuminated open reactor, alginate-immobilized Anacystis permeaplasts were capable of photoreducing ionic oxidants (ferricyanide) and of exporting ionic reductants (ferrocyanide) to the suspension medium continuously for more than 5 h before being totally inactivated. It is also shown that the major impediment to the photoreduction performance of immobilized permeaplasts arises from diffusion limitations, while the photonic limitation due to light reflection and scattering is approx. 7%.

  9. Properties of Lactobacillus reuteri chitosan-calcium-alginate encapsulation under simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Ying; Tang, Yi-Ju; King, V An-Erl; Chou, Jen-Wei; Tsen, Jen-Horng

    2015-03-01

    The protective effects of encapsulation on the survival of Lactobacillus reuteri and the retention of the bacterium's probiotic properties under simulated gastrointestinal conditions were investigated. Viable counts and the remaining probiotic properties of calcium (Ca)-alginate encapsulated (A group), chitosan-Ca-alginate encapsulated (CA group), and unencapsulated, free L. reuteri (F group) were determined. Encapsulation improved the survival of L. reuteri subjected to simulated gastrointestinal conditions, with the greatest protective effect achieved in the CA group. The degree of cell membrane injury increased with increasing bile salt concentrations at constant pH, but the extent of injury was less in the encapsulated than in the free cells. Adherence rates were, in descending order: CA (0.524%)>A (0.360%)>F (0.275%). Lactobacillus reuteri cells retained their antagonistic activity toward Listeria monocytogenes even after incubation of the lactobacilli under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Displacement of the pathogen by cells released from either of the encapsulation matrices was higher than that by free cells. The safety of L. reuteri was demonstrated in an in vitro invasion assay. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  10. In vitro evaluation of chitosan coated- and uncoated-calcium alginate beads containing methyl salicylate-lactose physical mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamilvanan, S; Karmegam, S

    2012-01-01

    Methyl salicylate-lactose physical mixture (1:1 and 1:1.5 ratios) was incorporated into calcium alginate beads by a coacervation method involving an ionotropic gelation/polyelectrolyte complexation approach. This study aims to determine the influence of chitosan coating over the beads on drug entrapment efficiency (DEE) and release characteristics in artificial saliva compared to that of the uncoated beads. Changes in formulation parameters (gelation time, concentrations of Ca(2+) and alginate) resulted in decrease in DEE of chitosan-uncoated beads (p methyl salicylate-lactose physical mixture.

  11. [Optimization of calcium alginate floating microspheres loading aspirin by artificial neural networks and response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An-yang; Fan, Tian-yuan

    2010-04-18

    To investigate the preparation and optimization of calcium alginate floating microspheres loading aspirin. A model was used to predict the in vitro release of aspirin and optimize the formulation by artificial neural networks (ANNs) and response surface methodology (RSM). The amounts of the material in the formulation were used as inputs, while the release and floating rate of the microspheres were used as outputs. The performances of ANNs and RSM were compared. ANNs were more accurate in prediction. There was no significant difference between ANNs and RSM in optimization. Approximately 90% of the optimized microspheres could float on the artificial gastric juice over 4 hours. 42.12% of aspirin was released in 60 min, 60.97% in 120 min and 78.56% in 240 min. The release of the drug from the microspheres complied with Higuchi equation. The aspirin floating microspheres with satisfying in vitro release were prepared successfully by the methods of ANNs and RSM.

  12. 3D printing of mineral-polymer bone substitutes based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Aleksey A; Fedotov, Alexander Yu; Mironov, Anton V; Komlev, Vladimir S; Popov, Vladimir K; Zobkov, Yury V

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a relatively simple route for three-dimensional (3D) printing of complex-shaped biocompatible structures based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphate (CP) for bone tissue engineering. The fabrication of 3D composite structures was performed through the synthesis of inorganic particles within a biopolymer macromolecular network during 3D printing process. The formation of a new CP phase was studied through X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Both the phase composition and the diameter of the CP particles depend on the concentration of a liquid component (i.e., the "ink"). The 3D printed structures were fabricated and found to have large interconnected porous systems (mean diameter ≈800 μm) and were found to possess compressive strengths from 0.45 to 1.0 MPa. This new approach can be effectively applied for fabrication of biocompatible scaffolds for bone tissue engineering constructions.

  13. Speciation-dependent studies on removal of arsenic by iron-doped calcium alginate beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Anupam; Nayak, Dalia; Lahiri, Susanta

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to study the differential attitude of Fe-doped calcium alginate (Fe-CA) beads towards As(III) and As(V) compounds so that speciation-dependent environmentally sustainable methodologies can be developed for removal of arsenic from contaminated water. Throughout the experiment, 76 As has been used as precursor of stable arsenic. The affinity of As(V) towards the Fe-CA beads is greater than that of As(III). Removal efficiency of Fe-CA beads for As(V) increases with increasing number of beads and longer shaking times. At pH 3, 30 Fe-CA beads remove As(V) completely from a solution containing 20 mg kg -1 As(V). The technique has been successfully applied to the ground water collected from an arsenic-contaminated area

  14. 3D printing of mineral–polymer bone substitutes based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey A. Egorov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a relatively simple route for three-dimensional (3D printing of complex-shaped biocompatible structures based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphate (CP for bone tissue engineering. The fabrication of 3D composite structures was performed through the synthesis of inorganic particles within a biopolymer macromolecular network during 3D printing process. The formation of a new CP phase was studied through X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Both the phase composition and the diameter of the CP particles depend on the concentration of a liquid component (i.e., the “ink”. The 3D printed structures were fabricated and found to have large interconnected porous systems (mean diameter ≈800 μm and were found to possess compressive strengths from 0.45 to 1.0 MPa. This new approach can be effectively applied for fabrication of biocompatible scaffolds for bone tissue engineering constructions.

  15. Removal of Azo Dye from Synthetic Wastewater Using Immobilized Nano-Diatomite Within Calcium Alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Khodabandelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The presence of organic dyes, discharged by textile industries, in aqueous environments can cause detrimental effects on aquatic life and subsequently human health. Therefore, the decolorization of aquatic environments is mandatory to protect the environment. For this reason, in the present study, nano-sized diatomite was immobilized within calcium alginate as a nanocomposite adsorbent for removing organic azo dye (Direct blue 15 from aqueous solutions.  Methods: First of all, Iranian diatomite was grinded in a planetary ball mill equipped with tungsten carbide cup for 20 h to achieve nanoparticles of the diatomite. For the immobilization of nanostructured diatomite, a 2% sodium alginate solution was used. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR spectroscopy were used to characterize immobilized nano-diatomite. Fifty milliliter Erlenmeyer flasks were used as batch flow mode experimental reactors. Working solutions were prepared by the dilution of stock solution (1 g/L to desired concentrations. The effect of different operational parameters including contact time, initial pH, adsorbent dosage and initial dye concentration along with kinetic and isotherm of the adsorption were evaluated. After each experiment, the residual concentration of the dyes was measured spectrophotometrically. Results: As results, the adsorption of organic dye increased with increasing contact time and adsorbent dosage, while increasing initial dye concentrations resulted in decreasing the adsorption. The adsorption of DB-15 was favored at basic PH. The immobilization of diatomite led to enhancing the adsorption of  DB-15 compared to diatomite alone. According to the obtained correlation coefficient, the adsorption of DB-15 obeyed pseudo-second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity of diatomite/alginate nanocomposite for the adsorption of DB-15 were found

  16. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of uranium biosorption by calcium alginate beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Jing; Fan, Fangli; Wu, Xiaolei; Tian, Wei; Zhao, Liang; Yin, Xiaojie; Fan, Fuyou; Li, Zhan; Tian, Longlong; Wang, Yang; Qin, Zhi; Guo, Junsheng

    2013-01-01

    Calcium alginate beads are potential biosorbent for radionuclides removal as they contain carboxyl groups. However, until now limited information is available concerning the uptake behavior of uranium by this polymer gel, especially when sorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics are concerned. In present work, batch experiments were carried out to study the equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of uranium sorption by calcium alginate beads. The effects of initial solution pH, sorbent amount, initial uranium concentration and temperature on uranium sorption were also investigated. The determined optimal conditions were: initial solution pH of 3.0, added sorbent amount of 40 mg, and uranium sorption capacity increased with increasing initial uranium concentration and temperature. Equilibrium data obtained under different temperatures were fitted better with Langmuir model than Freundlich model, uranium sorption was dominated by a monolayer way. The kinetic data can be well depicted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The activation energy derived from Arrhenius equation was 30.0 kJ/mol and the sorption process had a chemical nature. Thermodynamic constants such as ΔH 0 , ΔS 0 and ΔG 0 were also evaluated, results of thermodynamic study showed that the sorption process was endothermic and spontaneous. -- Highlights: • Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of uranium sorption by CaAlg were studied. • Equilibrium studies show that Langmuir isotherm better fit with experimental data. • Pseudo-second-order kinetics model is found to be well depicting the kinetic data. • Thermodynamic study shows that the sorption process is endothermic and spontaneous

  17. Detoxification of Hg(II) from aqueous and enzyme media: Pristine vs. tailored calcium alginate hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Kangkana; Ansari, Zarina; Sen, Kamalika

    2016-10-01

    Calcium alginate (CA) hydrogels were tailored using phenolic compounds (PC) like, thymol, morin, catechin, hesperidin, during their preparation. The PC incorporated gels show modified surface features as indicated by scanning electron microscopic images (SEM). The rheological studies show that excepting the hesperidin incorporated gels all the other kinds including calcium alginate pristine have similar mechanical strength. The hesperidine incorporated CA gels had the maximum capacity to adsorb Hg. The Freundlich adsorption isotherms show higher values of adsorption capacity for all PC incorporated CA beads than the pristine CA (PCA). The hesperidin incorporated CA gels were found to show the best adsorption condition at neutral pH and an optimum contact time of 2.5h at 25°C. Considering the possibility of ingested Hg detoxification from human alimentary tract, the hesperidin and morin incorporated CA beads were further modified through incorporation of cod liver oil as the digestion time of fat in stomach is higher. In vitro uptake capacities of Hg in pepsin and pancreatin containing enzyme media were studied with hesperidin and morin incorporated beads and their corresponding fat incorporated beads also. In the pepsin medium, there was no uptake by hesperidin and fat-hesperidin incorporated beads, which is possibly due to the higher acidity of the medium. But in pancreatin medium Hg was taken up by both kinds of beads. Morin and morin-fat incorporated beads were efficient to uptake Hg from both the pepsin and pancreatin medium. The tailored CA beads may therefore serve as efficient scaffolds to rescue Hg ingested individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Andersen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent, and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue.

  19. Effect of non-cross-linked calcium on characteristics, swelling behaviour, drug release and mucoadhesiveness of calcium alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalaty, Adnan Al; Karam, Ayman; Najlah, Mohammad; Alany, Raid G; Khoder, Mouhamad

    2016-04-20

    In this study, ibuprofen-loaded calcium alginate beads (CABs) with varying amounts of non-cross-linked calcium (NCL-Ca) were prepared using different washing methods. The influence of NCL-Ca on beads properties was investigated. Increasing the number or duration of washes led to significant decreases in the amount of NCL-Ca whereas the impact of the volume of washes was not significant. Approximately 70% of the initial amount of Ca(2+) was NCL-Ca which was removable by washing while only 30% was cross-linked (CL-Ca). Ca(2+) release from the CABs was bimodal; NCL-Ca was burst-released followed by a slower release of CL-Ca. Washing methods and the amount of NCL-Ca had significant influences on the encapsulation efficiency, beads weight, beads swelling, drug release profile and the mucoadhesiveness of CABs. This study highlighted the importance of washing methods and the amount of NCL-Ca to establish CABs properties and understand their behaviour in the simulated intestinal fluids (SIFs). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative study of bio-ethanol production from mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized in agar agar and Ca-alginate matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Shuvashish; Mohanty, Rama Chandra [Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Kar, Shaktimay; Ray, Ramesh Chandra [Microbiology Laboratory, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (Regional Centre), Bhubaneswar 751019, Orissa (India)

    2010-01-15

    Batch fermentation of mahula (Madhuca latifolia L., a tree commonly found in tropical rain forest) flowers was carried out using immobilized cells (in agar agar and calcium alginate) and free cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ethanol yields were 151.2, 154.5 and 149.1 g kg{sup -1} flowers using immobilized (in agar agar and calcium alginate) and free cells, respectively. Cell entrapment in calcium alginate was found to be marginally superior to those in agar agar (2.2% more) as well as over free cell (3.5% more) as regard to ethanol yield from mahula flowers is concerned. Further, the immobilized cells were physiologically active at least for three cycles [150.6, 148.5 and 146.5 g kg{sup -1} (agar agar) and 152.8, 151.5 and 149.5 g kg{sup -1} flowers (calcium alginate) for first, second and third cycle, respectively] of ethanol fermentation without apparently lowering the productivity. Mahula flowers, a renewable, non-food-grade cheap carbohydrate substrate from non-agricultural environment such as forest can serve as an alternative to food grade sugar/starchy crops such as maize, sugarcane for bio-ethanol production. (author)

  1. The adsorption of Cs+ from wastewater using lithium-modified montmorillonite caged in calcium alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Meng; Zheng, Xianming; Du, Mingyang; Wang, Yingying; Ding, Aizhong; Dou, Junfeng

    2018-07-01

    The increasing nuclear energy consumption has posed serious environmental concerns (e.g. nuclear leakage), and the removal of radionuclides such as cesium becomes an urgent issue to be solved currently. In this research, a novel non-toxic adsorbent lithium-modified montmorillonite clay encapsulated in calcium alginate microbeads (MCA/Li) was fabricated by using ion-exchange method and then used successfully in the remediation of cesium-contaminated wastewater. Analyses of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the physicochemical properties of adsorbent MCA/Li, such as internal crystal structure, constituent elements, and functional groups. The effects of concentration ratios (sodium alginate/montmorillonite), solution pH, contacting time and initial Cs + concentration on the adsorption behavior were carefully investigated via batch adsorption experiments. The adsorbent MCA/Li exhibited higher selectivity and removal efficiency towards Cs + with the maximum adsorption capacity of 100.25 mg/g. In the kinetics study, the pseudo-first-order fitted the cesium adsorption data of MCA/Li better than the pseudo-second-order. The adsorption mechanism studies revealed the process followed the Langmuir isotherm model, which suggested that Cs + adsorption onto MCA/Li is a monolayer homogeneous adsorption process. The research findings indicated this novel adsorbent MCA/Li demonstrated great potential in radioactive wastewater treatment due to its convenience in synthesis, high adsorption capacity, and low cost. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Barium-cross-linked alginate-gelatine microcapsule as a potential platform for stem cell production and modular tissue formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Sardroud, Hamed; Nemati, Sorour; Baradar Khoshfetrat, Ali; Nabavinia, Mahbobeh; Beygi Khosrowshahi, Younes

    2017-08-01

    Influence of gelatine concentration and cross-linker ions of Ca 2+ and Ba 2+ was evaluated on characteristics of alginate hydrogels and proliferation behaviours of model adherent and suspendable stem cells of fibroblast and U937 embedded in alginate microcapsules. Increasing gelatine concentration to 2.5% increased extent of swelling to 15% and 25% for barium- and calcium-cross-linked hydrogels, respectively. Mechanical properties also decreased with increasing swelling of hydrogels. Both by increasing gelatine concentration and using barium ions increased considerably the proliferation of encapsulated model stem cells. Barium-cross-linked alginate-gelatine microcapsule tested for bone building block showed a 13.5 ± 1.5-fold expansion for osteoblast cells after 21 days with deposition of bone matrix. The haematopoietic stem cells cultured in the microcapsule after 7 days also showed up to 2-fold increase without adding any growth factor. The study demonstrates that barium-cross-linked alginate-gelatine microcapsule has potential for use as a simple and efficient 3D platform for stem cell production and modular tissue formation.

  3. Calcium alginate particles for the combined delivery of platelet lysate and vancomycin hydrochloride in chronic skin ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Michela; Rossi, Silvia; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Ferrari, Franca; Sandri, Giuseppina; Riva, Federica; Del Fante, Claudia; Perotti, Cesare; Caramella, Carla

    2014-01-30

    The aim of the present work was the development of a powder formulation for the combined delivery of platelet lysate and of a model antibiotic drug, vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM), in chronic skin ulcers. Calcium alginate particles were prepared by freeze-drying beads obtained by ionic gelation method. The experimental conditions adopted permitted the complete loading of VCM and of PDGF AB, the growth factor chosen as representative of those contained in PL. Such particles where able to absorb PBS (mimicking wound exudate), to form a gel and to modulate the release of VCM and of PDGF AB. They are characterized by enhancement properties of human fibroblast proliferation due to PL presence. In particular, PL, when loaded in alginate particles, was able not only to increase the number of viable cells, but also the number of cells in proliferative phase. Such properties were comparable to those of fresh PL indicating the capability of calcium alginate particles to load PL bioactive substances without altering their activity. The formulation developed is characterized by an easier and a less painful administration with respect to traditional gauzes and semisolid preparations and permits the loading in the same dosage form of active substances of different nature avoiding eventual incompatibility problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Calcium alginate gels as stem cell matrix-making paracrine stem cell activity available for enhanced healing after surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schmitt

    Full Text Available Regeneration after surgery can be improved by the administration of anabolic growth factors. However, to locally maintain these factors at the site of regeneration is problematic. The aim of this study was to develop a matrix system containing human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs which can be applied to the surgical site and allows the secretion of endogenous healing factors from the cells. Calcium alginate gels were prepared by a combination of internal and external gelation. The gelling behaviour, mechanical stability, surface adhesive properties and injectability of the gels were investigated. The permeability of the gels for growth factors was analysed using bovine serum albumin and lysozyme as model proteins. Human MSCs were isolated, cultivated and seeded into the alginate gels. Cell viability was determined by AlamarBlue assay and fluorescence microscopy. The release of human VEGF and bFGF from the cells was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Gels with sufficient mechanical properties were prepared which remained injectable through a syringe and solidified in a sufficient time frame after application. Surface adhesion was improved by the addition of polyethylene glycol 300,000 and hyaluronic acid. Humans MSCs remained viable for the duration of 6 weeks within the gels. Human VEGF and bFGF was found in quantifiable concentrations in cell culture supernatants of gels loaded with MSCs and incubated for a period of 6 weeks. This work shows that calcium alginate gels can function as immobilization matrices for human MSCs.

  5. Biotransformation of L-tyrosine to Dopamine by a Calcium Alginate Immobilized Mutant Strain of Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sikander; Nawaz, Wajeeha

    2016-08-01

    The present research work is concerned with the biotransformation of L-tyrosine to dopamine (DA) by calcium alginate entrapped conidiospores of a mutant strain of Aspergillus oryzae. Different strains of A. oryzae were isolated from soil. Out of 13 isolated strains, isolate-2 (I-2) was found to be a better DA producer. The wild-type I-2 was chemically improved by treating it with different concentrations of ethyl methyl sulfonate (EMS). Among seven mutant variants, EMS-6 exhibiting maximal DA activity of 43 μg/ml was selected. The strain was further exposed with L-cysteine HCl to make it resistant against diversion and environmental stress. The conidiospores of selected mutant variant A. oryzae EMS-6 strain were entrapped in calcium alginate beads. Different parameters for immobilization were investigated. The activity was further improved from 44 to 62 μg/ml under optimized conditions (1.5 % sodium alginate, 2 ml inoculum, and 2 mm bead size). The best resistant mutant variable exhibited over threefold increase in DA activity (62 μg/ml) than did wild-type I-2 (21 μg/ml) in the reaction mixture. From the results presented in the study, it was observed that high titers of DA activity in vitro could effectively be achieved by the EMS-induced mutagenesis of filamentous fungus culture used.

  6. Immobilization of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pectinmethylesterase in calcium alginate beads and its application in fruit juice clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogra, Pushpa; Kumar, Ashwani; Kuhar, Kalika; Panwar, Surbhi; Singh, Randhir

    2013-11-01

    Clarity of fruit juices is desirable to maintain an aesthetically pleasing quality and international standards. The most commonly used enzymes in juice industries are pectinases. A partially-purified pectinmethylesterase from tomato was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and used for juice clarification. The activity yield was maximum at 1 % (w/v) CaCl2 and 2.5 % (w/v) alginate. The immobilized enzyme retained ~55 % of its initial activity (5.7 × 10(-2) units) after more than ten successive batch reactions. The Km, pH and temperature optima were increased after immobilization. The most effective clarification of fruit juice (%T620 ~60 %) by the immobilized enzyme was at 4 °C with a holding time of 20 min. The viscosity dropped by 56 % and the filterability increased by 260 %. The juice remains clear after 2 months of storage at 4 °C.

  7. Kluyveromyces lactis β-galactosidase immobilization in calcium alginate spheres and gelatin for hydrolysis of cheese whey lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Mörschbächer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One of the greatest challenges for dairy industries is the correct destination of all the whey generated during cheese making, considering its high impact, the large volume created, and its technological potential. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cheese whey lactose is a biotechnological alternative. However, one of the limiting factors of its use is the relatively high cost of the enzymes, which could be lowered with the immobilization of these biocatalysts. Considering this context, the objective of this research was to evaluate the commercial Kluyveromyces lactis β-galactosidase enzyme immobilized in calcium alginate spheres and gelatin, using glutaraldehyde and concanavalin A (ConA as modifying agents in the hydrolysis of cheese whey lactose process. Results have shown that the enzyme encapsulation complexed with ConA in alginate-gelatin spheres, without glutaraldehyde in the immobilization support, has significantly increased the hydrolysis of lactose rate, achieving a maximum conversion of 72%.

  8. Alginate Production from Alternative Carbon Sources and Use of Polymer Based Adsorbent in Heavy Metal Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Kıvılcımdan Moral

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alginate is a biopolymer composed of mannuronic and guluronic acids. It is harvested from marine brown algae; however, alginate can also be synthesized by some bacterial species, namely, Azotobacter and Pseudomonas. Use of pure carbohydrate sources for bacterial alginate production increases its cost and limits the chance of the polymer in the industrial market. In order to reduce the cost of bacterial alginate production, molasses, maltose, and starch were utilized as alternative low cost carbon sources in this study. Results were promising in the case of molasses with the maximum 4.67 g/L of alginate production. Alginates were rich in mannuronic acid during early fermentation independent of the carbon sources while the highest guluronic acid content was obtained as 68% in the case of maltose. The polymer was then combined with clinoptilolite, which is a natural zeolite, to remove copper from a synthetic wastewater. Alginate-clinoptilolite beads were efficiently adsorbed copper up to 131.6 mg Cu2+/g adsorbent at pH 4.5 according to the Langmuir isotherm model.

  9. A self-setting iPSMSC-alginate-calcium phosphate paste for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Song, Yang; Weir, Michael D; Sun, Jinyu; Zhao, Liang; Simon, Carl G; Xu, Hockin H K

    2016-02-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are promising for dental and craniofacial repairs. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop an injectable cell delivery system based on encapsulation of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (iPSMSCs) in microbeads; (2) develop a novel tissue engineered construct by dispersing iPSMSC-microbeads in CPC to investigate bone regeneration in an animal model for the first time. iPSMSCs were pre-osteoinduced for 2 weeks (OS-iPSMSCs), or transduced with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2-iPSMSCs). Cells were encapsulated in fast-degradable alginate microbeads. Microbeads were mixed with CPC paste and filled into cranial defects in nude rats. Four groups were tested: (1) CPC-microbeads without cells (CPC control); (2) CPC-microbeads-iPSMSCs (CPC-iPSMSCs); (3) CPC-microbeads-OS-iPSMSCs (CPC-OS-iPSMSCs); (4) CPC-microbeads-BMP2-iPSMSCs (CPC-BMP2-iPSMSCs). Cells maintained good viability inside microbeads after injection. The microbeads were able to release the cells which had more than 10-fold increase in live cell density from 1 to 14 days. The cells exhibited up-regulation of osteogenic markers and deposition of minerals. In vivo, new bone area fraction (mean±SD; n=5) for CPC-iPSMSCs group was (22.5±7.6)%. New bone area fractions were (38.9±18.4)% and (44.7±22.8)% for CPC-OS-iPSMSCs group and CPC-BMP2-iPSMSCs group, respectively, 2-3 times the (15.6±11.2)% in CPC control at 12 weeks (pdental and craniofacial bone regenerations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effects of a silicone-coated polyamide net dressing and calcium alginate on the healing of split skin graft donor sites: a prospective randomised trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, J M

    2012-02-03

    An open randomised prospectively controlled trial was performed to assess the healing efficacy, slippage rate and degree of discomfort on removal of calcium alginate and a silicone-coated polyamide net dressing on split skin graft donor sites. Sixteen patients were randomised to the calcium alginate group and 14 to the silicone-coated group. The donor sites were assessed at days 7, 10, 14 and up to day 21. The mean time to healing in the calcium alginate group was 8.75 +\\/- 0.78 days (range 7 to 14 days) compared to 12 +\\/- 0.62 days (range 7 to 16 days) for the silicone-coated group (p < 0.01). Although more silicone-coated dressings slipped (5 versus 1), the difference was not statistically significant. Pain during the first dressing change was assessed using a visual analogue pain scale. Although no significant differences were found between the groups, it was necessary to change the dressing protocol in the silicone-coated arm of the trial after entering the first two patients. Overlaid absorbent gauze adhered to the donor site through the fenestrations in the dressing necessitating the placement of paraffin gauze between the experimental dressing and the overlying cotton gauze. There was one infection in the study, occurring in the alginate group. Based on these results we recommend calcium alginate as the dressing of choice for split skin graft donor sites.

  11. A novel pH-responsive hydrogel-based on calcium alginate engineered by the previous formation of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) intended to vaginal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Natália Noronha; Perez, Taciane Alvarenga; Pedreiro, Liliane Neves; Prezotti, Fabíola Garavello; Boni, Fernanda Isadora; Cardoso, Valéria Maria de Oliveira; Venâncio, Tiago; Gremião, Maria Palmira Daflon

    2017-10-01

    This work aimed to develop a calcium alginate hydrogel as a pH responsive delivery system for polymyxin B (PMX) sustained-release through the vaginal route. Two samples of sodium alginate from different suppliers were characterized. The molecular weight and M/G ratio determined were, approximately, 107 KDa and 1.93 for alginate_S and 32 KDa and 1.36 for alginate_V. Polymer rheological investigations were further performed through the preparation of hydrogels. Alginate_V was selected for subsequent incorporation of PMX due to the acquisition of pseudoplastic viscous system able to acquiring a differential structure in simulated vaginal microenvironment (pH 4.5). The PMX-loaded hydrogel (hydrogel_PMX) was engineered based on polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) formation between alginate and PMX followed by crosslinking with calcium chloride. This system exhibited a morphology with variable pore sizes, ranging from 100 to 200 μm and adequate syringeability. The hydrogel liquid uptake ability in an acid environment was minimized by the previous PECs formation. In vitro tests evidenced the hydrogels mucoadhesiveness. PMX release was pH-dependent and the system was able to sustain the release up to 6 days. A burst release was observed at pH 7.4 and drug release was driven by an anomalous transport, as determined by the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. At pH 4.5, drug release correlated with Weibull model and drug transport was driven by Fickian diffusion. The calcium alginate hydrogels engineered by the previous formation of PECs showed to be a promising platform for sustained release of cationic drugs through vaginal administration.

  12. Investigation of the possibility of producing sodium alginate from the product of processing fucus algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Sokolan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of making sodium alginate from a by-product (fucus semifinished product, obtained by producing an extract from brown algae of the Fucus family – fucus bubbly (F.vesiculosus, has been studied. It has been found that up to 80% of the alginic acids contained in the feedstock remain in the fucus semi-finished product, which can also be isolated and used. The principal technology of sodium alginate from the fucus semifinished product is developed, consisting of the following main stages: preparation of raw materials, reduction, pretreatment, extraction of alginates, isolation of alginic acid, production of sodium alginate, drying. The parameters of the technological scheme close to optimal parameters were determined (the duration of extraction of alginates by sodium carbonate solution is 3 hours, the active acidity value for the isolation of alginic acids is 6M hydrochloric acid: pH = 3. As a result of optimization of the technological scheme, it was possible to increase the yield and improve the quality of the product: the yield of sodium alginate was 4.5% (which is 20% higher than the original, the content of alginic acids increased by 7% and was 92% in terms of dry matter, kinematic the viscosity increased almost twofold - its value reached a value of 500 cSt. Investigations carried out by the Fourier method of IR spectroscopy on the Shimadzu IR Tracer-100 (Japan showed that the sodium alginate obtained from the fucus semifinished by optimized technology is not inferior in quality to sodium alginate produced from laminaria (Sigma Aldrich (USA. Sodium alginate, made from the fucus semi-finished product, can be used as one of the components of gelling fillings for the production of canned fish in jellies. A technological scheme for processing algae is proposed.

  13. Design of in situ dispersible and calcium cross-linked alginate pellets as intestinal-specific drug carrier by melt pelletization technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurulaini, Harjoh; Wong, Tin Wui

    2011-06-01

    Conventional alginate pellets underwent rapid drug dissolution and loss of multiparticulate characteristics such as aggregation in acidic medium, thereby promoting oral dose dumping. This study aimed to design sustained-release dispersible alginate pellets through rapid in situ matrix dispersion and cross-linking by calcium salts during dissolution. Pellets made of alginate and calcium salts were prepared using a solvent-free melt pelletization technique that prevented reaction between processing materials during agglomeration and allowed such a reaction to occur only in dissolution phase. Drug release was remarkably retarded in acidic medium when pellets were formulated with water-soluble calcium acetate instead of acid-soluble calcium carbonate. Different from calcium salt-free and calcium carbonate-loaded matrices that aggregated or underwent gradual erosion, rapid in situ solvation of calcium acetate in pellets during dissolution resulted in burst of gas bubbles, fast pellet breakup, and dispersion. The dispersed fragments, though exhibiting a larger specific surface area for drug dissolution than intact matrix, were rapidly cross-linked by Ca(2+) from calcium acetate and had drug release retarded till a change in medium pH from 1.2 to 6.8. Being dispersible and pH-dependent in drug dissolution, these pellets are useful as multiparticulate intestinal-specific drug carrier without exhibiting dose dumping tendency of a "single-unit-like" system via pellet aggregation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Contribution of alginate and levan production to biofilm formation by Pseudomonas syringae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laue, H.; Schenk, A.; Li, H.

    2006-01-01

    formation, biofilms of Pseudomonas syringae strains with different EPS patterns were compared. The mucoid strain PG4180.muc, which produces levan and alginate, and its levan- and/or alginate-deficient derivatives all formed biofilms in the wells of microtitre plates and in flow chambers. Confocal laser...... by binding of the lectin from Naja mossambica to a fibrous structure in biofilms of all P. syringae derivatives. Production of the as yet uncharacterized additional EPS might be more important for biofilm formation than the syntheses of levan and alginate.......Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) play important roles in the attachment of bacterial cells to a surface and/or in building and maintaining the three-dimensional, complex structure of bacterial biofilms. To elucidate the spatial distribution and function of the EPSs levan and alginate during biofilm...

  15. A study of sodium alginate and calcium chloride interaction through films for intervertebral disc regeneration uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laia, Andreia Grossi Santos de; Costa Junior, Ezequiel de Souza; Costa, Hermes de Souza

    2014-01-01

    The injured intervertebral disc (IVD) requires some measures in order to promote its regeneration. The sodium alginate in conjunction with CaCl_2 forms a net, potentiating its mechanical properties so it may be an alternative for IVD treatment. In this work, the viability of films of sodium alginate crosslinked with CaCl_2 and submitted to variations in their solutions' preparations is verified, comparing the effects of the addition of CaCl_2 through their immersions, before and after drying the films. The films had their physicochemical properties analyzed by FTIR, DSC and XRD. The results indicated that films with a greater proportion of CaCl_2 were more stable in the DSC analysis when compared to films with smaller proportions of CaCl_2. These results indicate alginate's modulation capacity which may be useful for IVD regeneration. (author)

  16. Molecular and bioengineering strategies to improve alginate and polydydroxyalkanoate production by Azotobacter vinelandii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espín Guadalupe

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several aspects of alginate and PHB synthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii at a molecular level have been elucidated in articles published during the last ten years. It is now clear that alginate and PHB synthesis are under a very complex genetic control. Genetic modification of A. vinelandii has produced a number of very interesting mutants which have particular traits for alginate production. One of these mutants has been shown to produce the alginate with the highest mean molecular mass so far reported. Recent work has also shed light on the factors determining molecular mass distribution; the most important of these being identified as; dissolved oxygen tension and specific growth rate. The use of specific mutants has been very useful for the correct analysis and interpretation of the factors affecting polymerization. Recent scale-up/down work on alginate production has shown that oxygen limitation is crucial for producing alginate of high molecular mass, a condition which is optimized in shake flasks and which can now be reproduced in stirred fermenters. It is clear that the phenotypes of mutants grown on plates are not necessarily reproducible when the strains are tested in lab or bench scale fermenters. In the case of PHB, A. vinelandii has shown itself able to produce relatively large amounts of this polymer of high molecular weight on cheap substrates, even allowing for simple extraction processes. The development of fermentation strategies has also shown promising results in terms of improving productivity. The understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in the control of PHB synthesis, and of its metabolic relationships, has increased considerably, making way for new potential strategies for the further improvement of PHB production. Overall, the use of a multidisciplinary approach, integrating molecular and bioengineering aspects is a necessity for optimizing alginate and PHB production in A. vinelandii.

  17. Production and Investigation of Controlled Drug Release Properties of Tamoxifen Loaded Alginate-Gum Arabic Microbeads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukiye Yavaşer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The entrapment of tamoxifen onto alginate-gum arabic beads and the production of controlled drug release was investigated in this study. The polymeric system that would provide the controlled release of tamoxifen was formed using alginate and gum arabic. In the first phase of the study, the optimization of the alginate-gum arabic beads production was conducted; then the study continued with drug entrapment experiments. Tamoxifen entrapment yield was found to be approximately 90% of initial tamoxifen concentration. In vitro drug release experiments were performed in simulated gastric juice and intestinal fluid where the tamoxifen release was 20% and 53% of the initial drug present, respectively. As a result of this study, it is expected that a valuable contribution to the field of controlled drug release system production is realized.

  18. Effect of initial pH in levan production by Zymomonas mobilis immobilized in sodium alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidiany Aparecida Queiroz Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Zymomonas mobilis was immobilized using a cell suspension fixed to 8.6 x 107 CFU mL-1 by spectrophotometry. This biomass was suspended in sodium alginate solution (3% that was dropped with a hypodermic syringe into 0.2 M calcium chloride solution. Was test two initial pH of fermentation medium (4 and 5 and different sucrose concentrations 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35% at 30˚C, without stirring for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The levan production to pH 4 was high in sucrose 25% for 24 (16.51 g L-1 and 48 (15.31 g L-1 hours. The best values obtained to pH 5 was in sucrose 35% during 48 (22.39 g L-1 and 96 (23.5 g L-1 hours, respectively. The maximum levan yield was 40.8% and 22.47% in sucrose 15% to pH 4 and 5, respectively. Substrate consumption to pH 4 was bigger in sucrose 15 (56.4% and 20% (59.4% and to pH 5 was in 25 (68.85% and 35% (64.64%. In relation to immobilization efficiency, Zymomonas mobilis showed high adhesion and colonization in support, indicated by cell growth increased from 107 to 109 CFU mL-1 during fermentation time.

  19. Thermodynamic, Kinetic, and Equilibrium Parameters for the Removal of Lead and Cadmium from Aqueous Solutions with Calcium Alginate Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Alfaro-Cuevas-Villanueva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb by calcium alginate beads (CAB from aqueous solutions in batch systems was investigated. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters, as well as the sorption capacities of CAB in each system at different temperatures, were evaluated. The rate of sorption for both metals was rapid in the first 10 minutes and reached a maximum in 50 minutes. Sorption kinetic data were fitted to Lagergren, pseudo-second-order and Elovich models and it was found that the second-order kinetic model describes these data for the two metals; comparing kinetic parameters for Cd and Pb sorption a higher kinetic rate (K2 for Pb was observed, indicating that the interaction between lead cations and alginate beads was faster than for cadmium. Similarly, isotherm data were fitted to different models reported in literature and it was found that the Langmuir-Freundlich (L-F and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R models describe the isotherms in all cases. CAB sorption capacity for cadmium was 27.4 mg/g and 150.4 mg/g for lead, at 25°C. Sorption capacities of Cd and Pb increase as temperature rises. According to the thermodynamic parameters, the cadmium and lead adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. It was also found that pH has an important effect on the adsorption of these metals by CAB, as more were removed at pH values between 6 and 7.

  20. Constraining Calcium Production in Novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Pranjal; C. Fry, C. Wrede Team; A. Chen, J. Liang Collaboration; S. Bishop, T. Faestermann, D. Seiler Collaboration; R. Hertenberger, H. Wirth Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Calcium is an element that can be produced by thermonuclear reactions in the hottest classical novae. There are discrepancies between the abundance of Calcium observed in novae and expectations based on astrophysical models. Unbound states 1 MeV above the proton threshold affect the production of Calcium in nova models because they act as resonances in the 38 K(p , γ) 39 Ca reaction present. This work describes an experiment to measure the energies of the excited states of 39 Ca . We will bombard a thin target of 40 Ca with a beam of 22 MeV deuterons, resulting in tritons and 39Ca. We will use a Q3D magnetic spectrograph from the MLL in Garching, Germany to momenta analyze the tritons to observe the excitation energies of the resulting 39 Ca states. Simulations have been run to determine the optimal spectrograph settings. We decided to use a chemically stable target composed of CaF2 , doing so resulted in an extra contaminant, Fluorine, which is dealt with by measuring the background from a LiF target. These simulations have led to settings and targets that will result in the observation of the 39 Ca states of interest with minimal interference from contaminants. Preliminary results from this experiment will be presented. National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and U.S. National Science Foundation.

  1. Immobilization of Bacillus megaterium MTCC 2444 by Ca-alginate entrapment method for enhanced alkaline protease production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Mrudula

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of culture conditions and immobilization parameters for alkaline protease production was carried out by employing Bacillus megaterium MTCC2444. The partially purified enzyme was tested for its stability in the presence of oxidants, surfactants and commercial detergents. The optimum temperature, pH, incubation time and inoculum size were 55 ºC, 11, 48 h, 1 %, respectively. Calcium alginate was used as the immobilization matrix and the effects of gel concentration, bead size, age of immobilized cells, solidification period and initial biomass concentration on alkaline protease production and cell leakage were investigated. The results indicated that the immobilization was most effective with 4 % gel concentration, bead size of 3 mm, 24 h aged immobilized cells for a solidification period of 12 h at 1.5 % initial biomass concentration. The enzyme showed good stability in the presence of oxidants, surfactants and commercial detergents.

  2. Emulsion properties of pork myofibrillar protein in combination with microbial transglutaminase and calcium alginate under various pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Geun Pyo; Min, Sang-Gi; Chin, Koo Bok

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effects of microbial transglutaminase (MTG) and calcium alginate (CA) systems in combination with soybean oil on the emulsion properties of porcine myofibrillar protein (MP) were evaluated under various pH conditions. MTG was shown to improve emulsifying capacity and creaming stability, which increased with increasing pH values up to 6.5. The CA did not influence emulsifying capacity, but it improved the creaming stability of the MP-stabilized emulsions. Both MTG and CA enhanced the rheological properties, but their effects on the physical characteristics of the protein evidenced an opposite trend in relation to pH, i.e., the MTG system improved both the emulsion and gelling properties with increasing pH, whereas the CA system was effective when the pH was lowered. By combining the two MP gelling systems, a stable and pH-insensible emulsion could be produced. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adsorption of arsenic by activated carbon, calcium alginate and their composite beads

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hassan, A F.; Abdel-Mohsen, A. M.; Elhadidy, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 68, JUL (2014), s. 125-130 ISSN 0141-8130 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0214 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Apricot stone * Alginate beads * Composite * Arsenic * Adsorption Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.858, year: 2014

  4. Umbilical cord stem cells released from alginate-fibrin microbeads inside macroporous and biofunctionalized calcium phosphate cement for bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenchuan; Zhou, Hongzhi; Weir, Michael D.; Bao, Chongyun; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2012-01-01

    The need for bone repair has increased as the population ages. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop a novel biofunctionalized and macroporous calcium phosphate cement (CPC) containing alginate-fibrin microbeads encapsulating human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs); and (2) investigate hUCMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation inside CPC for the first time. Macroporous CPC was developed using calcium phosphate powders, chitosan, and gas-foaming porogen. Five types of CPCs were fabricated: CPC control, CPC + 0.05% fibronectin (Fn), CPC + 0.1% Fn, CPC + 0.1% Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), and CPC + 0.1% Fn + 0.1% RGD. Alginate-fibrin microbeads containing 106 hUCMSCs/mL were encapsulated in the CPC paste. After CPC had set, the degradable microbeads released hUCMSCs inside CPC. hUCMScs proliferated inside CPC, with cell density at 21 d being 4-fold that at 1 d. CPC + 0.1% RGD had the highest cell density, which was 4-fold that of CPC control. The released cells differentiated into the osteogenic lineage and synthesized bone minerals. hUCMSCs inside the CPC + 0.1% RGD construct had gene expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and collagen I, which were twice those of CPC control. Mineral synthesis by hUCMSCs inside the CPC + 0.1% RGD construct was 2-fold that in CPC control. RGD and Fn incorporation in CPC did not compromise the strength of CPC, which matched the reported strength of cancellous bone. In conclusion, degradable microbeads released the hUCMSCs which proliferated, differentiated and synthesized minerals inside the macroporous CPC for the first time. CPC with RGD greatly enhanced cell functions. The novel biofunctionalized and macroporous CPC-microbead-hUCMSC construct is promising for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:22391411

  5. Evaluation of gene expression and alginate production in response to oxygen transfer in continuous culture of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Díaz-Barrera

    Full Text Available Alginates are polysaccharides used as food additives and encapsulation agents in biotechnology, and their functional properties depend on its molecular weight. In this study, different steady-states in continuous cultures of A. vinelandii were established to determine the effect of the dilution rate (D and the agitation rate on alginate production and expression of genes involved in alginate polymerization and depolymerization. Both, the agitation and dilution rates, determined the partitioning of the carbon utilization from sucrose into alginate and CO2 under oxygen-limiting conditions. A low D (0.07 h(-1 and 500 rpm resulted in the highest carbon utilization into alginate (25%. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the transcription level of six genes involved in alginate polymerization and depolymerization. In chemostat cultures at 0.07 h(-1, the gene expression was affected by changes in the agitation rate. By increasing the agitation rate from 400 to 600 rpm, the algE7 gene expression decreased tenfold, whereas alyA1, algL and alyA2 gene expression increased between 1.5 and 2.8 times under similar conditions evaluated. Chemostat at 0.07 h(-1 showed a highest alginate molecular weight (580 kDa at 500 rpm whereas similar molecular weights (480 kDa were obtained at 400 and 600 rpm. The highest molecular weight was not explained by changes in the expression of alg8 and alg44 (genes involved in alginate polymerization. Nonetheless, a different expression pattern observed for lyases could explain the highest alginate molecular weight obtained. Overall, the results suggest that the control of alginate molecular weight in A. vinelandii cells growing in continuous mode is determined by a balance between the gene expression of intracellular and extracellular lyases in response to oxygen availability. These findings better our understanding of the biosynthesis of bacterial alginate and help us progress toward obtain

  6. Alginate prevention of internal irradiation with 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzun, V.N.; Voronova, Yu.G.; Parats, A.N.; Podkorytova, A.V.; Rogal'skaya, L.A.; Saglo, V.I.; Skorikova, A.I.

    1992-01-01

    Recipes of foodstaffs (meat and vegetable preserves, bread, pastry, dairy products, etc.) containing sodium or calcium alginates in doses 0.5-3.0 g have been developed. Experiments with white rats have demonstrated that addition of such products to daily radions of these animals reduced 2-4-fold the accumulation of radioactive Sr taken daily with food for 30 days. Alginates and Crambe added to food preserve their ability to reduce the accumulation of radioactive Sr

  7. Sorption of chrysoidine by row cork and cork entrapped in calcium alginate beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria M. Nurchi

    2014-01-01

    The influence on the sorption of pH, initial dye concentration, and particle size, as well as the efficiency of the entrapment, have been investigated. The maximum sorption was found for cork samples of fine particle size (FC, in both row and entrapped forms, at pH 7; conversely, at pH 4 the difference is significant (0.12 mmol/g for row cork and 0.20 mmol/g for entrapped cork, evoking a cooperation of alginate in binding the positively charged chrysoidine molecule.

  8. Human embryonic stem cell-encapsulation in alginate microbeads in macroporous calcium phosphate cement for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Minghui; Chen, Wenchuan; Weir, Michael D.; Thein-Han, Wahwah; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2012-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are exciting for regenerative medicine applications because of their strong proliferative ability and multilineage differentiation capability. To date there has been no report on hESC seeding with calcium phosphate cement (CPC). The objective of this study was to investigate hESC-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hESCd-MSC) encapsulation in hydrogel microbeads in macroporous CPC for bone tissue engineering. hESCs were cultured to form embryoid bodies (EBs), and the MSCs were then migrated out of the EBs. hESCd-MSCs had surface markers characteristic of MSCs, with positive alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining when cultured in osteogenic medium. hESCd-MSCs were encapsulated in alginate at a density of 1 million cells/mL, with an average microbead size of 207 µm. CPC contained mannitol porogen to create a porosity of 64% and macropores with size of 218 µm, with 20% absorbable fibers for additional porosity when the fibers degrade. hESCd-MSCs encapsulated in microbeads in CPC had good viability from 1 to 21 d. ALP gene expression at 21 d was 25-fold that at 1 d. Osteocalcin (OC) at 21 d was two orders of magnitude of that at 1 d. ALP activity in colorimetric p-nitrophenyl phosphate assay at 21 d was 5-fold that at 1 d. Mineral synthesis by the encapsulated hESCd-MSCs at 21 d was 7-fold that at 1 d. Potential benefits of the CPC-stem cell paste include injectability, intimate adaptation to complex-shaped bone defects, ease in contouring to achieve esthetics in maxillofacial repairs, and in situ setting ability. In conclusion, hESCd-MSCs were encapsulated in alginate microbeads in macroporous CPC showing good cell viability, osteogenic differentiation and mineral synthesis for the first time. The hESCd-MSC-encapsulating macroporous CPC construct is promising for bone regeneration in a wide range of orthopedic and maxillofacial applications. PMID:22633970

  9. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate and alginate from glycerol by Azotobacter vinelandii under nitrogen-free conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Yoneyama, Fuminori; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is an interesting feedstock for biomaterials such as biofuels and bioplastics because of its abundance as a by-product during biodiesel production. Here we demonstrate glycerol metabolism in the nitrogen-fixing species Azotobacter vinelandii through metabolomics and nitrogen-free bacterial production of biopolymers, such as poly-d-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and alginate, from glycerol. Glycerol-3-phosphate was accumulated in A. vinelandii cells grown on glycerol to the exponential phase...

  10. Papain wound dressings obtained from poly(vinyl alcohol)/calcium alginate blends as new pharmaceutical dosage form: Preparation and preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, J A P; Carvalho, S G; Zampirolli, A C D; Daltoé, R D; Teixeira, R M; Careta, F P; Cotrim, M A P; Oréfice, R L; Villanova, J C O

    2017-04-01

    Transparent, soft, flexible, mechanically resistant films, which are ideal for use as wound dressings were prepared in the presence of 2% papain, a proteolytic enzyme that can play a role in the chemical debridement of the skin and can accelerate the healing process. The films, based on poly(vinyl alcohol):calcium alginate blends with increasing concentrations of polysaccharide (10, 20, and 30% v/v), were obtained by casting method. FTIR and DSC analyses were performed to assess the composition and miscibility of blends. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, elasticity modulus, and elongation at breakpoint were evaluated. The influence of different concentrations of calcium alginate on physical attributes of films like wettability, swelling capacity and mechanical properties was determined. The stability of papain in the films was assessed indirectly by hemolytic activity assay employing direct contact method and confirmed by technique based on blood agar diffusion. Preliminary cytotoxicity was evaluated with the XTT method. The results showed that at the polymer concentrations tested, the blends were miscible. The increase in the content of the calcium alginate increased the wettability and swelling capacity of the films, which is desirable in wound dressings. On the other hand, mechanical resistance decreased without causing breakage of the films during the swelling tests. The hemolytic activity of the films was maintained during the studied period, suggesting the stability of papain in the proposed formulations. Cellular viability indicated that the films were non-toxic. The analysis of the results showed that it is possible to prepare interactive and bioactive wound dressing containing papain from blends of PVA and calcium alginate polymers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Post-marketing Surveillance Study of Chronic Wounds Treated With a Native Collagen Calcium Alginate Dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Matthew; Le, Lam; Yaakov, Raphael A; Carter, Marissa; Serena, Thomas E

    2018-04-01

    Chronic wounds (ie, wounds that fail to progress through a normal, orderly, timely sequence of repair) continue to pose significant clinical and economic burdens. A prospective, descriptive, 3-week post-marketing surveillance study was conducted across 3 wound care centers in the United States to evaluate the effectiveness of a collagen calcium alginate dressing on chronic wounds in conjunction with standard care (SC) practices (eg, offloading, debridement, compression) to support healing. Eligible participants had to be >18 years of age, have at least 1 chronic wound, and no known sensitivity to collagen. Demographic characteristics were recorded at the screening visit on case report forms. At each visit, wound-related pain was assessed using the Visual Analog Scale along with wound characteristics including size (using digital planimetry), wound exudate (minimal, moderate, heavy), and odor (none, mild). Participants were monitored for adverse events as well as infection based on signs and symptoms in and around the local wound bed, the deeper structures, and the surrounding skin. An intention-to-treat approach was used for all analyses. If an observation was missing, the last observation carried forward principle was used. For wounds that healed, pain and exudate were set to 0 (no pain/exudate) at visit 4. Descriptive, paired t tests and the Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to analyze the data. Of the 31 participants (15 men, 16 women, mean age 66.6 years), most (13, 42%) had a diabetic foot ulcer or venous leg ulcer (10, 32%); median duration of all wounds was 148 days. Thirty (30) patients completed the study. The mean number of comorbidities was 10.6 ± 6.3, and patients used a mean of 9.3 ± 5.64 prescription or over-the-counter medications. For all wounds combined, mean wound area was 4.8 ± 8.38 cm2 at baseline. At week 3, a decrease in wound area of 38.1% was noted (median: 45% ± 42.54; P = .006); 3 wounds healed completely. The change in wound exudate

  12. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate and alginate from glycerol by Azotobacter vinelandii under nitrogen-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Fuminori; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is an interesting feedstock for biomaterials such as biofuels and bioplastics because of its abundance as a by-product during biodiesel production. Here we demonstrate glycerol metabolism in the nitrogen-fixing species Azotobacter vinelandii through metabolomics and nitrogen-free bacterial production of biopolymers, such as poly-d-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and alginate, from glycerol. Glycerol-3-phosphate was accumulated in A. vinelandii cells grown on glycerol to the exponential phase, and its level drastically decreased in the cells grown to the stationary growth phase. A. vinelandii also overexpressed the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene when it was grown on glycerol. These results indicate that glycerol was first converted to glycerol-3-phosphate by glycerol kinase. Other molecules with industrial interests, such as lactic acid and amino acids including γ-aminobutyric acid, have also been accumulated in the bacterial cells grown on glycerol. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that glycerol-grown A. vinelandii stored PHB within the cells. The PHB production level reached 33% per dry cell weight in nitrogen-free glycerol medium. When grown on glycerol, alginate-overproducing mutants generated through chemical mutagenesis produced 2-fold the amount of alginate from glycerol than the parental wild-type strain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on bacterial production of biopolymers from glycerol without addition of any nitrogen source.

  13. Membrane-anchored MucR mediates nitrate-dependent regulation of alginate production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yajie

    2015-04-29

    Alginates exhibit unique material properties suitable for medical and industrial applications. However, if produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, it is an important virulence factor in infection of cystic fibrosis patients. The alginate biosynthesis machinery is activated by c-di-GMP imparted by the inner membrane protein, MucR. Here, it was shown that MucR impairs alginate production in response to nitrate in P. aeruginosa. Subsequent site-specific mutagenesis of MucR revealed that the second MHYT sensor motif (MHYT II, amino acids 121–124) of MucR sensor domain was involved in nitrate sensing. We also showed that both c-di-GMP synthesizing and degrading active sites of MucR were important for alginate production. Although nitrate and deletion of MucR impaired alginate promoter activity and global c-di-GMP levels, alginate yields were not directly correlated with alginate promoter activity or c-di-GMP levels, suggesting that nitrate and MucR modulate alginate production at a post-translational level through a localized pool of c-di-GMP. Nitrate increased pel promoter activity in the mucR mutant while in the same mutant the psl promoter activity was independent of nitrate. Nitrate and deletion of mucR did not impact on swarming motility but impaired attachment to solid surfaces. Nitrate and deletion of mucR promoted the formation of biofilms with increased thickness, cell density, and survival. Overall, this study provided insight into the functional role of MucR with respect to nitrate-mediated regulation of alginate biosynthesis. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  14. Removal of Lead from Water Using Calcium Alginate Beads Doped with Hydrazine Sulphate-Activated Red Mud as Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Naga Babu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium alginate beads doped with hydrazine sulphate-treated red mud are investigated as adsorbent for extracting lead ions from water using batch methods of extraction. Different extraction conditions are optimised for maximum lead extraction. Substantial amount of lead is removed, and the adsorption ability is found to be 138.6 mg/g. Surface characterization using FTIR, EDX, and FESEM confirms that lead is “onto” the surface of the adsorbent. Thermodynamic parameters, adsorption isotherms, and kinetics of adsorption are analysed. Adsorption is “physisorption” in nature and spontaneous. The adsorbent developed can be regenerated using 0.1 M HCl. Thus regenerated adsorbent can be used as the adsorbent for further removal of lead at least 10 times, and this enables the complete removal of lead from water by repetitive use of the regenerated adsorbent. The beads facilitate the easy filtration. The methodology developed is successfully applied for removing lead from industrial waste waters.

  15. Effects of the Addition of Sodium Alginate and the Concentration of Calcium Chloride on the Properties of Composite Nonwoven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Ching-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonwoven fabrics have merits, and for example, they can be simply and quickly processed with a variety of materials and an easily changeable manufacturing process. This study aims to examine the influences of the addition of sodium alginate (SA and the concentration of calcium chloride (CaCl2 on the properties of the composite nonwoven fabrics. Chitosan (CS micro-particles and SA solution are cross-linked with CaCl2 with various concentrations, combined with farir heat preservative staples (FT/cotton (C nonwoven fabrics, and then freeze-dried to form CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics. Afterwards, physical property tests are performed on the resulting composite nonwoven fabrics to determine their properties as related to various concentrations of CaCl2. The addition of SA decreases the water vapor permeability of FT/C nonwoven fabrics by 15 %, but the concentrations of CaCl2 do not influence the water vapor permeability. Compared to FT/C nonwoven fabrics, CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics have significantly lower water absorbency and water vapor permeability, but a greater stiffness.

  16. Equilibrium isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics studies for congo red adsorption using calcium alginate beads impregnated with nano-goethite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munagapati, Venkata Subbaiah; Kim, Dong-Su

    2017-07-01

    The present study is concerned with the batch adsorption of congo red (CR) from an aqueous solution using calcium alginate beads impregnated with nano-goethite (CABI nano-goethite) as an adsorbent. The optimum conditions for CR removal were determined by studying operational variables viz. pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, initial dye ion concentration and temperature. The CABI nano-goethite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X- ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analysis. The CR sorption data onto CABI nano-goethite were described using Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Temkin isotherm models. The results show that the best fit was achieved with the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity (181.1mg/g) of CR was occurred at pH 3.0. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order model. Desorption experiments were carried out to explore the feasibility of regenerating the adsorbent and the adsorbed CR from CABI nano-goethite. The best desorbing agent was 0.1M NaOH with an efficiency of 94% recovery. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS° for the CR adsorption were determined by using adsorption capacities at five different temperatures (293, 303, 313, 323 and 303K). Results show that the adsorption process was endothermic and favoured at high temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pulsed-low intensity ultrasound enhances extracellular matrix production by fibroblasts encapsulated in alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti PM Bohari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of pulsed-low intensity ultrasound on cell proliferation, collagen production and glycosaminoglycan deposition by 3T3 fibroblasts encapsulated in alginate was evaluated. Hoechst 33258 assay for cell number, hydroxyproline assay for collagen content and dimethylamine blue assay for glycosaminoglycan content were performed on samples from cell cultures treated with pulsed-low intensity ultrasound and a control group. Pulsed-low intensity ultrasound shows no effect on cell proliferation, while collagen and glycosaminoglycan contents were consistently higher in the samples treated with pulsed-low intensity ultrasound, showing a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 on day 10. Alcian blue staining showed that glycosaminoglycans were deposited around the cells in both groups. These results suggest that pulsed-low intensity ultrasound shows no effect on cell proliferation but has potential for inducing collagen and glycosaminoglycan production in cells cultured in alginate gels.

