WorldWideScience

Sample records for product brand names

  1. 48 CFR 1910.004-70 - Brand name products or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Brand name products or... GOVERNORS ACQUISITION PLANNING SPECIFICATIONS, STANDARDS, AND OTHER PURCHASE DESCRIPTIONS 1910.004-70 Brand... below. (b) Citing brand name products. Brand name or equal purchase descriptions shall cite all brand...

  2. 27 CFR 7.23 - Brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 7.23 Section... Beverages § 7.23 Brand names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if not sold under a brand name, then the name of the person required to appear on the brand label shall be deemed a...

  3. 27 CFR 5.34 - Brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 5.34 Section... Spirits § 5.34 Brand names. (a) Misleading brand names. No label shall contain any brand name, which... officer finds that such brand name (when appropriately qualified if required) conveys no erroneous...

  4. Name-letter branding under scrutiny: real products, new algorithms, and the probability of buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan

    2010-06-01

    People like letters matching their own first and last name initials more than nonname letters. This name-letter effect has also been found for brands, i.e., people like brands resembling their own name letters (initial or first three). This has been termed name-letter branding effect. In the present study of 199 participants, ages 12 to 79 years, this name-letter branding effect was found for a modified design (1) using real products, (2) concentrating on product names rather than brand names, (3) using five different products for each letter of the Roman alphabet, (4) asking for the buying probability, and (5) using recently introduced algorithms, controlling for individual response tendencies (i.e., liking all letters more or less) and general normative popularity of particular letters (i.e., some letters are generally preferred more than other letters).

  5. PRN 2002-X Draft: False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Name

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice provides guidance to registrants and distributors on pesticide product brand names that may be false or misleading, either by themselves or in association with particular company names or trademarks. It is a draft.

  6. Brand Suicide? Memory and Liking of Negative Brand Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Duncan; Estes, Zachary; Gibbert, Michael; Mazursky, David

    2016-01-01

    Negative brand names are surprisingly common in the marketplace (e.g., Poison perfume; Hell pizza, and Monster energy drink), yet their effects on consumer behavior are currently unknown. Three studies investigated the effects of negative brand name valence on brand name memory and liking of a branded product. Study 1 demonstrates that relative to non-negative brand names, negative brand names and their associated logos are better recognised. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that negative valence of a brand name tends to have a detrimental influence on product evaluation with evaluations worsening as negative valence increases. However, evaluation is also dependent on brand name arousal, with high arousal brand names resulting in more positive evaluations, such that moderately negative brand names are equally as attractive as some non-negative brand names. Study 3 shows evidence for affective habituation, whereby the effects of negative valence reduce with repeated exposures to some classes of negative brand name.

  7. Brand Suicide? Memory and Liking of Negative Brand Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Duncan; Estes, Zachary; Gibbert, Michael; Mazursky, David

    2016-01-01

    Negative brand names are surprisingly common in the marketplace (e.g., Poison perfume; Hell pizza, and Monster energy drink), yet their effects on consumer behavior are currently unknown. Three studies investigated the effects of negative brand name valence on brand name memory and liking of a branded product. Study 1 demonstrates that relative to non-negative brand names, negative brand names and their associated logos are better recognised. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that negative valence of a brand name tends to have a detrimental influence on product evaluation with evaluations worsening as negative valence increases. However, evaluation is also dependent on brand name arousal, with high arousal brand names resulting in more positive evaluations, such that moderately negative brand names are equally as attractive as some non-negative brand names. Study 3 shows evidence for affective habituation, whereby the effects of negative valence reduce with repeated exposures to some classes of negative brand name. PMID:27023872

  8. 27 CFR 4.33 - Brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 4.33 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.33 Brand names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if not sold under a brand name...

  9. Students' Demand for Smartphones: Structural Relationships of Product Features, Brand Name, Product Price and Social Infuence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suki, Norazah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to examine structural relationships of product features, brand name, product price and social influence with demand for Smartphones among Malaysian students'. Design/methodology/approach: Data collected from 320 valid pre-screened university students studying at the pubic higher learning institution in Federal Territory of…

  10. An ERP-study of brand and no-name products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anika; Hammer, Anke; Beibst, Gabriele; Münte, Thomas F

    2013-11-23

    Brands create product personalities that are thought to affect consumer decisions. Here we assessed, using the Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT) from social psychology, whether brands as opposed to no-name products are associated with implicit positive attitudes. Healthy young German participants viewed series of photos of cosmetics and food items (half of them brands) intermixed with positive and negative words. In any given run, one category of goods (e.g., cosmetics) and one kind of words (e.g., positive) had to be responded to, whereas responses had to be withheld for the other categories. Event-related brain potentials were recorded during the task. Unexpectedly, there were no response-time differences between congruent (brand and positive words) and incongruent (brand and negative words) pairings but ERPs showed differences as a function of congruency in the 600-750 ms time-window hinting at the existence of implicit attitudes towards brand and no-name stimuli. This finding deserves further investigation in future studies. Moreover, the amplitude of the late positive component (LPC) was found to be enhanced for brand as opposed to no-name stimuli. Congruency effects suggest that ERPs are sensitive to implicit attitudes. Moreover, the results for the LPC imply that pictures of brand products are more arousing than those of no-name products, which may ultimately contribute to consumer decisions.

  11. Does humor in radio advertising affect recognition of novel product brand names?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, E M; Lippman, L G

    2001-04-01

    The authors proposed that item selection during shopping is based on brand name recognition rather than recall. College students rated advertisements and news stories of a simulated radio program for level of amusement (orienting activity) before participating in a surprise recognition test. Humor level of the advertisements was varied systematically, and content was controlled. According to signal detection analysis, humor did not affect the strength of recognition memory for brand names (nonsense units). However, brand names and product types were significantly more likely to be associated when appearing in humorous advertisements than in nonhumorous advertisements. The results are compared with prior findings concerning humor and recall.

  12. INVESTIGATION OF BRAND NAME-COUNTRY OF ORIGIN PREFERENCE IN FOUR DIFFERENT PRODUCT GROUPS WITH RESPECT TO CONSPICUOUS CONSUMPTION TENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Doğan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine different preferences for brand name–country of origin shaped in line with levels of conspicuous consumption tendency and to determine Turkish consumers’ preferences for brand name–country of origin combinations in different product groups. The study was conducted in Eskisehir (Turkey with a sample of 413 people chosen through convenience sampling. The study data were collected with a questionnaire and face-face-to interviews. The participants’ preferences for brand name-country of origin combinations were determined separately based on four different product groups(hedonic, utilitarian, durable and non-durable. The study showed that, for all the four product groups, the participants preferred the products with a Turkish brand name and Turkey as the country of origin most, followed by the products with a French brand name and France as the country of origin. This finding suggests that, with respect to the four product groups in the study, Turkish consumers preferred domestic products over foreign products. Also, the participants who preferred French brand name-France as the country of origin for the hedonic product, French brand name-Turkey as the country of origin for the utilitarian product, French brand name-Turkey as the country of origin for the durable product and French brand name-France as the country of origin for the non-durable product were found to have highest tendency of conspicuous consumption in the corresponding product groups. In other words, as the level of conspicuous consumption increased, the participants tended to prefer French brand name-France as the country of origin for the hedonic product, French brand name-Turkey as the country of origin for the utilitarian product, French brand name-Turkey as the country of origin for the durable product and French brand name-France as the country of origin for the non-durable product.

  13. Express your social self: cultural differences in choice of brand-name versus generic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejung S; Drolet, Aimee

    2009-12-01

    This research examined cultural differences in the patterns of choices that reflect more social characteristics of a chooser (e.g., social status). Four studies examined the cultural difference in individuals' tendency to choose brand-name products (i.e., high-status options) over generic products (i.e., low-status options) and the underlying reasons for these differences. Compared to European Americans, Asian Americans consistently chose brand-name products. This difference was driven by Asian Americans' greater social status concerns. Self-consciousness was more strongly associated with the brand-name choices of Asian Americans (vs. European Americans), and experimentally induced social status led Asian Americans (vs. European Americans) to make more choices concordant with self-perception. These findings highlight the importance of considering external and social motivations underlying the choice-making process.

  14. BRAND NAMING: SOUND SYMBOLISM, BRAND PREFERENCE AND BRAND PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Catalina Duduciuc

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to highlight the importance of sound symbolism for Romanian marketing and advertising applied research. Previous research showed that the phonetic structure of brand name communicates its characteristics, i.e. it drives consumers to assess certain features and performance of the product. We assumed that when consumers encounter an unknown brand name, they automatically infer characteristics from the meaning conveyed by the sounds (e.g. phonemes. Therefore, we supposed that a brand name for a shampoo (artificially created on experimental purpose containing back vowels is evaluated better by consumers when they compare it to another brand name with front vowels. Furthermore, we tested the influence of the stops and fricatives consonants in inferring certain attributes of product. To this end, fifty nine students (N=59 participated in a research based on questionnaire. The results revealed that subjects evaluated better the brand names containing back vowels than brand names with front vowel. No effect was obtained regarding the presence of stops and fricatives consonants in assessing the brand performance.

  15. Product-line extensions and pricing strategies of brand-name drugs facing patent expiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Song Hee; Shepherd, Marvin D; Scoones, David; Wan, Thomas T H

    2005-01-01

    This study proposed an alternative to brand loyalty as the explanation for the continued price rigidity of patent-expired brand-name prescription drugs despite the increase in market entry of generic drugs facilitated by the 1984 Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act. Study hypotheses were to test (1) whether market entries of new-product extensions are associated with market success of original brand-name drugs before generic drug entry, and (2) whether original brand-name drugs exhibit price rigidity to generic entry only when they are extended. The design is a retrospective follow-up study for the prescription drug brands that lost their patents between 1987 and 1992. The drug brands were limited to nonantibiotic, orally administered drugs containing only 1 active pharmaceutical ingredient. Information on patent expiration, entry of a product extension, and market success were determined from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.s Orange Book, First DataBank, and American Druggist, respectively. Market success was defined as whether an original drug brand was listed in the top 100 prescriptions most frequently dispensed before facing generic entry. Product-line extension was defined as the appearance of another product that a company introduces within the same market after its existing product. Drug prices were average wholesale prices from the Drug Topics Red Book. The relationship between product-line extension and market success was examined using a logistic regression analysis. The price rigidity to entry was tested using a panel regression analysis. A total of 27 drug brands lost their patents between 1987 and 1992. Drug brands that achieved market success were 16 times more likely to be extended than were those that did not (OR=16, 95% confidence interval, 2.12-120.65). The price rigidity to entry existed in drug brands with extensions (beta=2.65%, P new product-line extension introduced for an original brand helps the original price be

  16. Investigation of Bioequivalence Between Brand-name and Generic Irinotecan Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Ken-Ichi; Inoue, Yutaka; Ikegami, Yoji; Nanbo, Izumi; Onozuka, Mari; Sano, Kazumi; Yoshida, Hisahiro; Sakamoto, Toshihiro; Tatebayashi, Emi; Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Sasaki, Yasutsuna; Kitazawa, Takaki

    2016-11-01

    To investigate bioequivalence among generic and brand-name irinotecan products. Products of Yakult and Daiichi-Sankyo (brand-name products), Sandoz, Nippon Kayaku, Taiho, and Sawai were compared with respect to their composition and antitumor activity. High-performance liquid chromatography demonstrated that related substances were within the acceptable range. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay revealed significant differences in cytotoxicity for four cancer cell lines among the products. The concentration of the active compound SN-38 was highest in Yakult's product (23.82 ng/ml) and lowest in Daiichi-Sankyo's product (8.96 ng/ml). MTT assay data were correlated with the SN-38 concentration, suggesting that it influenced differences in cytocidal activity among products. However, the SN-38 concentration was far lower than that of irinotecan (20 mg/ml), suggesting a negligible clinical effect. Metabolism of irinotecan to SN-38 or open-ring forms did not differ significantly among the products. The generic products showed equivalent efficacy and safety to the brand-name products. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Branding a business name

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization, international businesses, as well as competitive markets imposed the companies (large ones, as well as the others to position in the required market. Making profit, which is the basic aim of every company, in such market environment can only be achieved by demonstrating distinct characteristics of a company, the characteristics which distinguish it from others with the same or similar activities. Historical and analysis of the current market have shown that being recognizable in the multitude of similar companies is a huge challenge, but also one of the main preconditions for successful operations. The moment a company is registered it acquires a specific identity primarily owing to its business name, which distinguishes it from other companies during that first period. Practically at the same time, the company starts creating its image or goodwill by means of several distinctive ways. One of them is branding business name or corporate branding. However, apart from large benefits, companies may also have big difficulties and risks in the same process as well.

  18. Functional Measurement Analysis of Brand Equity: Does Brand Name affect Perceptions of Quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Shanteau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research project used Functional Measurement to examine how the brand name of consumer products impacts intended purchasing decisions. Thirty undergraduate students tested actual products from three different product categories (crayons, tissues, and tortilla chips. Each product category consisted of three different brands; one with high brand value, one with medium, and one with low brand (generic value. For each brand, there were five conditions: 1 the product with the correct brand name; 2 the product with a switched brand name; 3 the product with another switched brand name; 4 the product alone with no brand name; and 5 the brand name alone with no product. Participants were unaware that products had been switched. After trying each product, participants rated their likelihood to purchase on a 9-point Likert scale: 1 being "definitely would not buy" and 9 being "definitely would buy." Results revealed that perceptions of quality were dependent on both perceived product quality and brand name. Unexpectedly, results also showed that the strength of the brand equity effect is dependent on product type, e.g., chips showed the strongest brand effect. For most product categories, main effects and interactions were significant. Functional measurement analyses revealed that brand name effects were independent of product quality. In conclusion, the brand name associated with a product led people to evaluate quality of that product as either higher or lower depending on the strength of the brand name.

  19. 48 CFR 852.211-73 - Brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 852... Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 811.104-71, insert the following clause: Brand Name or Equal (JAN 2008) (Note: As used in this clause, the term “brand name” includes identification of products by make...

  20. 48 CFR 1852.210-70 - Brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Brand name or equal. 1852... 1852.210-70 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 1810.011-70(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (DEC 1988) (a) As used in this provision, “brand name” means identification of products...

  1. Phonaesthemes and sound symbolism in Swedish brand names

    OpenAIRE

    Abelin, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of sound symbolism in Swedish brand names. A general principle of brand name design is that effective names should be distinctive, recognizable, easy to pronounce and meaningful. Much money is invested in designing powerful brand names, where the emotional impact of the names on consumers is also relevant and it is important to avoid negative connotations. Customers prefer brand names, which say something about the product, as this reduces product uncertaint...

  2. Untangling the brand name from the branded entity

    OpenAIRE

    Round, Griff; Roper, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Purpose\\ud – The purpose of this study is to investigate the value to consumers of the brand name element for established brands, given that the focus in the literature has been on new brands. To accomplish this, conceptual development was initially undertaken to illuminate the links between the brand name element and the brand entity and to provide a theoretical framework for looking at changes in value of the brand name element to consumers over time.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud –...

  3. Functional Measurement Analysis of Brand Equity: Does Brand Name Affect Perceptions of Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenkamp, Heather; Shanteau, James

    2010-01-01

    This research project used Functional Measurement to examine how the brand name of consumer products impacts intended purchasing decisions. Thirty undergraduate students tested actual products from three different product categories (crayons, tissues, and tortilla chips). Each product category consisted of three different brands; one with high…

  4. Phonotactic probability of brand names: I'd buy that!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitevitch, Michael S; Donoso, Alexander J

    2012-11-01

    Psycholinguistic research shows that word-characteristics influence the speed and accuracy of various language-related processes. Analogous characteristics of brand names influence the retrieval of product information and the perception of risks associated with that product. In the present experiment we examined how phonotactic probability-the frequency with which phonological segments and sequences of segments appear in a word-might influence consumer behavior. Participants rated brand names that varied in phonotactic probability on the likelihood that they would buy the product. Participants indicated that they were more likely to purchase a product if the brand name was comprised of common segments and sequences of segments rather than less common segments and sequences of segments. This result suggests that word-characteristics may influence higher-level cognitive processes, in addition to language-related processes. Furthermore, the benefits of using objective measures of word characteristics in the design of brand names are discussed.

  5. 27 CFR 19.643 - Brand name, kind, alcohol content, and State of distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand name, kind, alcohol... Bottle and Label Requirements Bottle Label Requirements § 19.643 Brand name, kind, alcohol content, and State of distillation. (a) Brand name and kind. The label of distilled spirits shall state the brand...

  6. BRAND - PRODUCT INTERDEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor NISTORESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we conceptually discussed the brands’ role in the society, the dimensions of branding and the relationship between the brand and the products. We adhere to the main ideas expressed in the literature, that the brand is more than a product. However the product is needed to render the brand tangible. The product is the magic box that delivers the brand experience. Without the product, the brand meaning would have difficulties in attracting customers. More studies are needed to investigate the brand-product relationship.

  7. English Shop Signs and Brand Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Khosravizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study tries to investigate the people’s attitude to the use of English words in TV commercials, brand-naming and shop signs in Iran and specifically in Tehran where due to the fact that it is the capital, more English might be used for the sake of foreigners. The widespread use of English shop signs and English brand names for recently produced goodsdrove the researchers to investigate peoples’ attitude as consumers from two aspects of age and education. To reach the research goal, a questionnaire was devised and distributed to 100 people at random selection probing their attitudes while considering two factors of age and education. The result of the research will mostly benefit sociolinguists and business marketers.Keywords: age, education, advertising, brand-naming, shop signs, globalization

  8. 48 CFR 52.211-6 - Brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 52....211-6 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 11.107(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (AUG 1999) (a) If an item in this solicitation is identified as “brand name or equal,” the...

  9. 48 CFR 1910.004-73 - Offer evaluation and award, brand name or equal descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., brand name or equal descriptions. 1910.004-73 Section 1910.004-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... 1910.004-73 Offer evaluation and award, brand name or equal descriptions. An offer may not be rejected for failure of the offered product to equal a characteristic of a brand name product if it was not...

  10. Brand Reputation and the Cost of Capital: Evidence of Adopting a Brand Name as the Corporate Name

    OpenAIRE

    YiLin Wu

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies how the capital market perceives brand name adoption. I distinguish between brand adoption and radical type of corporate name change. A brand adoption name change occurs when the firm adopts one of its well-established brands as its new corporate name and a radical type occurs when the new name is semantically unrelated to firm history. Improved profitability and increased net investment accompany brand name adoption. After controlling for changes in the competing informati...

  11. Fluency Effects on Brand Name Recognition and Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Existing research has not provided a clear understanding of processing fluency effects on memory. In a laboratory experiment with novel non-words, we found a recognition advantage of fluent non-words over moderately fluent and disfluent non-words. This advantage diminished when non-words were...... presented as novel brand names in different product contexts. We further tested a preference reversal in favor of disfluency and found that disfluent brand names (non-words) were equally disliked across different products contexts. A preference reversal could be observed when fluent names were preferred...

  12. Phonaesthemes and sound symbolism in Swedish brand names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Abelin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the prevalence of sound symbolism in Swedish brand names. A general principle of brand name design is that effective names should be distinctive, recognizable, easy to pronounce and meaningful. Much money is invested in designing powerful brand names, where the emotional impact of the names on consumers is also relevant and it is important to avoid negative connotations. Customers prefer brand names, which say something about the product, as this reduces product uncertainty (Klink, 2001. Therefore, consumers might prefer sound symbolic names. It has been shown that people associate the sounds of the nonsense words maluma and takete with round and angular shapes, respectively. By extension, more complex shapes and textures might activate words containing certain sounds. This study focuses on semantic dimensions expected to be relevant to product names, such as mobility, consistency, texture and shape. These dimensions are related to the senses of sight, hearing and touch and are also interesting from a cognitive linguistic perspective. Cross-modal assessment and priming experiments with pictures and written words were performed and the results analysed in relation to brand name databases and to sound symbolic sound combinations in Swedish (Abelin, 1999. The results show that brand names virtually never contain pejorative, i.e. depreciatory, consonant clusters, and that certain sounds and sound combinations are overrepresented in certain content categories. Assessment tests show correlations between pictured objects and phoneme combinations in newly created words (non-words. The priming experiment shows that object images prime newly created words as expected, based on the presence of compatible consonant clusters.

  13. 48 CFR 811.104-70 - Brand name or equal purchase descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal... Requirements Documents 811.104-70 Brand name or equal purchase descriptions. (a) The specification writer may use purchase descriptions that contain references to one or more brand name products only in...

  14. Comparative effectiveness of generic versus brand-name antiepileptic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Joshua J; Kesselheim, Aaron S; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Polinski, Jennifer M; Hutchins, David; Matlin, Olga S; Brennan, Troyen A; Avorn, Jerry; Shrank, William H

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare treatment persistence and rates of seizure-related events in patients who initiate antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy with a generic versus a brand-name product. We used linked electronic medical and pharmacy claims data to identify Medicare beneficiaries who initiated one of five AEDs (clonazepam, gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, zonisamide). We matched initiators of generic versus brand-name versions of these drugs using a propensity score that accounted for demographic, clinical, and health service utilization variables. We used a Cox proportional hazards model to compare rates of seizure-related emergency room (ER) visit or hospitalization (primary outcome) and ER visit for bone fracture or head injury (secondary outcome) between the matched generic and brand-name initiators. We also compared treatment persistence, measured as time to first 14-day treatment gap, between generic and brand-name initiators. We identified 19,760 AED initiators who met study eligibility criteria; 18,306 (93%) initiated a generic AED. In the matched cohort, we observed 47 seizure-related hospitalizations and ER visits among brand-name initiators and 31 events among generic initiators, corresponding to a hazard ratio of 0.53 (95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.96). Similar results were observed for the secondary clinical endpoint and across sensitivity analyses. Mean time to first treatment gap was 124.2 days (standard deviation [sd], 125.8) for brand-name initiators and 137.9 (sd, 148.6) for generic initiators. Patients who initiated generic AEDs had fewer adverse seizure-related clinical outcomes and longer continuous treatment periods before experiencing a gap than those who initiated brand-name versions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Product Placement and Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Corniani, Margherita

    2003-01-01

    Product placement is the planned insertion of a brand within a movie, a fiction, etc. It can be used with other communication tools (i.e. advertising, sales promotions, etc.) in order to disseminate brand awareness and characterize brand image, developing brand equity. In global markets, product placement is particularly useful for improving brand equity of brands with a well established brand awareness.

  16. Brand name changes help health care providers win market recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesling, G

    1993-01-01

    As the healthcare industry continues to recognize the strategic implications of branding, more providers will undertake an identity change to better position themselves in competitive markets. The paper examines specific healthcare branding decisions, the reasons prompting brand name decisions and the marketing implications for a change in brand name.

  17. Generic versus brand-name North American topical glaucoma drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammo, Zaid N; Flanagan, John G; James, David F; Trope, Graham E

    2012-02-01

    To determine whether brand-name glaucoma drops differ from generic equivalents in bottle design, viscosity, surface tension, and volume in North America. Experimental study. We studied 5 bottles each of 11 kinds of glaucoma drops. Density-based calculations of drop volume were assessed using 0.1 mg analytic balance. Viscosity was measured using rotational rheometery. Bottle tip diameter was measured using 0.05 mm Vernier calipers. Surface tension was measured using a Fisher Scientific (Ottawa, ON) tensiometer. For the American brand-name Timoptic XE, the average drop volume was 38 ± 3.1 μL versus 24 ± 1.5 μL of Timolol GFS (p brand-name Timoptic XE, the average drop volume was 42 ± 4.0 μL versus 25 ± 2 μL of timolol maleate EX (p brand-name Timoptic drop volume was 28 ± 1.4 μL versus 35 ± 1.9 μL Apo-Timop (p brand-name Timoptic delivered significantly smaller drop volumes than generic Apo-Timop. Careful consideration should be given to drop viscosity and bottle design when generic ophthalmic products are evaluated for interchangeability and market entry. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 48 CFR 452.211-70 - Brand Name or Equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand Name or Equal. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.211-70 Brand Name or Equal. As prescribed in 411.171, insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (NOV 1996...

  19. 48 CFR 411.170 - Brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 411... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.170 Brand name or equal. (a) A “brand name or equal” purchase description shall include the following type of...

  20. 77 FR 189 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Brand-Name Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... 2006-0020, Sequence 26] RIN 9000-AK55 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Brand-Name Specifications... Management and Budget memoranda on brand-name specifications. DATES: Effective Date: February 2, 2012. FOR... brand- name specifications. Eight respondents submitted 32 comments in response to the interim rule. The...

  1. Awareness of American Brand Names in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace-Whitaker, Virginia

    A study was conducted to determine the extent to which familiarity with American brand names had spread beyond the tourist centers of Moscow and Leningrad, in a population group most likely to have curiosity about American products. The subjects, 82 English-speaking college students ages 18-25, were all students at Kharkov State University in the…

  2. Product Line Rivalry with Brand Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Richard J.; Matutes, Carmen

    1989-01-01

    Competition with product rivalry is examined in a model where products are differentiated by both quality and brand name. With no commitment, firms produce a full product line. When firms can commit to restrict their product offerings, firms specialize if the degree of brand-specific differentiation is small and they produce a full product line if brand-specific differentiation is large relative to intrafirm differentiation. Firms may crowd a product space when all competitors would be better...

  3. THE IMPORTANCE OF BRAND NAME AND QUALITY IN THE RETAIL FOOD INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Apelbaum, Eidan

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the role of brand name recognition and product quality on the competition between national brands and private labels in the retail food industry. Theoretical and empirical evidence is provided to show that both marketing tools play a significant role, but in quite different ways. Quality improvements by one firm will intensify the competition; one firm will gain at the expense of its competitor. Whereas, increasing brand name recognition relaxes the competition, and both f...

  4. Letter-case information and the identification of brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Talero, Fernanda; López-Cañada, Soraya

    2015-02-01

    A central tenet of most current models of visual-word recognition is that lexical units are activated on the basis of case-invariant abstract letter representations. Here, we examined this assumption by using a unique type of words: brand names. The rationale of the experiments is that brand names are archetypically printed either in lowercase (e.g., adidas) or uppercase (e.g., IKEA). This allows us to present the brand names in their standard or non-standard case configuration (e.g., adidas, IKEA vs. ADIDAS, ikea, respectively). We conducted two experiments with a brand-decision task ('is it a brand name?'): a single-presentation experiment and a masked priming experiment. Results in the single-presentation experiment revealed faster identification times of brand names in their standard case configuration than in their non-standard case configuration (i.e., adidas faster than ADIDAS; IKEA faster than ikea). In the masked priming experiment, we found faster identification times of brand names when they were preceded by an identity prime that matched its standard case configuration than when it did not (i.e., faster response times to adidas-adidas than to ADIDAS-adidas). Taken together, the present findings strongly suggest that letter-case information forms part of a brand name's graphemic information, thus posing some limits to current models of visual-word recognition. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  5. What's in and what's out in branding? A novel articulation effect for brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Zürn, Michael; Schneider, Iris K

    2015-01-01

    The present approach exploits the biomechanical connection between articulation and ingestion-related mouth movements to introduce a novel psychological principle of brand name design. We constructed brand names for diverse products with consonantal stricture spots either from the front to the rear of the mouth, thus inwards (e.g., BODIKA), or from the rear to the front, thus outwards (e.g., KODIBA). These muscle dynamics resemble the oral kinematics during either ingestion (inwards), which feels positive, or expectoration (outwards), which feels negative. In 7 experiments (total N = 1261), participants liked products with inward names more than products with outward names (Experiment 1), reported higher purchase intentions (Experiment 2), and higher willingness-to-pay (Experiments 3a-3c, 4, 5), with the price gain amounting to 4-13% of the average estimated product value. These effects occurred across English and German language, under silent reading, for both edible and non-edible products, and even in the presence of a much stronger price determinant, namely fair-trade production (Experiment 5).

  6. What's in and what's out in branding? A novel articulation effect for brand names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Zürn, Michael; Schneider, Iris K.

    2015-01-01

    The present approach exploits the biomechanical connection between articulation and ingestion-related mouth movements to introduce a novel psychological principle of brand name design. We constructed brand names for diverse products with consonantal stricture spots either from the front to the rear of the mouth, thus inwards (e.g., BODIKA), or from the rear to the front, thus outwards (e.g., KODIBA). These muscle dynamics resemble the oral kinematics during either ingestion (inwards), which feels positive, or expectoration (outwards), which feels negative. In 7 experiments (total N = 1261), participants liked products with inward names more than products with outward names (Experiment 1), reported higher purchase intentions (Experiment 2), and higher willingness-to-pay (Experiments 3a–3c, 4, 5), with the price gain amounting to 4–13% of the average estimated product value. These effects occurred across English and German language, under silent reading, for both edible and non-edible products, and even in the presence of a much stronger price determinant, namely fair-trade production (Experiment 5). PMID:26029136

  7. Analisi Pengaruh Store Name, Brand Name, Dan Price Discounts Terhadap Purchase Intentions Konsumen Infinite Tunjungan Plaza

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Andy Gunawan:SkripsiAnalisis pengaruh store name, brand name dan price discounts terhadap purchase intention konsumen infnite tunjungan plaza Di era globalisasi ini, persaingan dagang antara Perusahaan – Perusahaan baik lokal maupun global menjadi semakin ketat, oleh karena itu Perusahaan selalu berusaha untuk meningkatkan ketertarikan minat beli konsumen. Beberapa variabel yang menjadi fokus Perusahaan adalah store name, brand name, dan price discount. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk meng...

  8. Translation Strategies from Target Culture Perspective: An Analysis of English and Chinese Brands Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Shi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a crucial communication material, the brand name exhibits its growing importance in the worldwide communication. It is a special text with a strong function and a clear persuasive purpose. This paper aims to explore the translation strategy and methods of English brand names from the perspective of culture. According to Skopostheorie, the prime principle determining any translation process is the purpose of the overall translational action. The translation methods should be based on the text’s function and the target culture. This paper is a tentative study of the guiding strategy and possible methods used in English brand names translation by analyzing the Chinese and English brand names, and how they fulfill the function of promoting products and enhancing the cultural exchange in the hope of offering a new perspective in the brand name translation practice. The study used the Skopostheorie as the guiding theory and strategy to analyze English brand names, which were selected from the brand names database “brandirectory”. It is found that the translation should follow the target-culture oriented strategy to conform to the habitual use of target language, social culture and aesthetics in target market.

  9. Recognition of cigarette brand names and logos by primary schoolchildren in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emri, S; Bağci, T; Karakoca, Y; Bariş, E

    1998-01-01

    To assess the smoking behaviour of primary schoolchildren and their ability to recognise brand names and logos of widely advertised cigarettes, compared with other commercial products intended for children. Cross-sectional survey in classroom settings using a questionnaire designed to measure attitudes towards smoking and the recognition of brand names and logos for 16 food, beverage, cigarette, and toothpaste products. Ankara, Turkey. 1093 children (54.6% boys, 44.4% girls) aged 7-13 years (mean = 10, SD = 1), from grades 2-5. The student sample was taken from three primary schools--one school in each of three residential districts representing high, middle, and low income populations. Prevalence of ever-smoking, recognition of brand names and logos. Prevalence of ever-smoking was 11.7% overall (13.9% among boys and 9.1% among girls; p Brand recognition rates ranged from 58.1% for Chee-tos (a food product) to 95.2% for Samsun (a Turkish cigarette brand). Recognition rates for cigarette brand names and logos were 95.2% and 80.8%, respectively, for Samsun; 84.0% and 90.5%, respectively, for Camel; and 92.1% and 69.5%, respectively, for Marlboro. The Camel logo and the Samsun and Marlboro brand names were the most highly recognised of all product logos and brand names tested. The high recognition of cigarette brand names and logos is most likely the result of tobacco advertising and promotion. Our results indicate the need to implement comprehensive tobacco control measures in Turkey.

  10. Medication persistence and the use of generic and brand-name blood pressure-lowering agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrao, Giovanni; Soranna, Davide; La Vecchia, Carlo; Catapano, Alberico; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Gensini, Gianfranco; Merlino, Luca; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Because of their lower cost, healthcare systems recommend physicians to prefer generic products, rather than brand-name medicaments. There is then considerable interest and debate concerning safety and effectiveness of generic products. Few studies have compared patients treated with brand-name and generic drugs for adherence to treatment, with somewhat inconsistent results. The primary objective of this study was to compare the risk of discontinuing antihypertensive drug therapy in patients treated with generic or brand-name agents. The 101,618 beneficiaries of the Healthcare system of Lombardy, Italy, aged 18 years or older who were newly treated on monotherapy with antihypertensive generic or brand-name drugs during 2008, were followed until the earliest date among those of the occurrence of treatment discontinuation to whatever antihypertensive drug therapy (outcome), or censoring (death, emigration, 12 months after treatment initiation). Hazard ratios of discontinuation associated with starting on generic or brand-name products (intention-to-treat analysis), and incidence rate ratio of discontinuation during periods on generic and brand-name products (as-treated analysis) were respectively estimated from a cohort and self-controlled case series analyses. Patients who started on generics did not experience a different risk of discontinuation compared with those starting on brand-name agents (hazard ratio: 1.00; 95% confidence interval 0.98-1.02). Discontinuation did not occur with different rates during periods covered by generics or brand-name agents (incidence rate ratio: 1.01; 95% confidence interval 0.96-1.11) within the same individuals. A number of sensitivity and subgroup analyses confirmed the robustness of these findings. Generic products are not responsible for the high rate of discontinuation from antihypertensive drug therapy. Assuming therapeutic equivalence, clinical implication is of prescribing generic drug therapies.