  18. Microfluidic Production of Alginate Hydrogel Particles for Antibody Encapsulation and Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazutis, Linas; Vasiliauskas, Remigijus; Weitz, David A

    2015-12-01

    Owing to their biocompatibility and reduced side effects, natural polymers represent an attractive choice for producing drug delivery systems. Despite few successful examples, however, the production of monodisperse biopolymer-based particles is often hindered by high viscosity of polymer fluids. In this work, we present a microfluidic approach for production of alginate-based particles carrying encapsulated antibodies. We use a triple-flow micro-device to induce hydrogel formation inside droplets before their collection off-chip. The fast mixing and gelation process produced alginate particles with a unique biconcave shape and dimensions of the mammalian cells. We show slow and fast dissolution of particles in different buffers and evaluate antibody release over time. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Enhanced drug encapsulation and extended release profiles of calcium-alginate nanoparticles by using tannic acid as a bridging cross-linking agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulateefeh, Samer R; Taha, Mutasem O

    2015-01-01

    Calcium alginate nanoparticles (NPs) suffer from sub-optimal stability in bio-relevant media leading to low drug encapsulation efficiency and uncontrolled release profiles. To sort out these drawbacks, a novel approach is proposed herein based on introducing tannic acid into these NPs to act as a bridging cross-linking aid agent. Calcium-alginate NPs were prepared by the ionotropic gelation method and loaded with diltiazem hydrochloride as a model drug. These NPs were characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, and morphology, and results were explained in accordance with Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The incorporation of tannic acid led to more than four folds increase in drug encapsulation efficiency (i.e. from 15.3% to 69.5%) and reduced burst drug release from 44% to around 10% within the first 30 min. These findings suggest the possibility of improving the properties of Ca-alginate NPs by incorporating cross-linking aid agents under mild conditions.

  20. Produção de isomaltulose a partir da transformação enzimática da sacarose, utilizando-se Erwinia sp D12 imobilizada com alginato de cálcio Production of isomaltulose from enzymatic transformation of sucrose, using Erwinia sp D12 immobilized with calcium alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Leite Moraes

    2005-03-01

    used to produce chocolate, chewing gum and candy. The isomaltulose is also used to produce isomalt, a mixture of alcohol-sugar with a low caloric value and low cariogenicity power. In the study of the influence of the components of the culture medium in the glucosyltransferase production in flasks under shaking conditions, the highest activity (12.8 units of activity /mL of culture medium was obtained in culture medium A, containing molasses 12% (p/v of the total soluble solid, peptone 4% (p/v and meat extract 0,4% (p/v. In the study of the effects of time and temperature on the fermentation of Erwinia sp D12 in a 3L New Brunswick fermentor containing culture medium A. the highest glucosyltransferase activity (15.6 units of activity /mL of culture medium was obtained during the exponential growth phase after 8 hours of fermentation at 30ºC. In the production of isomaltulose from enzymatic transformation of sucrose by Erwinia sp D12 cells immobilized in calcium alginate, the effects of the temperature (25-35ºC and substrate concentration (12,5-60% were evaluated, the yield of isomaltulose was approximately 50%, from sucrose solutions ranging from 20 to 30% at 35ºC. Excess of sucrose affected the activity of the immobilized cell, decreasing conversion of sucrose into isomaltulose. The syrup obtained was purified through Ion Exchange Chromatography, and the crystallization of eluent by the decreasing temperature. The obtained crystals presented 91,39% of isomaltulose.

  1. Production of BCG alginate-PLL microcapsules by emulsification/internal gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquisabel, A; Hernández, R M; Igartua, M; Gascón, A R; Calvo, B; Pedraz, J L

    1997-01-01

    A biocompatible emulsification method for microencapsulation of live cells and enzymes within a calcium alginate matrix applied to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been developed. Small-diameter alginate beads (microcapsules) were formed via internal gelation of an alginate solution emulsified within vegetable oil. Five different oils (sesame, sweet almond, perhydrosqualene, camomile and jojoba) were used. The rheological analysis of the oils showed a Newtonian behaviour, with viscosities = 30.0, 37.7, 51.2, 59.3 and 67.1 mPa.s for perhydrosqualene, jojoba, camomile, sesame and sweet almond oil respectively. The particle size of the microcapsules obtained ranged from 30.3 microns for the microcapsules prepared with sweet almond oil to 57.0 microns for those made with perhydrosqualene. The mean particle diameter obtained was found to be dependent on the viscosity of the oil employed, according to the equation: phi (micron) = 76.6-0.628 eta (mPa.s) (r2 = 0.943). The encapsulated BCG was identified by the Difco TB stain set K, followed by observation under optical microscopy. Freeze-drying of the microcapsules was carried out to ensure their stability during storage. Two batches of microcapsules (those prepared with sesame and jojoba oil) and four types of cryoprotectors (glucose, trehalose, mannitol and sorbitol), at three concentration levels (5, 10 and 20% w/v) were studied. The parameters evaluated were particle size, physical appearance, reconstitution of lyophilizates and microscopical evaluation. For both batches of microcapsules the best results were obtained with trehalose 5%, showing particle sizes of 42.1 microns in the case of the microcapsules prepared with sesame oil, and of 45.3 microns for those prepared with jojoba.

  2. Heavy metal adsorptivity of calcium-alginate-modified diethylenetriamine-silica gel and its application to a flow analytical system using flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Masanobu; Suzuki, Toshinobu; Sugita, Tsuyoshi; Nagai, Daisuke; Hirayama, Kazuo; Onozato, Makoto; Itabashi, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Calcium-alginate-modified dien-silica gel adsorbed multivalent metal ions. • Metal ions adsorbed on CaAD were eluted using low acidic concentrations. • Flow system with CaAD-packed column enriched metal concentrations up to 50-fold. - Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the heavy metal adsorptivity of calcium-alginate-modified diethylenetriamine-silica gel (CaAD) and incorporate this biosorbent into a flow analytical system for heavy metal ions using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The biosorbent was synthesized by electrostatically coating calcium alginate onto diethylenetriamine (dien)-silica gel. Copper ion adsorption tests by a batch method showed that CaAD exhibited a higher adsorption rate compared with other biosorbents despite its low maximum adsorption capacity. Next, CaAD was packed into a 1 mL microcolumn, which was connected to a flow analytical system equipped with an FAAS instrument. The flow system quantitatively adsorbed heavy metals and enriched their concentrations. This quantitative adsorption was achieved for pH 3–4 solutions containing 1.0 × 10 −6 M of heavy metal ions at a flow rate of 5.0 mL min −1 . Furthermore, the metal ions were successfully desorbed from CaAD at low nitric acid concentrations (0.05–0.15 M) than from the polyaminecarboxylic acid chelating resin (Chelex 100). Therefore, CaAD may be considered as a biosorbent that quickly adsorbs and easily desorbs analyte metal ions. In addition, the flow system enhanced the concentrations of heavy metals such as Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , and Pb 2+ by 50-fold. This new enrichment system successfully performed the separation and determination of Cu 2+ (5.0 × 10 −8 M) and Zn 2+ (5.7 × 10 −8 M) in a river water sample and Pb 2+ (3.8 × 10 −9 M) in a ground water sample

  3. Distribution of alginate and cellulose and regulatory role of calcium in the cell wall of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Inoue, Akira; Ito, Toshiaki; Motomura, Taizo

    2016-08-01

    This work investigated a correlation between the three-dimensional architecture and compound-components of the brown algal cell wall. Calcium greatly contributes to the cell wall integrity. Brown algae have a unique cell wall consisting of alginate, cellulose, and sulfated polysaccharides. However, the relationship between the architecture and the composition of the cell wall is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the architecture of the cell wall and the effect of extracellular calcium in the sporophyte and gametophyte of the model brown alga, Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillwyn) Lyngbye, using transmission electron microscopy, histochemical, and immunohistochemical studies. The lateral cell wall of vegetative cells of the sporophyte thalli had multilayered architecture containing electron-dense and negatively stained fibrils. Electron tomographic analysis showed that the amount of the electron-dense fibrils and the junctions was different between inner and outer layers, and between the perpendicular and tangential directions of the cell wall. By immersing the gametophyte thalli in the low-calcium (one-eighth of the normal concentration) artificial seawater medium, the fibrous layers of the lateral cell wall of vegetative cells became swollen. Destruction of cell wall integrity was also induced by the addition of sorbitol. The results demonstrated that electron-dense fibrils were composed of alginate-calcium fibrous gels, and electron negatively stained fibrils were crystalline cellulose microfibrils. It was concluded that the spatial arrangement of electron-dense fibrils was different between the layers and between the directions of the cell wall, and calcium was necessary for maintaining the fibrous layers in the cell wall. This study provides insights into the design principle of the brown algal cell wall.

  4. Produção de alginato por microrganismos Alginate production by microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Müller

    2011-01-01

    , textile, paper, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries, as well as in the medical area. Currently, the main source of alginate for such applications is brown algae; however, this biopolymer can be obtained through biosynthesis, using micro-organisms of the genera Pseudomonas and Azotobacter. The bacterial production of alginate represents an interesting alternative since, in addition to enabling the production of high quality polymers with predetermined and specific characteristics, it can reduce the environmental impact in areas from which the seaweed is collected. In recent years, several studies related to the production of alginate by microorganisms have been performed to evaluate the production process and metabolic pathway of biosynthesis, to characterize the material produced and to determine the potential applications of this new material. The rapid development of new applications of alginate in the medical and pharmaceutical areas, as well as the discovery of the unique immunological properties of this material, has led to increased interest in finding novel processes for its production. This article examines aspects of the production of bacterial alginate and the characteristics of the material obtained, and also addresses potential and innovative applications for the use of this material.

  5. Development and characterization of a new carrier for vaccine delivery based on calcium-alginate nanoparticles: Safe immunoprotective approach against scorpion envenoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nait Mohamed, Faez Amokrane; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2016-05-23

    To enhance humoral defense against diseases, vaccine formulation is routinely prepared to improve immune response. Studies in nanomaterials as a carrier of vaccine delivery are promising and interesting. In this study, attenuated Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom and its toxic fraction were encapsulated into different formulations inside calcium-alginate nanoparticles (Ca-Alg Nps), and used as a vaccine delivery system against scorpion envenomation. Ca-Alg Nps were prepared by ionic gelation and characterized. An immunization schedule was undertaken in rabbits in order to study how Aah venom entrapped in Ca-Alg Nps might induce protective immunity. Results showed the influence of different parameters on the suitable nanoparticle formation. They also showed no toxicity of free Ca-Alg Nps and a different inflammatory profile depending on the nanovaccine formulations. More interestingly, evaluation of specific IgG titer and IgG1/IgG2a isotype balance revealed a protective effect with the nanoparticles encapsulating the attenuated antigens. Challenge up to 6 LD 50 of native venom, allowed to an important immunoprotection of all immunized rabbits, with no recorded death. Taken together and with respect to the properties of nanoparticles and high immunogenicity, calcium-alginate nanoparticles could be considered as a new promising adjuvant system and a vaccine delivery against scorpion envenomation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Production of D-tagatose, a functional sweetener, utilizing alginate immobilized Lactobacillus fermentum CGMCC2921 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Li, Sha; Fu, Fenggen; Li, Guixiang; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2012-02-01

    D-tagatose is a ketohexose that can be used as a novel functional sweetener in foods, beverages, and dietary supplements. This study was aimed at developing a high-yielding D-tagatose production process using alginate immobilized Lactobacillus fermentum CGMCC2921 cells. For the isomerization from D-galactose into D-tagatose, the immobilized cells showed optimum temperature and pH at 65 °C and 6.5, respectively. The alginate beads exhibited a good stability after glutaraldehyde treatment and retained 90% of the enzyme activity after eight cycles (192 h at 65 °C) of batch conversion. The addition of borate with a molar ratio of 1.0 to D-galactose led to a significant enhancement in the D-tagatose yield. Using commercial β-galactosidase and immobilized L. fermentum cells, D-tagatose was successfully obtained from lactose after a two-step biotransformation. The relatively high conversion rate and productivity from D-galactose to D-tagatose of 60% and 11.1 g l⁻¹ h⁻¹ were achieved in a packed-bed bioreactor. Moreover, lactobacilli have been approved as generally recognized as safe organisms, which makes this L. fermentum strain an attracting substitute for recombinant Escherichia coli cells among D-tagatose production progresses.

  7. A vortex-bowl disk atomizer system for the production of alginate beads in a 1500-liter fermentor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, C P; Blahuta, N; Brion, F; Gagnon, C

    2000-06-20

    Using a model system, a concept for the immobilization of microbial cultures within alginate beads directly in a 1500-L fermentor with a height to diameter ratio of 1.85 is described. The system is comprised of a 60-cm diameter bowl fixed to the top of an agitation shaft, where calcium-ion-rich media is continuously recirculated from the bulk solution to the bowl. The rotation of the shaft and bowl creates a climbing film (vortex) of solution. An atomizing disk centrally recessed within the bowl sprays an alginate solution into the climbing film where the droplets harden into beads. The effect of heat treatment on the alginate solution on resulting bead properties was examined. The sterilization operation did not appear to have a major effect on the alginate bead mechanical properties of firmness and elasticity which was much more a function of alginate concentration. Beads of various sizes were produced by the unit. The system was characterized by the dimensionless numbers Reomega = (omega x rho x D(2))/mu and ReQ = (Q x rho)/(mu x D). At Reomega and ReQ values less than 500 and 0.15, respectively, the mechanism was direct drop. Parent droplets followed by satellite droplets were observed. When either the flow rate or speed was increased, filaments formed predominantly, which was unwanted in this system because filament breakdown into smaller droplets does not occur due to the proximity of the disk to the climbing film in the bowl. This system could be applied to the immobilization of microorganisms, as well as plant or animal cell cultures, and for other sizes or fermentors. The overflow from the bowl carries the gellified beads into the bulk solution where immobilized cells could act upon the fermentation media. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Facile fabrication of poly(L-lactic acid) microsphere-incorporated calcium alginate/hydroxyapatite porous scaffolds based on Pickering emulsion templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Ma, Shanshan; Yang, Zhuohong; Zhou, Wuyi; Du, Zhengshan; Huang, Jian; Yi, Huan; Wang, Chaoyang

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we develop a facile one-pot approach to the fabrication of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) microsphere-incorporated calcium alginate (ALG-Ca)/hydroxyapatite (HAp) porous scaffolds based on HAp nanoparticle-stabilized oil-in-water Pickering emulsion templates, which contain alginate in the aqueous phase and PLLA in the oil phase. The emulsion aqueous phase is solidified by in situ gelation of alginate with Ca(2+) released from HAp by decreasing pH with slow hydrolysis of D-gluconic acid δ-lactone (GDL) to produce emulsion droplet-incorporated gels, followed by freeze-drying to form porous scaffolds containing microspheres. The pore structure of porous scaffolds can be adjusted by varying the HAp or GDL concentration. The compressive tests show that the increase of HAp or GDL concentration is beneficial to improve the compressive property of porous scaffolds, while the excessive HAp can lead to the decrease in compressive property. Moreover, the swelling behavior studies display that the swelling ratios of porous scaffolds reduce with increasing HAp or GDL concentration. Furthermore, hydrophobic drug ibuprofen (IBU) and hydrophilic drug bovine serum albumin (BSA) are loaded into the microspheres and scaffold matrix, respectively. In vitro drug release results indicate that BSA has a rapid release while IBU has a sustained release in the dual drug-loaded scaffolds. In vitro cell culture experiments verify that mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells can proliferate on the porous scaffolds well, indicating the good biocompatibility of porous scaffolds. All these results demonstrate that the PLLA microsphere-incorporated ALG-Ca/HAp porous scaffolds have a promising potential for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Immobilization of Electroporated Cells for Fabrication of Cellular Biosensors: Physiological Effects of the Shape of Calcium Alginate Matrices and Foetal Calf Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Katsanakis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the physiological effect of transfected cell immobilization in calcium alginate gels, we immobilized electroporated Vero cells in gels shaped either as spherical beads or as thin membrane layers. In addition, we investigated whether serum addition had a positive effect on cell proliferation and viability in either gel configuration. The gels were stored for four weeks in a medium supplemented or not with 20% (v/v foetal calf serum. Throughout a culture period of four weeks, cell proliferation and cell viability were assayed by optical microscopy after provision of Trypan Blue. Non-elaborate culture conditions (room temperature, non-CO2 enriched culture atmosphere were applied throughout the experimental period in order to evaluate cell viability under less than optimal storage conditions. Immobilization of electroporated cells was associated with an initially reduced cell viability, which was gradually increased. Immobilization was associated with maintenance of cell growth for the duration of the experimental period, whereas electroporated cells essentially died after a week in suspension culture. Considerable proliferation of immobilized cells was observed in spherical alginate beads. In both gel configurations, addition of serum was associated with increased cell proliferation. The results of the present study could contribute to an improvement of the storability of biosensors based on electroporated, genetically or membrane-engineered cells.

  10. Thermostable Alginate degrading enzymes and their methods of use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hreggvidsson, Gudmundur Oli; Jonsson, Oskar W.J.; Bjornsdottir, Bryndis; Fridjonsson, Hedinn O; Altenbuchner, Josef; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Dobruchowska, Justyna; Kamerling, Johannis

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification, production and use of thermostable alginate lyase enzymes that can be used to partially degrade alginate to yield oligosaccharides or to give complete degradation of alginate to yield (unsaturated) mono-uronates.

  11. Continuous ethanol production using immobilized yeast cells entrapped in loofa-reinforced alginate carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoowit Bangrak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae M30 entrapped in loofa-reinforced alginate was used for continuous ethanol fermentation in a packed-bed reactor with initial sugar concentrations of 200-248 g/L. Maximum ethanol productivity of 11.5 g/(L·h was obtained at an ethanol concentration of 57.4 g/L, an initial sugar concentration of 220 g/L and a dilution rate (D of 0.2 h-1. However, a maximum ethanol concentration of 82.1 g/L (productivity of 9.0 g/(L·h was obtained at a D of 0.11 h-1. Ethanol productivity in the continuous culture was 6-8-fold higher than that in the batch culture. Due to the developed carrier's high biocompatibility, high porosity, and good mechanical strength, advantages such as cell regeneration, reusability, altered mechanical strength, and high capacity to trap active cells in the reactor were achieved in this study. The immobilized cell reactor was successfully operated for 30 days without any loss in ethanol productivity. The average conversion yield was 0.43-0.45 throughout the entire operation, with an immobilization yield of 47.5%. The final total cell concentration in the reactor was 37.3 g/L (17.7 g/L immobilized cells and 19.6 g/L suspended cells. The concentration of suspended cells in the effluent was 0.8 g/L.

  12. 40 CFR 415.50 - Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... calcium oxide production subcategory. 415.50 Section 415.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Oxide Production Subcategory § 415.50 Applicability; description of the calcium... the production of calcium oxide. ...

  13. Alginate oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkeborg, Mia; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Gianfico, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    the presence of the conjugated alkene acid structure formed during enzymatic depolymerization. According to the resonance hybrid theory, the parent radicals of AOs are delocalized through allylic rearrangement, and as a consequence, the reactive intermediates are stabilized. AOs were weak ferrous ion chelators......Alginate oligosaccharides (AOs) prepared from alginate, by alginate lyase-mediated depolymerization, were structurally characterized by mass spectrometry, infrared spectrometry and thin layer chromatography. Studies of their antioxidant activities revealed that AOs were able to completely (100....... This work demonstrated that AOs obtained from a facile enzymatic treatment of abundant alginate is an excellent natural antioxidant, which may find applications in the food industry....

  14. Alginato bacteriano: aspectos tecnológicos, características e produção Bacterial alginate: technological aspects, characteristics and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispin Humberto Garcia-Cruz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Alginate is a biopolymer used for a variety of industrial applications, for example, in the textiles, cosmetics, foods, agricultural and biotechnological industries. This biopolymer is traditionally extracted from some brown seaweeds (Phaeophyceae and can be produced by bacteria isolated from soil, as Azotobacter vinelandii, like capsular polysaccharide using glucose, sucrose, among others as carbon sources. The main difference between the alginate of seaweed and the bacterial ones, is the biggest degree of acetylation of this last one, with great influence in the gel force. These chemical characteristics and production of bacterial alginate are presented in this work.

  15. Production and in vitro evaluation of macroporous, cell-encapsulating alginate fibres for nerve repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Sharon Chien-Yu, E-mail: sharonlin114@gmail.com [The University of Queensland, Pharmacy Australia Centre of Excellence, 20 Cornwall Street, Woolloongabba, Brisbane QLD 4102 (Australia); Wang, Yiwei, E-mail: yiweiwang@anzac.edu.au [The University of Queensland, Pharmacy Australia Centre of Excellence, 20 Cornwall Street, Woolloongabba, Brisbane QLD 4102 (Australia); Wertheim, David F., E-mail: d.wertheim@kingston.ac.uk [Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing, Kingston University, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey KT1 2EE (United Kingdom); Coombes, Allan G.A., E-mail: allancoombes@pharmacy.psu.ac.th [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand)

    2017-04-01

    The prospects for successful peripheral nerve repair using fibre guides are considered to be enhanced by the use of a scaffold material, which promotes attachment and proliferation of glial cells and axonal regeneration. Macroporous alginate fibres were produced by extraction of gelatin particle porogens from wet spun fibres produced using a suspension of gelatin particles in 1.5% w/v alginate solution. Gelatin loading of the starting suspension of 40.0, 57.0, and 62.5% w/w resulted in gelatin loading of the dried alginate fibres of 16, 21, and 24% w/w respectively. Between 45 and 60% of the gelatin content of hydrated fibres was released in 1 h in distilled water at 37 °C, leading to rapid formation of a macroporous structure. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and image processing provided qualitative and quantitative analysis of mean equivalent macropore diameter (48–69 μm), pore size distribution, estimates of maximum porosity (14.6%) and pore connectivity. CLSM also revealed that gelatin residues lined the macropore cavities and infiltrated into the body of the alginate scaffolds, thus, providing cell adhesion molecules, which are potentially advantageous for promoting growth of glial cells and axonal extension. Macroporous alginate fibres encapsulating nerve cells [primary rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs)] were produced by wet spinning alginate solution containing dispersed gelatin particles and DRGs. Marked outgrowth was evident over a distance of 150 μm at day 11 in cell culture, indicating that pores and channels created within the alginate hydrogel were providing a favourable environment for neurite development. These findings indicate that macroporous alginate fibres encapsulating nerve cells may provide the basis of a useful strategy for nerve repair. - Highlights: • Nerve cells were encapsulated in macroporous alginate fibres for use in nerve repair. • Fibres were produced from alginate solution containing gelatin porogens and cells.

  16. Production of precipitated calcium carbonate from calcium silicates and carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teir, Sebastian; Eloneva, Sanni; Zevenhoven, Ron

    2005-01-01

    The possibilities for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the pulp and paper industry by calcium carbonation are presented. The current precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) production uses mined, crushed calcium carbonate as raw materials. If calcium silicates were used instead, carbon dioxide emissions from the calcination of carbonates would be eliminated. In Finland, there could, thus, be a potential for eliminating 200 kt of carbon dioxide emissions per year, considering only the PCC used in the pulp and paper industry. A preliminary investigation of the feasibility to produce PCC from calcium silicates and the potential to replace calcium carbonate as the raw material was made. Calcium carbonate can be manufactured from calcium silicates by various methods, but only a few have been experimentally verified. The possibility and feasibility of these methods as a replacement for the current PCC production process was studied by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations using HSC software and process modelling using Aspen Plus[reg]. The results from the process modelling showed that a process that uses acetic acid for extraction of the calcium ions is a high potential option for sequestering carbon dioxide by mineral carbonation. The main obstacle seems to be the limited availability and relatively high price of wollastonite, which is a mineral with high calcium silicate content. An alternative is to use the more common, but also more complex, basalt rock instead

  17. Fabrication of granular activated carbons derived from spent coffee grounds by entrapment in calcium alginate beads for adsorption of acid orange 7 and methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Choi, Brian Hyun; Hwang, Min-Jin; Jeong, Tae-Un; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2016-11-01

    Biomass-based granular activated carbon was successfully prepared by entrapping activated carbon powder derived from spent coffee grounds into calcium-alginate beads (SCG-GAC) for the removal of acid orange 7 (AO7) and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous media. The dye adsorption process is highly pH-dependent and essentially independent of ionic effects. The adsorption kinetics was satisfactorily described by the pore diffusion model, which revealed that pore diffusion was the rate-limiting step during the adsorption process. The equilibrium isotherm and isosteric heat of adsorption indicate that SCG-GAC possesses an energetically heterogeneous surface and operates via endothermic process in nature. The maximum adsorption capacities of SCG-GAC for AO7 (pH 3.0) and MB (pH 11.0) adsorption were found to be 665.9 and 986.8mg/g at 30°C, respectively. Lastly, regeneration tests further confirmed that SCG-GAC has promising potential in its reusability, showing removal efficiency of more than 80% even after seven consecutive cycles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiolytically degraded sodium alginate enhances plant growth, physiological activities and alkaloids production in Catharanthus roseus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naeem

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don (Family Apocynaceae is a medicinal plant that produces indole alkaloids used in cancer chemotherapy. The anticancerous alkaloids, viz. vinblastine and vincristine, are mainly present in the leaves of C. roseus. High demand and low yield of these alkaloids in the plant has led to explore the alternative means for their production. Gamma irradiated sodium alginate (ISA has proved as a plant growth promoting substance for various medicinal and agricultural crops. A pot culture experiment was carried out to explore the effect of ISA on plant growth, physiological activities and production of anticancer alkaloids (vinblastine and vincristine in C. roseus at 120 and 150 days after planting (DAP. Foliar application of ISA (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg L−1 significantly improved the performance of C. roseus. 80 mg L−1 of ISA enhanced the leaf-yield by 25.3 and 30.2% and the herbage-yield by 29.4 and 34.4% at 120 and 150 DAP, respectively, as compared to the control. The spray treatment of ISA at 80 mg L−1 improved the yield of vinblastine by 66.7 and 71.4% and of vincristine by 67.6 and 75.6% at 120 and 150 DAP, respectively, in comparison to the control. As compared to control, the application of ISA at 80 mg L−1 resulted in the maximum swell in the content and yield of vindoline, increasing them by 18.9 and 20.8% and by 81.8 and 87.2% at 120 and 150 DAP, respectively.

  19. Calcium alginate as an eco-friendly supporting material for Baker’s yeast strain in chromium bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mahmoud

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Baker’s yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomass was immobilized in alginate extract 3% forming Biomass/Polymer Matrices Beads (BPMB. These beads were investigated for chromium biosorption from aqueous solution. Factors such as solution pH, contact times, temperature values, stirring rates, BPMB dosages and initial chromium ions concentrations were experimentally tested using repeated-batch process to determine the sorption capacity for chromium (VI ions. Batch experiments were conducted at pH range from 1.5 to 7.5. The optimum pH value was 3.5 for direct chromium removal. The effect of chromium concentration was studied using different concentrations from 200 to 1000 ppm. Freundlich’s isothermal model showed better representation of data than Langmuir’s isothermal model with correlation coefficient 0.922. The maximum biosorption capacity of chromium was found to be 154 mg g−1 at initial concentration 200 ppm under optimum conditions. At the end of the experiments, BPMB were investigated for chromium biosorption from tannery effluent sample. Results showed decrease in chromium concentration up to 85%. The availability of recycling of the BPMB was also studied for three subsequent cycles. The surface sequestration of metal ions by BPMB was characterized before and after metal binding using a scanning electron microscope (SEM equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA and FTIR spectroscopy in order to determine the mechanisms of chromium biosorption.

  20. Hydrolysis of whey by whole cells of Kluyveromyces bulgaricus immobilized in calcium alginate gels in hen egg white

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decleire, M; Huynh, N van; Motte, J C; Cat, W de

    1985-10-01

    Whey hydrolysis was compared in column reactors containing whole yeast cells immobilized in Ca-alginate or in hen egg white in relation to cell US -galactosidase activity, flow rates, temperature and time. With cells of 1.3 U/mg dry weight (ONPG method) immobilized in Ca-alignate, 80% hydrolysis was obtained at 4 and 20C with, respectively 0.50 and 1.65 bed volume/H; the values were 0.2 and 0.74 with cells entrapped in hen egg white. When the flow rate was expressed as ml/H/g wet yeast, no significant difference was observed between both matrices and 80% hydrolysis was reached with a flow rate 1.7 and 5 according to the temperature. The best performance was achieved by the yeast egg white reactor. At 4C, hydrolysis deccreased by 10% after 13 days; by 20% after 17 days. The presence of lactose transport inhibitors in whey did not significantly influence lactose hydrolysis. (orig.).

  1. Oxygen transfer rate during the production of alginate by Azotobacter vinelandii under oxygen-limited and non oxygen-limited conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña Carlos F

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oxygen transfer rate (OTR and dissolved oxygen tension (DOT play an important role in determining alginate production and its composition; however, no systematic study has been reported about the independent influence of the OTR and DOT. In this paper, we report a study about alginate production and the evolution of the molecular mass of the polymer produced by a wild-type A. vinelandii strain ATCC 9046, in terms of the maximum oxygen transfer rate (OTRmax in cultures where the dissolved oxygen tension (DOT was kept constant. Results The results revealed that in the two dissolved oxygen conditions evaluated, strictly controlled by gas blending at 0.5 and 5% DOT, an increase in the agitation rate (from 300 to 700 rpm caused a significant increase in the OTRmax (from 17 to 100 mmol L-1 h-1 for DOT of 5% and from 6 to 70 mmol L-1 h-1 for DOT of 0.5%. This increase in the OTRmax improved alginate production, as well as the specific alginate production rate (SAPR, reaching a maximal alginate concentration of 3.1 g L-1 and a SAPR of 0.031 g alg g biom-1 h-1 in the cultures at OTRmax of 100 mmol L-1 h-1. In contrast, the mean molecular mass (MMM of the alginate isolated from cultures developed under non-oxygen limited conditions increased by decreasing the OTRmax, reaching a maximal of 550 kDa at an OTRmax of 17 mmol L-1 h-1 . However, in the cultures developed under oxygen limitation (0.5% DOT, the MMM of the polymer was practically the same (around 200 kDa at 300 and 700 rpm, and this remained constant throughout the cultivation. Conclusions Overall, our results showed that under oxygen-limited and non oxygen-limited conditions, alginate production and its molecular mass are linked to the OTRmax, independently of the DOT of the culture.

  2. PLGA/alginate composite microspheres for hydrophilic protein delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Peng; Chen, X.B.; Schreyer, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres and PLGA/alginate composite microspheres were prepared by a novel double emulsion and solvent evaporation technique and loaded with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or rabbit anti-laminin antibody protein. The addition of alginate and the use of a surfactant during microsphere preparation increased the encapsulation efficiency and reduced the initial burst release of hydrophilic BSA. Confocal laser scanning microcopy (CLSM) of BSA-loaded PLGA/alginate composite microspheres showed that PLGA, alginate, and BSA were distributed throughout the depths of microspheres; no core/shell structure was observed. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that PLGA microspheres erode and degrade more quickly than PLGA/alginate composite microspheres. When loaded with anti-laminin antibody, the function of released antibody was well preserved in both PLGA and PLGA/alginate composite microspheres. The biocompatibility of PLGA and PLGA/alginate microspheres were examined using four types of cultured cell lines, representing different tissue types. Cell survival was variably affected by the inclusion of alginate in composite microspheres, possibly due to the sensitivity of different cell types to excess calcium that may be released from the calcium cross-linked alginate. - Highlights: • A double emulsion technique is used to prepare protein-loaded PLGA or PLGA/alginate microspheres. • PLGA, alginate and protein are distributed evenly within microsphere structure. • Addition of alginate improves loading efficiency and slows degradation and protein release. • PLGA/alginate microspheres have favorable biocompatibility

  3. PLGA/alginate composite microspheres for hydrophilic protein delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Peng [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, S7N5E5 (Canada); Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, S7N5A9 (Canada); Chen, X.B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, S7N5A9 (Canada); Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, S7N5A9 (Canada); Schreyer, David J., E-mail: david.schreyer@usask.ca [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, S7N5E5 (Canada); Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, S7N5A9 (Canada)

    2015-11-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres and PLGA/alginate composite microspheres were prepared by a novel double emulsion and solvent evaporation technique and loaded with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or rabbit anti-laminin antibody protein. The addition of alginate and the use of a surfactant during microsphere preparation increased the encapsulation efficiency and reduced the initial burst release of hydrophilic BSA. Confocal laser scanning microcopy (CLSM) of BSA-loaded PLGA/alginate composite microspheres showed that PLGA, alginate, and BSA were distributed throughout the depths of microspheres; no core/shell structure was observed. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that PLGA microspheres erode and degrade more quickly than PLGA/alginate composite microspheres. When loaded with anti-laminin antibody, the function of released antibody was well preserved in both PLGA and PLGA/alginate composite microspheres. The biocompatibility of PLGA and PLGA/alginate microspheres were examined using four types of cultured cell lines, representing different tissue types. Cell survival was variably affected by the inclusion of alginate in composite microspheres, possibly due to the sensitivity of different cell types to excess calcium that may be released from the calcium cross-linked alginate. - Highlights: • A double emulsion technique is used to prepare protein-loaded PLGA or PLGA/alginate microspheres. • PLGA, alginate and protein are distributed evenly within microsphere structure. • Addition of alginate improves loading efficiency and slows degradation and protein release. • PLGA/alginate microspheres have favorable biocompatibility.

  4. Study of mechanical properties of calcium phosphate cement with addition of sodium alginate and dispersant; Estudo das propriedades mecanicas de cimento de fosfato de calcio com adicao de alginato de sodio e defloculante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, J.M.; Coelho, W.T.; Thurmer, M.B.; Vieira, P.S.; Santos, L.A., E-mail: julianafernandes2@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), RS (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Several studies in literature have shown that the addition of polymer additives and deflocculant has a strong influence on the mechanical properties of cements in general.The low mechanical strength is the main impediment to wider use of bone cement of calcium phosphate (CFCs) as the implant material, since they have mechanical strength which equals the maximum of trabecular bone.In order to evaluate the strength of a CFC compound alpha-tricalcium phosphate, sodium alginate were added (1%, 2% and 3% by weight) and dispersant ammonium polyacrylate (3%) in aqueous solution.Specimens were made and evaluated for density, porosity, crystalline phases and mechanical strength.The results show the increase of the mechanical properties of cement when added sodium alginate and dispersant. (author)

  5. Production of alkaline protease by Teredinobacter turnirae cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conditions for immobilizing the new alkaline protease-producing bacteria strain Teredinobacter turnirae by entrapment in calcium alginate gel were investigated. The influence of alginate concentration (20, 25 and 30 g/l) and initial cell loading (ICL) on enzyme production were studied. The production of alkaline ...

  6. Physicochemical properties of radiation-sterilized honey alginate wound dressing for exudating wounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asa, Anie Day DC.; De Guzman, Zenaida M.; Baldos, Davison T.; Asaad, Celia O.

    2013-01-01

    Honey is a well-known natural cure in promoting healing of wounds. Alginate, on the other hand, is a polysaccharide with pharmaceutical applications such as wound dressing and control release drugs. Calcium-alginate wound dressings have a gel-forming capability. in that, upon ion exchange between calcium ions in the dressing, and sodium ions in wound fluid, the dressing transforms into a gel. Cross-linked alginate gels can absorb would fluid, and also maintain a moist environment to the wound area. Combined with anti-microbial properties of honey and absorption and gelling properties of alginate, a honey alginate wound dressing is developed and irradiated for sterility. Its physicochemical properties are then analyzed. The honey-alginate wound dressing has lower pH (4.40±0.02) than alginate alone dressings (5.40±0.04) which is more favorable for wound healing. The dressing also has low moisture content (10.25±1.11%). Analysis of moisture vapour transmission rate shows a general increase with time for 48 hours. The wound dressing also has an absorbency of 19.00±1.80 g/100 cm 2 with a gel fraction of 18.44±0.63%. The rate of absorption analysis, meanwhile, shows a very rapid absorption rate upon exposure to wound fluid. After some time, a decrease in rate is observed which is accounted to the release of honey to the wound environment. For tensile strength, irradiation causes an effect in tensile strength in machine direction but is insignificant for cross machine direction. Physicochemical properties of the radiation-sterilized honey alginate wound dressing e.g. acidic pH, absorbency, moisture vapor permeability and absorption rate ascertain its characteristic as a good wound dressing for exudating wounds. Its low moisture content, meanwhile, allows for longer shelf-life of the developed product. (author)

  7. Alginate Adsorbent Immobilization Technique Promotes Biobutanol Production by Clostridium acetobutylicum Under Extreme Condition of High Concentration of Organic Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoliang Ye

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol fermentation, bacteria should tolerate high concentrations of solvent products, which inhibit bacteria growth and limit further increase of solvents to more than 20 g/L. Moreover, this limited solvent concentration significantly increases the cost of solvent separation through traditional approaches. In this study, alginate adsorbent immobilization technique was successfully developed to assist in situ extraction using octanol which is effective in extracting butanol but presents strong toxic effect to bacteria. The adsorbent improved solvent tolerance of Clostridium acetobutylicum under extreme condition of high concentration of organic solvent. Using the developed technique, more than 42% of added bacteria can be adsorbed to the adsorbent. Surface area of the adsorbent was more than 10 times greater than sodium alginate. Scanning electron microscope image shows that an abundant amount of pore structure was successfully developed on adsorbents, promoting bacteria adsorption. In adsorbent assisted ABE fermentation, there was 21.64 g/L butanol in extracting layer compared to negligible butanol produced with only the extractant but without the adsorbent, for the reason that adsorbent can reduce damaging exposure of C. acetobutylicum to octanol. The strategy can improve total butanol production with respect to traditional culture approach by more than 2.5 fold and save energy for subsequent butanol recovery, which effects can potentially make the biobutanol production more economically practical.

  8. Combined effects of adsorption and photocatalysis by hybrid TiO2/ZnO-calcium alginate beads for the removal of copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Devagi Kanakaraju; Shantini Ravichandar; Ying Chin Lim

    2017-01-01

    The use of nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) in the suspension form during treatment makes the recovering and recycling of photocatalysts difficult.Hence,supported photocatalysts are preferred for practical water treatment applications.This study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of calcium alginate (CaAlg) beads that were immobilized with hybrid photocatalysts,TiO2/ZnO to form TiO2/ZnO-CaAlg.Theseimmobilized beads,with three different mass ratios of TiO2:ZnO (1∶1,1∶2,and 2∶1) were used to remove Cu(Ⅱ) in aqueous solutions in the presence of ultraviolet light.These beads were subjected to three cycles of photocatalytic treatment with different initial Cu(Ⅱ) concentrations (10-80 ppm).EDX spectra have confirmed the inclusion of Ti and Zn on the surface of the CaAlg beads.Meanwhile,the surface morphology of the beads as determined using SEM,has indicated differences of before and after the photocatalytic treatment of Cu(Ⅱ).Among all three,the equivalent mass ratio TiO2/ZnO-CaAlg beads have shown the best performance in removing Cu(Ⅱ) during all three recycling experiments.Those TiO2/ZnO-CaAlg beads have also shown consistent removal of Cu,ranging from 7.14-62.0 ppm (first cycle) for initial concentrations of 10-80 ppm.In comparison,bare CaAlg was only able to remove 6.9-48 ppm of similar initial Cu concentrations.Thus,the potential use of TiO2/ZnO-CaAlg beads as environmentally friendly composite material can be further extended for heavy metal removal from contaminated water.

  9. Application of an active alginate coating to control the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on poached and deli turkey products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juck, Greg; Neetoo, Hudaa; Chen, Haiqiang

    2010-09-01

    The relatively high prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat (RTE) turkey products is of great concern. The overall objective of this study was to develop antimicrobial edible coating formulations to effectively control the growth of this pathogen. The antimicrobials studied were nisin (500IU/g), Novagard CB 1 (0.25%), Guardian NR100 (500ppm), sodium lactate (SL, 2.4%), sodium diacetate (SD, 0.25%), and potassium sorbate (PS, 0.3%). These were incorporated alone or in binary combinations into five edible coatings: alginate, kappa-carrageenan, pectin, xanthan gum, and starch. The coatings were applied onto the surface of home-style poached and processed deli turkey discs inoculated with ~3log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes. The turkey samples were then stored at 22 degrees C for 7days. For poached and processed deli turkey, the coatings were found to be equally effective, with pectin being slightly less effective than the others. The most effective poached turkey treatments seemed to be SL (2.4%)/SD (0.25%) and Nisin (500IU/g)/SL (2.4%), which yielded final populations of 3.0 and 4.9log CFU/g respectively compared to the control which was 7.9log CFU/g. For processed deli turkey, the most effective antimicrobial treatments seemed to be Nisin (500IU/g)/SD (0.25%) and Nisin (500IU/g)/SL (2.4%) with final populations of 1.5 and 1.7log CFU/g respectively compared to the control which was 6.5log CFU/g. In the second phase of the study, home-style poached and store-purchased roasted (deli) turkey inoculated with the pathogen at a level of ~3log CFU/g were coated with alginate incorporating selected antimicrobial combinations and stored for 8weeks at 4 degrees C. Alginate coatings supplemented with SL (2.4%)/PS (0.3%) delayed the growth of L. monocytogenes with final counts reaching 4.3log CFU/g (home-style poached turkey) and 6.5log CFU/g (roasted deli turkey) respectively while the counts in their untreated counterparts were significantly higher (P<0.05) reaching 9

  10. Calcium Alginate-Caged Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Dispersive Microsolid Phase Extraction Combined With Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection for the Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Ayad Sami; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Keyon, Aemi S Abdul; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2018-02-01

    In this study, caged calcium alginate-caged multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersive microsolid phase extraction was described for the first time for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water samples prior to gas chromatographic analysis. Fluorene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene were selected as model compounds. The caged calcium alginate-caged multiwalled carbon nanotubes was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermal gravimetry analyses. The effective parameters namely desorption solvent, solvent volume, extraction time, desorption time, the mass of adsorbent and sample volume were optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the developed method showed good linearity in the range of 0.5-50 ng mL-1 (R2 ≥ 0.996), low limits of detection and quantification (0.42-0.22 ng mL-1) (0.73-1.38 ng mL-1) respectively, good relative recoveries (71.2-104.2%) and reproducibility (RSD 1.8-12.4%, n = 3) for the studied PAHs in water sample. With high enrichment factor (1,000), short extraction time (<30 min), low amounts of adsorbent (100 mg) and low amounts of solvent (0.1 mol) have proven that the microsolid phase extraction method based on calcium alginate-caged multiwalled carbon nanotubes are environmentally friendly and convenient extraction method to use as an alternative adsorbent in the simultaneous preconcentration of PAHs from environmental water samples. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Drug release, preclinical and clinical pharmacokinetics relationships of alginate pellets prepared by melt technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Anirbandeep; Harjoh, Nurulaini; Pal, Tapan Kumar; Dan, Shubhasis; Wong, Tin Wui

    2016-01-01

    Alginate pellets prepared by the aqueous agglomeration technique experience fast drug dissolution due to the porous pre-formed calcium alginate microstructure. This study investigated in vitro drug release, preclinical and clinical pharmacokinetics relationships of intestinal-specific calcium acetate-alginate pellets against calcium-free and calcium carbonate-alginate pellets. Alginate pellets were prepared by solvent-free melt pelletization instead of aqueous agglomeration technique using chlorpheniramine maleate as model drug. A fast in situ calcium acetate dissolution in pellets resulted in rapid pellet breakup, soluble Ca(2+) crosslinking of alginate fragments and drug dissolution retardation at pH 1.2, which were not found in other pellet types. The preclinical drug absorption rate was lower with calcium acetate loaded than calcium-free alginate pellets. In human subjects, however, the extent and the rate of drug absorption were higher from calcium acetate-loaded pellets than calcium-free alginate pellets. The fine, dispersible and weakly gastric mucoadhesive calcium alginate pellets underwent fast human gastrointestinal transit. They released the drug at a greater rate than calcium-free pellets in the intestine, thereby promoting drug bioavailability. Calcium acetate was required as a disintegrant more than as a crosslinking agent clinically to promote pellet fragmentation, fast gastrointestinal transit and drug release in intestinal medium, and intestinal-specific drug bioavailability.

  12. An injectable calcium phosphate-alginate hydrogel-umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell paste for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Weir, Michael D.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2010-01-01

    The need for bone repair has increased as the population ages. Stem cell-scaffold approaches hold immense promise for bone tissue engineering. However, currently, preformed scaffolds for cell delivery have drawbacks including the difficulty to seed cells deep into the scaffold, and inability for injection in minimally invasive surgeries. Current injectable polymeric carriers and hydrogels are too weak for load-bearing orthopedic application. The objective of this study was to develop an injectable and mechanically-strong stem cell construct for bone tissue engineering. Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) paste was combined with hydrogel microbeads encapsulating human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs). The hUCMSC-encapsulating composite paste was fully injectable under small injection forces. Cell viability after injection matched that in hydrogel without CPC and without injection. Mechanical properties of the construct matched the reported values of cancellous bone, and were much higher than previous injectable polymeric and hydrogel carriers. hUCMSCs in the injectable constructs osteodifferentiated, yielding high alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, collagen type I, and osterix gene expressions at 7 d, which were 50–70 fold higher than those at 1 d. Mineralization by the hUCMSCs at 14 d was 100-fold that at 1 d. In conclusion, a fully-injectable, mechanically-strong, stem cell-CPC scaffold construct was developed. The encapsulated hUCMSCs remained viable, osteodifferentiated, and synthesized bone minerals. The new injectable stem cell construct with load-bearing capability may enhance bone regeneration in minimally-invasive and other orthopedic surgeries. PMID:20570346

  13. Towards a fully synthetic substitute of alginate: optimization of a thermal gelation/chemical cross-linking scheme ("tandem" gelation) for the production of beads and liquid-core capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellesi, F; Weber, W; Fussenegger, M; Hubbell, J A; Tirelli, N

    2004-12-20

    Fully synthetic polymers were used for the preparation of hydrogel beads and capsules, in a processing scheme that, originally designed for calcium alginate, was adapted to a "tandem" process, that is the combination a physical gelation with a chemical cross-linking. The polymers feature a Tetronic backbone (tetra armed Pluronics), which exhibits a reverse thermal gelation in water solutions within a physiological range of temperatures and pHs. The polymers bear terminal reactive groups that allow for a mild, but effective chemical cross-linking. Given an appropriate temperature jump, the thermal gelation provides a hardening kinetics similar to that of alginate. With slower kinetics, the chemical cross-linking then develops an irreversible and elastic gel structure, and determines its transport properties. In the present article this process has been optimized for the production of monodisperse, high elastic, hydrogel microbeads, and liquid-core microcapsules. We also show the feasibility of the use of liquid-core microcapsules in cell encapsulation. In preliminary experiments, CHO cells have been successfully encapsulated preserving their viability during the process and after incubation. The advantages of this process are mainly in the use of synthetic polymers, which provide great flexibility in the molecular design. This, in principle, allows for a precise tailoring of mechanical and transport properties and of bioactivity of the hydrogels, and also for a precise control in material purification.

  14. Production of volatiles in fresh-cut apple: effect of applying alginate coatings containing linoleic acid or isoleucine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya-Meraz, Irma O; Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Molina-Corral, Francisco J; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Jacobo-Cuellar, Juan L; Sepulveda, David R; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2014-11-01

    One of the main quality parameters in apples is aroma, its main precursors are fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). In this study, alginate edible coatings were used as carriers of linoleic acid or isoleucine to serve as precursors for the production of aroma in cut apples. Apple wedges were immersed in a CaCl2 solution and coated with one of the following formulations: alginate solution (Alg-Ca), Alg-Ca-low-level linoleic acid (0.61 g/Lt), (LFA), Alg-Ca-high-level linoleic acid (2.44 g/L; HFA), Alg-Ca-low-level isoleucine (0.61 g/L; LAA), and Alg-Ca-high-level isoleucine (2.44 g/L; HAA). Apple wedges were stored at 3 °C and 85% relative humidity for 21 d and key volatiles were studied during storage. Addition of precursors, mainly isoleucine, showed to increase the production of some key volatiles on coated fresh-cut apples during storage. The concentration of 2-methyl-1-butanol was 4 times higher from day 12 to day 21 in HAA, while 2-methyl butyl acetate increased from day 12 to day 21 in HAA. After 21 d, HAA-apples presented a 40-fold value of 2-methyl-butyl acetate, compared to Alg-Ca cut apples. Values of hexanal increased during cut apple storage when the coating carried linoleic acid, mainly on HFA, from 3 to 12 d. The ability of apples to metabolize AA and FA depends on the concentration of precursors, but also depends on key enzymes, previous apple storage, among others. Further studies should be done to better clarify the behavior of fresh-cut apples as living tissue to metabolize precursors contained in edible coatings for the production of volatiles. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Effects of cell entrapment in Ca-alginate on the metabolism of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galazzo, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells grown in suspension have been immobilized in calcium-alginate beads. Fermentation rates and intracellular composition have been determined under nongrowing conditions in these Ca-alginate entrapped cells and for identical cells in suspension. Glucose uptake and ethanol and glycerol production are approximately two times faster in immobilized cells than in suspended cells. Intermediate metabolite levels such as fructose-1,6-diphosphate, glucose-6-phosphate and 3-phosphoglycerate have been determined by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy under glucose fermenting conditions. Carbon-13 NMR shows an increase in polysaccharide production in immobilized cells. S. cerevisiae cells grown within a Ca-alginate matrix have a specific growth rate 40% lower than the growth rate of similar cells cultivated in suspension. Alginate-grown cells have been used to compare glucose fermentation under nongrowing conditions in suspended and Ca-entrapped cells. Fermentation rate is higher in immobilized cells than in suspended cells. The observed differences in intracellular components between suspended and immobilized cells are qualitatively similar to the differences observed for cells grown in suspension. Ethanol production rate is 2.7 times faster in immobilized alginate-grown cells than in suspended suspension-grown cells

  16. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You can get decent amounts of calcium from baked beans, navy beans, white beans, and others. Canned fish. You're in luck if you like sardines and canned salmon with bones. Almond milk. Working Calcium Into Your ...

  17. A Controlled Drug-Delivery Experiment Using Alginate Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Stephanie; Vernengo, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, cost-effective experiment which introduces students to drug delivery and modeling using alginate beads. Students produce calcium alginate beads loaded with drug and measure the rate of release from the beads for systems having different stir rates, geometries, extents of cross-linking, and drug molecular weight.…

  18. Calcium binding to low molecular weight compounds and health promoting products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavrusova, Martina

    absorption. Therefore, calcium as an essential nutrient should not be underestimated in our diet. Milk and dairy products are good sources of bioavailable calcium due to specific protein binding. Other sources of calcium, apart from a balanced and healthy diet, are calcium supplements and calcium fortified...... food. Therefore, an understanding of the basic chemistry of calcium binding to low molecular weight compounds can contribute to a general knowledge about calcium bioavailability and also to product improvement. Calcium precipitation with palmitate was described by a first-order reaction for conditions...... of excess calcium in neutral aqueous solutions with a stoichiometry Ca:Pal lower than 1:2. Increasing pH during aging of the precipitate and solubility product determination lead to a suggestion of an initial precipitation of calcium hydroxy palmitate as a possible precursor phase. The binding of calcium...

  19. Physicochemical properties of marine collagen-alginate biomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, K. S.; Hii, S. L.; Wong, C. L.; Leong, L. K.; Woo, K. K.

    2017-12-01

    Collagen base biomaterials are widely applied in the field of tissue engineering. However, these fibrous proteins in animal connective tissues are insufficient to fulfill the mechanical properties for such applications. Therefore, alginate as a natural polysaccharide was incorporated. In this study, Smooth wolf herring skins was collected from the local fish ball processing industry for collagen extraction using acid solubilisation method. On the other hand, alginate from brown seaweed (Sargassum polycystum) was extracted with calcium carbonate at 50 °C. The composite films of different collagen and alginate ratio were prepared by lyophilisation with pure collagen film as control. The effects of alginate on swelling behaviour, porosity, collagenase degradation and tensile strength of the composite films were investigated. Swelling behaviour increased with alginate content, 50 % alginate film achieved 1254.75 % swelling after 24 h. All composite films achieved more than 80 % porosity except the film with 80 % collagen (65.41 %). Porosity was highest in 100 % alginate (94.30 %). Highest tensile strength (1585.87 kPa) and young modulus (27.05 MPa) was found in 50 % alginate film. In addition, resistance to collagenase degradation was improved with alginate content, lowest degradation rate was determined in 80 % alginate film. Results indicated alginate is efficient in improving some mechanical properties of the composite film.

  20. Alginate-Chitosan Particulate System for Sustained Release of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    1School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2Division of ... Both calcium alginate beads and the beads treated with chitosan failed to release ..... also found to fit the classical power law.

  1. First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study)

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M. M.; van den Bergh, Joop P. W.; Niesten, Dieu Donné; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H.

    2014-01-01

    Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 ...

  2. Study on biosorption of uranium by alginate immobilized saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baoe; Xu Weichang; Xie Shuibo; Guo Yangbin

    2005-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has great capability of biosorption of uranium. The maxium uptake is 172.4 mg/g according to this study. To adapt to the application of the biomass in the field, the biosorption of uranium by cross-linked and alginate calcium immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae is studied. Results indicate the maxium uptake is 185.2 mg/g by formaldehyde cross-linked biomass, and it is 769.2 mg/g by alginate calcium immobilized biomass. (authors)

  3. Efficient functionalization of alginate biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalheim, Marianne Ø; Vanacker, Julie; Najmi, Maryam A; Aachmann, Finn L; Strand, Berit L; Christensen, Bjørn E

    2016-02-01

    Peptide coupled alginates obtained by chemical functionalization of alginates are commonly used as scaffold materials for cells in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. We here present an alternative to the commonly used carbodiimide chemistry, using partial periodate oxidation followed by reductive amination. High and precise degrees of substitution were obtained with high reproducibility, and without formation of by-products. A protocol was established using l-Tyrosine methyl ester as a model compound and the non-toxic pic-BH3 as the reducing agent. DOSY was used to indirectly verify covalent binding and the structure of the product was further elucidated using NMR spectroscopy. The coupling efficiency was to some extent dependent on alginate composition, being most efficient on mannuronan. Three different bioactive peptide sequences (GRGDYP, GRGDSP and KHIFSDDSSE) were coupled to 8% periodate oxidized alginate resulting in degrees of substitution between 3.9 and 6.9%. Cell adhesion studies of mouse myoblasts (C2C12) and human dental stem cells (RP89) to gels containing various amounts of GRGDSP coupled alginate demonstrated the bioactivity of the material where RP89 cells needed higher peptide concentrations to adhere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro calcium availability in bakery products fortified with tuna bone powder as a natural calcium source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Mahnaz; Kamilah, Hanisah; Huda, Nurul; Ariffin, Fazilah

    2015-08-01

    Avoidance of dairy products due to lactose intolerance can lead to insufficiency of calcium (Ca) in the body. In an approach to address this problem, tuna bone powder (TBP) was formulated as a calcium supplement to fortify bakery products. In a study, TBP recovered by alkaline treatment contained 38.16 g/100 g of calcium and 23.31 g/100 g of phosphorus. The ratio of Ca:P that was close to 2:1 was hence comparable to that in human bones. The availability of calcium in TBP was 53.93%, which was significantly higher than most calcium salts, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) being the exception. In vitro availability of calcium in TBP-fortified cookies or TCP-fortified cookies were comparable at 38.9% and 39.5%, respectively. These values were higher than the readings from TBP-fortified bread (36.7%) or TCP-fortified bread (37.4%). Sensory evaluation of bakery products containing TBP or TCP elicited comparable scores for the two additives from test panels. Hence, TBP could be used in the production of high calcium bakery products that would enjoy consumer acceptance.

  5. Microwave assisted step-by-step process for the production of fucoidan, alginate sodium, sugars and biochar from Ascophyllum nodosum through a biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Macquarrie, Duncan J

    2015-12-01

    The biorefinery is an important concept for the development of alternative routes to a range of interesting and important materials from renewable resources. It ensures that the resources are used fully and that all parts of them are valorized. This paper develops this concept, using brown macroalgae Ascophyllum nodosum as an example, by assistance of microwave technology. A step-by-step process was designed to obtain fucoidan, alginates, sugars and biochar (alga residue) consecutively. The yields of fucoidan, alginates, sugars and biochar were 14.09%, 18.24%, 10.87% and 21.44%, respectively. To make an evaluation of the biorefinery process, seaweed sample was also treated for fucoidan extraction only, alginate extraction only and hydrothermal treatment for sugars and biochar only. The chemical composition and properties of each product were also analyzed. The results indicated that A. nodosum could be potentially used as feedstock for a biorefinery process to produce valuable chemicals and fuels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fermentation of calcium-fortified soymilk with Lactobacillus: effects on calcium solubility, isoflavone conversion, and production of organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, A L; Shah, N P; Wilcox, G; Walker, K Z; Stojanovska, L

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance calcium solubility and bioavailability from calcium-fortified soymilk by fermentation with 7 strains of Lactobacillus, namely, L. acidophilus ATCC 4962, ATCC33200, ATCC 4356, ATCC 4461, L. casei ASCC 290, L. plantarum ASCC 276, and L. fermentum VRI-003. The parameters that were used are viability, pH, calcium solubility, organic acid, and biologically active isoflavone aglycone content. Calcium-fortified soymilk made from soy protein isolate was inoculated with these probiotic strains, incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C, then stored for 14 d at 4 degrees C. Soluble calcium was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AA). Organic acids and bioactive isoflavone aglycones, including diadzein, genistein, and glycetein, were measured using HPLC. Viability of the strains in the fermented calcium-fortified soymilk was > 8.5 log(10) CFU/g after 24 h fermentation and this was maintained for 14-d storage at 4 degrees C. After 24 h, there was a significant increase (P casei ASCC 290 demonstrated the highest increase with 89.3% and 87.0% soluble calcium after 24 h, respectively. The increase in calcium solubility observed was related to lowered pH associated with production of lactic and acetic acids. Fermentation significantly increased (P < 0.05) the level of conversion of isoflavones into biologically active aglycones, including diadzein, genistein, and glycetein. Our results show that fermenting calcium-fortified soymilk with the selected probiotics can potentially enhance the calcium bioavailability of calcium-fortified soymilk due to increased calcium solubility and bioactive isoflavone aglycone enrichment.

  7. Controlled fabrication of multi-core alginate microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eqbal, Md Danish; Gundabala, Venkat

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we present a robust microfluidic platform for controlled and complete on-chip generation of alginate microcapsules with single and double liquid cores. A combined Coflow and T-junction configuration implemented in a hybrid glass-PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) device is used for the generation of microcapsules with oil as liquid core. Frequency matching of oil-alginate double emulsion generation with that of aqueous Calcium chloride droplet generation allows for controlled merging of the two, resulting in reliable production of microcapsules. Confocal imaging of microcapsule cross-section reveals presence of intact liquid core. In the case of double core microcapsules, the two cores are well separated by alginate layer ensuring their long term stability. The current approach is expected to have advantages over existing techniques for liquid core microcapsule generation in terms of continuity of the process, control over core stability, and non-damage to cells when used for cell encapsulation applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Method To immobilize the aphid-pathogenic fungus erynia neoaphidis in an alginate matrix for biocontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah; Aebi; Tuor

    1998-11-01

    Erynia neoaphidis is an important fungal pathogen of aphid pests worldwide. There have been few reported attempts to formulate this natural agent for use in biocontrol. In the current study, factors involved in the immobilization of E. neoaphidis hyphae in an alginate matrix were investigated. Hyphae of two isolates cultured in liquid medium were 220 to 620 &mgr;m in length and 7 to 19 &mgr;m in diameter with a 74 to 83% cytoplasmic content. The optimal concentration of low-viscosity sodium alginate for production of conidia from entrapped hyphae was 1.5% (wt/vol), and 0.1 and 0.25 M calcium chloride were equally suitable for use as the gelling solution. Alginate beads were rinsed with 10% sucrose after gelling. However, beads should not be left for longer than 40 min in 0.1 M calcium chloride or 10% sucrose to prevent a 10% loss in conidial production. A 40% (vol/vol) concentration of fungal biomass produced significantly more conidia than either 20% or the standard concentration of 10%. This effect persisted even after beads were dried overnight in a laminar flow hood and stored at 4 degreesC for 4 days. Conidia from freshly produced alginate beads caused 27 to 32% infection in Pea aphids as determined by standardized laboratory bioassays. This finding was not significantly different from infections in aphids inoculated with fresh mycelial mats or plugs from Petri dish cultures. In conclusion, algination appears to be a promising technique for utilizing E. neoaphidis in the biocontrol of aphid pests.

  9. The production of precipitated calcium carbonate from industrial gypsum wastes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available -step) process was tested. Although only a low-grade CaCO3 product (86-88 mass% as CaCO3) could be produced, experimental results on the characteristics of CaS in the presence of CO2 in the CaS-H2O-CO2 system showed that the reaction proceeded in two distinct... stages. In the first stage, CaS dissolution took place, with H2S stripping occurring in the second stage. Calcium carbonation and the resulting precipitation of CaCO3 were concurrent with the CaS dissolution and the H2S stripping reactions. Because...

  10. In vitro adhesion of human dermal fibroblasts on iron cross-linked alginate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida-Sano, Ikuko; Namiki, Hideo; Matsuda, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the potential of alginate film incorporating ferric ions as a gelling agent (Fe-alginate) in comparison with that incorporating calcium ions (Ca-alginate) as a scaffold for culturing normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). NHDF adhered to Fe-alginate and proliferated well, but no growth of the cells was observed on Ca-alginate. Since vitronectin and fibronectin play pivotal roles in cellular adhesion, their participation in NHDF behavior on alginate surfaces was investigated. We found that vitronectin was a critical element for initial attachment and spreading of NHDF on Fe-alginate. The surface properties of both alginate films were characterized in terms of protein adsorption ability and surface wettability, and it was revealed that Fe-alginate film adsorbed a significantly higher amount of proteins, including vitronectin and fibronectin, and had a higher surface hydrophobicity than Ca-alginate film. Moreover, under serum-free conditions, only a small number of NHDF were able to attach to the surface of Fe-alginate. Fe-alginate appeared to provide an appropriate surface for cellular attachment by adsorption of serum proteins such as vitronectin. These results suggest that Fe-alginate can serve as a scaffold for human fibroblasts and may be useful for tissue engineering research and other biomedical applications.

  11. First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter van den Berg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians. An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day. After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition.

  12. First quantification of calcium intake from calcium-dense dairy products in Dutch fracture patients (the Delft cohort study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M M; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Niesten, Dieu Donné; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2014-06-23

    Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day). After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX) risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition.

  13. Calcium absorbability from milk products, an imitation milk, and calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recker, R.R.; Bammi, A.; Barger-Lux, M.J.; Heaney, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Whole milk, chocolate milk, yogurt, imitation milk (prepared from dairy and nondairy products), cheese, and calcium carbonate were labeled with 45 Ca and administered as a series of test meals to 10 healthy postmenopausal women. Carrier Ca content of the test meals was held constant at 250 mg and subjects fasted before each meal. The absorbability of Ca from the six sources was compared by measuring fractional absorption by the double isotope method. The mean absorption values for all six sources were tightly clustered between 21 and 26% and none was significantly different from the others using one-way analysis of variance. We conclude that none of the sources was significantly superior or inferior to the others

  14. Enhancing Biodiesel Production Using Green Glycerol-Enriched Calcium Oxide Catalyst : An Optimization Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avhad, Mangesh R.; Gangurde, L.S.; Sánchez, Marcos; Bouaid, Abderrahim; Aracil, José; Martínez, Mercedes; Marchetti, Jorge M.

    2018-01-01

    The present article demonstrates a superior catalytic performance of glycerol-enriched calcium oxide for biodiesel production than other calcium-based counterparts. The proficiency of glycerol-enriched calcium oxide in catalyzing the methanolysis of crude Jatropha curcas oil containing high free

  15. Physical and chemical characterization of titanium-alginate samples for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morani, L.M.; Ribeiro, A.A.; Oliveira, M.V. de; Dantas, F.M.L., E-mail: marize.varella@int.gov.b [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leao, M.H.M.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The sol-gel technique combined with powder metallurgy may be an alternative to produce titanium parts for bioengineering, with the advantage of eliminating the powder compaction step, which may introduce defects. The present work introduces a system consisted of titanium powder and sodium alginate suspension, which undergoes reticulation in contact with a calcium salt solution, obtaining titanium/calcium alginate hydrogel with granule morphology. The characterization of the raw materials and granules of calcium alginate and titanium/calcium alginate was performed by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The granules topography was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy/EDS. Titanium and sodium alginate chemical composition were adequate for use as raw materials, showing that the methodology used is suitable for processing titanium samples for further consolidation by sintering, in order to produce titanium parts. (author)

  16. Use of calcium oxide in palm oil methyl ester production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulchanat Prasertsit

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducing an untreated calcium oxide (CaO as a solid heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from palm oil by transesterification was studied in this work. The four studied parameters were methanol to oil molar ratio, CaO catalyst concentration, reaction time, and water content. The results for palm oil show that when the water content is higher than 3%wt and the amount of CaO greater than 7%wt soap formation from saponification occurs. A higher methanol to oil molar ratio requires a higher amount of CaO catalyst to provide the higher product purity. The appropriate methanol to CaO catalyst ratio is about 1.56. Commercial grade CaO gives almost the same results as AR grade CaO. In addition, reusing commercial grade CaO for about 5 to 10 repetitions without catalyst regeneration drops the percentage of methyl ester purity approximately 5 to 10%, respectively.

  17. Effects of a wax organogel and alginate gel complex on holy basil (Ocimum sanctum) in vitro ruminal dry matter disappearance and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeman, James R; Rogers, Michael A; Cant, John P; McBride, Brian W; Osborne, Vern R

    2018-02-20

    The objectives of this study were to: (a) select an ideal organogel for the oil phase of a novel gel encapsulation technology, (b) optimize the formulation of an organogel and sodium alginate-based gel complex, and (c) examine the rumen protective ability of the gel by measuring 48-h in vitro ruminal dry matter disappearance and gas production from encapsulated dried and ground holy basil leaves. A rice-bran wax and canola oil organogel was selected for the oil phase of the gel complex as this combination had a 48-h dry matter disappearance of 6%, the lowest of all organogels analyzed. The gel complex was formulated by homogenizing the organogel with a sodium alginate solution to create a low-viscosity oil-in-water emulsion. Average dry matter disappearance of gel-encapsulated holy basil was 19%, compared to 42% for the free, unprotected holy basil. However, gel encapsulation of holy basil stimulated gas production. Specifically, gas production of encapsulated holy basil was four times higher than the treatment with holy basil added on top of the gel prior to incubation rather than encapsulated within the gel. Although the gel itself was highly degradable, it is speculated encapsulation thwarted holy basil's antimicrobial activity. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. The Alginate Demonstration: Polymers, Food Science, and Ion Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Amy Sue; Schechinger, Linda; Govindarajoo, Geeta; Nowick, James S.; Pignolet, Louis H.

    1998-11-01

    We have recently devised a polymer demonstration involving the crosslinking and decrosslinking of alginate, a polysaccharide isolated from seaweed. The polymer is composed of D-mannuronic acid and L-guluronic acid subunits and is a component of cell walls. It is commonly used as a thickener in foods such as ice cream and fruit-filled snacks. For the demonstration, a 2% solution of sodium alginate is poured into a 1% solution of calcium chloride. Nontoxic calcium alginate "worms" form due to crosslinking of the polymer. Alternatively, the commercially available antacid Gaviscon can be used as a source of sodium alginate. The crosslinks can then be broken by shaking the worms in brine. The demonstration is a fine addition to any chemical educator's repertoire of polymer experiments.

  19. Sucrose-supplemented distillery spent wash as a medium for production of ethanol at 45 C by free and alginate-immobilized preparations of Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, P.; Mulholland, H.; Barron, N.; Brady, D.; McHale, A.P. [Biotechnology Research Group, School of Applied Biological and Chemical Sciences, University of Ulster (United Kingdom)

    1998-04-01

    Ethanol production by the thermotolerant, ethanol-producing yeast strain Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB3, was compared during growth on sucrose-supplemented laboratory-based media and distillery spent wash from the Old Bushmill`s Distillery Co., Ltd., Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland. Fermentations were carried out using preparations of the free and alginate-immobilized microorganism as inocula in media supplemented with 2 and 10% (w/v) sucrose. Maximum ethanol concentrations accounted for 75-99% of the maximum theoretical yield and in all cases maximum concentrations obtained using the spent wash were similar if not slightly higher than those obtained on the sucrose-supplemented yeast growth media. In addition, the highest concentrations of ethanol were produced by the alginate-immobilized biocatalyst on both types of media. Analysis of exhausted media in the spent wash-based systems demonstrated significant decreases in the total organic carbon content following fermentation. These results confirm our earlier suggestion that ethanol production based on this microorganism in a recycle system may provide a more cost-effective means of disposing of whiskey distillery spent wash. (orig.) With 1 tab., 8 refs.

  20. Chicken eggshells (Gallus gallus domesticus) as carbonate calcium source for biomaterials production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junior, E.A. de O.; Bastos, J.S.B.; Silva, R.C. de S.; Macedo, H.R.A.; Macedo, M. O.C.; Bradim, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    The eggshells present high levels of calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate obtained from eggshells has been used in the production of biomaterials with applications in bone regeneration, since it is biocompatible. In this work, calcium carbonate was obtained from eggshells to prepare a composite biomaterial. The presence of calcium carbonate bands was observed through spectrometry in the infrared region. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of calcium carbonate particles with different sizes and shapes. Carbonate predominance in the form of calcite was also observed through the X-ray diffraction

  1. Preparation and activity of bubbling-immobilized cellobiase within chitosan-alginate composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Su, Rong-Xin; Qi, Wei; Zhang, Ming-Jia; He, Zhi-Min

    2010-01-01

    Cellobiase can hydrolyze cellobiose into glucose; it plays a key role in the process of cellulose hydrolysis by reducing the product inhibition. To reuse the enzyme and improve the economic value of cellulosic ethanol, cellobiase was immobilized using sodium alginate and chitosan as carriers by the bubbling method. The immobilization conditions were optimized as follows: enzyme loading of 100 U cellobiase/g carrier, 30 min immobilization, 3.5 wt% sodium alginate, 0.25 wt% chitosan, and 2 wt% calcium chloride. Compared to free enzyme, the immobilized cellobiase had a decreased apparent K(m) and the maximum activity at a lower pH, indicating its higher acidic and thermal stability. The immobilized cellobiase was further tested in the hydrolysis of cellobiose and various cellulosic substrates (microcrystalline cellulose, filter paper, and ammonia-pretreated corn cobs). Together with cellulases, the immobilized cellobiase converted the cellulosic substrates into glucose with the rate and extent similar to the free enzyme.

  2. An Alginate/Cyclodextrin Spray Drying Matrix to Improve Shelf Life and Antioxidant Efficiency of a Blood Orange By-Product Extract Rich in Polyphenols: MMPs Inhibition and Antiglycation Activity in Dysmetabolic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, Maria Rosaria; Crascì, Lucia; Giannone, Virgilio; Ballistreri, Gabriele; Fabroni, Simona; Sansone, Francesca; Rapisarda, Paolo; Panico, Anna Maria; Puglisi, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Alginate and β -cyclodextrin were used to produce easily dosable and spray-dried microsystems of a dried blood orange extract with antidysmetabolic properties, obtained from a by-product fluid extract. The spray-dried applied conditions were able to obtain a concentrate dried extract without the loss of AOA and with TPC and TMA values of 35-40% higher than that of the starting material. They were also effective in producing microparticles with 80-100% of encapsulation efficiency. The 2% sodium alginate was capable of improving the extract shelf life , while the beta-cyclodextrin (1 : 1 molar ratio with dried extract) prolonged the extract antioxidant efficiency by 6 hours. The good inhibition effect of the dried extract on the AGE formation and the MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity is presumably due to a synergic effect exerted by both anthocyanin and bioflavonoid extract compounds and was improved by the use of alginate and cyclodextrin.

  3. How good are our impressions? An audit of alginate impression quality in the production of removable prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Impressions are taken regularly in practice giving vital information to the dental laboratory, but are there quality assurance systems in place to make sure that they are up to a sufficient standard? As dental professionals we have to appreciate that dental technicians can only work with the information given to them. This makes the skill of taking a good impression vital in order for us as clinicians to provide prostheses of good quality. This paper outlines an audit of alginate impressions and their quality in the making of removable prostheses. To record the quality of impression taking, and how one's own ability to critique an impression may differ from that of our colleagues.

  4. Calcium carbonate synthesis with prescribed properties based on liquid waste of soda production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Mikhailova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A promising direction in solving of environmental problems of soda industry is the development of low-waste resource-saving technologies, which consist in recycling of valuable waste components with obtaining the commercial products. Aim: The aim is to establish the optimal conditions for obtaining calcium carbonate with prescribed properties from liquid waste of soda production. Materials and Methods: Chemically deposited calcium carbonate is used as filler and should have certain physical and chemical properties. To obtain a product of prescribed quality the process of calcium carbonate deposition was performed of still waste liquid, that is the waste of calcium carbonate production and contain significant amount of calcium ions, and excessive production of the purified stock solution of sodium bicarbonate, which is composed of carbonate and hydrocarbonate ions. Results: The dependence of bulk density and specific surface area of calcium carbonate sediments and degree of deposition from such technological parameters are established: method of mixing the stock solutions, the concentration and molar ratio of reactants, temperature and reaction time. Conclusions: The optimal mode of deposition process is determined and the concept of production of calcium carbonate is developed. The quality of calcium carbonate meets the modern requirements of high dispersion, low bulk density and evolved specific surface of the product.

  5. Improvement of Biodesulfurization Rate of Alginate Immobilized Rhodococcus erythropolis R1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derikvand, Peyman; Etemadifar, Zahra

    2014-03-01

    Sulfur oxides released from the burning of oil causes severe environmental pollution. The sulfur can be removed via the 4S pathway in biodesulfurization (BDS). Immobilization approaches have been developed to prevent cell contamination of oil during the BDS process. The encapsulation of Rhodococcus erythropolis R1 in calcium alginate beads was studied in order to enhance conversion of dibenzothiophene (DBT) to 2-hydroxy biphenyl (2-HBP) as the final product. Also the effect of different factors on the BDS process was investigated. Calcium alginate capsules were prepared using peristaltic pumps with different needle sizes to control the beads sizes. Scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometry methods were used to study the distribution and viability of encapsulated cells, respectively. Two non-ionic surfactants and also nano Ƴ-Al2O3were used with the ratio of 0.5% (v/v) and 1:5 (v/v) respectively to investigate their BDS efficiency. In addition, the effect of different bead sizes and different concentrations of sodium alginate in BDS activity was studied. The 2% (w/v) sodium alginate beads with 1.5mm size were found to be the optimum for beads stability and efficient 2-HBP production. The viability of encapsulated cells decreased by 12% after 20 h of desulfurization, compared to free cells. Adding the non-ionic surfactants markedly enhanced the rate of BDS, because of increasing mass transfer of DBT to the gel matrix. In addition, Span 80 was more effective than Tween 80. The nanoƳ-Al2O3 particles could increase BDS rate by up to two-folds greater than that of the control beads. The nano Ƴ-Al2O3 can improve the immobilized biocatalyst for excellent efficiency of DBT desulfurization. Also the BDS activity can be enhanced by setting the other explained factors at optimum levels.

  6. Improvement of Biodesulfurization Rate of Alginate Immobilized Rhodococcus erythropolis R1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derikvand, Peyman; Etemadifar, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sulfur oxides released from the burning of oil causes severe environmental pollution. The sulfur can be removed via the 4S pathway in biodesulfurization (BDS). Immobilization approaches have been developed to prevent cell contamination of oil during the BDS process. Objectives: The encapsulation of Rhodococcus erythropolis R1 in calcium alginate beads was studied in order to enhance conversion of dibenzothiophene (DBT) to 2-hydroxy biphenyl (2-HBP) as the final product. Also the effect of different factors on the BDS process was investigated. Materials and Methods: Calcium alginate capsules were prepared using peristaltic pumps with different needle sizes to control the beads sizes. Scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometry methods were used to study the distribution and viability of encapsulated cells, respectively. Two non-ionic surfactants and also nano Ƴ-Al2O3were used with the ratio of 0.5% (v/v) and 1:5 (v/v) respectively to investigate their BDS efficiency. In addition, the effect of different bead sizes and different concentrations of sodium alginate in BDS activity was studied. Results: The 2% (w/v) sodium alginate beads with 1.5mm size were found to be the optimum for beads stability and efficient 2-HBP production. The viability of encapsulated cells decreased by 12% after 20 h of desulfurization, compared to free cells. Adding the non-ionic surfactants markedly enhanced the rate of BDS, because of increasing mass transfer of DBT to the gel matrix. In addition, Span 80 was more effective than Tween 80. The nanoƳ-Al2O3 particles could increase BDS rate by up to two-folds greater than that of the control beads. Conclusions: The nano Ƴ-Al2O3 can improve the immobilized biocatalyst for excellent efficiency of DBT desulfurization. Also the BDS activity can be enhanced by setting the other explained factors at optimum levels. PMID:25147685

  7. Bioactive apatite incorporated alginate microspheres with sustained drug-delivery for bone regeneration application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haibin; Jiang, Fei; Ye, Song; Wu, Yingying; Zhu, Kaiping; Wang, Deping, E-mail: wdpshk@tongji.edu.cn

    2016-05-01

    The strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite microspheres (SrHA) incorporated alginate composite microspheres (SrHA/Alginate) were prepared via adding SrHA/alginate suspension dropwise into calcium chloride solution, in which the gel beads were formed by means of crosslinking reaction. The structure, morphology and in vitro bioactivity of the composite microspheres were studied by using XRD, SEM and EDS methods. The biological behaviors were characterized and analyzed through inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), CCK-8, confocal laser microscope and ALP activity evaluations. The experimental results indicated that the synthetic SrHA/Alginate showed similar morphology to the well-known alginate microspheres (Alginate) and both of them possessed a great in vitro bioactivity. Compared with the control Alginate, the SrHA/Alginate enhanced MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and ALP activity by releasing osteoinductive and osteogenic Sr ions. Furthermore, vancomycin was used as a model drug to investigate the drug release behaviors of the SrHA/Alginate, Alginate and SrHA. The results suggested that the SrHA/Alginate had a highest drug-loading efficiency and best controlled drug release properties. Additionally, the SrHA/Alginate was demonstrated to be pH-sensitive as well. The increase of the pH value in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) accelerated the vancomycin release. Accordingly, the multifunctional SrHA/Alginate can be applied in the field of bioactive drug carriers and bone filling materials. - Highlights: • The pH-sensitive composite alginate beads incorporating Sr-doped HA microspheres (SrHA) have been prepared. • The incorporation of the SrHA enhanced the drug loading and release properties of the alginate microspheres. • The composite microspheres showed excellent osteogenic effect by releasing osteogenic Sr ions.

  8. A Comparison of Aerosolization and Homogenization Techniques for Production of Alginate Microparticles for Delivery of Corticosteroids to the Colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samak, Yassmin O; El Massik, Magda; Coombes, Allan G A

    2017-01-01

    Alginate microparticles incorporating hydrocortisone hemisuccinate were produced by aerosolization and homogenization methods to investigate their potential for colonic drug delivery. Microparticle stabilization was achieved by CaCl 2 crosslinking solution (0.5 M and 1 M), and drug loading was accomplished by diffusion into blank microparticles or by direct encapsulation. Homogenization method produced smaller microparticles (45-50 μm), compared to aerosolization (65-90 μm). High drug loadings (40% wt/wt) were obtained for diffusion-loaded aerosolized microparticles. Aerosolized microparticles suppressed drug release in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) prior to drug release in simulated colonic fluid (SCF) to a higher extent than homogenized microparticles. Microparticles prepared using aerosolization or homogenization (1 M CaCl 2 , diffusion loaded) released 5% and 17% of drug content after 2 h in SGF and 4 h in SIF, respectively, and 75% after 12 h in SCF. Thus, aerosolization and homogenization techniques show potential for producing alginate microparticles for colonic drug delivery in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biodiesel Production from Castor Oil by Using Calcium Oxide Derived from Mud Clam Shell

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, S.; Ahmed, A. S.; Anr, Reddy; Hamdan, S.

    2016-01-01

    The catalytic potential of calcium oxide synthesized from mud clam shell as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production was studied. The mud clam shell calcium oxide was characterized using particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and BET gas sorption analyzer. The catalyst performance of mud clam shell calcium oxide was studied in the transesterification of castor oil as biodiesel. Catalyst characterization and transesterification s...

  10. Alginate Biosynthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii: Overview of Molecular Mechanisms in Connection with the Oxygen Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivette Pacheco-Leyva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii can synthetize the biopolymer alginate that has material properties appropriate for plenty of applications in industry as well as in medicine. In order to settle the foundation for improving alginate production without compromising its quality, a better understanding of the polymer biosynthesis and the mechanism of regulation during fermentation processes is necessary. This knowledge is crucial for the development of novel production strategies. Here, we highlight the key aspects of alginate biosynthesis that can lead to producing an alginate with specific material properties with particular focus on the role of oxygen availability linked with the molecular mechanisms involved in the alginate production.

  11. Design and evaluate alginate nanoparticles as a protein delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraei, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, encapsulation of drugs and antigens in hydrogels, specifically in calcium alginate particles, is an interesting and practical technique that was developed widespread. It is well known that alginate solution, under proper conditions, can form suitable nanoparticles as a promising carrier system, for vaccine delivery. The aim of this study was to synthesis alginate nanoparticles as protein carrier and to evaluate the influence of various factors on nanoparticles properties. Alginate nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation method. Briefly, various concentrations of CaCl2 were added to different concentrations of sodium alginate dropwisly by homogenizing magnetically at 1300 rpm. The effects of homogenization time and (- rate were investigated on nanoparticle feature. Nanoparticles were characterized for their morphology and size distribution. Evaluation of loading capacity and loading efficiency of nanoparticles were performed by using various concentration of BSA. The concentration of 0.3%w/v sodium alginate and 0.1%w/v CaCl2 solution, homogenization time 45 min and homogenization rate 1300 rpm were observed as suitable condition - to prepare optimized nanoparticles. It can be concluded that the properties of nanoparticles are strongly dependent on the physicochemical conditions. The optimum concentrations of alginate and CaCl2and appropriate condition led to forming desirable nanoparticles that can be used as carrier for drug and vaccine delivery.

  12. Impact of Micro Silica Surface Hydroxyl Groups on the Properties of Calcium Silicate Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Sonja; Jørgensen, Bianca; Yu, Donghong

    2017-01-01

    Porous calcium silicates are widely used in insulating systems for high temperature applications. In the production of porous calcium silicates, quicklime and micro silica have been utilized as key raw materials. In the reaction between SiO2 and CaO, the dissolution of SiO2 has been proven...

  13. The influence of carbon source and calcium on the production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-10

    Dec 10, 2011 ... The influence of carbon source and calcium on the production of ... Furthermore, since the middle lamella contains high levels of calcium, it was thought that it may play an important ..... Processing of the pectate lyase PelI by ...

  14. A novel hydrolytic product from flesh of Mactra veneriformis and its bioactivities in calcium supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingchong; Chen, Shiyong; Liu, Rui; Wu, Hao

    2012-09-01

    To prepare calcium-binding peptides, the flesh residue of Mactra Veneriformis was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis. By comparing the capability of combining calcium of the hydrolyzates, pepsin was confirmed to be the most suitable enzyme for hydrolyzing the flesh residue to release calcium-binding peptides among the seven tested proteases. The pepsin hydrolyzate (PHM) was divided into three fractions according to the molecule weight of its composition, which ranged from 0.5 to 15 kDa. The low-molecule-weight fraction named PHM-3 had the highest capability in combining calcium. The peptides existing in the PHM-3 fraction consisted of higher contents of Glu, Ala and Leu, and could produce one type of calcium-peptide complex by powerfully chelating calcium ions. PHM-3 products could effectively increase calcium absorption and retention while they decreased the calcium excretion in animal tests. Additionally, symptoms caused by low calcium bioavailability in ovariectomized rats, such as bone mineral density reduction and mechanical strength loss could be significantly ameliorated by the hydrolytic products addition in diet.

  15. Production and characterization of alginate-starch-chitosan microparticles containing stigmasterol through the external ionic gelation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene Mari Fujiwara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Stigmasterol - a plant sterol with several pharmacological activities - is susceptible to oxidation when exposed to air, a process enhanced by heat and humidity. In this context, microencapsulation is a way of preventing oxidation, allowing stigmasterol to be incorporated into various pharmaceutical forms while increasing its absorption. Microparticles were obtained using a blend of polymers of sodium alginate, starch and chitosan as the coating material through a one-stage process using the external gelation technique. Resultant microparticles were spherical, averaging 1.4 mm in size. Encapsulation efficiency was 90.42% and method yield 94.87%. The amount of stigmasterol in the oil recovered from microparticles was 9.97 mg/g. This technique proved feasible for the microencapsulation of stigmasterol.

  16. Effects of dietary bread crust Maillard reaction products on calcium and bone metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Haro, Ana; Ruiz-Roca, Beatriz; Morales, Francisco J; Navarro, María Pilar

    2013-06-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRP) consumption has been related with the development of bone degenerative disorders, probably linked to changes in calcium metabolism. We aimed to investigate the effects of MRP intake from bread crust on calcium balance and its distribution, and bone metabolism. During 88 days, rats were fed control diet or diets containing bread crust as source of MRP, or its soluble high molecular weight, soluble low molecular weight or insoluble fractions (bread crust, HMW, LMW and insoluble diets, respectively). In the final week, a calcium balance was performed, then animals were sacrified and some organs removed to analyse calcium levels. A second balance was carried out throughout the experimental period to calculate global calcium retention. Biochemical parameters and bone metabolism markers were measured in serum or urine. Global calcium bioavailability was unmodified by consumption of bread crust or its isolate fractions, corroborating the previously described low affinity of MRP to bind calcium. Despite this, a higher calcium concentration was found in femur due to smaller bones having a lower relative density. The isolate consumption of the fractions altered some bone markers, reflecting a situation of increased bone resorption or higher turnover; this did not take place in the animals fed the bread crust diet. Thus, the bread crust intake does not affect negatively calcium bioavailability and bone metabolism.

  17. Calcium carbonate production response to future ocean warming and acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Pinsonneault

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions are acidifying the ocean, affecting calcification rates in pelagic organisms, and thereby modifying the oceanic carbon and alkalinity cycles. However, the responses of pelagic calcifying organisms to acidification vary widely between species, contributing uncertainty to predictions of atmospheric CO2 and the resulting climate change. At the same time, ocean warming caused by rising CO2 is expected to drive increased growth rates of all pelagic organisms, including calcifiers. It thus remains unclear whether anthropogenic CO2 emissions will ultimately increase or decrease pelagic calcification rates. Here, we assess the importance of this uncertainty by introducing a dependence of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 production on calcite saturation state (ΩCaCO3 in an intermediate complexity coupled carbon-climate model. In a series of model simulations, we examine the impact of several variants of this dependence on global ocean carbon cycling between 1800 and 3500 under two different CO2 emissions scenarios. Introducing a calcification-saturation state dependence has a significant effect on the vertical and surface horizontal alkalinity gradients, as well as on the removal of alkalinity from the ocean through CaCO3 burial. These changes result in an additional oceanic uptake of carbon when calcification depends on ΩCaCO3 (of up to 270 Pg C, compared to the case where calcification does not depend on acidification. In turn, this response causes a reduction of global surface air temperature of up to 0.4 °C in year 3500. Different versions of the model produced varying results, and narrowing this range of uncertainty will require better understanding of both temperature and acidification effects on pelagic calcifiers. Nevertheless, our results suggest that alkalinity observations can be used

  18. Calcium carbonate synthesis with prescribed properties based on liquid waste of soda production

    OpenAIRE

    E.O. Mikhailova; V.O. Panasenko; N.B. Markova

    2016-01-01

    A promising direction in solving of environmental problems of soda industry is the development of low-waste resource-saving technologies, which consist in recycling of valuable waste components with obtaining the commercial products. Aim: The aim is to establish the optimal conditions for obtaining calcium carbonate with prescribed properties from liquid waste of soda production. Materials and Methods: Chemically deposited calcium carbonate is used as filler and should have certain physical a...

  19. Hybrid 3D printing and electrodeposition approach for controllable 3D alginate hydrogel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wanfeng; Liu, Yanting; Wan, Wenfeng; Hu, Chengzhi; Liu, Zeyang; Wong, Chin To; Fukuda, Toshio; Shen, Yajing

    2017-06-07

    Calcium alginate hydrogels are widely used as biocompatible materials in a substantial number of biomedical applications. This paper reports on a hybrid 3D printing and electrodeposition approach for forming 3D calcium alginate hydrogels in a controllable manner. Firstly, a specific 3D hydrogel printing system is developed by integrating a customized ejection syringe with a conventional 3D printer. Then, a mixed solution of sodium alginate and CaCO 3 nanoparticles is filled into the syringe and can be continuously ejected out of the syringe nozzle onto a conductive substrate. When applying a DC voltage (∼5 V) between the substrate (anode) and the nozzle (cathode), the Ca 2+ released from the CaCO 3 particles can crosslink the alginate to form calcium alginate hydrogel on the substrate. To elucidate the gel formation mechanism and better control the gel growth, we can further establish and verify a gel growth model by considering several key parameters, i.e., applied voltage and deposition time. The experimental results indicate that the alginate hydrogel of various 3D structures can be formed by controlling the movement of the 3D printer. A cell viability test is conducted and shows that the encapsulated cells in the gel can maintain a high survival rate (∼99% right after gel formation). This research establishes a reliable method for the controllable formation of 3D calcium alginate hydrogel, exhibiting great potential for use in basic biology and applied biomedical engineering.

  20. Dairy Products, Dietary Calcium, and Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstelten, Jorrit L; Leenders, Max; Dik, Vincent K

    2016-01-01

    , yogurt, and cheese) and dietary calcium was measured using validated food frequency questionnaires. Cases developing incident CD (n = 110) or UC (n = 244) during follow-up were matched with 4 controls. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence...

  1. Isomaltulose production using free and immobilized Serratia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    André

    2016-05-18

    May 18, 2016 ... After 2 h of reaction time in shake flasks, a high production of ... immobilized cells in calcium alginate was studied in a packed bed bioreactor during seven days in a .... cell biomass was obtained from fermentation in a 6.6 L bioreactor .... carbohydrates were analyzed comparing their retention times with.

  2. Biosorption of americium by alginate beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borba, Tania Regina de; Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Goes, Marcos Maciel de; Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Sakata, Solange Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    The use of biotechnology to remove heavy metals from wastes plays great potential in treatment of radioactive wastes and therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the biosorption of americium by alginate beads. Biosorption has been defined as the property of certain biomolecules to bind and remove selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solutions. The calcium alginate beads as biosorbent were prepared and analyzed for americium uptaking. The experiments were performed in different solution activity concentrations, pH and exposure time. The results suggest that biosorption process is more efficient at pH 4 and for 75, 150, 300 Bq/mL and 120 minutes were necessary to remove almost 100% of the americium-241 from the solution. (author)

  3. In vitro propagation of Acacia hybrid through alginate-encapsulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed collected from Acacia hybrid trees yields highly variable and poorly performing offspring and are not commonly used in regeneration. The present study described the incapsulation of Acacia hybrid shoots and axillary buds in the calcium alginate gel. The aim of the study was to evaluate the germination of the buds in ...

  4. The influence of calcium supplementation on immobilised mixed microflora for biohydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutpi, Nabilah Aminah; Shian, Wong Yee; Izhar, Tengku Nuraiti Tengku; Zainol, Noor Ainee; Kiong, Yiek Wee

    2017-04-01

    This study is aim to study the effect of calcium as supplement in attached growth system towards the enhancement of the hydrogen production performance. The effects of calcium ion for thermophilic biohydrogen production were studied by using a mixed culture, from palm oil mill effluent sludge and granular activated carbon (GAC) as the support material. Batch experiments were carried out at 60°C by feeding the anaerobic sludge bacteria with sucrose-containing synthetic medium at an initial pH of 5.5 under anaerobic conditions. The repeated batch cultivation process was conducted by adding different concentration of calcium at range 0.025g/L to 0.15g/L. The results showed that the calcium at 0.1 g/L was the optimal concentration to enhance the fermentative hydrogen production under thermophilic (60°C) conditions.

  5. Comparative study on the in vitro effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and seaweed alginates on human gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaofeng Bai

    Full Text Available Alginates pertain to organic polysaccharides that have been extensively used in food- and medicine-related industries. The present study obtained alginates from an alginate overproducing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 mutant by screening transposon mutagenesis libraries. The interaction between bacterial and seaweed alginates and gut microbiota were further studied by using an in vitro batch fermentation system. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC analysis indicated that both bacterial and seaweed alginates can be completely degraded by fecal bacteria isolated from study volunteers, indicating that a minor structural difference between bacterial and seaweed alginates (O-acetylation and lack of G-G blocks didn't affect the digestion of alginates by human microbiota. Although, the digestion of bacterial and seaweed alginates was attributed to different Bacteroides xylanisolvens strains, they harbored similar alginate lyase genes. Genus Bacteroides with alginate-degrading capability were enriched in growth medium containing bacterial or seaweed alginates after in vitro fermentation. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA production in both bacterial and seaweed alginates was also comparable, but was significantly higher than the same medium using starch. In summary, the present study has isolated an alginate-overproducing P. aeruginosa mutant strain. Both seaweed and bacterial alginates were degraded by human gut microbiota, and their regulatory function on gut microbiota was similar.

  6. Comparative study on the in vitro effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and seaweed alginates on human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shaofeng; Chen, Huahai; Zhu, Liying; Liu, Wei; Yu, Hongwei D; Wang, Xin; Yin, Yeshi

    2017-01-01

    Alginates pertain to organic polysaccharides that have been extensively used in food- and medicine-related industries. The present study obtained alginates from an alginate overproducing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 mutant by screening transposon mutagenesis libraries. The interaction between bacterial and seaweed alginates and gut microbiota were further studied by using an in vitro batch fermentation system. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis indicated that both bacterial and seaweed alginates can be completely degraded by fecal bacteria isolated from study volunteers, indicating that a minor structural difference between bacterial and seaweed alginates (O-acetylation and lack of G-G blocks) didn't affect the digestion of alginates by human microbiota. Although, the digestion of bacterial and seaweed alginates was attributed to different Bacteroides xylanisolvens strains, they harbored similar alginate lyase genes. Genus Bacteroides with alginate-degrading capability were enriched in growth medium containing bacterial or seaweed alginates after in vitro fermentation. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in both bacterial and seaweed alginates was also comparable, but was significantly higher than the same medium using starch. In summary, the present study has isolated an alginate-overproducing P. aeruginosa mutant strain. Both seaweed and bacterial alginates were degraded by human gut microbiota, and their regulatory function on gut microbiota was similar.

  7. Investigation the influence of dietary fiber on the rheological properties of alginate beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Manev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. During the current investigation experiments for the preparation of alginate beads with aqueous solutions of sodium alginate, calcium lactate or calcium dichloride and dietary fiber in different concentrations: inulin with varying degrees of polymerization, wheat bran and amidated apple pectin were carried out. The sodium alginate solutions were at constant concentration 3%, while calcium salts in 7% were applied for bead formation. It was proven that the rupture force of alginate beads was always higher than the pure model system regardless of the chemical structure of dietary fibers used. In the result of the carried research the dependence at a certain concentration was established at which the rupture force and deformation of the beads increased gradually.

  8. Preparation methods of alginate nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paques, J.P.; Linden, van der E.; Rijn, van C.J.M.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews available methods for the formation of alginate nano-aggregates, nanocapsules and nanospheres. Primarily, alginate nanoparticles are being prepared by two methods. In the “complexation method”, complex formation on the interface of an oil droplet is used to form alginate

  9. Production of calcium hydroxide from the waste of Cariri stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, T.M.E.; Santos, A.M.M.; Brasileiro, M.I.; Pinheiro, S.F.L.; Prado, A.C.A.

    2016-01-01

    The extraction of Cariri stone in the northeast is a frequent activity because of its ornamental application as well as for the construction sector. However, by this extraction, untapped waste formation grows and becomes a problem for the environment. The objective of this work is to produce calcium hydroxide, from this limestone residue, with controlled porosity, solubility and particle size. The waste was characterized with X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and thermal analysis (TGA). The limestone was calcined at 850°C and 950°C for 45 minutes and three hours, being characterized by XRD, XRF and TGA. Once calcined, it was hydrated with 17,5g and 22g oxide to 100mL water and manually mixed for 15 and 25 minutes. The calcium hydroxides have been submitted for tests in vivo in rats and will be characterized by XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Infrared. (author)

  10. Systematic study of alginate-based microcapsules by micropipette aspiration and confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberger, Rachelle M; Burke, Nicholas A D; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Stöver, Harald D H

    2013-10-01

    Micropipette aspiration and confocal fluorescence microscopy were used to study the structure and mechanical properties of calcium alginate hydrogel beads (A beads), as well as A beads that were additionally coated with poly-L-lysine (P) and sodium alginate (A) to form, respectively, AP and APA hydrogels. A beads were found to continue curing for up to 500 h during storage in saline, due to residual calcium chloride carried over from the gelling bath. In subsequent saline washes, micropipette aspiration proved to be a sensitive indicator of gel weakening and calcium loss. Aspiration tests were used to compare capsule stiffness before and after citrate extraction of calcium. They showed that the initial gel strength is largely due to the calcium alginate gel cores, while the long term strength is solely due to the poly-L-lysine-alginate polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) shells. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that calcium chloride exposure after PLL deposition led to PLL redistribution into the hydrogel bead, resulting in thicker but more diffuse and weaker PEC shells. Adding a final alginate coating to form APA capsules did not significantly change the PEC membrane thickness and stiffness, but did speed the loss of calcium from the bead core. © 2013.

  11. Biodiesel Production from Castor Oil by Using Calcium Oxide Derived from Mud Clam Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic potential of calcium oxide synthesized from mud clam shell as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production was studied. The mud clam shell calcium oxide was characterized using particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and BET gas sorption analyzer. The catalyst performance of mud clam shell calcium oxide was studied in the transesterification of castor oil as biodiesel. Catalyst characterization and transesterification study results of synthesized catalyst proved the efficiency of the natural derived catalyst for biodiesel production. A highest biodiesel yield of 96.7% was obtained at optimal parameters such as 1 : 14 oil-to-methanol molar ratio, 3% w/w catalyst concentration, 60°C reaction temperature, and 2-hour reaction time. Catalyst reusability test shows that the synthesized calcium oxide from mud clam shell is reusable up to 5 times.

  12. Photocrosslinked alginate with hyaluronic acid hydrogels as vehicles for mesenchymal stem cell encapsulation and chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Emily E; Riggin, Corinne N; Fisher, John P

    2013-07-01

    Ionic crosslinking of alginate via divalent cations allows for high viability of an encapsulated cell population, and is an effective biomaterial for supporting a spherical chondrocyte morphology. However, such crosslinking chemistry does not allow for injectable and stable hydrogels which are more appropriate for clinical applications. In this study, the addition of methacrylate groups to the alginate polymer chains was utilized so as to allow the free radical polymerization initiated by a photoinitiator during UV light exposure. This approach establishes covalent crosslinks between methacrylate groups instead of the ionic crosslinks formed by the calcium in unmodified alginate. Although this approach has been well described in the literature, there are currently no reports of stem cell differentiation and subsequent chondrocyte gene expression profiles in photocrosslinked alginate. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of photocrosslinked alginate hydrogels containing interpenetrating hyaluronic acid chains to support stem cell chondrogenesis. We report high cell viability and no statistical difference in metabolic activity between mesenchymal stem cells cultured in calcium crosslinked alginate and photocrosslinked alginate for up to 10 days of culture. Furthermore, chondrogenic gene markers are expressed throughout the study, and indicate robust differentiation up to the day 14 time point. At early time points, days 1 and 7, the addition of hyaluronic acid to the photocrosslinked scaffolds upregulates gene markers for both the chondrocyte and the superficial zone chondrocyte phenotype. Taken together, we show that photocrosslinked, injectable alginate shows significant potential as a delivery mechanism for cell-based cartilage repair therapies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Natural products induce a G protein-mediated calcium pathway activating p53 in cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginkel, Paul R. van; Yan, Michael B. [UW Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Bhattacharya, Saswati [UW Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Polans, Arthur S., E-mail: aspolans@wisc.edu [UW Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Kenealey, Jason D. [UW Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food Science, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Paclitaxel, etoposide, vincristine and doxorubicin are examples of natural products being used as chemotherapeutics but with adverse side effects that limit their therapeutic window. Natural products derived from plants and having low toxicity, such as quercetin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate and piceatannol, have been shown to inhibit tumor cell growth both in vitro and in pre-clinical models of cancer, but their mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated, thus restricting their use as prototypes for developing synthetic analogs with improved anti-cancer properties. We and others have demonstrated that one of the earliest and consistent events upon exposure of tumor cells to these less toxic natural products is a rise in cytoplasmic calcium, activating several pro-apoptotic pathways. We describe here a G protein/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway (InsP3) in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells that mediates between these less toxic natural products and the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum. Further, we demonstrate that this elevation of intracellular calcium modulates p53 activity and the subsequent transcription of several pro-apoptotic genes encoding PIG8, CD95, PIDD, TP53INP, RRM2B, Noxa, p21 and PUMA. We conclude from our findings that less toxic natural products likely bind to a G protein coupled receptor that activates a G protein-mediated and calcium-dependent pathway resulting selectively in tumor cell death. - Highlights: • Natural products having low toxicity increase cytoplasmic calcium in cancer cells. • A G-protein/IP{sub 3} pathway mediates the release of calcium from the ER. • The elevation of intracellular calcium modulates p53 activity. • p53 and other Ca{sup 2+}-dependent pro-apoptotic pathways inhibit cancer cell growth.

  14. Natural products induce a G protein-mediated calcium pathway activating p53 in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginkel, Paul R. van; Yan, Michael B.; Bhattacharya, Saswati; Polans, Arthur S.; Kenealey, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Paclitaxel, etoposide, vincristine and doxorubicin are examples of natural products being used as chemotherapeutics but with adverse side effects that limit their therapeutic window. Natural products derived from plants and having low toxicity, such as quercetin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate and piceatannol, have been shown to inhibit tumor cell growth both in vitro and in pre-clinical models of cancer, but their mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated, thus restricting their use as prototypes for developing synthetic analogs with improved anti-cancer properties. We and others have demonstrated that one of the earliest and consistent events upon exposure of tumor cells to these less toxic natural products is a rise in cytoplasmic calcium, activating several pro-apoptotic pathways. We describe here a G protein/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway (InsP3) in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells that mediates between these less toxic natural products and the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum. Further, we demonstrate that this elevation of intracellular calcium modulates p53 activity and the subsequent transcription of several pro-apoptotic genes encoding PIG8, CD95, PIDD, TP53INP, RRM2B, Noxa, p21 and PUMA. We conclude from our findings that less toxic natural products likely bind to a G protein coupled receptor that activates a G protein-mediated and calcium-dependent pathway resulting selectively in tumor cell death. - Highlights: • Natural products having low toxicity increase cytoplasmic calcium in cancer cells. • A G-protein/IP 3 pathway mediates the release of calcium from the ER. • The elevation of intracellular calcium modulates p53 activity. • p53 and other Ca 2+ -dependent pro-apoptotic pathways inhibit cancer cell growth.

  15. Studies on the production of endogenous pyrogen by rabbit monocytes: the role of calcium and cyclic nucleotides.

    OpenAIRE

    Sigal, S. L.; Duff, G. W.; Atkins, E.

    1985-01-01

    Rabbit monocytes stimulated with endotoxin produced endogenous pyrogen, even under conditions of high or low extracellular calcium concentrations. Maximal production occurred when the concentration was in the near-physiological range. Prolonged incubation of cells with a calcium chelator prevented subsequent activation with endotoxin, an effect which was rapidly reversible by re-addition of calcium but not other cations. Addition of small amounts of lanthanum, which acts as a calcium channel ...

  16. Effects of Dietary Calcium Levels on Productive Performance, Eggshell Quality and Overall Calcium Status in Aged Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. An

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of diets with varying levels of calcium on egg production, shell quality and overall calcium status in aged laying hens. A total of five hundred 70-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers were divided five groups and fed one of the five experimental diets with 3.5%, 3.8%, 4.1%, 4.4%, or 4.7% Ca, for 10 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production and egg weight among groups. The cracked eggs were linearly reduced as dietary Ca levels increased to 4.7% (p<0.01. A significant linear improvement for eggshell strength and thickness were determined with increasing dietary Ca levels (p<0.01. The contents of serum Ca and phosphorus were not affected by dietary Ca levels. With increase in dietary Ca levels, the tibial breaking strength slightly increased. There were no significant differences in the tibial contents of ash, Ca and phosphorus among groups. In conclusion, eggshell quality, as measured by appearance, strength and thickness of eggshell, were influenced by dietary Ca content as expected (p<0.05. These results suggested that aged laying hens require relatively higher level of Ca than required levels from current Korean feeding standards for poultry.

  17. Effects of production methods and protective ingredients on the viability of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 in air-dried alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Claude P; Raymond, Yves; Arcand, Yves

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to use a microencapsulation technology to prepare air-dried concentrated cultures of Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011. The cultures were microencapsulated in alginate beads, which were added to a growth medium to allow cell multiplication inside the matrix; the beads were recovered, dipped in protective solutions, and air-dried. The effects of fermentation technology and of the composition of the protective solutions on subsequent survival during air-drying were examined. The cells prepared under a constant pH of 6.2 had only 2.5% survival to air-drying at 25 °C when the protective solution was composed of sucrose and phosphate. Allowing the pH to drop to 4.2 during the biomass production step and using a protective medium composed of glycerol, maltodextrin, yeast extract, and ascorbate increased survival to 20%. If the ingredients of the protective medium at the beginning of drying were concentrated at a water activity of 0.96 rather than 0.98, survival during air-drying increased further to 56%. This rate was similar to that of a traditional freeze-drying process. These data suggest that applying a combination of acid and osmotic stresses to L. rhamnosus R0011 cells improves their subsequent stability during the air-drying process. Dried microencapsulated cultures having 2.6 × 10 11 CFU·g -1 were obtained.

  18. The influence of carbon source and calcium on the production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E. chrysanthemi targets the host's middle lamella, which was mainly made of pectic substances containing calcium, for colonization. In this study, it is reported that a pectic substance, such as sodium polypectate (NaPP) may be preferable, not only for the production of hydrolytic enzymes, but for the production of protease as ...

  19. Biodiesel production using calcium manganese oxide as catalyst and different raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Joana Maia; Conceição Machado Alvim-Ferraz, Maria; Fonseca Almeida, Manuel; Méndez Díaz, José Diego; Sánchez Polo, Manuel; Rivera Utrilla, José

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Biodiesel production using a calcium manganese oxide catalyst was studied. ► The active specie was Ca 0.9 Mn 0.1 O and its deactivation occurred by hydration. ► The studied catalyst presented lower activation temperature than CaO. ► Biodiesel production and quality using different raw materials is reported. ► Compared to the conventional process, biodiesel water content improved. - Abstract: The use of heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production aims to simplify the production process as well as to reduce purification costs and related environmental impacts. Calcium manganese oxide was recently identified by the authors as an interesting heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from animal fat; however, the difference between this and other catalysts, the catalyst activation/deactivation mechanisms, its behaviour in the synthesis using different raw materials as well as the impacts of its use on product quality remained unclear. Therefore, the present work: (i) compared biodiesel production using calcium manganese oxide and other catalysts (CaO and NaOH); (ii) studied the reasons leading to activation/deactivation of the heterogeneous catalyst; (iii) analysed biodiesel heterogeneous synthesis using calcium manganese oxide and different raw materials (lard, waste frying oil and a mixture); and (iv) evaluated raw material and catalyst impact on the product quality. Considering the use of different catalysts, the results showed that, after 8 h of reaction, product purity was similar using the different catalysts, being 92.5 wt.% using both NaOH and calcium manganese oxide and 93.8 wt.% using CaO. The active species of the heterogeneous catalysts were CaO, in the case of calcinated calcium carbonate, and Ca 0.9 Mn 0.1 O, in the case of calcinated calcium manganese oxide. Because the deactivating species were different for both catalysts, the calcium manganese oxide required lower activation temperature, which should be an advantage

  20. Characteristics of β-glucosidase production by Paecilomyces variotii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports the potential application of Paecilomyces variotii immobilized in calcium alginate beads as a sensing element in the analysis of boric acid. In the presence of boric acid, β-glucosidase production of P. variotii was inhibited and the changes of β-glucosidase concentration were correlated to the ...

  1. Viability and infectivity of an ectomycorrhizal inoculum produced in an airlift bioreactor and immobilized in calcium alginate Viabilidade e infectividade de inoculante ectomicorrízico produzido em biorreator airlift e encapsulado em algianto de cálcio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyza Paloschi de Oliveira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The viability and infectivity of an ectomycorrhizal inoculum (isolate UFSC-Rh90, Rhizopogon nigrescens, produced by submerged cultivation in an airlift bioreactor and immobilized in beads of calcium alginate gel, was studied. Inoculum remained 100% viable after 18 months in a 0.85% NaCl solution at 8 ± 1ºC. Mycelium grew from the beads after 48 h when they were placed on a solid culture medium at 25 ± 1ºC. Viability of pellets of non-immobilized mycelium stored under the same conditions decreased gradually after the third month of storage, reaching 0% by the 12th month. These pellets presented a gradual darkening, which was more intense in those located near the surface of the NaCl solution. In culture medium, these dark pellets showed no viability. Gel immobilization helps to maintain mycelium viability during storage and offers a physical protection when the inoculum is applied to the planting substrate. After eight months refrigeration, the immobilized inoculum was still able to infect Pinus taeda seedlings, colonizing an average of 37% of the root tips when inoculated in the plant growth substrate under greenhouse conditions. This inoculum presents a commercial potential to be produced and applied in forest nurseries.Estudou-se a viabilidade e a infectividade de inoculante fúngico ectomicorrízico (isolado UFSC-Rh90, Rhizopogon nigrescens, produzido através de cultivo submerso em biorreator airlift e encapsulado em gel de alginato de cálcio. O inoculante permaneceu viável após 18 meses em solução de NaCl (0,85% a 8 ± 1ºC. O micélio emergiu dessas cápsulas após 48 h de incubação a 25 ± 1ºC em meio de cultura sólido. A viabilidade dos pellets de micélio não imobilizado, armazenados sob as mesmas condições, reduziu-se gradualmente após três meses de armazenamento e atingiu 0% aos 12 meses. Esses pellets apresentaram um escurecimento gradual que foi mais intenso naqueles localizados próximos à superfície da solu

  2. Genipin Cross-Linked Polymeric Alginate-Chitosan Microcapsules for Oral Delivery: In-Vitro Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported the preparation of the genipin cross-linked alginate-chitosan (GCAC microcapsules composed of an alginate core with a genipin cross-linked chitosan membrane. This paper is the further investigation on their structural and physical characteristics. Results showed that the GCAC microcapsules had a smooth and dense surface and a networked interior. Cross-linking by genipin substantially reduced swelling and physical disintegration of microcapsules induced by nongelling ions and calcium sequestrants. Strong resistance to mechanical shear forces and enzymatic degradation was observed. Furthermore, the GCAC membranes were permeable to bovine serum albumin and maintained a molecular weight cutoff at 70 KD, analogous to the widely studied alginate-chitosan, and alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate microcapsules. The release features and the tolerance of the GCAC microcapsules in the stimulated gastrointestinal environment were also investigated. This GCAC microcapsule formulation offers significant potential as a delivery vehicle for many biomedical applications.

  3. An Alginate/Cyclodextrin Spray Drying Matrix to Improve Shelf Life and Antioxidant Efficiency of a Blood Orange By-Product Extract Rich in Polyphenols: MMPs Inhibition and Antiglycation Activity in Dysmetabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosaria Lauro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alginate and β-cyclodextrin were used to produce easily dosable and spray-dried microsystems of a dried blood orange extract with antidysmetabolic properties, obtained from a by-product fluid extract. The spray-dried applied conditions were able to obtain a concentrate dried extract without the loss of AOA and with TPC and TMA values of 35–40% higher than that of the starting material. They were also effective in producing microparticles with 80–100% of encapsulation efficiency. The 2% sodium alginate was capable of improving the extract shelf life, while the beta-cyclodextrin (1 : 1 molar ratio with dried extract prolonged the extract antioxidant efficiency by 6 hours. The good inhibition effect of the dried extract on the AGE formation and the MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity is presumably due to a synergic effect exerted by both anthocyanin and bioflavonoid extract compounds and was improved by the use of alginate and cyclodextrin.