  11. Bioequivalence and in vitro antimicrobial activity between generic and brand-name levofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hsin-Yun; Liao, Hsiao-Wei; Sheng, Meng-Huei; Tai, Hui-Min; Kuo, Ching-Hua; Sheng, Wang-Huei

    2016-07-01

    Generic agents play a crucial role in reducing the cost of medical care in many countries. However, the therapeutic equivalence remains a great concern. Our study aims to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity and bioequivalence between generic and brand-name levofloxacin. Enantiomeric purity test, dissolution test, and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility against seven clinically important pathogens by the agar dilution method were employed to assess the similarity between four generic products and brand-name levofloxacin (Daiichi Sankyo). All the generic and brand-name levofloxacin passed enantiomeric purity test. The results of dissolution tests were not similar among the generic products and the brand-name levofloxacin. Compared with the generic products, the brand-name levofloxacin had the smallest mean variations (-25% to 13%) with reference standard (United States Pharmacopeia levofloxacin Reference Standards). Variations were observed particularly in dissolution profiles and in vitro activity between generic products and brand-name levofloxacin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Brand name confusion: Subjective and objective measures of orthographic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Jennifer S; McFarlane, Kimberley A; Kelly, Sarah J; Humphreys, Michael S; Weatherall, Kimberlee; Burrell, Robert G

    2017-09-01

    Determining brand name similarity is vital in areas of trademark registration and brand confusion. Students rated the orthographic (spelling) similarity of word pairs (Experiments 1, 2, and 4) and brand name pairs (Experiment 5). Similarity ratings were consistently higher when words shared beginnings rather than endings, whereas shared pronunciation of the stressed vowel had small and less consistent effects on ratings. In Experiment 3 a behavioral task confirmed the similarity of shared beginnings in lexical processing. Specifically, in a task requiring participants to decide whether 2 words presented in the clear (a probe and a later target) were the same or different, a masked prime word preceding the target shortened response latencies if it shared its initial 3 letters with the target. The ratings of students for word and brand name pairs were strongly predicted by metrics of orthographic similarity from the visual word identification literature based on the number of shared letters and their relative positions. The results indicate a potential use for orthographic metrics in brand name registration and trademark law. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Co-branding : A brand partnership and a new product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouten, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Co-branding is a form of cooperation between two brands with significant consumer recognition that results in the creation and introduction of a new product on which both brands are visible. Although co-branding results in the creation and introduction of a new product through collaboration, the

  14. ALERT: Revatio is another brand name for sildenafil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczmara, Christine; Hyland, Sylvia; Greenall, Julie

    2009-01-01

    In this column, the authors highlight a medication incident that occurred with Revatio (sildenafil), along with the learnings and recommendations from a previously published ISMP Canada Safety Bulletin. It is well-known to health care practitioners that use of nitroglycerin therapy is contraindicated in patients taking sildenafil (commonly known as Viagra). Many health care practitioners may be unaware that sildenafil is also marketed under the brand name Revatio for treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension or pulmonary hypertension secondary to connective tissue disease. The following incident signals the need to heighten the awareness that Revatio is a brand name for sildenafil.

  15. 48 CFR 1910.004-72 - Solicitations, brand name or equal descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Solicitations, brand name... 1910.004-72 Solicitations, brand name or equal descriptions. (a) An entry substantially as follows... which a brand name or equal purchase description applies. Bidding on: Manufacturer's Name: Brand: No...

  16. 48 CFR 2811.104-70 - Brand-name or equal description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Brand-name or equal... 2811.104-70 Brand-name or equal description. When a brand-name or equal description is used, the clause set forth in 2852.211-70, Brand-name or Equal, shall be inserted into the solicitation. ...

  17. Design of Brand Names of Medicines Considering Subjects' Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Carla Maria Batista Ferreira; Cavaco, Afonso

    2018-03-01

    Only recently, regulations on the names of medicines were developed. Regulations are mainly focused on avoiding the approval of medicine names that may be confusing to others. Furthermore, legal requirements do not include testing for human factors, such as potential users' preferences. To develop a set of new brand names of medicines, to determine subjects' preferred names, and to evaluate if the linguistic features of these names were related to subjects' preferences. Forty-six new names linguistically equivalent to the Portuguese brand names of medicines were developed. A panel of 13 postgraduates on linguistic studies were purposively enrolled. Participants were required to select and categorize the 6 most preferred names. From the 29 selected names: 62.1% ended in consonants, 65.5% contained at least one syllable of the CVC type, and 62.1% presented final stress. Considering these 3 linguistic features, there were statistically significant differences between the preferred and underpreferred names: χ 2 = 4.572, P = .032; χ 2 = 5.599, P = .018; and χ 2 = 4.572; P = .032, respectively. Some linguistic features of the evaluated names were related to subjects' preferences. Tests on subjects' preferences about the names of medicines may provide additional safety features addressed by the present regulations.

  18. Country-of-origin and brand reputation effects on brand equity. Can a strong brand name strengthen or reverse country-of-origin effects on brand equity?

    OpenAIRE

    Sanfilippo, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Masteroppgave(MSc) in Master of Science in Business, Marketing - Handelshøyskolen BI, 2017 The concept of country-of-origin has been extensively studied with the apparition of multinational companies separating and outsourcing their operations worldwide. It has been established that country-of-origin has an impact on brand equity mediated by four dimensions, namely brand awareness, brand associations, perceived quality and brand loyalty. The purpose of this study is to examine ...

  19. Swayed by the Logo and Name: Does University Branding Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Muhammad Zaffwan; Whitfield, T. W. Allan

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, many universities attempted to improve their public image by changing their corporate visual identity (CVI) and/or name. Despite the prevalence of such practices, little research has been conducted into their effectiveness. The research reported here focused upon one facet of the higher education branding debate, that of the…

  20. Evaluation of brand names of medicines: linguistic and format issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Carla; Cavaco, Afonso; Vigário, Marina

    2017-06-01

    Focusing on the shape of brand names of medicines in the Portuguese market, the aims of this study were: to evaluate the number of words, syllables and letters, to identify the combinations of letters that are not found in Portuguese words and to characterize the use of capital letters in these names. A descriptive study was conducted using 474 randomized brand names of medicines, approximately 25% of all over-the-counter and prescribed medicines available in Portugal. The number of words, syllables and letters was automatically determined with a dedicated software. The combinations of letters that are not found in Portuguese and the use of capital letters were quantified through visual inspection. The 474 names were formed by 615 words. 74.5% of the words comprised three or less syllables, the most common number of syllables in the Portuguese words (91%). As recommended, 81% (n = 385) names were formed by just one word, 59.2% (n = 281) of the names were composed of 5-8 letters, and 83.1% (n = 394) presented the first letter in capitals or all letters in upper case. Contrary to recommendations, 22% of the names comprised combinations of letters that are not commonly found in Portuguese words. Given the current readability requirements, some of the Portuguese brand names of medicines should be reduced in length, adapted to the native language or capitalized. Equivalent studies are recommended in other European countries, because many brands of medicines are internationally marketed, while their development and approval should be beyond general marketing rules. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  1. Brand Evaluation and Consumers' Preference towards Pioneer and Follower Brands: Empirical Study on Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SP Syahlani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aims of this research were to identify brand recall as well as to analyze consumers’ attitude and consumers’ preference toward pioneer and follower brands on processed dairy product. One hundred and fifty housewives were engaged as respondents in this research. The techniques used in the data analysis were non parametric two related sample test, one sample t-test and independent sample t-test. The result indicated that each of the product category, the percentage of the pioneer brand preference was higher than follower brand, namely Ultra Milk (87.30%, Yakult (94.70%, Anlene (93.30% and Kraft (98.70%. The result showed that from 150 respondents were able to correctly recall Ultra Milk (66.70%, Yakult (86.70%, Anlene (82.70% and Kraft (96.00% as the pioneer brand on each product category. Furthermore, the results showed that the average consumer attitudes were higher toward the pioneer brands than the follower brands. The result also indicated that consumers preferred pioneer brands than follower brands for the same flavour, quality and price. The result led to conclusion that consumers retrieved or recalled pioneer brands more correctly than follower brands. Moreover, consumers had a more favourable attitude to pioneer brands than to follower brands, in which consumers preferred to purchase the pioneer brands products to those of the follower brands concerning the farm-manufactured products of UHT milk, pro-biotic milk, high-calcium milk and cheese. Key Words: brand retrieval, brand recall, attitudes, preference

  2. False recall and recognition of brand names increases over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, participants are presented with lists of associated words (e.g., bed, awake, night). Subsequently, they reliably have false memories for related but nonpresented words (e.g., SLEEP). Previous research has found that false memories can be created for brand names (e.g., Morrisons, Sainsbury's, Waitrose, and TESCO). The present study investigates the effect of a week's delay on false memories for brand names. Participants were presented with lists of brand names followed by a distractor task. In two between-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task either immediately or a week later. In two within-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task both immediately and a week later. Correct recall for presented list items decreased over time, whereas false recall for nonpresented lure items increased. For recognition, raw scores revealed an increase in false memory across time reflected in an increase in Remember responses. Analysis of Pr scores revealed that false memory for lures stayed constant over a week, but with an increase in Remember responses in the between-subjects experiment and a trend in the same direction in the within-subjects experiment. Implications for theories of false memory are discussed.

  3. What’s In and What’s Out in Branding? A Novel Articulation Effect for Brand Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha eTopolinski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present approach exploits the biomechanical connection between articulation and ingestion-related mouth movements to introduce a novel psychological principle of brand name design. We constructed brand names for diverse products with consonantal stricture spots either from the front to the rear of the mouth, thus inwards (e.g., BODIKA, or from the rear to the front, thus outwards (e.g., KODIBA. These muscle dynamics resemble the oral kinematics during either ingestion (inwards, which feels positive, or expectoration (outwards, which feels negative. In 7 experiments (total N = 1261, participants liked products with inward names more than products with outward names (Experiment 1, reported higher purchase intentions (Experiment 2, and higher willingness-to-pay (Experiments 3a-3c, 4, 5, with the price gain amounting to 4 % to 13 % of the average estimated product value. These effects occurred across English and German language, under silent reading, for both edible and non-edible products, and even in the presence of a much stronger price determinant, namely fair-trade production (Experiment 5.

  4. 48 CFR 2852.211-70 - Brand-name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Brand-name or equal. 2852... Forms SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2852.211-70 Brand-name or equal. As prescribed in 2811.104-70, insert the following clause: Brand-Name or Equal (JAN 1985...

  5. 48 CFR 811.104-72 - Limited application of brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... brand name or equal. 811.104-72 Section 811.104-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements Documents 811.104-72 Limited application of brand name or equal. If the contracting officer determines that the clause at 852.211-73, Brand name or equal, applies to only certain line items of a...

  6. 77 FR 3636 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Brand-Name Specifications; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... 26] RIN 9000-AK55 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Brand-Name Specifications; Correction AGENCY... Regulation (FAR) to implement the Office of Management and Budget memoranda on brand-name specifications, FAR Case 2005-037, Brand-Name Specifications, which published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 189 on...

  7. 49 CFR 574.7 - Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners. 574.7 Section 574.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., new tire brand name owners. (a)(1) Each new tire manufacturer and each new tire brand name owner...

  8. 48 CFR 11.104 - Use of brand name or equal purchase descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of brand name or equal....104 Use of brand name or equal purchase descriptions. (a) While the use of performance specifications is preferred to encourage offerors to propose innovative solutions, the use of brand name or equal...

  9. A Doctor's Name as a Brand: A Nationwide Survey on Registered Clinic Names in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Feng-Yuan; Dai, Ying-Xiu; Liu, Jui-Yao; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Li-Fang; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2018-06-01

    In countries where the private clinics of physicians can be freely named, registering a clinic with a physician's name is one way to make patients familiar with the physician. No previous study had investigated how clinics make use of this method of personal branding. Therefore, the current study analyzed 10,847 private physician Western medicine clinics in Taiwan. Of those clinics, 31.0% ( n = 3363) were named with a physician's full name, 8.9% ( n = 960) with a surname, and 8.1% ( n = 884) with a given name. The proportion of clinics registered with a physician's name was lower in rural areas (37.3%) than in urban (48.5%) and suburban areas (49.2%), respectively. Among clinics with only one kind of specialist, a physician's name was used most frequently in clinics of obstetrics and gynecology (64.9%), otorhinolaryngology (64.1%), and dermatology (63.4%). In Taiwan, fewer than half of clinics used a physician's name as a brand. The sociocultural or strategic factors and real benefits of doing so could be further studied in the future for a better understanding of healthcare services management.

  10. Generic versus brand-name drugs used in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoli, Lamberto; Flacco, Maria Elena; Boccia, Stefania; D'Andrea, Elvira; Panic, Nikola; Marzuillo, Carolina; Siliquini, Roberta; Ricciardi, Walter; Villari, Paolo; Ioannidis, John P A

    2016-04-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy and adverse events, either serious or mild/moderate, of all generic versus brand-name cardiovascular medicines. We searched randomized trials in MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trial Register, and ClinicalTrials.gov (last update December 1, 2014). Attempts were made to contact the investigators of all potentially eligible trials. Two investigators independently extracted and analyzed soft (including systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and others) and hard efficacy outcomes (including major cardiovascular adverse events and death), minor/moderate and serious adverse events. We included 74 randomized trials; 53 reported ≥1 efficacy outcome (overall sample 3051), 32 measured mild/moderate adverse events (n = 2407), and 51 evaluated serious adverse events (n = 2892). We included trials assessing ACE inhibitors (n = 12), anticoagulants (n = 5), antiplatelet agents (n = 17), beta-blockers (n = 11), calcium channel blockers (n = 7); diuretics (n = 13); statins (n = 6); and others (n = 3). For both soft and hard efficacy outcomes, 100 % of the trials showed non-significant differences between generic and brand-name drugs. The aggregate effect size was 0.01 (95 % CI -0.05; 0.08) for soft outcomes; -0.06 (-0.71; 0.59) for hard outcomes. All but two trials showed non-significant differences in mild/moderate adverse events, and aggregate effect size was 0.07 (-0.06; 0.20). Comparable results were observed for each drug class and in each stratified meta-analysis. Overall, 8 serious possibly drug-related adverse events were reported: 5/2074 subjects on generics; 3/2076 subjects on brand-name drugs (OR 1.69; 95 % CI 0.40-7.20). This meta-analysis strengthens the evidence for clinical equivalence between brand-name and generic cardiovascular drugs. Physicians could be reassured about prescribing generic cardiovascular drugs, and health care organization about endorsing their wider

  11. ‘The influence of the Brand name to Brand’s success’

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Vassilis Angelis; Dr. Irini Rigopoulou

    2003-01-01

    Many questions related to the contribution and the role of the name of the Brand as a company asset, have not been explicitly answered through empirical research. This specific study attempts to provide some answers to these questions. Through the hypotheses tested, we came to the conclusion that the name is perceived by the executives as the most important defining element of the Brand (among others specified) and that the contribution of the Brand name to particular criteria of Brand succes...

  12. Influence of premium versus value brand names on the smoking experience in a plain packaging environment: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaczkowski, Gemma; Durkin, Sarah; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-01-16

    To examine the effect of branding, as indicated by brand name, on evaluation of the cigarette smoking experience. Between-subjects and within-subjects experimental study. Participants were randomly allocated to smoke a cigarette from a pack featuring a premium brand name and a cigarette from a pack featuring a value brand name. Within each condition, participants unknowingly smoked two identical cigarettes (either two premium or two value cigarettes). Australia, October 2014, 2 years after tobacco plain packaging implementation. 81 current cigarette smokers aged 19-39 years. From apparently premium and value brand-name packs, 40 smokers were allocated to smoke the same actual premium cigarettes and 41 were allocated to smoke the same actual value cigarettes. Experienced taste (flavour, satisfaction, enjoyment, quality, liking, mouthfeel and aftertaste), harshness, dryness, staleness, harm/strength measures (strength, tar, lightness, volume of smoke), draw effort and purchase intent. Cigarettes given a premium brand name were rated as having a better taste, were less harsh and less dry than identical cigarettes given a value brand name. This pattern was observed irrespective of whether the two packs actually contained premium or value cigarettes. These effects were specific: the brand name did not influence ratings of cigarette variant attributes (strength, tar, volume of smoke, lightness and draw effort). Despite the belief that brand names represent genuine differences between cigarette products, the results suggest that at least some of this perceived sensory difference is attributable to brand image. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. 75 FR 9489 - Proposed Information Collection (Brand Name or Equal) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0585] Proposed Information Collection (Brand... items that are equal to the brand name item stated in the bid. DATES: Written comments and... Regulation (VAAR) Clause 852.211-77, Brand Name or Equal (was 852.210-77). OMB Control Number: 2900-0585...

  14. 78 FR 21711 - Proposed Information Collection (Brand Name or Equal) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0585] Proposed Information Collection (Brand... to offer items that are equal to the brand name item stated in the bid. DATES: Written comments and... Regulation (VAAR) Clause 852.211-77, Brand Name or Equal (was 852.210-77). OMB Control Number: 2900-0585...

  15. 75 FR 26345 - Agency Information Collection (Brand Name or Equal) Activities Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0585] Agency Information Collection (Brand... Regulation (VAAR) Clause 852.211-77, Brand Name or Equal (was 852.210-77). OMB Control Number: 2900-0585... bidders or offerors who are proposing to offer an item that is alleged to be equal to the brand name item...

  16. 78 FR 42821 - Agency Information Collection (Brand Name or Equal) Activities Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0585] Agency Information Collection (Brand...-77, Brand Name or Equal (was 852.210-77). OMB Control Number: 2900-0585. Type of Review: Revision of... are proposing to offer an item that is alleged to be equal to the brand name item stated in the bid...

  17. 78 FR 42593 - Agency Information Collection (Brand Name or Equal) Activities Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0585] Agency Information Collection (Brand...-77, Brand Name or Equal (was 852.210- 77). OMB Control Number: 2900-0585. Type of Review: Extension... are proposing to offer an item that is alleged to be equal to the brand name item stated in the bid...

  18. PRODUCT PLACEMENT IN BRAND PROMOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Mikołajczyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Product placement can have a significant impact on brand awareness and customer purchasing decisions. The article discusses techniques applied in the mass media against the EU legal background and the opportunities it offers in reaching the target audience.

  19. Functional Values and Characteristics of Food Brand Name Based on the Relation between Language and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Haitao Lu

    2015-01-01

    For commodities, labeling is a mark enabling food producers or manufacturers to differ their goods from others in a same classification. As a kind of labeling, food brand is various in form and its name is the focus of this study. With market economic system, Chinese food industry is facing much severer market competitions, so studying on languages of food brand name has significant guidance to the sustainable development of food brand. This study investigates characteristics of food brand na...

  20. Out-of-category brand imitation : Product categorization determines copycat evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Horen, F.; Pieters, Rik

    2017-01-01

    Copycat brands imitate the trade dress of other brands, such as their brand name, logo, and packaging design. Copycats typically operate in the core product category of the imitated brand under the assumption that such “in-category imitation” is most effective. In contrast, four experiments

  1. Brand Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wider, Serena; von Wallpach, Sylvia; Mühlbacher, Hans

    2018-01-01

    Mainstream brand management literature views brands as products or organisations carrying brand names and brand managers as being in control of brand-related actions and outcomes. By contrast, recent empirical research shows the substantial influence of stakeholders on brands. Together with brand...... management, stakeholders shape brands by participating in brand-related interaction. European brand research accordingly treats brands as ongoing and complex processes in constant flux. Nevertheless, literature suffers from a significant lack of theoretical underpinnings for understanding brands as complex...... processes; in this respect, building on European philosophy is a fruitful avenue. This paper introduces the metaphor of the rhizome and draws on European process philosophy to further develop an integrative processual understanding of brands. Brand management claiming control over brands as processes turns...

  2. Naming as Strategic Communication: Understanding Corporate Name Change through an Integrative Framework Encompassing Branding, Identity and Institutional Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line; Kjeldsen, Anna Karina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a framework for understanding corporate name change as strategic communication. From a corporate branding perspective, the choice of a new name can be seen as a wish to stand out from a group of similar organizations. Conversely, from an institutional perspective, name change...

  3. Long-term stability of acyclovir in 0.9% NaCl infusion polyolefin bags at 5±3°C after freeze-thaw treatment: a generic product versus the brand name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewulf, J; Galanti, L; Godet, M; Gillet, P; Jamart, J; Hecq, J-D

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term stability of acyclovir 5 mg/mL (a generic product versus the brand name) in NaCl 0.9% after storage at 5±3°C and to evaluate the influence of initial freezing and microwave thawing on this stability. Five bags of Acyclovir® Hospira 5 mg/mL (A) and five bags of Zovirax® GSK 5 mg/mL (B) were prepared under aseptic conditions and stored 3 months at -20°C, then thawed and stored 30 days at 4°C. Five bags of Acyclovir® 5 mg/mL (C) and five bags of Zovirax® 5 mg/mL (D) were also prepared under aseptic conditions and stored 30 days at 5±3°C. Optic density measurement at different wavelengths, pH measurement and optic microscope observations were performed periodically during the storage. A forced degradation test with HCl 12 M and NaOH 5 M before and after heating at 100°C was also performed. The concentrations were measured by HPLC-PDA. The only one forced degradation test that yielded chromatograms with degradation products peak was the test with the acid solution heated at 100°C without interference with the native product. No significant change in pH values or optic densities were seen during the study for both products. No crystals were seen with the optic microscope during the study. Acyclovir® and Zovirax® solutions were stable for at least 21 days according to the FDA recommendations. Moreover, there was no statistical difference between regression lines of those two products and two storage conditions. Under the conditions of this study, Acyclovir® 5 mg/mL in 100 mL of NaCl 0.9% infusion remains stable at least for 21 days at 5±3°C with or without freezing at -20°C during the three previous months. There is no statistical difference between the brand name and a generic product. Acyclovir may be prepared in advanced by a centralized intravenous additive service, frozen in polyolefin bags and microwave thawed before storage under refrigeration until 21 days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson

  4. 48 CFR 811.104 - Use of brand name or equal purchase descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of brand name or equal purchase descriptions. 811.104 Section 811.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements Documents 811.104 Use of brand name or equal purchase descriptions. ...

  5. Branding Strategies for High Technology Products: The Effects of Consumer and Product Innovativeness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Y.; van Klink, R.; Simmons, G.; Grinstein, A.; Palmer, M.

    2017-01-01

    Choice of an appropriate branding strategy is a critical determinant of new product success. Prior work on fast-moving-consumer-goods (FMCG) prescribes that new products carry new (vs. existing) brand names to appeal to earlier adopters - a critical target for new products. However, such a

  6. Generic lamotrigine versus brand-name Lamictal bioequivalence in patients with epilepsy: A field test of the FDA bioequivalence standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Tricia Y; Jiang, Wenlei; Lionberger, Robert; Wong, Jessica; Jones, Jace W; Kane, Maureen A; Krumholz, Allan; Temple, Robert; Polli, James E

    2015-09-01

    To test the current U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) bioequivalence standard in a comparison of generic and brand-name drug pharmacokinetic (PK) performance in "generic-brittle" patients with epilepsy under clinical use conditions. This randomized, double-blind, multiple-dose, steady-state, fully replicated bioequivalence study compared generic lamotrigine to brand-name Lamictal in "generic-brittle" patients with epilepsy (n = 34) who were already taking lamotrigine. Patients were repeatedly switched between masked Lamictal and generic lamotrigine. Intensive PK blood sampling at the end of each 2-week treatment period yielded two 12-h PK profiles for brand-name and generic forms for each patient. Steady-state area under the curve (AUC), peak plasma concentration (Cmax ), and minimum plasma concentration (Cmin ) data were subjected to conventional average bioequivalence (ABE) analysis, reference-scaled ABE analysis, and within-subject variability (WSV) comparisons. In addition, generic-versus-brand comparisons in individual patients were performed. Secondary clinical outcomes included seizure frequency and adverse events. Generic demonstrated bioequivalence to brand. The 90% confidence intervals of the mean for steady-state AUC, Cmax , and Cmin for generic-versus-brand were 97.2-101.6%, 98.8-104.5%, and 93.4-101.0%, respectively. The WSV of generic and brand were also similar. Individual patient PK ratios for generic-versus-brand were similar but not identical, in part because brand-versus-brand profiles were not identical, even though subjects were rechallenged with the same product. Few subjects had seizure exacerbations or tolerability issues with product switching. One subject, however, reported 267 focal motor seizures, primarily on generic, although his brand and generic PK profiles were practically identical. Some neurologists question whether bioequivalence in healthy volunteers ensures therapeutic equivalence of brand and generic antiepileptic drugs

  7. PRODUCT BRAND IDENTITY – A FACTOR OF SUCCESSFUL MARKET POSITIONING OF A BRAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Lijović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with the term product brand identity as the new market paradigm. It aims to define the term product brand identity and its significance for realisation of the market value of a product’s brand and overall marketing goals of an economic operator. The strategy of economic operator and desired market positioning of a brand is implemented by means of product brand identity and a combination of its elements. Systematic creation and identity management of a product’s brand resulted in the uniqueness of the brand, and set the foundation for building the entire process of product brand management.

  8. Comparing recurrent antibiotic prescriptions in children treated with a brand name or a generic formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovani, Daniele; Clavenna, Antonio; Cartabia, Massimo; Bortolotti, Angela; Fortino, Ida; Merlino, Luca; Bonati, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of recurrent prescriptions and hospital admissions in children receiving a brand name or generic antibiotic prescription. The data source was a database of reimbursed prescriptions. Outpatient children/adolescents brand name formulations and for each age strata (0-5, 6-11, and 12-17 years old) for four antibiotics: amoxicillin, amoxicillin clavulanate, clarithromycin, and cefaclor. The percentage of therapy switches was calculated. Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test was used to compare the age-adjusted outcomes. In all, 17.5% (57 346) of children received at least one recurrent prescription. The rate of recurrent prescriptions was slightly lower in children receiving any generic (OR 0.96; 95%CI 0.93-0.98), compared with any brand name, antibiotic. The percentage of hospital admissions occurring in children initially treated with a brand name (1.01%; 95%CI 0.98-1.08) or generic (1.03%; 0.96-1.06) antibiotic was not different (p = 0.43). For children receiving amoxicillin clavulanate, the hospital admission rate was slightly higher in the brand name group (p = 0.002), while no differences were found for the other active substances. Children treated with generic antibiotics had no worse safety and effectiveness outcomes when compared with those receiving brand name ones. These results provide additional evidence on the safety of generic antibiotics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Factors influencing consumer purchasing patterns of generic versus brand name over-the-counter drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Erol; Buller, Allison

    2013-02-01

    US consumers spend more than $20 billion/year on over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. Although generic and brand name OTC drugs share the same active ingredients and undergo the same rigorous Food and Drug Administration approval process, brand name formulations continue to lead the OTC drug market with a higher market share. There is a limited amount of publicly available information regarding consumer perceptions and awareness about generic and brand name OTC drugs. The main objective of this research was to understand what factors influence US consumers to purchase generic versus brand name OTC drugs. The researchers used a 20-question, self-administered, multiple-choice survey to collect data on the factors influencing consumers' preferences for generic versus brand name OTC drugs. Results revealed that the single most influential factor for participants when purchasing OTC drugs was lower cost. Although economic factors play an important role in influencing consumers to choose generic formulations, a variety of other factors including advertisements, duration of the OTC effectiveness, severity of sickness, preferable form of OTC medication, safety of the OTC, relief of multiple symptoms, and preferred company will persuade others to pay more for brand name drugs. Ultimately, increased awareness and use of generic OTC drugs may result in substantial cost savings for consumers.

  10. Postabsorption concentration peaks with brand-name and generic verapamil: a double-blind, crossover study in elderly hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saseen, J J; Porter, J A; Barnette, D J; Bauman, J L; Zajac, E J; Carter, B L

    1997-06-01

    The pharmacokinetic actions, bioequivalence, and cardiovascular effects of two verapamil products were studied in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study in eight elderly hypertensive patients (median age, 69.5 years; range, 60-79 years) given brand-name or generic immediate-release verapamil in 120-mg twice-daily doses for 14 days. Blood pressures, heart rates, P-R intervals; and serum concentrations of R-/S-verapamil and norverapamil were measured multiple times in patients during the last day of each therapy. Median blood pressure decreased more with generic verapamil than with the brand-name drug, with the largest difference occurring at 0.5 hours (137/74 mmHg versus 144.5/80.5 mmHg; P = 0.05 and 0.091, respectively). Pharmacokinetic parameters were not different for the two products (P generic product, compared with the brand-name drug, had mean area under the concentration-time curve (time 0 to 12 hours) ratios (90% CI) of 1.09 (0.78-1.52), 1.16 (0.87-1.55) and 1.11 (0.81-1.52) for R-, S-, and total verapamil. Seventy concentration peaks (31 with the brand-name drug, 39 with the generic drug) appeared between 8 and 24 hours. Median percentages of increase of these peaks, compared with those of previous concentrations, were 48.3% and 36.3% for brand-name and generic drugs, respectively. Fifty of the 70 peaks (71%) were associated with a stereospecific concentration peak of norverapamil and, temporally, with meals. Our findings suggest that whereas the two verapamil products may not be bioequivalent by Food and Drug Administration criteria, the observed differences in effects were not clinically significant in this elderly population. Multiple concentration peaks after absorption were observed in all patients with both verapamil products and were perhaps related to enterohepatic recirculation.

  11. The Impact of Brand Personality on Product Sale through Brand Equity (Case Study: Cosmetic Products Retailers)

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Rezaei Dolatabadi; Ali Kazemi; Nima Soltani Rad

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, understanding the reasons of brand personality attraction for consumers, the determination of its effect on consumer behavior and brand equity has been an area of interest to researchers of consumer behavior. Certainly, this concept can be important for sellers of product that are on the other side of the purchase & sale equation and the results can be effective in promoting their brands. In order to reach this purpose, this study has analyzed the influence of brand personali...

  12. Differentiated Brand Marketing Strategy for China’s Conventional Aquatic Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua; LIANG; Zhongming; SHEN

    2015-01-01

    The volume of production and marketing of China’s conventional aquatic products is increasing. Compared with price of livestock and poultry products,price of conventional aquatic products is relatively low. Differentiated brand marketing for China’s conventional aquatic products is a key approach for increasing market demand for conventional aquatic products and increasing value of conventional aquatic products. The differentiated brand marketing is an inevitable trend of market development and also a powerful arm for market competition. China’s conventional aquatic products can take differentiated brand marketing strategies such as brand orientation,brand concept,brand culture,and place name brand,to better keep market competitive edge and increase economic benefits.

  13. Cisplatin-induced hyponatremia in malignancy: comparison between brand-name and generic formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Nobuaki; Yamane, Hiromichi; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Fujii, Hiromi; Isozaki, Hideko; Honda, Yoshihiro; Yamagishi, Tomoko; Kubo, Toshio; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Takigawa, Nagio

    2014-01-01

    Widespread use of generic drugs is considered to be indispensable if reductions in total health care costs are to be achieved, but the market share of such drugs remains low. In general, generic drugs have the same active ingredients as brand-name drugs, but this is not always the case. Thus, toxicity profiles may vary when brand-name and generic drugs are compared. We retrospectively investigated the incidence of hyponatremia in patients receiving brand-name cisplatin (CDDP) and a generic counterpart thereof. We reviewed the medical records of patients treated with brand-name CDDP (n=53) and a generic formulation (n=26), and compared the incidences of hyponatremia and renal toxicity. Toxicities were graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Differences between groups were evaluated using the Student's t-test, and the odds ratio for hyponatremia was estimated via logistic regression analysis. Serum creatinine levels after chemotherapy increased significantly in both the brand-name and generic CDDP groups; no significant difference was evident between the two groups. Hyponatremia of grade 3 or above developed in 30.7% of the generic CDDP group compared to 15.1% of the brand-name CDDP group (P=0.011). Multivariate analysis showed that the use of generic CDDP increased the incidence of hyponatremia (odds ratio =5.661, 95% confidence interval =1.403-22.839; P=0.015). Oncologists should be aware that use of a generic CDDP might be associated with more hyponatremia than would use of brand-name CDDP.

  14. Are generic and brand-name statins clinically equivalent? Evidence from a real data-base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrao, Giovanni; Soranna, Davide; Arfè, Andrea; Casula, Manuela; Tragni, Elena; Merlino, Luca; Mancia, Giuseppe; Catapano, Alberico L

    2014-10-01

    Use of generic drugs can help contain drug spending. However, there is concern among patients and physicians that generic drugs may be clinically inferior to brand-name ones. This study aimed to compare patients treated with generic and brand-name statins in terms of therapeutic interruption and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. 13,799 beneficiaries of the health care system of Lombardy, Italy, aged 40 years or older who were newly treated with generic or brand-name simvastatin during 2008, were followed until 2011 for the occurrence of two outcomes: 1) therapeutic discontinuation and 2) hospitalization for CV events. Hazard ratios (HR) associated with use of generic or brand-name at starting therapy (intention-to-treat analysis) and during follow-up (as-treated analysis) were estimated by fitting proportional hazard Cox models. A Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis was performed to account for unmeasured confounders. Patients who started on generic did not experience a different risk of discontinuation (HR: 0.98; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.02) nor of CV outcomes (HR: 0.98; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.22) from those starting on brand-name. Patients who spent >75% of time of follow-up with statin available on generics did not experience a different risk of discontinuation (HR: 0.94; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.01), nor of CV outcomes (HR: 1.06; 95% CI 0.83 to 1.34), compared with those who mainly or only used brand-name statin. Our findings do not support the notion that in the real world clinical practice brand-name statins are superior to generics for keeping therapy and preventing CV outcomes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Association of Industry Payments to Physicians With the Prescribing of Brand-name Statins in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, James S; Franklin, Jessica M; Avorn, Jerry; Landon, Joan; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-06-01

    Pharmaceutical industry payments to physicians may affect prescribing practices and increase costs if more expensive medications are prescribed. Determine the association between industry payments to physicians and the prescribing of brand-name as compared with generic statins for lowering cholesterol. Cross-sectional linkage of the Part D Medicare prescriptions claims data with the Massachusetts physicians payment database including all licensed Massachusetts physicians who wrote prescriptions for statins paid for under the Medicare drug benefit in 2011. The exposure variable was a physician's industry payments as listed in the Massachusetts database. The outcome was the physician's rate of prescribing brand-name statins. We used linear regression to analyze the association between the intensity of physicians' industry relationships (as measured by total payments) and their prescribing practices, as well as the effects of specific types of payments. Among the 2444 Massachusetts physicians in the Medicare prescribing database in 2011, 899 (36.8%) received industry payments. The most frequent payment was for company-sponsored meals (n = 639 [71.1%]). Statins accounted for 1 559 003 prescription claims; 356 807 (22.8%) were for brand-name drugs. For physicians with no industry payments listed, the median brand-name statin prescribing rate was 17.8% (95% CI, 17.2%-18.4%). For every $1000 in total payments received, the brand-name statin prescribing rate increased by 0.1% (95% CI, 0.06%-0.13%; P associated with a 4.8% increase in the rate of brand-name prescribing (P = .004); other forms of payments were not. Industry payments to physicians are associated with higher rates of prescribing brand-name statins. As the United States seeks to rein in the costs of prescription drugs and make them less expensive for patients, our findings are concerning.

  16. 48 CFR 1910.004-71 - Limits on the use of brand name or equal purchase descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Limits on the use of brand... DESCRIPTIONS 1910.004-71 Limits on the use of brand name or equal purchase descriptions. (a) General. The use of brand name or equal purchase descriptions in solicitations is intended to promote competition by...

  17. A Doctor’s Name as a Brand: A Nationwide Survey on Registered Clinic Names in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yuan Chu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In countries where the private clinics of physicians can be freely named, registering a clinic with a physician’s name is one way to make patients familiar with the physician. No previous study had investigated how clinics make use of this method of personal branding. Therefore, the current study analyzed 10,847 private physician Western medicine clinics in Taiwan. Of those clinics, 31.0% (n = 3363 were named with a physician’s full name, 8.9% (n = 960 with a surname, and 8.1% (n = 884 with a given name. The proportion of clinics registered with a physician’s name was lower in rural areas (37.3% than in urban (48.5% and suburban areas (49.2%, respectively. Among clinics with only one kind of specialist, a physician’s name was used most frequently in clinics of obstetrics and gynecology (64.9%, otorhinolaryngology (64.1%, and dermatology (63.4%. In Taiwan, fewer than half of clinics used a physician’s name as a brand. The sociocultural or strategic factors and real benefits of doing so could be further studied in the future for a better understanding of healthcare services management.