  4. The Effects of a Dairy Probiotic Product, Espar, on Salivary Calcium and Mutans Streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Poureslami

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Espar is a dairy product of probiotic nature that contains useful bacteria and high calcium content. The aim of this study was to analyze effects of daily consumption of Espar on the number of salivary mutans streptococci and the level of calcium content in a population of 15 to 17 year-old female students. Materials and methods. A double-blind randomized crossover study (n = 50 of healthy female adolescents was implemented in four stage intervals. The first and third stages were ‘run-in’ and ‘wash-out’ intervals. For the second and fourth stages, two weeks long in duration, the participants consumed 100 grams of Espar or 200 grams of plain yogurt. At the end of each stage, the number of salivary mutans streptococci and the level of calcium content were documented. Results. There was a statistically significant decrease in the number of salivary mutans streptococci subsequent to Espar consumption when compared to ordinary yogurt (p < 0.01. Additionally, salivary calcium content increased significantly subsequent to the consumption of Espar and yogurt. However, Espar yielded a higher level of significant increase in salivary calcium when compared to plain yogurt (p < 0.01. Conclusion. This study found that daily consumption of Espar increased the salivary calcium level while decreasing mutans streptococci of the saliva.

  5. Two kinds of ketoprofen enteric gel beads (CA and CS-SA using biopolymer alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingchao Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To obtain expected rapid-release and sustained-release of ketoprofen gel beads, this paper adopted biopolymer alginate to prepare alginate beads and chitosan-alginate gel beads. Formulation factors were investigated and optimized by the single factor test. The release of ketoprofen from calcium alginate gel beads in pH 1.0 hydrochloric acid solution was less than 10% during 2 h, then in pH6.8 was about 95% during 45 min, which met the requirements of rapid-release preparations. However, the drug release of chitosan-alginate gel beads in pH1.0 was less than 5% during 2 h, then in pH6.8 was about 50% during 6 h and reached more than 95% during 12 h, which had a good sustained-release behavior. In addition, the release kinetics of keteprofen from the calcium alginate gel beads fitted well with the Korsmeyer–Peppas model and followed a case-II transport mechanism. However, the release of keteprofen from the chitosan-alginate gel beads exhibited a non-Fickian mechanism and based on the mixed mechanisms of diffusion and polymer relaxation from chitosan-alginate beads. In a word, alginate gel beads of ketoprofen were instant analgesic, while chitosan-alginate gel beads could control the release of ketoprofen during gastro-intestinal tract and prolong the drug's action time. Keywords: Gel beads, Enteric rapid-release, Enteric sustained-release, Ketoprofen

  6. Biosorption of strontium ions from aqueous solution using Ca-alginate biopolymer beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goek, C.; Aytas, S.; Gerstmann, U.

    2009-01-01

    Biosorption of strontium ions from aqueous solution onto calcium alginate biopolymer beads was investigated in a batch system. Ca-alginate biopolymer beads were prepared from Na-alginate via cross-linking with divalent calcium ions according to the egg box model. Optimum biosorption conditions were determined as a function of initial solution pH, initial Sr concentration, contact time, biomass dosage and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of Sr ions by Ca-alginate biopolymer beads. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS, ΔG) for Sr sorption onto biosorbent were also determined from the temperature dependence. The results indicate that this biosorbent has a good potential for removal of Sr ions from dilute aqueous solution.

  7. Studies on the production of endogenous pyrogen by rabbit monocytes: the role of calcium and cyclic nucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigal, S L; Duff, G W; Atkins, E

    1985-01-01

    Rabbit monocytes stimulated with endotoxin produced endogenous pyrogen, even under conditions of high or low extracellular calcium concentrations. Maximal production occurred when the concentration was in the near-physiological range. Prolonged incubation of cells with a calcium chelator prevented subsequent activation with endotoxin, an effect which was rapidly reversible by re-addition of calcium but not other cations. Addition of small amounts of lanthanum, which acts as a calcium channel blocker, prevented the restoration of pyrogen production, indicating that entry of the added calcium into the monocyte was required. Incorporation of a calcium ionophore into the cell membrane did not stimulate pyrogen production, and no measurable influx or efflux of calcium occurred during stimulation with endotoxin. These observations suggest that a slowly exchangeable calcium pool is necessary for the production of endogenous pyrogen, but that a rise in intracellular calcium is not by itself a necessary or sufficient stimulus. This stands in contrast to other biological systems in which Ca2+ directly couples stimulus and hormone secretion. Incubation of cells with agents shown to increase cyclic 3',5' AMP or cyclic 3',5' GMP levels in monocytes similarly did not stimulate pyrogen production or modulate its production by endotoxin stimulation. Thus, cyclic nucleotides also did not play a detectable role as intracellular messengers in this system. Future work is required to define more clearly the mechanism for the production of endogenous pyrogen, given its marked effects on the immune system through lymphocyte activation and temperature regulation.

  8. Direct determination of calcium, sodium and potassium in fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravić Snežana Ž.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the investigation of the possibilities of direct determination of calcium, sodium and potassium in the commercial and kombucha-based fermented milk products by flame photometry. Two procedures were used for sample preparation: simple dilution with water (direct method and extraction with mineral acid. Calcium, sodium and potassium levels determined after mentioned sample preparation methods were compared. The results showed that the differences between the values obtained for the different sample treatment were within the experimental error at the 95% confidence level. Compared to the method based on extraction with mineral acid, the direct method is efficient, faster, simpler, cheaper, and operates according to the principles of Green Chemistry. Consequently, the proposed method for the direct determination of calcium, sodium and potassium could be applied for the rapid routine analysis of the mineral content in the fermented dairy products. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009

  9. Encapsulation of Lactobacillus kefiri in alginate microbeads using a double novel aerosol technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Christian; Lamanna, Leonardo; De Benedetto, Egidio; Damiano, Fabrizio; Cappello, Maria Stella; Siculella, Luisa; Sannino, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    Alginate micro beads containing Lactobacillus kefiri (the principal bacteria present in the kefir probiotic drink) were produced by a novel technique based on dual aerosols spaying of alginate based solution and CaCl 2 as cross linking agent. Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) has been also added to the alginate in order to change the physic-chemical properties (viscosity and permeability) of the microbeads. Calcium alginate and CMC are biopolymers that can be used for developing oral drug-delivery systems. These biopolymers have been reported to show a pH-dependent swelling behaviour. Calcium alginate and CMC have also been known to possess an excellent mucoadhesive property. The loaded microbeads have been characterized in terms of morphology, chemical composition and stability in different conditions mimicking the gastric environment. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a continuous fabrication of alginate microbeads in a range of 50-70μm size, encapsulating L. kefiri as active ingredient. The technique involves the use of a double aerosols of alginate based solution and CaCl 2 as crosslinking agent. Moreover, the encapsulation process was proved to be effective and not detrimental to bacteria viability. At the same time, it was verified the protective efficacy of the microcapsules against the gastric environment using both SGF pH1.2 (fasted state) and pH2.2 (feed state). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Immobilization of myoglobin in sodium alginate composite membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cecília de Souza Figueiredo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe immobilization of myoglobin in sodium alginate films was investigated with the aim of evaluating the protein stability in an ionic polymeric matrix. Myoglobin was chosen due to the resemblance to each hemoglobin tetramer. Sodium alginate, being a natural polysaccharide, was selected as the polymeric matrix because of its chemical structure and film-forming ability. To improve the mechanical resistance of sodium alginate films, the polymer was deposited over the surface of a cellulose acetate support by means of ultrafiltration. The ionic crosslink of sodium alginate was investigated by calcium ions. Composite membrane characterization comprised water swelling tests, water flux, SEM images and UV-visible spectroscopy. The electrostatic interaction between the protein and the polysaccharide did not damage the UV-visible pattern of native myoglobin. A good affinity between sodium alginate and cellulose acetate was observed. The top layer of the dense composite membrane successfully immobilized Myoglobin, retaining the native UV-visible pattern for two months.

  11. Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Dorant, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Prostate cancer risk in relation to consumption of animal products, and intake of calcium and protein was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study. At baseline in 1986, 58,279 men aged 55-69 years completed a self-administered 150-item food frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire on other

  12. Binding and leakage of barium in alginate microbeads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørch, Yrr A; Qi, Meirigeng; Gundersen, Per Ole M; Formo, Kjetil; Lacik, Igor; Skjåk-Braek, Gudmund; Oberholzer, Jose; Strand, Berit L

    2012-11-01

    Microbeads of alginate crosslinked with Ca(2+) and/or Ba(2+) are popular matrices in cell-based therapy. The aim of this study was to quantify the binding of barium in alginate microbeads and its leakage under in vitro and accumulation under in vivo conditions. Low concentrations of barium (1 mM) in combination with calcium (50 mM) and high concentrations of barium (20 mM) in gelling solutions were used for preparation of microbeads made of high-G and high-M alginates. High-G microbeads accumulated barium from gelling solution and contained higher concentrations of divalent ions for both low- and high-Ba exposure compared with high-G microbeads exposed to calcium solely and to high-M microbeads for all gelling conditions. Although most of the unbound divalent ions were removed during the wash and culture steps, leakage of barium was still detected during storage. Barium accumulation in blood and femur bone of mice implanted with high-G beads was found to be dose-dependent. Estimated barium leakage relevant to transplantation to diabetic patients with islets in alginate microbeads showed that the leakage was 2.5 times lower than the tolerable intake value given by WHO for high-G microbeads made using low barium concentration. The similar estimate gave 1.5 times higher than is the tolerable intake value for the high-G microbeads made using high barium concentration. To reduce the risk of barium accumulation that may be of safety concern, the microbeads made of high-G alginate gelled with a combination of calcium and low concentration of barium ions is recommended for islet transplantation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: Antacids (Tums, Chooz) Mineral supplements Hand lotions Vitamin and mineral supplements Other products may also contain ...

  14. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  15. Interactions between calcium and phosphorus in the regulation of the production of fibroblast growth factor 23 in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinn, S.J.; Thomsen, A.R.B.; Pang, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    , however, increases in serum phosphorus by dietary manipulation were accompanied by severe hypocalcemia, which appeared to blunt stimulation of FGF23 release. Increases in dietary phosphorus in PTH-CaSR DKO mice markedly decreased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)D] despite no change in FGF23...... correlation between calcium and phosphorus and serum FGF23 was found between FGF23 and the calcium × phosphorus product. Since calcium stimulated FGF23 production in the PTH-CaSR DKO mice, this effect cannot be mediated by the full-length CaSR. Thus the regulation of FGF23 by both calcium and phosphorus...

  16. Interactions between calcium and phosphorus in the regulation of the production of fibroblast growth factor 23 in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Stephen J.; Thomsen, Alex R. B.; Pang, Jian L.; Kantham, Lakshmi; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Pollak, Martin; Goltzman, David

    2013-01-01

    Calcium and phosphorus homeostasis are highly interrelated and share common regulatory hormones, including FGF23. However, little is known about calcium's role in the regulation of FGF23. We sought to investigate the regulatory roles of calcium and phosphorus in FGF23 production using genetic mouse models with targeted inactivation of PTH (PTH KO) or both PTH and the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR; PTH-CaSR DKO). In wild-type, PTH KO, and PTH-CaSR DKO mice, elevation of either serum calcium or phosphorus by intraperitoneal injection increased serum FGF23 levels. In PTH KO and PTH-CaSR DKO mice, however, increases in serum phosphorus by dietary manipulation were accompanied by severe hypocalcemia, which appeared to blunt stimulation of FGF23 release. Increases in dietary phosphorus in PTH-CaSR DKO mice markedly decreased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] despite no change in FGF23, suggesting direct regulation of 1,25(OH)2D3 synthesis by serum phosphorus. Calcium-mediated increases in serum FGF23 required a threshold level of serum phosphorus of about 5 mg/dl. Analogously, phosphorus-elicited increases in FGF23 were markedly blunted if serum calcium was less than 8 mg/dl. The best correlation between calcium and phosphorus and serum FGF23 was found between FGF23 and the calcium × phosphorus product. Since calcium stimulated FGF23 production in the PTH-CaSR DKO mice, this effect cannot be mediated by the full-length CaSR. Thus the regulation of FGF23 by both calcium and phosphorus appears to be fundamentally important in coordinating the serum levels of both mineral ions and ensuring that the calcium × phosphorus product remains within a physiological range. PMID:23233539

  17. Three-dimensional bioprinting of complex cell laden alginate hydrogel structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabriz, Atabak Ghanizadeh; Hermida, Miguel A; Leslie, Nicholas R; Shu, Wenmiao

    2015-12-21

    Different bioprinting techniques have been used to produce cell-laden alginate hydrogel structures, however these approaches have been limited to 2D or simple three-dimension (3D) structures. In this study, a new extrusion based bioprinting technique was developed to produce more complex alginate hydrogel structures. This was achieved by dividing the alginate hydrogel cross-linking process into three stages: primary calcium ion cross-linking for printability of the gel, secondary calcium cross-linking for rigidity of the alginate hydrogel immediately after printing and tertiary barium ion cross-linking for long-term stability of the alginate hydrogel in culture medium. Simple 3D structures including tubes were first printed to ensure the feasibility of the bioprinting technique and then complex 3D structures such as branched vascular structures were successfully printed. The static stiffness of the alginate hydrogel after printing was 20.18 ± 1.62 KPa which was rigid enough to sustain the integrity of the complex 3D alginate hydrogel structure during the printing. The addition of 60 mM barium chloride was found to significantly extend the stability of the cross-linked alginate hydrogel from 3 d to beyond 11 d without compromising the cellular viability. The results based on cell bioprinting suggested that viability of U87-MG cells was 93 ± 0.9% immediately after bioprinting and cell viability maintained above 88% ± 4.3% in the alginate hydrogel over the period of 11 d.

  18. Fabrication of individual alginate-TCP scaffolds for bone tissue engineering by means of powder printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Miguel; Rodrigues, Jorge; Pires, Inês; Gouveia, Barbara; Pereira, Manuel; Moseke, Claus; Groll, Jürgen; Ewald, Andrea; Vorndran, Elke

    2015-01-06

    The development of polymer-calcium phosphate composite scaffolds with tailored architectures and properties has great potential for bone regeneration. Herein, we aimed to improve the functional performance of brittle ceramic scaffolds by developing a promising biopolymer-ceramic network. For this purpose, two strategies, namely, direct printing of a powder composition consisting of a 60:40 mixture of α/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) powder and alginate powder or vacuum infiltration of printed TCP scaffolds with an alginate solution, were tracked. Results of structural characterization revealed that the scaffolds printed with 2.5 wt% alginate-modified TCP powders presented a uniformly distributed and interfusing alginate TCP network. Mechanical results indicated a significant increase in strength, energy to failure and reliability of powder-modified scaffolds with an alginate content in the educts of 2.5 wt% when compared to pure TCP, as well as to TCP scaffolds containing 5 wt% or 7.5 wt% in the educts, in both dry and wet states. Culture of human osteoblast cells on these scaffolds also demonstrated a great improvement of cell proliferation and cell viability. While in the case of powder-mixed alginate TCP scaffolds, isolated alginate gels were formed between the calcium phosphate crystals, the vacuum-infiltration strategy resulted in the covering of the surface and internal pores of the TCP scaffold with a thin alginate film. Furthermore, the prediction of the scaffolds' critical fracture conditions under more complex stress states by the applied Mohr fracture criterion confirmed the potential of the powder-modified scaffolds with 2.5 wt% alginate in the educts as structural biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.

  19. Fabrication of individual alginate-TCP scaffolds for bone tissue engineering by means of powder printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castilho, Miguel; Rodrigues, Jorge; Pires, Inês; Gouveia, Barbara; Pereira, Manuel; Moseke, Claus; Groll, Jürgen; Ewald, Andrea; Vorndran, Elke

    2015-01-01

    The development of polymer-calcium phosphate composite scaffolds with tailored architectures and properties has great potential for bone regeneration. Herein, we aimed to improve the functional performance of brittle ceramic scaffolds by developing a promising biopolymer–ceramic network. For this purpose, two strategies, namely, direct printing of a powder composition consisting of a 60:40 mixture of α/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) powder and alginate powder or vacuum infiltration of printed TCP scaffolds with an alginate solution, were tracked. Results of structural characterization revealed that the scaffolds printed with 2.5 wt% alginate-modified TCP powders presented a uniformly distributed and interfusing alginate TCP network. Mechanical results indicated a significant increase in strength, energy to failure and reliability of powder-modified scaffolds with an alginate content in the educts of 2.5 wt% when compared to pure TCP, as well as to TCP scaffolds containing 5 wt% or 7.5 wt% in the educts, in both dry and wet states. Culture of human osteoblast cells on these scaffolds also demonstrated a great improvement of cell proliferation and cell viability. While in the case of powder-mixed alginate TCP scaffolds, isolated alginate gels were formed between the calcium phosphate crystals, the vacuum-infiltration strategy resulted in the covering of the surface and internal pores of the TCP scaffold with a thin alginate film. Furthermore, the prediction of the scaffolds’ critical fracture conditions under more complex stress states by the applied Mohr fracture criterion confirmed the potential of the powder-modified scaffolds with 2.5 wt% alginate in the educts as structural biomaterial for bone tissue engineering. (paper)

  20. The effectiveness of alginates to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium to the milk of dairy goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Mayes, R.W.; MacEachern, P.J.; Dodd, B.A.; Lamb, C.S.

    1999-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident the radiation dose to human populations arising from radiostrontium ingested as contaminated milk is a major cause of concern. We report a study to determine if calcium alginate incorporated into the diet can be used as an effective countermeasure to reduce radiostrontium transfer to the milk of dairy goats. When Ca-alginate was included into a pelleted ration at 5% dry weight the transfer of radiostrontium to the milk of the goats was reduced by approximately 50%. No effects on diet palatability or the absorption of iron or calcium were observed. Ca-alginate was readily fermentable and hence its potential binding capacity is likely to be reduced in ruminants compared to monogastrics. The Ca-alginate also supplied additional calcium to the diet in an amount which may explain the observed reduction in radiostrontium transfer to milk. Therefore, currently, we cannot be certain if the effect we observed was due to alginate or calcium. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Clinical and laboratory studies of the antacid and raft-forming properties of Rennie alginate suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytgat, G N; Simoneau, G

    2006-03-15

    Acid pockets at the gastro-oesophageal junction escape buffering from meals in the stomach. Combining high-dose antacid with alginate may therefore be of benefit in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. To characterize the antacid and raft-forming properties of Rennie alginate suspension (containing high-dose antacid and alginate; Bayer Consumer Care, Bladel, the Netherlands). The in vitro acid-neutralizing capacity of Rennie algniate was compared with Gaviscon (Reckitt Benckiser, Slough, UK) by pH-recorded HCl titration. Alginate raft weight formed in vitro at different pH was used to evaluate the pH dependency of raft formation with each product. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study also compared the antacid activity of Rennie alginate vs. placebo in vivo using continuous intragastric pH monitoring in 12 healthy fasting volunteers. Compared with Gaviscon, Rennie alginate had a higher acid-neutralizing capacity, greater maximum pH and longer duration of antacid activity in vitro. However, the two products produced comparable alginate rafts at each pH evaluated. In vivo, Rennie alginate provided rapid, effective and long-lasting acid neutralization, with an onset of action of <5 min, and duration of action of almost 90 min. The dual mode of action of Rennie alginate offers an effective treatment option for mild symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease particularly considering recent findings regarding 'acid pockets'.

  2. Alginate Encapsulation of Pluripotent Stem Cells Using a Co-axial Nozzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Ikki; Sakai, Yasuyuki

    2015-07-02

    Pluripotent stem cells (PS cells) are the focus of intense research due to their role in regenerative medicine and drug screening. However, the development of a mass culture system would be required for using PS cells in these applications. Suspension culture is one promising culture method for the mass production of PS cells, although some issues such as controlling aggregation and limiting shear stress from the culture medium are still unsolved. In order to solve these problems, we developed a method of calcium alginate (Alg-Ca) encapsulation using a co-axial nozzle. This method can control the size of the capsules easily by co-flowing N₂ gas. The controllable capsule diameter must be larger than 500 µm because too high a flow rate of N₂ gas causes the breakdown of droplets and thus heterogeneous-sized capsules. Moreover, a low concentration of Alg-Na and CaCl₂ causes non-spherical capsules. Although an Alg-Ca capsule without a coating of Alg-PLL easily dissolves enabling the collection of cells, they can also potentially leak out from capsules lacking an Alg-PLL coating. Indeed, an alginate-PLL coating can prevent cellular leakage but is also hard to break. This technology can be used to research the stem cell niche as well as the mass production of PS cells because encapsulation can modify the micro-environment surrounding cells including the extracellular matrix and the concentration of secreted factors.

  3. A complex multilevel attack on Pseudomonas aeruginosa algT/U expression and AlgT/U activity results in the loss of alginate production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sautter, Robert; Ramos, Damaris; Schneper, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Infection by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality seen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This is mainly due to the genotypic and phenotypic changes of the bacteria that cause conversion from a typical nonmucoid to a mucoid form in the CF...... lung. Mucoid conversion is indicative of overproduction of a capsule-like polysaccharide called alginate. The alginate-overproducing (Alg+) mucoid phenotype seen in the CF isolates is extremely unstable. Low oxygen tension growth of mucoid variants readily selects for nonmucoid variants. The switching...... complementation and sequencing of one Group B sap mutant, sap22, revealed that the nonmucoid phenotype was due to the presence of a mutation in PA3257. PA3257 encodes a putative periplasmic protease. Mutation of PA3257 resulted in decreased algT/U expression. Thus, inhibition of algT/U is a primary mechanism...

  4. Microencapsulation of probiotics using sodium alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Araújo Etchepare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of probiotics is constantly growing due to the numerous benefits conferred on the health of consumers. In this context, Microencapsulation is a technology that favors the viability of probiotic cultures in food products, mainly by the properties of protection against adverse environmental conditions and controlled release. Currently there are different procedures for microencapsulation using polymers of various types of natural and synthetic origin. The use of sodium alginate polymers is one of the largest potential application in the encapsulation of probiotics because of their versatility, biocompatibility and toxicity exemption. The aim of this review is to present viable encapsulation techniques of probiotics with alginate, emphasizing the internal ionic gelation and external ionic gelation, with the possibility of applying, as well as promising for improving these techniques.

  5. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to re-evaluate the safety in use of calcium. The Panel was requested to consider if the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for calcium established by the SCF in 2003 (2,500 mg...

  6. Production of precipitated calcium carbonate from industrial byproduct slags; Saostetun kalsiumkarbonaatin tuotanto karbonaattivapaista kuonatuotteista (SLAG2PCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zevenhoven, R. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Heat Engineering Lab.; Teir, S.; Eloneva, S.; Savolahti, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Energy Technology and Environmental Protection

    2006-12-19

    Production of precipitate calcium carbonate from industrial by- product slags-project, 'SLAG2PCC', is a spin-off from ClimBus technology programme CO{sub 2} Nordic Plus-project, financed by the Finnish Technology Agency Tekes and the Finnish Recovery Boiler Committee. 'SLAG2PCC'-project is financed by Tekes, Ruukki Productions, UPM Kymmene and Waertsilae Finland. The possibility to produce precipitated calcium carbonate, PCC, from carbonate free industrial by-products (slags), combined with binding of carbon dioxide for climate change mitigation is studied in this project. The suitability of a process found from the literature, in which calcium used for carbonation is dissolved from calcium silicates using acetic acid as a solvent, is investigated for the carbonation of slags from the steel industry. During the calcium extraction experiments performed in the CO2 Nordic Plus - project it was found out that calcium is rapidly extracted from blast furnace and basic oxygen furnace slags. Atmospheric carbonation of the solution containing the dissolved slag and acetic acid directly has not succeeded yet due to low pH of the solution. Addition of NaOH, to increase of the solution pH, resulted in calcium carbonate precipitate in atmospheric pressure. The future goal of the project is to optimize process conditions so that the formed calcium carbonate is suitable for use as PCC. (orig.)

  7. High Selectivity of Alkanes Production by Calcium Basic Soap Thermal Decarboxylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neonufa Godlief F.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable fuel production from vegetable oil and fat or its fatty acids by direct decarboxylation has been widely reported. An innovative approach to produce drop-in fuel via thermal catalytic decarboxylation of basic soap derived from palm stearin reported in this research. The catalytic effect of the calcium and magnesium metals in the basic soap and its decarboxylation on drop-in fuel yield and product distribution was studied. The catalytic effect was tested in the temperature range up to 370°C and atmospheric pressure for 5 hours in a batch reactor. It has been proved that the calcium basic soap decarboxylation, effectively produce the drop-in fuel in carbon ranges C8 – C20, in which more than 78% selectivity toward alkane. Whereas, only 70% selectivity toward alkane has been resulted from the magnesium basic soap decarboxylation.

  8. Alginate overproduction and biofilm formation by psychrotolerant Pseudomonas mandelii depend on temperature in Antarctic marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Vásquez-Ponce

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Because biofilm formation is an efficient bacterial strategy to overcome stressful conditions, alginate overproduction might represent the best solution for the successful adaptation of P. mandelii to the extreme temperatures of the Antarctic. Through additional research, it is possible that this novel P. mandelii strain could become an additional source for biotechnological alginate production.

  9. High surface area mesoporous activated carbon-alginate beads for efficient removal of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Asma; Bhat, A H; Naeem, Abdul; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Danish, Mohammed

    2018-02-01

    High surface area mesoporous activated carbon-alginate (AC-alginate) beads were successfully synthesized by entrapping activated carbon powder derived from Mangosteen fruit peel into calcium-alginate beads for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The structure and surface characteristics of AC-alginate beads were analyzed using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface area analysis (S BET ), while thermal properties were tested using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of AC-alginate dose, pH of solution, contact time, initial concentration of MB solution and temperature on MB removal was elucidated. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of 230mg/g was achieved for 100mg/L of MB solution at pH 9.5 and temperature 25°C. Furthermore, the adsorption of MB on AC-alginate beads followed well pseudo-second order equation and equilibrium adsorption data were better fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. The findings reveal the feasibility of AC-alginate beads composite to be used as a potential and low cost adsorbent for removal of cationic dyes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Release of intracellular Calcium increase production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in renal distal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Henning F.

    peroxide (H2O2) has traditionally been regarded as toxic by-products of aerobic metabolism. However, recent findings indicate that H2O2 act as a signalling molecule. The aim of the present study was to monitor, in real time, the rates of ROS generation in order to directly determine their production......Release of intracellular Calcium increase production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in renal distal epithelial cells. Henning F. Bjerregaard, Roskilde University, Department of Science, Systems and Models , 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. HFB@ RUC.DK Reactive oxygen species (ROS) like, hydrogen...... to G-protein stimulation of phospholipase C and release of inositol -3 phosphate. Cd (0.4 mM) treatment of A6 cells enhanced the ROS production after one minutes incubation. The production rate was constant for at least 10 to 20 min. Experiments showed that the Cd induced increase in ROS production...

  11. Alginate/cellulose beads as supports for slow release of nutrient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Mailson de; Mattos, Bruno Dufau, E-mail: mailsondematos@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Magalhaes, Washington [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: A total of 9 billion inhabitants is estimated by 2050, which will put a heavy pressure towards an increased cereal yield of at least 40% [1]. The smart systems for nutrient delivery could be used to increase the cropland productivity and biodegradable supports are especially needed to decrease the bio-accumulation of the synthetic materials. Thus, alginate and cellulose were chosen to encapsulate nitrogen and further release it. Briefly, the encapsulated systems were synthesized as follow: solutions containing ammonium nitrate, sodium alginate, cellulose nanofibrils and nano-silica were prepared. Each mixture was dropwise added into the calcium chloride (50 wt%) crosslinking agent solution. After the bead-forming reaction, the obtained material was filtered and dried at 60 deg C. The characterizations were performed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy coupled to scanning electron microscopy (SEMEDS), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and release tests according to DIN EN 13266:2002. In general, the nano-silica was important for better handling the obtained beads; however, it changed the bead morphology and tended to increase the release rate of nitrogen. The best formulations were obtained with the presence of cellulose nanofibrils and few amounts of silica in the beads. At these compositions the systems follow the criteria of slow-release purposes, i.e., 15% released after 24h and less than 75% after 28 days. References: [1] Maxmen A, Nature vol. 501 (2013). (author)

  12. Removal of Uranium from Aqueous Solution by Alginate Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of uranium (VI by calcium alginate beads was examined by batch experiments. The effects of environmental conditions on U (VI adsorption were studied, including contact time, pH, initial concentration of U (VI, and temperature. The alginate beads were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated that hydroxyl and alkoxy groups are present at the surface of the beads. The experimental results showed that the adsorption of U (VI by alginate beads was strongly dependent on pH, the adsorption increased at pH 3∼7, then decreased at pH 7∼9. The adsorption reached equilibrium within 2 minutes. The adsorption kinetics of U (VI onto alginate beads can be described by a pseudo first-order kinetic model. The adsorption isotherm can be described by the Redlich-Peterson model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 237.15 mg/g. The sorption process is spontaneous and has an exothermic reaction.

  13. Removal of organic dyes by magnetic alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocher, Vincent; Siaugue, Jean-Michel; Cabuil, Valérie; Bee, Agnès

    2008-02-01

    This study deals with the development of a clean and safe process for water pollution remediation. We have synthesized a magnetic adsorbent in order to develop a solid-phase extraction process assisted by a magnetic field. To follow an 'ecoconception' approach, magnetic beads containing magnetic nanoparticles and activated carbon are prepared with a biopolymer extracted from algae, sodium alginate. The use of renewable bioresources of low cost and those disposable in large amount allows the development of a product with a low impact on the environment. The adsorption properties of activated carbon and magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles are combined to produce an interesting magnetic composite. Synthesis and characterization of the magnetic beads have been reported. Their adsorption capacity was investigated by measuring the removal of two dyes (methylene blue and methyl orange) of different charges from aqueous solutions. The efficiency of the beads has been compared with that of non-encapsulated activated carbon. The effects of initial dye concentration, pH and calcium content of the beads have been studied. Adsorption kinetics experiments have been carried out and the data have been well fitted by a pseudo-second-order equation.

  14. The influence of calcium and phosphorus levels on egg production, egg quality, tibia weight and 32P retention of layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardly, Y.S.; Hendratno, C.; Yuyu Wahyu

    1979-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the influence of three levels of calcium and three levels of dietary phosphorus on egg production, egg quality, tibia weight and 32 P retention of layers. Calcium levels of 3.0; 3.5 and 4.0 percent were used and phosphorus contest of the diet fed were either 0.6; 0.9 or 1.2 percent.Egg production was highest with rations containing 3.5% calcium and 0.9% phosphorus. A significant increase in egg production was found at 0.9% levels of phosphorus compared to levels of 0.6 and 1.2%. Egg quality was increased significantly (p 32 P retention was low at the highest calcium level. (author)

  15. Evaluation of setting time and flow properties of self-synthesize alginate impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Calista; Cahyanto, Arief; Sriwidodo, Harsatiningsih, Zulia

    2018-02-01

    Alginate is an elastic hydrocolloid dental impression materials to obtain negative reproduction of oral mucosa such as to record soft-tissue and occlusal relationships. The aim of the present study was to synthesize alginate and to determine the setting time and flow properties. There were five groups of alginate consisted of fifty samples self-synthesize alginate and commercial alginate impression product. Fifty samples were divided according to two tests, each twenty-five samples for setting time and flow test. Setting time test was recorded in the s unit, meanwhile, flow test was recorded in the mm2 unit. The fastest setting time result was in the group three (148.8 s) and the latest was group fours). The highest flow test result was in the group three (69.70 mm2) and the lowest was group one (58.34 mm2). Results were analyzed statistically by one way ANOVA (α= 0.05), showed that there was a statistical significance of setting time while no statistical significance of flow properties between self-synthesize alginate and alginate impression product. In conclusion, the alginate impression was successfully self-synthesized and variation composition gives influence toward setting time and flow properties. The most resemble setting time of control group is group three. The most resemble flow of control group is group four.

  16. Controlled antiseptic release by alginate polymer films and beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Ioannis; Rizzello, Loris; Bayer, Ilker S; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Cingolani, Roberto; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2013-01-30

    Biodegradable polymeric materials based on blending aqueous dispersions of natural polymer sodium alginate (NaAlg) and povidone iodine (PVPI) complex, which allow controlled antiseptic release, are presented. The developed materials are either free standing NaAlg films or Ca(2+)-cross-linked alginate beads, which properly combined with PVPI demonstrate antibacterial and antifungal activity, suitable for therapeutic applications, such as wound dressing. Glycerol was used as the plasticizing agent. Film morphology was studied by optical and atomic force microscopy. It was found that PVPI complex forms well dispersed circular micro-domains within the NaAlg matrix. The beads were fabricated by drop-wise immersion of NaAlg/PVPI/glycerol solutions into aqueous calcium chloride solutions to form calcium alginate beads encapsulating PVPI solution (CaAlg/PVPI). Controlled release of PVPI was possible when the composite films and beads were brought into direct contact with water or with moist media. Bactericidal and fungicidal properties of the materials were tested against Escherichia coli bacteria and Candida albicans fungi. The results indicated very efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity within 48 h. Controlled release of PVPI into open wounds is highly desired in clinical applications to avoid toxic doses of iodine absorption by the wound. A wide variety of applications are envisioned such as external and internal wound dressings with controlled antiseptic release, hygienic and protective packaging films for medical devices, and polymer beads as water disinfectants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alginate as immobilization matrix and stabilizing agent in a two-phase liquid system: application in lipase-catalysed reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, S; Kvittingen, L; Anthonsen, T; Skjåk-Braek, G

    1992-01-01

    Alginate was evaluated as an immobilization matrix for enzyme-catalyzed reactions in organic solvents. In contrast to most hydrogels, calcium alginate was found to be stable in a range of organic solvents and to retain the enzyme inside the gel matrix. In hydrophobic solvents, the alginate gel (greater than 95% water) thus provided a stable, two-phase liquid system. The lipase from Candida cylindracea, after immobilization in alginate beads, catalysed esterification and transesterification in n-hexane under both batch and continuous-flow conditions. The operational stability of the lipase was markedly enhanced by alginate entrapment. In the esterification of butanoic acid with n-butanol, better results were obtained in the typical hydrophilic calcium alginate beads than in less hydrophilic matrices. The effects of substrate concentration, matrix area, and polarity of the substrate alcohols and of the organic solvent on the esterification activity were examined. The transesterification of octyl 2-bromopropanoate with ethanol was less efficient than that of ethyl 2-bromopropanoate with octanol. By using the hydrophilic alginate gel as an immobilization matrix in combination with a mobile hydrophobic phase, a two-phase liquid system was achieved with definite advantages for a continuous, enzyme-catalysed process.

  18. Calcium signaling through CaMKII regulates hepatic glucose production in fasting and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Lale; Wong, Catherine C L; Li, Gang; Xu, Tao; Pajvani, Utpal; Park, Sung Kyu Robin; Wronska, Anetta; Chen, Bi-Xing; Marks, Andrew R; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Backs, Johannes; Singer, Harold A; Yates, John R; Accili, Domenico; Tabas, Ira

    2012-05-02

    Hepatic glucose production (HGP) is crucial for glucose homeostasis, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that a calcium-sensing enzyme, CaMKII, is activated in a calcium- and IP3R-dependent manner by cAMP and glucagon in primary hepatocytes and by glucagon and fasting in vivo. Genetic deficiency or inhibition of CaMKII blocks nuclear translocation of FoxO1 by affecting its phosphorylation, impairs fasting- and glucagon/cAMP-induced glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, and lowers blood glucose levels, while constitutively active CaMKII has the opposite effects. Importantly, the suppressive effect of CaMKII deficiency on glucose metabolism is abrogated by transduction with constitutively nuclear FoxO1, indicating that the effect of CaMKII deficiency requires nuclear exclusion of FoxO1. This same pathway is also involved in excessive HGP in the setting of obesity. These results reveal a calcium-mediated signaling pathway involved in FoxO1 nuclear localization and hepatic glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of calcium phosphate nanoparticles on hormone production and apoptosis in human granulosa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Li

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Although many nanomaterials are being used in academia, industry and daily life, there is little understanding about the effects of nanoparticles on the reproductive health of vertebral animals, including human beings. An experimental study was therefore performed here to explore the effect of calcium phosphate nanoparticles on both steroid hormone production and apoptosis in human ovarian granulosa cells. Methods Calcium phosphate nanoparticles uptaking was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The cell cycle was assessed with propidium iodide-stained cells (distribution of cells in G0/G1, S, and G2/M phases by flow cytometry. The pattern of cell death (necrosis and apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC/PI staining. The expression of mRNAs encoding P450scc, P450arom and StAR were determined by RT-PCR. Progesterone and estradiol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results TEM results confirmed that calcium phosphate nanoparticles could enter into granulosa cells, and distributed in the membranate compartments, including lysosome and mitochondria and intracellular vesicles. The increased percentage of cells in S phase when cultured with nanoparticles indicated that there was an arrest at the checkpoint from phase S-to-G2/M (from 6.28 +/- 1.55% to 11.18 +/- 1.73%, p Conclusion Calcium phosphate nanoparticles interfered with cell cycle of cultured human ovarian granulosa cells thus increasing cell apoptosis. This pilot study suggested that effects of nanoparticles on ovarian function should be extensively investigated.

  20. Production of calcium- and magnesium-enriched caseins and caseinates by an ecofriendly technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Félix-André; Mikhaylin, Sergey; Bazinet, Laurent

    2018-05-09

    Finding new green ways of producing proteins has never been of such critical public interest, both to meet consumers' needs and to preserve the environment. Milk proteins are among the most attractive protein types due to their high nutritional value and attractive functional properties. In this work, the separation of caseins by conventional chemical acidification was compared with electrodialysis with bipolar membrane coupled to an ultrafiltration module (EDBM-UF), a green process that allows the precipitation of caseins by H + generated in situ by the bipolar membrane and, simultaneously, the production of a separated NaOH stream from OH - electrogenerated by the bipolar membrane. Caseinate production using this NaOH stream by-product and the quantity of NaOH needed to produce caseinates from both methods were also investigated. Hence, the purity and composition of caseins and caseinates were compared in terms of protein, ash, and lactose contents as well as mineral composition. The results showed for the first time that caseinates can be produced by solubilizing caseins with NaOH stream from the EDBM process. Furthermore, the caseins and caseinates produced by EDBM-UF were equivalent in terms of lactose and protein contents to their respective caseins and caseinates that were chemically produced but presented slightly lower sodium content and 3 to 4 times higher magnesium and calcium contents. The fact that calcium and magnesium are likely bound to milk caseins would ensure their favorable absorbability. These caseins or caseinates from the new EDBM-UF process could be suitable as an improved protein-based calcium or magnesium supplement, both for their enhanced nutritional quality and because they are produced by a green process. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dairy products and calcium intake during pregnancy and dental caries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Yoshio

    2012-05-17

    Maternal nutrition status during pregnancy may affect fetal tooth development, formation, and mineralization, and may affect dental caries susceptibility in children. We investigated the association between maternal intake of dairy products and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries. Subjects were 315 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed through a diet history questionnaire. Outcome data was collected at 41-50 months of age. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or been filled. Higher maternal cheese intake during pregnancy was significantly inversely associated with the risk of dental caries in children, showing a clear inverse dose-response relationship; the adjusted odds ratio (OR) in comparison of the highest tertile with the lowest was 0.37 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.76, P for trend=0.01). The inverse associations between maternal intake of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries were of borderline significance: the adjusted ORs for the highest tertile of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium were 0.51 (95% CI: 0.23-1.09, P for trend=0.07), 0.51 (95% CI: 0.23-1.10, P for trend=0.07), and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.23-1.07, P for trend=0.08), respectively. There was no evident relationship between maternal milk intake and the risk of childhood dental caries. These data suggested that high intake of maternal cheese during pregnancy may reduce the risk of childhood dental caries.

  2. Dairy products and calcium intake during pregnancy and dental caries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Keiko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal nutrition status during pregnancy may affect fetal tooth development, formation, and mineralization, and may affect dental caries susceptibility in children. We investigated the association between maternal intake of dairy products and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries. Methods Subjects were 315 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed through a diet history questionnaire. Outcome data was collected at 41–50 months of age. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or been filled. Results Higher maternal cheese intake during pregnancy was significantly inversely associated with the risk of dental caries in children, showing a clear inverse dose–response relationship; the adjusted odds ratio (OR in comparison of the highest tertile with the lowest was 0.37 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.76, P for trend = 0.01. The inverse associations between maternal intake of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries were of borderline significance: the adjusted ORs for the highest tertile of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium were 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.09, P for trend = 0.07, 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.10, P for trend = 0.07, and 0.50 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.07, P for trend = 0.08, respectively. There was no evident relationship between maternal milk intake and the risk of childhood dental caries. Conclusion These data suggested that high intake of maternal cheese during pregnancy may reduce the risk of childhood dental caries.

  3. 3D-Printable Bioactivated Nanocellulose-Alginate Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppiniemi, Jenni; Lahtinen, Panu; Paajanen, Antti; Mahlberg, Riitta; Metsä-Kortelainen, Sini; Pinomaa, Tatu; Pajari, Heikki; Vikholm-Lundin, Inger; Pursula, Pekka; Hytönen, Vesa P

    2017-07-05

    We describe herein a nanocellulose-alginate hydrogel suitable for 3D printing. The composition of the hydrogel was optimized based on material characterization methods and 3D printing experiments, and its behavior during the printing process was studied using computational fluid dynamics simulations. The hydrogel was biofunctionalized by the covalent coupling of an enhanced avidin protein to the cellulose nanofibrils. Ionic cross-linking of the hydrogel using calcium ions improved the performance of the material. The resulting hydrogel is suitable for 3D printing, its mechanical properties indicate good tissue compatibility, and the hydrogel absorbs water in moist conditions, suggesting potential in applications such as wound dressings. The biofunctionalization potential was shown by attaching a biotinylated fluorescent protein and a biotinylated fluorescent small molecule via avidin and monitoring the material using confocal microscopy. The 3D-printable bioactivated nanocellulose-alginate hydrogel offers a platform for the development of biomedical devices, wearable sensors, and drug-releasing materials.

  4. STUDIES ON THE INHIBITION OF INTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF RADIOACTIVE STRONTIUM. 3. THE EFFECT OF ADMINISTRATION OF SODIUM ALGINATE IN FOOD AND IN DRINKING WATER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WALDRON-EDWARD, D; SKORYNA, S C; PAUL, T M

    1964-11-07

    A method is reported which permits selective suppression of absorption of radioactive strontium from ingested food material, permitting calcium to be available to the body. Studies were carried out by measuring bone uptake of Sr(89) and Ca(45) when various amounts of sodium alginate were fed with the diet. Long-term studies were made in which two different levels of radioactivity were used, to determine the pattern of Sr(89) deposition with continuous intake of binding agent. It was found that administration of sodium alginate as a jelly overcomes the problem of constipation and effectively reduces Sr(89) uptake, up to 83%. This fact represents a significant finding with respect to the use of the compound in human subjects. Addition of sodium alginate to drinking water is effective with low levels of Sr(89) intake.This naturally occurring water-soluble macromolecular substance possesses several advantages in use for the suppression of absorption of radioactive strontium when compared with synthetic ion exchange resins: there is no disturbance of electrolyte balance; efficiency is not reduced by treatment over a prolonged period of time; and finally, the product is palatable.

  5. Influence of hydrophobic modification in alginate-based hydrogels for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Soumitra

    Alginate has been exploited commercially for decades in foods, textiles, paper, pharmaceutical industries, and also as a detoxifier for removing heavy metals. Alginate is also popular in cell encapsulation because of its relatively mild gelation protocol and simple chemistry with which biological active entities can be immobilized. Surface modification of alginate gels has been explored to induce desired cell interactions with the gel matrix. These modifications alter the bulk properties, which strongly determine on how cells feel and response to the three-dimensional microenvironment. However, there is a need to develop strategies to engineer functionalities into bulk alginate hydrogels that not only preserve their inherent qualities but are also less toxic. In this thesis, our main focus was to optimize the mechanical properties of alginate-based hydrogels, and by doing so control the performance of the biomaterials. In the first scheme, we used alginate and hydrophobically modified ethyl hydroxy ethyl cellulose as components in interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) gels. The second network was used to control gelation time and rheological properties. We believe these experiments also may provide insight into the mechanical and structural properties of more complex biopolymer gels and naturally-occurring IPNs. Next, we worked on incorporating a hydrophobic moiety directly into the alginate chain, resulting in materials for extended release of hydrophobic drugs. We successfully synthesized hydrophobically modified alginate (HMA) by attaching octylamine groups onto the alginate backbone by standard carbodiimide based amide coupling reaction. Solubility of several model hydrophobic drugs in dilute HMA solutions was found to be increased by more than an order of magnitude. HMA hydrogels, prepared by crosslinking the alginate chains with calcium ions, were found to exhibit excellent mechanical properties (modulus ˜100 kPa) with release extended upto 5 days. Ability

  6. Putative nanobacteria represent physiological remnants and culture by-products of normal calcium homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Young

    structures described earlier as NB may thus represent remnants and by-products of physiological mechanisms used for calcium homeostasis, a concept which explains the vast body of NB literature as well as explains the true origin of NB as lifeless protein-mineralo entities with questionable role in pathogenesis.

  7. Performance evaluation of bipolar and tripolar excitations during nozzle-jetting-based alginate microsphere fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herran, C. Leigh; Huang, Yong; Chai, Wenxuan

    2012-08-01

    Microspheres, small spherical (polymeric) particles with or without second phase materials embedded or encapsulated, are important for many biomedical applications such as drug delivery and organ printing. Scale-up fabrication with the ability to precisely control the microsphere size and morphology has always been of great manufacturing interest. The objective of this work is to experimentally study the performance differences of bipolar and tripolar excitation waveforms in using drop-on-demand (DOD)-based single nozzle jetting for alginate microsphere fabrication. The fabrication performance has been evaluated based on the formability of alginate microspheres as a function of materials properties (sodium alginate and calcium chloride concentrations) and operating conditions. The operating conditions for each excitation include voltage rise/fall times, dwell times and excitation voltage amplitudes. Overall, the bipolar excitation is more robust in making spherical, monodispersed alginate microspheres as good microspheres for its wide working range of material properties and operating conditions, especially during the fabrication of highly viscous materials such as the 2% sodium alginate solution. For both bipolar and tripolar excitations, the sodium alginate concentration and the voltage dwell times should be carefully selected to achieve good microsphere formability.

  8. Performance evaluation of bipolar and tripolar excitations during nozzle-jetting-based alginate microsphere fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh Herran, C; Huang, Yong; Chai, Wenxuan

    2012-01-01

    Microspheres, small spherical (polymeric) particles with or without second phase materials embedded or encapsulated, are important for many biomedical applications such as drug delivery and organ printing. Scale-up fabrication with the ability to precisely control the microsphere size and morphology has always been of great manufacturing interest. The objective of this work is to experimentally study the performance differences of bipolar and tripolar excitation waveforms in using drop-on-demand (DOD)-based single nozzle jetting for alginate microsphere fabrication. The fabrication performance has been evaluated based on the formability of alginate microspheres as a function of materials properties (sodium alginate and calcium chloride concentrations) and operating conditions. The operating conditions for each excitation include voltage rise/fall times, dwell times and excitation voltage amplitudes. Overall, the bipolar excitation is more robust in making spherical, monodispersed alginate microspheres as good microspheres for its wide working range of material properties and operating conditions, especially during the fabrication of highly viscous materials such as the 2% sodium alginate solution. For both bipolar and tripolar excitations, the sodium alginate concentration and the voltage dwell times should be carefully selected to achieve good microsphere formability. (paper)

  9. Antimicrobial cerium ion-chitosan crosslinked alginate biopolymer films: A novel and potential wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaygusuz, Hakan; Torlak, Emrah; Akın-Evingür, Gülşen; Özen, İlhan; von Klitzing, Regine; Erim, F Bedia

    2017-12-01

    Wound dressings require good antiseptic properties, mechanical strength and, more trustably, natural material ingredients. Antimicrobial properties of cerium ions and chitosan are known and alginate based wound dressings are commercially available. In this study, the advantages of these materials were combined and alginate films were crosslinked with cerium(III) solution and chitosan added cerium(III) solution. Films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), light transmittance, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling experiments, water vapor transmittance tests, and mechanical stretching tests. The antibacterial and physical properties of the films were compared with those of conventional calcium alginate films. Both cerium ion crosslinked and cerium ion-chitosan crosslinked alginate films gained antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Cerium alginate-chitosan films showed high resistance to being deformed elastically. Results show that cerium alginate-chitosan films can be flexible, ultraviolet-protecting, and antibacterial wound dressings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimizing the biocatalytic productivity of an engineered sialidase from Trypanosoma rangeli for 3′-sialyllactose production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuner, Birgitte; Luo, Jianquan; Nyffenegger, Christian

    2014-01-01

    An engineered sialidase, Tr6, from Trypanosoma rangeli was used for biosynthetic production of 3′-sialyllactose, a human milk oligosaccharide case compound, from casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) and lactose, components abundantly present in industrial dairy side streams. Four different enzyme re......-use methods were compared to optimize the biocatalytic productivity, i.e. 3′-sialyllactose formation per amount of Tr6 employed: (i) His-tag immobilization on magnetic Cu2+-iminodiacetic acid-functionalized nanoparticles (MNPs), (ii) membrane immobilization, (iii) calcium alginate encapsulation of cross......-linked Tr6, and (iv) Tr6 catalysis in a membrane reactor. Tr6 immobilized on MNPs gave a biocatalytic productivity of 84mg 3′-sialyllactose/mg Tr6 after seven consecutive reaction runs. Calcium-alginate and membrane immobilization were inefficient. Using free Tr6 in a 10kDa membrane reactor produced a 9...

  11. Effects of nanocalcium carbonate on egg production performance and plasma calcium of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjigohari, S; Ziaei, N; Ramzani Ghara, A; Tasharrofi, S

    2018-02-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of nanocalcium carbonate (NCC) instead of calcium carbonate (CC) on egg production, egg weight, egg mass, FCR, blood calcium and egg quality characteristics in laying hens. A total of 120 laying hens were used in a 10-weeks trial, from week 23 to 33 of age. Laying hens were randomly assigned to six treatments with four replications, five hens each. The experimental treatments involved replacing 50% of the CC in the diet by decreasing amounts of NCC and were T1 Basal diet (BD) with 8.06% CC; T2 (6.045% of CC as a negative control); T3 (4.03% of CC replaced by 2.015% NCC); T4 (4.03% of CC replaced by 1.01% NCC); T5 (4.03% of CC replaced by 0.252% NCC) and T6 (4.03 of CC replaced with 0.126%NCC).Egg weight was unaffected by dietary treatments (p > .05). However, the egg production percentage and egg mass in T6 were less than that of other treatments (p hens in the control group had the best average feed conversion ratio (p hens' blood was recorded for birds fed T6 (p hens. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Immobilization of alginate-encapsulated Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis containing different multivalent counterions for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakaran, G; Hoti, S L

    2008-08-01

    Immobilized techniques have been used widely for the controlled release formulation of mosquitoes. Among the microbial formulations, polymeric matrices play an important role in the controlled release of microbial pesticide at rates sufficiently effective to kill mosquitoes in the field. The advantage of these matrices is that they enhance the stability of both spores and toxin against pH, temperature variations, and UV irradiation. The disadvantage of using calcium alginate beads is that they are unstable upon contact with phosphate of potassium or sodium ions rich in the mosquito habitats. To overcome these problems, attempts were made to encapsulate Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis within alginate by using different multivalent counterions, namely, calcium chloride, zinc sulfate, copper sulfate, cobalt chloride, and ferric chloride, and the beads formed were tested for its mosquito larvicidal activity. Among all the beads tested, zinc alginate beads resulted in maximum larvicidal activity of 98% (+/-1.40 SE) against Culex quinquefasciatus IIIrd instar larvae and maximum spore count of 3.36 x 10(5) (+/-5291.50 SE) CFU/ml. Zinc alginate beads maintained their structure for up to 48 h when shaken vigorously on a rotary shaker at 180 rpm in the presence of 10 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8 +/- 0.1). In conclusion, our results suggest that the use of zinc sulfate as counterions to encapsulate B. thuringiensis var. israelensis within alginate may be a potent mosquito control program in the habitats where more phosphate ions are present.

  13. Alginate-encapsulation of shoot tips of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] for germplasm exchange and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Rai, Manoj K; Singh, Narender; Mangal, Manisha

    2010-12-01

    Shoot tips excised from in vitro proliferated shoots derived from nodal explants of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads for germplasm exchange and distribution. A gelling matrix of 3 % sodium alginate and 100 mM calcium chloride was found most suitable for formation of ideal calcium alginate beads. Best response for shoot sprouting from encapsulated shoot tips was recorded on 0.8 % agar-solidified full-strength MS medium. Rooting was induced upon transfer of sprouted shoots to 0.8 % agar-solidified MS medium containing 1 mg l(-1) IBA. About 70 % of encapsulated shoot tips were rooted and converted into plantlets. Plants regenerated from encapsulated shoot tips were acclimatized successfully. The present encapsulation approach could also be applied as an alternative method of propagation of desirable elite genotype of jojoba.

  14. Catalytically important amino-acid residues of abalone alginate lyase HdAly assessed by site-directed mutagenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Sayo; Sahara, Takehiko; Sato, Daisuke; Kawasaki, Kosei; Ohgiya, Satoru; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2008-01-01

    Alginate lyase is an enzyme that degrades alginate chains via β-elimination and has been used for the production of alginate oligosaccharides and protoplasts from brown algae. Previously, we deduced the amino-acid sequence of an abalone alginate lyase, HdAly, from its cDNA sequence and, through multiple amino-acid sequence alignment, found that several basic amino-acid residues were highly conserved among the polysaccharide-lyase family 14 (PL-14) enzymes including HdAly. In the present study...

  15. Characterization and Utilization of Calcium Oxide (CaO) Thermally Decomposed from Fish Bones as a Catalyst in the Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Aldes Lesbani; Sabat Okta Ceria Sitompul; Risfidian Mohadi; Nurlisa Hidayati

    2016-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of fish bones to obtain calcium oxide (CaO) was conducted at various temperatures of 400, 500, 800, 900, 1000, and 1100 °C. The calcium oxide was then characterized using X-ray diffractometer, FTIR spectrophotometer, and SEM analysis. The calcium oxide obtained from the decomposition at 1000 °C was then used as a catalyst in the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Diffraction pattern of the calcium oxide produced from decomposition at 1000...

  16. Granular gel support-enabled extrusion of three-dimensional alginate and cellular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yifei; Compaan, Ashley; Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Huang, Yong

    2016-06-03

    Freeform fabrication of soft structures has been of great interest in recent years. In particular, it is viewed as a critical step toward the grand vision of organ printing--the on-demand design and fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) human organ constructs for implantation and regenerative medicine. The objective of this study is to develop a novel granular gel support material-enabled, two-step gelation-based 'printing-then-gelation' approach to fabricate 3D alginate structures using filament extrusion. Specifically, a granular Carbopol microgel bath holds the ungelled alginate structure being extruded, avoiding the instantaneous gelation of each printed layer as well as resultant surface tension-induced nozzle clogging. Since Carbopol microgels react with multivalent cations, which are needed for alginate crosslinking, gelatin is introduced as a sacrificial material to make an alginate and gelatin bioink for extrusion, which gels thermally (step-one gelation) to initially stabilize the printed structure for removal from Carbopol. Then gelatin is melted and diffused away while alginate is ionically crosslinked in a 37 °C calcium chloride bath (step-two gelation), resulting in an alginate structure. The proposed 'printing-then-gelation' approach works for alginate structure fabrication, and it is also applicable for the printing of cellular constructs and other similar homogeneous soft structures using a two-step or even multi-step approach. The main conclusions are: (1) 0.8% (w/v) Carbopol bath with a neutral pH value may be most suitable for soft structure printing; (2) it is most effective to use a 0.9% (w/v) NaCl solution to facilitate the removal of residual Carbopol; and (3) alginate structures fabricated using the proposed approach demonstrate better mechanical properties than those fabricated using the conventional 'gelation-while-printing' approach.

  17. Interleukin-2 stimulates osteoclastic activity: Increased acid production and radioactive calcium release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ries, W.L.; Seeds, M.C.; Key, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2) was studied to determine effects on acid production by individual osteoclasts in situ on mouse calvarial bones. This analysis was performed using a microspectrofluorimetric technique to quantify acid production in individual cells. Radioactive calcium release was determined using calvarial bones in a standard tissue culture system. This allowed us to correlate changes in acid production with a measure of bone resorption. IL-2 stimulated acid production and bone resorbing activity. Both effects were inhibited by calcitonin. No stimulation of bone resorption occurred when IL-2-containing test media was incubated with a specific anti-IL-2 antibody and ultrafiltered. Our data demonstrated a correlation between acid production and bone resorbing activity in mouse calvaria exposed to parathyroid hormone (PTH). The data obtained from cultured mouse calvaria exposed to IL-2 demonstrated similar stimulatory effects to those seen during PTH exposure. These data suggest that calvaria exposed to IL-2 in vitro have increased osteoclastic acid production corresponding with increased bone resorption. (author)

  18. Factor Xa stimulates fibroblast procollagen production, proliferation, and calcium signaling via PAR1 activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc-Brude, Olivier P.; Archer, Fabienne; Leoni, Patricia; Derian, Claudia; Bolsover, Steven; Laurent, Geoffrey J.; Chambers, Rachel C.

    2005-01-01

    Fibroblast proliferation and procollagen production are central features of tissue repair and fibrosis. In addition to its role in blood clotting, the coagulation cascade proteinase thrombin can contribute to tissue repair by stimulating fibroblasts via proteolytic activation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR 1 ). During hemostasis, the coagulation cascade proteinase factor X is converted into factor Xa. We have previously shown that factor Xa upregulates fibroblast proliferation via production of autocrine PDGF. In this study, we further examined the effects of factor Xa on fibroblast function and aimed to identify its signaling receptor. We showed that factor Xa stimulates procollagen promoter activity and protein production by human and mouse fibroblasts. This effect was independent of PDGF and thrombin production, but dependent on factor Xa proteolytic activity. We also showed that PAR 1 -deficient mouse fibroblasts did not upregulate procollagen production, mobilize cytosolic calcium, or proliferate in response to factor Xa. Desensitization techniques and PAR 1 -specific agonists and inhibitors were used to demonstrate that PAR 1 mediates factor Xa signaling in human fibroblasts. This is the first report that factor Xa stimulates extracellular matrix production. In contrast with endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts appear to be the only cell type in which the effects of factor Xa are mediated mainly via PAR 1 and not PAR 2 . These findings are critical for our understanding of tissue repair and fibrotic mechanisms, and for the design of novel approaches to inhibit the profibrotic effects of the coagulation cascade without compromising blood hemostasis

  19. Effects of gelling bath on the physical properties of alginate gel beads and the biological characteristics of entrapped HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongsheng; Liu, Yang; Wu, Hao; Ren, Ying; Ma, Xiaojun; Wu, Huijian; Sun, Guangwei

    2018-03-01

    Optimizing alginate gel beads is necessary to support the survival, proliferation, and function of entrapped hepatocytes. In this study, gelling bath was modified by decreasing calcium ion concentration and increasing sodium ion concentration. Alginate gel beads (using 36% G sodium alginate) prepared in the modified gelling bath had more homogeneous structure and better mass transfer properties compared with the traditional gelling bath that contains only calcium ions. Moreover, alginate gel beads generated in the modified gelling bath could significantly promote the HepG2 cell proliferation and the growth of cell spheroids, and maintain the albumin secretion ability similar to alginate gel beads prepared in the traditional gelling bath with only calcium ions. The mass transfer properties and cell proliferation were similar in ALG beads with different M/G ratio (36% G and 55% G) generated in the modified gelling bath, whereas they were significantly increased compared with alginate gel beads (55% G) in traditional gelling bath. These results indicated that adjusting the gelling bath was a simple and convenient method to enhance the mass transfer properties of alginate gel beads for 3D hepatocyte culture, which might provide more hepatocytes for the bioartificial liver support system. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Manipulation and Characterization of Alginate Exo polysaccharides produced by Azotobacter Vinelandii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bialy, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Exo polysaccharides (EPS) have been found in a wide range of applications in food industry and in the biomedical field. In the present study, the effect of nutritional factors (carbon and nitrogen sources) and gamma irradiations on alginate production by Azotobacter vinelandii was investigated. To understand the direct and indirect relations among these variables, a two way factorial design experiment was set up. At low concentration of carbon source (≤ 20 g/l), the alginate yield was influenced by the type of nitrogen substrate and C/N ratio, whereas the role of these factors on alginate production was minimized at high concentration of carbon source (> 20 g/l). Batch fermentation of alginate exo polysaccharides was manipulated by maintaining the ph value of the cultures at 7 along the incubation period and reducing the agitation speed to 100 rpm after 24 h at the time of inoculation. This process succeeded to increase the alginate yield exponentially with time by 50%. Exposing A. vinelandii cells to gamma irradiation at dose level 0.5 kGy decreased their activity to synthesis alginate by 44%. The produced alginate was characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC).

  1. Alginate based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, J.F.A.; Valente, T.A.M. [CICS-UBI - Centro de Investigacao em Ciencias da Saude, Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Alves, P.; Ferreira, P. [CIEPQPF, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade de Coimbra, Polo II, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-290 Coimbra (Portugal); Silva, A. [Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespaciais, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Correia, I.J., E-mail: icorreia@ubi.pt [CICS-UBI - Centro de Investigacao em Ciencias da Saude, Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal)

    2012-12-01

    The design and production of scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration is yet unable to completely reproduce the native bone properties. In the present study new alginate microparticle and microfiber aggregated scaffolds were produced to be applied in this area of regenerative medicine. The scaffolds' mechanical properties were characterized by thermo mechanical assays. Their morphological characteristics were evaluated by isothermal nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. The density of both types of scaffolds was determined by helium pycnometry and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Furthermore, scaffolds' cytotoxic profiles were evaluated in vitro by seeding human osteoblast cells in their presence. The results obtained showed that scaffolds have good mechanical and morphological properties compatible with their application as bone substitutes. Moreover, scaffold's biocompatibility was confirmed by the observation of cell adhesion and proliferation after 5 days of being seeded in their presence and by non-radioactive assays. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design and production of scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microparticle and microfiber alginate scaffolds were produced through a particle aggregation technique; Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scaffolds' mechanically and biologically properties were characterized through in vitro studies;.

  2. One-step purification and characterization of alginate lyase from a clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa with destructive activity on bacterial biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinaz Ghadam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Pseudomonas aeruginosais a Gram-negative and aerobic rod bacterium that displays mucoid and non-mucoid phenotype. Mucoid strains secrete alginate, which is the main agent of biofilms in chronic P. aeruginosa infections, show high resistance to antibiotics; consequently, the biological disruption of mucoid P. aeruginosa biofilms is an attractive area of study for researchers. Alginate lyase gene (algl is a member of alginate producing operon which by glycosidase activity produces primer for other enzymes in this cluster. Also this activity can destroy the extracellular alginate; therefore this enzyme participates in alginate production and destruction pathway. Alginate lyase causes detachment of a biofilm by reducing its adhesion to the surfaces, and increases phagocytosis and antibiotic susceptibility. In this study, alginate lyase was purified in just one step and its properties were investigated. Materials and Methods: The purification was done by affinity chromatography, analysed by SDS-PAGE, and its effect on P. aeruginosa biofilms was surveyed by micro titer plate assay and SEM. The substrate specificity of the enzyme was determined by PCR. Results: Alginate lyase from isolate 48 was purified in one step. It is more thermally resistant than alginate lyase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and poly M, poly G and poly MG alginate were the substrate of this enzyme. Moreover, it has an eradication effect on biofilms from P. aeruginosa 48 and PAO1. Conclusion: In this study an alginate lyase with many characteristics suitable in medicine such as thermal stability, effective on poly M alginate, and bacterial biofilm destructive was introduced and purified.

  3. Optimization of date syrup for enhancement of the production of citric acid using immobilized cells of Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa, Yasser S.; Alamri, Saad A.

    2012-01-01

    Date syrup as an economical source of carbohydrates and immobilized Aspergillus niger J4, which was entrapped in calcium alginate pellets, were employed for enhancing the production of citric acid. Maximum production was achieved by pre-treating date syrup with 1.5% tricalcium phosphate to remove heavy metals. The production of citric acid using a pretreated medium was 38.87% higher than an untreated one that consumed sugar. The appropriate presence of nitrogen, phosphate and magnesium appear...

  4. THE EFFECT OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS DIETARY LEVEL ON EGG PRODUCTION OF THE BANTUL LOCAL DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sasongko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of various calcium and phosphorus levels on the production performance of Bantul Duck. A total of 270 female ducks, 26 weeks age, were used in the study with a 3x3 factorial treatment, which is a combination of three levels of Ca: 3.75; 3.25 and 2.75% and three levels of P: 0.45, 0.35 and 0.25%. Each treatment occupied three replication cages, each of which consisted of 10 ducks. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks.. Data recorded were: (a feed intake (g/duck/day, (b egg production (% HDA, and (c feed conversion. All quantitative data obtained during the study were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA using SPSS computer program. The results of the variables recorded did not show significantly difference. Increasing Ca level on feed showed an increasing trend of egg production. The average feed consumption ranged at 151-159 g/duck/day; egg production was 75-84%, and the feed conversion was 184-212 g/egg.

  5. Immobilization of Lipase using Alginate Hydrogel Beads and Enzymatic Evaluation in Hydrolysis of p-Nitrophenol Butyrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuang; Shang, Wenting; Yang, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Shujuan; Zhang, Xiaogang; Chen, Jiawei [Renmin Univ. of China, Beijing (China)

    2013-09-15

    The immobilization of enzyme is one of the key issues both in the field of enzymatic research and industrialization. In this work, we reported a facile method to immobilize Candida Antarctica lipase B (CALB) in alginate carrier. In the presence of calcium cation, the enzyme-alginate suspension could be cross-linked to form beads with porous structure at room temperature, and the enzyme CALB was dispersed in the beads. Activity of the enzyme-alginate composite was verified by enzymatic hydrolysis reaction of p-nitrophenol butyrate in aqueous phase. The effects of reaction parameters such as temperature, pH, embedding and lyophilized time on the reactive behavior were discussed. Reuse cycle experiments for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenol butyrate demonstrated that activity of the enzyme-alginate composite was maintained without marked deactivation up to 6 repeated cycles.

  6. Survival of pathogenic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and control with calcium oxide in frozen meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Eun Young; Ko, Young Mi; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated both the level of microbial contamination and the presence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) in frozen meat products, followed by the evaluation of its survival over 180 days under frozen temperature. We also examined the effect of calcium oxide on the populations of EHEC, E. coli O157:H7 and EPEC under both 10 °C and -18 °C storage conditions. Afterward, the morphological changes occurring in EHEC cells in response to freezer storage temperature and calcium oxide (CaO) treatments were examined using transmission electron microscopy. Among the frozen meat products tested, the highest contamination levels of total aerobic counts, coliforms and E. coli were observed in pork cutlets. Examination showed that 20% of the frozen meat products contained virulence genes, including verotoxin (VT) 1 and 2. Over 180 days of frozen storage and after 3 freeze-thaw cycles, the population of EHEC did not change regardless of the type of products or initial inoculated concentration, indicating the strong survival ability of EHEC. Subsequent testing revealed that the growth of three pathogenic E. coli strains was completely inhibited in meat patties prepared with 1% CaO, stored at 10 °C. However, the addition of 2% CaO was necessary to control the survival of EHEC, E. coli O157:H7 and EPEC in meat patties stored at -18 °C. CaO reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7 more effectively than the other EHEC and EPEC strains at both 10 °C and -18 °C. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that exposed EHEC cells were resistant to the freezer storage temperature, although some cells incurred injury and death after several freeze-thaw cycles. Most of the cells exposed to CaO were found to have died or lost their cellular integrity and membranes, indicating that CaO has the potential to be used as a powerful antimicrobial agent for manufacturing frozen meat products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lipase in biphasic alginate beads as a biocatalyst for esterification of butyric acid and butanol in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Choong Hey; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Esterification of organic acids and alcohols in aqueous media is very inefficient due to thermodynamic constraints. However, fermentation processes used to produce organic acids and alcohols are often conducted in aqueous media. To produce esters in aqueous media, biphasic alginate beads with immobilized lipase are developed for in situ esterification of butanol and butyric acid. The biphasic beads contain a solid matrix of calcium alginate and hexadecane together with 5 mg/mL of lipase as the biocatalyst. Hexadecane in the biphasic beads serves as an organic phase to facilitate the esterification reaction. Under optimized conditions, the beads are able to catalyze the production of 0.16 mmol of butyl butyrate from 0.5 mmol of butyric acid and 1.5 mmol of butanol. In contrast, when monophasic beads (without hexadecane) are used, only trace amount of butyl butyrate is produced. One main application of biphasic beads is in simultaneous fermentation and esterification (SFE) because the organic phase inside the beads is very stable and does not leach out into the culture medium. SFE is successfully conducted with an esterification yield of 6.32% using biphasic beads containing iso-octane even though the solvent is proven toxic to the butanol-producing Clostridium spp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary inclusion of diallyl disulfide, yucca powder, calcium fumarate, an extruded linseed product, or medium-chain fatty acids does not affect methane production in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Dijkstra, J.; Perdok, H.B.; Newbold, J.R.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Two similar experiments were conducted to assess the effect of diallyl disulfide (DADS), yucca powder (YP), calcium fumarate (CAFU), an extruded linseed product (UNSAT), or a mixture of capric and caprylic acid (MCFA) on methane production, energy balance, and dairy cow performance. In experiment 1,

  9. Polyelectrolyte addition effect on the properties of setting hydraulic cements based on calcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Luis A. dos; Oliveira, Luci C. de; Rigo, Eliana C.S.; Boschi, Anselmo Ortega; Carrodeguas, Raul Gracia

    1997-01-01

    In the present work the effects of the addition of some poly electrolytes (sodium alginate and poly acrylic acid) on the solubility, crystalline phases, pH and mechanical strength under compression of three calcium phosphate cements were studied. (author)

  10. Alginate nanobeads interspersed fibrin network as in situ forming hydrogel for soft tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deepthi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are a class of materials that has the property of injectability and in situ gel formation. This property of hydrogels is manipulated in this study to develop a biomimetic bioresorbable injectable system of alginate nanobeads interspersed in fibrin network. Alginate nanobeads developed by calcium cross-linking yielded a size of 200–500 nm. The alginate nanobeads fibrin hydrogel was formed using dual syringe apparatus. Characterization of the in situ injectable hydrogel was done by SEM, FTIR and Rheometer. The developed hydrogel showed mechanical strength of 19 kPa which provides the suitable compliance for soft tissue engineering. Cytocompatibility studies using human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells showed good attachment, proliferation and infiltration within the hydrogel similar to fibrin gel. The developed in situ forming hydrogel could be a suitable delivery carrier of stem cells for soft tissue regeneration.

  11. Alginate nanobeads interspersed fibrin network as in situ forming hydrogel for soft tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepthi, S; Jayakumar, R

    2018-06-01

    Hydrogels are a class of materials that has the property of injectability and in situ gel formation. This property of hydrogels is manipulated in this study to develop a biomimetic bioresorbable injectable system of alginate nanobeads interspersed in fibrin network. Alginate nanobeads developed by calcium cross-linking yielded a size of 200-500 nm. The alginate nanobeads fibrin hydrogel was formed using dual syringe apparatus. Characterization of the in situ injectable hydrogel was done by SEM, FTIR and Rheometer. The developed hydrogel showed mechanical strength of 19 kPa which provides the suitable compliance for soft tissue engineering. Cytocompatibility studies using human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells showed good attachment, proliferation and infiltration within the hydrogel similar to fibrin gel. The developed in situ forming hydrogel could be a suitable delivery carrier of stem cells for soft tissue regeneration.

  12. Response Surface Methodology for Biodiesel Production Using Calcium Methoxide Catalyst Assisted with Tetrahydrofuran as Cosolvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichaonn Chumuang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to optimize a heterogeneous calcium methoxide (Ca(OCH32 catalyzed transesterification process assisted with tetrahydrofuran (THF as a cosolvent for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Response surface methodology (RSM with a 5-level-4-factor central composite design was applied to investigate the effect of experimental factors on the percentage of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME conversion. A quadratic model with an analysis of variance obtained from the RSM is suggested for the prediction of FAME conversion and reveals that 99.43% of the observed variation is explained by the model. The optimum conditions obtained from the RSM were 2.83 wt% of catalyst concentration, 11.6 : 1 methanol-to-oil molar ratio, 100.14 min of reaction time, and 8.65% v/v of THF in methanol concentration. Under these conditions, the properties of the produced biodiesel satisfied the standard requirement. THF as cosolvent successfully decreased the catalyst concentration, methanol-to-oil molar ratio, and reaction time when compared with biodiesel production without cosolvent. The results are encouraging for the application of Ca(OCH32 assisted with THF as a cosolvent for environmentally friendly and sustainable biodiesel production.

  13. THE EFFECT OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS DIETARY LEVEL ON EGG PRODUCTION OF THE BANTUL LOCAL DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sasongko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of various calcium and phosphorus levels on theproduction performance of Bantul Duck. A total of 270 female ducks, 26 weeks age, were used in thestudy with a 3x3 factorial treatment, which is a combination of three levels of Ca: 3.75; 3.25 and 2.75%and three levels of P: 0.45, 0.35 and 0.25%. Each treatment occupied three replication cages, each ofwhich consisted of 10 ducks. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks.. Data recorded were: (a feedintake (g/duck/day, (b egg production (% HDA, and (c feed conversion. All quantitative dataobtained during the study were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA using SPSS computerprogram. The results of the variables recorded did not show significantly difference. Increasing Ca levelon feed showed an increasing trend of egg production. The average feed consumption ranged at 151-159g/duck/day; egg production was 75-84%, and the feed conversion was 184-212 g/egg.

  14. EFFECTS OF SODIUM AND CALCIUM IN LIGNITE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON PRODUCTS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwin S. Olson; Kurt E. Eylands; Daniel J. Stepan

    2001-01-01

    New federal drinking water regulations have been promulgated to restrict the levels of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in finished public water supplies. DBPs are suspected carcinogens and are formed when organic material is partially oxidized by disinfectants commonly used in the water treatment industry. Additional federal mandates are expected in the near future that will also affect public water suppliers with respect to DBPs. These new federal drinking water regulations may require public water suppliers to adjust treatment practices or incorporate additional treatment operations into their existing treatment trains. Many options have been identified, including membrane processes, granular activated carbon, powered activated carbon (PAC), enhanced coagulation and/or softening, and alternative disinfectants (e.g., chlorine dioxide, ozone, and chloramines). Of the processes being considered, PAC appears to offer an attractive benefit-to-cost advantage for many water treatment plants, particularly small systems (those serving fewer than 10,000 customers). PAC has traditionally been used by the water treatment industry for the removal of compounds contributing to taste and odor problems. PAC also has the potential to remove naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) from raw waters prior to disinfection, thus controlling the formation of regulated DBPs. Many small water systems are currently using PAC for taste and odor control and have the potential to use PAC for controlling DBPs. Activated carbons can be produced from a variety of raw materials, including wood, peat, coconut husks, and numerous types of coal. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been working on the development of a PAC product to remove NOM from surface water supplies to prevent the formation of carcinogenic DBPs during chlorination. During that study, the sodium and calcium content of the lignites showed a significant effect on the sorption capacity of the activated carbon

  15. By-product reuse in drinking water softening: influence of operating conditions on calcium carbonate pellet characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Camilla; Rosshaug, P. S.; Kristensen, J. B.

    both socio-economic and environmental benefits. However, optimal implementation of softening requires a holistic approach including e.g. possibilities for by-product reuse. A pellet reactor is one widely used softening technology that may produce up to 350 kg calcium carbonate pellets per 1000 m3...

  16. Structural basis for alginate secretion across the bacterial outer membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, J.C.; Robinson, H.; Hay, I. D.; Li, C.; Eckford, P. D. W.; Amaya, M. F.; Wood, L. F.; Ohman, D. E.; Bear, C. E.; Rehm, B. H.; Howell, P. L.

    2011-08-09

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant pathogen associated with chronic lung infection among cystic fibrosis patients. During colonization of the lung, P. aeruginosa converts to a mucoid phenotype characterized by the overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Secretion of newly synthesized alginate across the outer membrane is believed to occur through the outer membrane protein AlgE. Here we report the 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of AlgE, which reveals a monomeric 18-stranded {beta}-barrel characterized by a highly electropositive pore constriction formed by an arginine-rich conduit that likely acts as a selectivity filter for the negatively charged alginate polymer. Interestingly, the pore constriction is occluded on either side by extracellular loop L2 and an unusually long periplasmic loop, T8. In halide efflux assays, deletion of loop T8 ({Delta}T8-AlgE) resulted in a threefold increase in anion flux compared to the wild-type or {Delta}L2-AlgE supporting the idea that AlgE forms a transport pathway through the membrane and suggesting that transport is regulated by T8. This model is further supported by in vivo experiments showing that complementation of an algE deletion mutant with {Delta}T8-AlgE impairs alginate production. Taken together, these studies support a mechanism for exopolysaccharide export across the outer membrane that is distinct from the Wza-mediated translocation observed in canonical capsular polysaccharide export systems.

  17. Structural Basis for Alginate Secretion Across the Bacterial Outer Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Whitney; I Hay; C Li; P Eckford; H Robinson; M Amaya; L Wood; D Ohman; C Bear; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant pathogen associated with chronic lung infection among cystic fibrosis patients. During colonization of the lung, P. aeruginosa converts to a mucoid phenotype characterized by the overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Secretion of newly synthesized alginate across the outer membrane is believed to occur through the outer membrane protein AlgE. Here we report the 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of AlgE, which reveals a monomeric 18-stranded {beta}-barrel characterized by a highly electropositive pore constriction formed by an arginine-rich conduit that likely acts as a selectivity filter for the negatively charged alginate polymer. Interestingly, the pore constriction is occluded on either side by extracellular loop L2 and an unusually long periplasmic loop, T8. In halide efflux assays, deletion of loop T8 ({Delta}T8-AlgE) resulted in a threefold increase in anion flux compared to the wild-type or {Delta}L2-AlgE supporting the idea that AlgE forms a transport pathway through the membrane and suggesting that transport is regulated by T8. This model is further supported by in vivo experiments showing that complementation of an algE deletion mutant with {Delta}T8-AlgE impairs alginate production. Taken together, these studies support a mechanism for exopolysaccharide export across the outer membrane that is distinct from the Wza-mediated translocation observed in canonical capsular polysaccharide export systems.

  18. Bioinspired preparation of alginate nanoparticles using microbubble bursting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Mohamed; Huang, Jie; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are considered to be one of the most advanced tools for drug delivery applications. In this research, alginate (a model hydrophilic polymer) nanoparticles 80 to 200 nm in diameter were obtained using microbubble bursting. The natural process of bubble bursting occurs through a number of stages, which consequently produce nano- and microsized droplets via two main production mechanisms, bubble shell disintegration and a jetting process. In this study, nano-sized droplets/particles were obtained by promoting the disintegrating mechanism and suppressing (limiting) the formation of larger microparticles resulting from the jetting mechanism. A T-junction microfluidic device was used to prepare alginate microbubbles with different sizes in a well-controlled manner. The size of the bubbles was varied by controlling two processing parameters, the solution flow rate and the bubbling pressure. Crucially, the bubble size was found to be the determining factor for inducing (or limiting) the bubble shell disintegration mechanism and the size needed to promote this process was influenced by the properties of the solution used for preparing the bubbles, particularly the viscosity. The size of alginate nanoparticles produced via the disintegration mechanism was found to be directly proportional to the viscosity of the alginate solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Formulation of an alginate-vineyard pruning waste composite as a new eco-friendly adsorbent to remove micronutrients from agroindustrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecino, X; Devesa-Rey, R; Moldes, A B; Cruz, J M

    2014-09-01

    The cellulosic fraction of vineyard pruning waste (free of hemicellulosic sugars) was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and evaluated as an eco-friendly adsorbent for the removal of different nutrients and micronutrients (Mg, P, Zn, K, N-NH4, SO4, TN, TC and PO4) from an agroindustrial effluent (winery wastewater). Batch adsorption studies were performed by varying the amounts of cellulosic adsorbent (0.5-2%), sodium alginate (1-5%) and calcium chloride (0.05-0.9M) included in the biocomposite. The optimal formulation of the adsorbent composite varied depending on the target contaminant. Thus, for the adsorption of cationic contaminants (Mg, Zn, K, N-NH4 and TN), the best mixture comprised 5% sodium alginate, 0.05M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste, whereas for removal of anionic compounds (P, SO4 and PO4), the optimal mixture comprised 1% sodium alginate, 0.9M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste. To remove TC from the winery wastewater, the optimal mixture comprised 3% of sodium alginate, 0.475M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alginate gelation-induced cell death during laser-assisted cell printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudapati, Hemanth; Yan, Jingyuan; Huang, Yong; Chrisey, Douglas B

    2014-01-01

    Modified laser-induced forward transfer has emerged as a promising bioprinting technique. Depending on the operating conditions and cell properties, laser cell printing may cause cell injury and even death, which should be carefully elucidated for it to be a viable technology. This study has investigated the effects of alginate gelation, gelation time, alginate concentration, and laser fluence on the post-transfer cell viability of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Sodium alginate and calcium chloride are used as the gel precursor and gel reactant solution to form cell-laden alginate microspheres. It is found that the effects of gelation depend on the duration of gelation. Two-minute gelation is observed to increase the cell viability after 24 h incubation, mainly due to the protective cushion effect of the forming gel membrane during droplet landing. Despite the cushion effect from 10 min gelation, it is observed that the cell viability decreases after 24 h incubation because of the forming thick gel membrane that reduces nutrient and oxygen diffusion from the culture medium. In addition, the cell viability after 24 h incubation decreases as the laser fluence or alginate concentration increases. (paper)

  1. Effects of alginate hydrogel cross-linking density on mechanical and biological behaviors for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jinah; Seol, Young-Joon; Kim, Hyeon Ji; Kundu, Joydip; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2014-09-01

    An effective cross-linking of alginate gel was made through reaction with calcium carbonate (CaCO3). We used human chondrocytes as a model cell to study the effects of cross-linking density. Three different pore size ranges of cross-linked alginate hydrogels were fabricated. The morphological, mechanical, and rheological properties of various alginate hydrogels were characterized and responses of biosynthesis of cells encapsulated in each gel to the variation in cross-linking density were investigated. Desired outer shape of structure was maintained when the alginate solution was cross-linked with the applied method. The properties of alginate hydrogel could be tailored through applying various concentrations of CaCO3. The rate of synthesized GAGs and collagens was significantly higher in human chondrocytes encapsulated in the smaller pore structure than that in the larger pore structure. The expression of chondrogenic markers, including collagen type II and aggrecan, was enhanced in the smaller pore structure. It was found that proper structural morphology is a critical factor to enhance the performance and tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of a Novel Alginate Lyase from Marine Bacterium Vibrio furnissii H1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alginate lyases show great potential for industrial and medicinal applications, especially as an attractive biocatalyst for the production of oligosaccharides with special bioactivities. A novel alginate lyase, AlyH1, from the marine bacterium Vibrio furnissii H1, which has been newly isolated from rotten seaweed, was purified and characterized. The purified enzyme showed the specific activity of 2.40 U/mg. Its molecular mass was 35.8 kDa. The optimal temperature and pH were 40 °C and pH 7.5, respectively. AlyH1 maintained stability at neutral pH (7.0–8.0 and temperatures below 30 °C. Metal ions Na+, Mg2+, and K+ increased the activity of the enzyme. With sodium alginate as the substrate, the Km and Vmax values of AlyH1 were 2.28 mg/mL and 2.81 U/mg, respectively. AlyH1 exhibited activities towards both polyguluronate and polymannuronate, and preferentially degraded polyguluronate. Products prepared from sodium alginate by AlyH1 were displayed to be di-, tri-, and tetra-alginate oligosaccharides. A partial amino acid sequence (190 aa of AlyH1 analysis suggested that AlyH1 was an alginate lyase of polysaccharide lyase family 7. The sequence showed less than 77% identity to the reported alginate lyases. These data demonstrated that AlyH1 could be as a novel and potential candidate in application of alginate oligosaccharides production with low polymerization degrees.

  3. Alginate/Poly(γ-glutamic Acid) Base Biocompatible Gel for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wing P.; Kung, Fu-Chen; Kuo, Yu-Lin; Yang, Ming-Chen; Lai, Wen-Fu Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A technique for synthesizing biocompatible hydrogels by cross-linking calcium-form poly(γ-glutamic acid), alginate sodium, and Pluronic F-127 was created, in which alginate can be cross-linked by Ca2+ from Ca–γ-PGA directly and γ-PGA molecules introduced into the alginate matrix to provide pH sensitivity and hemostasis. Mechanical properties, swelling behavior, and blood compatibility were investigated for each hydrogel compared with alginate and for γ-PGA hydrogel with the sodium form only. Adding F-127 improves mechanical properties efficiently and influences the temperature-sensitive swelling of the hydrogels but also has a minor effect on pH-sensitive swelling and promotes anticoagulation. MG-63 cells were used to test biocompatibility. Gelation occurred gradually through change in the elastic modulus as the release of calcium ions increased over time and caused ionic cross-linking, which promotes the elasticity of gel. In addition, the growth of MG-63 cells in the gel reflected nontoxicity. These results showed that this biocompatible scaffold has potential for application in bone materials. PMID:26504784

  4. Silver Alginate Hydrogel Micro- and Nanocontainers for Theranostics: Synthesis, Encapsulation, Remote Release, and Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengert, Ekaterina; Saveleva, Mariia; Abalymov, Anatolii; Atkin, Vsevolod; Wuytens, Pieter C; Kamyshinsky, Roman; Vasiliev, Alexander L; Gorin, Dmitry A; Sukhorukov, Gleb B; Skirtach, Andre G; Parakhonskiy, Bogdan

    2017-07-05

    We have designed multifunctional silver alginate hydrogel microcontainers referred to as loaded microcapsules with different sizes by assembling them via a template assisted approach using natural, highly porous calcium carbonate cores. Sodium alginate was immobilized into the pores of calcium carbonate particles of different sizes followed by cross-linking via addition of silver ions, which had a dual purpose: on one hand, the were used as a cross-linking agent, albeit in the monovalent form, while on the other hand they have led to formation of silver nanoparticles. Monovalent silver ions, an unusual cross-linking agent, improve the sensitivity to ultrasound, lead to homogeneous distribution of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles appeared on the shell of the alginate microcapsules in the twin-structure as determined by transmission electron microscopy. Remote release of a payload from alginate containers by ultrasound was found to strongly depend on the particle size. The possibility to use such particles as a platform for label-free molecule detection based on the surface enhanced Raman scattering was demonstrated. Cytotoxicity and cell uptake studies conducted in this work have revealed that microcontainers exhibit nonessential level of toxicity with an efficient uptake of cells. The above-described functionalities constitute building blocks of a theranostic system, where detection and remote release can be achieved with the same carrier.

  5. An evaluation of the efficiency of compartmented alginate fibres encapsulating a rejuvenator as an asphalt pavement healing system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabaković, Amir; Karač, Aleksandar; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the potential methods for evaluating a healing system for asphalt pavements. The healing system under investigation involves compartmented calcium-alginate fibres encapsulating an asphalt binder healing agent (rejuvenator). This system presents a novel method of incorporating

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sodium alginate and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 1868, 1881) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to sodium alginate and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim did not show a reduction in post-prandial glycaemic responses without a disproportionate increase in post-prandial insulinaemic responses following consumption of sodium alginate. On the basis of the data presented...

  7. Radiation degradation of alginate and some results of biological effect of degraded alginate on plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hien, N.Q.; Hai, L.; Luan, L.Q.; Hanh, T.T.; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo; Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-01-01

    Radiation degradation yields (Gd) of alginate in aqueous solution with different concentration were determined by viscometry method. The relationship between Gd and the alginate concentration was found out as: Gd=33.5 x C -0.68 , with C% (w/v) and dry alginate referred to C=100%. An empirical equation for preparing degraded alginate with the desired low viscometry average molecular weight (Mv) by radiation was proposed. Alginate extracted directly horn seaweed'Sagassum, degraded by radiation was used for field experiments and results of the biological effect on plants (tea, carrot, chrysanthemum) were presented. (author)

  8. Radiation degradation of alginate and some results of biological effect of degraded alginate on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, N.Q.; Hai, L.; Luan, L.Q.; Hanh, T.T. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Radiation degradation yields (Gd) of alginate in aqueous solution with different concentration were determined by viscometry method. The relationship between Gd and the alginate concentration was found out as: Gd=33.5 x C{sup -0.68}, with C% (w/v) and dry alginate referred to C=100%. An empirical equation for preparing degraded alginate with the desired low viscometry average molecular weight (Mv) by radiation was proposed. Alginate extracted directly horn seaweed'Sagassum, degraded by radiation was used for field experiments and results of the biological effect on plants (tea, carrot, chrysanthemum) were presented. (author)

  9. Measuring natrium alginate content of brown algae spesies Padina sp. as the basic matter for making dental impression material (Irreversible hydrocolloid impression material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlindah Hamrun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important procedure in denture fabrication and orthodontic treatment is molding the patient’s detail oral cavity to determine the treatment planning. This procedure does by using alginate impression material or irreversible hydrocolloid which is the basic material is natrium alginate which is imported from abroad because it is extracted from brown algae which habitat is not in Indonesia so it is causes the impression material is relative expensive which is impact to high cost of dental treatment. Indonesia as the archipelago country has availability of abundant brown algae Padina sp. especially in Puntondo-Punaga seashore, South Sulawesi, but it has not cultivate yet by the local society because it is never discover by alginate industry so it is just grow wild and it’s potency is useless. This experiment purposes to identified how much natrium alginate is producted from Padina Sp. extraction as the basic matter of irreversible hydrocolloid. The design of this study is conducted by experimental design with one shot case study method. Early stage research, extraction of alginate in form of natrium alginate. After that it is weighted by using analytical weight in milligram (mg unit. Then, it is compare with the standard natrium alginate to observe the similarity of molecule by using FTIR device. Data were analyzed using uji rerata. Based on extracted Padina sp, produced 12.86 g natrium alginate content or 28,4% from the alga dry weight total was used which is 45 g. Based on FTIR test, showed that extracted natrium alginate is similar with the standard natrium alginate with the found of hidroxyl, carboxylate, and eter group which is composer of natrium alginate. From both of infra red spectrum pattern, it was observed unsignificant difference. Extracted natrium alginate Padinasp is same with the standard natrium alginate and it has content 12.86 g.

  10. Evaluation of stress-strain for characterization of the rheological behavior of alginate and carrageenan gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Mammarella

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The stress-strain of samples deformed until failure and the relaxation response after 50% deformation of the initial height under constant stress were obtained. Uniaxial compression and stress-relaxation tests enabled satisfactory differentiation of the mechanical resistance of gels with different alginate and carrageenan concentrations. Higher values for initial force at the beginning of the relaxation test were associated with higher calcium uptake by the gels. An increment of failure stress during the uniaxial compression tests for higher concentration of calcium in the gel structure was also observed. The maximum amount of cation uptake was higher than the theoretical value for saturation of all the carboxylic groups available in alginate molecules due to structural rearrangements. Stress-relaxation tests indicated that the residual stress of the gel increased with kappa-carrageenan concentration.

  11. Calcium looping process for high purity hydrogen production integrated with capture of carbon dioxide, sulfur and halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Shwetha; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-07-30

    A process for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (i) gasifying a fuel into a raw synthesis gas comprising CO, hydrogen, steam, sulfur and halide contaminants in the form of H.sub.2S, COS, and HX, wherein X is a halide; (ii) passing the raw synthesis gas through a water gas shift reactor (WGSR) into which CaO and steam are injected, the CaO reacting with the shifted gas to remove CO.sub.2, sulfur and halides in a solid-phase calcium-containing product comprising CaCO.sub.3, CaS and CaX.sub.2; (iii) separating the solid-phase calcium-containing product from an enriched gaseous hydrogen product; and (iv) regenerating the CaO by calcining the solid-phase calcium-containing product at a condition selected from the group consisting of: in the presence of steam, in the presence of CO.sub.2, in the presence of synthesis gas, in the presence of H.sub.2 and O.sub.2, under partial vacuum, and combinations thereof.

  12. Development of a cell culture surface conversion technique using alginate thin film for evaluating effect upon cellular differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Y.; Tsusu, K.; Minami, K.; Nakanishi, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we sought to develop a cell culture surface conversion technique that would not damage living cells. An alginate thin film, formed on a glass plate by spin coating of sodium alginate solution and dipping into calcium chloride solution, was used to inhibit adhesion of cells. The film could be removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) at any time during cell culture, permitting observation of cellular responses to conversion of the culture surface in real time. Additionally, we demonstrated the validity of the alginate thin film coating method and the performance of the film. The thickness of the alginate thin film was controlled by varying the rotation speed during spin coating. Moreover, the alginate thin film completely inhibited the adhesion of cultured cells to the culture surface, irrespective of the thickness of the film. When the alginate thin film was removed from the culture surface by EDTA, the cultured cells adhered to the culture surface, and their morphology changed. Finally, we achieved effective differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotube cells by cell culture on the convertible culture surface, demonstrating the utility of our novel technique

  13. Formulation of Sodium Alginate Nanospheres Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to formulate sodium alginate nanospheres of amphotericin B by controlled gellification method and to evaluate the role of the nanospheres as a “passive carrier” in targeted antifungal therapy. Methods: Sodium alginate nanospheres of amphotericin B were prepared by controlled ...

  14. Calcium content in pond sediment and its effect on neutralizing capacity of water and fish production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, P.; Kutý, Michal; Hlaváč, D.; Regenda, J.; Vejsada, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2016), s. 1747-1754 ISSN 0967-6120 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Pond sediment * Calcium * Hydrogen carbonates Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.095, year: 2016

  15. Production and characterization of setting hydraulic cements based on calcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Luci C. de; Rigo, Eliana C.S.; Santos, Luis A dos; Boschi, Anselmo Ortega; Carrodeguas, Raul G.

    1997-01-01

    Setting hydraulic cements based on calcium phosphate has risen great interest in scientific literature during recent years due to their total bio compatibility and to the fact that they harden 'in situ', providing easy handling and adaptation to the shape and dimensions of the defect which requires correction, differently from the predecessors, the calcium phosphate ceramics (Hydroxy apatite, β-tri calcium phosphate, biphasic, etc) in the shape of dense or porous blocks and grains. In the work, three calcium-phosphate cement compositions were studied. The resulting compositions were characterized according to the following aspects: setting times, pH, mechanical resistance, crystalline phases, microstructure and solubility in SBF (Simulated Body Fluid). The results show a potential use for the compositions. (author)

  16. Preventing the settling of salts of calcium and magnesium in oil production on the Boka oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katincic, Z

    1972-01-01

    The results are given of laboratory and plant tests of the influence of sodium hexametaphosphate on the prevention of separation and settling of the salts of calcium and magnesium in the pipelines of the Boka oil field. All the former methods of fighting the salts consisted in dissolving the sediments of salt and paraffin in pipelines and the obligatory holding up of production, which required a loss in production in addition to material costs. By using the sodium hexametaphosphate, the settling of Ca and Mg salts in pipelines was prevented without holding up the production at considerably smaller cost.

  17. Polymeric microcapsules poduction from sodium alginic acid for cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Vale Campos Lisboa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of polymeric materials has been increasingly emphasized in Biomedicine. Here, we evaluate the use of microcapsules made of Biodritin®, a biocompatible polymer compound which contains sodium alginic acid, a natural polymer extracted from algae, and Cis-Chondroitin sulfate, a glycosaminoglycan from the extracellular matrix. Gelation of this polymer into microcapsules is achieved by dropping the compound into BaCl2 or CaCl2 gelling solutions. A functional microcapsule is dependent on its permeability, mechanical stability, immunoisolation capacity and biocompatibility. The mechanical stability of Biodritin-barium and Biodritin-calcium microcapsules was investigated after rotational stress upon in vitro culture and in vivo implantation. Viability studies of encapsulated cells were also performed to assess other functional parameters of the microcapsules. When subject to rotational stress, Biodritin-barium microcapsules exhibited breaks, whereas the Biodritin-calcium microcapsules did not. Both kinds of Biodritin® microcapsules proved to be mechanically resistant in in vitro and in vivo studies. However, the Biodritin-calcium material was found to be more elastic while the Biodritin-barium microcapsules displayed a more plastic behavior. These properties seem to be determinant for viability of the encapsulated cell’s, since the Biodritin-calcium microcapsules presented more viable cells than the Biodritin-barium microcapsules.

  18. Enzymatic production by tissue extracts of a metabolite of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide with calcium-releasing ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tich, N.R.

    1989-01-01

    This research investigated the occurrence and characterization of the metabolite in mammalian tissues. In all mammalian tissues tested, including rabbit liver, heart, spleen, kidney, and brain, the factor to convert NAD into its active metabolite was present. The conversion exhibited many characteristics of an enzymatic process such as temperature sensitivity, concentration dependence and protease sensitivity. Production of the NAD metabolite occurred within a time frame of 15-45 minutes at 37 degree C, depending upon the particular preparation. The metabolite was isolated using high performance liquid chromatography from all mammalian tissues. This purified metabolite was then tested for its effectiveness in releasing intracellular calcium in an intact cell by microinjecting it into unfertilized sea urchin eggs. These eggs undergo a massive morphological change upon fertilization which is dependent upon the release of calcium from inside the cell. Upon injection of the NAD metabolite into unfertilized eggs, this same morphological change was observed showing indirectly that the metabolite released intracellular calcium from an intact, viable cell. In addition, radioactive studies using 45 Ca 2+ loaded into permeabilized hepatocytes, indicated in preliminary studies that the NAD metabolite could also release calcium from intracellular stores of mammalian cells

  19. In vitro fermentation of alginate and its derivatives by human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miaomiao; Li, Guangsheng; Shang, Qingsen; Chen, Xiuxia; Liu, Wei; Pi, Xiong'e; Zhu, Liying; Yin, Yeshi; Yu, Guangli; Wang, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Alginate (Alg) has a long history as a food ingredient in East Asia. However, the human gut microbes responsible for the degradation of alginate and its derivatives have not been fully understood yet. Here, we report that alginate and the low molecular polymer derivatives of mannuronic acid oligosaccharides (MO) and guluronic acid oligosaccharides (GO) can be completely degraded and utilized at various rates by fecal microbiota obtained from six Chinese individuals. However, the derivative of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS) was not hydrolyzed. The bacteria having a pronounced ability to degrade Alg, MO and GO were isolated from human fecal samples and were identified as Bacteroides ovatus, Bacteroides xylanisolvens, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Alg, MO and GO can increase the production level of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), but GO generates the highest level of SCFA. Our data suggest that alginate and its derivatives could be degraded by specific bacteria in the human gut, providing the basis for the impacts of alginate and its derivates as special food additives on human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sodium alginate hydrogel-based bioprinting using a novel multinozzle bioprinting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seung-Joon; Choi, Jaesoon; Park, Yong-Doo; Hong, Soyoung; Lee, Jung Joo; Ahn, Chi Bum; Choi, Hyuk; Sun, Kyung

    2011-11-01

    Bioprinting is a technology for constructing bioartificial tissue or organs of complex three-dimensional (3-D) structure with high-precision spatial shape forming ability in larger scale than conventional tissue engineering methods and simultaneous multiple components composition ability. It utilizes computer-controlled 3-D printer mechanism or solid free-form fabrication technologies. In this study, sodium alginate hydrogel that can be utilized for large-dimension tissue fabrication with its fast gelation property was studied regarding material-specific printing technique and printing parameters using a multinozzle bioprinting system developed by the authors. A sodium alginate solution was prepared with a concentration of 1% (wt/vol), and 1% CaCl(2) solution was used as cross-linker for the gelation. The two materials were loaded in each of two nozzles in the multinozzle bioprinting system that has a total of four nozzles of which the injection speed can be independently controlled. A 3-D alginate structure was fabricated through layer-by-layer printing. Each layer was formed through two phases of printing, the first phase with the sodium alginate solution and the second phase with the calcium chloride solution, in identical printing pattern and speed condition. The target patterns were lattice shaped with 2-mm spacing and two different line widths. The nozzle moving speed was 6.67 mm/s, and the injection head speed was 10 µm/s. For the two different line widths, two injection needles with inner diameters of 260 and 410 µm were used. The number of layers accumulated was five in this experiment. By varying the nozzle moving speed and the injection speed, various pattern widths could be achieved. The feasibility of sodium alginate hydrogel free-form formation by alternate printing of alginate solution and sodium chloride solution was confirmed in the developed multinozzle bioprinting system. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International

  1. Growth and morphology of thermophilic dairy starters in alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboley, Laurence; St-Gelais, Daniel; Champagne, Claude P; Lamoureux, Maryse

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this research was to produce concentrated biomasses of thermophilic lactic starters using immobilized cell technology (ICT). Fermentations were carried out in milk using pH control with cells microentrapped in alginate beads. In the ICT fermentations, beads represented 17% of the weight. Some assays were carried out with free cells without pH control, in order to compare the ICT populations with those of classical starters. With Streptococcus thermophilus, overall populations in the fermentor were similar, but maximum bead population for (8.2 x 10(9) cfu/g beads) was 13 times higher than that obtained in a traditional starter (4.9 x 10(8) cfu/ml). For both Lactobacillus helveticus strains studied, immobilized-cell populations were about 3 x 10(9) cfu/g beads. Production of immobilized Lb. bulgaricus 210R strain was not possible, since no increases in viable counts occurred in beads. Therefore, production of concentrated cell suspension in alginate beads was more effective for S. thermophilus. Photomicrographs of cells in alginate beads demonstrated that, while the morphology of S. thermophilus remained unchanged during the ICT fermentation, immobilized cells of Lb. helveticus appeared wider. In addition, cells of Lb. bulgaricus were curved and elongated. These morphological changes would also impair the growth of immobilized lactobacilli.

  2. Alginate-modifying enzymes: Biological roles and biotechnological uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga eErtesvåg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alginate denotes a group of industrially important 1-4-linked biopolymers composed of the C-5-epimers β-D-mannuronic acid (M and α-L-guluronic acid (G. The polysaccharide is manufactured from brown algae where it constitutes the main structural cell wall polymer. The physical properties of a given alginate molecule, e.g. gel-strength, water-binding capacity, viscosity and biocompatibility, are determined by polymer length, the relative amount and distribution of G residues and the acetyl content, all of which are controlled by alginate modifying enzymes. Alginate has also been isolated from some bacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Azotobacter, and bacterially synthesized alginate may be O-acetylated at O-2 and/or O-3. Initially, alginate is synthesized as polymannuronic acid, and some M residues are subsequently epimerized to G residues. In bacteria a mannuronan C-5-epimerase (AlgG and an alginate acetylase (AlgX are integral parts of the protein complex necessary for alginate polymerisation and export. All alginate-producing bacteria use periplasmic alginate lyases to remove alginate molecules aberrantly released to the periplasm. Alginate lyases are also produced by organisms that utilize alginate as carbon source. Most alginate-producing organisms encode more than one mannuronan C-5 epimerase, each introducing its specific pattern of G residues. Acetylation protects against further epimerization and from most alginate lyases. One enzyme with alginate deacetylase activity from Pseudomonas syringae has been reported. Functional and structural studies reveal that alginate lyases and epimerases have related enzyme mechanisms and catalytic sites. Alginate lyases are now utilized as tools for alginate characterization. Secreted epimerases have been shown to function well in vitro, and have been engineered further in order to obtain enzymes that can provide alginates with new and desired properties for use in medical and

  3. Radiation degradation of alginate and chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Mitomo, Hiroshi [Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Alginate and chitosan were irradiated in solid or aqueous solution condition with Co{sup 60} gamma rays in the dose range of 20 to 500 kGy. Degradation was observed both in solid and solution conditions. The degradation in solution was remarkably greater than that in solid. For example, the molecular weight of alginate in 4%(w/v) solution decreased from 2 x 10{sup 5} for 0 kGy to 6 x 10{sup 3} for 50 kGy irradiation while the equivalent degradation by solid irradiation required 500 kGy. The activated species from irradiated water must be responsible for the degradation in solution. The degradation was also accompanied with the color change of alginate: the color became deep brown for highly degraded alginate. UV spectra showed a distinct absorption peak at 265 nm for colored alginates, increasing with dose. The fact that discoloration of colored alginate was caused on exposure to ozone suggests a formation of double bond in pyranose-ring by scission of glycosidic bond. Degradation behavior of chitosan in irradiation was almost the same as that of alginate. (author)

  4. Calcium Channel Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certain calcium channel blockers interact with grapefruit products. Kaplan NM, et al. Treatment of hypertension: Drug therapy. In: Kaplan's Clinical Hypertension. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Wolters Kluwer ...

  5. Bio-composites composed of a solid free-form fabricated polycaprolactone and alginate-releasing bone morphogenic protein and bone formation peptide for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MinSung; Jung, Won-Kyo; Kim, GeunHyung

    2013-11-01

    Biomedical scaffolds should be designed with highly porous three-dimensional (3D) structures that have mechanical properties similar to the replaced tissue, biocompatible properties, and biodegradability. Here, we propose a new composite composed of solid free-form fabricated polycaprolactone (PCL), bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2) or bone formation peptide (BFP-1), and alginate for bone tissue regeneration. In this study, PCL was used as a mechanical supporting component to enhance the mechanical properties of the final biocomposite and alginate was used as the deterring material to control the release of BMP-2 and BFP-1. A release test revealed that alginate can act as a good release control material. The in vitro biocompatibilities of the composites were examined using osteoblast-like cells (MG63) and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition were assessed. The in vitro test results revealed that PCL/BFP-1/Alginate had significantly higher ALP activity and calcium deposition than the PCL/BMP-2/Alginate composite. Based on these findings, release-controlled BFP-1 could be a good growth factor for enhancement of bone tissue growth and the simple-alginate coating method will be a useful tool for fabrication of highly functional biomaterials through release-control supplementation.

  6. Formation of alteration products during dissolution of vitrified ILW in a high-pH calcium-rich solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utton, C.A., E-mail: c.utton@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Hand, R.J.; Hyatt, N.C. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Swanton, S.W. [AMEC, B150, Thomson Avenue, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QB (United Kingdom); Williams, S.J. [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, NDA Harwell Office, Building 587, Curie Avenue, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    To simulate the possible disposition of a vitrified intermediate-level waste (ILW) in a cementitious environment within a geological disposal facility (GDF), the durability of a laboratory simulant ILW vitrified in a borosilicate glass in a saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution (pH ∼12.5) was measured. Both a low surface area to volume (SA/V) ratio (∼10 m{sup −1}) Materials Characterisation Center test 1 (MCC-1) and a high SA/V ratio (∼10,000 m{sup −1}) product consistency test type B (PCT-B) were used at 50 °C for up to 170 days. The formation of alteration layers and products was followed. The surfaces of the monoliths were analysed using SEM/EDX and showed the formation of magnesium-rich precipitates and distinct calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) precipitates. Cross sections showed the development of a calcium-rich alteration layer, which was observed from 14 days. The altered layer was up to 5 μm thick after 170 days and showed accumulation of zirconium, iron and magnesium and to a lesser extent aluminium, along with calcium and silicon. Based on comparison of the rate data, it is suggested that the presence of this layer may offer some protection to the underlying glass. However, the high SA/V ratio experiments showed resumed alteration after 56 days, indicating that the altered layer may not be protective in the long term (under accelerated conditions). The formation of a magnesium-containing smectite clay (likely saponite) in addition to CSH(II), a jennite-like CSH phase, were identified in the high SA/V experiment by X-ray diffraction after 170 days. These results suggest that calcium and magnesium have important roles in both the long and shorter-term durability of vitrified wastes exposed to high pH.

  7. Fabrication and magnetic control of alginate-based rolling microrobots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamel Ali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in microrobotics for biological applications are often limited due to their complex manufacturing processes, which often utilize cytotoxic materials, as well as limitations in the ability to manipulate these small devices wirelessly. In an effort to overcome these challenges, we investigated a facile method for generating biocompatible hydrogel based robots that are capable of being manipulated using an externally generated magnetic field. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the fabrication and autonomous control of loaded-alginate microspheres, which we term artificial cells. In order to generate these microparticles, we employed a centrifuge-based method in which microspheres were rapidly ejected from a nozzle tip. Specifically, we used two mixtures of sodium alginate; one containing iron oxide nanoparticles and the other containing mammalian cells. This mixture was loaded into a needle that was fixed on top of a microtube containing calcium chloride, and then briefly centrifuged to generate hundreds of Janus microspheres. The fabricated microparticles were then magnetically actuated with a rotating magnetic field, generated using electromagnetic coils, prompting the particles to roll across a glass substrate. Also, using vision-based feedback control, a single artificial cell was manipulated to autonomously move in a programmed pattern.

  8. Role of calcium in effects of atrial natriuretic peptide on aldosterone production in adrenal glomerulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, L.; Schiffrin, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) inhibits the stimulation of aldosterone secretion by isolated adrenal glomerulosa cells produced by angiotensin II (ANG II), ACTH, and potassium. The effect of ANP on the dose-response curve of aldosterone stimulated by ANG II, ACTH, and potassium on isolated rat adrenal glomerulosa cells was studied. In the presence of ANP the maximal response of aldosterone output stimulated by ANG II or potassium decreased and the half-maximum (EC 50 ) of the response to ACTH was displaced to the right. Because these effects resemble those of calcium-channel blockers, the authors investigated the effect of different concentrations of nifedipine, a dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker, on the dose-response curve of aldosterone stimulated by ANG II, ACTH, and potassium. Nifedipine produced effects similar to ANP. The maximal response of aldosterone stimulated by ANG II and potassium was decreased and the dose-response curve to ACTH was displaced to the right. ANP decreased the maximal response of aldosterone to the dihydropyridine derivative BAY K8644, a calcium-channel activator, without change in its EC 50 . In contrast, nifedipine displaced the dose-response curve to BAY K8644 to the right as expected of a competitive inhibitor. The effect of ANP and nifedipine on basal and stimulated 45 Ca influx into isolated rat adrenal glomerulosa cells was studied. ANP may act on the rat adrenal glomerulosa cells at least in part by interference with calcium entry

  9. Calcium montmorillonite clay for the reduction of aflatoxin residues in milk and dairy products

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, dairy cows were treated with calcium montmorillonite clay (NovaSil Plus (NSP); BASF Corp., Ludwigshaven, Germany) in a replicated 5x5 Latin square design. The primary objectives were to determine if milk composition was altered following ingestion of NSP, and to investigate the abili...

  10. Immobilization of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria by polyvinyl alcohol and sodium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuwei; Zhang, Yanqiu; Tu, Baojun

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were immobilized by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium alginate. The immobilization conditions and ammonia oxidation ability of the immobilized bacteria were investigated. The following immobilization conditions were observed to be optimal: PVA, 12%; sodium alginate, 1.1%; calcium chloride, 1.0%; inoculum concentration, 1.3 immobilized balls/mL of immobilized medium; pH, 10; and temperature, 30°C. The immobilized ammonia-oxidizing bacteria exhibited strong ammonia oxidation ability even after being recycled four times. The ammonia nitrogen removal rate of the immobilized ammonia-oxidizing bacteria reached 90.30% under the optimal immobilization conditions. When compared with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria immobilized by sodium alginate alone, the bacteria immobilized by PVA and sodium alginate were superior with respect to pH resistance, the number of reuses, material cost, heat resistance, and ammonia oxidation ability. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Encapsulated eucalyptus oil in ionically cross-linked alginate microcapsules and its controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noppakundilograt, Supaporn; Piboon, Phianghathai; Graisuwan, Wilaiporn; Nuisin, Roongkan; Kiatkamjornwong, Suda

    2015-10-20

    Sodium alginate microcapsules containing eucalyptus oil were prepared by oil-in-water emulsification via Shirasu porous glass (SPG) membrane and cross-linked by calcium chloride (CaCl2). SPG membrane pore size of 5.2μm was used to control the size of eucalyptus oil microdroplets. Effects of sodium alginate, having a mannuronic acid/guluronic acid (M/G) ratio of 1.13, eucalyptus oil and CaCl2 amounts on microdroplet sizes and size distribution were elucidated. Increasing sodium alginate amounts from 0.1 to 0.5% (wv(-1)) sodium alginate, the average droplets size increased from 42.2±2.0 to 48.5±0.6μm, with CVs of 16.5±2.2 and 30.2±4.5%, respectively. CaCl2 successfully gave narrower size distribution of cross-linked eucalyptus oil microcapsules. The optimum conditions for preparing the microcapsules, oil loading efficiency, and controlled release of the encapsulated eucalyptus oil from the microcapsules as a function of time at 40°C were investigated. Release model for the oil from microcapsules fitted Ritger-Peppas model with non-Fickian transport mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Production and estimation of alkaline protease by immobilized Bacillus licheniformis isolated from poultry farm soil of 24 Parganas and its reusability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamba Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial alkaline protease has become an important industrial and commercial biotech product in the recent years and exerts major applications in food, textile, detergent, and pharmaceutical industries. By immobilization of microbes in different entrapment matrices, the enzyme produced can be more stable, pure, continuous, and can be reused which in turn modulates the enzyme production in an economical manner. There have been reports in support of calcium alginate and corn cab as excellent matrices for immobilization of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis, respectively. This study has been carried out using calcium alginate, κ-carrageenan, agar-agar, polyacrylamide gel, and gelatin which emphasizes not only on enzyme activity of immobilized whole cells by different entrapment matrices but also on their efficiency with respect to their reusability as first attempt. Gelatin was found to be the best matrix among all with highest enzyme activity (517 U/ml at 24 h incubation point and also showed efficiency when reused.