  18. Evaluation of Patient Assistance Program Eligibility and Availability for Top 200 Brand Name and Generic Drugs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Fun Chu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One strategy to encourage uninsured and underinsured patients' compliance with medication regimen is to refer them to pharmaceutical industry-sponsored patient assistance programs (PAPs. In order to receive the requested medications, patients should be qualified based on the program eligibility requirements. The purpose of this study was to examine PAP eligibility criteria for the most commonly dispensed prescriptions in the United States. We identified 136 unique chemical entities in the Top 200 drug list and 111 (82% of these pharmaceutical products were offered by PAPs. Among the available medications, 69 (62% were brand name; 29 (26% were generic, and 13 (12% had both brand name/generic forms. In terms of the availability of types of drugs (brand name vs. generic provided by PAPs, differences in PAP eligibility requirements were found for citizenship (p < 0.001, permanent residency (p < 0.001, and prescription drug coverage (p< 0.001, but not for income limits (p= 0.051. Overall, PAPs could help low-income patients to obtain necessary medications; however, U.S. citizenship/permanent residency and restriction on prescription coverage are more likely to be required for brand name drugs rather than for generics. PAPs also provide some options for the underinsured and those with private insurance or Medicare Part D plan that offers inadequate prescription coverage.   Type: Original Research

  19. Evaluation of Patient Assistance Program Eligibility and Availability for Top 200 Brand Name and Generic Drugs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Fun Chu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One strategy to encourage uninsured and underinsured patients’ compliance with medication regimen is to refer them to pharmaceutical industry–sponsored patient assistance programs (PAPs. In order to receive the requested medications, patients should be qualified based on the program eligibility requirements. The purpose of this study was to examine PAP eligibility criteria for the most commonly dispensed prescriptions in the United States. We identified 136 unique chemical entities in the Top 200 drug list and 111 (82% of these pharmaceutical products were offered by PAPs. Among the available medications, 69 (62% were brand name; 29 (26% were generic, and 13 (12% had both brand name/generic forms. In terms of the availability of types of drugs (brand name vs. generic provided by PAPs, differences in PAP eligibility requirements were found for citizenship (p < 0.001, permanent residency (p < 0.001, and prescription drug coverage (p< 0.001, but not for income limits (p= 0.051. Overall, PAPs could help low-income patients to obtain necessary medications; however, U.S. citizenship/permanent residency and restriction on prescription coverage are more likely to be required for brand name drugs rather than for generics. PAPs also provide some options for the underinsured and those with private insurance or Medicare Part D plan that offers inadequate prescription coverage.

  20. CONSUMERS’ PERCEPTIONS TOWARDS INTERNATIONALSUPERMARKET PRIVATE BRAND PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Chen Yap

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent year, we observed the rapid growth of international supermarkets chainslike Tesco, Carrefour, Jusco, and Giant in Malaysia. These internationalsupermarkets are capitalizing on local manufacturers to produce products of theirown brand. No doubt this private brand product price could be as low as otherlocal produce but pricing is not the only factor influencing local consumerspurchase intention. In this paper, we set to investigate consumers’ perceptions onperceived price, perceived quality, confidence, social influence, and brand imagetowards international supermarket private brand products. Using MultipleRegressions, we found all factors significantly influence consumers purchaseintention and price is the key factor that triggerpurchase. These factors wouldprovide international supermarkets to cater for local consumers’ demand.

  1. The Association of Industry Payments to Physicians with Prescription of Brand-Name Intranasal Corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Elliot; Fujiwara, Rance J T; Mehra, Saral

    2018-06-01

    Objectives To examine the association of industry payments for brand-name intranasal corticosteroids with prescribing patterns. Study Design Cross-sectional retrospective analysis. Setting Nationwide. Subjects and Methods We identified physicians prescribing intranasal corticosteroids to Medicare beneficiaries 2014-2015 and physicians receiving payment for the brand-name intranasal corticosteroids Dymista and Nasonex. Prescription and payment data were linked by physician, and we compared the proportion of prescriptions written for brand-name intranasal corticosteroids in industry-compensated vs non-industry-compensated physicians. We associated the number and dollar amount of industry payments with the relative frequency of brand-name prescriptions. Results In total, 164,587 physicians prescribing intranasal corticosteroids were identified, including 7937 (5%) otolaryngologists; 10,800 and 3886 physicians received industry compensation for Dymista and Nasonex, respectively. Physicians receiving industry payment for Dymista prescribed more Dymista as a proportion of total intranasal corticosteroid prescriptions than noncompensated physicians (3.1% [SD = 9.6%] vs 0.2% [SD = 2.5%], respectively, P association was stronger in otolaryngologists than general practitioners ( P brand-name intranasal corticosteroids is significantly associated with prescribing patterns. The magnitude of association may depend on physician specialty and the drug's time on the market.

  2. Influence of premium vs masked cigarette brand names on the experienced taste of a cigarette after tobacco plain packaging in Australia: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaczkowski, Gemma; Durkin, Sarah; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Wakefield, Melanie

    2018-03-12

    Few studies have experimentally assessed the contribution of branding to the experience of smoking a cigarette, compared with the inherent properties of the product. This study examined the influence of cigarette brand name on the sensory experience of smoking a cigarette. Seventy-five Australian smokers aged 18-39 years smoked two 'premium' cigarettes, one with the brand variant name shown and one with the brand variant name masked (which provided 'objective' ratings). Unknown to participants, the two cigarettes were identical. At recruitment, participants rated their expected enjoyment, quality and harshness of several premium cigarette brands. Branded cigarettes were rated as having a significantly more favorable taste (M(SE) = 64.14(2.21)) than masked cigarettes (M(SE) = 58.53(2.26), p = .031). Branded cigarettes were also rated as being less stale (M(SE) = 36.04(2.62)) than masked cigarettes (M(SE) = 43.90(2.60), p = .011). Purchase intent tended to be higher among those shown the branded cigarette compared to the masked cigarette (χ 2 (1) = 3.00, p = .083). Expected enjoyment and quality of the brand variant (enjoyment: b = 0.31, 95%CI = 0.11, 0.51, p  .05). This pattern was not observed for cigarette harshness. A premium brand variant name can enhance the subjective experience of a cigarette. Further, smokers' expectations of such brand variants contribute to the smoking experience as much, if not more than, the actual qualities of the product.

  3. Brand names of Portuguese medication: understanding the importance of their linguistic structure and regulatory issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-08-01

    Among other regulatory requirements, medicine brands should be composed of single names without abbreviations to prevent errors in prescription of medication. The purposes of the study were to investigate the compliance of a sam ple of Portuguese medicine brand names with Portuguese pharmaceutical regulations. This includes identifying their basic linguistic characteristics and comparing these features and their frequency of occurrence with benchmark values of the colloquial or informal language. A sample of 474 brand names was selected. Names were analyzed using manual (visual analyses) and computer methods (FreP - Frequency Patterns of Phonological Objects in Portuguese and MS word). A significant number of names (61.3%) failed to comply with the Portuguese phonologic system (related to the sound of words) and/or the spelling system (related to the written form of words) contained more than one word, comprised a high proportion of infrequent syllable types or stress patterns and included abbreviations. The results suggest that some of the brand names of Portuguese medication should be reevaluated, and that regulation on this issue should be enforced and updated, taking into consideration specific linguistic and spelling codes.

  4. Brand Name Statin Prescribing in a Resident Ambulatory Practice: Implications for Teaching Cost-Conscious Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryskina, Kira L; Pesko, Michael F; Gossey, J Travis; Caesar, Erica Phillips; Bishop, Tara F

    2014-09-01

    Several national initiatives aim to teach high-value care to residents. While there is a growing body of literature on cost impact of physicians' therapeutic decisions, few studies have assessed factors that influence residents' prescribing practices. We studied factors associated with intensive health care utilization among internal medicine residents, using brand name statin prescribing as a proxy for higher-cost care. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of statin prescriptions by residents at an urban academic internal medicine program, using electronic health record data between July 1, 2010, and June 30, 2011. For 319 encounters by 90 residents, patients were given a brand name statin in 50% of cases. When categorized into quintiles, the bottom quintile of residents prescribed brand name statins in 2% of encounters, while the top quintile prescribed brand name statins in 98% of encounters. After adjusting for potential confounders, including patient characteristics and supervising attending, being in the primary care track was associated with lower odds (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; P  =  .02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16-0.86), and graduating from a medical school with an above-average hospital care intensity index was associated with higher odds of prescribing brand name statins (OR, 1.70; P  =  .049; 95% CI, 1.003-2.88). We found considerable variation in brand name statin prescribing by residents. Medical school attended and residency program type were associated with resident prescribing behavior. Future interventions should raise awareness of these patterns in an effort to teach high-value, cost-conscious care to all residents.

  5. Horizontally Differentiated Store Brands: Production Outsourcing to National Brand Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Shindo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a retailer's strategic decision with regard to outsourcing the production of such types of store brands (SBs to national brand (NB manufacturers. The wholesale price of NB is assumed to be set by the manufacturer, while that of the SB is assumed to be set by the retailer. When a retailer outsources SB production to an NB manufacturer, the NB manufacturer might suffer from cannibalization due to offering both the SB and the NB, implying that a strategic interaction between the retailer and manufacturer is an important issue. Based on this motivation, we mainly focus on the strategy of a dominant retailer in such a situation and investigate it with a game-theoretic approach. We show that the optimal strategy for the SB retailer sensitively depends on the degree of differentiation between the SB and the NB. In particular, if both products are less differentiated, the retailer benefits from offering only the SB, and, in this case, the retailer should offer its wholesale price, after the manufacturer sets the NB wholesale price. Furthermore, it is shown that the optimal strategies of the retailer are socially efficient, if and only if the SB and the NB are sufficiently differentiated.

  6. Similarity between generic and brand-name antihypertensive drugs for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: evidence from a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrao, Giovanni; Soranna, Davide; Merlino, Luca; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Although generic and earlier brand-name counterparts are bioequivalent, their equivalence in preventing relevant clinical outcomes is of concern. To compare effectiveness of generic and brand-name antihypertensive drugs for preventing the onset of cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. A population-based, nested case-control study was carried out by including the cohort of 78 520 patients from Lombardy (Italy) aged 18 years or older who were newly treated with antihypertensive drugs during 2005. Cases were the 2206 patients who experienced a hospitalization for CV disease from initial prescription until 2011. One control for each case was randomly selected from the same cohort that generated cases. Logistic regression was used to model the CV risk associated with starting on and/or continuing with generic or brand-name agents. There was no evidence that patients who started on generics experienced different CV risk than those on brand-name product (OR 0·86; 95% CI 0·63-1·17). Patients at whom generics were main dispensed had not significantly difference in CV outcomes than those mainly on brand-name agents (OR 1·19; 95% CI 0·86-1·63). Compared with patients who kept initial brand-name therapy, those who experienced brand-to-generic or generic-to-brand switches, and those always on generics, did not show differential CV risks, being the corresponding ORs (and 95% CIs), 1·18 (0·96-1·47), 0·87 (0·63-1·21) and 1·08 (0·80-1·46). Our findings do not support the notion that brand-name antihypertensive agents are superior to generics for preventing CV outcomes in the real-world clinical practice. © 2014 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  7. Moderating Role of Product Involvement on the Relationship Between Brand Personality and Brand Loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    SUDDIN LADA; SAMSINAR MD. SIDIN; KENNY TEOH GUAN CHENG

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from observations by consumer behavior theorists and product involvement studies, the present study seeks to investigate the moderating role of product involvement on the relationship between brand personality and brand loyalty. A total of 958 respondents participated in this study. They completed a 14-items questionnaire to measure product involvement, and a 32-items and 16-items questionnaire to measure brand personality and brand loyalty respectively. Results suggest that the effec...

  8. Brands as Product Coordinators: Matching Brands Make Joint Consumption Experiences More Enjoyable

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Rahinel; Joseph P. Redden

    2013-01-01

    People often consume multiple products at the same time (e.g., chips and salsa). Four studies demonstrate that people enjoy such joint consumption experiences more when the products are merely labeled with the same brand (vs. different brands). Process evidence shows that this brand matching effect arises because matching brand labels cue consumers' belief that the two products were coordinated through joint testing and design to go uniquely well together. This shows that there is no universa...

  9. Novel participatory methods of involving patients in research: naming and branding a longitudinal cohort study, BRIGHTLIGHT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachel M; Mohain, Jasjeet; Gibson, Faith; Solanki, Anita; Whelan, Jeremy; Fern, Lorna A

    2015-03-14

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) is central to research and service planning. Identifying effective, meaningful ways of involvement is challenging. The cohort study 'Do specialist services for teenagers and young adults with cancer add value?' follows young people for three years, examining outcomes associated with specialist care. Participant retention in longitudinal research can be problematic potentially jeopardising study completion. Maximising study awareness through high impact branding and publicity may improve study retention. Study names are typically generated by researchers rather than designed with patients. We aimed to involve young people in developing a brand identity and name to 'Do specialist services for teenagers and young adults with cancer add value?'. Nine young people aged 17-26 years diagnosed with cancer when aged 14-25 years participated in a one day workshop with further data collection at a patient conference. Methodology was similar to conventional branding and naming exercises and was divided into six stages. The workshop comprised five stages. Stage 1: 'What's in a brand' allowed young people to enquire why brands/logos are important, Stage 2: 'Brand Transformation' identified what young people needed to know and believe about the study when approached about participation, Stage 3: 'Brand Essence' determined how we wanted the study to be perceived by young people, Stage 4: 'What's in a name' identified potential names for the study. Stage 5: 'Logo creation' assembled the mood and feel of logos. Stage 6 was logo design and an electronic survey of 249 young people attending a patient conference. BRIGHTLIGHT was the final study name and the brand essence (or study personality) was friendly, supportive and inspiring. Four logos were designed and the final logo received 47% (n = 115) of votes. Acceptance and retention to BRIGHTLIGHT is higher than anticipated (80% versus 60%), this may be related to our integral PPI strategy. We

  10. Prescription for fairness: a new approach to tort liability of brand-name and generic drug manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostron, Allen

    2011-02-01

    Over the past two decades, courts have consistently ruled that the manufacturer of a brand-name prescription drug cannot be liable for injuries suffered by those taking generic imitations of its product. This meant that a patient injured by a generic drug could have no remedy at all because in many instances the generic drug manufacturer would escape liability on the ground that it did not produce any information on which the patient's doctor relied. It was a perplexing dilemma. The generic drug manufacturer made the product that the plaintiff received, the brand-name manufacturer produced all of the information the patient's doctor saw, and neither manufacturer could be held liable even if each acted negligently. The California Court of Appeal recently issued a stunning decision in which it concluded that a brand-name drug manufacturer could be liable to a plaintiff who took a generic version of its product. The reaction to the decision has been overwhelmingly negative. Commentators have condemned the decision as one of the worst rulings made by any court in recent years. Judges around the country have dismissed it as a misguided aberration from the otherwise strong judicial consensus on the issue. Although the decision has been the subject of scathing criticism, this Article argues that the California court's ruling actually represents the first time that a court has properly examined this issue. In addition, the Article points out some weaknesses in the California court's reasoning and proposes a novel general framework for analyzing the liability of brand-name and generic drug manufacturers.

  11. 78 FR 43969 - Agency Information Collection (Brand Name or Equal) Activities Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0585] Agency Information Collection (Brand Name or Equal) Activities Under OMB Review Correction Notice document 2013-17006, appearing on page 42593, in the issue of Tuesday, July 16, 2013 was withdrawn by the Department of Veterans Affairs. It...

  12. Deception in Brand Names: Do Print Ads Clarify the Nutrition Claims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Bonnie B.; Rifon, Nora J.

    To learn whether the problem of misunderstanding in brand names might be caused by the content of advertisements or whether it stemmed from a failure in the exposure-processing chain with respect to the effect of the ads on consumers, a study investigated the extent to which marketers provide information in their advertising that clarifies the…

  13. Consumer-Based Brand Equity of Products and Services: Assessing a Measurement Model with Competing Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Barreiros Porto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: Identifying which brand in a category conveys more or less value to the consumer raises questions about the composition of brand equity measures and the brands that make up the category. Measures to identify Consumer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE may include functional assessments of consumer’s brand choice and firms’ brand performance, as long as they embrace competing brands. In view of this, this study comes up with a validation of a measurement model of Consumer-Based Brand Equity for competing brands of products and services, testing for possible moderation (product / service and experienced / non-experienced consumers. Method: Appraising 39 brands, the model was composed of 6 metrics: awareness, perceived quality, loyalty, association, exclusiveness and willingness to pay a price premium. Confirmatory factorial analysis revealed the CBBE structure and multigroup moderation tests showed the comparisons between products and services and between experienced and non-experienced consumers. Main Result: The metrics have convergent validity with very good model fit. The metrics are similar for products / services, but different for consumers with / without experience (evidence of moderation. Contributions: Based on this measure, researchers and marketers can identify whether their brand's performance has been perceived better or worse than that of their competitors. Relevance/Originality: This article is the first to offer a more complete scale to assess the consumer-based brand equity of products and services, allowing the researcher to compare the competitiveness between brands

  14. Product innovation as a key success factor to build sustainable brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Hanaysha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In highly competitive markets, building brand equity has become one of the first priorities for many organizations as it brings several benefits and reputation for them. Past researches have acknowledged that consumers look for brands which provide them with differential values through innovative product and service features. However, despite the importance of product innovation in determining an organization’s success, very limited studies have intended to examine its effect on brand equity. In the present study, we aim to examine the effect of product innovation on brand equity in Malaysian automotive market. The data were collected from 287 passenger cars owners through self-administered questionnaire at several shopping malls in northern Malaysia. The findings revealed that product innovation had significant positive effect on overall brand equity and its dimensions namely; brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand image, and brand leadership. Based on the results of this study, several implications are discussed to enlighten our knowledge on important innovation activities that could develop favorable brand equity. Finally, limitations and future research suggestions are highlighted to gain better insights on brand equity development.

  15. Brief report on the effect of providing single versus assorted brand name condoms to hospital patients: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagle Henry H

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study examined condom acquisition by persons in a hospital setting when single versus assorted brand name condoms were provided. Methods Condom receptacles were placed in exam rooms of two clinics. During Phase 1, a single brand name was provided; for Phase 2, assorted brand names were added. Number of condoms taken was recorded for each phase. Results For one clinic there was nearly a two-fold increase in number of condoms taken (Phase 1 to Phase 2; for the second clinic there was negligible difference in number of condoms taken. Conclusions The provision of assorted brand name condoms, over a single brand name, can serve to increase condom acquisition. Locations of condoms and target population characteristics are related factors.

  16. Building brand awareness for products with low purchase frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Bøe, Kenneth; Bjørnstad, Tord Røise

    2014-01-01

    The importance of marketing and information flow is growing every year, and in increasingly competitive markets, it is more important than ever for brands to be present in the customers mind in the purchase decision. Therefore, to build and maintain brand awareness is important as this is the first step in creating brand equity. Most studies have focused on building brand awareness for products with high purchase frequency. In this thesis, it is identified drivers of brand awareness for pr...

  17. Impact of Spacing of Practice on Learning Brand Name and Generic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenyi, James; Anksorus, Heidi; Persky, Adam M

    2018-02-01

    Objective. To test the impact of schedules of retrieval practice on learning brand and generic name drug information in a self-paced course. Methods. Students completed weekly quizzes on brand and generic name conversions for 100 commonly prescribed drugs. Each student completed part of the drug list on a schedule of equal, expanding, or contracting spacing, one practice (massed) or study only in a partial block design. Results. On measures of long-term retention, the contracting spacing schedule led to superior retention (67%) compared to the massed practice (50%) and study-only condition (46%); contracting practice also was significantly higher than expanding practice (58%,) or equal practice (59%). Overall performance decreased by almost 50% (final exam 95%, long-term retention 55%) over a 6-week period. Conclusion. A contracting spacing schedule was the most effective schedule of practice, and all spacing schedules were superior to massed practice or study-only conditions.

  18. How Valuable is a Well-Crafted Design and Name Brand?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tore; Gabrielsen, Gorm; Zaichkowsky, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Preferences for similarly designed consumer products, evaluated blind and branded and also with and without prices, were tested in a consumer setting. The consumer's perceptual experience led to preference of the well-crafted high-priced option. This preference was enhanced by priming consumers w...... of choices using measures of inherent design acumen, prior experience, and purchasing behavior were largely unsuccessful.......Preferences for similarly designed consumer products, evaluated blind and branded and also with and without prices, were tested in a consumer setting. The consumer's perceptual experience led to preference of the well-crafted high-priced option. This preference was enhanced by priming consumers...

  19. Exploration of approaches to adjusting brand-name drug prices in Mainland of China: based on comparison and analysis of some brand-name drug prices of Mainland and Taiwan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Geng; Han, Sheng; Pu, Run; Pan, Wynn H T; Shi, Luwen

    2014-01-01

    Under the circumstance of the New Medical Reform in Mainland of China, lowering drug prices has become an approach to relieving increase of medical expenses, and lowering brand-name medication price is a key strategy. This study, by comparing and analyzing brand-name medication prices between Mainland of China and Taiwan, explores how to adjust brand-name medication prices in Mainland of China in the consideration of the drug administrative strategies in Taiwan. By selecting brand-name drug with generic name and dose types matched in Mainland and Taiwan, calculate the average unit price and standard deviation and test it with the paired t-test. In the mean time, drug administrative strategies between Mainland and Taiwan are also compared systematically. Among the 70 brand-name medications with generic names and matched dose types, 54 are at higher prices in Mainland of China than Taiwan, which is statistically significant in t-test. Also, among the 47 medications with all of matched generic names, dose types, and manufacturing enterprises, 38 are at higher prices in Mainland than Taiwan, and the gap is also statistically significant in t-test. In Mainland of China, brand-name medication took cost-plus pricing and price-based price adjustment, while in Taiwan, brand-name medication took internal and external reference pricing and market-based price adjustment. Brand-name drug prices were higher in Mainland of China than in Taiwan. The adjustment strategies of drug prices are scientific in Taiwan and are worth reference by Mainland of China.

  20. Empirično preverjanje modela povezav med poreklom izdelka in zaznano vrednostjo blagovne znamke = Empirical Testing of Associations Between Effects of Country-of- Origin and Perceived Brand Name Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Vukasovič

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the importance of perceived brand name valuefrom an external point of view of perception of the Slovenian consumers.Based on the stratified survey and quantitative research we note therelationship between the origin of the product, marketing mix elements,and the perceived brand name value. Emphasis is placed onestablishing how the origin of the product impacts on the perceivedbrand name value and what its impact is on the perceived brand namevalue in comparison with selected marketing mix elements. The articlepresents the model of conceptual relationships between the originof the product and perceived brand name value, which was tested witha structural model of relationships between the origin of the productand perceived brand name value. We developed a measuring instrumentand procedures for checking the reliability and validity of thestructural model of perceived brand name value of the product. Theconceptual model and the relationships within the model were evaluatedby means of the modelling with linear structural equations on aselected sample of respondents, which enabled verification of the conceptualmodel with empirical data. It has been found that the origin ofthe product has at least such a statistically significant influence on theperceived brand name value as the selected marketing mix elements(advertising, product, distribution, and price.

  1. Comparative effectiveness and costs of generic and brand-name gabapentin and venlafaxine in patients with neuropathic pain or generalized anxiety disorder in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicras-Mainar A

    2015-06-01

    (difference of €182 per patient; P=0.020 for venlafaxine, both because of more use of medical visits and concomitant medication. Compared with generic, brand-name was associated with higher reduction in pain (7.8%; P<0.001 and anxiety (13.2%; P<0.001. Conclusion: Patients initiating brand-name gabapentin or venlafaxine were more likely to adhere and persist on treatment of pNP or GAD, have lower health care costs, and show further reduction of pain and anxiety symptoms than with generic drugs in routine medical practice. Keywords: brand medicinal products, generic medicinal products, adherence, persistence, use of resources, costs, outcomes

  2. Substitutability and Independence: Matching Analyses of Brands and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.; Wells, Victoria K.; Chang, Shing Wan; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive examination of panel data for 1,847 consumers and 2,209 brands of "biscuits" (a total of 76,682 records) in which matching analysis is employed to define brand substitutability and potential product clusters within the overall category. The results indicate that, while brands performed as expected as perfect…

  3. Principal component analysis as a tool for library design: a case study investigating natural products, brand-name drugs, natural product-like libraries, and drug-like libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenderski, Todd A; Stratton, Christopher F; Bauer, Renato A; Kopp, Felix; Tan, Derek S

    2015-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a useful tool in the design and planning of chemical libraries. PCA can be used to reveal differences in structural and physicochemical parameters between various classes of compounds by displaying them in a convenient graphical format. Herein, we demonstrate the use of PCA to gain insight into structural features that differentiate natural products, synthetic drugs, natural product-like libraries, and drug-like libraries, and show how the results can be used to guide library design.

  4. 8. Industrial Design: The Roles and Factors of Aesthetics, Modeling, Styling, Product Brand and Branding in Design/Design Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efer Obasuyi Osa-Francis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the roles and factors of Aesthetics viz-a-viz those of modeling, styling and the product Brand (Branding as viewed against their fundamental relevance as core ingredients for the actualization of any Design initiative and creative endeavour. These roles, influences and place of Aesthetics (and its allied components, makes up the very soul, content and essence of what the product is all about. Its Form, Shape, Morphological / physical attributes and characteristics. The paper established that the aesthetic components of beauty, colour, shape, (form fonts, (lettering or typography and all other general Aesthetic Ambience gives the given product the desired quality/beauty that it exudes to help determine its marketability / profitability as a Brand. The paper also reviewed the aspects /implications of these roles and influences on Design Education alongside highlighting the potentials of the Design Educator - learner experience, while exploiting the Teachers ability to effectively harmonise the various approaches and practices of a functional Design-led Educational programme viz-a-viz piloting such talents/skills achieved to practicable and useful ends as professionals in Design and Technology. The paper also seeks to establish that the roles and factors of modeling styling and Branding of the product which is best exemplified through the adaptation of Design inputs and features such as ornamentation, edge delineation, texture movement/flow of linear form, symmetry or Assymetry of shapes, colour, granularity (of matter/particles large or small or coarseness, play of light (sunlight and shade, transcendence (state of being or existence of a product beyond the limits of material experience and that of total harmony. The paper recommends that for any product Brand to succeed it must incorporate all of the above components together with the inclusion of the other qualities that makes up the intangible content of the Brand such as

  5. Generic medications for you, but brand-name medications for me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenum, Amy J; Devoe, Jennifer E; Chisolm, Deena J; Wallace, Lorraine S

    2012-01-01

    Because generic medications are less expensive than brand-name medications, government and private insurers have encouraged and/or mandated the use of generics. This study aimed at evaluating perceptions about generic medications among English-speaking women of childbearing age currently enrolled in U.S. TennCare (Medicaid). We recruited a convenience sample of patients from the waiting room of a primary care/gynecology health clinic, with 80% recruitment rate among those approached. We orally administered a 25-item questionnaire to gather sociodemographic information and to assess beliefs regarding the efficacy, safety, cost, and preferences for personal use of generic medications. The average age of the women (n=172) was 28.8 ± 6.4 years, and most were white (82.0%) and currently married (58.1%). Nearly one-fifth (19.2%) had not completed high school. Most women believed that generic medications were less expensive (97.6%) and better value (60.5%) than brand-name medications, but only 45.3% preferred to take generics themselves. About a quarter (23.3%) believed that brand-name medications were more effective than generics, whereas 13.4% believed that generics caused more side effects. Few women reported that their doctor (29.7%) and/or pharmacist (35.5%) had ever talked to them about taking generics. Awareness of the benefits of generics did not equal preferences for personal use of generics among this sample of women enrolled in U.S. TennCare. Furthermore, women reported that providers-both physicians and pharmacists-infrequently discussed generic substitution with them. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. "Spice," "kryptonite," "black mamba": an overview of brand names and marketing strategies of novel psychoactive substances on the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Ornella; Valeriani, Giuseppe; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Corkery, John; Martinotti, Giovanni; Bersani, Giuseppe; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPSs) are often sold online as "legal" and "safer" alternatives to International Controlled Drugs (ICDs) with captivating marketing strategies. Our aim was to review and summarize such strategies in terms of the appearance of the products, the brand names, and the latest trends in the illicit online marketplaces. Scientific data were searched in PsychInfo and Pubmed databases; results were integrated with an extensive monitoring of Internet (websites, online shops, chat rooms, fora, social networks) and media sources in nine languages (English, French, Farsi, Portuguese, Arabic, Russian, Spanish, and Chinese simplified/traditional) available from secure databases of the Global Public Health Intelligence Network. Evolving strategies for the online diffusion and the retail of NPSs have been identified, including discounts and periodic offers on chosen products. Advertisements and new brand names have been designed to attract customers, especially young people. An increased number of retailers have been recorded as well as new Web platforms and privacy systems. NPSs represent an unprecedented challenge in the field of public health with social, cultural, legal, and political implications. Web monitoring activities are essential for mapping the diffusion of NPSs and for supporting innovative Web-based prevention programmes.

  7. Thinking on luxury or pragmatic brand products: Brain responses to different categories of culturally based brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Michael; Rotte, Michael

    2007-08-24

    Culturally based brands have a high impact on people's economic actions. Here we aimed to examine whether socioeconomic information conveyed by certain classes of brands (prestigious versus pragmatic classes) differentially evoke brain response. We presented icons of brands while recording subject's brain activity during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. After the experiment, we asked subjects to assess the brands according to different characteristics. Results revealed an active network of bilateral superior frontal gyri, hippocampus and posterior cingulate related to familiar brands in general. Brands of the category sports and luxury activated regions in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and precuneus. In contrast, brands rated as value products activated the left superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The results suggest an active cortical network related to cognitive control for value brands and a network known to be associated with self-relevant processing for prestigious brands. We discuss the results as differential engagement of the prefrontal cortex depending on the attributed characteristic of a brand.

  8. Tasteful Brands: Products of Brands Perceived to be Warm and Competent Taste Subjectively Better

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyka Bratanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using survey and experimental data, the present research examines the effect of brand perception on experienced taste. The content of brand perception can be organized along the two social perception dimensions of warmth and competence. We use these two dimensions to systematically investigate the influence of brand perception on experienced taste and consumer behavior toward food products. The brand’s perceived warmth and competence independently influenced taste, both when it was measured as a belief and as an embodied experience following consumption. Taste mediated the link between brand’s warmth and competence perceptions and three consumer behavioral tendencies crucial for the marketing success of brands: buying intentions, brand loyalty, and support for the brand.

  9. Brand-Name Prescription Drug Use Among Diabetes Patients in the VA and Medicare Part D: A National Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellad, Walid F.; Donohue, Julie M.; Zhao, Xinhua; Mor, Maria K.; Thorpe, Carolyn T.; Smith, Jeremy; Good, Chester B.; Fine, Michael J.; Morden, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Medicare Part D and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) use different approaches to manage prescription drug benefits, with implications for spending. Medicare relies on private plans with distinct formularies, whereas VA administers its own benefit using a national formulary. Objective To compare overall and regional rates of brand-name drug use among older adults with diabetes in Medicare and VA. Design Retrospective cohort Setting Medicare and VA Patients National sample in 2008 of 1,061,095 Part D beneficiaries and 510,485 Veterans age 65+ with diabetes. Measurements Percent of patients on oral hypoglycemics, statins, and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor-blockers who filled brand-name drugs and percent of patients on long-acting insulin who filled analogues. We compared sociodemographic and health-status adjusted hospital referral region (HRR) brand-name use to examine local practice patterns, and calculated changes in spending if each system’s brand-name use mirrored the other. Results Brand-name use in Medicare was 2–3 times that of VA: 35.3% vs. 12.7% for oral hypoglycemics, 50.7% vs. 18.2% for statins, 42.5% vs. 20.8% for angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor-blockers, and 75.1% vs. 27.0% for insulin analogues. Adjusted HRR brand-name statin use ranged (5th to 95th percentile) from 41.0%–58.3% in Medicare and 6.2%–38.2% in VA. For each drug group, the HRR at the 95th percentile in VA had lower brand-name use than the 5th percentile HRR in Medicare. Medicare spending in this population would have been $1.4 billion less if brand-name use matched the VA for these medications. Limitation This analysis cannot fully describe the factors underlying differences in brand-name use. Conclusions Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes use 2–3 times more brand-name drugs than a comparable group within VA, at substantial excess cost. Primary Funding Sources VA; NIH; RWJF PMID:23752663

  10. [Three types of brand name loyalty strategies set up by drug manufacturers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    PréMont, Marie-Claude; Gagnon, Marc-André

    2014-11-01

    The recent restructuring of the pharmaceutical industry has led to three new types of promotional strategies to build patient loyalty to brand name drugs: loyalty through rebates, patient support, and compassion programs. Loyalty through rebates seeks to keep patients on a brand name drug and prevent their switch to the generic equivalent. Loyalty through patient support provides aftersales services to help and support patients (by phone or home visits) in order to improve adherence to their treatments. Finally, compassion programs offer patients access to drugs still awaiting regulatory approval or reimbursement by insurers. When and if the approval process is successful, the manufacturer puts an end to the compassion program and benefits from a significant cohort of patients already taking a very expensive drug for which reimbursement is assured. The impact of these programs on public policies and patients' rights raises numerous concerns, among which the direct access to patients and their health information by drug manufacturers and upward pressure on costs for drug insurance plans.

  11. Comparison of the effectiveness of brand-name and generic antipsychotic drugs for treating patients with schizophrenia in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Wang, Liang-Jen

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this nationwide population-based study is to compare the long-term effectiveness of brand-name antipsychotics with generic antipsychotics for treating schizophrenia. We identified patients with schizophrenia who were prescribed antipsychotics from a random sample of one million records from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database, observed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2012. Only those with no prior use of antipsychotics for at least 180days were included. We selected patients who were prescribed brand-name risperidone (N=404), generic risperidone (N=145), brand-name sulpiride (N=334), or generic sulpiride (N=991). The effectiveness of the treatments researched in this study consisted of average daily doses, rates of treatment discontinuation, augmentation therapy, and psychiatric hospitalization. We found that compared to patients treated with generic risperidone, those treated with brand-name risperidone required lower daily doses (2.14mg vs. 2.61mg). However, the two groups demonstrated similar rates of treatment discontinuation, augmentation, and psychiatric hospitalization. On the other hand, in comparison with patients prescribed generic sulpiride, those treated with brand-name sulpiride not only required lower daily doses (302.72mg vs. 340.71mg) but also had lower psychiatric admission rates (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.24, 95% confidence interval: 0.10-0.56). In conclusion, for both risperidone and sulpiride, higher daily doses of the respective generic drugs were prescribed than with brand-name drugs in clinical settings. Furthermore, the brand-name sulpiride is more effective at preventing patients from hospitalization than generic sulpiride. These findings can serve as an important reference for clinical practices and healthcare economics for treating schizophrenic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Determining the brand awareness of product placement in video games

    OpenAIRE

    Král, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focusses on the determination of the brand awareness of product placement in video games. The theoretical part includes information about marketing, product placement and video games. The practical part consists of evaluation of the market research about product placements in video games. Conclusion suggests the most important factors influencing the level brand awareness.