  13. Cell-specific vacuolar calcium storage mediated by CAX1 regulates apoplastic calcium concentration, gas exchange, and plant productivity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Simon J; Gilliham, Matthew; Athman, Asmini; Schreiber, Andreas W; Baumann, Ute; Moller, Isabel; Cheng, Ning-Hui; Stancombe, Matthew A; Hirschi, Kendal D; Webb, Alex A R; Burton, Rachel; Kaiser, Brent N; Tyerman, Stephen D; Leigh, Roger A

    2011-01-01

    The physiological role and mechanism of nutrient storage within vacuoles of specific cell types is poorly understood. Transcript profiles from Arabidopsis thaliana leaf cells differing in calcium concentration ([Ca], epidermis 60 mM) were compared using a microarray screen and single-cell quantitative PCR. Three tonoplast-localized Ca(2+) transporters, CAX1 (Ca(2+)/H(+)-antiporter), ACA4, and ACA11 (Ca(2+)-ATPases), were identified as preferentially expressed in Ca-rich mesophyll. Analysis of respective loss-of-function mutants demonstrated that only a mutant that lacked expression of both CAX1 and CAX3, a gene ectopically expressed in leaves upon knockout of CAX1, had reduced mesophyll [Ca]. Reduced capacity for mesophyll Ca accumulation resulted in reduced cell wall extensibility, stomatal aperture, transpiration, CO(2) assimilation, and leaf growth rate; increased transcript abundance of other Ca(2+) transporter genes; altered expression of cell wall-modifying proteins, including members of the pectinmethylesterase, expansin, cellulose synthase, and polygalacturonase families; and higher pectin concentrations and thicker cell walls. We demonstrate that these phenotypes result from altered apoplastic free [Ca(2+)], which is threefold greater in cax1/cax3 than in wild-type plants. We establish CAX1 as a key regulator of apoplastic [Ca(2+)] through compartmentation into mesophyll vacuoles, a mechanism essential for optimal plant function and productivity.

  14. Encapsulation of iron nanoparticles in alginate biopolymer for trichloroethylene remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezbaruah, Achintya N.; Shanbhogue, Sai Sharanya; Simsek, Senay; Khan, Eakalak

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles (10–90 nm) were encapsulated in biodegradable calcium-alginate capsules for the first time for application in environmental remediation. Encapsulation is expected to offers distinct advances over entrapment. Trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation was 89–91% in 2 h, and the reaction followed pseudo first order kinetics for encapsulated NZVI systems with an observed reaction rate constant (k obs ) of 1.92–3.23 × 10 −2 min −1 and a surface normalized reaction rate constant (k sa ) of 1.02–1.72 × 10 −3 L m −2 min −1 . TCE degradation reaction rates for encapsulated and bare NZVI were similar indicating no adverse affects of encapsulation on degradation kinetics. The shelf-life of encapsulated NZVI was found to be four months with little decrease in TCE removal efficiency.

  15. A Non-Destructive Culturing and Cell Sorting Method for Cardiomyocytes and Neurons Using a Double Alginate Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazono, Hideyuki; Kim, Hyonchol; Hayashi, Masahito; Hattori, Akihiro; Nomura, Fumimasa; Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Yasuda, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    A non-destructive method of collecting cultured cells after identifying their in situ functional characteristics is proposed. In this method, cells are cultivated on an alginate layer in a culture dish and released by spot application of a calcium chelate buffer that locally melts the alginate layer and enables the collection of cultured cells at the single-cell level. Primary hippocampal neurons, beating human embryonic stem (hES) cell-derived cardiomyocytes, and beating hES cell-derived cardiomyocyte clusters cultivated on an alginate layer were successfully released and collected with a micropipette. The collected cells were recultured while maintaining their physiological function, including beating, and elongated neurites. These results suggest that the proposed method may eventually facilitate the transplantation of ES- or iPS-derived cardiomyocytes and neurons differentiated in culture. PMID:22870332

  16. A non-destructive culturing and cell sorting method for cardiomyocytes and neurons using a double alginate layer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Terazono

    Full Text Available A non-destructive method of collecting cultured cells after identifying their in situ functional characteristics is proposed. In this method, cells are cultivated on an alginate layer in a culture dish and released by spot application of a calcium chelate buffer that locally melts the alginate layer and enables the collection of cultured cells at the single-cell level. Primary hippocampal neurons, beating human embryonic stem (hES cell-derived cardiomyocytes, and beating hES cell-derived cardiomyocyte clusters cultivated on an alginate layer were successfully released and collected with a micropipette. The collected cells were recultured while maintaining their physiological function, including beating, and elongated neurites. These results suggest that the proposed method may eventually facilitate the transplantation of ES- or iPS-derived cardiomyocytes and neurons differentiated in culture.

  17. Produção de 'leite' de soja enriquecido com cálcio Production of calcium enriched soymilk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Casé

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available "Leite" de soja é um produto de elevado valor nutricional, com alto conteúdo protéico, sendo um excelente produto para os indivíduos intolerantes à lactose. Entretanto, o conteúdo de cálcio - importante mineral para manutenção dos ossos - é baixo, sendo requerida sua adição, a fim de melhorar o valor nutricional do produto. O objetivo deste estudo foi produzir "leite" de soja adicionado de cálcio com adequada qualidade sensorial. A avaliação sensorial foi conduzida com uma equipe de provadores selecionados e treinados da EMBRAPA Agroindústria de Alimentos visando identificar o sal de cálcio mais adequado ao produto. Os seguintes atributos sensoriais foram analisados: gredosidade, sabor de feijão cru, corpo, sabor estranho e qualidade global de sabor. As perdas decorrentes do processamento também foram investigadas. O produto adicionado de fosfato tricálcio de sódio forneceu o melhor produto quanto às características sensoriais e o "leite" com lactato de cálcio apresentou as menores perdas durante o processamento, seguido do cálcio quelato. Entretanto, uma separação de fases foi observada no primeiro. Mesmo o "leite" de soja com cálcio quelato tendo apresentado sabor estranho, este foi o indicado para o enriquecimento, devido à alta solubilidade e biodisponibilidade.Soymilk is a high nutritional product. It has high level of protein and it is an excellent substitute for those people who are not able to drink cow milk due to lactose intolerance. However, soymilk has low content of calcium, an important mineral for the production and maintenance of the bones. Consequently, it is required the addition of such mineral into the soymilk, in order to improve its nutritional value. This study aimed at producing soymilk added with calcium, with adequate sensory quality. Sensory tests were carried out by a selected and trained panel from Embrapa Food Technology to identify the more suitable calcium salt, which would be added to

  18. Enhancement of keratinocyte performance in the production of tissue-engineered skin using a low-calcium medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Catherine A; Harrison, Caroline A; Thornton, Daniel J A; MacNeil, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    The success of laboratory-expanded autologous keratinocytes for the treatment of severe burn injuries is often compromised by their lack of dermal remnants and failure to establish a secure dermo-epidermal junction on the wound bed. We have developed a tissue-engineered skin substitute for in vivo use, based on a sterilized donor human dermis seeded with autologous keratinocytes and fibroblasts. However, culture rates are currently too slow for clinical use in acute burns. Our aim in this study was to increase the rate of production of tissue-engineered skin. Two approaches were explored: one using a commercial low-calcium media and the other supplementing well-established media for keratinocyte culture with the calcium-chelating agent ethylene glutamine tetra-acetic acid (EGTA). Using commercial low-calcium media for both the initial cell culture and subsequent culture of tissue-engineered skin did not produce tissue suitable for clinical use. However, it was possible to enhance the initial proliferation of keratinocytes and to increase their horizontal migration in tissue-engineered skin by supplementing established culture medium with 0.04 mM EGTA without sacrificing epidermal attachment and differentiation. Enhancement of keratinocyte migration with EGTA was also maximal in the absence of fibroblasts or basement membrane.

  19. fibrin–chitosan–sodium alginate composite sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sodium alginate composite (F–C–SA) in sheet form. F–C–SA composite was prepared and characterized for its physicochemical properties like water absorption capacity, surface morphology, FTIR spectra and mechanical properties.

  20. Formulation of Sodium Alginate Nanospheres Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick Erah

    controlled gellification method and to evaluate the role of the nanospheres as a ... method, and the particle size analysis was carried out by scanning electron ... capacity of sodium alginate was evaluated in terms of drug to polymer ratio.

  1. fibrin–chitosan–sodium alginate composite sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 1 December 2011; revised 23 February 2012 ... Fibrin, a blood plasma protein, is a minor component ... chitosan–alginate PEC membrane was prepared as a wound .... ter paper followed by accurately weighing the sample. The.

  2. Intragastric Gelation of Heated Soy Protein Isolate-Alginate Mixtures and Its Effect on Sucrose Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhaozhi; Gruen, Ingolf; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2018-06-15

    The goal of our study was to investigate the effect of alginate on in vitro gastric digestion and sucrose release of soy protein isolate (SPI) in model beverages. Model beverages containing 5% w/w SPI, 0% to 0.20% w/w alginate, and 10% w/w sucrose were prepared by heating the mixtures at 85 °C for 30 min at pH 6.0 or 7.0. Characterizations of beverages included determination of zeta potential, particle size and rheological properties. Digestion patterns and sucrose release profiles were determined during 2 hr in vitro gastric digestion using SDS-PAGE and HPLC analysis, respectively. Increasing alginate concentration led to increased negative surface charge, particle size, as well as viscosity and pseudoplastic behavior; however, no phase separation was observed. SPI beverages formed intragastric gel during in vitro gastric digestion when the formulations contained alginate or at pH 6.0 without alginate. Formation of the intragastric gel led to delayed protein digestion and release of sucrose. Higher resistance to digestion and a slower sucrose release rate were exhibited at increased alginate concentration, and to a lesser extent, at pH 6.0. This suggests that electrostatic interaction between SPI and alginate that occurred when the beverages were under gastric condition could be responsible for the intragastric gelation. These results could potentially lead to the formulation of SPI beverages with functionality to lower postprandial glycemic response. The results could be used to design beverages or semi solid food products with altered digestion properties and lowered or slower glucose release. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. l-Arginine grafted alginate hydrogel beads: A novel pH-sensitive system for specific protein delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Mohy Eldin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Novel pH-sensitive hydrogels based on l-arginine grafted alginate (Arg-g-Alg hydrogel beads were synthesized and utilized as a new carrier for protein delivery (BSA in specific pH media. l-arginine was grafted onto the polysaccharide backbone of virgin alginate via amine functions. Evidences of grafting of alginate were extracted from FT-IR and thermal analysis, while the morphological structure of Arg-g-Alg hydrogel beads was investigated by SEM photographs. Factors affecting on the grafting process e.g. l-arginine concentration, reaction time, reaction temperature, reaction pH, and crosslinking conditions, have been studied. Whereas, grafting efficiency of each factor was evaluated. Grafting of alginate has improved both thermal and morphological properties of Arg-g-Alg hydrogel beads. The swelling behavior of Arg-g-Alg beads was determined as a function of pH and compared with virgin calcium alginate beads. The cumulative in vitro release profiles of BSA loaded beads were studied at different pHs for simulating the physiological environments of the gastrointestinal tract. The amount of BSA released from neat alginate beads at pH 2 was almost 15% after 5 h, while the Arg-g-Alg beads at the same conditions were clearly higher than 45%, then it increased to 90% at pH 7.2. Accordingly, grafting of alginate has improved its release profile behavior particularly in acidic media. The preliminary results clearly suggested that the Arg-g-Alg hydrogel may be a potential candidate for polymeric carrier for oral delivery of protein or drugs.

  4. Use of calcium and boron in the production of grain and sunflower silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Newton Martin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Boron and calcium are related to many physiological processes of the plant, which are affected by its deficiency, such as sugar transport, synthesis and cell wall structure, carbohydrate metabolism and plasma membrane integrity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of boron and calcium application via leaf and soil on the yield components in silage quality and content of macronutrients in leaves of sunflower. The experiment was conducted at Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – UTFPR, Campus Dois Vizinhos, from September 2008 to April 2009, in a randomized block design with four replications, using the genotype Agrobel - La Tijereta. Morphological characteristics of the plants, the yield components (grain yield and weight of hundred grains, silage quality and content of nutrient uptake were evaluated. The sunflower crop did not respond to application of boron and calcium, to effects on yield components in silage quality and content of nutrients absorbed by plants. However, it was found increases in the partition dry grain and plant height.

  5. Alginate-Poly(ethylene glycol Hybrid Microspheres for Primary Cell Microencapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redouan Mahou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The progress of medical therapies, which rely on the transplantation of microencapsulated living cells, depends on the quality of the encapsulating material. Such material has to be biocompatible, and the microencapsulation process must be simple and not harm the cells. Alginate-poly(ethylene glycol hybrid microspheres (alg-PEG-M were produced by combining ionotropic gelation of sodium alginate (Na-alg using calcium ions with covalent crosslinking of vinyl sulfone-terminated multi-arm poly(ethylene glycol (PEG-VS. In a one-step microsphere formation process, fast ionotropic gelation yields spherical calcium alginate gel beads, which serve as a matrix for simultaneously but slowly occurring covalent cross-linking of the PEG-VS molecules. The feasibility of cell microencapsulation was studied using primary human foreskin fibroblasts (EDX cells as a model. The use of cell culture media as polymer solvent, gelation bath, and storage medium did not negatively affect the alg-PEG-M properties. Microencapsulated EDX cells maintained their viability and proliferated. This study demonstrates the feasibility of primary cell microencapsulation within the novel microsphere type alg-PEG-M, serves as reference for future therapy development, and confirms the suitability of EDX cells as control model.

  6. Design of cissus-alginate microbeads revealing mucoprotection properties in anti-inflammatory therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunlola, Adenike; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A; Lamprecht, Alf; Oyagbemi, Ademola A; Oridupa, Olayinka A; Aina, Oluwasanmi O

    2015-08-01

    Cissus gum has been employed as polymer with sodium alginate in the formulation of diclofenac microbeads and the in vivo mucoprotective properties of the polymer in anti-inflammatory therapy assessed in rats with carrageenan-induced paw edema in comparison to diclofenac powder and commercial diclofenac tablet. A full 2(3) factorial experimental design has been used to investigate the influence of concentration of cissus gum (X1); concentration of calcium acetate (X2) and stirring speed (X3) on properties of the microbeads. Optimized small discrete microbeads with size of 1.22±0.10 mm, entrapment efficiency of 84.6% and t80 of 15.2±3.5 h were obtained at ratio of cissus gum:alginate (1:1), low concentration of calcium acetate (5% w/v) and high stirring speed (400 rpm). In vivo studies showed that the ranking of percent inhibition of inflammation after 3h was diclofenac powder>commercial tablet=cissus>alginate. Histological damage score and parietal cell density were lower while crypt depth and mucosal width were significantly higher (pdiclofenac microbeads than those administered with diclofenac powder and commercial tablet, suggesting the mucoprotective property of the gum. Thus, cissus gum could be suitable as polymer in the formulation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ensuring sustained release while reducing gastric side effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fischer-Tropsch diesel production over calcium-promoted Co/alumina catalyst: Effect of reaction conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.R. de la Osa; A. De Lucas; A. Romero; J.L. Valverde; P. Sanchez [University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain). Chemical Engineering Department

    2011-05-15

    The effects of reaction conditions on the Fischer-Tropsch activity and product distribution of an alkali-earth metal promoted cobalt based catalyst were studied. The influence of the promoter on the reducibility and cobalt particle size was studied by different techniques, including N{sub 2} adsorption, X-ray diffraction, temperature-programmed reduction, temperature-programmed desorption and acid-base titrations. Experiments were carried out on a bench-scale fixed bed reactor and catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation. It was observed that addition of a small amount of calcium oxide as a promoter (0.6 wt.%) improved the cobalt oxide reducibility and reduced the formation of cobalt-aluminate species. A positive correlation between basicity and particle size was observed. In terms of FTS results, CO conversion and C{sub 5}{sup +} selectivity were found to be enhanced by the addition of this promoter. It was important to note that the addition of calcium shifted the distribution to mainly C{sub 16}-C{sub 18} hydrocarbons fraction, which could be greatly considered for a diesel formulation. Furthermore, the variation of the reaction conditions seemed to influence product distribution in a lesser extent than unpromoted catalyst. Also, a displacement of hydrocarbon distribution to higher molecular weight with decreasing space velocity and temperature was observed. Moreover, the addition of calcium to the cobalt based catalyst was found to greatly maintain selectivity to C{sub 5}{sup +} for a wide range of H{sub 2}/CO molar ratios. 60 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Differential intracellular calcium influx, nitric oxide production, ICAM-1 and IL8 expression in primary bovine endothelial cells exposed to nonesterified fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza, Anitsi; Carretta, María D; Taubert, Anja; Hermosilla, Carlos; Hidalgo, María A; Burgos, Rafael A

    2016-02-25

    Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) are involved in proinflammatory processes in cattle, including in the increased expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of NEFAs on the intracellular calcium (Ca(2+) i) influx, nitric oxide production, and ICAM-1 and IL-8 expression in primary bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVECs). Myristic (MA), palmitic (PA), stearic (SA), oleic (OA) and linoleic acid (LA) rapidly increased Ca(2+) i. The calcium response to all tested NEFAs showed an extracellular calcium dependence and only the LA response was significantly inhibited until the intracellular calcium was chelated. The EC50 values for MA and LA were 125 μM and 37 μM, respectively, and the MA and LA effects were dependent on calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum stores and on the L-type calcium channels. Only the calcium response to MA was significantly reduced by GW1100, a selective G-protein-coupled free fatty acid receptor (GPR40) antagonist. We also detected a functional FFAR1/GPR40 protein in BUVECs by using western blotting and the FFAR1/GPR40 agonist TAK-875. Only LA increased the cellular nitric oxide levels in a calcium-dependent manner. LA stimulation but not MA stimulation increased ICAM-1 and IL-8-expression in BUVECs. This effect was inhibited by GW1100, an antagonist of FFAR1/GPR40, but not by U-73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor. These findings strongly suggest that each individual NEFA stimulates endothelial cells in a different way, with clearly different effects on intracellular calcium mobilization, NO production, and IL-8 and ICAM-1 expression in primary BUVECs. These findings not only extend our understanding of NEFA-mediated diseases in ruminants, but also provide new insight into the different molecular mechanisms involved during endothelial cell activation by NEFAs.

  9. Characterization and Utilization of Calcium Oxide (CaO Thermally Decomposed from Fish Bones as a Catalyst in the Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldes Lesbani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal decomposition of fish bones to obtain calcium oxide (CaO was conducted at various temperatures of 400, 500, 800, 900, 1000, and 1100 °C. The calcium oxide was then characterized using X-ray diffractometer, FTIR spectrophotometer, and SEM analysis. The calcium oxide obtained from the decomposition at 1000 °C was then used as a catalyst in the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Diffraction pattern of the calcium oxide produced from decomposition at 1000 °C showed a pattern similar to that of the calcium oxide produced by the Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standard (JCDPS. The diffractions of 2θvalues at 1000 °C were 32.2, 37.3, 53.8, 64.1, and67.3 deg. The FTIR spectrum of calcium oxide decomposed at 1000 °C has a specific vibration at wave-length 362 cm-1, which is similar to the specific vibration of Ca-O. SEM analysis of the calcium oxide indicated that the calcium oxide’s morphology shows a smaller size and a more homogeneous structure, compared to those of fish bones. Theuse of calcium oxide as a catalyst in the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil resulted in iod number of 15.23 g/100 g KOH, density of 0.88 g/cm3, viscosity of 6.00 cSt, and fatty acid value of 0.56 mg/KOH. These characteristic values meet the National Standard of Indonesia (SNI for biodiesel.

  10. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  11. Effects of halloysite nanotubes on physical properties and cytocompatibility of alginate composite hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Biao; Liu, Mingxian; Long, Zheru; Shen, Yan; Zhou, Changren

    2017-01-01

    Sodium alginate (SA)/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) composite hydrogels were successfully prepared by solution blending and cross-linking with calcium ions. HNTs can improve the physical properties and cytocompatibility of composite hydrogels. The static and shear viscosity of SA/HNTs solution increase by the addition of HNTs. FTIR suggests the presence of hydrogen bond interactions between HNTs and SA. The crystal structure of HNTs is retained in the composites as showed by the X-ray diffraction result. A porous structure with pore size of 100–250 μm is found in the hydrogels, which can provide a space for cell growth and migration. The compressive mechanical properties of composite hydrogels significantly increase compared to the pure SA hydrogel. The SA/HNTs composite hydrogels with 80% HNTs loading exhibit the compressive stress at 80% strain of 2.99 MPa, while the stress at 80% strain of pure SA hydrogel is only 0.8 MPa. The dynamic storage modulus of composite hydrogels also markedly increases with HNTs concentration. The differential scanning calorimetry endothermic peak area and swelling ratios in NaCl solution of the composite hydrogels decrease by the addition of HNTs. Preosteoblast (MC3T3-E1) culture results reveal that the SA/HNTs composites especially at relatively low HNTs loading show a significant increase in cells adhesion and proliferation compared to the pure SA hydrogel. All the results demonstrate that the SA/HNTs composite hydrogels show a promising application in bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Alginate/HNTs composite hydrogels were fabricated using Ca 2+ cross-linking method. • The hydrogen bond interactions between HNTs and alginate are confirmed. • HNTs can significantly enhance the mechanical properties of alginate hydrogel. • HNTs can improve the cell attachment and proliferation of alginate.

  12. Electro-spray of high viscous liquids for producing mono-sized spherical alginate beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Moghadam; Mohsen Samimi; Abdolreza Samimi; Mohamad Khorram

    2008-01-01

    Alginate beads, often used for controlled release of enzymes and drugs, are usually produced by spraying sodium alginate liquid into a gelling agent using mechanical vibration nozzle or air jet. In this work an alternative method of electro-spray was employed to form droplets with desired size from a highly viscous sodium alginate solution using constant DC voltage. The droplets were then cured in a calcium chloride solution. The main objective was to produce mono-sized beads from such a highly viscous and non-Newtonian liquid (1000-5000 mPa s). The effects of nozzle diameter, flow rate and concentration of liquid on the size of the beads were investigated. Among the parameters studied, voltage had a pronounced effect on the size of beads as compared to flow rate zzle diameter and concentration of alginate liquid. The size of beads was reduced to a minimum value with increasing the voltage in the range of 0-10 kV. At the early stages of voltage increase (I.e. Up to about 4 kV), the rate of size reduction was relatively low, while the dripping mode dominated. However, in the middle part of the range of applied voltage, where the rate of size reduction was high (I.e. About 4-7 kV), an unstable transition occurred between dripping and jetting. At the end part of the range (I.e. 7-10 kV) jet mode of spray was observed. Increasing the height of fall of the droplets was found to improve the sphericity of the beads, because of the increased time of flight for the droplets. This was especially identifiable at higher concentrations of the alginate liquid (I.e. 3 w/v%)

  13. Development of liposomes entrapped in alginate beads for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Divya; Gulbake, Arvind; Tiwari, Jyoti; Jain, Sanjay K

    2016-01-01

    Folic Acid conjugated liposomes encapsulating Oxaliplatin (L-OHP) were entrapped in alginate beads and further coated with Eudragit-S-100 for effective delivery to colon tumors. Liposomes were prepared by cast film method and folic acid was coupled on the surface of liposomes. They were further entrapped in alginate beads which were Eudragit coated for degradation in the colonic region. The prepared beads were characterized for shape and surface morphology, percentage entrapment efficiency and drug release studies. The in vitro drug release was investigated using a USP dissolution paddle type apparatus in different simulated gastrointestinal fluids. In vivo studies of the beads containing free drug, folic acid coupled and uncoupled liposomes bearing L-OHP was administered orally at the dose of 10mg L-OHP/kg body weight to tumor bearing NUDE/SCID mice. γ-Scintigraphic study showed that Eudragit coated alginate beads entered into the colon of Balb/c mice between 4.20 and 4.50h after oral administration. In vivo data showed that folic acid coupled liposomes entrapped in alginate beads delivered 2.82 ± 0.58 and 21.52 ± 2.76 μg L-OHP/g tissues in the colon and tumor after 12h, reflecting its targeting potential to colon and tumor. The results clearly demonstrate that Eudragit coated calcium alginate beads bearing folic acid coupled liposome can be used as a prospective carrier for drug delivery to colon specific tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of halloysite nanotubes on physical properties and cytocompatibility of alginate composite hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Biao; Liu, Mingxian, E-mail: liumx@jnu.edu.cn; Long, Zheru; Shen, Yan; Zhou, Changren, E-mail: tcrz9@jnu.edu.cn

    2017-01-01

    Sodium alginate (SA)/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) composite hydrogels were successfully prepared by solution blending and cross-linking with calcium ions. HNTs can improve the physical properties and cytocompatibility of composite hydrogels. The static and shear viscosity of SA/HNTs solution increase by the addition of HNTs. FTIR suggests the presence of hydrogen bond interactions between HNTs and SA. The crystal structure of HNTs is retained in the composites as showed by the X-ray diffraction result. A porous structure with pore size of 100–250 μm is found in the hydrogels, which can provide a space for cell growth and migration. The compressive mechanical properties of composite hydrogels significantly increase compared to the pure SA hydrogel. The SA/HNTs composite hydrogels with 80% HNTs loading exhibit the compressive stress at 80% strain of 2.99 MPa, while the stress at 80% strain of pure SA hydrogel is only 0.8 MPa. The dynamic storage modulus of composite hydrogels also markedly increases with HNTs concentration. The differential scanning calorimetry endothermic peak area and swelling ratios in NaCl solution of the composite hydrogels decrease by the addition of HNTs. Preosteoblast (MC3T3-E1) culture results reveal that the SA/HNTs composites especially at relatively low HNTs loading show a significant increase in cells adhesion and proliferation compared to the pure SA hydrogel. All the results demonstrate that the SA/HNTs composite hydrogels show a promising application in bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Alginate/HNTs composite hydrogels were fabricated using Ca{sup 2+} cross-linking method. • The hydrogen bond interactions between HNTs and alginate are confirmed. • HNTs can significantly enhance the mechanical properties of alginate hydrogel. • HNTs can improve the cell attachment and proliferation of alginate.

  15. Effects of feeding fatty acid calcium and the interaction of forage quality on production performance and biochemical indexes in early lactation cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z Y; Yin, Z Y; Lin, X Y; Yan, Z G; Wang, Z H

    2015-10-01

    Multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (n = 16) were used in a randomized complete block design to determine the effects of feeding fatty acid calcium and the interaction of forage quality on production performance and biochemical indexes in early lactation cow. Treatments were as follows: (i) feeding low-quality forage without supplying fatty acid calcium (Diet A), (ii) feeding low-quality forage with supplying 400 g fatty acid calcium (Diet B), (iii) feeding high-quality forage without supplying fatty acid calcium (Diet C) and (iv) feeding high-quality forage with supplying 400 g fatty acid calcium. This experiment consisted 30 days. The milk and blood samples were collected in the last day of the trail. Intakes were recorded in the last 2 days of the trail. Supplementation of fatty acid calcium decreased significantly dry matter intake (DMI) (p < 0.01). Addition fatty acid calcium decreased milk protein percentage (p < 0.01) and milk SNF percentage (p < 0.01), but increased MUN (p < 0.05). Supplemented fatty acid decreased concentration of blood BHBA (p < 0.05), but increased TG, NEFA, glucagon, GLP-1, CCK, leptin, ApoA-IV, serotonin and MSH concentration in blood, the CCK concentration and feed intake showed a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05). Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Development of Alginate/Chitosan Microparticles for Dust Mite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    surface of chitosan microparticles [4]. .... The reverse-phase high performance liquid .... The surface charge of alginate ... negative charge was as a result of the alginate on the microparticle surface. ... electrostatic interaction of the positively-.

  17. Radiation effects on agar, alginates and carrageenan to be used as food additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliste, A.J.; Vieira, F.F.; Mastro, N.L. del

    2000-01-01

    Agar, alginates and carrageenan are hydrocolloids that induce stabilization of physical properties of the food product during shelf life and prevention of undesirable changes such as moisture migration, gas cell coalescence or textural profile changes. In this work, agar, alginates and carrageenan was irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10 kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of these irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods. (author)

  18. Radiation effects on agar, alginates and carrageenan to be used as food additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, A.J. E-mail: nlmastro@net.ipen.br; Vieira, F.F.; Mastro, N.L. del

    2000-03-01

    Agar, alginates and carrageenan are hydrocolloids that induce stabilization of physical properties of the food product during shelf life and prevention of undesirable changes such as moisture migration, gas cell coalescence or textural profile changes. In this work, agar, alginates and carrageenan was irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10 kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of these irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods. (author)

  19. A sensor for calcium uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sean; Meyer, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria — the cell’s power plants — increase their energy production in response to calcium signals in the cytoplasm. A regulator of the elusive mitochondrial calcium channel has now been identified. PMID:20844529

  20. Development of a novel colorimetric sensor based on alginate beads for monitoring rainbow trout spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdinasab, Marjan; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hashem; Sepidname, Marziyeh; Negahdarifar, Manizheh; Li, Peiwu

    2018-05-01

    Alginate is a non-toxic, renewable, and linear copolymer obtained from the brown algae Laminaria digitata that can be easily shaped into beads. Its good gel forming properties have made it useful for entrapping food and pharmaceutical ingredients. In this study, alginate beads were used in a novel application as a colorimetric sensor in food intelligent packaging. Colorimetric sensor was developed through entrapping red cabbage extract as a pH indicator in alginate beads. The pH indicator beads were used in rainbow trout packaging for monitoring fillets spoilage. Color change of beads during fish storage was measured using the CIELab method. The alginate bead colorimetric sensor is validated by measuring total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) levels and microbial populations in fish samples. Moreover, peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were evaluated during storage. Results indicated that increasing the bacterial population during storage and production of proteolytic enzymes resulted in protein degradation, accumulation of volatile amine compounds, increase in the pH and finally color change of alginate beads. The values of TVB-N, pH, PV and TBARS increased with time of storage. The results of TVB-N and microbial growth were in accordance with color change of beads and CIELab data. Therefore, the proposed system enjoys a high sensitivity to pH variations and is capable of monitoring the spoilage of fish or other protein-rich products through its wide range of color changes. The alginate beads containing the red cabbage extract can, thus, be used as a low-cost colorimetric sensor for intelligent packaging applications.

  1. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals different molecular mechanisms of Bacillus coagulans 2-6 response to sodium lactate and calcium lactate during lactic acid production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayang Qin

    Full Text Available Lactate production is enhanced by adding calcium carbonate or sodium hydroxide during fermentation. However, Bacillus coagulans 2-6 can produce more than 180 g/L L-lactic acid when calcium lactate is accumulated, but less than 120 g/L L-lactic acid when sodium lactate is formed. The molecular mechanisms by which B. coagulans responds to calcium lactate and sodium lactate remain unclear. In this study, comparative transcriptomic methods based on high-throughput RNA sequencing were applied to study gene expression changes in B. coagulans 2-6 cultured in non-stress, sodium lactate stress and calcium lactate stress conditions. Gene expression profiling identified 712 and 1213 significantly regulated genes in response to calcium lactate stress and sodium lactate stress, respectively. Gene ontology assignments of the differentially expressed genes were performed. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 'ATP-binding cassette transporters' were significantly affected by calcium lactate stress, and 'amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism' was significantly affected by sodium lactate stress. It was also found that lactate fermentation was less affected by calcium lactate stress than by sodium lactate stress. Sodium lactate stress had negative effect on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes but positive effect on the expression of 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle' genes. However, calcium lactate stress had positive influence on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes and had minor influence on 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle' genes. Thus, our findings offer new insights into the responses of B. coagulans to different lactate stresses. Notably, our RNA-seq dataset constitute a robust database for investigating the functions of genes induced by lactate stress in the future and identify potential targets for genetic engineering to further improve L-lactic acid production by B. coagulans.

  2. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals different molecular mechanisms of Bacillus coagulans 2-6 response to sodium lactate and calcium lactate during lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Xiuwen; Wang, Landong; Zhu, Beibei; Zhang, Xiaohua; Yao, Qingshou; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Lactate production is enhanced by adding calcium carbonate or sodium hydroxide during fermentation. However, Bacillus coagulans 2-6 can produce more than 180 g/L L-lactic acid when calcium lactate is accumulated, but less than 120 g/L L-lactic acid when sodium lactate is formed. The molecular mechanisms by which B. coagulans responds to calcium lactate and sodium lactate remain unclear. In this study, comparative transcriptomic methods based on high-throughput RNA sequencing were applied to study gene expression changes in B. coagulans 2-6 cultured in non-stress, sodium lactate stress and calcium lactate stress conditions. Gene expression profiling identified 712 and 1213 significantly regulated genes in response to calcium lactate stress and sodium lactate stress, respectively. Gene ontology assignments of the differentially expressed genes were performed. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 'ATP-binding cassette transporters' were significantly affected by calcium lactate stress, and 'amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism' was significantly affected by sodium lactate stress. It was also found that lactate fermentation was less affected by calcium lactate stress than by sodium lactate stress. Sodium lactate stress had negative effect on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes but positive effect on the expression of 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle)' genes. However, calcium lactate stress had positive influence on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes and had minor influence on 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle)' genes. Thus, our findings offer new insights into the responses of B. coagulans to different lactate stresses. Notably, our RNA-seq dataset constitute a robust database for investigating the functions of genes induced by lactate stress in the future and identify potential targets for genetic engineering to further improve L-lactic acid production by B. coagulans.

  3. PREPARATION OF CALCIUM OXIDE FROM Achatina fulica AS CATALYST FOR PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FROM WASTE COOKING OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Lesbani, Aldes; Tamba, Palita; Mohadi, Risfidian; Fahmariyanti, Fahmariyanti

    2013-01-01

    Preparation of calcium oxide from Achatina fulica shell has been carried out systematically by decomposition for 3 h at various temperatures i.e. 600, 700, 800 and 900 °C. Formation of calcium oxide was characterized using XR diffractometer. The calcium oxide obtained with the optimum temperature decomposition was characterized using FTIR spectroscopy to indicate the functional group in the calcium oxide. The results showed that XRD pattern of materials obtained from decomposition of Achatina...

  4. Encapsulation of protease from Aspergillus oryzae and lipase from Thermomyces lanuginoseus using alginate and different copolymer types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Thi Mong Thu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the application of enzymes in food as a food processing aid and enzyme supplement is of interest and widely used, the enzymes can be easily deactivated or lose their activity due to many causes such as pH and moisture as well as through the introduction of incompatible ingredients during food processing and storage. These problems can be solved by the encapsulation technique, especially in a gel matrix. The influences were studied of the alginate concentration, types of copolymer and their concentrations on the bead size, encapsulation yield (EY, encapsulation efficiency (EE, leakage and the retention of enzyme activity during storage period of encapsulated protease from Aspergillus oryzae and lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus beads. A solution of purified protease or lipase was encapsulated in calcium alginate-chitosan beads (CACB, calcium alginate-xanthan gum beads (CAXB and calcium alginate-maltodextrin beads (CAMB using the extrusion method. Increasing the alginate and copolymer concentrations in the solution increased the bead size, EY, EE and the retention of enzyme activity during the storage period and reduced leakage of both the encapsulated protease and lipase. In addition, different types of copolymer significantly (p ≤ 0.05 affected these properties of both encapsulated enzymes. Furthermore, protease encapsulated using 2.0% alginate and 0.2% chitosan provided the highest EY (81.7% and EE (77.2% with a bead size of 1.85 mm and 8.1% leakage. The retention of encapsulated protease activity and the shelf-life of encapsulated enzyme which was expressed as half-life, the time required for the enzyme activity to decrease by half (thalf life were 75.8% and 27.2 wk, respectively after storage at 4 °C for 10 wk. For lipase, encapsulation using 2.0% alginate and 0.4% xanthan gum provided the highest EY (42.5% and EE (43.9% and the bead size and leakage were 1.81 mm and 6.2%, respectively. The retention of encapsulated

  5. Indomethacin increases the formation of lipoxygenase products in calcium ionophore stimulated human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, J C; Wilson, T W

    1987-10-29

    Arachidonic acid metabolism in human neutrophils stimulated in vitro with the calcium ionophore A23187 was studied using combined HPLC and radioimmunoassays. Indomethacin (0.1 and 1.0 microM) caused a 300% increase in LTB4 formation in neutrophils stimulated with A23187. 5-, 12- and 15-HETE levels were also increased. In the presence of exogenous arachidonic acid 1.0 microM Indomethacin caused a 37% increase in LTB4 formation. Acetyl Salicylic Acid and Ibuprofen had no effect on the formation of lipoxygenase metabolites. The effect of indomethacin on LTB4 formation does not appear to be due to a simple redirection of substrate arachidonic acid from the cyclooxygenase to the lipoxygenase pathways.

  6. Production of calcium phosphate coating by laser ablation for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayor, M.B.; Arias, J.L.; Garcia-Sanz, F.J.; Pou, J.; Leon, B.; Perez-Amor, M.

    1998-01-01

    Apatitic calcium phosphates are used as coating to improve the fixation of orthopaedic and dental implants. The commercial technique to produce these coatings (plasma-spray) shows some problems of adherence and control of their physicochemical properties. In this communication laser ablation is presented as a solution to overcome these problems. The ablation system consists in a vacuum chamber filled with water vapour up to the desired pressure. The laser beam of an ArF excimer laser is focused on a hydroxyapatite target, and the coating is deposited on a substrate parallel to the target maintained at certain temperature. The physicochemical properties of the material were analysed by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) X ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X ray spectroscopy (EDX). Taking into account these results, two types of coatings were choose to asses their bio compatibility in vitro. (Author) 15 refs

  7. Calcium absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlmark, B.; Reizenstein, P.; Dudley, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The methods most commonly used to measure the absorption and retention of orally administered calcium are reviewed. Nearly all make use of calcium radioisotopes. The magnitude of calcium absorption and retention depends upon the chemical form and amount of calcium administered, and the clinical and nutritional status of the subject; these influences are briefly surveyed. (author)

  8. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  9. Sodium lauryl sulfate impedes drug release from zinc-crosslinked alginate beads: switching from enteric coating release into biphasic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mutasem O; Nasser, Wissam; Ardakani, Adel; Alkhatib, Hatim S

    2008-02-28

    The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on ionotropically cross-linked alginate beads. Different levels of SLS were mixed with sodium alginate and chlorpheniramine maleate (as loaded model drug). The resulting viscous solutions were dropped onto aqueous solutions of zinc or calcium ions for ionotropic curing. The generated beads were assessed by their drug releasing profiles, infrared and differential scanning colorimetery (DSC) traits. SLS was found to exert profound concentration-dependent impacts on the characteristics of zinc-crosslinked alginate beads such that moderate modifications in the levels of SLS switched drug release from enteric coating-like behavior to a biphasic release modifiable to sustained-release by the addition of minute amounts of xanthan gum. Calcium cross-linking failed to reproduce the same behavior, probably due to the mainly ionic nature of calcium-carboxylate bonds compared to the coordinate character of their zinc-carboxylate counterparts. Apparently, moderate levels of SLS repel water penetration into the beads, and therefore minimize chlorpheniramine release. However, higher SLS levels seem to discourage polymeric cross-linking and therefore allow biphasic drug release.

  10. Preparation of Lime by Roasting the Limestone Deposits of Strezovci (Republic of Kosovo and Its Use for the Aluminothermic Production of Calcium Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda, S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of producing and processing limestone ore (mostly CaCO3 is to obtain high-quality refractory materials based on lime (CaO. Lime is the raw material for obtaining calcium metal as a strategic and fundamental component in lead metallurgy (production of refined lead, Pb-Ca alloys in the battery and cable industry, ferroalloys production with the addition of silicon and calcium, production of alloy steel and high-quality steel. This paper explores the preparation of lime by roasting the limestone deposits of Strezovci (Republic of Kosovo and its use for obtaining calcium through the aluminothermic process. Through research and analysis of the chemical composition of certain types of lime, its suitabi- lity for obtaining calcium metal was determined, and by analyzing the samples of the slag, determined was the possibility of its use in the production of fire-resistant cement for which the evaluation is needed. Based on previous research, the following was chosen: optimal composition of the cast, volume of added reducing agents, and conditions of the reduction process performance: temperature-time and initial vacuum. According to the authors’ knowledge, not one Southeast European country has applied this method, and it includes the use of by-products (slag, which can cause environmental pollution. The goal of this research was to prepare lime by roasting limestone of domestic origin in order to obtain calcium metal through the aluminothermic process. The procedure of calcium metal production includes the following operations: decarbonatization of limestone ore (CaCO3 , grinding of the obtained lime (CaO, homogenization of CaO and alumina, agglomeration, and aluminothermic reduction in vacuum furnaces. For the efficiency of the process, the most important technological operations are decarbonatization and reduction, provided the other operations are performed correctly. The estimated total world capacity for production of calcium metal is 25

  11. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemel Michael B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between dairy product or supplemental calcium intake with changes in the plasma lipidome and body composition during energy restriction. A secondary objective of this study was to explore the relationships among calculated macronutrient composition of the energy restricted diet to changes in the plasma lipidome, and body composition during energy restriction. Overweight adults (n = 61 were randomized into one of three intervention groups including a deficit of 500kcal/d: 1 placebo; 2 900 mg/d calcium supplement; and 3 3-4 servings of dairy products/d plus a placebo supplement. Plasma fatty acid methyl esters of cholesterol ester, diacylglycerol, free fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol were quantified by capillary gas chromatography. Results After adjustments for energy and protein (g/d intake, there was no significant effect of treatment on changes in weight, waist circumference or body composition. Plasma lipidome did not differ among dietary treatment groups. Stepwise regression identified correlations between reported intake of monounsaturated fat (% of energy and changes in % lean mass (r = -0.44, P P Conclusions Dairy product consumption or calcium supplementation during energy restriction over the course of 12 weeks did not affect plasma lipids. Independent of calcium and dairy product consumption, short-term energy restriction altered body composition. Reported dietary fat composition of energy restricted diets was associated with the degree of change in body composition in these overweight and obese individuals.

  12. PREPARATION OF CALCIUM OXIDE FROM Achatina fulica AS CATALYST FOR PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FROM WASTE COOKING OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldes Lesbani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of calcium oxide from Achatina fulica shell has been carried out systematically by decomposition for 3 h at various temperatures i.e. 600, 700, 800 and 900 °C. Formation of calcium oxide was characterized using XR diffractometer. The calcium oxide obtained with the optimum temperature decomposition was characterized using FTIR spectroscopy to indicate the functional group in the calcium oxide. The results showed that XRD pattern of materials obtained from decomposition of Achatina fulica shell at 700 °C is similar with XRD pattern of calcium oxide standard from Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS. The IR spectra of calcium oxide appear at wavenumber 362 cm-1 which is characteristic of CaO vibration. Application of calcium oxide from Achatina fulica shell for synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil results in biodiesel with density are in the range of ASTM standard.

  13. Calcium Oxide Derived from Waste Shells of Mussel, Cockle, and Scallop as the Heterogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achanai Buasri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The waste shell was utilized as a bioresource of calcium oxide (CaO in catalyzing a transesterification to produce biodiesel (methyl ester. The economic and environmen-friendly catalysts were prepared by a calcination method at 700–1,000°C for 4 h. The heterogeneous catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET method. The effects of reaction variables such as reaction time, reaction temperature, methanol/oil molar ratio, and catalyst loading on the yield of biodiesel were investigated. Reusability of waste shell catalyst was also examined. The results indicated that the CaO catalysts derived from waste shell showed good reusability and had high potential to be used as biodiesel production catalysts in transesterification of palm oil with methanol.

  14. Storage duration effect on deformation recovery of repacked alginates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sunarintyas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Manufacturers supply alginate impression materials as a powder that is packaged in bulk and in individual container. Some Indonesian dental suppliers often repackage the bulk alginate into individual plastic packages which are not tied tightly and stored in the display room without air conditioner. It is known that critical factors to the shelf life of alginate includer avoidance of moisture contamination which may lead to premature setting of the alginate and avoidance of high temperature which may cause depolymerization of the alginate. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine storage duration effect of repacked alginates on deformation recovery. Methods: Two brands of alginates (Tulip®TU, and Aroma Fine DF III®AF were repacked into 120 plastic containers. The samples were stored in room condition (temperature 29° C ± 1° C, relative humidity 60% ± 10% for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks. The alginates setting time and recovery from deformation were measured according to the ANSI/ADA specification number 18 (ISO 1563. result: The results revealed that there was decreased setting time during 5 weeks but there was slight decreased in deformation recovery after 3 weeks storage. The ANOVA showed there was no significant difference of alginates deformation recovery among the storage times (p > 0.05. Conclusion: Storage duration of repacked alginates in plastic containers during 5 weeks in room condition do not influence the alginate deformation recovery.

  15. Chicken eggshells (Gallus gallus domesticus) as carbonate calcium source for biomaterials production; Casca de ovo de galinha caipira (gallus gallus domesticus), como fonte de carbonato de calcio para producao de biomateriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junior, E.A. de O.; Bastos, J.S.B.; Silva, R.C. de S.; Macedo, H.R.A.; Macedo, M. O.C.; Bradim, A.S., E-mail: angelcassiasasilva@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Piaui (FIPI), PI (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The eggshells present high levels of calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate obtained from eggshells has been used in the production of biomaterials with applications in bone regeneration, since it is biocompatible. In this work, calcium carbonate was obtained from eggshells to prepare a composite biomaterial. The presence of calcium carbonate bands was observed through spectrometry in the infrared region. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of calcium carbonate particles with different sizes and shapes. Carbonate predominance in the form of calcite was also observed through the X-ray diffraction.

  16. Influence of calcium carbonate on the decomposition of asbestos contained in end-of-life products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belardi, G.; Piga, L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We characterized end-of-life asbestos-containing materials. • In the range 620–680 °C, calcite and quartz affect decomposition of asbestos. • Hypothesized decomposition reactions match with solid phases revealed by XRD analysis. • TGA of the content of chrysotile gives good results both in air and in nitrogen. - Abstract: Three bearing-asbestos wastes, friction material, vinyl-asbestos (linoleum) and cement-asbestos mainly containing chrysotile were characterized. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRDP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with microanalysis observations and thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) were carried out on the materials as received and after heating at 1100 °C in order to observe their structural changes and thermal behaviours. A quantitative determination of chrysotile in the friction material was also carried out. To study the influence of CaCO 3 on the decomposition of asbestos, the three techniques were also applied on the linoleum and cement-asbestos at room temperature and at 1100 °C after leaching of the materials with 1:3 HCl to remove the carbonates present in the wastes. The results show that the presence of CaCO 3 prevents the asbestos to decompose according to the known decomposition reactions and leads to the formation of calcium-silicate compounds. When CaCO 3 is removed by washing with HCl, decomposition of asbestos proceeds according to the expected reactions

  17. Design of a continuous process setup for precipitated calcium carbonate production from steel converter slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Hannu-Petteri; Zevenhoven, Ron

    2014-03-01

    A mineral carbonation process "slag2PCC" for carbon capture, utilization, and storage is discussed. Ca is extracted from steel slag by an ammonium salt solvent and carbonated with gaseous CO2 after the separation of the residual slag. The solvent is reused after regeneration. The effects of slag properties such as the content of free lime, fractions of Ca, Si, Fe, and V, particle size, and slag storage on the Ca extraction efficiency are studied. Small particles with a high free-lime content and minor fractions of Si and V are the most suitable. To limit the amount of impurities in the process, the slag-to-liquid ratio should remain below a certain value, which depends on the slag composition. Also, the design of a continuous test setup (total volume ∼75 L) is described, which enables quick process variations needed to adapt the system to the varying slag quality. Different precipitated calcium carbonate crystals (calcite and vaterite) are generated in different parts of the setup. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Evaluation of mechanical strength and hydrate products evolution of calcium aluminate cement, for endodontic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz, A.P.; Borba, N.Z.; Pandolfelli, V.C.

    2011-01-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is the most used retrograde filling cement in the endodontic area. Nevertheless, although its composition is similar to the conventional Portland cement, its high cost, long setting time and low mechanical strength have led to a continuous search for new alternative materials. Considering these aspects, the mechanical strength and crystalline phase evolution of a calcium aluminate cement (CAC), during its hydration process, have been evaluated in this work aiming to apply such material for endodontic treatments. Secar 71 cement samples were prepared and kept in contact with water or SBF (simulated body fluid) during 15 days at 37 deg C. Compressive strength, apparent porosity, X ray diffraction and thermogravimetric tests were carried out for the samples evaluation after 1, 3, 7 and 15 days. The main identified phases were CAH_1_0, C_2AH_8, C_3AH_6 and AH_3. Moreover, when in the presence of SBF, some changes in the amount of the hydrates in the CAC samples were observed, which affected the mechanical behavior of the cement. (author)

  19. Influence of calcium carbonate on the decomposition of asbestos contained in end-of-life products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belardi, G. [Environmental Geology and GeoEngineering Institute (CNR), Area della ricerca RM1, via Salaria km 29,300, 00016 Monterotondo (Rome) (Italy); Piga, L., E-mail: luigi.piga@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, via Eudossiana 84, 00184 Rome (Italy)

    2013-12-10

    Highlights: • We characterized end-of-life asbestos-containing materials. • In the range 620–680 °C, calcite and quartz affect decomposition of asbestos. • Hypothesized decomposition reactions match with solid phases revealed by XRD analysis. • TGA of the content of chrysotile gives good results both in air and in nitrogen. - Abstract: Three bearing-asbestos wastes, friction material, vinyl-asbestos (linoleum) and cement-asbestos mainly containing chrysotile were characterized. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRDP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with microanalysis observations and thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) were carried out on the materials as received and after heating at 1100 °C in order to observe their structural changes and thermal behaviours. A quantitative determination of chrysotile in the friction material was also carried out. To study the influence of CaCO{sub 3} on the decomposition of asbestos, the three techniques were also applied on the linoleum and cement-asbestos at room temperature and at 1100 °C after leaching of the materials with 1:3 HCl to remove the carbonates present in the wastes. The results show that the presence of CaCO{sub 3} prevents the asbestos to decompose according to the known decomposition reactions and leads to the formation of calcium-silicate compounds. When CaCO{sub 3} is removed by washing with HCl, decomposition of asbestos proceeds according to the expected reactions.

  20. New alginic acid–atenolol microparticles for inhalatory drug targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceschan, Nazareth Eliana; Bucalá, Verónica [Planta Piloto de Ingeniería Química (PLAPIQUI), CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS), Camino La Carrindanga Km 7, 8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Departamento de Ingeniería Química, UNS, Avenida Alem 1253, 8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Ramírez-Rigo, María Verónica, E-mail: vrrigo@plapiqui.edu.ar [Planta Piloto de Ingeniería Química (PLAPIQUI), CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS), Camino La Carrindanga Km 7, 8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, UNS, San Juan 670, 8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina)

    2014-08-01

    The inhalatory route allows drug delivery for local or systemic treatments in a noninvasively way. The current tendency of inhalable systems is oriented to dry powder inhalers due to their advantages in terms of stability and efficiency. In this work, microparticles of atenolol (AT, basic antihypertensive drug) and alginic acid (AA, acid biocompatible polyelectrolyte) were obtained by spray drying. Several formulations, varying the relative composition AT/AA and the total solid content of the atomized dispersions, were tested. The powders were characterized by: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Powder X-ray Diffraction, while also the following properties were measured: drug load efficiency, flow properties, particles size and density, moisture content, hygroscopicity and morphology. The ionic interaction between AA and AT was demonstrated, then the new chemical entity could improve the drug targeting to the respiratory membrane and increase its time residence due to the mucoadhesive properties of the AA polymeric chains. Powders exhibited high load efficiencies, low moisture contents, adequate mean aerodynamic diameters and high cumulative fraction of respirable particles (lower than 10 μm). - Highlights: • Novel particulate material to target atenolol to the respiratory membrane was developed. • Crumbled microparticles were obtained by spray drying of alginic–atenolol dispersions. • Ionic interaction between alginic acid and atenolol was demonstrated in the product. • Amorphous solids with low moisture content and high load efficiency were produced. • Relationships between the feed formulation and the product characteristics were found.

  1. Hydroxychavicol, a novel betel leaf component, inhibits platelet aggregation by suppression of cyclooxygenase, thromboxane production and calcium mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M C; Uang, B J; Tsai, C Y; Wu, H L; Lin, B R; Lee, C S; Chen, Y J; Chang, C H; Tsai, Y L; Kao, C J; Jeng, J H

    2007-09-01

    Platelet hyperactivity is important in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Betel leaf (PBL) is consumed by 200-600 million betel quid chewers in the world. Hydroxychavicol (HC), a betel leaf component, was tested for its antiplatelet effect. We tested the effect of HC on platelet aggregation, thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, ex vivo platelet aggregation and mouse bleeding time and platelet plug formation in vivo. The pharmacokinetics of HC in rats was also assessed. HC inhibited arachidonic acid (AA) and collagen-induced platelet aggregation and TXB(2) production. HC inhibited the thrombin-induced TXB(2) production, but not platelet aggregation. SQ29548, suppressed collagen- and thrombin-induced TXB(2) production, but not thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. HC also suppressed COX-1/COX-2 enzyme activity and the AA-induced ROS production and Ca(2+) mobilization. HC further inhibited the ex vivo platelet aggregation of platelet-rich plasma (>100 nmole/mouse) and prolonged platelet plug formation (>300 nmole/mouse) in mesenteric microvessels, but showed little effect on bleeding time in mouse tail. Moreover, pharmacokinetics analysis found that more than 99% of HC was metabolized within 3 min of administration in Sprague-Dawley rats in vivo. HC is a potent COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor, ROS scavenger and inhibits platelet calcium signaling, TXB(2) production and aggregation. HC could be a potential therapeutic agent for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases through its anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet effects, without effects on haemostatic functions.

  2. Self-disinfecting Alginate vs Conventional Alginate: Effect on Surface Hardness of Gypsum Cast-An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Ranjith; George, Navia; Thummala, Niharika R; Ravi, S V; Nagpal, Ajay

    2017-11-01

    For the construction of any dental prosthesis, accurate impressions are necessary. Hence, we undertook the present study to evaluate and compare the surface hardness of gypsum casts poured from impressions made using conventional alginate and self-disinfecting alginate. A total of 30 impressions of stainless steel die were made, out of which 15 impressions were made with conventional alginate and 15 were made with self-disinfecting alginate and poured using Type III dental stone. Thirty stone specimens were subjected for hardness testing. Data were analyzed using independent samples t-test to compare the mean surface hardness. Difference in surface hardness was statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). Surface hardness of gypsum casts poured using impressions made from self-disinfecting alginate and conventional alginates were comparable. Self-disinfecting alginates may be employed in clinical practice as safe and effective materials to overcome the infection control issues without compromising on the properties of the material.

  3. Effect of Diffusion on Discoloration of Congo Red by Alginate Entrapped Turnip (Brassica rapa Peroxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Ahmedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic discoloration of the diazo dye, Congo red (CR, by immobilized plant peroxidase from turnip “Brassica rapa” is investigated. Partially purified turnip peroxidase (TP was immobilized by entrapment in spherical particles of calcium alginate and was assayed for the discoloration of aqueous CR solution. Experimental data revealed that pH, reaction time, temperature, colorant, and H2O2 concentration play a significant role in dye degradation. Maximum CR removal was found at pH 2.0, constant temperature of 40°C in the presence of 10 mM H2O2, and 180 mg/L of CR. More than 94% of CR was removed by alginate immobilized TP after 1 h of incubation in a batch process under optimal conditions. About 74% removal efficiency was retained after four recycles. Diffusional limitations in alginate beads such as effectiveness factor η, Thiele modulus Φ, and effective diffusion coefficients (De of Congo red were predicted assuming a first-order biodegradation kinetic. Results showed that intraparticle diffusion resistance has a significant effect on the CR biodegradation rate.

  4. Alginate enhances excretion and reduces absorption of strontium and cesium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idota, Yoko; Harada, Hitomi; Tomono, Takumi; Morimoto, Kaori; Kakinuma, Chihaya; Ogihara, Takuo; Kobayashi, Shoko; Miyajima, Chihiro; Kasahara, Fumiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Alginate (ALA), which is an intercellular polysaccharide associated with brown algae, is used as a food additive, a health food and a medicine. Here, we first examined the adsorption of strontium (Sr) and cesium (Cs) by ALA in vitro, and then evaluated the effects of ALA on absorption and excretion of Sr and Cs in rats, in order to evaluate its potential usefulness for minimizing radiation damage from materials released after a nuclear accident. Both Sr and Cs were concentration-dependently adsorbed by sodium alginate (ALA-Na) in vitro. In rats given diet containing either ALA-Na or calcium alginate (ALA-Ca) for two weeks, the plasma concentration of Sr gradually decreased compared with the controls (normal diet); however, in the case of Cs, the plasma concentration was decreased only in the ALA-Ca group, but not the ALA-Na group. Moreover, we examined the effect of preadministration of diet containing either ALA-Na or ALA-Ca on absorption of Sr and Cs administered orally as the chloride salts to rats. Absorption of both Sr and Cs was reduced in the ALA-Ca group, while absorption of only Sr was reduced in the ALA-Na group. Safety assessments indicated that ALA-Ca is safer than ALA-Na. These results indicate that ALA-Ca reduces absorption and promotes excretion of both Sr and Cs, while ALA-Na does so only for Sr. (author)

  5. The role of gluconate production by Pseudomonas spp. in the mineralization and bioavailability of calcium-phytate to Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Courtney D; Hsu, Pei-Chun Lisa; Richardson, Alan E; Hurst, Mark R H; Hill, Jane E

    2015-12-01

    Organic phosphorus (P) is abundant in most soils but is largely unavailable to plants. Pseudomonas spp. can improve the availability of P to plants through the production of phytases and organic anions. Gluconate is a major component of Pseudomonas organic anion production and may therefore play an important role in the mineralization of insoluble organic P forms such as calcium-phytate (CaIHP). Organic anion and phytase production was characterized in 2 Pseudomonas spp. soil isolates (CCAR59, Ha200) and an isogenic mutant of strain Ha200, which lacked a functional glucose dehydrogenase (Gcd) gene (strain Ha200 gcd::Tn5B8). Wild-type and mutant strains of Pseudomonas spp. were evaluated for their ability to solubilize and hydrolyze CaIHP and to promote the growth and assimilation of P by tobacco plants. Gluconate, 2-keto-gluconate, pyruvate, ascorbate, acetate, and formate were detected in Pseudomonas spp. supernatants. Wild-type pseudomonads containing a functional gcd could produce gluconate and mineralize CaIHP, whereas the isogenic mutant could not. Inoculation with Pseudomonas improved the bioavailability of CaIHP to tobacco plants, but there was no difference in plant growth response due to Gcd function. Gcd function is required for the mineralization of CaIHP in vitro; however, further studies will be needed to quantify the relative contribution of specific organic anions such as gluconate to plant growth promotion by soil pseudomonads.

  6. Development of a Spirulina Extract/Alginate-Imbedded PCL Nanofibrous Cosmetic Patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Seon Yeong; Cho, Myung Kwon; Shim, Kyou Hee; Kim, Hye Jin; Song, Hyeon Gi; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2017-09-28

    Cosmetic patches have recently been developed as skin products for personal care owing to rapid advances in the technology of delivery of active ingredients, moisture, and adhesiveness to skin. Alginate and Spirulina are typical marine resources used in cosmetic products. This research involved the development of a Spirulina extract-impregnated alginate nanofiber cosmetic patch supported by a polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber cover ( Spi /Alg-PCL NF patch). In addition to the ability of alginate to affect moisture and adhesiveness to skin, the impregnation of Spirulina extract strengthened those abilities as well as its own bioactive effectiveness. All fabrication processing steps were undertaken in aqueous solution. The three components (alginate, Spirulina extract, and PCL) had no detected cytotoxicity in human keratinocyte cell-based examination. In addition, wetting the pre-dried patch on the skin resulted in the Spirulina extract being released within 30 min. The results indicate the excellence of the Spi /Alg-PCL NF patch as a skin-care cosmetic device.

  7. Development of sodium alginate and konkoli gumgrafted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment is a continuation of our effort to develop a blend membrane of sodium alginate and “konkoli” gum-g-polyacrylamide (KG-g-PAAm) for bioremediation of wastewater. The effect of graft reaction conditions on the percentage graft yield in the graft copolymerization was investigated. It was observed that grafting ...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served) (percent) Functional use Confections and...) of this chapter 0.25 Do. All other food categories 0.01 Do. (d) Prior sanctions for potassium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1011 - Alginic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... used in food only within the following specific limitations: Category of food Maximum level of use in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Alginic acid. 184.1011 Section 184.1011 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  10. Conservation of minimally processed pineapple using calcium chloride, edible coating and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilon, Lucimeire

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a convenience type pineapple subjected to fresh-cut process and calcium chloride, wheat gluten and alginate-base edible coating and irradiation treatments. The fruits were washed, sanitized with Sumaveg (Sodium Dichloro-s-Triazinetrione) in a 200 mg L-1 chlorine-free solution at 7 deg C for 15 minutes, and then manually peeled. The peeled fruits were sliced into 1 cm thick slices, rinsed in 20 mg L-1 chlorine-free solution for 3 minutes and drained for 3 minutes. In the first experiment, the samples were treated with: 1% calcium chloride + vital wheat gluten solution; 1% calcium chloride + 1% alginate solution; and control. In the second experiment, the samples were treated with: 1% calcium chloride + vital wheat gluten solution + 2.3 kGy; 1% calcium chloride + 2.3kGy; irradiation with 2.3kGy; and control. The packing consisted of rigid polyethylene terephthalate (PET) trays with around 250 g of fruit. The irradiation was performed in a Cobalt-60 multipurpose irradiator with 92 kCi activity and dose value of 2.3 kGy h-1. The samples were stored at 5 ± 1 deg C and evaluated every other day for 12 days. In the first experiment pH and titratable acidity values showed slight variations but were similar between the treatments. There was a decrease in ascorbic acid values in all treatments. Browning was noticed in all treatments over the storage period. Although the values between the treatments were similar, the pineapple treated with calcium chloride + gluten showed firmer texture, less liquid loss, and lower values of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities and CO 2 and ethylene production. Mesophiles and mold and yeast counts were also reduced. No Salmonella and E. coli were detected. Total coliform counts were low in all the treatments and appeared in just a few isolated samples during the storage period. Sensory analyses showed that the samples treated with calcium chloride + gluten had the lower scores for texture

  11. In vitro solubility of calcium, iron and zinc in relation to phytic acid levels in rice-based consumer products in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, J.; Han, B.Z.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hamer, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    In vitro solubility of calcium, iron and zinc in relation to phytic acid (PA) levels in 30 commercial rice-based foods from China was studied. Solubility of minerals and molar ratios of PA to minerals varied with degrees of processing. In primary products, [PA]/[Ca] values were less than 5 and

  12. Productive performance and efficiency of utilization of the diet components in dairy cows fed castor meal treated with calcium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Variz Cobianchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing of 0; 0.33; 0.67 and 1.0 (kg/kg of soybean meal (SBM by undecorticated castor seed meal treated with calcium oxide (CMT - 60 g/kg was evaluated on performance and efficiency of nutrient utilization in dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein and crossbred cows were distributed in four 4 × 4 latin squares. Animals received concentrated feed at a ratio of 1 kg for 3 kg of milk produced, in the natural matter. The diets had the same amount of nitrogen (150.4 g crude protein/kg DM, containing 325.6 g of concentrated feed/kg DM. There was no effect on the serum concentration of transaminase and the animals showed no clinical symptoms of intoxication by ricin. The intake of DM, crude protein (CP and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC reduced from 0.67 replacement of SBM by CMT. The intake of neutral detergent fibers corrected for ash and protein (NDFap increased from 0.33 replacement of SBM with CMT. Although the digestibility of dietary components decreased from 0.33 replacement, the intake of digestible components only reduced from 0.67 replacement. Because of the reduction of digestible energy, the synthesis of microbial CP and the utilization efficiency of rumen-degradable protein for the synthesis of microbial CP reduced with full replacement of SBM by CMT. Milk yield, milk composition, daily variation of body weight and the efficiency of utilization of the nutrients for the synthesis of N in milk reduced from 0.67 replacement of SBM by CMT. Castor seed meal treated with calcium oxide can replace up to 0.33 of SBM (50 g/kg DM diet DM in the diet of dairy cows with an average milk production of 20 kg/day.

  13. Soil properties and clover establishment six years after surface application of calcium-rich by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchey, K.D.; Belesky, D.P.; Halvorson, J.J. [USDA ARS, Beaver, WV (US). Appalachian Farming Systems Research Center

    2004-12-01

    Calcium-rich soil amendments can improve plant growth by supplying Ca and reducing detrimental effects of soil acidity, but solubility and neutralizing capacity of Ca sources vary. Our objectives were to evaluate effects of calcitic dolomite and several coal combustion by-products on soil properties at various depths 6 yr after surface application and their influence on grass-clover herbage accumulation. Calcium and Mg soil amendments were surface-applied to an acidic grassland in 1993, and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbyshire) were oversown in 1994. In 1998, amendment treatment plots were split to accommodate sod seeding with red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) or white clover (T. repens L.) as well as a nonseeded control. No N fertilizer was applied after sod seeding. Six years after amendment application, reductions in soil Al and Mn and increases in Ca and pH from 4654 kg ha{sup -1} calcitic dolomite, 15 000 kg ha{sup -1} fluidized bed combustion residue, or 526 kg ha{sup -1} MgO amendment were greatest in the surface 2.5 cm while rates of gypsum as high as 32 000 kg ha{sup -1} left little residual effect except for decreases in Mg. Percentage clover in the sward tripled as pH increased from 4.3 to 5.0 while herbage mass increased 75% as clover percentage increased. Herbage mass was generally more closely correlated with properties of soil samples collected from the surface 2.5 cm than from deeper samples.

  14. Dye decolorization and detoxification potential of Ca-alginate beads immobilized manganese peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Asgher, Muhammad

    2015-12-10

    In view of compliance with increasingly stringent environmental legislation, an eco-friendly treatment technology of industrial dyes and effluents is a major environmental challenge in the color industry. In present study, a promising and eco-friendly entrapment approach was adopted to immobilize purified manganese peroxidase (MnP) produced from an indigenous strain of Ganoderma lucidum IBL-05 on Ca-alginate beads. The immobilized MnP was subsequently used for enhanced decolorization and detoxification of textile reactive dyes). MnP isolated from solid-state culture of G. lucidum IBL-05, presented highest immobilization yield (83.9 %) using alginate beads prepared at optimized conditions of 4 % (w/v) sodium alginate, 2 % (w/v) Calcium chloride (CaCl2) and 0.5 mg/ml enzyme concentration. Immobilization of MnP enhanced optimum temperature but caused acidic shift in optimum pH of the enzyme. The immobilized MnP showed optimum activity at pH 4.0 and 60 °C as compared to pH 5.0 and 35 °C for free enzyme. The kinetic parameters K(m) and V(max) of MnP were significantly improved by immobilization. The enhanced catalytic potential of immobilized MnP led to 87.5 %, 82.1 %, 89.4 %, 95.7 % and 83 % decolorization of Sandal-fix Red C4BLN, Sandal-fix Turq Blue GWF, Sandal-fix Foron Blue E2BLN, Sandal-fix Black CKF and Sandal-fix Golden Yellow CRL dyes, respectively. The insolubilized MnP was reusable for 7 repeated cycles in dye color removal. Furthermore, immobilized MnP also caused a significant reduction in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (94.61-95.47 %), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (91.18-94.85 %), and total organic carbon (TOC) (89.58-95 %) of aqueous dye solutions. G. lucidum MnP was immobilized in Ca-alginate beads by entrapment method to improve its practical effectiveness. Ca-alginate bound MnP was catalytically more vigorous, thermo-stable, reusable and worked over wider ranges of pH and temperature as compared to its free counterpart. Results of cytotoxicity like

  15. Controlled swelling and degradation studies of alginate microbeads in dilute natrium-citrate solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Dragana D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alginate hydrogels are widely used in biomedicine due to alginate availability, hydrophilic nature, biocompatibility and biodegradability. Alginate microbeads are particularly attractive for applications in pharmacy and regenerative medicine due to high surface to volume ratio, low mass transfer limitations and simple implantation by injection. Aim of this work was to investigate possibilities for controlled degradation of alginate microbeads in cell culture medium (Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium with Na-citrate added in small concentrations (0.05 - 0.5 mM. Alginate microbeads (1.5% w/w, 800 m in diameter were produced by electrostatic droplet extrusion and evaluated over a period of 10 days regarding appearance, kinetics and degree of swelling as well as biomechanical properties determined in a novel bioreactor with mechanical stimulation under in vivo-like conditions in articular cartilage (10% strain, 337.5 m/s compression rate. In the citrate concentration range investigated, microbeads initially swelled reaching an equilibrium value (~150-170% with respect to the initial mass, upon which they appeared stable for a certain period of time (1 to over 7 days followed by bead bursting and degradation. This degradation process indicated that Na+ ions from the solution initially replaced Ca2+ ions bound mainly to COO- groups in polymannuronate sequences inducing electrostatic repulsion of polymer chains and, consequently, swelling of the beads. Citrate ions assisted in this process by forming insoluble calcium citrate. Thus, the specific rate of the bead swelling increased with the increase in citrate concentration approaching a maximal value of ~0.34 d-1. In the last phase, the beads burst into pieces, which slowly continued to degrade by replacement of Ca2+ ions bonded to polyguluronate blocks in the egg-box structure. Compression moduli for packed beds of control, freshly produced microbeads, and microbeads swelled at the equilibrium

  16. A metodologia de superfície de resposta como ferramenta para a avaliação da produção de alginato e poli-hidroxibutirato pela Azotobacter vinelandii = The response surface methodology as a tool for assessing the production of alginate and polyhydroxybutirate by Azotobacter vinelandii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Navarro da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O alginato é um polissacarídeo normalmente extraído de paredes celulares de algas marrons e utilizado nas indústrias de alimentos, farmacêuticas e biotecnológicas. A produção é concentrada no cultivo de algas marinhas marrons, mas várias bactérias do gênero Pseudomonas e Azotobacter produzem alginato. A estrutura química dos alginatosproduzidos por algas é similar a dos sintetizados pela A. vinelandii. Esta bactéria também produz polímeros intracelulares como o poli-hidroxibutirato (PHB, conhecido como bioplástico. Neste trabalho, estudou-se a produção simultânea do alginato e PHB pela A.vinelandii, utilizando-se sacarose e diferentes parâmetros de fermentação em agitador orbital rotatório. Os valores ótimos para produção destes compostos foram determinados pela MSR. O 1º experimento foi um planejamento fatorial fracionado 26-2. O 2º foi baseado nas variáveis significativas do 1º experimento, resultando em um planejamento fatorial completo 33-0. Verificou-se, do primeiro para o segundo, aumento na produtividade do PHB de 12 para 45 mg g-1 de célula h-1 e do alginato de 100 para 1.600 mg g-1 de célula h-1. Aprodutividade de ambos os compostos foi máxima na temperatura de incubação de 62ºC, no menor tempo de incubação (18h e na concentração de sacarose de 11 g L-1. Em ambos os experimentos, o PHB extraído apresentou pureza de 94%.Alginate is a polysaccharide extracted from cell walls of brown algae and used in the food, pharmaceuticals and biotech industries. Production is concentrated on the cultivation of brown seaweed, but several bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas and Azotobacter producealginate. The chemical structure of alginates produced by algae is similar to those synthesized by A. vinelandii. The bacteria also produce intracellular polymers such as polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB, known as bioplastic. This work studied the simultaneous alginate and PHB production by A. vinelandii using sucrose and

  17. In situ Raman spectra of the discharge products of calcium and lithium-anoded thionyl chloride cells — sulphur dioxide generation in oxyhalide systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, W. P.; Sargeant, D. G.

    A cell has been constructed that allows a calcium or lithium-anoded oxyhalide cell of conventional composition to be analysed for catholyte-soluble discharge products using laser Raman spectroscopy. Both cells showed the presence of sulphur dioxide solvated by thionyl chloride. Species of the type M(SOCl 2)(SO 2) n+ (AlCl 4) n- could only be detected in cells having calcium or lithium anodes with LiAlCl 4 as the supporting electrolyte in thionyl chloride. Vapour pressure measurements of discharging cells confirmed that Ca(AlCl 4) 2 was less likely to form a complex with sulphur dioxide than the analogous lithium salt.

  18. Calcium - ionized

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diuretics Thrombocytosis (high platelet count) Tumors Vitamin A excess Vitamin D excess Lower-than-normal levels may be due to: Hypoparathyroidism Malabsorption Osteomalacia Pancreatitis Renal failure Rickets Vitamin D deficiency Alternative Names Free calcium; Ionized calcium ...

  19. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium is needed by the body for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  20. Determination of diffusion coefficients and diffusion characteristics for chlorferon and diethylthiophosphate in Ca-alginate gel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jiyeon; Engler, Cady R; Lee, Seung Jae

    2008-07-01

    Diffusion characteristics of chlorferon and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) in Ca-alginate gel beads were studied to assist in designing and operating bioreactor systems. Diffusion coefficients for chlorferon and DETP in Ca-alginate gel beads determined at conditions suitable for biodegradation studies were 2.70 x 10(-11) m(2)/s and 4.28 x 10(-11) m(2)/s, respectively. Diffusivities of chlorferon and DETP were influenced by several factors, including viscosity of the bulk solution, agitation speed, and the concentrations of diffusing substrate and immobilized cells. Diffusion coefficients increased with increasing agitation speed, probably due to poor mixing at low speed and some attrition of beads at high speeds. Diffusion coefficients also increased with decreasing substrate concentration. Increased cell concentration in the gel beads caused lower diffusivity. Theoretical models to predict diffusivities as a function of cell weight fraction overestimated the effective diffusivities for both chlorferon and DETP, but linear relations between effective diffusivity and cell weight fraction were derived from experimental data. Calcium-alginate gel beads with radii of 1.65-1.70 mm used in this study were not subject to diffusional limitations: external mass transfer resistances were negligible based on Biot number calculations and effectiveness factors indicated that internal mass transfer resistance was negligible. Therefore, the degradation rates of chlorferon and DETP inside Ca-alginate gel beads were reaction-limited. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Biochemical Monitoring of Spinal Cord Injury by FT-IR Spectroscopy—Effects of Therapeutic Alginate Implant in Rat Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckermann, Ortrud; Sitoci-Ficici, Kerim H.; Later, Robert; Beiermeister, Rudolf; Doberenz, Falko; Gelinsky, Michael; Leipnitz, Elke; Schackert, Gabriele; Koch, Edmund; Sablinskas, Valdas; Steiner, Gerald; Kirsch, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces complex biochemical changes, which result in inhibition of nervous tissue regeneration abilities. In this study, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was applied to assess the outcomes of implants made of a novel type of non-functionalized soft calcium alginate hydrogel in a rat model of spinal cord hemisection (n = 28). Using FT-IR spectroscopic imaging, we evaluated the stability of the implants and the effects on morphology and biochemistry of the injured tissue one and six months after injury. A semi-quantitative evaluation of the distribution of lipids and collagen showed that alginate significantly reduced injury-induced demyelination of the contralateral white matter and fibrotic scarring in the chronic state after SCI. The spectral information enabled to detect and localize the alginate hydrogel at the lesion site and proved its long-term persistence in vivo. These findings demonstrate a positive impact of alginate hydrogel on recovery after SCI and prove FT-IR spectroscopic imaging as alternative method to evaluate and optimize future SCI repair strategies. PMID:26559822

  2. Biochemical Monitoring of Spinal Cord Injury by FT-IR Spectroscopy--Effects of Therapeutic Alginate Implant in Rat Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tamosaityte

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI induces complex biochemical changes, which result in inhibition of nervous tissue regeneration abilities. In this study, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy was applied to assess the outcomes of implants made of a novel type of non-functionalized soft calcium alginate hydrogel in a rat model of spinal cord hemisection (n = 28. Using FT-IR spectroscopic imaging, we evaluated the stability of the implants and the effects on morphology and biochemistry of the injured tissue one and six months after injury. A semi-quantitative evaluation of the distribution of lipids and collagen showed that alginate significantly reduced injury-induced demyelination of the contralateral white matter and fibrotic scarring in the chronic state after SCI. The spectral information enabled to detect and localize the alginate hydrogel at the lesion site and proved its long-term persistence in vivo. These findings demonstrate a positive impact of alginate hydrogel on recovery after SCI and prove FT-IR spectroscopic imaging as alternative method to evaluate and optimize future SCI repair strategies.

  3. The effects of dietary calcium iodate on productive performance, egg quality and iodine accumulation in eggs of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshalinejad, R; Hassanabadi, A; Nassiri-Moghaddam, H; Zarghi, H

    2018-01-25

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of various levels of supplemental calcium iodate (CI) on productive performance, egg quality, blood indices and iodine (I) accumulation in the eggs in commercial laying hens. A total of 240 White Leghorn layers (Hy-line W36) were divided through a completely randomized design into six treatments with five replicates and eight hens per each at 32 weeks of age. This experiment lasted for 12 weeks. Concentrations of I in the mash diets were 0.74, 3.13, 5.57, 8.11, 10.65 and 12.94 mg I/kg of feed in treatments 1-6 respectively. The added doses of CI were included 0.0 (control), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 mg/kg of diet for treatments 1-6 respectively. There were no significant differences in productive performance among the treatments. The highest eggshell strength was observed in group fed diet containing 3.13 mg I/kg (p = .014). The highest percentage of calcium and lowest percentage of phosphorus in eggshell were observed in group fed diet containing 12.94 mg I/kg (p = .0001). Feeding hens with diet containing 12.94 mg I/kg increased serum triiodothyronine-to-thyroxine ratio (p = .0001). Serum alanine aminotransferase activity in hens fed diet containing 12.94 mg I/kg was significantly more than control (p = .041). Blood Serum triglycerides in hens fed diet containing 8.11 mg I/kg were significantly higher than control (p = .0001). Edible fraction of the eggs of birds fed diet containing 12.94 mg I/kg was enriched by I almost 3 times more than those fed diet containing 0.74 mg I/kg. The results suggested that egg production, egg mass, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not significantly affected by dietary I levels. Iodine accumulation in the eggs were increased by increasing dietary I levels and the level of 10 mg/kg CI could supply I enrichment of the eggs. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS, DAIRY PRODUCTS AND CALCIUM INTAKES ON RISK FACTORS OF OSTEOPOROSIS PREVENTION IN FEMALE STUDENTS OF ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY OF DAMAVAND, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehmani Ghobadi Marya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Osteoporosis is a serious metabolic bone disorder that often results in hip fracture and usually asymptomatic in its initial stages. Since the majority of bone formation occurs during childhood and adolescence, it is important to begin primary prevention at an early age, although the optimal way for instilling this preventive behavior in youth has not yet been defined. The purpose of this study was to investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intakes on risk factors of osteoporosis prevention in female students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand in Iran. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 280 healthy female university students aged between 18 to 24 years old who were selected randomly from the university students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand, Iran. Subjects completed an informed consent form, health history questionnaire; food questionnaire was used to assess the entire dietary component intakes and physical activity questionnaire (Baecke. Result: The result shows that Increase in physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake with a decrease in BMI, and increase in BMD. Also results shows that there were significant negative correlations between the physical activity levels, diary product consumption, the calcium intake and risk factors of osteoporosis. Conclusions: Increased physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake is associated with an increase in BMD and a concomitant decrease in BMI. These findings suggest that population-level interventions to increase physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake would favorably impact bone and other health outcomes. Thus, dietary pattern coupled with higher education levels and greater physical activity favored bone health and osteoporosis prevention in middle school females.

  5. Three-dimensional electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL)/alginate hybrid composite scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Seong; Kim, GeunHyung

    2014-12-19

    Micro/nanofibrous scaffolds have been used widely in biomedical applications because the micro/nano-scale fibres resemble natural extracellular matrix and the high surface-to-volume ratio encourages cellular activities (attachment and proliferation). However, poor mechanical properties, low controllability of various shapes and difficulties in obtaining controllable pore structure have been obstacles to their use in hard-tissue regeneration. To overcome these shortcomings, we suggest a new composite system, which uses a combination method of wet electrospinning, rapid prototyping and a physical punching process. Using the process, we obtained polycaprolactone (PCL)/alginate composite scaffolds, consisting of electrospun PCL/alginate fibres and micro-sized PCL struts, with mean pore sizes of 821 ± 55 μm. To show the feasibility of the scaffolds for hard-tissue regeneration, the scaffolds were assessed not only for physical properties, including hydrophilicity, water absorption, and tensile and compressive strength, but also in vitro cellular responses (cell viability and proliferation) and osteogenic differentiation (alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mineralisation) by culturing with pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 cells). With the reinforcing micro-sized PCL struts, the elastic modulus of the PCL/alginate scaffold was significantly improved versus a pure PCL scaffold. Additionally, due to the alginate component in the fibrous scaffold, they showed significantly enhanced hydrophilic behaviour, water absorption (∼8-fold) and significant biological activities (∼1.6-fold for cell viability at 7 days, ∼2.3-fold for ALP activity at 14 days and ∼6.4-fold for calcium mineralisation at 14 days) compared with those of a pure PCL fibrous scaffold. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Calcium ion dependency of ethylene production in segments of primary roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Ca2+ on ethylene production in 2-cm long apical segments from primary roots of corn (Zea mays L., B73 x Missouri 17) seedlings. The seedlings were raised under different conditions of Ca2+ availability. Low-Ca and high-Ca seedlings were raised by soaking the grains and watering the seedlings with distilled water or 10 mM CaCl2, respectively. Segments from high-Ca roots produced more than twice as much ethylene as segments from low-Ca roots. Indoleacetic acid (IAA; 1 micromole) enhanced ethylene production in segments from both low-Ca and high-Ca roots but auxin-induced promotion of ethylene production was consistently higher in segments from high-Ca roots. Addition of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to root segments from low-Ca seedlings doubled total ethylene production and the rate of production remained fairly constant during a 24 h period of monitoring. In segments from high-Ca seedlings ACC also increased total ethylene production but most of the ethylene was produced within the first 6 h. The data suggest that Ca2+ enhances the conversion of ACC to ethylene. The terminal 2 mm of the root tip were found to be especially important to ethylene biosynthesis by apical segments and, experiments using 45Ca2+ as tracer indicated that the apical 2 mm of the root is the region of strongest Ca2+ accumulation. Other cations such as Mn2+, Mg2+, and K+ could largely substitute for Ca2+. The significance of these findings is discussed with respect to recent evidence for gravity-induced Ca2+ redistribution and its relationship to the establishment of asymmetric growth during gravitropic curvature.

  7. Intakes of dairy products and calcium and obesity in Korean adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Jeung; Cho, Jang-ik; Lee, Hye-Seung H; Kim, Cho-il; Cho, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    The possible effects of dairy product intake against obesity have been suggested in animal studies; however, the association is still not well established in epidemiological studies. Few studies in Asian countries with relatively low intake of dairy products exist. We investigated the association between dairy products and calcium intake and obesity in Korean population with relatively low intake of dairy products. Our study population consisted of adults (n = 7173) aged 19-64 among participants of the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had not made any attempt of intentional weight loss. Dietary intake data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall were used. Dairy products included milk and yogurt in the FFQ. Obesity was defined as BMI≥25 kg/m². Higher frequency of dairy product intake was associated with a reduced prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.45-0.89 for ≥2 times/day vs. ≤1 time/month; p for trend = 0.003) using the intake data from FFQ. Similarly, high frequency of milk or yogurt intake had an inverse association with obesity. The association between milk and yogurt intake and obesity was similar when the intake from 24-hour recall was examined. Higher calcium intake from dairy products as well as total dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.71-0.98 for highest vs. lowest quintile of dairy calcium intake; p for trend = 0.02, OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.64-0.94 for highest vs. lowest quintile of total calcium intake; p for trend = 0.04). The associations appeared to be stronger in women than in men. These results suggest that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and that calcium in dairy products may be one of the components contributing to the association. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to replicate our findings.

  8. Effects of calcium propionate by different numbers of applications in first week postpartum of dairy cows on hypocalcemia, milk production and reproductive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Kovanlıkaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate effects of calcium propionate on hypocalcemia, dry matter intake, body condition score, milk production and reproductive disorders in dairy cows. Twenty four multiparous Holstein cows were sorted by parity, body condition score (BCS in close-up period and season of calving and assigned to one of the three treatments. The cows in treatment 1 (T1 received two drenches at calving and 24h after calving. The cows in treatment 2 (T2 received three drenches at calving, 24h after calving and 7 days after calving. The cows in treatment 3 (T3 were the control. Each drench contained 143g of calcium as calcium propionate (0.68kg. Parameters studied were serum calcium, glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA concentrations, dry matter intake (DMI, BCS, milk production (MP, incidence of retained placenta (RP and metritis. Milk fever developed in 5 of 8 cows, in 3 of 8 cows and in 3 of 8 cows in T1, T2 and T3, respectively, at calving. There was no cow with milk fever in T1 and T2 at 4h after second drench (about 28h after calving but 3 of 8 cows in T3 had still milk fever at this time. The cows receiving two drenches recovered from milk fever in a shorter term as compared to the cows in T3. There were no differences among treatments for DMI, BCS, MP, RP, serum glucose and NEFA concentrations during the experimental period. There was no difference for metritis between T1 and T3 but incidence of metritis in T2 was significantly lower as compared to T3 (P<0.05. Two drenches of calcium propionate were beneficial in treating milk fever and three drenches of calcium propionate were considered to have had a preventive effect for metritis.

  9. Effects of Sucrose, Phosphate, and Calcium Carbonate on the Production of Pikromycin from Streptomyces venezuelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jeong Sang; Kim, Min-Suk; Kim, Sung-Jin; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2015-04-01

    Polyketide secondary metabolites share common precursor pools, acyl-CoA. Thus, the effects of engineering strategies for heterologous and native secondary metabolite production are often determined by the measurement of pikromycin in Streptomyces venezuelae. It is hard to compare the effectiveness of engineering targets among published data owing to the different pikromycin production media used from one study to the other. To determine the most important nutritional factor and establish optimal culture conditions, medium optimization of pikromycin from Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439 was studied with a statistical method, Plackett-Burman design. Nine variables (glucose, sucrose, peptone, (NH4)2SO4, K2HPO4, KH2PO4, NaCl, MgSO4·7H2O, and CaCO3) were analyzed for their effects on a response, pikromycin. Glucose, K2HPO4, and CaCO3 were determined to be the most significant factors. The path of the steepest ascent and response surface methodology about the three selected components were performed to study interactions among the three factors, and the fine-tune concentrations for maximized product yields. The significant variables and optimal concentrations were 139 g/1 sucrose, 5.29 g/l K2HPO4, and 0.081 g/l CaCO3, with the maximal pikromycin yield of 35.5 mg/l. Increases of the antibiotics production by 1.45-fold, 1.3-fold, and 1.98-fold, compared with unoptimized medium and two other pikromycin production media SCM and SGGP, respectively, were achieved.

  10. The Production of Synbiotic Bread by Microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedain-Ardabili, Mojan; Sharifan, Anousheh; Tarzi, Babak Ghiassi

    2016-03-01

    Bread is a global staple food. Despite attempts to develop functional breads containing viable microorganisms, this has not been done yet because of the high temperature during baking. The aim of this study is to obtain synbiotic bread, hence hamburger bun and white pan bread were selected. Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and L. casei 431 were encapsulated with calcium alginate and Hi-maize resistant starch via emulsion technique and coated with chitosan. The morphology and size of microcapsules were measured by scanning electron microscopy and particle size analyser. Inulin was added at 5% wheat flour mass basis for prebiotic effect. The encapsulated probiotics were inoculated into the bread dough and bread loaves were baked. The survival of encapsulated probiotics was determined after baking; also sensory evaluation was performed. Both types of bread met the standard criteria for probiotic products. The probiotic survival was higher in hamburger bun. L. casei 431 was more resistant to high temperature than L. acidophilus LA-5. A significant increase in probiotic survival was observed when the protective coating of chitosan was used in addition to calcium alginate and Hi-maize resistant starch. Storage for 4 days did not have any effect on the viability of encapsulated bacteria. The addition of encapsulated bacteria did not have any effect on flavour and texture; however, 5% inulin improved the texture of bread significantly. Results show that microencapsulation used in the production of synbiotic bread can enhance the viability and thermal resistance of the probiotic bacteria.

  11. The Production of Synbiotic Bread by Microencapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anousheh Sharifan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bread is a global staple food. Despite attempts to develop functional breads containing viable microorganisms, this has not been done yet because of the high temperature during baking. The aim of this study is to obtain synbiotic bread, hence hamburger bun and white pan bread were selected. Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and L. casei 431 were encapsulated with calcium alginate and Hi-maize resistant starch via emulsion technique and coated with chitosan. The morphology and size of microcapsules were measured by scanning electron microscopy and particle size analyser. Inulin was added at 5 % wheat flour mass basis for prebiotic effect. The encapsulated probiotics were inoculated into the bread dough and bread loaves were baked. The survival of encapsulated probiotics was determined after baking; also sensory evaluation was performed. Both types of bread met the standard criteria for probiotic products. The probiotic survival was higher in hamburger bun. L. casei 431 was more resistant to high temperature than L. acidophilus LA-5. A significant increase in probiotic survival was observed when the protective coating of chitosan was used in addition to calcium alginate and Hi-maize resistant starch. Storage for 4 days did not have any effect on the viability of encapsulated bacteria. The addition of encapsulated bacteria did not have any effect on flavour and texture; however, 5 % inulin improved the texture of bread significantly. Results show that microencapsulation used in the production of synbiotic bread can enhance the viability and thermal resistance of the probiotic bacteria.

  12. Calcium in milk products precipitates intestinal fatty acids and secondary bile acids and thus inhibits colonic cytotoxicity in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, MJAP; Termont, DSML; Lapre, JA; Kleibeuker, JH; Vonk, RJ; VanderMeer, R

    1996-01-01

    Dietary calcium may reduce the risk of colon cancer, probably by precipitating cytotoxic surfactants, such as secondary bile acids, in the colonic lumen. We previously showed that milk mineral, an important source of calcium, decreases metabolic risk factors and colonic proliferation in rats, We non

  13. Calcium metabolism in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Calcium is one of the most important plasma constituents in mammals and birds. It provides structural strength and support (bones and eggshell) and plays vital roles in many of the biochemical reactions in the body. The control of calcium metabolism in birds is highly efficient and closely regulated in a number of tissues, primarily parathyroid gland, intestine, kidney, and bone. The hormones with the greatest involvement in calcium regulation in birds are parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (calcitriol), and estrogen, with calcitonin playing a minor and uncertain role. The special characteristics of calcium metabolism in birds, mainly associated with egg production, are discussed, along with common clinical disorders secondary to derangements in calcium homeostasis.

  14. Structure of a Bacterial ABC Transporter Involved in the Import of an Acidic Polysaccharide Alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Yukie; Itoh, Takafumi; Kaneko, Ai; Nishitani, Yu; Mikami, Bunzo; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku

    2015-09-01

    The acidic polysaccharide alginate represents a promising marine biomass for the microbial production of biofuels, although the molecular and structural characteristics of alginate transporters remain to be clarified. In Sphingomonas sp. A1, the ATP-binding cassette transporter AlgM1M2SS is responsible for the import of alginate across the cytoplasmic membrane. Here, we present the substrate-transport characteristics and quaternary structure of AlgM1M2SS. The addition of poly- or oligoalginate enhanced the ATPase activity of reconstituted AlgM1M2SS coupled with one of the periplasmic solute-binding proteins, AlgQ1 or AlgQ2. External fluorescence-labeled oligoalginates were specifically imported into AlgM1M2SS-containing proteoliposomes in the presence of AlgQ2, ATP, and Mg(2+). The crystal structure of AlgQ2-bound AlgM1M2SS adopts an inward-facing conformation. The interaction between AlgQ2 and AlgM1M2SS induces the formation of an alginate-binding tunnel-like structure accessible to the solvent. The translocation route inside the transmembrane domains contains charged residues suitable for the import of acidic saccharides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Silk sericin-alginate-chitosan microcapsules: hepatocytes encapsulation for enhanced cellular functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Sunita; Dey, Sanchareeka; Kundu, Subhas C

    2014-04-01

    The encapsulation based technology permits long-term delivery of desired therapeutic products in local regions of body without the need of immunosuppressant drugs. In this study microcapsules composed of sericin and alginate micro bead as inner core and with an outer chitosan shell are prepared. This work is proposed for live cell encapsulation for potential therapeutic applications. The sericin protein is obtained from cocoons of non-mulberry silkworm Antheraea mylitta. The sericin-alginate micro beads are prepared via ionotropic gelation under high applied voltage. The beads further coated with chitosan and crosslinked with genipin. The microcapsules developed are nearly spherical in shape with smooth surface morphology. Alamar blue assay and confocal microscopy indicate high cell viability and uniform encapsulated cell distribution within the sericin-alginate-chitosan microcapsules indicating that the microcapsules maintain favourable microenvironment for the cells. The functional analysis of encapsulated cells demonstrates that the glucose consumption, urea secretion rate and intracellular albumin content increased in the microcapsules. The study suggests that the developed sericin-alginate-chitosan microcapsule contributes towards the development of cell encapsulation model. It also offers to generate enriched population of metabolically and functionally active cells for the future therapeutics especially for hepatocytes transplantation in acute liver failure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Applicability of sodium alginate in decorporation therapy of strontium radioisotopes in human being

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Aloisio Cordilha

    1999-10-01

    The increasing release of fission products from nuclear weapon tests in the environment has been rising the levels of radioactive contamination of food chains caused by the fall-out of these elements. In cases of accidental exposure, human subjects could be submitted to an internal contamination, which is likely to include several radionuclides. Special concern must be given, however, to the radioactive isotopes of strontium, cesium and iodine, along with the highly radio toxic transuranium elements like cerium. It was found that sodium alginate, a polyelectrolyte commonly used in food industry and obtained from brown algae (Phaeophyceae), provides the selective suppression of absorption of radioactive strontium presented in the ingested food material with no disturbance of the electrolyte balance nor undesirable side effects, even for a long term treatment. Moreover, these patterns were maintained when alginate was associated to other decontamination additives, specially those related to the other radioisotopes mentioned above, as, in this case, losses in the effectiveness, mutual interference or adverse health effects were not detected. These conclusions ground the discussion about the present trend in the usual choice of EDTA/DTPA complex therapy rather than of alginate therapy for medical assistance of radiocontaminated patients, although they corroborate the efficiency and usefulness of alginate salts in situations related to extensive intakes of strontium radioisotopes alone or associated to other fission products. The purpose of the present work is to make a general review of the alginate therapy as well as to discuss its present and future therapeutic importance from the scientific and institutional points of view. (author)

  17. Radiation protection by ascorbic acid in sodium alginate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, A.J.; Mastro, N.L. Del [Center of Radiation Technology, IPEN/CNEN/SP, University City, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: ajaliste@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    Alginates are gelling hydrocolloids extracted from brown seaweed used widely in the nourishing and pharmaceutical industries. As alginic acid gellification retard food entrance in the stomach alginate is an additive used in diets. The objective of this work was to study the protective action of the ascorbic acid in alginate solutions against the action of {sup 60} Co gamma radiation. One % (w/v) solutions of alginate had been used and concentrations of ascorbic acid varied from 0 to 2.5% (w/v). The solutions were irradiated with doses up to 10 kGy. Viscosity/dose relationship and the p H of the solutions at 25 Centigrade were determined. Ascorbic acid behaved as an antioxidant against radiation oxidative shock in this model system of an irradiated viscous solution. Besides its radiation protective role on alginate solutions ascorbic acid promoted a viscosity increase in the range of concentrations employed. (Author)

  18. Radiation protection by ascorbic acid in sodium alginate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliste, A.J.; Mastro, N.L. Del

    2004-01-01

    Alginates are gelling hydrocolloids extracted from brown seaweed used widely in the nourishing and pharmaceutical industries. As alginic acid gellification retard food entrance in the stomach alginate is an additive used in diets. The objective of this work was to study the protective action of the ascorbic acid in alginate solutions against the action of 60 Co gamma radiation. One % (w/v) solutions of alginate had been used and concentrations of ascorbic acid varied from 0 to 2.5% (w/v). The solutions were irradiated with doses up to 10 kGy. Viscosity/dose relationship and the p H of the solutions at 25 Centigrade were determined. Ascorbic acid behaved as an antioxidant against radiation oxidative shock in this model system of an irradiated viscous solution. Besides its radiation protective role on alginate solutions ascorbic acid promoted a viscosity increase in the range of concentrations employed. (Author)

  19. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Molar conductivity of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium d-saccharate, used as a stabilizer of beverages fortified with calcium d-gluconate, increases strongly upon dilution, indicating complex formation between calcium and d-saccharate ions, for which, at 25 °C, Kassoc = 1032 ± 80, ΔHassoc......° = -34 ± 6 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = -55 ± 9 J mol-1 K-1, were determined electrochemically. Calcium d-saccharate is sparingly soluble, with a solubility product, Ksp, of (6.17 ± 0.32) × 10-7 at 25 °C, only moderately increasing with the temperature: ΔHsol° = 48 ± 2 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = 42 ± 7 J mol-1...... K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d...

  20. Dental pulp stem cells immobilized in alginate microspheres for applications in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanafi, M M; Ramesh, A; Gupta, P K; Bhonde, R R

    2014-07-01

    To immobilize dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) in alginate microspheres and to determine cell viability, proliferation, stem cell characteristics and osteogenic potential of the immobilized DPSCs. Human DPSCs isolated from the dental pulp were immobilized in 1% w/v alginate microspheres. Viability and proliferation of immobilized DPSCs were determined by trypan blue and MTT assay, respectively. Stem cell characteristics of DPSCs post immobilization were verified by labelling the cells with CD73 and CD90. Osteogenic potential of immobilized DPSCs was assessed by the presence of osteocalcin. Alizarin red staining and O-cresolphthalein complexone method confirmed and quantified calcium deposition. A final reverse transcriptase PCR evaluated the expression of osteogenic markers - ALP, Runx-2 and OCN. More than 80% of immobilized DPSCs were viable throughout the 3-week study. Proliferation appeared controlled and consistent unlike DPSCs in the control group. Presence of CD73 and CD90 markers confirmed the stem cell nature of immobilized DPSCs. The presence of osteocalcin, an osteoblastic marker, was confirmed in the microspheres on day 21. Mineralization assays showed high calcium deposition indicating elevated osteogenic potential of immobilized DPSCs. Osteogenic genes- ALP, Runx-2 and OCN were also upregulated in immobilized DPSCs. Surprisingly, immobilized DPSCs in the control group cultured in conventional stem cell media showed upregulation of osteogenic genes and expressed osteocalcin. Dental pulp stem cells immobilized in alginate hydrogels exhibit enhanced osteogenic potential while maintaining high cell viability both of which are fundamental for bone tissue regeneration. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effect of thermal treatment on rutin content in selected buckwheat products using calcium as an internal tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliška Krejzová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC was used for rutin (quercetin-3-rutinoside determination in selected buckwheat products (whole meal flour, broken seeds, seed hulls, herbs and baked cereal breads. The effect of various thermal procedures on content of rutin was evaluated using calcium as an internal tracker to correct changes in mass and composition of the buckwheat products. These factors are very seldom taken into account. The results show non-significant changes in rutin levels obtained in whole meal flour and broken seed samples after thermal treatment up to 150°C. Higher temperature already caused sudden fall in the observed rutin concentrations. The evaporation of some volatile compounds and degradation products can decrease the mass of the samples and formally increase the content of rutin (35.5 ±4.7 mg per 100 g for whole meal flour and 10.2 ±0.4 mg per100 g for broken seeds at 150°C. Serious decrease of rutin contents at elevated temperatures (>150°C can be explained by its degradation (by breaking off the C-C bond in quercetin-3-rutinoside moiety and/or evaporation (24.3 ±1.4 mg per 100 g for whole meal flour and 3.06 ±0.3 mg per100 g for broken seeds at 180°C. In case of baked cereal breads the level of rutin changed in dependence on the ratio between buckwheat and corn flour. Longer time leaching and higher temperature implicate higher rutin content in infusions prepared from buckwheat seed hulls and herbs.

  2. Physical- chemical changes in irradiated sodium alginate algimar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapado Paneque, Manuel; Alazanes, Sonia; Sainz Vidal, Dianelys; Wandrey, Christine

    2003-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on the physical-chemical properties of sodium alginate Algimar has been investigated. dilution viscometric, densitometry FTIR spectroscopy served to identify modifications. Decreasing intrinsic, viscosities clearly revealed chain cleavage for both solid alginate indicate that chain degradation occurs without significant change of the chemical structure, The obtained results have practical implication change of the chemical structure. The obtained results have practical implication in the field of radiation modification and sterilization of sodium alginate used for microcapsule formation

  3. Alginate foam-based three-dimensional culture to investigate drug sensitivity in primary leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpoor, Mahroo; Yebra-Fernandez, Eva; Parhizkar, Maryam; Orlu, Mine; Craig, Duncan; Khorashad, Jamshid S; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2018-04-01

    The development of assays for evaluating the sensitivity of leukaemia cells to anti-cancer agents is becoming an important aspect of personalized medicine. Conventional cell cultures lack the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the bone marrow (BM), the extracellular matrix and stromal components which are crucial for the growth and survival of leukaemia stem cells. To accurately predict the sensitivity of the leukaemia cells in an in vitro assay a culturing system containing the essential components of BM is required. In this study, we developed a porous calcium alginate foam-based scaffold to be used for 3D culture. The new 3D culture was shown to be cell compatible as it supported the proliferation of both normal haematopoietic and leukaemia cells. Our cell differential assay for myeloid markers showed that the porous foam-based 3D culture enhanced myeloid differentiation in both leukaemia and normal haematopoietic cells compared to two-dimensional culture. The foam-based scaffold reduced the sensitivity of the leukaemia cells to the tested antileukaemia agents in K562 and HL60 leukaemia cell line model and also primary myeloid leukaemia cells. This observation supports the application of calcium alginate foams as scaffold components of the 3D cultures for investigation of sensitivity to antileukaemia agents in primary myeloid cells. © 2018 The Author(s).

  4. Tapioca starch blended alginate mucoadhesive-floating beads for intragastric delivery of Metoprolol Tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Nikhil; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to develop tapioca starch blended alginate mucoadhesive-floating beads for the intragastric delivery of Metoprolol Tartrate (MT). The beads were prepared by ionotropic gelation method using calcium chloride as crosslinker and gas forming calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as floating inducer. The alginate gel beads having 51-58% entrapped MT showed 90% release within 45 min in gastric medium (pH 1.2). Tapioca starch blending markedly improved the entrapment efficiency (88%) and sustained the release for 3-4 h. A 12% w/w HPMC coating on these beads extended the release upto 9-11 h. In vitro wash off and buoyancy test in gastric media revealed that the beads containing CaCO3 has gastric residence of more than 12 h. In vitro optimized multi-unit formulation consisting of immediate and sustained release mucoadhesive-floating beads (40:60) showed good initial release of 42% MT within 1h followed by a sustained release of over 90% for 11 h. Pharmacokinetic study performed in rabbit model showed that the relative oral bioavailability of MT after administration of oral solution, sustain release and optimized formulation was 51%, 67% and 87%, respectively. Optimized formulation showed a higher percent inhibition of isoprenaline induced heart rate in rabbits for almost 12 h. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Alginate Encapsulation of Begonia Microshoots for Short-Term Storage and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidou F. Sakhanokho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic seeds were formed from shoot tips of two in vitro grown Begonia cultivars using 3% sodium alginate in Murashige and Skoog medium (MS salt solution as the gel matrix and 100 mM calcium chloride for complexation. Synthetic seed formation was achieved by releasing the sodium alginate/explant combination into 100 mM calcium chloride (CaCl2·H2O solution for 30 or 45 min. Both control and encapsulated shoots were transferred into sterile Petri dishes and stored at 4°C or 22°C for 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 weeks. Conversion of synthetic seeds into plantlets for both storage environments was assessed in MS medium or peat-based substrate. No significant difference was found between the 30 and 45 min CaCl2·H2O treatments or the two cultivars. Encapsulation of explants improved survival rate over time irrespective of the medium type or storage environment. Survival rates of 88, 53, 28, and 11% for encapsulated microshoots versus 73, 13, 0, and 0% for control explants were achieved in microshoots stored for 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks, respectively. The best results were obtained when synthetic seeds were stored at 4°C and germinated on MS medium. Regenerated plantlets were successfully established in potting soil.

  6. Evaluation of an Innovative Over-the-Counter Treatment for Symptoms of Reflux Disease: Quick-Dissolving Alginate Granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugala, Vicki; Dettmar, Peter W.; Thomas, Edward C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional antacids and alginate-based reflux suppressants are OTC products commonly used to treat reflux symptoms. There has been a lack of innovation of new formulations in this therapy area despite consumers finding established products unpalatable. Here we evaluate a novel product formulation which takes the form of quick-dissolving alginate granules in single-dose sachets (Gaviscon Direct Powder (GDP)). Market research and taste evaluation confirmed that reflux sufferers considered GDP to have good flavour and taste, no chalky aftertaste and dissolved rapidly in the mouth with 68% noting so within 10 seconds. GDP was considered convenient and easy to use. The consumer-driven product development was also shown to form a strong alginate raft in standardised in vitro conditions that met the specifications of the BP monograph (raft strength > 7.5 g). Gastric retention of GDP and a test meal was investigated in healthy volunteers using gamma scintigraphy in comparison to Liquid Gaviscon. Both products formed an alginate raft in the stomach above the test meal and emptied after the meal. The gastric retention of the GDP product was found to be noninferior to Liquid Gaviscon. In conclusion, the innovative GDP product formed an effective raft and was well liked by consumers. PMID:23320198

  7. Immobilization of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in mesoporous silica-based material: An efficiency continuous cell-recycle fermentation system for lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zijian; Xie, Xiaona; Wang, Zhi; Tao, Yanchun; Niu, Xuedun; Huang, Xuri; Liu, Li; Li, Zhengqiang

    2016-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria immobilization methods have been widely used for lactic acid production. Until now, the most common immobilization matrix used is calcium alginate. However, Ca-alginate gel disintegrated during lactic acid fermentation. To overcome this deficiency, we developed an immobilization method in which Lactobacillus rhamnosus cells were successfully encapsulated into an ordered mesoporous silica-based material under mild conditions with a high immobilization efficiency of 78.77% by using elemental analysis. We also optimized the cultivation conditions of the immobilized L. rhamnosus and obtained a high glucose conversion yield of 92.4%. Furthermore, L. rhamnosus encapsulated in mesoporous silica-based material exhibited operational stability during repeated fermentation processes and no decrease in lactic acid production up to 8 repeated batches. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served) (percent) Functional use Confections, frostings... chapter 0.4 Do. Sweet sauces, § 170.3(n)(43) of this chapter 0.5 Do. All other food categories 0.1... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium alginate. 184.1133 Section 184.1133 Food...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....1(b)(2), the ingredient is used in food only within the following specific limitations: Category of...; texturizer, § 170.3(o)(32) of this chapter. All other food categories 1.0 Emulsifier, § 170.3(o)(8) of this... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food and...

  10. Alginate-Collagen Fibril Composite Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Baniasadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the synthesis and the mechanical characterization of an alginate-collagen fibril composite hydrogel. Native type I collagen fibrils were used to synthesize the fibrous composite hydrogel. We characterized the mechanical properties of the fabricated fibrous hydrogel using tensile testing; rheometry and atomic force microscope (AFM-based nanoindentation experiments. The results show that addition of type I collagen fibrils improves the rheological and indentation properties of the hydrogel.

  11. Alginate hydrogel as a potential alternative to hyaluronic acid as submucosal injection material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ki Joo; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Eun Ran; Sung, Chang Ohk; Cho, Joo Young; Seo, Soo Won; Kim, Jae J

    2013-06-01

    Sodium alginate is currently used in medical products, including drugs and cosmetic materials. It can also be used as a submucosal injection material due to its excellent water retention ability. Alginate with a high water retention ability is called alginate hydrogel (AH). The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of AH as a submucosal injection material. To investigate the optimal viscosity of AH as a submucosal injection material, we observed the changes in submucosal height from the initial submucosal height in the stomachs of six miniature pigs for each injection material tested (0.3 % AH, 0.5 % hyaluronic acid, glycerol). All submucosal heights were compared serially over time (3, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min). Both immediate and 1-week delayed tissue reactions were investigated endoscopically in the same living pigs. Histological analyses were performed after the animals had been sacrificed. In a preliminary study, we determined that 0.3 % sodium alginate mixed with BaCl2 (400 μl) was the optimal viscosity of AH as an injection material. Our comparison of submucosal height changes over time showed that there was a significant decrease in submucosal height just 3 min following the injection of hyaluronic acid and glycerol, but that following the injection of AH a significant decrease in submucosal height was observed only after 10 min (p injection site. Alginate hydrogel demonstrated long-lasting maintenance of submucosal elevation, safety, and cost-effectiveness in a pig model, which makes it a potential alternative to hyaluronic acid.

  12. Cloud condensation nucleation activities of calcium carbonate and its atmospheric ageing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, M J; Whitehead, J; Davidson, N M; Pope, F D; Alfarra, M R; McFiggans, G; Kalberer, M

    2015-12-28

    Aerosol particles can serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to form cloud droplets, and its composition is a main factor governing whether an aerosol particle is an effective CCN. Pure mineral dust particles are poor CCN; however, changes in chemical composition of mineral dust aerosol particles, due to heterogeneous reactions with reactive trace gases in the troposphere, can modify their CCN properties. In this study we investigated the CCN activities of CaCO3 (as a surrogate for mineral dust) and its six atmospheric ageing products: Ca(NO3)2, CaCl2, CaSO4, Ca(CH3SO3)2, Ca(HCOO)2, and Ca(CH3COO)2. CaCO3 has a very low CCN activity with a hygroscopicity parameter (κ) of 0.001-0.003. The CCN activities of its potential atmospheric ageing products are significantly higher. For example, we determined that Ca(NO3)2, CaCl2 and Ca(HCOO)2 have κ values of ∼0.50, similar to that of (NH4)2SO4. Ca(CH3COO)2 has slightly lower CCN activity with a κ value of ∼0.40, and the κ value of CaSO4 is around 0.02. We further show that exposure of CaCO3 particles to N2O5 at 0% relative humidity (RH) significantly enhances their CCN activity, with κ values increasing to around 0.02-0.04. Within the experimental uncertainties, it appears that the variation in exposure to N2O5 from ∼550 to 15,000 ppbv s does not change the CCN activities of aged CaCO3 particles. This observation indicates that the CaCO3 surface may be already saturated at the shortest exposure. We also discussed the atmospheric implications of our study, and suggested that the rate of change in CCN activities of mineral dust particles in the troposphere is important to determine their roles in cloud formation.

  13. Dietary supplementation with sodium bicarbonate improves calcium absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during peak production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, M J; Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Wang, X J; Zhang, Q; Lin, H

    2015-01-01

    The advantage of supplemental sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on eggshell quality in laying hens changes with age. Besides increasing calcium (Ca) secretion in the eggshell gland, it may improve Ca absorption in the intestine or kidney. Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 384), 25 weeks of age, were allocated to two treatment groups in two experiments, each of which included 4 replicates of 24 hens. Hens were fed a basal diet (control) or the basal diet containing 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg for 50 or 20 weeks in Experiment 1 or 2, respectively. A 24-h continuous lighting regimen was used to allow hens to consume the dietary supplements during the period of active eggshell formation. In Experiment 1, particularly from 25 to 50 weeks of age, and in Experiment 2, NaHCO3 supplementation favoured hen-d egg production at the expense of lower egg weight. The increased eggshell thickness should have nothing to do with the additional eggshell formation, because of the unchanged egg mass and daily eggshell calcification. At 35 weeks of age in both experiments, NaHCO3 supplementation increased duodenal expression of calbindin-d28k (CaBP-D28k) protein, contributing to higher Ca retention and balance. From 50 to 75 weeks of age in Experiment 1, the hens had little response to NaHCO3 supplementation and showed a negative trend on eggshell thickness and strength. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg improves Ca absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during the peak but not late production period, with the introduction of continuous lighting.

  14. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation through fortified dairy products counterbalances seasonal variations of bone metabolism indices: the Postmenopausal Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenta, Roxane; Moschonis, George; Koutsilieris, Michael; Manios, Yannis

    2011-08-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a dietary intervention combined with fortified dairy products on bone metabolism and bone mass indices in postmenopausal women. Forty postmenopausal women (55-65 years old) were equally randomized into a dietary group (DG), receiving daily and for 30 months, 1,200 mg of calcium and 7.5 μg of vitamin D(3) for the first 12 months that increased to 22.5 μg for the remaining 18 months of intervention through fortified dairy products; and a control group (CG). Differences in the changes of bone metabolism and bone mass indices were examined with repeated measures ANOVA. A significant increase was observed for PTH levels only in the CG during the first six winter months of intervention (p = 0.049). After 30 months of intervention, during winter, serum 25(OH)D significantly decreased in the CG while remained in the same high levels as in the summer period in the DG. Serum RANKL levels decreased significantly in the DG compared with the increase in the CG during the 30-month intervention period (p = 0.005). Serum CTx decreased significantly in the DG after six (-0.08; -0.12 to -0.03) and 12 (-0.03; -0.08 to -0.02) months of intervention. Finally, the DG had more favorable changes in total body BMD than the CG (p effective in producing favorable changes in several bone metabolism and bone mass indices and in counterbalancing seasonal variations in hormonal and biochemical molecules.