  13. Brand name logo recognition of fast food and healthy food among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Elva; Castaneda, Diego; Elder, John P; Slymen, Donald; Dozier, David

    2009-02-01

    The fast food industry has been increasingly criticized for creating brand loyalty in young consumers. Food marketers are well versed in reaching children and youth given the importance of brand loyalty on future food purchasing behavior. In addition, food marketers are increasingly targeting the Hispanic population given their growing spending power. The fast food industry is among the leaders in reaching youth and ethnic minorities through their marketing efforts. The primary objective of this study was to determine if young children recognized fast food restaurant logos at a higher rate than other food brands. Methods Children (n = 155; 53% male; 87% Hispanic) ages 4-8 years were recruited from elementary schools and asked to match 10 logo cards to products depicted on a game board. Parents completed a survey assessing demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with a healthy lifestyle in the home. Results Older children and children who were overweight were significantly more likely to recognize fast food restaurant logos than other food logos. Moreover, parents' psychosocial and socio-demographic characteristics were associated with the type of food logo recognized by the children. Conclusions Children's high recognition of fast food restaurant logos may reflect greater exposure to fast food advertisements. Families' socio-demographic characteristics play a role in children's recognition of food logos.

  14. The Australian cigarette brand as product, person, and symbol

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine, for dominant Australian cigarette brands, brand identity (overriding brand vision), brand positioning (brand identity elements communicated to the consumer), brand image (consumers' brand perceptions) and brand equity (financial value).

  15. Champagne – branding and marketing of a luxury product

    OpenAIRE

    Santala, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This thesis will discuss the brand of champagne and its status as a luxury product. The aim is to find out how the luxury label might have affected the success of champagne and how it is marketed and branded. Champagne is one of the strongest brands in the wine industry throughout the history. It was branded already in the 19th century as the drink of the royals and today, is protected not by only the Comité Champagne, but also EU legislation. As a luxury product, champagne marketing rel...

  16. Comparative analysis of the cost and effectiveness of generic and brand-name antibiotics: the case of uncomplicated urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Shiuan; Jan, I-Shiow; Cheng, Shou-Hsia

    2017-03-01

    Generic medications used for chronic diseases are beneficial in containing healthcare costs and improving drug accessibility. However, the effects of generic drugs in acute and severe illness remain controversial. This study aims to investigate treatment costs and outcomes of generic antibiotics prescribed for adults with a urinary tract infection in outpatient settings. The data source was the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database of Taiwan. We included outpatients aged 20 years and above with a urinary tract infection who required one oral antibiotic for which brand-name and generic products were simultaneously available. Drug cost and overall healthcare expense of the index consultation, healthcare cost during a 42-day follow-up period, and treatment failure rates were the main dependent variables. Data were compared between brand-name and generic users from the entire cohort and a propensity score-matched samples. Results from the entire cohort and propensity score-matched samples were similar. Daily antibiotic cost was significantly lower among generic users than brand-name users. Significant lower total drug claims of the index consultation only existed in patients receiving the investigated antibiotics, while the drug price between brand-name and generic versions were relatively large (e.g., >50%). The overall healthcare cost of the index consultation, healthcare expenditure during a 42-day follow-up period, and treatment failure rates were similar between the two groups. Compared with those treated with brand-name antibiotics, outpatients who received generic antibiotics had equivalent treatment outcomes with lower drug costs. Generic antibiotics are effective and worthy of adoption among outpatients with simple infections indicating oral antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Brand equity in the Pakistani hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ishaq, Muhammad Ishtiaq; Hussain, Nazia; Asim, Ali Ijaz; Cheema, Luqman J.

    2014-01-01

    Brand equity is considered as the most important aspect of branding, which is a set of brands' assets and liabilities, its symbol or name that subtracts from or adds the value provided by a product or service to a firm and customers. The current research endeavor was to identify the interrelationship of customer-based brand equity dimensions (brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand image, and service quality) in Pakistani hotel industry. Data was collected from 821 consumers who experienced the...

  18. Differences in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes between Brand-Name and Generic Tacrolimus Used in Stable Liver Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Man; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Joh, Jae-Won; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Choi, Gyu-Seong; Park, Jae Berm; Kang, Eun-Suk; Lee, Suk-Koo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, peripheral blood lymphocytes were compared between a brand-name and a generic tacrolimus group in stable liver transplant recipients. Sixteen patients who underwent ABO-compatible living donor liver transplants between 2012 and 2013 and had stable graft function were included in this study. Ten patients received brand-name tacrolimus and 6 patients received generic tacrolimus. CD3, CD4, CD8, γδ, CD4+FoxP3+, and CD3-CD56+ T cells were analyzed in peripheral blood obtained preoperatively and 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks after liver transplantation. Categorical variables were compared using a χ2 test or Fisher exact test, and continuous variables were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Regarding the baseline and perioperative characteristics, there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups. Immunosuppression also was not different. Subtype analysis of T-cell populations carried out in parallel showed similar levels of CD3, CD4, CD8, and γδT cells with brand-name tacrolimus and generic tacrolimus in stable liver transplant recipients. However, the levels of CD4+Foxp3+ and CD3-CD56+ T cells were higher in the brand-name tacrolimus group than in the generic tacrolimus group 8 weeks after transplantation (p brand-name tacrolimus group than in the generic tacrolimus group after transplantation. This finding showed that brand-name tacrolimus could have more potential immunosuppressive activity than generic tacrolimus regarding the contribution of CD4+Foxp3+ T cells to graft tolerance in liver transplant recipients. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. International marketing brand image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadijević Đorđe M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The brand is at same time a name, mark, symbol, design of their combination. In contributes to the identification and differentiation of a market product, product mix or company. The brand none exists solely in the communication and through the communication with consumers. The brand being as preferred, leads to the familiarity with the consumer who insists on buying it. In marketing communication, the brand name announces its uniqueness and permanent identity. Owning one's own brand contributes to the creation of company's positive and strong image -communicational target and profit - economic target.

  20. Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi

    Et brand er både essens og konstruktion. Essensen hentes i virksomhedens identitet, og konstruktionen skabes i en forhandling mellem virksomheden og dens interessenter. Brandet er således et betydningssystem, som er spændt ud i et netværk af interessenter, hvor brandet konstant afkodes, produceres...... og reproduceres. Bogen bygger på en semiotisk og narrativ tilgang og kommer omkring centrale områder som storytelling, celebritybranding, brand personlighed, placebranding, oplevelsesbaseret branding og employer branding...

  1. The impact of fit measures on the consumer evaluation of new co-branded products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouten, L.M.; Snelders, H.M.J.J.; Hultink, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    A popular strategy currently employed for new product introductions is co-branding. Such a strategy allows a brand to innovate with the support of a partner brand. The present study investigates how consumers perceive a new product with two brands. Previous research focused on the logic of a brand

  2. The Effect of Brand Awareness and Brand Trust on Consumers Sportswear Brand Extension Attitude at the Hill Fitness Center Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Mantik, Tirza

    2013-01-01

    Brand is the name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller's product distinct from those of other sellers. To introduce a product to the public, company should make a strong brand to increase the consumers' attitude of sportswear. In order to support an ad in providing information and attract the attention of the public, a company will use brand awareness and brand trust. Research objectives are to analyse the effect of brand awareness and brand trust on consumer...

  3. What's behind the Name? The Intensification of Co-Branding in Elite US Colleges of Business and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Matthew M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents research that draws attention to the intensification of co-branding within elite US graduate colleges of business and education. A robust set of descriptive data collected and analyzed according to a content analysis strategy is used to develop an initial understanding of the trend of naming of colleges and academic units in…

  4. Brand emotional credibility: effects of mixed emotions about branded products with varying credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileti, Antonio; Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi

    2013-10-01

    This research investigates the effects of mixed emotions on the positioning and on the intention to purchase different categories of branded products (i.e., Attractiveness-products, Expertise-products, and Trustworthiness-products), in relation to their main component of credibility (Ohanian, 1990). On the basis of a focus group (n = 12) aimed to identify the three branded products used as stimuli and a pre-test (n = 240) directed to discover emotions elicited by them, two studies (n = 630; n = 240) were carried out. Positioning and multiple regression analyses showed that positive and negative emotions are positively related with the positioning and the purchase intention of Attractiveness-products, and, respectively, positively and negatively related with those of Trustworthiness-products; whereas negative emotions are negatively associated with those of Expertise-products. Brand Emotional Credibility--i.e., the emotional believability of the brand positioning signals--may help to identify unconscious elements and the simultaneous importance of mixed emotions associated with different products to match consumers' desires and expectations.

  5. Corporate strategic branding: How country and corporate brands come together

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Bojan

    2008-01-01

    The concept of countries as brands has been increasingly recognized in the post-modern global world. A strong country brand can provide corporate brands with a unique set of values, which supports their positioning on the international market. Simultaneously, once corporate brands achieve worldwide success, they contribute actively to developing new features of the country brand. Consumers pay more and more attention to products' country of origin. When the name of a country is mentioned, the...

  6. Strategic Sport Branding at the Personal, Product and Organizational Level:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    future researchers and practitioners striving to produce new knowledge and to gain a deeper understanding within this context of improving a sports brand’s interactions. This PhD investigates sports branding while applying qualitative methodology and theory of science tied to the traditions of symbolic...... interactionism. Consequently, this dissertation concentrates on finding a research umbrella under which strategic sports branding practices can be optimized and can add value to the strategic focus of sports-related entities whether these are persons, products or organizations. When strategic sports branding (in...... part of the work strategic CSR) is investigated within a symbolic interactionist and qualitative context, the outcome is a thorough explanation of why and how the many intertwining building blocks of sports branding contribute to one another and come together and benefit the sports branding process...

  7. Marka Yayma Stratejilerinde Ürün Benzerliğinin Etkisi ve Üç Ayrı Marka Üzerinde Bir Uygulama = The Effects of Product Sımilarities on Brand Extension Strategies and a Practice on Three Different Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim UZUN

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Brand extension strategy is an effort to extend a succesfull brand name to launch new or modified products or lines. Brand extension attitudes are influenced by the percieved quality of the core brand and the fit between the extended products. The similarity is important for brand extension because the greater perceived similarity between the current and new product leads to a greater transfer of positive or negative effect to the new product. Furthermore, higher levels of perceived fit between core brand and extension will lead to more favorable evaluations of the extension. The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of brand extension strategies on consumers' attitudes regarding the product similarity. Three different brands are used for the statistical analysis. According to the results, there is a relationship between the favorable opinion about core brand and the evaluation of similarity for extended products. Furthermore, there is a relationship between the similarity of extended products and extension evaluations.

  8. Clinical equivalence of generic and brand-name drugs used in cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Misono, Alexander S; Lee, Joy L; Stedman, Margaret R; Brookhart, M Alan; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Shrank, William H

    2008-12-03

    Use of generic drugs, which are bioequivalent to brand-name drugs, can help contain prescription drug spending. However, there is concern among patients and physicians that brand-name drugs may be clinically superior to generic drugs. To summarize clinical evidence comparing generic and brand-name drugs used in cardiovascular disease and to assess the perspectives of editorialists on this issue. Systematic searches of peer-reviewed publications in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts from January 1984 to August 2008. Studies compared generic and brand-name cardiovascular drugs using clinical efficacy and safety end points. We separately identified editorials addressing generic substitution. We extracted variables related to the study design, setting, participants, clinical end points, and funding. Methodological quality of the trials was assessed by Jadad and Newcastle-Ottawa scores, and a meta-analysis was performed to determine an aggregate effect size. For editorials, we categorized authors' positions on generic substitution as negative, positive, or neutral. We identified 47 articles covering 9 subclasses of cardiovascular medications, of which 38 (81%) were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Clinical equivalence was noted in 7 of 7 RCTs (100%) of beta-blockers, 10 of 11 RCTs (91%) of diuretics, 5 of 7 RCTs (71%) of calcium channel blockers, 3 of 3 RCTs (100%) of antiplatelet agents, 2 of 2 RCTs (100%) of statins, 1 of 1 RCT (100%) of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and 1 of 1 RCT (100%) of alpha-blockers. Among narrow therapeutic index drugs, clinical equivalence was reported in 1 of 1 RCT (100%) of class 1 antiarrhythmic agents and 5 of 5 RCTs (100%) of warfarin. Aggregate effect size (n = 837) was -0.03 (95% confidence interval, -0.15 to 0.08), indicating no evidence of superiority of brand-name to generic drugs. Among 43 editorials, 23 (53%) expressed a negative view of generic drug substitution. Whereas evidence does not

  9. Comparison of pharmacokinetic profiles of brand-name and generic formulations of citalopram and venlafaxine: a crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, Franck; Batten, Lisa A; Zernig, Gerald; Ladstaetter, Elisabeth; Hébert, Chantal; Blier, Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Generic drugs are lower-cost versions of patent-expired brand-name medications. Bioequivalence is decreed when the 90% confidence intervals for the ratios of the generic to the reference compound for the area under the curve and maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) fall within a 0.80 to 1.25 range. The aim of the present pilot study was to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of brand-name and generic formulations of citalopram and extended-release venlafaxine. Effexor XR/Novo-venlafaxine XR 75 mg and Celexa/Gen-citalopram 40 mg were studied in a randomized crossover design. Healthy male volunteers took either Effexor XR or Novo-venlafaxine XR for 4 days, a 4-day washout was allowed, and then participants took the other venlafaxine formulation for 4 days. This was followed by a washout of at least 7 days. The participants then took Celexa or Gen-citalopram for 8 days, a 14-day washout was allowed, and then participants took the other citalopram formulation for 8 days. In each of the study phases, the sequence of treatment (brand-name x generic) was randomly assigned. Plasma levels of drugs were measured at fixed intervals after participants took the drugs and at steady state. The study was conducted from November 2007 through July 2008. Twelve participants completed the venlafaxine study. Nine of the participants, plus 3 new participants, were then enrolled in the citalopram study, to maintain a total of 12. The plasma levels of citalopram were similar after ingestion of the brand-name and generic drugs. After ingestion of venlafaxine, the C(max) values were 36 +/- 6 ng/mL and 52 +/- 8 ng/mL in the brand-name and generic groups, respectively. The ratio of the log-transformed values of C(max) was 150% and, therefore, not within the acceptable 80% to 125% range. The concentration of the active metabolite of venlafaxine (O-desmethyl-venlafaxine [ODV]) was also significantly increased in the generic group (+43% higher in the generic group at 3 h; +48% higher at 5 h; p

  10. Citizens' preferences for brand name drugs for treating acute and chronic conditions: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoth, Arina; Pinget, Christophe; Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise

    2011-03-01

    Generic drugs have been advocated to decrease the proportion of healthcare costs devoted to drugs, but are still underused. To assess citizens' preferences for brand name drugs (BNDs) compared with generic drugs for treating acute and chronic conditions. A questionnaire with eight hypothetical scenarios describing four acute and four chronic conditions was developed, with willingness to pay (WTP) determined using a payment card system randomized to ascending (AO) or descending order (DO) of prices. The questionnaire was distributed with an explanation sheet, an informed consent form and a pre-stamped envelope over a period of 3 weeks in 19 community pharmacies in Lausanne, Switzerland. The questionnaire was distributed to every third customer who also had health insurance, understood French and was aged ≥16 years (up to a maximum of ten customers per day and 100 per pharmacy). The main outcome measure was preferences assessed by WTP for BNDs as compared with generics, and impact of participants' characteristics on WTP. Of the 1800 questionnaires, 991 were distributed and 393 returned (pharmacy participation rate = 55%, subject participation rate = 40%, overall response rate = 22%); 51.7% were AO and 48.3% DO. Participants were predominantly women (62.6%) and of median age 62 years (range 16-90). The majority (70%) declared no WTP for BNDs as compared with generics. WTP was higher in people with an acute disease than in those with a chronic disease, did not depend on the type of chronic disease, and was higher in people from countries other than Switzerland. Most citizens visiting pharmacies attribute no added value to BNDs as compared with generics, although some citizen characteristics affected WTP. These results could be of interest to several categories of decision makers within the healthcare system.

  11. 'Economy' line foods from four supermarkets and brand name equivalents: a comparison of their nutrient contents and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, S; Nelson, M

    2003-10-01

    Achieving healthy eating targets for low income households can be difficult because of economic barriers. Several UK supermarkets have introduced 'value line' or 'economy line' foods to improve their attractiveness to low income consumers. The costs and nutrient contents of five 'economy' line products of four major English supermarkets - Asda, KwikSave, Sainsbury and Tesco - were compared with branded (but not 'own label') equivalents. Single samples of tinned tomatoes, long-life orange juice, potatoes, sausages and white bread were purchased in each supermarket. They represented items of potential importance in relation to 'healthy' choices in the shopping baskets of low income households. Nutrients analysed were fat, sodium, potassium, iron, calcium, vitamin C, and energy. Economy line foods had a nutrient composition similar to and often better than the branded goods. The economy line products frequently had nutrient contents more in line with the Balance of Good Health (e.g. lower fat and sodium) compared with the branded goods. In terms of nutrients per pence, the economy line products were far better value for money compared with the branded lines. Economy line foods represent excellent value for money and are not nutritionally inferior to the branded products. They have a potentially important role to play in the promotion of healthy eating, especially amongst low income households.

  12. Brand name and generic proton pump inhibitor prescriptions in the United States: insights from the national ambulatory medical care survey (2006-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, Andrew J; Feinglass, Joseph; Pandolfino, John E; Tan, Bruce K; Bove, Michiel J; Shintani-Smith, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are one of the most commonly prescribed medication classes with similar efficacy between brand name and generic PPI formulations. Aims. We determined demographic, clinical, and practice characteristics associated with brand name PPI prescriptions at ambulatory care visits in the United States. Methods. Observational cross sectional analysis using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) of all adult (≥18 yrs of age) ambulatory care visits from 2006 to 2010. PPI prescriptions were identified by using the drug entry code as brand name only or generic available formulations. Descriptive statistics were reported in terms of unweighted patient visits and proportions of encounters with brand name PPI prescriptions. Global chi-square tests were used to compare visits with brand name PPI prescriptions versus generic PPI prescriptions for each measure. Poisson regression was used to determine the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for generic versus brand PPI prescribing. Results. A PPI was prescribed at 269.7 million adult ambulatory visits, based on 9,677 unweighted visits, of which 53% were brand name only prescriptions. In 2006, 76.0% of all PPI prescriptions had a brand name only formulation compared to 31.6% of PPI prescriptions in 2010. Visits by patients aged 25-44 years had the greatest proportion of brand name PPI formulations (57.9%). Academic medical centers and physician-owned practices had the greatest proportion of visits with brand name PPI prescriptions (58.9% and 55.6% of visits with a PPI prescription, resp.). There were no significant differences in terms of median income, patient insurance type, or metropolitan status when comparing the proportion of visits with brand name versus generic PPI prescriptions. Poisson regression results showed that practice ownership type was most strongly associated with the likelihood of receiving a brand name PPI over the entire study period. Compared to HMO visits

  13. Brand visualization: Effects of "product shape- typeface design" congruence on brand perceptions and price expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, Thomas Johannes Lucas; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.

    2008-01-01

    This research addresses effects of congruence of symbolic meanings connoted through product shape and typeface design on brand perceptions and price expectations. Based on processing fluency accounts, it is predicted that shape-typeface congruence, as opposed to shape-typeface incongruence,

  14. Factors influencing the potential for strong brand relationships with consumer product brands: An overview and research agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Bergkvist, Lars; Francis, Julie

    Based on the premise that consumer product brands are different with respect to their potential to form strong long-term relationships with consumers, this paper aims to identify factors that influence brands' potential for strong long-term relationships and to suggest how these can be empirically...... investigated. The paper reviews brand-centric and consumer-centric research and identifies twelve brand variables that may influence the relationship potential of consumer product brands. A research agenda is suggested and a number of issues that needs to be resolved before empirical research can be carried...... out are discussed. The paper concludes by speculating on possible outcomes in future empirical studies and it is suggested that multiple brand variables will have to be employed to evaluate the relationship potential of brands....

  15. BIG PLAY. Hospitals team up with biggest names in pro sports to score brand awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeznieks, Andis

    2016-07-01

    Partnering with major league baseball, basketball, hockey, football and even lacrosse teams isn't just about building brand recognition. It's also a way to promote health and fitness in the community.

  16. Preference for brand-name buprenorphine is related to severity of addiction among outpatients in opioid maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Philippe; Messaadi, Nassir; Perault-Pochat, Marie-Christine; Gagey, Stéphanie; Brabant, Yann; Ingrand, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    As a form of opioid maintenance treatment, high-dose buprenorphine is increasingly being used in the United States. On the French market since 1996, it is the most commonly prescribed and frequently employed opioid maintenance treatment. For unknown reasons, the brand-name form is used far more often than the generic form (76-24%). The objective was to show that the patients' levels of addiction were differentiated according to the form of buprenorphine currently being used and to their previous experience of a different form. An observational study in 9 sites throughout France used self-assessment questionnaires filled out in retail pharmacies by all patients to whom their prescribed buprenorphine treatment was being delivered. The 151 canvassed pharmacies solicited 879 patients, of whom 724 completed the questionnaires. Participants were statistically similar to non-participants. The patients using the brand-name form subsequent to experience with the generic form exhibited a more elevated addiction severity index and a higher dosage than brand-name form users with no experience of a different form. Compared to generic users, their doses were higher, their was addiction more severe, and their alcohol consumption was more excessive; they were also more likely to make daily use of psychotropic substances. However, the level of misuse or illicit consumption was similar between these groups. Preferring the brand-name buprenorphine form to the generic form is associated with a higher level of severe addiction, a more frequent need for daily psychotropics, and excessive drinking; but the study was unable to show a causal link.

  17. Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christian; Vetner, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    Et brand er et symbol, som repræsenterer et objekt - et produkt (vare eller tjeneste), en organisation, en person etc. - samt de værdier, som objektet skulle være i besiddelse af. Brandet skal gøre det muligt for modtagere at identificere disse værdier, som et særligt kendetegn ved objektet, og...... følgelig at skelne objektet fra andre objekter. Branding er derfor den proces, som skal fremme denne positionering af objektet og dets værdier i modtageres bevidsthed....

  18. The impact of luxury brand identity on product pricing policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioleta Dryl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Basing the luxury product pricing policy, only on the assumption that the price has to be the highest amount a client is willing to pay, poses a number of challenges in front of enterprise. The consumer of the luxury product is very aware of his needs and expectations. He is ready to pay a higher price for the product, but is expecting to return, very specific values. Relying luxury brand strategy, only on high-priced, without enrichment offer to a sufficiently high level leads to market failure. The justification for the high price of the product may, however, be defined brand image, which is a consequence of appropriate policies shaping its identity. In the case of luxury goods, especially essential tool proves to be the emotional component of the brand identity.

  19. Clinical and economic consequences of treating patients with peripheral neuropathic pain with brand name or generic drugs in routine clinical practice: The effects of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Artieda, R; Rejas-Gutiérrez, J; Pérez-Paramo, M; Sicras-Mainar, A

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to analyse the effects of age and sex on pain and cost for patients with chronic peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) who have started treatment with brand name gabapentin versus generic gabapentin (EFG). We conducted a retrospective multicentre study using electronic medical records (EMR) for patients of both sexes, older than 18, who began treatment with brand name or generic gabapentin. Adherence (medication possession ratio [MPR]), persistence, use of healthcare resources, cost, and pain reduction were measured for one year. We analysed 1369 EMRs [61.1% women; mean age 64.6 (15.9), 52.4%≥65 years]; 400 used brand name drugs while 969 used generic gabapentin. Persistence and adherence were higher in patients using brand name gabapentin (7.3 vs 6.3 months, Pbrand-name gabapentin in both age groups (brand treatment showed greater pain relief: 13.5% (10.9-16.2) and 10.8% (8.2-13.5) in brand name medication showed greater persistence and adherence to treatment than those taking generic drugs. Brand name treatment also involved lower healthcare costs, and greater pain relief. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Distribution and trends in outpatient utilization of generic versus brand name psychopharmaceuticals during a ten-year period in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polić-ViŽintin, Marina; Stimac, Danijela; Sostar, Zvonimir; Tripković, Ingrid

    2014-08-15

    Drug costs increasingly pose a burden upon the otherwise inadequate health care resources and rational drug utilization is an important segment of every national health policy. Optimal patient care should be the goal of rational pharmacotherapy, whereby the economic burden of treatment is just one of the elements to be considered on choosing appropriate therapy.The aim of this study was to determine distribution and trends in the outpatient utilization of generic versus brand name psychopharmaceuticals and to evaluate the rationality of prescribing psychopharmaceuticals during a ten-year period. Using the World Health Organization Anatomical-Therapeutic-Chemical classification/Defined Daily Doses (ATC/DDD) methodology, the number of DDD was calculated from data collected from pharmacies on the number and size of drug packages. The ratio of generic and brand name drug costs served as an indicator on assessing the rationality of drug utilization. Total cost for psychopharmaceuticals increased by 20.1%, more for brand name than for generic agents (32.7% vs. 7.4%). The highest share of generic psychopharmaceuticals as compared with brand name drugs according to DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/1000/day) was in the group of psycholeptics (83.6% in 2001 vs. 82.2% in 2010), most in hypnotics and sedatives, and least in antipsychotics. The share of generic psychopharmaceuticals in total drug utilization according to financial indicators decreased by 9.6% and according to DDD/1000/day by 12%. The greatest decrease was in antidepressants, i.e. by 33.8% according to financial indicators and by 46% according to DDD/1000/day; and in antipsychotics by 30.9% according to DDD/1000/day, while showing an increase by 8.5% according to financial indicators. In the therapeutic subgroup of mood stabilizers, the share of generic drugs in total drug utilization declined by 32% according to DDD/1000/day, but increased by 25.1% according to financial indicators. The lack of uniform

  1. Brand Name, Store Image, and Country-of-Origin: The Effects on Consumers' Perception of Quality and Price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Margaret C. A.

    1993-01-01

    A review of literature indicated that, with regard to brand labels, consumers' perception of price, but not of quality, was affected. Consumers expected to pay more for goods bought in a higher status store and rated imported goods as being more expensive than domestically produced goods. Products from developing countries received lower quality…

  2. Differences in rates of switchbacks after switching from branded to authorized generic and branded to generic drug products: cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpatwari, Ameet; Dejene, Sara; Khan, Nazleen F; Lii, Joyce; Rogers, James R; Dutcher, Sarah K; Raofi, Saeid; Bohn, Justin; Connolly, John; Fischer, Michael A; Kesselheim, Aaron S; Gagne, Joshua J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To compare rates of switchbacks to branded drug products for patients switched from branded to authorized generic drug products, which have the same active ingredients, appearance, and excipients as the branded product, with patients switched from branded to generic drug products, which have the same active ingredients as the branded product but may differ in appearance and excipients. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Private (a large commercial health plan) and public (Medicaid) insurance programs in the US. Participants Beneficiaries of a large US commercial health insurer between 2004 and 2013 (primary cohort) and Medicaid beneficiaries between 2000 and 2010 (replication cohort). Main outcome measures Patients taking branded products for one of the study drugs (alendronate tablets, amlodipine tablets, amlodipine-benazepril capsules, calcitonin salmon nasal spray, escitalopram tablets, glipizide extended release tablets, quinapril tablets, and sertraline tablets) were identified when they switched to an authorized generic or a generic drug product after the date of market entry of generic drug products. These patients were followed for switchbacks to the branded drug product in the year after their switch to an authorized generic or a generic drug product. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals after adjusting for demographics, including age, sex, and calendar year. Inverse variance meta-analysis was used to pool adjusted hazard ratios across all drug products. Results A total of 94 909 patients switched from branded to authorized generic drug products and 116 017 patients switched from branded to generic drug products and contributed to the switchback analysis. Unadjusted incidence rates of switchback varied across drug products, ranging from a low of 3.8 per 100 person years (for alendronate tablets) to a high of 17.8 per 100 person years (for amlodipine

  3. The Australian cigarette brand as product, person, and symbol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S M

    2003-12-01

    To examine, for dominant Australian cigarette brands, brand identity (overriding brand vision), brand positioning (brand identity elements communicated to the consumer), brand image (consumers' brand perceptions) and brand equity (financial value). Tobacco industry documents, articles from retail trade publications since 1990, and current brand advertising from retail trade publications were searched for information about Australian brands. Cigarette manufacturers benefit from their competitors' brand equity as well as their own. The industry sees Australian smokers as far less brand loyal and strongly oriented to "low tar". A few predominantly local brands dominate the market, with variation by state. Successful Australian brands exist in one of three categories: premium, mainstream, and supervalue. Their brand identity essence is as follows. Premium: quality. Mainstream: a good humoured "fair go" for ordinary Australians. Supervalue: value for money. All supervalue brand identities also include freedom, escape, mildness, an aspirational attitude, blue tones, and waterside scenes. Brand image and brand identity is frequently congruent, even when marketing is restricted, and brand image is generally more positive for a smoker's own brand. Tobacco control activities have undermined cigarette brand equity. Further research is needed regarding brand loyalty, low tar, and brand categories. Smokers may respond more positively to tobacco control messages consistent with the identities of their chosen brand, and brand-as-organisation elements may assist. Further marketing restrictions should consider all elements of brand identity, and aim to undermine brand categories.

  4. The Australian cigarette brand as product, person, and symbol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine, for dominant Australian cigarette brands, brand identity (overriding brand vision), brand positioning (brand identity elements communicated to the consumer), brand image (consumers' brand perceptions) and brand equity (financial value). Design: Tobacco industry documents, articles from retail trade publications since 1990, and current brand advertising from retail trade publications were searched for information about Australian brands. Results: Cigarette manufacturers benefit from their competitors' brand equity as well as their own. The industry sees Australian smokers as far less brand loyal and strongly oriented to "low tar". A few predominantly local brands dominate the market, with variation by state. Successful Australian brands exist in one of three categories: premium, mainstream, and supervalue. Their brand identity essence is as follows. Premium: quality. Mainstream: a good humoured "fair go" for ordinary Australians. Supervalue: value for money. All supervalue brand identities also include freedom, escape, mildness, an aspirational attitude, blue tones, and waterside scenes. Brand image and brand identity is frequently congruent, even when marketing is restricted, and brand image is generally more positive for a smoker's own brand. Conclusions: Tobacco control activities have undermined cigarette brand equity. Further research is needed regarding brand loyalty, low tar, and brand categories. Smokers may respond more positively to tobacco control messages consistent with the identities of their chosen brand, and brand-as-organisation elements may assist. Further marketing restrictions should consider all elements of brand identity, and aim to undermine brand categories. PMID:14645952

  5. Brand importance across product categories in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formánek Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with customer loyalty to brands and provides an analysis of brand-related attitudes among Czech consumers. Brand loyalty is a very important aspect of competitive marketing and we contribute an empirically supported point of view on the topic. Based on primary data from a complex consumer survey carried out for the purpose of this study, we investigate the extent of brand loyalty across different product categories, mostly fast moving consumer goods (FMCG. For convenience, the analysis of our survey-data may be divided in two main areas. First, product categories are ranked according to their potential power to attract customers’ interest and loyalty towards brands. When loyalty programs are prepared, it is important to discern product categories where loyalty potential is weak from those categories that attract consumer loyalty. Second, sociodemographic features and lifestyle factors from the survey are evaluated with respect to different product categories, by means of logistic regression and subsequent average partial effect (APE analysis. A detailed and practically oriented interpretation of the empirical results is provided by the authors. However, both corporate marketers and academic readers can use the tables with empirical estimation outputs that are provided in this article to draw their own conclusions, which may be focused on the product category of interest and/or focused on any specific consumer group that is of particular interest. Among other topics, this paper emphasizes the fact that brand loyalty is a highly complex phenomenon and that it can and should be analysed from different perspectives.

  6. Nation branding: what is being branded?

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y

    2006-01-01

    Nation branding and nation brand are two different concepts. A nation has a brand image with or without nation branding. This paper examines the concept of nation branding, focusing on the central question of what is being branded. It differentiates nation branding from product branding, and draws comparisons between nation branding and product-country image. Paradoxical issues around the concept and the wider context in which nation branding can be applied are also discussed. More research i...

  7. Consumer product branding strategy and the marketing of physicians' services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, H; Witt, J

    1995-01-01

    Hospitals have traditionally maintained physician referral programs as a means of attracting physicians to their network of affiliated providers. The advent of managed care and impending healthcare reform has altered the relationship of hospitals and physicians. An exploratory study of marketing approaches used by twelve healthcare organizations representing twenty-five hospitals in a large city was conducted. Strategies encountered in the study ranged from practice acquisition to practice promotion. This study suggests that healthcare providers might adopt consumer product branding strategies to secure market-share, build brand equity, and improve profitability.

  8. Brand Personality: Production Routes and National Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bueno Cardoso Scussel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a conceptual framework about brand personality, drawing a scenario of studies on the construct through a review that covers synthesis of the state of the art and a bibliometric study, produced in brazilian journals in business administration and psychology, from 2001 to 2015, in order to highlight the production in the new millennium. It is a qualitative research through systematic and bibliometric review, in which 64 national journals were analyzed, resulting in eight articles on brand personality, categorized according to demographic, institutional and methodological criteria. As a main conclusion, there is the incipient in nationwide surveys, the need for theoretical and empirical development of the construct, measure validation and relational studies. The aim is thus to contribute to the theoretical development in studies of brands and present reflections and guidelines, building a useful starting point for conducting further investigations.

  9. Brand!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    På en vindstille sommerdag går der pludselig ild i en knastør skov og brandens frontkurve udbreder sig straks cirkulært ud fra antændingspunktet. Men hvis vinden blæser (op) og derved fører ekstra ilt til branden fra en given retning er frontkurven langt fra cirkulær. Der præsenteres øvelser, pro......, projekter, og forskningstemaer, som relaterer til forståelse, af hvordan skov- steppe- og andre brande udvikler sig....

  10. Brands and Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Brunello Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays brands have become significant drivers for product purchasing and usage decisions. Thus, they constitute a substantial intangible asset for most companies. In order to gain customers and make them become loyal, firms have to establish the equity of the brand and present it in a clear and visible way to their target market. Therefore the topic of brand equity plays a major role in the creation and development of product and company brand strategy. The paper focuses on some general inf...

  11. Marketing Communication dan Brand Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Dominikus Tulasi

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of marketing communications is to enhance brand equity as the means of moving customers to take favorable actions towards the brand—that is, trying it, repeat purchasing it and, ideally, becoming loyal towards the brand. Virtually, enhancing equity and affecting customer behavior depends on the effective use of all the marketing-mix elements. While, brand awareness relates to whether a brand name comes to mind when consumers think about a particular product category, and...