  15. Production of biodiesel by transesterification of soybean oil using calcium supported tin oxides as heterogeneous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Wenlei; Zhao, Liangliang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Heterogeneous catalysts were prepared by an impregnation method with different conditions. • The catalysts were efficient in the soybean oil transesterification. • The catalytic activity and stability of the catalyst were investigated. - Abstract: The main objective of this work was to develop an environmentally benign process for the production of biodiesel by using a stable solid base catalyst. To this purpose, different heterogeneous CaO–SnO 2 catalysts have been prepared by means of impregnation methods. Various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were applied for the catalyst characterization. The transesterification of soybean oil with methanol, to produce biodiesel, was carried out under batch conditions at refluxed methanol over the CaO–SnO 2 catalysts. The catalytic activity is found to be highly dependent on the Ca/Sn ratio and calcination temperature. The solid catalyst with the Ca/Sn molar ratio of 4:1 and calcined at a temperature of 973 K, performed the best activity, reaching the conversion to methyl esters of 89.3% after 6 h of reaction at methanol reflux temperature (343 K) when a methanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1 and catalyst dosage of 8 wt.% were employed. Further, the solid catalyst is proved to be stable and durable for the transesterification reaction

  16. Controlled release of diuron from an alginate-bentonite formulation: water release kinetics and soil mobility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pérez, M; Villafranca-Sánchez, M; González-Pradas, E; Flores-Céspedes, F

    1999-02-01

    The herbicide diuron was incorporated in alginate-based granules to obtain controlled release (CR) properties. The standard formulation (alginate-herbicide-water) was modified by the addition of different sorbents. The effect on diuron release rate caused by incorporation of natural and acid-treated bentonites in alginate formulation was studied by immersion of the granules in water under static conditions. The release of diuron was diffusion-controlled. The time taken for 50% release of active ingredient to be released into water, T(50), was calculated for the comparison of formulations. The addition of bentonite to the alginate-based formulation produced the higher T(50) values, indicating slower release of the diuron. The mobility of technical and formulated diuron was compared by using soil columns. The use of alginate-based CR formulations containing bentonite produced a less vertical distribution of the active ingredient as compared to the technical product and commercial formulation. Sorption capacities of the various soil constituents for diuron were also determined using batch experiments.

  17. Kinetic and thermodynamic properties of alginate lyase and cellulase co-produced by Exiguobacterium species Alg-S5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Bidyut R

    2017-05-01

    In an effort to screen out the alginolytic and cellulolytic bacteria from the putrefying invasive seaweed Sargassum species accumulated off Barbados' coast, a potent bacterial strain was isolated. This bacterium, which simultaneously produced alginate lyase and cellulase, was identified as Exiguobacterium sp. Alg-S5 via the phylogenetic approach targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The co-produced alginate lyase and cellulase exhibited maximal enzymatic activity at pH 7.5 and at 40°C and 45°C, respectively. The K m and V max values recorded as 0.91mg/mL and 21.8U/mg-protein, respectively, for alginate lyase, and 10.9mg/mL and 74.6U/mg-protein, respectively, for cellulase. First order kinetic analysis of the thermal denaturation of the co-produced alginate lyase and cellulase in the temperature range from 40°C to 55°C revealed that both the enzymes were thermodynamically efficient by displaying higher activation energy and enthalpy of denaturation. These enzymatic properties indicate the potential industrial importance of this bacterium in algal biomass conversion. This appears to be the first report on assessing the efficacy of a bacterium for the co-production of alginate lyase and cellulase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa alginate is refractory to Th1 immune response and impedes host immune clearance in a mouse model of acute lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Zhijun; Wu, Hong; Ciofu, Oana

    2003-01-01

    . The effect of alginate production on pathogenicity was investigated by using an acute lung infection mouse model that compared a non-mucoid P. aeruginosa strain, PAO1, to its constitutive alginate-overproducing derivative, Alg(+) PAOmucA22, and an alginate-defective strain, Alg(-) PAOalgD. Bacterial......Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic respiratory pathogen that accounts for most of the morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. In CF-affected lungs, the bacteria undergo conversion from a non-mucoid to a non-tractable mucoid phenotype, due to overproduction of alginate...... suspensions were instilled into the left bronchus and examined 24 and 48 h post-infection. The highest bacterial loads and the most severe lung pathology were observed with strain Alg(-) PAOalgD at 24 h post-infection, which may have been due to an increase in expression of bacterial elastase by the mutant...

  19. Process for calcium xylonate production as a concrete admixture derived from in-situ fermentation of wheat straw pre-hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Zhou, Xuelian; Tang, Xiusheng; Xu, Yong

    2018-08-01

    One of the major obstacles in process of lignocellulosic biorefinery is the utilization of pre-hydrolysate from pre-treatment. Although lignocellulosic pre-hydrolysate can serve as an economic starting material for xylonic acid production, the advancement of xylonic acid or xylonate is still limited by further commercial value or applications. In the present study, xylose in the high concentration wheat straw pre-hydrolysate was first in-situ biooxidized to xylonate by Gluconobacter oxydans. To meet the needs of commercialization, crude powdered calcium xylonate was prepared by drying process and calcium xylonate content in the prepared crude product was more than 70%. Then, the calcium xylonate product was evaluated as concrete admixture without any complex purification steps and the results demonstrated that xylonate could improve the performance of concrete. Overall, the crude xylonate product directly produced from low-cost wheat straw pre-hydrolysate can potentially be developed as retarding reducer, which could subsequently benefit lignocellulosic biorefinery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of golden needle mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) stem waste on laying performance, calcium utilization, immune response and serum immunity at early phase of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfuz, Shad; Song, Hui; Liu, Zhongjun; Liu, Xinyu; Diao, Zipeng; Ren, Guihong; Guo, Zhixin; Cui, Yan

    2018-05-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of golden needle mushroom ( Flammulina velutipes ) stem waste (FVW), on organic eggs production, calcium utilization, antibody response, serum immunoglobulin, and serum cytokine concentration at early phase of production in laying hens. A total 210, 19 weeks old aged ISA Brown layers were randomly assigned into 5 equal treatment groups, with 7 replications of 6 hens each. Dietary treatment included a standard basal diet as control; antibiotic (0.05% flavomycin); 2% FVW; 4% FVW; and 6% FVW. The experimental duration was 10 weeks. There was no significant differences (p>0.05) on hen day egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) among experimental groups. Unmarketable eggs were significantly lower (pcontrol group. The calcium retention and calcium in egg shell deposition were significantly higher (pcontrol and antibiotic groups. Antibody titers against Newcastle diseases were significantly higher (pcontrol and antibiotic groups. Serum immunoglobulin sIgA was significantly higher (pcontrol and antibiotic groups. Serum cytokine concentration interleukin-2 (IL-2) was significantly higher (pcontrol and antibiotic groups; IL-4 was significantly higher (pcontrol. F. velutipes mushroom waste can be used as a novel substitute for antibiotic for organic egg production and sound health status in laying hens.

  1. Trichloroethylene decomposition and in-situ dry sorption of Cl-products by calcium oxides prepared from hydrated limes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Yoshimi; Iwata, Goichi; Choh, Kyaw; Kubota, Mitsuhiro; Matsuda, Hitoki

    2011-10-01

    A comparison of CaOs produced by calcining two types of hydrated lime and calcium carbonate was made for decomposition of trichloroethylene and in-situ dry sorption of the decomposed Cl-products using a lab-scale gas flow type tubular packed bed reactor. About 20 mg of CaO sample was mixed with about 2 g of Al2O3 particles and packed in the reactor and allowed to react with a flowing standard gas containing 500 ppm of C2HCl3 (N2 balance) at 673 and 873 K, under the condition that the reaction of CaO with C2HCl3 might be completed within a few hours. It was found that no thermal decomposition of C2HCl3 at or below 673 K was observed in a reactor packed only with Al2O3 particles. However, a considerable amount of decomposition of C2HCl3 was obtained in a reactor packed with CaO and Al2O3, even at 673 K. For 1 mol of CaO prepared by calcining highly reactive Ca(OH)2 at 673 K, decomposition of 0.42 mol of C2HCl3 and in-situ absorption product of 0.53 mol of CaCl2 were obtained. At 873 K, about 46% of C2HCl3 was thermally decomposed. The total amount of C2HCl3 decomposed in CaO-Al2O3 particle bed at 873 K became nearly twice larger than that at 673 K. For 1 mol of CaO prepared by calcining highly reactive Ca(OH)2 at 873 K, decomposition of 0.59 mol of C2HCl3 and in-situ absorption product of 0.67 mol of CaCl2 were obtained. Small amounts of C2Cl2, C2Cl4, CCl4, etc. were detected during decomposition of C2HCl3 at 673 and 873 K. It was recognized that the data on decomposition of C2HCl3 as well as in-situ dry sorption of Cl-products in CaO particle bed were correlated with specific surface area of the CaO employed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of a novel calcium looping process for production of heat and carbon dioxide enrichment of greenhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramezani, Mohammad; Shah, Kalpit; Doroodchi, Elham; Moghtaderi, Behdad

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The greenhouse calcium looping process was developed by ASPEN Plus simulator. • In this process, the carbonation reaction provides required heat during night time. • The calcination reaction provides required carbon dioxide during day time. • This novel process saves up to 72% energy compared to the fossil fuel burners. • The process thermodynamically attributes to zero emission of carbon dioxide. - Abstract: Greenhouses typically employ conventional burner systems to suffice heat and carbon dioxide required for plant growth. The energy requirement and carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burner are generally high. As an alternative, this paper describes a novel greenhouse calcium looping process which is expected to decrease the energy requirements and associated carbon dioxide emissions. The conceptual design of greenhouse calcium looping process is carried out in the ASPEN Plus v 7.3 simulator. In a greenhouse calcium looping process, the calcination reaction is considered to take place during day time in order to provide the required optimum carbon dioxide between 1000 and 2000 ppm, while the carbonation reaction is occurred during night time to provide required heat. The process simulations carried out in ASPEN indicates that greenhouse calcium looping process theoretically attributes to zero emission of carbon dioxide. Moreover, in a scenario modelling study compared to the conventional natural gas burner system, the heat duty requirements in the greenhouse calcium looping process were found to reduce by as high as 72%

  3. Alginate Nanoparticles Containing Curcumin and Resveratrol: Preparation, Characterization, and In Vitro Evaluation Against DU145 Prostate Cancer Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saralkar, Pushkar; Dash, Alekha K

    2017-10-01

    Curcumin and resveratrol are naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds having anti-cancer potential. However, their poor aqueous solubility and bioavailability limit their clinical use. Entrapment of hydrophobic drugs into hydrophilic nanoparticles such as calcium alginate presents a means to deliver these drugs to their target site. Curcumin and resveratrol-loaded calcium alginate nanoparticles were prepared by emulsification and cross-linking process. The nanoparticles were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, moisture content, physical state of the drugs, physical stability, and entrapment efficiency. An UPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of curcumin and resveratrol. Alginate nanoformulation was tested for in vitro efficacy on DU145 prostate cancer cells. The particle size of the nanosuspension and freeze-dried nanoparticles was found to be 12.53 ± 1.06 and 60.23 ± 15 nm, respectively. Both DSC and powder XRD studies indicated that curcumin as well as resveratrol were present in a non-crystalline state, in the nanoparticles. The entrapment efficiency for curcumin and resveratrol was found to be 49.3 ± 4.3 and 70.99 ± 6.1%, respectively. Resveratrol showed a higher percentage of release than curcumin (87.6 ± 7.9 versus 16.3 ± 3.1%) in 24 h. Curcumin was found to be taken up by the cells from solution as well as the nanoparticles. Resveratrol had a poor cellular uptake. The drug-loaded nanoparticles exhibit cytotoxic effects on DU145 cells. At high concentration, drug solution exhibited greater toxicity than nanoparticles. The alginate nanoformulation was found to be safe for intravenous administration.

  4. Efficacy of desensitizing products containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate for hypersensitivity relief in MIH-affected molars: an 8-week clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekes, Katrin; Heinzelmann, Karolin; Lettner, Stefan; Schaller, Hans-Günter

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy in reducing hypersensitivity in molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH)-affected molars immediately and over 8 weeks combining a single in-office application and a homed-based program with desensitizing products containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate. Nineteen children with at least one MIH-affected molar with hypersensitivity were included. Hypersensitivity was assessed with an evaporative (air) stimulus and a tactile stimulus. Each child received a single in-office treatment with a desensitizing paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate (elmex Sensitive Professional desensitizing paste), followed by 8 weeks of brushing twice daily with a desensitizing toothpaste containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate with 1450 ppm fluoride (elmex Sensitive Professional toothpaste), using the elmex Sensitive Professional toothbrush. Additionally, the corresponding mouthwash (elmex Sensitive Professional mouthwash) was used. Clinical assessments were made at baseline, immediately after the in-office treatment and after 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks of brushing twice daily. Fifty-six molars with an air blast hypersensitivity score of 2 or 3 (Schiff Cold Air Sensitivity Scale) were included. Application of the desensitizing paste decreased hypersensitivity significantly immediately and throughout the 8 weeks recalls (p MIH. This is the first study evaluating the desensitizing effect of a desensitizing paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate in patients with MIH.

  5. Investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intakes on risk factors of osteoporosis prevention in female students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Marya, Rehmani; Rastegar, Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Osteoporosis is a serious metabolic bone disorder that often results in hip fracture and usually asymptomatic in its initial stages. Since the majority of bone formation occurs during childhood and adolescence, it is important to begin primary prevention at an early age, although the optimal way for instilling this preventive behavior in youth has not yet been defined. The purpose of this study was to investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intak...

  6. Calcium waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Lionel F

    2008-04-12

    Waves through living systems are best characterized by their speeds at 20 degrees C. These speeds vary from those of calcium action potentials to those of ultraslow ones which move at 1-10 and/or 10-20 nm s(-1). All such waves are known or inferred to be calcium waves. The two classes of calcium waves which include ones with important morphogenetic effects are slow waves that move at 0.2-2 microm s(-1) and ultraslow ones. Both may be propagated by cycles in which the entry of calcium through the plasma membrane induces subsurface contraction. This contraction opens nearby stretch-sensitive calcium channels. Calcium entry through these channels propagates the calcium wave. Many slow waves are seen as waves of indentation. Some are considered to act via cellular peristalsis; for example, those which seem to drive the germ plasm to the vegetal pole of the Xenopus egg. Other good examples of morphogenetic slow waves are ones through fertilizing maize eggs, through developing barnacle eggs and through axolotl embryos during neural induction. Good examples of ultraslow morphogenetic waves are ones during inversion in developing Volvox embryos and across developing Drosophila eye discs. Morphogenetic waves may be best pursued by imaging their calcium with aequorins.

  7. Applications of Alginate-Based Bioinks in 3D Bioprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axpe, Eneko; Oyen, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is on the cusp of permitting the direct fabrication of artificial living tissue. Multicellular building blocks (bioinks) are dispensed layer by layer and scaled for the target construct. However, only a few materials are able to fulfill the considerable requirements for suitable bioink formulation, a critical component of efficient 3D bioprinting. Alginate, a naturally occurring polysaccharide, is clearly the most commonly employed material in current bioinks. Here, we discuss the benefits and disadvantages of the use of alginate in 3D bioprinting by summarizing the most recent studies that used alginate for printing vascular tissue, bone and cartilage. In addition, other breakthroughs in the use of alginate in bioprinting are discussed, including strategies to improve its structural and degradation characteristics. In this review, we organize the available literature in order to inspire and accelerate novel alginate-based bioink formulations with enhanced properties for future applications in basic research, drug screening and regenerative medicine. PMID:27898010

  8. Applications of Alginate-Based Bioinks in 3D Bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axpe, Eneko; Oyen, Michelle L

    2016-11-25

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is on the cusp of permitting the direct fabrication of artificial living tissue. Multicellular building blocks (bioinks) are dispensed layer by layer and scaled for the target construct. However, only a few materials are able to fulfill the considerable requirements for suitable bioink formulation, a critical component of efficient 3D bioprinting. Alginate, a naturally occurring polysaccharide, is clearly the most commonly employed material in current bioinks. Here, we discuss the benefits and disadvantages of the use of alginate in 3D bioprinting by summarizing the most recent studies that used alginate for printing vascular tissue, bone and cartilage. In addition, other breakthroughs in the use of alginate in bioprinting are discussed, including strategies to improve its structural and degradation characteristics. In this review, we organize the available literature in order to inspire and accelerate novel alginate-based bioink formulations with enhanced properties for future applications in basic research, drug screening and regenerative medicine.

  9. Ultra-structural changes and expression of chondrogenic and hypertrophic genes during chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells in alginate beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havva Dashtdar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs in the form of pellet culture and encapsulation in alginate beads has been widely used as conventional model for in vitro chondrogenesis. However, comparative characterization between differentiation, hypertrophic markers, cell adhesion molecule and ultrastructural changes during alginate and pellet culture has not been described. Hence, the present study was conducted comparing MSCs cultured in pellet and alginate beads with monolayer culture. qPCR was performed to assess the expression of chondrogenic, hypertrophic, and cell adhesion molecule genes, whereas transmission electron microscopy (TEM was used to assess the ultrastructural changes. In addition, immunocytochemistry for Collagen type II and aggrecan and glycosaminoglycan (GAG analysis were performed. Our results indicate that pellet and alginate bead cultures were necessary for chondrogenic differentiation of MSC. It also indicates that cultures using alginate bead demonstrated significantly higher (p < 0.05 chondrogenic but lower hypertrophic (p < 0.05 gene expressions as compared with pellet cultures. N-cadherin and N-CAM1 expression were up-regulated in second and third weeks of culture and were comparable between the alginate bead and pellet culture groups, respectively. TEM images demonstrated ultrastructural changes resembling cell death in pellet cultures. Our results indicate that using alginate beads, MSCs express higher chondrogenic but lower hypertrophic gene expression. Enhanced production of extracellular matrix and cell adhesion molecules was also observed in this group. These findings suggest that alginate bead culture may serve as a superior chondrogenic model, whereas pellet culture is more appropriate as a hypertrophic model of chondrogenesis.

  10. Calcium chromate process related investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillard, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    A pilot plant for production of calcium chromate has been scaled up to a small production facility at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department. In preparation for this scale-up, the process and final product were studied in order to evaluate problems not considered previously. The variables and processes studied included: (1) the determination of optimum drying temperature and time for product analysis; (2) the effect of the grade of lime used as the precipitating agent on the purity of the calcium chromate; (3) product purity when calcium chromate is precipitated by the addition of ammonium chromate to slaked lime; (4) the reagents best suited for cleaning calcium chromate spills; and (5) methods for determining hydroxide ion concentration in calcium chromate. The optimum drying time for the product before analysis is four hours at 600 0 C. Gases evolved at various temperatures during the drying process were carbon dioxide and water vapor. Technical grade lime produced calcium chromate of the highest purity. Both nitric and acetic acids were efficient dissolvers of calcium chromate spills. Direct titration of hydroxide ion with sulfuric acid gave an average recovery of 93% for samples spiked with calcium hydroxide. 1 figure, 17 tables

  11. Dimensional changes of alginate dental impression materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallamuthu, N; Braden, M; Patel, M P

    2006-12-01

    The weight loss and corresponding dimensional changes of two dental alginate impression materials have been studied. The weight loss kinetics indicate this to be a diffusion controlled process, but with a boundary condition at the surface of the concentration decreasing exponentially with time. This is in marked contrast to most desorption processes, where the surface concentration becomes instantaneously zero. The appropriate theory has been developed for an exponential boundary condition, and its predictions compared with experimental data; the agreement was satisfactory. The diffusion coefficients for two thicknesses of the same material were not identical as predicted by theory; the possible reasons for this are discussed.

  12. Microwave-induced facile synthesis of water-soluble fluorogenic alginic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatbar, Mahesh U; Meena, Ramavatar; Prasad, Kamalesh; Chejara, Dharmesh R; Siddhanta, A K

    2011-04-01

    A facile microwave-induced method was developed for synthesizing water-soluble fluorescent derivatives of alginic acid (ALG) with four different diamines, hydrazine (HY), ethylenediamine (EDA), 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA), and 1,4-cyclohexanediamine (CHDA), followed by a cross-linking reaction with a natural cross linker genipin. The ethylenediamine derivative of alginic acid (ALG-EDA) exhibited good fluorescent activity, which upon cross linking was enhanced threefold. The other amide derivatives, for example, ALG-HY, ALG-HDA, and ALG-CHDA, were not fluorescent, but their respective crosslinked products exhibited excellent fluorescent activity. The fluorescence intensity had an inverse correlation with the number of carbon atoms present in the amine, which in turn was a function of degree of substitution (DS). These fluorescent polysaccharide derivatives are of potential utility in the domain of sensor applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimization of Conditions for Obtaining Alginate/Olive Oil Capsules for Application in Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirieux Magalie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation is a process of incorporation of bioactive substances in a specific matrix. It results in increasing and/or maintaining of the biological agent concentration in the food matrix or the fermentation system. The encapsulation process is influenced by various factors. The aim of the present work was to investigate the influence of alginate type and concentration, homogenization rate and the oil phase amount in the preparation of capsules rich in olive oil. It has been found that emulsions obtained with medium viscosity alginate were characterized by better stability. To establish the joint influence of the factors was used screening design experiment, the optimization features selected being temperature, centrifugal and microscopic stability. The optimal levels of the factors were established and they we applied for capsule preparation. The obtained capsules showed maximum stability and possibility to be used in dairy product manufacture.

  14. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    . For infants (7–11 months), an AI was derived by extrapolating the average amount of calcium absorbed by exclusively breast-fed infants (120 mg/day) using isometric scaling and assuming an absorption of 60 %, and was calculated as 280 mg/day. The AR for children was derived using the factorial approach...

  15. Determination of percent calcium carbonate in calcium chromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    The precision, accuracy and reliability of the macro-combustion method is superior to the Knorr alkalimetric method, and it is faster. It also significantly reduces the calcium chromate waste accrual problem. The macro-combustion method has been adopted as the official method for determination of percent calcium carbonate in thermal battery grade anhydrous calcium chromate and percent calcium carbonate in quicklime used in the production of calcium chromate. The apparatus and procedure can be used to measure the percent carbonate in inorganic materials other than calcium chromate. With simple modifications in the basic apparatus and procedure, the percent carbon and hydrogen can be measured in many organic material, including polymers and polymeric formulations. 5 figures, 5 tables

  16. Effects of dry whey powder and calcium butyrate supplementation of corn/soybean-based diets on productive performance, duodenal histological integrity, and Campylobacter colonization in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocejo, Medelin; Oporto, Beatriz; Juste, Ramón A; Hurtado, Ana

    2017-06-26

    Campylobacter is the main cause of gastroenteritis in humans in industrialized countries, and poultry is its principal reservoir and source of human infections. Dietary supplementation of broiler feed with additives could improve productive performance and elicit health benefits that might reduce Campylobacter contamination during primary production. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with whey (a prebiotic) and calcium butyrate (a salt of a short-chain fatty acid) on productive traits, duodenal histological integrity, and Campylobacter colonization and dissemination in broiler chickens during the 42-day rearing period. Six hundred one-day-old Ross-308 chickens were placed into 20 ground pens and assigned to one of 4 corn/soybean-based dietary treatments (5 replicates of 30 chicks per treatment) following a randomized complete block design: 1) basal diet with no supplementation as the control, 2) diet supplemented with 6% dry whey powder, 3) diet containing 0.1% coated calcium butyrate, and 4) diet containing 6% whey and 0.1% calcium butyrate. At age 15 days, 6 chickens per pen were experimentally inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni. The results showed that supplementation of the corn/soybean-based diet with 6% whey alone or, preferably, in combination with 0.1% coated calcium butyrate improved growth and feed efficiency, had a beneficial effect on duodenal villus integrity, and decreased mortality. These favourable effects were particularly significant during the starter period. Six days after oral challenge, Campylobacter was widespread in the flock, and the birds remained positive until the end of the rearing period. Although Campylobacter was not isolated from environmental samples, it was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in dust, air filters, and drinkers while birds shed culturable C. jejuni cells. No differences (p > 0.050) in colonization or shedding levels that could be attributed to the diet

  17. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  18. Ionic liquid as a potential solvent for preparation of collagen-alginate-hydroxyapatite beads as bone filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Bushra; Sarfaraz, Zenab; Muhammad, Nawshad; Ahmad, Pervaiz; Iqbal, Jibran; Khan, Zia Ul Haq; Gonfa, Girma; Iqbal, Farasat; Jamal, Arshad; Rahim, Abdur

    2018-07-01

    In this study, collagen/alginate/hydroxyapatite beads having different proportions were prepared as bone fillers for the restoration of osteological defects. Ionic liquid was used to dissolve the collagen and subsequently the solution was mixed with sodium alginate solution. Hydroxyapatite was added in different proportions, with the rationale to enhance mechanical as well as biological properties. The prepared solutions were given characteristic bead shapes by dropwise addition into calcium chloride solution. The prepared beads were characterized using FTIR, XRD, TGA and SEM analysis. Microhardness testing was used to evaluate the mechanical properties. The prepared beads were investigated for water adsorption behavior to ascertain its ability for body fluid uptake and adjusted accordingly to the bone cavity. Drug loading and subsequently the antibacterial activity was investigated for the prepared beads. The biocompatibility was assessed using the hemolysis testing and cell proliferation assay. The prepared collagen-alginate-HA beads, having biocompatibility and good mechanical properties, have showed an option of promising biologically active bone fillers for bone regeneration.

  19. Co-culturing of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei with a Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii mutant to make high cell density for increased lactate productivity from cassava bagasse hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Rojan Pappy; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan

    2011-03-01

    To increase the productivity of lactic acid, a co-culture of lactobacilli was made by mixing 1:1 ratio of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and a fast growing L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii mutant. The culture was embedded on to polyurethane foam (PUF) cubes as a biofilm and used for fermentation. In order to prevent the cell leakage, the PUF cubes were further entrapped in calcium cross-linked alginate. The maximum lactic acid production using a high cell density free culture was >38 g l(-1) from ~40 g l(-1) of reducing sugar within 12 h of fermentation. Using PUF biofilms, the same yield of lactic acid attained after 24 h. When the cubes were further coated with alginate it took 36 h for the maximum yield. Even though, the productivity is slightly lesser with the alginate coating, cell leakage was decreased and cubes were reused without much decrease in production in repeated batches. Using a conventional control inoculum (3%, w/v), it took 120 h to yield same amount of lactic acid.

  20. Isolation of a novel alginate lyase-producing Bacillus litoralis strain and its potential to ferment Sargassum horneri for biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingpeng; Chen, Lei; Liu, Zhengyi; Zhang, Zhaojie; Qin, Song; Yan, Peisheng

    2016-12-01

    Algae have long been used to augment plant productivity through their beneficial effects. Alginate oligosaccharide is believed to be one of the important components to enhance growth and crop yield. In this study, we isolated and characterized a Bacillus litoralis strain, named Bacillus M3, from decayed kelps. We further demonstrated that the M3 strain could secrete alginate lyase to degrade alginate. The crude enzyme exhibited the highest activity (33.74 U/mg) at pH 7.0 and 50°C. The M3 strain was also able to ferment the brown alga Sargassum horneri. Fermentation results revealed that a fermentation period of 8-12 hr was the best harvest time with the highest level of alginate oligosaccharides. Plant growth assay showed that the seaweed fermentation extract had an obvious promotion effect on root and seedling growth of Lycopersicon eseulentum L. Our results suggest that fermentation extract of Sargassum horneri by the novel strain of Bacillus litoralis M3 has significant development potential for biofertilizer production and agriculture application. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effect of natural polymers on the survival of Lactobacillus casei encapsulated in alginate microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fábio J; Omura, Michele H; Cedran, Marina F; Dekker, Robert F H; Barbosa-Dekker, Aneli M; Garcia, Sandra

    2017-08-01

    Linseed and okra mucilages, the fungal exopolysaccharide botryosphaeran, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) were used to microencapsulate Lactobacillus casei LC-01 and L. casei BGP 93 in sodium alginate microspheres by the extrusion technique in calcium chloride. The addition of carbohydrate biopolymers from linseed, okra and the fungal exocellular (1 → 3)(1 → 6)-β-D-glucan, named botryosphaeran provided higher encapsulation efficiency (EE) (>93% and >86%) for L. casei LC 01 and L. casei BGP 93, respectively. The use of linseed, okra and botryosphaeran improved the stability of probiotics encapsulated in the microspheres during the storage period over 15 d at 5 °C when compared to microspheres formulated with sodium alginate alone as the main encapsulating agent (p ≤ 0.05). In in vitro gastrointestinal simulation tests, the use of FOS combined with linseed mucilage was shown to be more effective in protecting L. casei cells LC-01 and L. casei BGP 93.

  2. Chitosan cocrystals embedded alginate beads for enhancing the solubility and bioavailability of aceclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Mani; Jeon, Ung Jin; Ubaidulla, Udhumansha; Hemalatha, Pushparaj; Saravanakumar, Arthanari; Peng, Mei Mei; Jang, Hyun Tae

    2015-03-01

    Enhanced oral bioavailability of aceclofenac has been achieved using chitosan cocrystals of aceclofenac and its entrapment into alginate matrix a super saturated drug delivery system (SDDS). Prepared SDDS were evaluated by various physiochemical and pharmacological methods. The result revealed that the primary cocrystals enhanced the solubility of the drug and the thick gelled polymer matrix that formed from swelling of calcium alginate beads makes it to release the drug in continuous and sustained manner by supersaturated drug diffusion. The Cmax, Tmax and relative bioavailability for aceclofenac cocrystal and aceclofenac SDDS were 2.06±0.42 μg/ml, 1 h, 159.72±10.84 and 2.01 μg/ml, 1 h, 352.76±12.91, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity of aceclofenac was significantly improved with the SDDS. With respect to the results, it revealed that the SDDS described herein might be a promising tool for the oral sustained release of aceclofenac and likely for that of various other poorly soluble drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of alginate gel beads with a potential use in the treatment against acute lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtat, Djamel; Bouaicha, Malika Nawel; Benamer, Samah; Nacer-Khodja, Assia; Mahlous, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    The objective was to develop alginate beads that could adsorb lead ions in gastric pH, in view to preconize their use in gastric lavage following lead poisoning. The swelling measurements of both, dry and hydrated beads, were carried out in simulated gastric fluid (SGF). The sorption kinetics was examined at lead concentrations ranging from 50 to 200mg/l. Calcium released during the sorption process was investigated. The swelling rate of the dry beads increased considerably with time increase and reached the equilibrium at 736% after 240min; concerning the hydrated beads, the equilibrium swelling reached 139% after 180min. The adsorption of Pb (II) in SGF by dry beads increased with the increase of time and initial lead concentration. The adsorption kinetics of Pb ions by hydrated alginate beads indicated a rapid binding of Pb ions to the sorbent during the first 15min for all the concentrations, followed by a slow increase until the equilibrium was reached after 90min. The adsorption capacity of Pb ions increased with the increase of the storage time in water at 4°C and with the weight. The amount of Ca 2+ released by the beads increased with the increase of Pb ions a rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. OligoG CF-5/20 normalizes cystic fibrosis mucus by chelating calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermund, Anna; Recktenwald, Christian V; Skjåk-Braek, Gudmund; Meiss, Lauren N; Onsøyen, Edvar; Rye, Philip D; Dessen, Arne; Myrset, Astrid Hilde; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether the guluronate (G) rich alginate OligoG CF-5/20 (OligoG) could detach cystic fibrosis (CF) mucus by calcium chelation, which is also required for normal mucin unfolding. Since bicarbonate secretion is impaired in CF, leading to insufficient mucin unfolding and thereby attached mucus, and since bicarbonate has the ability to bind calcium, we hypothesized that the calcium chelating property of OligoG would lead to detachment of CF mucus. Indeed, OligoG could compete with the N-terminus of the MUC2 mucin for calcium binding as shown by microscale thermophoresis. Further, effects on mucus thickness and attachment induced by OligoG and other alginate fractions of different length and composition were evaluated in explants of CF mouse ileum mounted in horizontal Ussing-type chambers. OligoG at 1.5% caused effective detachment of CF mucus and the most potent alginate fraction tested, the poly-G fraction of about 12 residues, had similar potency compared to OligoG whereas mannuronate-rich (M) polymers had minimal effect. In conclusion, OligoG binds calcium with appropriate affinity without any overt harmful effect on the tissue and can be exploited for treating mucus stagnation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. [Interaction between TRPC1 and STIM1 in calcium sensing receptor mediated calcium influx and nitric oxide production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L M; Zhong, H; Tang, N; Pang, L J; Zhang, C J; He, F

    2017-11-24

    Objective: To investigate the interaction of Ca(2+) protein TRPC1 and STIM1 in extracellular Ca(2+) -sensing receptor (CaR)-induced extracellular Ca(2+) influx and the production of nitric oxide (NO). Methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured and incubated with CaR agonist spermine (activating store-operates cation channels (SOC) and receptor-operated channels (ROC)), CaR negative allosteric modulator Calhex231 (blocking SOC, activating ROC) and ROC analogue TPA (activating ROC, blocking SOC), protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor Ro31-8220, PKCs and PKCμ inhibitor Go6967(activate SOC, blocking ROC), respectively. The interaction of TRPC1 and STIM1 was determined using the immunofluorescence methods. The interaction between TRPC1 and STIM1 were examined by Co-immuno precipitation. The HUVECs were divided into: TRPC1 and STIM1 short hairpin RNA group (shTRPC1+ shSTIM1 group), vehicle-TRPC1+ vehicle-STIM1 group and control group. The cells were incubated with four different treatments under the action of above mentioned interventions, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ](i)) was detected using the fluorescence Ca(2+) indicator Fura-2/AM, the production of NO was determined by DAF-FM. Results: (1) The expression of TRPC1 and STIM1 proteins levels in HUVECs: Under the confocal microscope, TRPC1 and STIM1 protein expression showed masculine gender, both located in cytoplasm in the normal control group. Post incubation with Calhex231+ TPA, Ro31-8220 and Go6967, TRPC1 and STIM1 positioned in cytoplasm was significantly reduced, and the combined TRPC1 and STIM1 was also significantly reduced. (2) The interaction of TRPC1 and STIM1 in HUVECs: The relative ratios of Calhex231+ TPA+ Spermine+ Ca(2+) group, Ro31-8220+ Spermine+ Ca(2+) group and Go6976+ Spermine+ Ca(2+) group STIM1/TRPC1 and TRPC1/STIM1 were as follows: (25.98±2.17)% and (44.10±4.01)%, (20.85±1.01)% and (46.31±3.47)%, (23.88±2.05)% and (39.65±2.91)%, which were

  6. The involvement of calcium and MAP kinase signaling pathways in the production of radiation-induced bystander effects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyng, F M

    2006-04-01

    Much evidence now exists regarding radiation-induced bystander effects, but the mechanisms involved in the transduction of the signal are still unclear. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways have been linked to growth factor-mediated regulation of cellular events such as proliferation, senescence, differentiation and apoptosis. Activation of multiple MAPK pathways such as the ERK, JNK and p38 pathways have been shown to occur after exposure of cells to radiation and a variety of other toxic stresses. Previous studies have shown oxidative stress and calcium signaling to be important in radiation-induced bystander effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate MAPK signaling pathways in bystander cells exposed to irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) and the role of oxidative metabolism and calcium signaling in the induction of bystander responses. Human keratinocytes (HPV-G cell line) were irradiated (0.005-5 Gy) using a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. The medium was harvested 1 h postirradiation and transferred to recipient HPV-G cells. Phosphorylated forms of p38, JNK and ERK were studied by immunofluorescence 30 min-24 h after exposure to ICCM. Inhibitors of the ERK pathway (PD98059 and U0126), the JNK pathway (SP600125), and the p38 pathway (SB203580) were used to investigate whether bystander-induced cell death could be blocked. Cells were also incubated with ICCM in the presence of superoxide dismutase, catalase, EGTA, verapamil, nifedipine and thapsigargin to investigate whether bystander effects could be inhibited because of the known effects on calcium homeostasis. Activated forms of JNK and ERK proteins were observed after exposure to ICCM. Inhibition of the ERK pathway appeared to increase bystander-induced apoptosis, while inhibition of the JNK pathway appeared to decrease apoptosis. In addition, reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, and calcium signaling were found to be important modulators of

  7. Calcium fertilization increases the concentration of calcium in sapwood and calcium oxalate in foliage of red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle; Jon H. Connolly; Rakesh Minocha; Jody Jellison

    2009-01-01

    Calcium cycling plays a key role in the health and productivity of red spruce forests in the northeastern US. A portion of the flowpath of calcium within forests includes translocation as Ca2+ in sapwood and accumulation as crystals of calcium oxalate in foliage. Concentrations of Ca in these tree tissues have been used as markers of...

  8. The Effect of Calcium and Available Phosphorus Levels on Performance, Egg Quality and Bone Characteristics of Japanese Quails at End of the Egg-Production Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLN Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Calcium (Ca and available phosphorus (avP requirements for egg production are different between the beginning and the end of the egg-production cycle. The objective of this study was to estimate the Ca and avP requirements of Japanese quails at end of the production phase. In total, 256 Japanese quails with 48 weeks of age were randomly distributed in 2 x 2 factorial arrangement consisting of two Ca levels (29 and 38 g/kg and two avP levels (1.5 and 3.0 g/kg, totaling four treatments with eight replicates of eight hens each. The variables evaluated were feed intake (FI; egg production (EP; marketable egg production (MEP; egg weight (EW; egg mass (EM; feed conversion ratio per egg mass (FCRM; feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs (FCRD; livability (L; yolk weight (YW, albumen weight (AW, eggshell weight (SW; yolk percentage (YP, albumen percentage (AP, eggshell percentage (SP, specific egg weight (SEW; bone calcium percentage (BCa, bone phosphorus percentage (BP, bone ash weight (Bash and bone ash percentage (PBash. There was no interaction between Ca and avP levels for any of the evaluated parameters, except for SEW. Quail performance was not influenced by the treatments, except for MEP. Bone characteristics were not influenced by the tested dietary Ca and avP levels. However, SW and SP increased and AP decreased as dietary Ca level increased. The dietary supplementation of 38 g Ca/kg and 3.0 g avP/kg may increase marketable egg production and the egg quality of Japanese quails at end of the production cycle.

  9. In vitro solubility of calcium, iron and zinc in relation to phytic acid levels in rice-based consumer products in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jianfen; Han, Bei-Zhong; Nout, M J Robert; Hamer, Robert J

    2010-02-01

    In vitro solubility of calcium, iron and zinc in relation to phytic acid (PA) levels in 30 commercial rice-based foods from China was studied. Solubility of minerals and molar ratios of PA to minerals varied with degrees of processing. In primary products, [PA]/[Ca] values were less than 5 and [PA]/[Fe] and [PA]/[Zn] similarly ranged between 5 and 74, with most values between 20 and 30. [PA]/[mineral] molar ratios in intensively processed products were lower. Solubility of calcium ranged from 0% to 87%, with the lowest in brown rice (12%) and the highest in infant foods (50%). Iron solubility in two-thirds of samples was lower than 30%, and that of zinc narrowly ranged from 6% to 30%. Solubility of minerals was not significantly affected by [PA]/[mineral]. At present, neither primary nor intensively processed rice-based products are good dietary sources of minerals. Improvements should be attempted by dephytinization, mineral fortification or, preferably, combination of both.

  10. Diffusion coefficient of alginate microcapsules used in pancreatic islet transplantation, a method to cure type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdahmadi, Avid; Lakey, Jonathan R. T.; Botvinick, Elliot

    2018-02-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising approach of providing insulin in type 1 diabetes. One strategy to protect islets from the host immune system is encapsulation within a porous biocompatible alginate membrane. This encapsulation provides mechanical support to the cells and allows selective diffusion of oxygen, nutrients and insulin while blocking immunoglobulins. These hydrogels form by diffusion of calcium ions into the polymer network and therefore they are highly sensitive to environmental changes and fluctuations in temperature. We investigated the effects of gel concentration, crosslinking time and ambient conditions on material permeability, volume, and rigidity, all of which may change the immunoisolating characteristics of alginate. To measure diffusion coefficient as a method to capture structural changes we studied the diffusion of fluorescently tagged dextrans of different molecular weight into the midplane of alginate microcapsules, the diffusion coefficient is then calculated by fitting observed fluorescence dynamics to the mathematical solution of 1-D diffusion into a sphere. These measurements were performed after incubation in different conditions as well as after an in vivo experiment in six immunocompetent mice for seven days. Additionally, the changes in gel volume after incubation at different temperatures and environmental conditions as well as changes in compression modulus of alginate gels during crosslinking were investigated. Our result show that increase of polymer concentration and crosslinking time leads to a decrease in volume and increase in compression modulus. Furthermore, we found that samples crosslinked and placed in physiological environment, experience an increase in volume. As expected, these volume changes affect diffusion rates of fluorescent dextrans, where volume expansion is correlated with higher calculated diffusion coefficient. This observation is critical to islet protection since higher permeability due

  11. Immobilization of Aspergillus niger. beta. -D-glucosidase on aminated chitin and alumina/alginate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bon, E.; Freire, D.; Mendes, M.F.; Soares. V.F.

    1986-01-01

    The immobilization of ..beta..-glucosidase was studied by (a) covalent coupling to aminated chitin (IME-C) and (b) adsorption onto alumina followed by gel entrapment of the suspension with calcium alginate (IME-A). The levels of catalytic activity determined against salicin at 50 C were 23.0 U/g and 0.2 U/g for the IME-C and IMA-A respectively. The first system was shown to be quite stable with a loss of only 2% of the initial activity over 14 days. The IME-A system had a half life of 14 days. The activity of IME-C was studied using cellobiose and enzymatic hydrolysates of sugar cane bagasse at several cellobiose concentrations. The activities obtained with cellobiose were 104.0 U/g and 72.0 U/g respectively. 13 references.

  12. Interaction of Green Polymer Blend of Modified Sodium Alginate and Carboxylmethyl Cellulose Encapsulation of Turmeric Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sa-Ad Riyajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric extract (tmr loaded nanoparticles were prepared by crosslinking modified carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC and modified sodium alginate (SA with calcium ions, in a high pressure homogenizer. The FTIR spectra of CMC and SA were affected by blending due to hydrogen bonding. The negative zeta potential increased in magnitude with CMC content. The smallest nanoparticles were produced with a 10 : 5 SA/CMC blend. Also the release rates of the extract loading were measured, with model fits indicating that the loading level affected the release rate through nanoparticle structure. The 10 : 5 SA/CMC blend loading with tmr and pure tmr showed a good % growth inhibition of colon cancer cells which indicate that tmr in the presence of curcumin in tmr retains its anticancer activity even after being loaded into SA/CMC blend matrix.

  13. Scaffold of chitosan-sodium alginate and hydroxyapatite with application potential for bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelo, Marcia de A.; Alves, Thais F.R.; Lopes, Francielly C.C.N; Oliveira Junior, Jose Martins de; Pontes, Katiusca S.; Fogaca, Bruna A.C.; Chaud, Marco V.

    2015-01-01

    Scaffold for organic tissue regeneration are architectural, three-dimensional, porous, biocompatible and biodegradable devices. The first challenges to be met in the development of these devices to mimic the biomechanical properties of the target tissue. The aim of this study was to develop and to characterize scaffolds composed of chitosan (Ch), sodium alginate (SA), hydroxyapatite (HA). The scaffolds were obtained by lyophilization. HA has been incorporated into the polymer dispersion in Ch-AS concentration of 20 and 60%. The mechanical properties of the scaffold were determined by tensile and compression tests. Swelling capacity was assessed in the presence of simulated saliva, purified water, HCl 0.01M, NaOH 0.01M. The calcium content was quantified using fluorescence X-rays. Analysis of the results indicates that the Qt-AS-HA-60% scaffold obtained by lyophilization meets promising properties for bone tissue regeneration. (author)

  14. The influence of storage duration on the setting time of type 1 alginate impression material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmadina, A.; Triaminingsih, S.; Irawan, B.

    2017-08-01

    Alginate is one of the most commonly used dental impression materials; however, its setting time is subject to change depending on storage conditions and duration. This creates problems because consumer carelessness can affect alginate shelf life and quality. In the present study, the setting times of two groups of type I alginate with different expiry dates was tested. The first group consisted of 11 alginate specimens that had not yet passed the expiry date, and the second group consisted of alginates that had passed the expiry date. The alginate powder was mixed with distilled water, poured into a metal ring, and tested with a polished rod of poly-methyl methacrylate. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference (p<0.05) between the setting times of the alginate that had not passed the expiry date (157 ± 3 seconds) and alginate that had passed the expiry date (144 ± 2 seconds). These findings indicate that storage duration can affect alginate setting time.

  15. Cultivation characteristics of immobilized Aspergillus oryzae for kojic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, M Y; Rhee, J S

    1992-04-15

    Aspergillus oryzae in situ grown from spores entrapped in calcium alginate gel beads was used for the production of kojic acid. The immobilized cells in flask cultures produced kojic acid in a linear proportion while maintaining the stable metabolic activity for a prolonged production period. Kojic acid was accumulated up to a high concentration of 83 g/L, at which the kojic acid began to crystallize, and, thus, the culture had to be replaced with fresh media for the next batch culture. The overall productivities of two consecutive cultivations were higher than that of free mycelial fermentation. However, the production rate of kojic acid by the immobilized cells was suddenly decreased with the appearance of central cavernae inside the immobilized gel beads after 12 days of the third batch cultivation.

  16. Comparative analysis for the production of fatty acid alkyl esterase using whole cell biocatalyst and purified enzyme from Rhizopus oryzae on waste cooking oil (sunflower oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Bharathiraja; Sudalaiyadum Perumal, Ayyappasamy; Jayaraman, Jayamuthunagai; Mani, Jayakumar; Ramanujam, Praveenkumar

    2012-08-01

    The petroleum fuel is nearing the line of extinction. Recent research and technology have provided promising outcomes to rely on biodiesel as the alternative and conventional source of fuel. The use of renewable source - vegetable oil constitutes the main stream of research. In this preliminary study, Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) was used as the substrate for biodiesel production. Lipase enzyme producing fungi Rhizopus oryzae 262 and commercially available pure lipase enzyme were used for comparative study in the production of Fatty Acid Alkyl Esters (FAAE). The whole cell (RO 262) and pure lipase enzyme (PE) were immobilized using calcium alginate beads. Calcium alginate was prepared by optimizing with different molar ratios of calcium chloride and different per cent sodium alginate. Entrapment immobilization was done for whole cell biocatalyst (WCB). PE was also immobilized by entrapment for the transesterification reaction. Seven different solvents - methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, iso-propanol, iso-butanol and iso-amyl alcohol were used as the acyl acceptors. The reaction parameters like temperature (30°C), molar ratio (1:3 - oil:solvent), reaction time (24 h), and amount of enzyme (10% mass ratio to oil) were also optimized for methanol alone. The same parameters were adopted for the other acyl acceptors too. Among the different acyl acceptors - methanol, whose reaction parameters were optimized showed maximum conversion of triglycerides to FAAE-94% with PE and 84% with WCB. On the whole, PE showed better catalytic converting ability with all the acyl acceptor compared to WCB. Gas chromatography analysis (GC) was done to determine the fatty acid composition of WCO (sunflower oil) and FAAE production with different acyl acceptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 21 CFR 582.1210 - Calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium oxide. 582.1210 Section 582.1210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1210 Calcium oxide. (a) Product. Calcium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5210 - Calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium oxide. 582.5210 Section 582.5210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5210 Calcium oxide. (a) Product. Calcium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 182.3225 - Calcium sorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium sorbate. 182.3225 Section 182.3225 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3225 Calcium sorbate. (a) Product. Calcium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 582.5230 Section 582.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3225 - Calcium sorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium sorbate. 582.3225 Section 582.3225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3225 Calcium sorbate. (a) Product. Calcium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6195 - Calcium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.6195 Section 582.6195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6219 - Calcium phytate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phytate. 582.6219 Section 582.6219 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium phytate. (a) Product. Calcium phytate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 582.1207 Section 582.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Product. Calcium lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.1195 Section 582.1195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  10. 21 CFR 201.70 - Calcium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium labeling. 201.70 Section 201.70 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.70 Calcium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the calcium content per...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. Ca alginate as scaffold for iron oxide nanoparticles synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Finotelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, nanotechnology has developed to a stage that makes it possible to process magnetic nanoparticles for the site-specific delivery of drugs. To this end, it has been proposed as biomaterial for drug delivery system in which the drug release rates would be activated by a magnetic external stimuli. Alginate has been used extensively in the food, pharmaceutical and biomedical industries for their gel forming properties in the presence of multivalent cations. In this study, we produced iron oxide nanoparticles by coprecipitation of Fe(III and Fe(II. The nanoparticles were entrapped in Ca alginate beads before and after alginate gelation. XRD analysis showed that particles should be associated to magnetite or maghemite with crystal size of 9.5 and 4.3 nm, respectively. Studies using Mössbauer spectroscopy corroborate the superparamagnetic behavior. The combination of magnetic properties and the biocompatibility of alginate suggest that this biomaterial may be used as biomimetic system.

  14. Preparation of alginate coated chitosan microparticles for vaccine delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei YuQuan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Absorption of antigens onto chitosan microparticles via electrostatic interaction is a common and relatively mild process suitable for mucosal vaccine. In order to increase the stability of antigens and prevent an immediate desorption of antigens from chitosan carriers in gastrointestinal tract, coating onto BSA loaded chitosan microparticles with sodium alginate was performed by layer-by-layer technology to meet the requirement of mucosal vaccine. Results The prepared alginate coated BSA loaded chitosan microparticles had loading efficiency (LE of 60% and loading capacity (LC of 6% with mean diameter of about 1 μm. When the weight ratio of alginate/chitosan microparticles was greater than 2, the stable system could be obtained. The rapid charge inversion of BSA loaded chitosan microparticles (from +27 mv to -27.8 mv was observed during the coating procedure which indicated the presence of alginate layer on the chitosan microparticles surfaces. According to the results obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the core-shell structure of BSA loaded chitosan microparticles was observed. Meanwhile, in vitro release study indicated that the initial burst release of BSA from alginate coated chitosan microparticles was lower than that observed from uncoated chitosan microparticles (40% in 8 h vs. about 84% in 0.5 h. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE assay showed that alginate coating onto chitosan microparticles could effectively protect the BSA from degradation or hydrolysis in acidic condition for at least 2 h. The structural integrity of alginate modified chitosan microparticles incubated in PBS for 24 h was investigated by FTIR. Conclusion The prepared alginate coated chitosan microparticles, with mean diameter of about 1 μm, was suitable for oral mucosal vaccine. Moreover, alginate coating onto the surface of chitosan microparticles could modulate the release behavior of BSA from alginate coated chitosan

  15. Fermented dairy products consumption is associated with attenuated cortical bone loss independently of total calcium, protein, and energy intakes in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biver, E; Durosier-Izart, C; Merminod, F; Chevalley, T; van Rietbergen, B; Ferrari, S L; Rizzoli, R

    2018-05-03

    A longitudinal analysis of bone microstructure in postmenopausal women of the Geneva Retirees Cohort indicates that age-related cortical bone loss is attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in fermented dairy products consumers, not in milk or ripened cheese consumers, independently of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. Fermented dairy products (FDP), including yogurts, provide calcium, phosphorus, and proteins together with prebiotics and probiotics, all being potentially beneficial for bone. In this prospective cohort study, we investigated whether FDP, milk, or ripened cheese consumptions influence age-related changes of bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructure. Dietary intakes were assessed at baseline and after 3.0 ± 0.5 years with a food frequency questionnaire in 482 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Geneva Retirees Cohort. Cortical (Ct) and trabecular (Tb) volumetric (v) BMD and microstructure at the distal radius and tibia were assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography, in addition to areal (a) BMD and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, at the same time points. At baseline, FDP consumers had lower abdominal fat mass and larger bone size at the radius and tibia. Parathyroid hormone and β-carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen levels were inversely correlated with FDP consumption. In the longitudinal analysis, FDP consumption (mean of the two assessments) was associated with attenuated loss of radius total vBMD and of Ct vBMD, area, and thickness. There was no difference in aBMD and at the tibia. These associations were independent of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. For other dairy products categories, only milk consumption was associated with lower decrease of aBMD and of failure load at the radius. In this prospective cohort of healthy postmenopausal women, age-related Ct bone loss was attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in FDP consumers, not in milk

  16. Moldable setting time evaluation between sodium alginate and bovine gelatine of glutinous rice mixture as dental putty materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarini, V.; Hasratiningsih, Z.; Karlina, E.; Febrida, R.; Asri, L. A. T. W.; Purwasasmita, BS

    2017-02-01

    Putty elastomeric material is a viscous, moldable material that can be used as a dental impression to record and duplicate the tooth structure. Commercially available putty materials are hardly found in the Indonesian market. The aim of this work is to develop an alternative putty dental material from glutinous rice with two different gelling agents; sodium alginate and bovine gelatine. A commercially putty material was used as a control. The length of time required for the putty materials to set (setting time) was evaluated with compression set test. The result showed that sodium alginate and bovine gelatine gelling agents resulted in moldable putty materials that comparable to the commercial product. Glutinous rice mixed with sodium alginate gelling agent demonstrated longer setting time (more than 1 hours) compared to bovine gelatine (6 minutes). These may occur due to heat treatment applied to the bovine gelatine, while sodium alginate mixture has a chemical reaction since CaCl2 crosslink agent had been added to the mixture. Glutinous rice with bovine gelatine mixture is a promising candidate to be used as a dental putty material.

  17. Effect of nutrients on the biodegradation of tributyltin (TBT) by alginate immobilized microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, in natural river water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Jing [MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Safety, School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Yang Lihua [MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Safety, School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Chan, Sidney M.N. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Luan Tiangang, E-mail: cesltg@mail.sysu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Safety, School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Li Yan [MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Safety, School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Tam, Nora F.Y., E-mail: bhntam@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2011-01-30

    The removal and degradation of tributyltin (TBT) by alginate immobilized Chlorella vulgaris has been evidenced in our previously published work. The present study was further to investigate the effect of spiked nutrient concentrations on the TBT removal capacity and degradation in the same alginate immobilized C. vulgaris. During the 14-d experiment, compared to the control (natural river water), the spiked nutrient groups (50% or 100% nutrients of the commercial Bristol medium as the reference, marked as 1/2N or 1N) showed more rapid cell proliferation of microalgae and higher TBT removal rate. Moreover, significantly more TBT was adsorbed onto the alginate matrix, but less TBT was taken up by the algal cells of the nutrient groups than that of the control. Mass balance data showed that TBT was lost as inorganic tin in the highest degree in 1N group, followed by 1/2N group and the least was in the control, but the relative abundance of the intermediate products of debutylation (dibutyltin and monobutyltin) were comparable among three groups. In conclusion, the addition of nutrients in contaminated water stimulated the growth and physiological activity of C. vulgaris immobilized in alginate beads and improved its TBT degradation efficiency.

  18. Effect of nutrients on the biodegradation of tributyltin (TBT) by alginate immobilized microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, in natural river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Yang, Lihua; Chan, Sidney M N; Luan, Tiangang; Li, Yan; Tam, Nora F Y

    2011-01-30

    The removal and degradation of tributyltin (TBT) by alginate immobilized Chlorella vulgaris has been evidenced in our previously published work. The present study was further to investigate the effect of spiked nutrient concentrations on the TBT removal capacity and degradation in the same alginate immobilized C. vulgaris. During the 14-d experiment, compared to the control (natural river water), the spiked nutrient groups (50% or 100% nutrients of the commercial Bristol medium as the reference, marked as 1/2N or 1N) showed more rapid cell proliferation of microalgae and higher TBT removal rate. Moreover, significantly more TBT was adsorbed onto the alginate matrix, but less TBT was taken up by the algal cells of the nutrient groups than that of the control. Mass balance data showed that TBT was lost as inorganic tin in the highest degree in 1N group, followed by 1/2N group and the least was in the control, but the relative abundance of the intermediate products of debutylation (dibutyltin and monobutyltin) were comparable among three groups. In conclusion, the addition of nutrients in contaminated water stimulated the growth and physiological activity of C. vulgaris immobilized in alginate beads and improved its TBT degradation efficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Combination of sodium caseinate and succinylated alginate improved stability of high fat fish oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesiltas, Betül; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; García-Moreno, Pedro J; Anankanbil, Sampson; Guo, Zheng; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2018-07-30

    Sodium caseinate (CAS) and commercial sodium alginate (CA), long chain modified alginate (LCMA) or short chain modified alginate (SCMA) were used in combination for emulsifying and stabilizing high fat (50-70%) fish oil-in-water emulsions. Physical (creaming, droplet size, viscosity and protein determination) and oxidative (primary and secondary oxidation products) stabilities of the emulsions were studied during 12 days of storage. Creaming stability was higher for emulsions produced with alginates and CAS compared to emulsions prepared with only CAS. Combined use of CAS + LCMA performed better in terms of physical stability compared to emulsions produced with only CAS. However, the oxidative stability of this emulsion was inferior probably due to the presence of an unsaturated carbon chain in LCMA structure. CAS + SCMA emulsions not only showed better physical stability such as smaller dr