  12. REBRANDING AS A PATTERN OF THE PRODUCT BRAND PROMOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Эрнст Раисович Сафаргалиев

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The organizations face to a lack of information for the development and adoption of effective management decisions in modern competitive circumstances. The organizations often use the tools of prediction for elimination of basis business data insufficiency. A high degree of reliability and accuracy of these predictions are based on the process development’s specific patterns knowledge. The purpose of this article is the analysis of rebranding as one of the patterns of product brand promotion. The article exposes such concepts as a product life cycle and brand life cycle. Also authors describe different approaches to the concepts understanding. This article identifies the relationship between these concepts and basis stages of the product life cycle and brand life cycle. The authors paid special attention on the analysis of the concept of pattern. Authors come to the conclusion that the rebranding as pattern bases on objective law of cyclicality  economic development and lead to the resumption of brand life cycle on a higher level. This result can be used by a marketing department of an organization.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-74

  13. Determinants of Beef and Pork Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2003-01-01

    A set of consumer-level characteristic demand models were estimated to determine the level of brand equity for pork and beef meat cuts. Results indicate that brand premiums and discounts vary by private, national, and store brands; and brand equity varies across meat cuts carrying the same brand name. Other results are that product size discounts are linear, meat items on sale are significantly discounted to non-sale items, specialty stores typically do not garner higher prices than supermark...

  14. The Effects of Faulty or Potentially Harmful Products on Brand Reputation and Social Responsibility of Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu-Cătălin Munteanu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Building a strong brand requires a good management of brand reputation over time. Social responsibility of business is a key factor in evoking a positive brand reputation. Both the product itself and brand related actions and communications define brand reputation in the eyes of consumers, thus influencing perceived corporate social responsibility. As a consequence, it can be easily hindered or endangered by many product related issues such as faulty products or potentially harmful products. The purpose of this article is to provide an insight on the link between brand reputation and social responsibility in order to help organizations provide better services and protection for consumers. We examined how brand reputation is influenced by the negative bias generated by brand related communications regarding potentially harmful products. This study also analyzes how under normal consumption circumstances, consumers' experiences related to faulty products can influence brand reputation. To investigate this, we propose a model based on perceptual brand constructs and possible outcomes of brand reputation. In both circumstances, negative spillover effects are highlighted using structural equation modeling. The findings reveal that both faulty products and potentially harmful products have a negative bias on brand reputation, but affected perceptual brand constructs are different.

  15. Production System Design for Multiple Brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer; Christensen, Irene

    Production systems enabling both cost efficiency and flexibility in terms of high product variation are explored. The study follows an explorative longitudinal field study approach. The database consists of three large global corporations, each consisting of several companies producing household ......-outs, worker skills, integration of distribution channels, after sales service and degree of servitization. Three production system design principles called VXY emerge....

  16. Profiling the Buzz Agent: Product Referral and the Study of Social Community and Brand Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Pimentel Claro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The buzz agent is any consumer perceived by others as a source of product referral. Previous literature in word of mouth (WOM has looked into characteristics of individuals who successfully persuade others to choose a brand. While there have been studies in this field, the literature is still scattered and little has been done to profile the consumer playing the buzz-agent role. We aim to deepen our understanding about the consumer who must be recruited as a buzz agent by a firm in a WOM marketing (WOMM initiative. The proposed profile is comprised of three key characteristics: the consumer’s position in the social community, nature of ties in the community and brand attachment. We tested our hypotheses with a survey of 542 consumers from a controlled population. Rather than relying on self-reported questions about referral behavior, we asked respondents in the population to name the individuals to whom the respondents go to obtain information to help pick a brand. This accurately pinpoints which individuals fit the profile of a buzz agent. Results show that buzz agents are popular in their social community (friends and tech experts, carry dissimilar brands as target consumers and are product experts. Our study identifies a profile of consumers that helps firms select buzz agents for WOMM initiatives.

  17. Influence of involvement and motivation to correction on product evaluation: Asymmetry for strong and weak brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Styśko-Kunkowska Małgorzata A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In previous research, studies on motivated correction in the evaluation of branded products are rare. This experimental study with 246 participants examined how the motivation to correct the impact of brand knowledge influences the product evaluation of actual strong and weak brands in low and high involvement situations. As predicted, asymmetry between the strong and weak brands was observed. After the induction of the motivation to correction, the smaller brand effect occurred only in the cases of low involvement and the weak (negative brand. The effect of motivated correction was smaller than the effect of high involvement; therefore, the overall results suggest that conscious explicit motivation to correction evokes correction only in cases of weak brands under certain circumstances. However, this impact is not as strong as the influence of high motivation or a strong brand, even though explicit instructions are given to avoid the negative influence of the brand.

  18. Corporate strategic branding: How country and corporate brands come together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Bojan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of countries as brands has been increasingly recognized in the post-modern global world. A strong country brand can provide corporate brands with a unique set of values, which supports their positioning on the international market. Simultaneously, once corporate brands achieve worldwide success, they contribute actively to developing new features of the country brand. Consumers pay more and more attention to products' country of origin. When the name of a country is mentioned, they can have positive associations (high quality, modern design, product innovation, which means that the country itself has a powerful brand. However, there are opposite cases where we talk about the weak branding of a particular country. It is necessary to mobilize all the available forces of politicians, business people, artists, sportsmen and scientists to create a strategy for enhancing the image and reputation of a country on the international markets, i.e. for creating the national branding strategy.

  19. COMPARISON OF YOUNG CONSUMERS' BRAND EQUITY PERCEPTIONS FOR TRADITIONAL AND NONTRADITIONAL BRANDS ACROSS VARIOUS PRODUCT CATEGORIES

    OpenAIRE

    Catli, Ozlem; Ermec Sertoglu, Aysegul; Ors, Husniye

    2017-01-01

    Purpose - Thisstudy aims to compare consumers' brand perception of traditional andnon-traditional brands. Methodology -  Consumerswho live in Ankara constitute the universe of the study. The data werecollected using the face-to-face survey method. The questionnaire containsstatements measuring brand value of both traditional and non-traditional brandsfor soup and sport shoes . Findings- According to the results obtained in the study, brandperceptions of traditional brands were found high...

  20. The Strategic Management of Store Brand Perceived Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Defeng

    Store brand plays a vital role in the success of retailers. Perceived quality is one of important factors influencing consumers' store brand purchase intention. Store brand perceived quality is lower compared with objective quality or national brand. For this end, the purpose of this article is to examine how to manage store brand perceived quality in strategic level. This article firstly discusses how consumers evaluate product quality, and the theoretical background of the reason that store brand perceived quality is lower from the view of cue related theories. Then, consumers' store brand quality evaluation is explored. Finally, this article presents several strategic tactics to increase store brand perceived quality. These tactics include choosing store's name as store brand name, making large advertising investment, improving store brand product package, and strengthening the relationship with store brand product suppliers.

  1. Customers’ Intention to Use Green Products: the Impact of Green Brand Dimensions and Green Perceived Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doszhanov Aibek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the relationships between green brand dimension (green brand awareness, green brand image, and green brand trust, green perceived value and customer’s intention to use green products. Data was collected through structured survey questionnaire from 384 customers of three hypermarkets in Kuala-Lumpur. Data was analyzed based on multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that there are significant relationships between green brand awareness, green brand trust, green perceived value, and customer’s intention to use green products. However, green brand image was not found to have significant relationship with customer’s intention to use green products. The discussion presented suggestions for marketers and researchers interested in green branding.

  2. The Influence of Brand Associations on Brand Loyalty in Accordance with Product Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Eryigit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine whether the influence of brand associations on brand loyalty differ for high involved and low involved consumers. The study is conducted on the followers of professional football teams. The results of the Chow test revealed that influence of brand associations on brand loyalty differ for high involved and low involved consumers. The affects of attributes are greater for high involved consumers rather than low involved consumers. The affect of brand attitude is greater for low involved consumers rather than low involved consumers.

  3. A Product Line Analysis for Eco-Designed Fashion Products: Evidence from an Outdoor Sportswear Brand

    OpenAIRE

    Luo Wang; Bin Shen

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing awareness of sustainability, eco-design has been an important trend in the fashion industry. Many fashion brands such as Nike, Adidas, and The North Face have developed sustainable fashion by incorporating eco-design elements. Eco-design is an important part of sustainable supply chains. In this paper, we conducted a product line analysis of eco-designed products from a famous outdoor sportswear brand, Patagonia. We collected Patagonia’s 2017 Spring Season product line dat...

  4. Brand Image Theoretical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Išoraitė, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The article analyzes the image of a brand and a brand image, brand value assessment methods, brand value, and benefits. A brand is a word or phrase that identifies and separates goods belonging to one person from belonging to another person. A brand is one of the elements of marketing, advertising. High-quality brand brings significant benefits to the manufacturer or the trader. A brand name may consist of a brand name and a brand symbol. There is several brand value evaluation model analyze ...

  5. Does private-label production by national-brand manufacturers create discounter goodwill?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Braak, A.M.; Deleersnyder, B.; Geyskens, I.; Dekimpe, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Discount stores have a private-label dominated assortment where national brands have only limited shelf access. These limited spots are in high demand by national-brand manufacturers. We examine whether private-label production by leading national-brand manufacturers for two important discounters

  6. Brand competition in consumer packaged goods : Sustaining large market advantages with little product differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronnenberg, B.J.

    2008-01-01

    In direct competition between national brands of consumer packaged goods (CPG), one brand often has a large local share advantage over the other despite the similarity of the branded products. I present an explanation for these large and persistent advantages in the context of local competition on

  7. Influence of Brand Loyalty on Fast Food Industry - Consumer buying behavior of India.

    OpenAIRE

    Tandon, Manav

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine how consumers are influenced by factors of brand loyalty towards fast food brands. The research was conducted in Delhi with Indian consumers. People who filled the questionnaire are adults who are working or are looking for job. This research was adopted based on seven factor of brand loyalty. The seven factors of brand loyalty are brand name, product quality, price, style, promotion, and service quality and restaurant environment. Brand name has sho...

  8. Consumer Learning and Brand Equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.J. van Osselaer (Stijn); J.W. Alba (Joseph)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractA series of experiments illustrates a learning process that enhances brand equity at the expense of quality-determining attributes. When the relationship between brand name and product quality is learned prior to the relationship between product attributes and quality, inhibition of the

  9. Umbrella Branding in Pharmaceutical Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suppliet, Moritz

    2017-01-01

    Umbrella branding is a marketing practice whereby multi-product firms leverage their reputation across different product categories. This paper investigates how advertising in the market of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs affects the decision to buy prescription drugs from a promoted brand name. I

  10. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  11. Brand strengthening using social media

    OpenAIRE

    Šimonytė, Vilma

    2014-01-01

    The Relevance of the paper. The brand name is the most durable of company‘s assets creating added value and helping to gain a competitive advantage in the market. Though creating a successful brand is not as easy as it seems. This requires not only original ideas but also a considerable investment because the brand-building is a continuous process. In other words, it is not enough only to create a brand name of the product. Constant competition and changes in consumer demands force the analys...

  12. Investigation of the efficacy of generic and brand-name tiotropium bromide in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A randomized comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Ghanei, Mostafa; Behzadi, Mohammad; Salehi, Maryam; Soflaei, Sara Saffar; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-03-01

    The beneficial effects of tiotropium bromide, a long acting anticholinergic bronchodilator, in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been shown in previous studies. The present study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of generic (Tiova®) and brand-name (Spiriva®) tiotropium preparations in patients with COPD. In this randomized double-blind parallel-group trial, 79 patients with documented COPD were assigned to Tiova® or Spiriva® for a period of 4 weeks. Assessment of pulmonary function (using spirometry), quality-of-life (using St. George respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ]) and severity of respiratory symptoms (using breathlessness, cough and sputum scale [BCSS]) was performed at baseline and at the end of treatment period. There were significant increases in FEV1 and reductions in FVC by the end of study in both Tiova® and Spiriva® groups. FEV1/FVC ratio did not change significantly neither in the Tiova® nor in Spiriva® group. Overall SGRQ score as well as subscale scores of symptoms, activity and impacts were improved by both drugs. In the BCSS scale, the frequency and severity of three main symptoms (dyspnea, cough and sputum) was decreased by both drugs. Baseline as well as post-treatment values of spirometric parameters, SGRQ and BCSS scores was comparable between the groups, apart from a lower post-treatment frequency of cough and sputum in the Spiriva® versus Tiova® group. There was no report of adverse events in either of the study groups. The findings of this comparative trial showed equivalent efficacy and safety of Spiriva® and Tiova® in lessening the symptoms as well as improving the quality of life in patients with COPD. This finding has an important translational value given the significantly lower costs of generic versus brand-name products.

  13. The evolution of brand management thinking over the last 25 years as recorded in the Journal of Product and Brand Management

    OpenAIRE

    Veloutsou, Cleopatra; Guzmán, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Purpose:\\ud By outlining the evolution of brand management research over the past 25 years, as reported in the Journal of Product and Brand Management (JPBM), this paper aims to analyze the changes in the way branding has been approached in research, highlight the current challenges the discipline faces and suggest future research avenues that will hopefully further enrich brand management knowledge.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach:\\ud This paper includes internal historical literature rev...

  14. Comparative effectiveness and costs of generic and brand-name gabapentin and venlafaxine in patients with neuropathic pain or generalized anxiety disorder in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Rejas-Gutiérrez, Javier; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    To explore adherence/persistence with generic gabapentin/venlafaxine versus brand-name gabapentin/venlafaxine (Neurontin(®)/Vandral(®)) in peripheral neuropathic pain (pNP) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), respectively, and whether it is translated into different costs and patient outcomes in routine medical practice. A retrospective, new-user cohort study was designed. Electronic medical records (EMR) of patients included in the health plan of Badalona Serveis Assistencials SA, Barcelona, Spain were exhaustively extracted for analysis. Participants were beneficiaries aged 18+ years, followed between 2008 and 2012, with a pNP/GAD International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code, who initiated treatment with generic or brand-name gabapentin or venlafaxine. Assessments included 1-year treatment persistence and adherence (medication possession ratio), health care costs, and reduction in severity of pain and anxiety symptoms. A total of 2,210 EMR were analyzed; 1,369 on gabapentin (brand 400; generic 969) and 841 on venlafaxine (brand 370 and generic 471). Brand-name gabapentin and venlafaxine were both significantly associated with longer persistence than generic: 7.3 versus 6.3 months, PBrand-name was associated with higher adherence: 86.5% versus 81.3%, Pbrand: €1,277 versus €1,057 (difference of €220 per patient; Pbrand-name was associated with higher reduction in pain (7.8%; Pbrand-name gabapentin or venlafaxine were more likely to adhere and persist on treatment of pNP or GAD, have lower health care costs, and show further reduction of pain and anxiety symptoms than with generic drugs in routine medical practice.

  15. Brand Extensions: A Qualitative Meta-Analysis Of 20 Years Of Marketing Research

    OpenAIRE

    Elise Prosser; Melissa St. James

    2011-01-01

    Brand extensions, or new product introductions under an existing brand name, have become increasingly popular over the past 20 years. Marketers tout brand extensions as enjoying higher market share and profitability than launching new brand names that require exorbitant advertising expenditures (Smith & Park 1992). According to some estimates, brand extensions account for more than 90% of new product introductions in some categories (Volckner & Sattler 2002). However, one study found that 27%...

  16. The factors affecting the green brand equity of electronic products: Green marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Delafrooz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is intentionally functional, and, from the data collection aspect, is a descriptive survey. The statistical data for the present study includes low-power electronic and electric products in Guilan Province. A total of 384 consumers were chosen using the random cluster sampling method. We have used confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling to analyze the given data. The findings show that there is a significant relationship among brand-perceived quality, green brand image, (GBI and brand value, but not with the green brand-perceived value (GBPV. In addition, the results of the study show that brand credibility has a significant relationship with the GBPV and GBI, but not with the GBPV and GBI, each of which are associated with the green brand in a different way. At the end of this survey, you will read about the intermediate variables, all of which are acceptable, except the intermediate variables of brand credibility and GBI.

  17. Production does not improve memory for face-name associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourihan, Kathleen L; Smith, Alexis R S

    2016-06-01

    Strategies for learning face-name associations are generally difficult and time-consuming. However, research has shown that saying a word aloud improves our memory for that word relative to words from the same set that were read silently. Such production effects have been shown for words, pictures, text material, and even word pairs. Can production improve memory for face-name associations? In Experiment 1, participants studied face-name pairs by reading half of the names aloud and half of the names silently, and were tested with cued recall. In Experiment 2, names were repeated aloud (or silently) for the full trial duration. Neither experiment showed a production effect in cued recall. Bayesian analyses showed positive support for the null effect. One possibility is that participants spontaneously implemented more elaborate encoding strategies that overrode any influence of production. However, a more likely explanation for the null production effect is that only half of each stimulus pair was produced-the name, but not the face. Consistent with this explanation, in Experiment 3 a production effect was not observed in cued recall of word-word pairs in which only the target words were read aloud or silently. Averaged across all 3 experiments, aloud targets were more likely to be recalled than silent targets (though not associated with the correct cue). The production effect in associative memory appears to require both members of a pair to be produced. Surprisingly, production shows little promise as a strategy for improving memory for the names of people we have just met. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Four hundred and sixty brands of e-cigarettes and counting: implications for product regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu-Hong; Sun, Jessica Y; Bonnevie, Erika; Cummins, Sharon E; Gamst, Anthony; Yin, Lu; Lee, Madeleine

    2014-07-01

    E-cigarettes are largely unregulated and internet sales are substantial. This study examines how the online market for e-cigarettes has changed over time: in product design and in marketing messages appearing on websites. Comprehensive internet searches of English-language websites from May-August 2012 and December 2013-January 2014 identified brands, models, flavours, nicotine strengths, ingredients and product claims. Brands were divided into older and newer groups (by the two searches) for comparison. By January 2014 there were 466 brands (each with its own website) and 7764 unique flavours. In the 17 months between the searches, there was a net increase of 10.5 brands and 242 new flavours per month. Older brands were more likely than newer brands to offer cigalikes (86.9% vs. 52.1%, p<0.01), and newer brands more likely to offer the more versatile eGos and mods (75.3% vs. 57.8%, p<0.01). Older brands were significantly more likely to claim that they were healthier and cheaper than cigarettes, were good substitutes where smoking was banned and were effective smoking cessation aids. Newer brands offered more flavours per brand (49 vs. 32, p<0.01) and were less likely to compare themselves with conventional cigarettes. The number of e-cigarette brands is large and has been increasing. Older brands tend to highlight their advantages over conventional cigarettes while newer brands emphasise consumer choice in multiple flavours and product versatility. These results can serve as a benchmark for future research on the impact of upcoming regulations on product design and advertising messages of e-cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Differentiated Brand Marketing Strategy for China’s Conventional Aquatic Products

    OpenAIRE

    LIANG, Hua; SHEN, Zhongming

    2015-01-01

    The volume of production and marketing of China’s conventional aquatic products is increasing. Compared with price of livestock and poultry products, price of conventional aquatic products is relatively low. Differentiated brand marketing for China’s conventional aquatic products is a key approach for increasing market demand for conventional aquatic products and increasing value of conventional aquatic products. The differentiated brand marketing is an inevitable trend of market developm...

  20. Light as a feather: effects of packaging imagery on sensory product impressions and brand evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, T.J.L.; Fransen, M.L.; Borgelink, B.G.D.

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the increasing importance of packaging design for product and brand management, this study tests effects of movement visuals and location of imagery on sensorial product impressions. Participants were exposed to a packaging variant for a fictitious brand of washing powder. Subsequently,

  1. Light as a feather: Effects of packaging imagery on sensory product impressions and brand evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, Thomas Johannes Lucas; Fransen, M.L.; Borgelink, Bianca G.D.

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the increasing importance of packaging design for product and brand management, this study tests effects of movement visuals and location of imagery on sensorial product impressions. Participants were exposed to a packaging variant for a fictitious brand of washing powder. Subsequently,

  2. Four hundred and sixty brands of e-cigarettes and counting: implications for product regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu-Hong; Sun, Jessica Y; Bonnevie, Erika; Cummins, Sharon E; Gamst, Anthony; Yin, Lu; Lee, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction E-cigarettes are largely unregulated and internet sales are substantial. This study examines how the online market for e-cigarettes has changed over time: in product design and in marketing messages appearing on websites. Methods Comprehensive internet searches of English-language websites from May–August 2012 and December 2013–January 2014 identified brands, models, flavours, nicotine strengths, ingredients and product claims. Brands were divided into older and newer groups (by the two searches) for comparison. Results By January 2014 there were 466 brands (each with its own website) and 7764 unique flavours. In the 17 months between the searches, there was a net increase of 10.5 brands and 242 new flavours per month. Older brands were more likely than newer brands to offer cigalikes (86.9% vs 52.1%, pe-cigarettes. PMID:24935895

  3. The impact of bad fit product line extensions on brand personality

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    This work project intended to study the impact of a bad fit product line extension on brand personality. To do that, the focus of the study was narrowed down to one dimension of the brand personality, ruggedness, and another one as a comparative dimension, sophistication. The test consisted in the introduction of a bad fit extension by two brands: Harley-Davidson and Jaguar. The findings show us that a bad fit extension has more impact in the sophistication dimension (increased the dimension ...

  4. Understanding the role of attitude components in co-branding: an application to high-tech, luxury co-branded products

    OpenAIRE

    Lado Couste, Nora Rita; Césaroni, Fabrizio; Maydeu Olivares, Alberto; Ho, Han Chiang

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses co-branding between firms belonging to unrelated value chains –high-tech products and luxury brands (HLCPs) – to explore how consumers‟ attitude drive the success of HLCPs. The study applies the tri-component attitude model (as opposed to attitude as a whole) that uses affect and cognition to predict purchase intention of co-branded products. Cultural differences (Spanish and Taiwanese) in consumers‟ behavior are also assessed. Data collected in a survey show that Spanish...

  5. A Conceptual Analysis of Brand Loyalty As Core Dimension of Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Moisescu, Ovidiu I.

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays, brands are companies’ most valuable assets, adding both economic and strategic value to its proprietors. During the last years, brand valuation has been an intensively analyzed subject among marketing specialists. The value of this asset is often referred to as brand equity which is the marketing and financial value associated with a brand’s strength in the market or the added value a given brand name provides to a product beyond the functional benefits. Besides the actual proprieta...

  6. Product placement in video games: The effect of brand familiarity and repetition on consumers´ memory

    OpenAIRE

    Martí Parreño, José; Bermejo Berros, Jesús; Aldás Manzano, Joaquín

    2017-01-01

    Product placement in video games is gaining momentum as a means to target audiences in an indirect and engaging way. This research uses a 2 (high repetition vs low repetition) x 2 (high brand familiarity vs low brand familiarity) factorial design to test the effects of repetition and brand familiarity on consumers’ memory for brands placed in video games. Results suggest that consumers recall better familiar than unfamiliar brands placed in the video game and repetition increases recall for f...

  7. ADVERTISING BRANDS BY MEANS OF SOUNDS SYMBOLISM: THE INFLUENCE OF VOWELS ON PERCEIVED BRAND CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Catalina Duduciuc

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test the influence of sound symbolism on perceived characteristics of a brand as well as to highlight the importance of applied social psychology to current practice of advertising. Previous research showed that the phonetic structure of brand name communicates its characteristics, i.e. it drives consumers to assess certain features and performance of the product. I assumed that when consumers encounter an unknown brand name, they automatically infer characteristics from the meaning conveyed by the sounds (e.g. phonemes. Therefore, I supposed that a brand name for a shampoo (artificially created on experimental purpose containing back vowel is evaluated better by consumers when they compare it to another brand name with front vowels. Furthermore, for the accuracy of responses, I used the semantic differential scale to measure the differences between two brands in terms of certain attributes of product. To this end, fifty students (N=50 participated in a research based on questionnaire. As the results of the current research showed, the brand name with back vowel outnumbered the brand name with front vowel on two dimension, i.e. on brand activity and brand efficiency. The brand name containing front vowel was rated better when subjects evaluated the product in generally. Last, but not least, when it comes to convey meanings, the sound of back vowels [a] could be used more when marketers promote products that communicate its characteristics such as efficiency, velocity and health. The back vowel could be also assessed to products with larger packing or special sailing such as extra quantity. Meanwhile, the brand names with front vowels [ie] could be created for more expensive products with good quality, mainly addressed to men.

  8. Regulatory assessment of brand changes in the commercial tobacco product market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, G Ferris; Connolly, G N

    2009-08-01

    Regulatory oversight of tobacco product design has gained momentum in the US and internationally. Appropriate standards for assessing commercial brands and characterising product features must be considered a priority. An area of potential concern is in-market design changes adopted within a single commercial brand over time. Internal tobacco industry documents were identified and used to assess internal discussion of product guidelines and practices regarding in-market brand changes. Commercial tobacco products undergo a constant process of revision in-market, beginning at the most basic level of physical product characteristics and components, and including every aspect of design. These revisions commonly exceed guidelines for acceptable product variance adopted within the industry. While consumer and market testing is conducted to ensure that products remain acceptable to users, explicit marketing often may not accompany brand changes. In the absence of such marketing, it should not be assumed that a brand remains unchanged. For manufacturers, assessment of competitor brands includes identification and analysis of non-routine changes; that is, those changes likely to significantly alter the character of a given brand. Regulators must adopt a similar practice in determining standards for product evaluation in the face of ongoing commercial product revision.

  9. A comparison of the intrasubject variation in drug exposure between generic and brand-name drugs: a retrospective analysis of replicate design trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Teerenstra, Steven; Neef, Cees; Burger, David; Maliepaard, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether differences in total and peak drug exposure upon generic substitution are due to differences between formulations or to intrasubject pharmacokinetic variability of the active substance. The study was designed as a retrospective reanalysis of existing studies. Nine replicate design bioequivalence studies representing six drug classes - i.e. for alendronate, atorvastatin, cyclosporin, ebastine, exemestane, mycophenolate mofetil, and ropinirole - were retrieved from the Dutch Medicines Regulatory Authority. In most studies, the intrasubject variability in total and peak drug exposure was comparable for the brand-name [in the range 0.01-0.24 for area under the concentration-time curve (AUCt ) and 0.02-0.29 for peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) on a log scale] and generic (0.01-0.23 for AUCt and 0.08-0.33 for Cmax ) drugs, and was comparable with the intrasubject variability upon switching between those drugs (0.01-0.23 for AUCt and 0.06-0.33 for Cmax ). The variance related to subject-by-formulation interaction could be considered negligible (-0.069 to 0.047 for AUCt and -0.091 to 0.02 for Cmax ). In the investigated studies, the variation in total and peak exposure seen when a patient is switched from a brand-name to a generic drug is comparable with that seen following repeated administration of the brand-name drug in the patient. Only the intrasubject variability seems to play a crucial and decisive role in the variation in drug exposure seen; no additional formulation-dependent variation in exposure is observed upon switching. Thus, our data support that, for the medicines that were included in the present investigation, from a clinical pharmacological perspective, the benefit-risk balance of a generic drug is comparable with that of the brand-name drug. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. The role of social identity and attitudes toward sustainability brands in buying behavior for organic products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, J.; Hoogendam, K.

    2011-01-01

    Green consumerism and the role of eco-marketing have become increasingly important for increasing the market share of sustainable (non-) food products. The current study examines the effect of social identification with certain green consumer groups on brand knowledge, brand attitude and buying

  11. Country Image and Brand Perception of Hybrid Products from Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacob, Andrea Ioana

    in the evaluation of unknown brand. Data were collected using a questionnaire that was administered to 243 students at Aalborg University. The results show that the student respondents do find the country of origins important when forming their brand perception or assessing the product; and they also ranked...

  12. Brand-name drug, generic drug, orphan drug. Pharmacological therapy with biosimilar drugs – provision of due diligence in the treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajdel, Justyna

    2013-01-01

    Due diligence in the process of provision of healthcare services refers, among other elements, to the application of pharmacological therapy at a time which offers the greatest chance for a successful outcome of treatment, i.e. for achieving the optimum expected effect understood as an improvement in the patient's health, reduction of health risks or elimination of the disease. However, due diligence may also refer to actions aimed at ensuring that neither the patient nor the healthcare payer is required to incur unreasonable costs in the process of treatment. The validity of that statement stems not only from normative acts but also from ethical standards laid down in the Medical Code of Ethics (Article 57 section 2). It often happens that the provision of optimal treatment calls for deviations from the formal provisions included in Summary Product Characteristics (SPCs), and the application of drugs that are bioequivalent to reference drugs, which translates into a significant reduction of costs. The present study addresses the problem of acceptability of a specific form of drug substitution consisting in the replacement of a reference drug with a generic drug. Also explored are legal aspects associated with the possibility of therapy based on “off-label use”. The study reviews normative acts existing in the Polish and EU legislation. It also provides a clear definition of orphan drug, which has made it possible to make a distinction and investigate mutual relations between the concepts of brand-name (reference) drug, orphan drug and generic drug. PMID:24592133

  13. Brand-name drug, generic drug, orphan drug. Pharmacological therapy with biosimilar drugs - provision of due diligence in the treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajdel, Justyna; Zajdel, Radosław

    2013-01-01

    Due diligence in the process of provision of healthcare services refers, among other elements, to the application of pharmacological therapy at a time which offers the greatest chance for a successful outcome of treatment, i.e. for achieving the optimum expected effect understood as an improvement in the patient's health, reduction of health risks or elimination of the disease. However, due diligence may also refer to actions aimed at ensuring that neither the patient nor the healthcare payer is required to incur unreasonable costs in the process of treatment. The validity of that statement stems not only from normative acts but also from ethical standards laid down in the Medical Code of Ethics (Article 57 section 2). It often happens that the provision of optimal treatment calls for deviations from the formal provisions included in Summary Product Characteristics (SPCs), and the application of drugs that are bioequivalent to reference drugs, which translates into a significant reduction of costs. The present study addresses the problem of acceptability of a specific form of drug substitution consisting in the replacement of a reference drug with a generic drug. Also explored are legal aspects associated with the possibility of therapy based on "off-label use". The study reviews normative acts existing in the Polish and EU legislation. It also provides a clear definition of orphan drug, which has made it possible to make a distinction and investigate mutual relations between the concepts of brand-name (reference) drug, orphan drug and generic drug.

  14. Barbie or Betty? Preschool children's preference for branded products and evidence for gender-linked differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Karen J; Nash, Avril

    2003-08-01

    Children in the United Kingdom watch more television and are exposed to more advertising than children in any other European country. This article investigates the extent to which preschool children (aged 4-5 years) prefer brands advertised on television. Seventy-five children were interviewed and given a choice task in which they had to select the product, from eight pairs each comprising a branded and nonbranded product, that children of their own age and gender preferred. Products included popular drinks, snacks, toys, breakfast cereals, and sportswear. Nonbranded control products were carefully selected as close perceptual matches for the branded advertised products. Yet, on 68% of occasions, children chose the branded, advertised product in preference to the nonbranded product. This preference was reliably higher for girls (78%) than boys (58%). Gender-linked differences are discussed in relation to socialization theory and to girls' greater verbal ability and emotional sensitivity.

  15. Brand management of selected brand

    OpenAIRE

    Honzíková, Dana

    2010-01-01

    This thesis addresses the subject of brand management. My main objective was to summarize the issue of brand management and apply the acquired knowledge on the selected brand of food products on the Czech market, i.e. to assess its current management and the current situation and where appropriate, propose recommendations for the future. I use the case study method, the method of survey and analysis of primary and secondary data. The theoretical part deals with the concept of brand, its featu...

  16. Product Differentiation and Brand Competition in the Italian Breakfast Cereal Market: a Distance Metric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Sckokai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article employs a nation-wide sample of supermarket scanner data to study product and brand competition in the Italian breakfast cereal market. A modified Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS, that includes Distance Metrics (DMs as proposed by Pinkse, Slade and Brett (2002, is estimated to study demand responses, substitution patterns, own-price and cross-price elasticities. Estimation results provide evidence of some degree of brand loyalty, while consumers do not seem loyal to the product type. Elasticity estimates point out the presence of patterns of substitution within products sharing the same brand and similar nutritional characteristics.

  17. DOES BRANDED FOOD PRODUCT ADVERTISING HELP OR HURT FARMERS?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mingxia; Sexton, Richard J.; Alston, Julian M.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates market conditions when food processor/handler brand advertising, whether undertaken by an investor-owned firm or by a cooperative, will benefit or harm farmers. Addressing this question provides insight into the policy issue of whether and when promotion funds intended to benefit farmers should be used in support of brand advertising. Analysis of a two-stage oligopoly-oligopsony model shows that advertising by an investor-owned firm is most likely to be harmful to farm...

  18. Regional Branding: Building Brand Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Margarisová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional branding is one of several ways to promote rural regions and support development of socially, culturally and environmentally oriented economies in areas that are interesting due to their natural and cultural heritage. The article attempts to review the conceptual and theoretical underpinnings of branding as conveyed by leading authors in the marketing field. The aim of this paper is to define brand as a broad complex of variables, which are used in building of its identity as a basis for creating value proposition and the position of a brand. Article briefly describes the most comprehensive labeling system for regional products at the micro-regional level is the one guaranteed by Association of Regional Brands (ARB. The main contribution of this article is a theoretical model of strategic management of a regional brand, which captures the interdependence of the individual steps of brand building as well as stakeholders. The starting point for building of brand value is a strategic analysis of the brand, including analysis of customer and competitors. The analysis of external factors is followed by analysis of the brand itself. The resulting relationship between the brand and the customer is based on value proposition representing benefits (functional, emotional, self‑expression. The concept of total product is connected with the concept of total brand and it is offered to the customer as a regional product. Finally it suggests possibilities for further research.

  19. 75 FR 20390 - Senco Brands, Inc., fka Senco Products, Inc., Including the On-Site Leased Workers of Manpower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70,115] Senco Brands, Inc., fka... workers of Senco Brands, Inc., fka Senco Products, Inc., including the on-site leased workers of Manpower... Brands, Inc., fka Senco Products, Inc. The Department has determined that these workers were sufficiently...

  20. Investigating the Effect of Consumer’s Risk Aversion and Product Involvement on their Brand Loyalty and Word of Mouth Behavior: The Mediating Role of Brand Attachment and Brand Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Manijeh Bahrainizadeh; Alireza Ziaei Bide

    2013-01-01

    In today’s highly competitive markets, brand loyalty is a central element of marketing strategies and tactics. Therefore, the sources of loyalty and the processes through which it is established is becoming central concern of marketers. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between the consumer’s risk aversion and product involvement with their brand loyalty and positive word of mouth behaviors and also to test empirically whether this relationship is mediated by brand trus...

  1. EEG Spectral Dynamics of Video Commercials: Impact of the Narrative on the Branding Product Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Regina W Y; Chang, Yu-Ching; Chuang, Shang-Wen

    2016-11-07

    Neuromarketing has become popular and received a lot of attention. The quality of video commercials and the product information they convey to consumers is a hotly debated topic among advertising agencies and product advertisers. This study explored the impact of advertising narrative and the frequency of branding product exposures on the preference for the commercial and the branding product. We performed electroencephalography (EEG) experiments on 30 subjects while they watched video commercials. The behavioral data indicated that commercials with a structured narrative and containing multiple exposures of the branding products had a positive impact on the preference for the commercial and the branding product. The EEG spectral dynamics showed that the narratives of video commercials resulted in higher theta power of the left frontal, bilateral occipital region, and higher gamma power of the limbic system. The narratives also induced significant cognitive integration-related beta and gamma power of the bilateral temporal regions and the parietal region. It is worth noting that the video commercials with a single exposure of the branding products would be indicators of attention. These new findings suggest that the presence of a narrative structure in video commercials has a critical impact on the preference for branding products.

  2. EEG Spectral Dynamics of Video Commercials: Impact of the Narrative on the Branding Product Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Regina W. Y.; Chang, Yu-Ching; Chuang, Shang-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Neuromarketing has become popular and received a lot of attention. The quality of video commercials and the product information they convey to consumers is a hotly debated topic among advertising agencies and product advertisers. This study explored the impact of advertising narrative and the frequency of branding product exposures on the preference for the commercial and the branding product. We performed electroencephalography (EEG) experiments on 30 subjects while they watched video commercials. The behavioral data indicated that commercials with a structured narrative and containing multiple exposures of the branding products had a positive impact on the preference for the commercial and the branding product. The EEG spectral dynamics showed that the narratives of video commercials resulted in higher theta power of the left frontal, bilateral occipital region, and higher gamma power of the limbic system. The narratives also induced significant cognitive integration-related beta and gamma power of the bilateral temporal regions and the parietal region. It is worth noting that the video commercials with a single exposure of the branding products would be indicators of attention. These new findings suggest that the presence of a narrative structure in video commercials has a critical impact on the preference for branding products. PMID:27819348

  3. Smokeless tobacco products harbor diverse bacterial microbiota that differ across products and brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Eoghan M; Kulkarni, Prachi; Claye, Emma; Stanfill, Stephen; Tyx, Robert; Maddox, Cynthia; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Sapkota, Amy R

    2017-07-01

    Smokeless tobacco products contain numerous chemical compounds, including known human carcinogens. Other smokeless tobacco constituents, including bacteria, may also contribute to adverse health effects among smokeless tobacco users. However, there is a lack of data regarding the microbial constituents of smokeless tobacco. Our goal was to characterize the bacterial microbiota of different smokeless tobacco products and evaluate differences across product types and brands. DNA was extracted from 15 brands of smokeless tobacco products (including dry snuff, moist snuff, snus, and Swedish snus) and 6 handmade products (e.g., toombak) using an enzymatic and mechanical lysis approach. Bacterial community profiling was performed using PCR amplification of the V1-V2 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene, followed by 454 pyrosequencing of the resulting amplicons and sequence analysis using the QIIME package. Total viable counts were also determined to estimate the number of viable bacteria present in each product. Average total viable counts ranged from 0 to 9.35 × 10 7  CFU g -1 . Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed high bacterial diversity across the majority of products tested: dry snuff products where characterized by the highest diversity indices compared to other products. The most dominant bacterial phyla across all products were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Significant differences in both bacterial community composition and in silico predicted gene content were observed between smokeless tobacco product types and between brands of specific smokeless tobacco products. These data are useful in order to comprehensively address potential health risks associated with the use of smokeless tobacco products.

  4. Impact of Turquality Model on Branding and International Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Askin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A brand consists of name, symbol, concept, design, standard, quality or several of them which are used to distinguish a product from its competitors. Without a brand, all products have the same qualities in the eyes of the consumers. Business managers use brands to draw attention of the consumers and ensure that the consumers purchase their products again. The fundamental reason for gaining brand value for a product is that it separates the product from the other products. In the first part of this study, brand and concepts regarding the brand were discussed and the importance of the brand in terms of consumers and manufacturers was also addressed. Then, the impact of exporting with brand in the international market was mentioned. In the second part of the study, Turquality and the advantages of the companies which have Turquality Certificate were presented.

  5. Brand name to generic substitution of antiepileptic drugs does not lead to seizure-related hospitalization: a population-based case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polard, Elisabeth; Nowak, Emmanuel; Happe, André; Biraben, Arnaud; Oger, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    There is still controversy on brand-to-generic (B-G) antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) substitution. To assess association between B-G AED substitution and seizure-related hospitalization, we designed a case crossover using the French National Health Insurance Database. We identified a cohort of adult patients who filled a prescription in 2009-2011 for AEDs with at least one brand name and one generic form. The outcome date was defined as the date of hospitalization, coded G40.x or G41.x, with a G40/G41 hospitalization-free period of at least 1 year. Patients with a medical history of cancer and women who gave birth in 2009-2011 were excluded. We required individuals to have regular dispensations of AEDs within the year preceding the outcome date. Free patients were defined as patients who had only brand name dispensations before the control period. Eight thousand three hundred seventy nine patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 52.7 ± 18.8 years; sex ratio male/female, 1.27) were analyzed. Discordant pairs were 491 with B-G substitution in the control period only and 478 with B-G substitution in the case period only; odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.97 (0.86-1.10). No statistically significant interaction was detected among the four prespecified subgroup analyses (gender, age strata, free or non-free, and strict AED monotherapy or not). Controlling for non-seizure-related hospitalizations made no material difference. Sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. Brand-to-generic AED substitution was not associated with an elevated risk of seizure-related hospitalization. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Investigating the brand love-brand hate relationship, and the effects of brand attitude and brand attachment on brand hate

    OpenAIRE

    Silden, Sandra Emilie; Skeie, Malin Elida

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increase in consumer research on consumer-brand relationships, specifically positive relationship between the consumer and brands. This thesis tries to shed light on a topic that has received less attention, though highly related, namely brand hate. Study 1 was conducted in order to investigate an antecedent to brand hate, building on the fact that love for a competing brand can cause brand hate. To our knowledge this topic has not been examined before. However, a line of re...

  7. A study of the relationship between UK consumers purchase intention and store brand food products -- Take Nottingham city consumers for example

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kaochun

    2008-01-01

    Recently, store brands play an important role in retail grocery strategy. More and more retailers put their effort to develop and market new store brands because consumers have been accepting store brands. Therefore, store brands have gradually influenced consumers purchase behaviours in order to provide an in-depth investigation of consumers purchase intention in store brands, the study choose food products among many product categories because when consumers hear the store brand, they mus...

  8. A study on brand confusion in the milk sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Andersen, Karina B.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    for organic products, and finally the name "Minimælk", which in itself has achieved brand-like status. We measure associations by number, valence and uniqueness, and relate the to brand equity as measured by a conjoint task. We believe that this methodology is suitable to clarify how various brand components...... in a multiple branding context contribute to the overall product value as perceived by consumers, and that the word association methodology is worthwhile for diagnosing reasons for these contributions.......Multiple branding is becomming more and more common in the food sector. In this study, we use as an example Minimælk, a low fat organic milk manufactured by Arla Foods in Denmark. The product carried the Arla Foods brand, a seperate brand for Arla Foods' organic product line, a generic brand...

  9. Extending or creating a new brand: evidence from a study on event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jia; Wang, Cuicui; Yu, Liping; Ma, Qingguo

    2015-07-08

    Brand strategy is a critical problem in new product promotion. In relation to this, producers typically have two main options, namely, brand extension and new brand creation. The current study investigated the neural basis of evaluating these brand strategies at the brain level by using event-related potentials. The experiment used a word-pair paradigm, in which the first word was either a famous beverage brand name or a newly created brand, and the second word was a product name from one of the two product categories (beverage or household appliance). Therefore, four conditions existed as follows: a famous beverage brand paired with a beverage product (BB) or with a household appliance (BH) and a newly created brand paired with a beverage product (NB) or with a household appliance (NH). Behavioral results showed that brand extension obtained a higher acceptance rate than new brand creation under the beverage product category; however, a lower acceptance rate was observed under the household appliance category. Moreover, at the brain level, BB elicited lower N400 mean amplitude than the new brand product NB, whereas BH led to higher N400 amplitude than the new brand product NH. These results showed that the likelihood of accepting a product depended on the association between the brand name and product name, and that the N400 could serve as an index of brand strategy evaluation. In addition, this study also confirmed that brand extension is not always the best brand strategy; an inappropriate extension sometimes performed worse than the creation of a new brand.

  10. The Consumer Behaviour of Taiwanese Young People: With Respect to Luxury Brand Products

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei-Hsuan

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, there is a fever of buying and using luxury brand products in Taiwanese young generation. Young people are feverish to purchase expensive and luxury goods from those famous international luxury brands. This dissertation aims to investigate this phenomenon in depth. The study could be generally divided into six parts. First of all, the main concept and objectives of this research will be introduced. Next, the background of luxury goods industry will be presented. Besides,...

  11. A Product Line Analysis for Eco-Designed Fashion Products: Evidence from an Outdoor Sportswear Brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing awareness of sustainability, eco-design has been an important trend in the fashion industry. Many fashion brands such as Nike, Adidas, and The North Face have developed sustainable fashion by incorporating eco-design elements. Eco-design is an important part of sustainable supply chains. In this paper, we conducted a product line analysis of eco-designed products from a famous outdoor sportswear brand, Patagonia. We collected Patagonia’s 2017 Spring Season product line data and analyzed the data through descriptive analysis, factor analysis and correlation analysis. We found that Patagonia mainly uses organic, recycled, and traceable materials in their eco-product line development. We identified that the usage of eco-materials may significantly affect the number of color choices and product weight as well as gender difference, pattern design, product fit and online reviewers’ opinions at Patagonia. We argued that Patagonia should focus on functionality more than aesthetics in eco-design. We discussed how sustainable fashion firms should manage eco-design in the supply chain.

  12. The Level of Brand Awareness in Consumer Electronic Products: The Example of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutay Oktay

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brand awareness which is considered as one of the most important factor affecting the consumer purchasing preferences has been investigated by both academics and practitioners in the field of marketing in recent years. The current study investigated brand awareness in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan regarding consumer electronic products, such as laptop computers, tablet computers, and cell phones. To determine brand awareness, data were obtained by using suitable market analysis methods, andthen analyzed by using the Spearman correlation and the chi-square test for independence.Based on the study results, it was observed that the level brand awareness was high for laptop computers and cell phones, while being comparatively lower for tablet computers.

  13. Brand popularity, endogenous leadership, and product introduction in industries with word of mouth communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Christian Dahl

    This paper considers the impact of popularity on duopolists' entry strategies into an emerging industry, where each consumer holds a preference for one of two competing brands. Brand popularity is influenced by word of mouth communication, as early adopters recommend the brand they have bought...... to later buyers. Early introduction is, however, a costly strategy. The timing of product introduction is therefore of strategic importance to firms. I investigate the equilibria of the game when firms choose their time to market strategies sequentially, and observe how they relate to the popularity...... of the Stackelberg leader's brand. This analysis reveals firms' individual incentives for leader and follower roles, and the market structure that would result in this noncooperative game. As von Stackelberg showed a leader's commitment to a strategy can preempt the follower. The present model shows...

  14. The prevalence of brand switching among adult smokers in the USA, 2006-2011: findings from the ITC US surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Monica E; Cummings, K Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hyland, Andrew; Driezen, Pete; Chaloupka, Frank J; Hammond, David; O'Connor, Richard J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that about 1 in 5 smokers report switching brands per year. However, these studies only report switching between brands. The current study estimated the rates of switching both within and between brand families and examining factors associated with brand and brand style switching. Data for this analysis are from the International Tobacco Control 2006-2011 US adult smoker cohort survey waves 5-8 (N=3248). A switch between brands was defined as reporting two different cigarette brand names for two successive waves, while switching within brand was defined as reporting the same brand name, but a different brand style. Repeated measures regression was used to determine factors associated with both switch types. A total of 1475 participants reported at least two successive waves of data with complete information on brand name and style. Overall switching increased from 44.9% in 2007-2008 to 58.4% in 2010-2011. Switching between brand names increased from 16% to 29%, while switches within the same brand name to a different style ranged from 29% to 33%. Between-brand switching was associated with younger age, lower income, non-white racial group and use of a discount brand, whereas, within-brand switching was associated with younger age and the use of a premium brand cigarette. Nearly half of smokers in the USA switched their cigarette brand or brand style within a year. Switching between brands may be more price motivated, while switching within brands may be motivated by price and other brand characteristics such as product length. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Social power, product conspicuousness, and the demand for luxury brand counterfeit products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Xuemei; Haque, Sadia; Smith, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: (1) to achieve a better understanding of the psychological determinants of the demand for luxury brand counterfeit products (LBCP) through exploring the effects of social power; (2) to extend power literature by identifying boundary conditions of the relationship between social power and compensatory consumption identified by Rucker and Galinsky (2008, J. Consum. Res., 35, 257-267) and Rucker and Galinsky (2009, J. Exp. Soc. Psychol., 45, 549-555). Findings from three experiments demonstrate that social power holds key insights into understanding consumers' purchase propensity for LBCP; product conspicuousness moderates the effects of social power on purchase propensity for status products; these moderation effects are only observed when the status products are LBCP but not genuine products. This article, therefore, contributes to the literature regarding the demand for counterfeits as well as the social power and compensatory consumption literature. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  16. To brand or not to brand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lone Schreiber; Brunsø, Karen

    2002-01-01

    When consumers recognise the Irma-girl, the yellow arches of McDonald's or the logo of Arla Foods, they react to the 'branding' of the company.E ven though many people have already heard of branding, only a minority are able to define the concept.A 'brand' can be a number of things: a name...

  17. Explicating industrial brand equity: Integrating brand trust, brand performance and industrial brand image

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Alwi, SF; Nguyen, B; Melewar; Yeat-Hui, L; Liu, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose (mandatory) The research explores brand equity from multiple perspectives (tangible and intangible) and their joint consequences, namely, on industrial buyers’ brand loyalty and their long-term commitment. The aim is to provide a more comprehensive framework of the buyer’s behavioral response in the business to business context by integrating both trust elements and industrial brand attributes (brand performance and industrial brand image). In addition, the study explores the mediatio...

  18. Analysing the consumer behaviour and the influence of brand loyalty in purchasing sportswear products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdumlu, N.; Saricam, C.; Tufekyapan, M.; Cetinkaya, M.; Donmez, AC

    2017-10-01

    Brand loyalty is an important term that defines the relationship between customer and it is important for the retailers to have a large loyal customer base. Specifically, sportswear products seem to be one of the most convenient apparel product categories to develop loyalty for the consumers. In this study, it was aimed to analyse the profile of sportswear consumers and their loyalty towards the leading sportswear retailers in Turkey. For this aim, a survey was conducted among 190 participants aged between 18 and 40, and the socio-demographic characteristics of the consumers were explored. The results revealed that more than half of the participants (54.74%) identified themselves as loyal customers in terms of sportswear products. The loyal consumers stated that they would continue to buy from these brands in the future and recommend to others. Expressing the reason for loyalty, the majority of the participant related their loyalty to the satisfying products offered by this brand. However, the participants seem likely to switch to the other brands if the other brands offer attractive promotions.

  19. A Study on the Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of University Students’ Towards the Well Known Branded Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azize Hassan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays branding, marketing literature appears to be an important concept. Consumers' attitudes towards goods and services together with increased levels of education also have become more sensitive. Many of the young people are the actual mass for the brand. At this point, young people's attitudes towards brands and information are important to determine the behavior. Heading from this importance, it was tried to measure knowledge, attitude and behavior of high brand awareness for products among 384 students who are learning in Gölbaşı Campus of Gazi University. As a result of this research it was found that the joining students preferred the high brand awareness products. Accordingly, high brand awareness products are seen by students, as mostly reliable products, which provides possibility of protection to consumers that can be easily found on the shelves and have more promotions but they are thinking that their prices are not the same everywhere.

  20. The impact of brand equity and the hedonic level of products on consumer stock-out reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, LM; Verhoef, PC; Franses, PH

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the impact of brand equity and the hedonic level of the product on consumer stock-out responses. We also examine whether the hedonic level of the product moderates the effect of brand equity. Using a sample of Dutch consumers divided over eight product groups and eight retail chains,

  1. Product Packaging Metaphors: Effects of Ambiguity and Explanatory Information on Consumer Appreciation and Brand Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, Thomas Johannes Lucas; Veltkamp, M.

    2014-01-01

    Product packaging is an important means for communicating product and brand benefits. Research suggests that visual metaphors may be particularly suited in this context, however, the conditions under which metaphors are effective are not yet well understood. In the research reported herein, effects

  2. Rising from the ashes : How brands and categories can overcome product-harm crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleeren, K.; van Heerde, H.J.; Dekimpe, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Product-harm crises are omnipresent in today's marketplace. Such crises can cause major revenue and market-share losses, lead to costly product recalls, and destroy carefully nurtured brand equity. Moreover, some of these effects may spill over to nonaffected competitors in the category when they

  3. Improved vocabulary production after naming therapy in aphasia: can gains in picture naming generalize to connected speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matt Lambon

    2009-01-01

    Naming accuracy for nouns and verbs in aphasia can vary across different elicitation contexts, for example, simple picture naming, composite picture description, narratives, and conversation. For some people with aphasia, naming may be more accurate to simple pictures as opposed to naming in spontaneous, connected speech; for others, the opposite pattern may be evident. These differences have, in some instances, been related to word class (for example, noun or verb) as well as aphasia subtype. Given that the aim of picture-naming therapies is to improve word-finding in general, these differences in naming accuracy across contexts may have important implications for the potential functional benefits of picture-naming therapies. This study aimed to explore single-word therapy for both nouns and verbs, and to answer the following questions. (1) To what extent does an increase in naming accuracy after picture-naming therapy (for both nouns and verbs) predict accurate naming of the same items in less constrained spontaneous connected speech tasks such as composite picture description and retelling of a narrative? (2) Does the word class targeted in therapy (verb or noun) dictate whether there is 'carry-over' of the therapy item to connected speech tasks? (3) Does the speed at which the picture is named after therapy predict whether it will also be used appropriately in connected speech tasks? Seven participants with aphasia of varying degrees of severity and subtype took part in ten therapy sessions over five weeks. A set of potentially useful items was collected from control participant accounts of the Cookie Theft Picture Description and the Cinderella Story from the Quantitative Production Analysis. Twenty-four of these words (twelve verbs and twelve nouns) were collated for each participant, on the basis that they had failed to name them in either simple picture naming or connected speech tasks (picture-supported narrative and unsupported retelling of a narrative

  4. Brand Preference Affects the Threshold for Perceptual Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Skov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of scientific scrutiny, much is still unknown about the effects that brands have on perception. Brands are known to lead to changes in attention and mnemonic processing and by altering emotional preferences they imbue products with value. Less, however, is known about the exact......, the Perception Awareness Scale, it is found that brand names for which there is either a positive and negative preference, subjects report seeing the name more clearly. Interestingly, and much to the contrary of studies of basic emotions, this effect is strongest for positive preference. Our results...... mechanism through which this occurs. Here, a novel and unexpected finding is provided in which subjective brand preference alters the likelihood that a brand name will be consciously seen. By presenting brand names at brief durations, and having them respond using a graded evaluation of conscious perception...

  5. THE EFFECT OF BRAND IMAGE, PRODUCT KNOWLEDGE AND PRODUCT QUALITY ON PURCHASE INTENTION OF NOTEBOOK WITH DISCOUNT PRICE AS MODERATING VARIABLE

    OpenAIRE

    Erida, Erida; Rangkuti, Ari Sonang

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study are: (1) explaining the effect of brand image, product knowledge and product quality toward purchase intention of Asus Notebook, and (2) explaining the discount price capability on moderating the effect of brand image, product knowledge and product quality toward purchase intention. Research is that through survey, where data collection is: obeservation, interview, and questioning delivery to 99 respondents. Research result shows that brand image, product knowledge a...

  6. Your most valuable asset. Increasing the value of your hospital through its brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petromilli, M; Michalczyk, D

    1999-01-01

    The authors argue that hospitals could achieve the same brand name recognition as such popular consumer product names as Coke, Nike, and GE. In fact, they say, a brand identity strategy could bring hospitals the advantage they need in a growing marketplace. Increasingly, brand recognition is becoming important in the health care world, as hospitals battle for customers. The majority of patients now choose their health plan and hospital, and they're seeking brands that provide them with the same convenience, access, and value they demand from other consumer products companies. Hospitals can create a viable brand identity strategy by defining their brand's image, maximizing their bran's positioning and patients' brand experience, communicating their brand and measuring the brand's performance.

  7. INGREDIENT BRANDING - A GROWTH OPPORTUNITY?

    OpenAIRE

    Anca BUTNARIU

    2017-01-01

    Co-branding is an increasingly used strategy, consisting of marketing products representing two brands or more. Ingredient branding fits in the scope of co-branding, consisting of the inclusion of key attributes of one brand into another brand as ingredients. Ingredient branding is one of the many brand strategies used in marketing to provide differentiation criteria for the customers. In recent years, its importance and incidence have dramatically increased Extant research provides disparate...

  8. Language as a branding tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Norlyk

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Branding normally concerns products or corporations. Coca-Cola is a strong product brand. Applecombines a strong product brand with a unique corporate brand. In the modern businessenvironment, however, the concept of branding now encompasses the branding of managementphilosophies and management activities as reflected in the branding of the popular managementphilosophy of Lean. Language, metaphors and special lexical choices play an important factor in thebranding of Lean management as unique and innovative.

  9. Prototype Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies: Branded Food Products Database for Public Health Proof of Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Prototype Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (Prototype FNDDS) Branded Food Products Database for Public Health is a proof of concept database. The database contains a small selection of food products which is being used to exhibit the approach for incorporation of the Branded Food ...

  10. THE APPLICATION OF MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS TO THE VALUATION OF DURABLE GOODS BRANDS

    OpenAIRE

    Dziechciarz-Duda, Marta; Król, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, due to changes in the market and new trends in consumer behaviours, intangible assets, such as brand, have gained fundamental importance. The more frequent conviction that a product with a well-known name is better than other products contributes to the case of replacing the price of a product by its brand name as the predominant factor in the purchase decision process. Thus, for many companies the strengthening of brand equity has become one of the key elements of marketing strateg...

  11. Is switching from brand name to generic formulations of phenobarbital associated with loss of antiepileptic efficacy?: a pharmacokinetic study with two oral formulations (Luminal® vet, Phenoleptil®) in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In human medicine, adverse outcomes associated with switching between bioequivalent brand name and generic antiepileptic drug products is a subject of concern among clinicians. In veterinary medicine, epilepsy in dogs is usually treated with phenobarbital, either with the standard brand name formulation Luminal® or the veterinary products Luminal® vet and the generic formulation Phenoleptil®. Luminal® and Luminal® vet are identical 100 mg tablet formulations, while Phenoleptil® is available in the form of 12.5 and 50 mg tablets. Following approval of Phenoleptil® for treatment of canine epilepsy, it was repeatedly reported by clinicians and dog owners that switching from Luminal® (human tablets) to Phenoleptil® in epileptic dogs, which were controlled by treatment with Luminal®, induced recurrence of seizures. In the present study, we compared bioavailability of phenobarbital after single dose administration of Luminal® vet vs. Phenoleptil® with a crossover design in 8 healthy Beagle dogs. Both drugs were administered at a dose of 100 mg/dog, resulting in 8 mg/kg phenobarbital on average. Results Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) following Luminal® vet vs. Phenoleptil® were about the same in most dogs (10.9 ± 0.92 vs. 10.5 ± 0.77 μg/ml), and only one dog showed noticeable lower concentrations after Phenoleptil® vs. Luminal® vet. Elimination half-life was about 50 h (50.3 ± 3.1 vs. 52.9 ± 2.8 h) without differences between the formulations. The relative bioavailability of the two products (Phenoleptil® vs. Luminal® vet.) was 0.98 ± 0.031, indicating that both formulations resulted in about the same bioavailability. Conclusions Overall, the two formulations did not differ significantly with respect to pharmacokinetic parameters when mean group parameters were compared. Thus, the reasons for the anecdotal reports, if true, that switching from the brand to the generic formulation of phenobarbital may lead to

  12. Is switching from brand name to generic formulations of phenobarbital associated with loss of antiepileptic efficacy?: a pharmacokinetic study with two oral formulations (Luminal(®) vet, Phenoleptil(®)) in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankstahl, Marion; Bankstahl, Jens P; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2013-10-09

    In human medicine, adverse outcomes associated with switching between bioequivalent brand name and generic antiepileptic drug products is a subject of concern among clinicians. In veterinary medicine, epilepsy in dogs is usually treated with phenobarbital, either with the standard brand name formulation Luminal(®) or the veterinary products Luminal(®) vet and the generic formulation Phenoleptil(®). Luminal(®) and Luminal(®) vet are identical 100 mg tablet formulations, while Phenoleptil(®) is available in the form of 12.5 and 50 mg tablets. Following approval of Phenoleptil(®) for treatment of canine epilepsy, it was repeatedly reported by clinicians and dog owners that switching from Luminal(®) (human tablets) to Phenoleptil(®) in epileptic dogs, which were controlled by treatment with Luminal(®), induced recurrence of seizures. In the present study, we compared bioavailability of phenobarbital after single dose administration of Luminal(®) vet vs. Phenoleptil(®) with a crossover design in 8 healthy Beagle dogs. Both drugs were administered at a dose of 100 mg/dog, resulting in 8 mg/kg phenobarbital on average. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) following Luminal(®) vet vs. Phenoleptil(®) were about the same in most dogs (10.9 ± 0.92 vs. 10.5 ± 0.77 μg/ml), and only one dog showed noticeable lower concentrations after Phenoleptil(®) vs. Luminal(®) vet. Elimination half-life was about 50 h (50.3 ± 3.1 vs. 52.9 ± 2.8 h) without differences between the formulations. The relative bioavailability of the two products (Phenoleptil(®) vs. Luminal(®) vet.) was 0.98 ± 0.031, indicating that both formulations resulted in about the same bioavailability. Overall, the two formulations did not differ significantly with respect to pharmacokinetic parameters when mean group parameters were compared. Thus, the reasons for the anecdotal reports, if true, that switching from the brand to the generic formulation of phenobarbital may lead to recurrence of

  13. Evaluation of generic and branded herbicides : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    As with other generic brand products in the marketplace, generic herbicides often have a lower initial product cost than : their brand-name counterparts. While the purchase price of herbicides is important to TxDOT, it is essential to look at : more ...

  14. CONSUMER INVOLVEMENT AND BRAND SENSITIVITY OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN THEIR CHOICE OF FASHION PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ersun, A. Nur; Yıldırım, Figen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the interest of university students in fashion products and to ascertain how different social variables explain variance in their brand sensitivity.Fashion happens to be a relevant and powerful force in our lives. At every level of society, people greatly care about the way they look, which affects both their self –esteem and the way other people interacr with them. For young adults wearing fashion brands seems to be a way of feeling adequate....

  15. Research on the perception of Skechers brand product design viewed by generation Y

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Title: Research on the perception of Skechers brand product design viewed by generation Y Goals: The main goal of the bachelor thesis is to find how generation Y perceives the sports shoes design of Skechers brand. To determine, which design factors are the most important during the selection of a sports shoes. An integral part of the thesis is to choose the most popular types of sports shoes, in the eyes of generation Y and also to find out how they perceive stoles of those shoes and their t...

  16. Assessing Customer Evaluation and Revenue Consequences of Component Sharing Across Brands in the Vertical Product Line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Verhoef (Peter); K.H. Pauwels (Koen)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractComponent sharing may look great in the boardroom, but not in the showroom. Indeed, savings on R&D and production costs could be offset by a plunge in customer brand attractiveness and willingness to pay. This paper investigates the impact of component sharing on customer evaluation of

  17. Assessing Consequences of Component Sharing across Brands in the Vertical Product Line in the Automotive Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.C.; Pauwels, K.; Tuk, M.A.

    Component sharing may look great in the boardroom but not in the showroom. Indeed, savings on research and development and production costs could be offset by a plunge in customer brand attractiveness. The central objective of this paper is to investigate consumer and market responses toward

  18. Brand leadership and product innovation as firm strategies in global food markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehlhar, M.; Regmi, A.; Stefanou, S.E.; Zoumas, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to understand the motivations for product innovation and brand leadership using a series of case studies focusing on firms with leading market positions of different types. Design/methodology/approach - A qualitative study is presented of three leading food sector firms of different

  19. Jak se vyslovují názvy cizích obchodních značek v televizních reklamách? / Pronunciation of Foreign Brand Names in TV Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Duběda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyse phonetic aspects of foreign brand names appearing in Czech TV advertisements. We first define eight principles which underlie the phonological adaptation of loanwords, and describe their relevance for the TV advertisement genre. Next we proceed to an analysis of 200 brand names retrieved from TV broadcasting. The results confirm the dominance of the phonological approximation principle, which is often combined with the spelling pronunciation principle. Original pronunciation, respecting foreign phonology, is surprisingly rare, although TV advertising is a dynamic and highly globalised media genre.

  20. Effect of Advertising on the Brand Loyalty of Cosmetic Products among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ababio, Abraham Gyamfi; Yamoah, Emmanuel Erastus

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between advertising and brand loyalty of cosmetic products. The multinomial logit model was used to ascertain the effect of advertising on different loyalty profiles for cosmetic products among college students. Based on a survey of 200 Ghanaian students drawn randomly, findings indicated that advertising plays no significant role on college students’ loyalty for cosmetic products. It can be argued, however, that the most promiscuous buyer is more amenable...

  1. BRAND AND QUALITY CONTROL OF GARMENT PRODUCTS IN THE BANGLADESH GARMENT INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshen, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This thesis paper contains information on the garment industry of Bangladesh. The garment business plays a vital part in global market. There are a large numbers of world renowned apparel companies that outsource their products in Bangladesh. The aim of the thesis is to explicate quality management in garment production and the brand protection process during outsourcing in Bangladesh. The theoretical part of the thesis provides basic information about garment products, the glo...

  2. 27 CFR 20.178 - Marks and brands on containers of specially denatured spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marks and brands on... Dealers § 20.178 Marks and brands on containers of specially denatured spirits. (a) Required marks. Each... officer, or (2) Consist of a brand name, or consist of caution notices, or consist of other material...

  3. ROMANIAN BRANDS AWARENESS AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE. THE CASE OF COMMON FOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Awareness is a prerequisite in the development of successful brands; in this paper are highlighted, for certain categories of common food products, brands enjoying the highest spontaneous awareness among young people. On the basis of this work are some of the results of a direct research conducted on a sample of 100 students, aged between 18 and 30 years. Common foods are intended for current consumption, serving to meet the dietary needs of consumers. Thus, we studied certain categories of food products with characteristics which make them fall within the common products category: milk and dairy products, meat and cooked meat (except fish, fish and eggs, canned meat (including pate, canned vegetables, bakery, milling products, pasta, breakfast cereals, sugar, eggs, nuts and seeds, oil, margarine. The conducted research has an exploratory character.

  4. The Impact of Brand Trust and Brand Affect on Brand Loyalty at Pond€™s Skin Care Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Mekel, Peggy Adeline; Lolowang, Anggreiny C.

    2014-01-01

    Brand is not just a brand for a product or service on the market. Brand makes consumers buy and use the brand. To introduce a product publicly the market, company should create a good reputation for brand. Research objectives are to analyze the influence of brand trust on brand loyalty and to analyze the influence of brand affect on brand loyalty. This research implement quantitative analyze by using questionnaires and used Multiple Regression analyze. The population observed is people in Man...

  5. Pengaruh Brand Trust terhadap Brand Loyalty Produk-produk Nokia pada Pegawai Universitas Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Sinulingga, Lipranta

    2012-01-01

    This research titled “The influence of the brand trust on Brand Loyalty for the products of Nokia to North Sumatera University officials” . This research aims to determine the positif influence of Brand Trust Variables(Brand reliability and Brand Intention) on Brand Loyalty for the products of Nokia to North Sumatera University officials . The problem in this research is whether the variabels of Brand Trust (brand reliability and brand intention) influence positif and significan for brand lo...

  6. The Effect of Social Media to the Brand Awareness of a Product of a Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansel Bagus Tritama

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Social  media  is an online media, where the users can easily participate, share, and create any content such as banner,  posters, videos and advertisement.  Many companies  use these  social  media as  a tool to promote their products  and make  customers aware  with their brand. On the other hand, not all companies  succeed to market their products and make their products are at their customers’ awareness. The purpose of this research is to find the correlation  between social media commu- nication marketing  with companys brand awareness in social media.  The research  method for this research  is quantitative  research.  This method collects  data with explanative research type which explains the relationship between two variables. The result  of this research  is to show that marketing  communication in a company has an impact to company’s brand awareness. In addition, this research wants to show that marketing via social media can give impact  to company’s revenue. The summary of this research  is to get significant  information  about the effect of social media toward companys brand awareness through quantitative  and explanative  research  method due to the rising of social media.

  7. Product placement in relation to place branding on Norwegian commercial TV – The example of reality show Hellstrøm rydder opp - hjemme .

    OpenAIRE

    Kawecka, Aleksandra Anna

    2014-01-01

    Product placement is a combination of advertising and publicity. Its objective is to generate positive associations towards brand, with hope for a positive shift in brand attitude. Product placement has become a significant element of media, and although many aspects of product placement have been studied from a marketing perspective (effectiveness, brand recall etc.), the concept of place branding as a particular form of product placement is an under-researched topic. As it falls into the gr...

  8. Pengaruh Brand Image Dan Product Design Terhadap Purchase Decision Dan Repurchase Intention Pada Produk Sepatu Futsal Merek Specs Di Kota Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    Alexi, Mardio; ', Zulkarnain; Musfar, Tengku Firli

    2017-01-01

    This research is conducted to analyze the influence of Brand Image and Product design toward Purchase Decision and Repurchase Intention on customers of product futsal shoes brand Specs at Pekanbaru City . There are four latent variables in this research such as Brand Image (X1), Product Design (X1), Purchase Decision (Y1) and Repurchase Intention (Y2). The population of this study are all customers of product futsal shoes brand Specs at Pekanbaru City with a sample of 152 respondents were sel...

  9. ERP evidence for consumer evaluation of copycat brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qian; Pei, Guanxiong; Jin, Jia; Zhang, Wuke; Wang, Yuran; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2018-01-01

    Copycat brands mimic brand leaders to free ride on the latter's equity. However, little is known regarding if and how consumers confuse copycat as leading brand in purchasing. In this study, we applied a word-pair evaluation paradigm in which the first word was a brand name (copycat vs. normal brand both similar with a leading brand in category), followed by a product name (near vs. far from the leading brand's category). Behavioral results showed that, when the product is near the leader's category, the copycat strategy (CN) was more preferred compared to the normal brand (NN) but not different in the far product condition (CF and NF). Event-related potential (ERP) data provided further insight into the mechanism. The N400 amplitude elicited by the CN condition was significantly smaller than NN. However, when products are far from the leader's category, there was no significant difference in N400 amplitudes. For the late positive component (LPC), the CN gave rise to a larger amplitude than the CF. The N400 amplitude was suggested to reflect the categorization process, and the LPC demonstrated the recollection process in long-term memory. These findings imply that the copycat brand strategy is generally only effective when products are within the category of the leading brand, which offers important implications for marketing practices.

  10. Effects of Brand Awareness on Choice for a Common, Repeat-Purchase Product.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyer, Wayne D; Brown, Steven P

    1990-01-01

    Results of a controlled experiment on the role of brand awareness in the consumer choice process showed that brand awareness was a dominant choice heuristic among awareness-group subjects. Subjects with no brand awareness tended to sample more brands and selected the high-quality brand on the final choice significantly more often than those with brand awareness. Thus, when quality differences exist among competing brands, consumers may "pay a price" for employing simple choice heuristics such...

  11. PERBANDINGAN BRAND EQUITY PRODUK SHAMPOO MEREK SUNSILK DENGAN MEREK PANTENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Raras Aristyani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to know the difference in brand equity and its elements between shampoo products with brand Sunsilk and Pantene. The data analysis technique used was the mean difference test with paired samples. Based on the results of the study, it was found that there is no difference between brand equity Sunsilk with Pantene. the four dimensions of brand equity, just a different one, namely brand perceived quality. Therefore the next shampoo brand Sunsilk should be more focus on the improvement of the quality of its products by way of innovation in flavor, ingredients, and overall quality so as to always be in the top brand position together Pantene.

  12. Brand Image in Cola Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jianfei

    2010-01-01

    In Chinese beverage market, there are three mainly cola brands, Coca cola, Pepsi and Future Cola, these three brand share almost 90% cola market, so that competition is omnipresent ,not only in the consumer market, but also very intensive in business to business market. Business-to-business brand building involves various aspects, for example, attributes of products and services, brand image, brand position, and B2B brand management, Wahaha Co., Ltd as a case company need to build brand i...

  13. Logo Effects on Brand Extension Evaluations from the Electrophysiological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qian; Pei, Guanxiong; Dai, Shenyi; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2017-01-01

    Brand extension typically has two strategies: brand name extension (BN) and brand logo extension (BL). The current study explored which strategy (BN or BL) better enhanced the success of dissimilar brand extension and product promotion in enterprises. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate electrophysiological processes when subjects evaluated their acceptance of the brand extension using a combined picture of S1 and S2. S1 was a famous brand presented by two identity signs (brand name and brand logo). S2 was a picture of an extension product that belonged to a dissimilar product category than S1. The behavior data showed that BL was more acceptable than BN in the dissimilar brand extension. The neurophysiology process was reflected by a less negative N2 component and a larger P300 component in the BL than in the BN. We suggested that N2 reflected a whole conflict between the brand-product combination and the long-term memory and that P300 could be regarded as the reflection of the categorization process in the working memory.

  14. Branding water

    OpenAIRE

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water – specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and ra...

  15. BRAND DEVELOPMENT - A WAY TO OVERCOME THE CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Petronela SIMION; Cătălina Monica ALEXE; Gheorghe MILITARU

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to highlight that within contemporary economy, the market is built on brands rather than products. The market became an universe full of colors, names, logos and taglines. The brand resides within the hearts and minds of customers as being the sum of their perceptions and experiences upon the company’s promise. Consequently, looking at brands like Apple, Microsoft, IBM who understood that technological innovation must be sustained by strong communication an...

  16. Analysis of toxic metals in branded Pakistani herbal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, M.; Muhammad, N.; Khan, H.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to estimate the concentration of heavy toxic metals in Pakistani herbal products frequently used for the treatment of various ailments. For this purpose, twenty five herbal products of well reputed herbal manufacturers were selected. The results of our investigation revealed that the concentrations of lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium were far beyond the permissible limits proposed by the International Regulatory Authorities for herbal drugs. Therefore, this study conveys a strong message to the ministry of health to establish proper rules and regulations for the validation of herbal products on scientific grounds in order to protect the general public from the harmful effects of these heavy metals in herbal products. (author)

  17. Management value of the brand with special emphasis on the emotional aspect of branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbulent of markets, which in future will be more dynamic, based on close collaboration companies (brands with towards his customers. Having a prestigious brand and loyal customers is the goal of which tend to all market participants. However, many companies are not able to predict and plan the management of the brand, but remain on a superficial understanding of branding as a simple process of creating names, slogans and product design. If brands fail to achieve an emotional connection with the customer, then the way to achieve business success and profit maximizing open. An increasing number of companies realize the importance and necessity of branding. Realizing that a good reputation and positive image reflected in business success, the company recently increasingly pay attention to this issue.

  18. Brand Relationship and Its Effect Towards Brand Evangelism to Banking Service (33-45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Vandayuli Riorini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of Brand relationship, Brand trust, Brand identification, Brand involvement, Brand commitment to Brand evangelism. This study using purposive sampling technique in which samples were selected in this study as much as 200 commercial Banks customers have used the services of the Bank at least 12 months. Data analysis instrument used was Multiple Regression Analysis with SPSS assistance. The results obtained are consistent with previous studies, in which customers increasingly have a relationship, trust, identification, involvement, and commitment to the brand Commercial Bank will increasingly have the intention to buy the brand, reference brand they use positively, and give contradictory references the back of a competing brand to others or called with Brand evangelism. Furthermore, it is known that the most dominant factor influencing Brand evangelism is a Brand commitment. Further research is recommended to investigate the influence of Brand relationship with all of its dimensions, namely Brand trust, Brand identification, Brand involvement, Brand commitment to Brand evangelism with its entire dimension (Positive brand referrals, Brand purchase intention, and Oppositional brand referrals. Furthermore, it also is advisable to do research for brands other services, such as hotels and restaurants. Keywords: country image,Brand relationship,Brand trust,Brand identification,Brand involvement,Brand commitment,Brand Evangelism

  19. The branding role that product labelling plays within integrated marketing communication

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. This study focuses on empirically determining the branding role that product labelling plays as a strategic element in Integrated Marketing Communication functioning within the food and beverage industry. This research topic was selected for a number of reasons. Firstly, there is a general misconception of the definition of the term Integrated Marketing Communication. Secondly, there is also an emergence of the perception that labelling plays an important role as a strategic element i...

  20. Neuromarketing – its role in building of brand, introduction of products innovation, and advertising messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wrona

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is to present the substance of the neuromarketing, its assumption and possibilities, as well as the method of research of the activity of consumer’s brains. Particular attention was paid to the use of neuromarketing research in branding, efficient marketing of new products and in building effective advertising messages. An article is also an attempt to show the possibilities of using methods of neuroimaging in improving marketing activities of scientific and research institutions.

  1. On the Competitive Interaction Between Private Label and Branded Grocery Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald W. Cotterill; Ravi Dhar; William P. Putsis Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Recent research in marketing has focused on cross-category variation in the market share of private label products, while recent work in the economics and industrial organization literature has focused on the determinants of firm price setting behavior. In this paper, the authors develop a framework for estimating market share and price reaction equations simultaneously in an attempt to understand the nature of competitive interaction in the market for private label and branded grocery produc...

  2. THE EFFECT OF BRAND LOYALTY OF INVOLVEMENT TO PRODUCTS: THE SAMPLE OF MOBILE PHONE

    OpenAIRE

    Armagan, Ece; Akel, Gokhan

    2017-01-01

    Brands in a highly competitive environment is consideredas the main assets of businesses, businesses that create brand loyalty ensuresthat there is a long period of time. In order to ensure brand loyalty alsoconsumers’ involvement need to be investigated. Brand loyalty is also a greatbenefit in understanding consumers' level of involvement on the brand. Theproduct involvement required to understand consumer behavior is an importantfactor on brand loyalty. In this study, the effect of the...

  3. Brand Products of Regional Cuisine in the Promotion of Tourism in Roztocze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekier-Jaworska Ewa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There has been a trend over the last few years of using specialties of regional cuisine as an independent tourist attraction. The creation of local brands is an important element in the promotion of a given region and it also influences the development of culinary tourism. The aim of the studies conducted was to identify regional dishes - a choice of dishes that could be described as 'brand dishes' and the use of those dishes as tourist attractions in Roztocze. Material and methods. Studies were conducted on a group of students studying tourism and recreation at State Higher School of Vocational Education (PWSZ in Zamość using a questionnaire. Results. The questionnaire provided an assessment of the levels of knowledge of regional cuisine among Polish and Ukrainian students, identified the most characteristic dishes and selected brand products, and helped to arrive at a suitable method of promotion. Conclusions. Nationality, family customs and selection of local restaurants highly influence knowledge of regional cuisine. Interviewees decided that the most outstanding products from Roztocze were Zwierzyniec beer, and Biłgoraj pie. Regional products should be used as a tourist attraction in Roztocze.

  4. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PPIS includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pesticidal type, formulation code, and registration status for all products registered in the U.S.

  5. The Effect of Social Media to the Brand Awareness of a Product of a Company

    OpenAIRE

    Tritama, Hansel Bagus; Tarigan, Riswan Efendi

    2016-01-01

    Social  media  is an online media, where the users can easily participate, share, and create any content such as banner,  posters, videos and advertisement.  Many companies  use these  social  media as  a tool to promote their products  and make  customers aware  with their brand. On the other hand, not all companies  succeed to market their products and make their products are at their customers’ awareness. The purpose of this research is to find the correlation  between social media commu- ...

  6. In Search of Ecological Norms in Brand Personality Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Gorbaniuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine a structure of brand personality at an ecological level and to develop norms for positioning a particular brand in relation to other brands by means of brand personality scales. Methodology: We present the results of a study in which 1,642 participants aged 15 to 82 (mean 35.3; 51.9% females were involved. Each respondent marked three to four brands from different categories of goods and services on a 20-item adjectival list for measuring brand personality. As a result, 6,548 descriptions of 224 brands from 46 categories were collected. Findings: Our analyses show that the structure of the differences among brand personalities on the Polish market can be described in terms of four dimensions: competence, spontaneity, subtlety, and egoism. The established dimensions explain 85% of the variance. A distribution of the results within the scales applied served as a basis for establishing specifc norms for each of the four scales. Limitations: The norms established have a country-level character and are inclusively adequate and reliable for companies that purchase products and services on the Polish market. Originality: Our study presents a new, ecological approach to thinking about brands. Namely, it enables a more precise determination of the position of a certain brand in relation to many other competing brands and allows for a more effcient use of the potential for constructing brand personality.

  7. The Impact of Brand Awareness on Companies` Marketing Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Zaif

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Within this paper,we will try to emphasize the importance of brand awareness and its significant role in brand-building,discussing how companies implementing brand-awareness marketing strategies will have a substantial role in creating brand image,strenghten brand equity and increase profitability . Firstly,we will conduct an empirical research based on previous published literature concerning brand awareness and will discuss the effectiveness of marketing strategies that incorporate in their objectives brand awareness increase,acknowledging its impact on significant factors such as brand image ,sales increase,influencing customer behaviour and other important equity-related aspects.We will try to corroborate our statements by referring to a marketing strategy designed to enhance brand awareness and stimulate other brand-equity dimensions (brand association,brand loyalty,etc.,as well as generate higher sales revenues , namely sponsorship and we will discuss a particular category,respectively sponsorship in the sports industry.The study case wil be concluded with an example of a succesfull partnership involving a sponsorship agreement between a reputable multinational food and beverage corporation,PepsiCo(known for famous products such as Pepsi soft drinks and foods such as Lay`s Chips and one of the most important events expected by football enthusiasts around the world,the UEFA Champions` League annual tournament.

  8. Building Brand Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, S.; Muthumani, S., Dr.

    2017-05-01

    Brand power is established through brand awareness. It’s all about making consumers familiar about their products and services. Marketing strategies should make the customers extend the positive approach towards brand and continue through repeated purchases. There is a triple perspective approach to investigate the brand awareness in this research. The brand awareness and brand equity are studied and the relationship between those are analyzed. This also drills down about the brand performance and knowledge with awareness which tries to find out the brands value and utility among the public. Continuous improvement on package design, quality and buying experience will lead to customer loyalty and preference. Branding should happen though creative ads, eye catchers and special campaigns. Brand awareness is the extent to which consumers are familiar with their product or services. Power of a brand is resides in the minds of the customers. To build a strong brand, it is one of the great challenge for the marketers to ensure that customers have the right experiences with products and services and various marketing programs. So that tenderness, beliefs, perspective, perception and so on linked to the brand. If we are presenting the brand with no enthusiasm or spunk, people are going to forget about our brand. Even though that may seem harsh, it’s the naked truth in today’s marketing world. Brand must reach out to the community by special events, creating campaigns to keep the brand relevant also offer customer a unique experience. Here we study about the brand consciousness and to identify the cohesion between brand awareness with knowledge and performance and also to assess the effect of brand awareness on consumer purchase. In this study we necessary statistical tools like chi-square test ad t-test has been used to analyse the collected data. It is highly recommend to increase brand awareness, the marketers are constantly required to build brand awareness both

  9. Product innovation as a mediator in the impact of R&D expenditure and brand equity on marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, P.; Davcik, N.; Pillai, K. G.

    2016-01-01

    WOS:000385318500014 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) This study combines the signaling theory and dynamic marketing capabilities perspective to investigate the mediating role of product innovation in the influence of R&D expenditure and brand equity on marketing performance. The study shows that MNC firms are able to use R&D expenditure to improve their product innovation and market share to a greater extent compared to SME and retailer firms. However, the stronger brand equity of MNC firms m...

  10. Monitoring tobacco brand websites to understand marketing strategies aimed at tobacco product users and potential users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Patricia; Cruz, Tess Boley; Tsai, Kai-Ya; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel W; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Pattarroyo, Monica; Unger, Jennifer B

    2017-09-11

    Limited information exists about strategies and methods used on brand marketing websites to transmit pro-tobacco messages to tobacco users and potential users. This study compared age verification methods, themes, interactive activities and links to social media across tobacco brand websites. This study examined 12 tobacco brand websites representing four tobacco product categories: cigarettes, cigar/cigarillos, smokeless tobacco, and e-cigarettes. Website content was analyzed by tobacco product category and data from all website visits (n = 699) were analyzed. Adult smokers (n=32) coded websites during a one-year period, indicating whether or not they observed any of 53 marketing themes, seven interactive activities, or five external links to social media sites. Most (58%) websites required online registration before entering, however e-cigarette websites used click-through age verification. Compared to cigarette sites, cigar/cigarillo sites were more likely to feature themes related to "party" lifestyle, and e-cigarette websites were much more likely to feature themes related to harm reduction. Cigarette sites featured greater levels of interactive content compared to other tobacco products. Compared to cigarette sites, cigar/cigarillo sites were more likely to feature activities related to events and music. Compared to cigarette sites, both cigar and e-cigarette sites were more likely to direct visitors to external social media sites. Marketing methods and strategies normalize tobacco use by providing website visitors with positive themes combined with interactive content, and is an area of future research. Moreover, all tobacco products under federal regulatory authority should be required to use more stringent age verification gates. Findings indicate the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) should require brand websites of all tobacco products under its regulatory authority use more stringent age verification gates by requiring all visitors be at least 18 years

  11. Pengaruh Product Knowledge dan Brand Association Terhadap Purchase Intention Kawasan Kampung Kreatif Dago Pojok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luthfi Maulana Ridwan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui gambaran pengaruh “Pengaruh Product Knowledge dan Brand Association terhadap Purchase Intention pada Kawasan Kampung Kreatif Dago Pojok”. Adapun yang menjadi target populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh pengunjung kampung kreatif dago pojok dan sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini sebanyak 60 orang responden. Dalam penelitian ini metode yang digunakan adalah Deskriptif Verifikatif dan alat analisis yang digunakan adalah Regresi Linear Berganda yang bertujuan untuk mengukur sejauh mana pengaruh hubungan antara variabel satu dan lainnya dan juga menggunakan Uji Hipotesis F dan T yang bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh Variabel product knowledge, brand association dan purchase intention berpengaruh secara parsial ataupun simultan. Persmaan Regresi Linear didapatkan berdasarkan hasil uji statistik pada program SPSS yaitu Y = 7.846 + 0.279 (X1 + 0.261 (X2 dan hasil koefisien Korelasi R sebesar 0.564 yang menunjukan bahwa terdapat pengaruh yang kuat antara masing-massing variabel. Sedangkan hasil Koefisien Determinasi R2 sebesar 0,375 yang berarti bahwa Product Knowledge dan Brand Association mampu mempengaruhi Purchase Intention dengan persentasi 37.5% sedangkan sisanya 62.5% dipengaruhi oleh variabel lain yang tidak dijelaskan dalam penelitian. Dapat disimpulkan bahwaa dari hasil uji SPSS bahwa semua Variabel bebas mempunyai pengaruh yang signifikan bila di uji scara bersama-sama ataupun di uji scara parsial. Kata Kunci : Product Knowledge, Brand Association, Purchase Intention ABSTRACT The research was purposed to find out the description of , Influence of Product Knowledge and Brand Association towards to Purchase Intention of Dago Pojok the Creative Village Area The population target in this research are all of consumers of Dago Pojok the Creative Village Area and took 60 respondentsas sample.This research used verification descriptive as the method and multiple linear regression as

  12. PENGARUH PRODUCT PLACEMENT VOLVO DI DALAM FILM TWILIGHT SAGA: BREAKING DAWN PART 1 & PART 2 TERHADAP BRAND RECALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghygha Yunus Widya Prasetya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Movie scenes have become attractive means for many industries to present their products without enforced impression. Through careful designed product placement strategy, Twilight movie became the perfect promotional media for Volvo in promoting their products. Volvo is one of the premium automotive brands under the auspices of Indomobil. This well-known brand always put and positions their product merely for the target premium. Product placement is an example of a hybrid message or an attempt to influence audience at an affordable cost. Some benefits in advertising through product placement are a lot of audiences see the products so that the brand awareness and the products’ credibility would significantly increase. In conclusion, consumer’s behavior in recognizing and remembering a product might be affected by their vision, hearing, and admiration.

  13. The impact of brand extension fit, extension strategy and product exposure on attitudinal responses to brand extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Farstad, Lena Kvelland; Jabran, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Brand extensions have for decades been one of the most used strategies for growth, but the sad reality is that 8 out of 10 extensions fail, making the likelihood of failure unattractively high. In addition, competition and pressure on margins increases as retailers’ power improves due to proliferation of private labels. As a result, managers are eager for new innovative strategies that can differentiate their extension and improve likelihood of success. The purpose of this paper is therefore ...

  14. Internal Branding and Employee Brand Consistent Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzei, Alessandra; Ravazzani, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    constitutive processes. In particular, the paper places emphasis on the role and kinds of communication practices as a central part of the nonnormative and constitutive internal branding process. The paper also discusses an empirical study based on interviews with 32 Italian and American communication managers...... and 2 focus groups with Italian communication managers. Findings show that, in order to enhance employee brand consistent behaviours, the most effective communication practices are those characterised as enablement-oriented. Such a communication creates the organizational conditions adequate to sustain......Employee behaviours conveying brand values, named brand consistent behaviours, affect the overall brand evaluation. Internal branding literature highlights a knowledge gap in terms of communication practices intended to sustain such behaviours. This study contributes to the development of a non...

  15. Improved Vocabulary Production after Naming Therapy in Aphasia: Can Gains in Picture Naming Generalise to Connected Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matt Lambon

    2009-01-01

    Background: Naming accuracy for nouns and verbs in aphasia can vary across different elicitation contexts, for example, simple picture naming, composite picture description, narratives, and conversation. For some people with aphasia, naming may be more accurate to simple pictures as opposed to naming in spontaneous, connected speech; for others,…

  16. Reducing calorie sales from supermarkets - 'silent' reformulation of retailer-brand food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Sommer, Iben

    2017-08-23

    Food product reformulation is seen as one among several tools to promote healthier eating. Reformulating the recipe for a processed food, e.g. reducing the fat, sugar or salt content of the foods, or increasing the content of whole-grains, can help the consumers to pursue a healthier life style. In this study, we evaluate the effects on calorie sales of a 'silent' reformulation strategy, where a retail chain's private-label brands are reformulated to a lower energy density without making specific claims on the product. Using an ecological study design, we analyse 52 weeks' sales data - enriched with data on products' energy density - from a Danish retail chain. Sales of eight product categories were studied. Within each of these categories, specific products had been reformulated during the 52 weeks data period. Using econometric methods, we decompose the changes in calorie turnover and sales value into direct and indirect effects of product reformulation. For all considered products, the direct effect of product reformulation was a reduction in the sale of calories from the respective product categories - between 0.5 and 8.2%. In several cases, the reformulation led to indirect substitution effects that were counterproductive with regard to reducing calorie turnover. However, except in two insignificant cases, these indirect substitution effects were dominated by the direct effect of the reformulation, leading to net reductions in calorie sales between -3.1 and 7.5%. For all considered product reformulations, the reformulation had either positive, zero or very moderate negative effects on the sales value of the product category to which the reformulated product belonged. Based on these findings, 'silent' reformulation of retailer's private brands towards lower energy density seems to contribute to lowering the calorie intake in the population (although to a moderate extent) with moderate losses in retailer's sales revenues.

  17. What’s in a name? The effects of sound symbolism and package shape on consumer responses to food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Lotterman, Henriët; Galetzka, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    In the global market, consumers are exposed to multiple brand names in unfamiliar languages. Even meaningless words can trigger certain semantic associations. This phenomenon is known as sound symbolism, i.e., the direct link between a sound and a meaning. Sound symbolism helps consumers to form

  18. Influence of Product Quality, Brand Image and Price Concerning Automobile Buying Decision of Toyota Avanza at PT. Nasmoco Majapahit Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Arya Willis Nugraha; Waluyo, Handoyo Djoko; Nugraha, Hari Susanta

    2015-01-01

    This research was based on rapid automotive sector business development, especially automobile. Specifically, this research was discuss about automobile buying of Toyota Avanza brand at PT Nasmoco Majapahit Semarang during 2011 - 2014 keep have sale descending and it's sale target. If that case wasn't improve and solve, probably will presence problem for PT. Nasmoco Majapahit Semarang next.Aim of this research was to found product quality, brand image and price concerning automobile buying de...

  19. Food health branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    elements convey a healthy brand image depends on context factors external to the company (e.g. regulation), and internal ones (e.g. corporate branding strategy, brand type, product type, type of communication strategies, the brand management stage and the manager's capability). Moreover, the marketing mix...... and contributing towards healthier food choices. However, branding a food product based on the value of health is not an easy practice as strategies employed may often fail to convey the value of health. In addition, a potential conflict may be apparent between branding the value of health and the ethical norms...... in conveying a healthy brand image and how health brands are dealt with in the public discourse. The second study explores consumers' associations with food and health, perceptions of food healthfulness, and how these differ between gender and age groups. The third study identifies health-related segments...

  20. ANALYSIS CONSUMER’S PERCEIVE FOR MARKETING MIX TOWARD BRAND EQUITY OF FRESTEA PRODUCTS (Case Study to Consumer’s Pamella Swalayan Supermarket in Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiarto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze impact of consumer’s perceive about marketing mix (promotion, price, and distribution toward perceived quality, and perceived brand loyality in forming the overall brand equity of Frestea. The data was collected from 200 respondents to four Swalayan Pamella in Yogyakarta. The data analysis technique with Structural Equation Modeling (SEM assisted by a computer application LISREL (Linear Structural Relationship 8.8 Student Version. The output analysis of SEM indicated that the structural model could be accepted (close-fit based on empirical facts. The structural model indicated that the brand equity of Frestea products was created by brand loyality, and perceived quality. Brand loyality with significant positive correlation toward brand equity had the biggest contribution, while the perceived quality had the lowest contribution with negative correlation toward brand equity. The estimation of parameter also showed that distribution intensity had significant positive correlation towards brand equity.

  1. Product placement in Hollywood blockbusters: brand recognition and attitude towards the practice : A case study on product placement attitudes among international students

    OpenAIRE

    Tiavin, Kiril; Köllisch, Frederic; Nurminen, Vili

    2015-01-01

    Background: Advertising channels in today's marketplace are becoming more limited with the development of ad-free sources of entertainment. The phenomenon of product placements is therefore becoming one of the most important sources for advertising in media. Especially film productions have turned into a canvas for companies to display their brands upon. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the case of product placements in Hollywood blockbuster movies. In particular, brand ...

  2. Revitalizing Brands and Brand Portfolios: Essays on Brand and Brand Portfolio Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Depecik, Baris

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractHow should consumer products manufacturers and retailers keep their portfolio of brand offerings relevant and energetic when large numbers of new brands are continuously launched into a world of increasingly nonloyal customers with evolving needs? The harsh reality is, at a time when the demise of old brands has accelerated and even established brands are vulnerable, it stands to be a great deal of challenge. Fortunately, a number of ‘revitalization’ strategies can add relevan...

  3. Profiling the Buzz Agent: Product Referral and the Study of Social Community and Brand Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Claro,Danny Pimentel; Bortoluzzo,Adriana Bruscato

    2015-01-01

    The buzz agent is any consumer perceived by others as a source of product referral. Previous literature in word of mouth (WOM) has looked into characteristics of individuals who successfully persuade others to choose a brand. While there have been studies in this field, the literature is still scattered and little has been done to profile the consumer playing the buzz-agent role. We aim to deepen our understanding about the consumer who must be recruited as a buzz agent by a firm ...

  4. FROM BRAND PLACEMENT TO TOURISM PRODUCT PLACEMENT. FICTION SERIES AS PROMOTIONAL SUPPORT OF SPANISH TOURISM DESTINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Araújo-Vila

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Every day more consumers spend much of their free time to the consumption of audiovisual series, which is reflected in the notable increase in downloads and audiences. Therefore, many sectors have decided to use audiovisual series as advertising (brand placement, being one of them the tourism sector (tourism product placement. There are many worldwide destinations that have decided to set in a fiction series, thus being viewed by thousands of spectators, which has resulted in increases in visitors. In the Spanish case is not so clear the use of this strategy, as it is analysed in this article.

  5. Green brand awareness and customer purchase intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Braimah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Green environmental issues have been of topical interest to both researchers and industrialists for some time now. Research on green brands is relatively limited, especially in developing countries, such as Ghana. This study is therefore designed to determine the relationship between customer awareness of green brand issues and their everyday purchase intentions. Using quantitative techniques, the study interviewed 316 people, conveniently selected from various shopping points in Accra. The study found that, the overwhelming majority of respondents though familiar with green issues did not concern themselves with green issues in their everyday purchase decisions. Again, majority of respondents (54% familiar with environmental issues confirmed they would not switch from their preferred brands to less fancied brands even if the less fancied brands were more environmentally friendly. It was also confirmed in the study that price, brand name and convenience, performed better than customer concerns for green issues, in influencing respondents’ purchase decisions. It would therefore be strategically significance if advocates, policy makers and business leaders reduce the cost of green products to the final consumer, intensive public education campaigns, coupled with strategic brand building efforts to enhance the level of green brand consumption.

  6. Brand appearances in contemporary cinema films and contribution to global marketing of cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, J D; Tickle, J J; Beach, M L; Dalton, M A; Ahrens, M B; Heatherton, T F

    2001-01-06

    The appearance of a cigarette brand in a cinema film gives the brand a certain distinction through its association with the characters and general tone of the film. Through the worldwide distribution of films, brands are promoted globally. We assessed the tobacco-brand appearances in a 10-year sample of contemporary films. We viewed the contents of the top 25 US box-office films for each year of release, from 1988 to 1997 (250 films in total). We compared the prevalence of brand appearances for films produced before a voluntary ban on paid product placement by the tobacco industry (1988-90) with films produced after the ban (1991-97). Tobacco-brand appearance was defined as the screen appearance of a brand name, logo, or identifiable trademark on products or product packaging, billboards, store-front advertising, or tobacco promotional items. We defined actor endorsement of a brand as the display of a brand while being handled or used by an actor. More than 85% of the films contained tobacco use. Tobacco brands appeared in 70 (28%) films. Brand appearances were as common in films suitable for adolescent audiences as they were in films for adult audiences (32 vs 35%), and were also present in 20% of those rated for children. Prevalence of brand appearance did not change overall in relation to the ban. However, there was a striking increase in the type of brand appearance depicted, with actor endorsement increasing from 1% of films before the ban to 11% after. Four US cigarette brands accounted for 80% of brand appearances. Revenues outside the USA accounted for 49% of total revenues for these films, indicating a large international audience. Tobacco-brand appearances are common in films and are becoming increasingly endorsed by actors. The most highly advertised US cigarette brands account for most brand appearances, which suggests an advertising motive to this practice.

  7. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  8. Brand alliance. Building block for scientific organisations´ marketing strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern Redler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses management issues of brand alliances as part of a scientific organisation´s marketing strategy. Though brand alliances have become quite popular with consumer products they seem to be exceptions in the marketing context of academic or scientific organisations. Against this background, the paper develops a brand alliance approach considering requirements of strategically marketing scientific organisations. As a starting point, brand alliances are discussed as a sub-category to brand combinations. Furthermore, opportunities for scientific organisations associated with the alliance approach are elucidated as well as, from a more general perspective, major threats. In the following course, the paper focuses on modelling a framework of customer-based brand alliance effects, referring to the behavioural science-based view of brands which conceptualises brands as the psychological reaction to the exposure of brand elements like a name, logo or symbols. In that context, prerequisites for success are examined as well. Further, essential components of a brand alliance management process are discussed and its application to scientific organisations is expounded. Aspects like, e.g., choosing and evaluating a partner brand, positioning a brand alliance or monitoring brand alliance performance are illuminated. In regard to practical application also factors and requirements for organisation´s brand alliance success are outlined.

  9. The role of complementarity and partner brand price level in new product introduction strategy using bundle offers: A study on the quality perception of bundle components.

    OpenAIRE

    Khandeparkar, Kapil

    2014-01-01

    New products are often bundled with strong brands as an introduction strategy. This study helps to understand the scenarios which will be most beneficial to both the products in the bundle. The enhancement effect and categorisation theory is used to explain that the new product's quality perception is higher when it is bundled with a strong brand of a higher price and this effect is moderated by the complementarity of the bundled components. Also, the quality perception of the strong brand is...

  10. Online product and/or service brand offerings in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kruger

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has forced most companies to consider online brand building strategies. This strategic consideration depends on the determination of the status quo of the brand at present. The former is crucial as identified success drivers of online brand initiatives are neither uniformly nor generically applicable to all online brand offerings. It is thus suggested that the applicability of success factors to online brand offerings depends on the appropriateness of the brand’s context, which in turn is determined by benchmarking the brand against categorised characteristics of existing online brands. This paper summarises and categorises South African online brand offerings over a three year period and applies the findings for elucidatory purposes to a three dimensional Brandscape Model. After managerial implications have been discussed, the study concludes with recommendations for future research.

  11. Tingkat Brand Awareness Masyarakat Surabaya terhadap Brand Baru Restoran The Consulate

    OpenAIRE

    Malinda, Melodi

    2017-01-01

    The Consulate merupakan sebuah brand baru hasil dari rebranding yang dilakukan oleh 1914 Surabaya. Sebagai brand baru, peneliti tertarik untuk meneliti tingkat Brand Awareness. The Consulate telah mengkomunikasikan mengenai brand barunya yang meliputi kelima Brand Elements yang terdiri dari Brand Name, URL, Logo & Symbol, Slogan dan Packaging melalui media komunikasi yang dianggap efektif, yaitu media sosial Instagram. Brand Awareness merupakan aset yang tahan lama dan berkelanjutan, maka...

  12. Objective measures of emotion related to brand attitude: a new way to quantify emotion-related aspects relevant to marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla, Peter; Brenner, Gerhard; Koller, Monika

    2011-01-01

    With this study we wanted to test the hypothesis that individual like and dislike as occurring in relation to brand attitude can be objectively assessed. First, individuals rated common brands with respect to subjective preference. Then, they volunteered in an experiment during which their most liked and disliked brand names were visually presented while three different objective measures were taken. Participant's eye blinks as responses to acoustic startle probes were registered with electromyography (EMG) (i) and their skin conductance (ii) and their heart rate (iii) were recorded. We found significantly reduced eye blink amplitudes related to liked brand names compared to disliked brand names. This finding suggests that visual perception of liked brand names elicits higher degrees of pleasantness, more positive emotion and approach-oriented motivation than visual perception of disliked brand names. Also, skin conductance and heart rate were both reduced in case of liked versus disliked brand names. We conclude that all our physiological measures highlight emotion-related differences depending on the like and dislike toward individual brands. We suggest that objective measures should be used more frequently to quantify emotion-related aspects of brand attitude. In particular, there might be potential interest to introduce startle reflex modulation to measure emotion-related impact during product development, product design and various further fields relevant to marketing. Our findings are discussed in relation to the idea that self reported measures are most often cognitively polluted.

  13. Objective measures of emotion related to brand attitude: a new way to quantify emotion-related aspects relevant to marketing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Walla

    Full Text Available With this study we wanted to test the hypothesis that individual like and dislike as occurring in relation to brand attitude can be objectively assessed. First, individuals rated common brands with respect to subjective preference. Then, they volunteered in an experiment during which their most liked and disliked brand names were visually presented while three different objective measures were taken. Participant's eye blinks as responses to acoustic startle probes were registered with electromyography (EMG (i and their skin conductance (ii and their heart rate (iii were recorded. We found significantly reduced eye blink amplitudes related to liked brand names compared to disliked brand names. This finding suggests that visual perception of liked brand names elicits higher degrees of pleasantness, more positive emotion and approach-oriented motivation than visual perception of disliked brand names. Also, skin conductance and heart rate were both reduced in case of liked versus disliked brand names. We conclude that all our physiological measures highlight emotion-related differences depending on the like and dislike toward individual brands. We suggest that objective measures should be used more frequently to quantify emotion-related aspects of brand attitude. In particular, there might be potential interest to introduce startle reflex modulation to measure emotion-related impact during product development, product design and various further fields relevant to marketing. Our findings are discussed in relation to the idea that self reported measures are most often cognitively polluted.

  14. Objective Measures of Emotion Related to Brand Attitude: A New Way to Quantify Emotion-Related Aspects Relevant to Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla, Peter; Brenner, Gerhard; Koller, Monika

    2011-01-01

    With this study we wanted to test the hypothesis that individual like and dislike as occurring in relation to brand attitude can be objectively assessed. First, individuals rated common brands with respect to subjective preference. Then, they volunteered in an experiment during which their most liked and disliked brand names were visually presented while three different objective measures were taken. Participant's eye blinks as responses to acoustic startle probes were registered with electromyography (EMG) (i) and their skin conductance (ii) and their heart rate (iii) were recorded. We found significantly reduced eye blink amplitudes related to liked brand names compared to disliked brand names. This finding suggests that visual perception of liked brand names elicits higher degrees of pleasantness, more positive emotion and approach-oriented motivation than visual perception of disliked brand names. Also, skin conductance and heart rate were both reduced in case of liked versus disliked brand names. We conclude that all our physiological measures highlight emotion-related differences depending on the like and dislike toward individual brands. We suggest that objective measures should be used more frequently to quantify emotion-related aspects of brand attitude. In particular, there might be potential interest to introduce startle reflex modulation to measure emotion-related impact during product development, product design and various further fields relevant to marketing. Our findings are discussed in relation to the idea that self reported measures are most often cognitively polluted. PMID:22073192

  15. How Brand Equity and Movieliking can Override Impact of Misleading Brand Placement toward Brand Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Zakaria Afiff

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of this study is the phenomenon termed misleading brand placement, a condition found where the brand placement in a movie depict the brand in a time where the brand has not yet exist, providing the brand an older age. As the brand used in the brand placement is a brand with high brand equity, the combination of older age and high brand equity is suspected to give a higher evaluation of the brand. To test these suspicions, three experiments were conducted to see the influence of consumer knowledge of the misleading brand placement, brand equity and movie liking toward the brand attitude. The results show that when consumers do not have knowledge of the misleading brand placement they are not affected by misleading brand placement; but when they know of the misleading brand placement, brand attitude tend to be still be high when brand equity is high; and finally, when brand equity is high, a positive movie liking can further strengthen brand equity in reducing the negative effect of the misleading brand placement. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Cambria","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  16. A survey on the impacts of brand extension strategy on consumers’ attitude for new products development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Parsa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Marketing planning has been one of the most important components of production planning. A good marketing strategy can increase sales of products, which leads to higher profitability. The proposed study of this paper investigates how consumer's mental capability reacts when a new product is introduced along with a well known brand. The proposed study of this paper selects 196 people who choose 12 various products. Dependent variable is consumer perception towards new product development. Independent variables include customers consider newly offered product as replacement or supplement one. They surveyed people are also asked whether they think the new technological characteristics can incorporate older ones' or not. Finally, participants are asked about their perception on product. Correlation ratio between technology transfer capabilities and perception towards the new product is calculated as 0.454, which is much more than other variables and P-value is significant when the level of significance is one percent. The other observation is that there is a positive and meaningful relationship between potential for product substitution and perception towards the new product, which has been calculated as 0.227.

  17. internal branding

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Anu; Omanga, Josphat

    2014-01-01

    The project report provides an insight into internal branding of two different leading firms – Coca-Cola and Google. The aim of this project report is to study how these two companies use internal branding to promote or build brand performance of the company. This report follows a qualitative research method. The report is deductive in nature and hence, it is guided by the literatures of internal branding. The project report conducted research on brand identity, brand commitment and brand loy...

  18. Internal branding

    OpenAIRE

    Rijal, Ramesh; Dhakal, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    The project report provides an insight into internal branding of two different leading firms – Coca-Cola and Google. The aim of this project report is to study how these two companies use internal branding to promote or build brand performance of the company. This report follows a qualitative research method. The report is deductive in nature and hence, it is guided by the literatures of internal branding. The project report conducted research on brand identity, brand commitment and brand loy...

  19. The Australian experience following plain packaging: the impact on tobacco branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, Steven J

    2016-12-01

    Brands are critical to tobacco marketing. Industry stakeholders predicted that plain packaging, by removing key tangible branding dimensions, would restrict new products and brand differentiation. However, manufacturers respond innovatively to limit regulatory impact. This study investigates brand strategy following plain packaging's introduction to Australia. Brand portfolios were determined using 2006-15 tobacco ingredient reports. These detail the brand and variant names sold and are provided annually as part of a voluntary agreement between the Australian Government and leading manufacturers. Post-plain packaging brand ranges were verified using retail price lists and a supermarket retail audit using a method used previously to verify a period of pre-plain packaging data. The verification process identified some data inaccuracies from one manufacturer which resulted in the issuing of corrected data. After plain packaging the leading manufacturers continued with extensive brand ranges differentiated by price. All launched new products. While total brand numbers fell from 29 to 24, the mean number of variants for the leading 12 brands grew from 8.9 to 9.7. Substantial variant name modifications occurred with 50 new or modified names in 2012-13. Among leading brands, the incidence of variant colour names increased from 49.5 to 79.3%. New brands and variants were not inhibited by the introduction of plain packaging in Australia. After plain packaging, leading brand variant numbers expanded by 9 to 116 and colour variant names increased by 73.6% and became the norm-lighter colours (blue, gold and silver) dominated, perpetuating notions of less harmful cigarettes. [Correction added on 09 September 2016, after first online publication: The figures in the last sentence of the Abstract are now corrected from 'expanded by 116' to 'expanded by 9 to 116'.]. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF PRODUCT QUALITY , PRICE PERCEPTION AND BRAND IMAGE ON SATISFACTION AND CUSTOMER LOYALTY HOLCIM CONCRETE READYMIX IN JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Budiastari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to find a picture of the effect of product quality , price perception and brand image on satisfaction and customer loyalty ready mix concrete in Jakarta . This research is a quantitative study with descriptive and causal methods undertaken at Holcim Beton in 2013 with a sample of 100 customers in Jakarta and its surrounding the industrial and commercial segments project . Data collection by questionnaire respondents and analyzed using path analysis with SPSS version 20.0. The results of the study concluded that ( 1 product quality does not effect to customer satisfaction ( 2 Perception price positive and significant effect on customer satisfaction, ( 3 Brand Image does not have an influence on customer satisfaction, ( 4 all independent variables , quality of products , Perception price and a positive brand image and significant consequences for the dependent variable Customer satisfaction, with the value of determination of 50%, while 50% are influenced by other variables ( 5 Product Quality and significant effect on customer loyalty through customer satisfaction, ( 6 Perceived Price does not effect on loyalty through customer satisfaction, ( 7 brand image have effect and siginikan loyalty through customer satisfaction, ( 8 Dependent variable of product quality , price perception and brand image together and significant effect on customer loyalty through customer satisfaction, with value of determination of 77.4 %, and 22.6 % are influenced by other factors. The findings recommend that Holcim aims to improve product quality , perceived price and brand image to increase loyalty through customer satisfaction . It is also recommended to Holcim for increase of services and information to customers in order for increase customer satisfaction and loyalty.

  1. FESTIVE FOOD BRANDS AWARENESS AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE ON ROMANIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented some of the results obtained through an exploratory research carried out in the month of April 2016 on a sample of 100 students from the Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau, referring to awareness of festive food brands on the Romanian market. Festive products have special sensory properties designed to especially satisfy gastronomic indulgence and not nutritional needs of individuals. Thus, we studied a number of categories covering mainly food products for the pleasure of eating, namely: confectionery, coffee, tea, chips and snacks, soft drinks and alcoholic beverages. Thus there are shown brands that enjoy the highest spontaneous awareness in the investigated sample, young people undergoing investigation being asked to indicate the top 3 brands that come to mind for various product categories investigated. The study shows both the brands which enjoy the highest top of mind awareness and those brands which were nominated by most respondents among the top three of which they remember.

  2. Two Ways of Learning Brand Associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.J. van Osselaer (Stijn); C. Janiszewski (Chris)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractFour studies show that consumers have not one but two distinct learning processes that allow them to use brand names and other product features to predict consumption benefits. The first learning process is a relatively unfocused process in which all stimulus elements get

  3. COUNTRY OF ORIGIN, BRAND IMAGE AND HIGH INVOLVEMENT PRODUCT TOWARDS CUSTOMER PURCHASE INTENTION: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE OF EAST MALAYSIAN CONSUMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Amirul Adenan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research strives to understand East Malaysian consumers’ purchase intention when being exposed to the effects of brand image and country of origin (COO image in the case of high involvement pro­ducts. Self-administered questionnaires were collected from 225 consumers in East Malaysia. The result of this study shows that East Malaysian consumers’ put a large importance on brand and country of origin image in high involvement products as they are more involved in information searching and decision ma­king when purchases these products. Implication and future research also discussed.

  4. 78 FR 69691 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Product Name Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Product Name Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and... entitled ``Product Name Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and Promotional Labeling.'' When... promotional labeling and advertising for prescription human drugs, including biological drug products, and...

  5. Does brand differentiate pharmaceuticals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarik, Josef

    2005-12-01

    Role of marketing in pharmaceutical industry is increasing and inspiration by successful brands known from consumer goods market influenced pharmaceutical companies enough to switch their attention to branding initiatives. Still there is little evidence that pharmaceutical brands represent anything more than product only. This study aims to explore the area of branding in pharmaceutical industry. Central hypothesis of the research has been that brand and its emotional content differentiate pharmaceuticals as well as rational data derived from clinical studies. It has been tested by extensive review of available literature as well as by primary research focused on drivers of physicians' attitudes towards products and their influence on prescribing behavior. The research has been conducted in the sample of psychiatrists in the Czech Republic. No evidence about pharmaceutical brand exceeding value of product has been found in reviewed literature. Nevertheless, the primary research conducted in the sample of Czech psychiatrists indicates that emotional brand in pharmaceutical industry exists and enables author to draw a model of Customer/product life cycle that describes likely impact of functional, emotional and self-expressive benefits throughout pharmaceutical product's market presence. Pharmaceutical brand is likely to develop differently than the same of consumer goods products--it seems to be built predominantly on long-term positive experience. Marketing role in this process should lie in finding relevant product position and building brand identity compliant with real product capabilities.

  6. Professor Brand Advocacy: Do Brand Relationships Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillapalli, Ravi K.; Wilcox, James B.

    2010-01-01

    The trend among students to advocate their professors online continues to generate interest within marketing academia. Brand advocacy in products and services has played a vital role in marketing. However, no known research to date has embraced the idea of brand advocacy in marketing education. This research builds on the recent human brand…

  7. Effect of Value Congruence, Brand Distinctiveness, Brand Social, Brand Warmth, and Memorable Brand Experience on Customer-Brand Identification and Brand Loyalty (Case Study: Brand of ACER Laptop)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanty, Aries; Tresnaningrum, Aprilia

    2018-02-01

    This study has several purposes. First, this study aims to investigate the effect of consumer-brand value congruence, brand distinctiveness, brand social benefit, brand warmth, and memorable brand experience on customer-brand identification (CBI). We call all of those factors as the antecedent factor of CBI. Second, this study aims to investigate the effect of CBI on customer loyalty. Third, investigate the role of product involvement as a moderating variable of the relationship between brand distinctiveness, brand social benefit, brand warmth, memorable brand experience and CBI. This research used primary data collected through closed questionnaires using a Likert scale of 1 - 5. The total sample size was 273 respondents located in Semarang City who has or has been using Acer Laptop for minimal one year. This research was conducted using Partial Least Square (PLS) method through SmartPLS 3.0 software. The result of data processing indicated that all of the antecedent factors of CBI have the positive and significant effect on CBI of the user of Acer Laptop. In this case, among the five antecedent factors of CBI, value congruence has the greatest effect on CBI of the user of Acer Laptop. The result of data processing also indicated that CBI has the positive and significant effect on brand loyalty of user of Acer Laptop. This study fails to prove the role of product involvement as a moderating variable of the relationship between brand distinctiveness, brand social benefit, brand warmth, memorable brand experience and CBI of the user of Acer Laptop. Moreover, based on the result of hypothesis testing, this study gives some recommendation to Acer Laptop to develop or create some features which are match with the value of user of Laptop Acer in Semarang City.

  8. Effect of Value Congruence, Brand Distinctiveness, Brand Social, Brand Warmth, and Memorable Brand Experience on Customer-Brand Identification and Brand Loyalty (Case Study: Brand of ACER Laptop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanty Aries

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has several purposes. First, this study aims to investigate the effect of consumer–brand value congruence, brand distinctiveness, brand social benefit, brand warmth, and memorable brand experience on customer-brand identification (CBI. We call all of those factors as the antecedent factor of CBI. Second, this study aims to investigate the effect of CBI on customer loyalty. Third, investigate the role of product involvement as a moderating variable of the relationship between brand distinctiveness, brand social benefit, brand warmth, memorable brand experience and CBI. This research used primary data collected through closed questionnaires using a Likert scale of 1 - 5. The total sample size was 273 respondents located in Semarang City who has or has been using Acer Laptop for minimal one year. This research was conducted using Partial Least Square (PLS method through SmartPLS 3.0 software. The result of data processing indicated that all of the antecedent factors of CBI have the positive and significant effect on CBI of the user of Acer Laptop. In this case, among the five antecedent factors of CBI, value congruence has the greatest effect on CBI of the user of Acer Laptop. The result of data processing also indicated that CBI has the positive and significant effect on brand loyalty of user of Acer Laptop. This study fails to prove the role of product involvement as a moderating variable of the relationship between brand distinctiveness, brand social benefit, brand warmth, memorable brand experience and CBI of the user of Acer Laptop. Moreover, based on the result of hypothesis testing, this study gives some recommendation to Acer Laptop to develop or create some features which are match with the value of user of Laptop Acer in Semarang City.

  9. Sodium ferric gluconate (SFG) in complex with sucrose for IV infusion: bioequivalence of a new generic product with the branded product in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baribeault, David

    2011-08-01

    Parenteral sodium ferric gluconate in complex (Ferrlecit [branded SFG]) is used to treat patients with iron deficiency anemia undergoing chronic hemodialysis and receiving supplemental epoetin. This comparative pharmacokinetic study (GeneraMedix, Inc., Study 17909) evaluates whether the recently approved generic product Nulecit (generic SFG) and the branded product Ferrlecit (branded SFG) are bioequivalent. In this open-label study, 240 healthy volunteers in a fasting state were assigned randomly to a single 10-min intravenous (IV) infusion of 125 mg of generic or branded SFG. Total and transferrin-bound iron concentrations were determined for the 36-h period after infusion and corrected for pretreatment levels. Maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve of 0 to 36 h (AUC[0-36]) were compared between the two products. Demonstration of bioequivalence required that the 90% confidence intervals of each parameter evaluated for generic SFG were within 80% to 125% of the corresponding values for branded SFG. Uncorrected and baseline-corrected mean serum concentrations of total serum iron during the 36-h assessment period were similar for generic and branded SFG. For total serum iron, the geometric mean ratios of corrected Cmax and AUC[0-36] were 100%. For transferrin-bound iron, the geometric mean ratios were 87% for corrected Cmax and 92% for corrected AUC[0-36]. All associated 90% confidence intervals were within the range of 80% to 125%. A new generic SFG in complex for IV infusion is bioequivalent to the branded SFG in complex for IV infusion. The generic SFG is AB rated by the FDA and considered therapeutically equivalent to the branded product.

  10. Brand Relationship and Its Effect Towards Brand Evangelism to Banking Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Vandayuli Riorini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of Brand relationship, Brand trust, Brand identification, Brand involvement, Brand commitment to Brand evangelism. This study using purposive sampling technique in which samples were selected in this study as much as 200 commercial Banks customers have used the services of the Bank at least 12 months. Data analysis instrument used was Multiple Regression Analysis with SPSS assistance. The results obtained are consistent with previous studies, in which customers increasingly have a relationship, trust, identification, involvement, and commitment to the brand Commercial Bank will increasingly have the intention to buy the brand, reference brand they use positively, and give contradictory references the back of a competing brand to others or called with Brand evangelism. Furthermore, it is known that the most dominant factor influencing Brand evangelism is a Brand commitment. Further research is recommended to investigate the influence of Brand relationship with all of its dimensions, namely Brand trust, Brand identification, Brand involvement, Brand commitment to Brand evangelism with its entire dimension (Positive brand referrals, Brand purchase intention, and Oppositional brand referrals. Furthermore, it also is advisable to do research for brands other services, such as hotels and restaurants.

  11. Foreign Branding: Examining the Relationship between Language and International Brand Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Olavarrieta Soto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In Latin-American markets, the choice of foreign brand names is very popular in a variety of product classes. We investigate this phenomenon extending LeClerc et al. (1989, 1994 original work on foreign branding effects in the context of a developing Latin American country, such as Chile. In this paper, we have used two foreign languages, French and English and a different home-country language– Spanish–, thus extending the original US-based study. In general, results are consistent with those of studies conducted by LeClerc et al. However, in the case of Chile, foreign branding, in particular English branding, generates better results across all product categories (hedonic, hybrid, and functional.

  12. ALIGNING THE BRAND IDENTITY AND BRAND IMAGE AFTER REBRANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Mihail BARBU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The brand identity and brand image are two concepts used extensively in positioning. Many brands underwent a rebranding process attempting to improve their positioning. The rebranding process can bring minor changes or substantial changes. Following the substantial changes, there can appear a mismatch between the desired identity and brand image. Brand image is persistent and it takes time to change it. This paper explores the challenges involved by the calibration of the identity and of the image in the process of rebranding. The alignment process is a dynamic one, an interactive and not a normative one. The results of this study highlight the elements that support the brand identity and image alignment: marketing communication, product characteristics and internal brand strength. On the other side, the efforts to align the brand identity and brand image are negatively affected by the attitudes of the consumers and their past experience with the brand.

  13. Naming as Strategic Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line; Kjeldsen, Anna Karina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a framework for understanding corporate name change as strategic communication. From a corporate branding perspective, the choice of a new name can be seen as a wish to stand out from a group of similar organizations. Conversely, from an institutional perspective, name change...

  14. Social media marketing and its impact on customer based brand equity of luxury fashion products

    OpenAIRE

    Moorjani, Shivani

    2013-01-01

    Luxury companies have recently started using social media platforms to reach their customers, increase brand awareness, encourage brand loyalty, improve perception of perceived quality and therefore enhance brand equity. Companies have the ability to reach millions of people through these online media; however, they do not have complete control over this new tool of communication since consumers around the world actively engage in the use of Internet to follow, like, share or comment about br...

  15. Healthy brand extentions targeted at adolescents: Can products encourage healthier eating habits and still be fun?

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Clara Nobre Braga dos

    2013-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics This study aims to understand if launching healthy extensions of brands that have high acceptance among adolescents could contribute to healthier eating habits. We also analyzed the impact of this launch on brand image. We conducted a survey with 121 Brazilian teenagers and used the market leader brand to study the hypothesis. Results ...

  16. EXAMINING THE EFFECT OF BRAND EXPERIENCE ON CONSUMER SATISFACTION, BRAND TRUST AND BRAND LOYALTY

    OpenAIRE

    Başer, İ.; Cintamür, İ.; Arslan, F.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the direct and indirect effects of brand experienceon consumer satisfaction, brand trust and brand loyalty. It also aims to put fortha model encapsulating the notions of brand experience, consumer satisfaction and brand trust to explain the relationship between these three antecedents of brand loyalty. A face to face survey was used to collect data with the use of interviewers. The population of interest was consumers of four different brands from different product ...

  17. DIGITAL MARKETING AND ITS INFLUENCES ON THE PERCEPTION REGARDING PRODUCT VALUES AND LUXURY BRANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN RAZVAN JOANTA (RUSAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, the world of deluxe products had been accessible only to an exclusive and selected public. There had been created an impression that it was impossible for an outsider to gain access to this world. Specialists in the field of deluxe products had created almost Utopian worlds, where clients could enjoy the quality, history and legacy of deluxe products. In our day and age, more and more researchers are trying to explain and find the determining factors in the consumption of certain products and services in the premium group. In the context of social, political and economic changes that took place recently, deluxe products have kept an important trait: their salience for social recognition. Marketing strategies have also changed recently to a great extent. From small family businesses or local entrepreneurs, deluxe brands have expanded rapidly at a global level, but at the same time they maintained the most important functions and traits: excellent quality, impeccable service, history a.s.o.

  18. Relationship between dimensions of Brand Equity and 4Ps of Marketing Mix - Place, Product, Promotion, & Price: Coca Cola - Consumer Based Qualitative Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Arab, Nazanin

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between dimensions of brand equity (brand association, brand awareness, perceived quality, and customer's loyalty) and 4Ps of marketing mix (product, place, price, and promotion) are examined in this paper. Cross sectional research design while following inductive approach I have explore the relationship between research variables from consumer's perspective. Total 129 participants took part in this survey. Respondents were identified and approached through convenience sa...

  19. BRAND POLICY INSTRUMENTS:CONTRIBUTIONS TO BRANDEQUITY

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Dumitriu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we attempted to establish the contributions of brand elements to the brand equity. Building brand equity is realized and is based on a series of visible elements, easy to recognize and to remember by the public. A name, a symbol, a slogan are just a part of the visible elements of the brand meaning. The brand elements are a shortcut of clients’ perception regarding the brand utility and brand image, suggesting some benefices of performance and competence. The brand elements that...

  20. Perception of Brand Personality: A Search About Social Media Brands On Undergrad

    OpenAIRE

    YÜCEL, Nurcan; HALİFEOĞLU, Melike

    2017-01-01

    It iscame out that branding requires for being success in market. At this pointbefore each firm puts brand on market should determine a personality for brand.Within comprehension which every brand is also a product but every product isnta brand, brand personality is essential to be branding which bordersdetermined, which emphasises have sharp, whose promise echoers to consumerproperly. With the advent of the internet, social meda tools came into playfrom especially young consumers. Social med...

  1. Brand Equity – Measuring Corporate Brand Strength in the Swedish Smartphone Market; Dimensions of Corporate Brand Equity from a Consumer Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lökken, Andreas; Nayar, Malini; Runering, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the concept of brand equity composition in the Swedish smartphone market. The three dimensions used to describe brand equity are based on Aaker’s definition of consumer based brand equity namely; brand awareness, brand loyalty and perceived quality. The corporate brands represented on the market are analyzed with regards to consumer rating and brand equity composition using a proven theoretical model and a standardized questionnaire. The findings in this study indicate t...

  2. The Relationship Between Confrontation Naming and Story Gist Production in Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jessica D; Dalton, Sarah Grace; Fromm, Davida; Forbes, Margaret; Holland, Audrey; MacWhinney, Brian

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between picture naming performance and the ability to communicate the gist, or essential elements, of a story. We also sought to determine if this relationship varied according to Western Aphasia Battery-Revised (WAB-R; Kertesz, 2007) aphasia subtype. Demographic information, test scores, and transcripts of 258 individuals with aphasia completing 3 narrative tasks were retrieved from the AphasiaBank database. Narratives were subjected to a main concept analysis to determine gist production. A correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationship between naming scores and main concept production for the whole group of persons with aphasia and for WAB-R subtypes separately. We found strong correlations between naming test scores and narrative gist production for the large sample of persons with aphasia. However, the strength of the correlations varied by WAB-R subtype. Picture naming may accurately predict gist production for individuals with Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia, but not for other WAB-R subtypes. Given the current reprioritization of outcome measurement, picture naming may not be an appropriate surrogate measure for functional communication for all persons with aphasia. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5851848.

  3. Randomized, double blind comparison of brand and generic antibiotic suspensions: II. A study of taste and compliance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Chaar, G M; Mardy, G; Wehlou, K; Rubin, L G

    1996-01-01

    The taste of oral liquid medications influences compliance in children. Generic preparations are prescribed to reduce cost and may taste worse than brand name products. This was a prospective, randomized, double blind, crossover trial of the differences in taste and compliance between brand and generic antibiotic suspensions in children 3 to 14 years of age. Verbal and visual assessment methods were used to assess taste, and compliance was measured by the amount of drug returned after use. Ten children in each of the cephalexin and erythromycin-sulfisoxazole groups did not report that the brand and generic formulations tasted differently. Fifteen children thought that brand trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole tasted better than the generic preparation. Brand name oral liquid antibiotics do not necessarily taste better than their generic counterparts. Despite preference for the taste of brand trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, all of the children in this study were compliant with both brand and generic medications.

  4. A Brand Loyalty Model Utilizing Team Identification and Customer Satisfaction in the Licensed Sports Product Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soonhwan; Shin, Hongbum; Park, Jung-Jun; Kwon, Oh-Ryun

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among the attitudinal brand loyalty variables (i.e., cognitive, affective, and conative components), team identification, and customer satisfaction by developing a structural equation model, based on Oliver's (1997) attitudinal brand loyalty model. The results of this study confirmed…

  5. Exploring Lenggong Valley World Heritage Site’s Brand Equity Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Shuhaida Md

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the brand equity dimensions of a world heritage destination brand, namely the Lenggong Valley World Heritage Site. The study adopted a survey-based brand equity metrics from a previous study that features 27 brand equity dimensions for products. The 27 dimensions were used as the start-off point in exploring the brand equity dimensions for the focal destination brand. The questions were modified to reflect features of heritage destinations. Principal factor analyses were run on data collected from 100 local tourists. The factor analyses yielded 10 factors, namely Trust, Bonding, Service, Acceptability, Value, Heritage, Ambiance, Knowledge, Persistence and Relevance. A new dimension that emerged from the data was value that encompasses both non-financial and financial dimensions.

  6. Investigating brand loyalty using Dirichlet benchmarks: The case of light dairy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    constitutes an indication of this success. The present work aims to investigate consumer loyalty to light dairy (milk and yoghurt) brands. First, basic Brand Performance Measures (BPMs) are empirically estimated to describe market structure of the dairy categories under investigation. Then, the Dirichlet...... model (Ehrenberg et al., 2004) was fitted to the empirical data, pointing out to theoretical category loyalty measures. Grouping of the dairy categories under investigation according to their purchase frequency and brand penetration then follows. The work concludes with the overall estimation...... of consumer loyalty to the light dairy sub-category compared to other sub-categories that exist within the wider dairy categories under investigation. The total market share of light brands is found to be directly comparable with that of full fat brands. The importance of the light sub-category is indicated...

  7. Acceptance sensory of milk Ultra High Temperature and consumer attitudes of packaging of different brands of the product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlice Salete Bonacina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the sensory acceptance of different brands of whole UHT milk; identify and quantify the importance of attributes of the packaging and labeling of milk in the purchase attitude of consumers excure six different brands of whole UHT milk were collect, which were submitted to the acceptance test, using a hybrid hedonic scale of 9 cm. The data were submitted to ANOVA using the Statistical Software 6.0. The packaging and labeling of different brands of milk, were used for application of the focus group technique. From the results, we found that there was no difference (p > 0.05 between the brands of UHT milk, in relation to sensory acceptance. It was also possible to verify the influence frequency of the milk consumption of acceptance of the product, characterized by three clusters of consumers. From the focus group sessions it was found that 61.1% of participants observe the packaging and labeling milk at the time of purchase. However, 38.9% argued that they are faithful consumers excure to a determined brand. As regards the existence of quality certification seals, it was found that 72.2% of participants do not observe the existence of these certifications when buying milk. In addition, 77.8% have not changed their spending habits in relation to milk brand. It is concluded that the milk consumption frequency, influence on sensorial acceptance, and some consumers are unaware of the risk that the tamper carried out in milk can cause to their health.

  8. BRAND DEVELOPMENT - A WAY TO OVERCOME THE CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Petronela SIMION

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is to highlight that within contemporary economy, the market is built on brands rather than products. The market became an universe full of colors, names, logos and taglines. The brand resides within the hearts and minds of customers as being the sum of their perceptions and experiences upon the company’s promise. Consequently, looking at brands like Apple, Microsoft, IBM who understood that technological innovation must be sustained by strong communication and developed emblematic brands, also Romanian IT companies must pursue similar goals in developing own brands. Current research, backed-up by the case study, substantiates that IT companies who proved to be creative and aligned their communication strategy onto their activity profile not even successfully survived the economic crisis but even managed to outgrow the competition.

  9. Rethinking the Measurement of Place Brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenker, Sebastian; Braun, Erik

    2015-01-01

    in the form of free brand associations of target customers with qualitative methods; in the form of attributes with quantitative methods like standardized questionnaires; and with mixed methods that combine qualitative research with quantitative methods. Two mixed methods, namely the network analysis......Place brand managers often disregard the complexity of place brands, as do their counterparts in the academic arena: they repeatedly use simple explorative descriptions of certain place brands, rather than a precise measurement. Thus, this chapter aims to identify and discuss measurement approaches...... that could prove useful in place branding. Therefore, we will define the brand and examine various options regarding what to measure in place branding. Finally, we will discuss the different approaches of brand measurement for their use in place branding, namely the approaches to measuring the brand...

  10. Brand Management

    OpenAIRE

    Polách, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical part of thesis on the topic "Brand management" will deal with tools for strategic brand management ifself, specifically managements instruments. Next part will be devoted to brand, its identity, image, elements, value, legal protection and eventually to methods of valuation. In practical part will be applied knowledge of strategic brand management to the selected company Vivantis a.s. Part of practical part will be surfy about public awareness of the brand Vivantis a.s. On the bas...

  11. 77 FR 3779 - Guidance for Industry on Product Name Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Advertising and Promotional Labeling; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... entitled ``Product Name Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and Promotional Labeling.'' The..., prominence, and frequency in promotional labeling and advertising for prescription human and animal drugs and...

  12. Brand Placement in Establishing Corporate Identity - A University Example -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha AĞAÇ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With competition becoming ever fiercer, brands must conform to modern marketing and become more influential on consumer perceptions by developing strategies according to the needs and demands of consumers. Hence it is very important to determine how the br and is perceived and placed in the consumer’s mind. Branding is a key issue on the modern agenda. As universities have understood the importance of establishing corporate identity and brand placement, they have joined the race and begun developing social strategies to develop their brand values. These include establishing brand belongingness, advertising and promotions and efforts to make the university stand out among similar ones. Brand placement in the minds of users is attempted through the name, logo , colors, characters and fonts representing the university used on clothing, office material and similar. Brand placement efforts include definitions by consumers of the product or service or attempts to distinguish these from those of competitors. This r esearch deals with a clothing b rand representing a university, brand image and product perceptions as well as the brand placement efforts. The scanning method was used in the research. The brand of casual clothing used as an example for brand placement as well as similarly known brands were examined for their product variety, prices and consumer portfolios. Measurement devices were prepared for the brand placement of the apparel designed and produced for the university, and a pilot trial was performed. I n the pilot trial, a set of questions was asked to a group of randomly chosen 242 people, consisting of academics, university students and administrative staff. The data obta ined were analyzed using SPSS 16 .0. Findings were given in tables according to sta tus variables. The finding of the research indicate that in brand placing efforts, for the intended consumer the apparel’s fabric, stitching and print/embroidery quality, its price

  13. Dettol: Managing Brand Extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Kumar Jaiswal; Arpita Srivastav; Dhwani Kothari

    2009-01-01

    This case is about evolution of a parent brand and its subsequent extensions into different product categories. Dettol as a brand has immense trust and loyalty from the consumers. Since the 1930s when Dettol was introduced in India, it has occupied a distinct position in the mind of its consumers. To achieve fast growth and leverage the strong brand equity of Dettol, Reckitt Benckiser India Limited (RBIL) rolled out a number of brand extensions. Some of these extensions such as Dettol soap an...

  14. Win Market by Brand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Zhende

    2002-01-01

    Brand is symbol of product quality and strength of enterprise. As a typical culture in market economy, it has great influences in everyday life. Famous brands attract purchasing, which prospers enterprise. After China' s entry to WTO, Chinese economy has turned into a new page.As the world manufacturing base, China is to win international market with its own brands. Chunsheng Refractory Ltd., which specialized in quality silica bricks, has grown in size and strength. And our experiences proved how important the brand is for an enterprise.

  15. The quality of processed cheeses and cheese analogues the same brand domestic and foreign production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Bezeková

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Processed cheeses belong to Slovakia favorite dairy products. Processed cheeses are made from natural cheeses. In recent years the trend is to replace natural cheeses with other raw materials of non-dairy nature. The composition of the processed cheese analogues is not in many countries defined by legislation. The objective of this study was to determine and compare chemical properties (fat, dry matter, fat in dry matter, NaCl two samples of processed cheeses (C, D - Veselá krava and two samples cheese analogues (A, B - Kiri the same brand domestic and foreign production. The evaluated was taste of processed cheeses and cheese analogues, too. Chemical analysis and sensory analysis were repeated four times. The results of chemical analysis shows that all rated samples processed cheeses made on Slovakia fulfilled demands declared (dry matter and fat in dry matter as producers provided on the label. The most commonly fluctuate content of NaCl from 1 to 1.24 g.100g-1. The higher coefficient of variation in the determination of NaCl (3.88% was found in processed cheeses made in France. Processed cheese and cheese analogues made in France had not specified parameters for dry matter and fat in dry matter on the label. For production cheese analogues Kiri made in Slovakia was used different raw material than Kiri made in France. The taste of products was determined by descriptors - salty, slightly sweet, milky, buttery-creamy, fatty, sour, bitter, and unknown. The interesting that Kiri made in Slovakia had stronger milky and buttery-creamy taste than cheese analogue Kiri made in France. Significant differences were found in the slighty sweet taste of processed cheeses, the most points won processed cheese Veselá krava made in Slovakia.

  16. Consumer awareness and attitudes related to new potential reduced-exposure tobacco product brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik; O'Connell, Mary E; Marcus, Stephen

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, there has been a proliferation of potential reduced-exposure tobacco products (PREPs) marketed that claim to be less harmful or less addictive, compared with conventional cigarettes. Tobacco control scientists have raised concerns about the potential adverse impact of marketing of these products for smoking prevention and cessation efforts. Although these products have not been widely used among smokers, there are few data available on consumers' awareness and attitudes toward these products. Data were obtained from the 2003 and 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey, a nationally representative telephone survey of adults 18 years and older regarding health communication and associated beliefs and behaviors. Our study population consisted of 6,369 respondents in 2003 and 5,586 respondents in 2005, of whom 19% were current smokers and 28% were former smokers. In 2005, 45% of respondents had heard of at least one PREP product, while only 4.8% had actually tried one. Awareness and use were substantially higher among current smokers (55.6% and 12.7%). Awareness was highest for Marlboro Ultra Smooth (MUS) (30.2%), Eclipse (18.2%), Quest (7.8%), and Ariva (5.4%), while less than 2% for any other product. Of respondents who had tried a PREP, 50% cited harm reduction or assistance in quitting as a reason for trying the product and 30% believed that the product was less harmful than their usual brand. In the combined 2003 and 2005 dataset, 54.4% of current smokers stated that they would be "very" or "somewhat" interested in trying a cigarette advertised as less harmful, while only 3.2% of former smokers and 1.1% of never-smokers were interested. Among current smokers, interest was higher in females and non-Hispanic Whites, and among daily smokers, those who smoked 20 or more cigarettes per day and those who were not considering quitting. Smokers interested in PREPs were substantially more likely to rate their perceived lung cancer risk as high (40

  17. Generic atorvastatin is as effective as the brand-name drug (LIPITOR®) in lowering cholesterol levels: a cross-sectional retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Alexander; Bewersdorf, Jan Philipp; Kofink, Daniel; Ismail, Dzafir; Abidin, Imran Zainal; Veriah, Ramesh Singh

    2017-07-17

    In a world of ever increasing health care costs, generic drugs represent a major opportunity to ensure access to essential medicines for people who otherwise would be unable to afford them. However, some clinicians and patients are still questioning the safety and effectiveness of generic formulations compared to the proprietary drugs necessitating further systematic research analyzing the generic drugs' efficacy. Our objective was to compare the lipid lowering effects of generic and branded atorvastatin. This cross-sectional, retrospective cohort study was conducted at the University of Malaya Medical Centre from 1 May 2013 until 30 May 2013. We analyzed the lipid profiles (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides) of 629 patients before and at least 3 months after switching them from proprietary atorvastatin (Lipitor ® ) to generic atorvastatin (atorvastatin calcium from Ranbaxy Laboratories, Inc.). We also investigated if there was any difference in the effectiveness of both atorvastatin formulations in various ethnic groups. 266 patients were included in this study. When comparing the median values we found no statistically significant differences (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; p atorvastatin in lowering total cholesterol (4.60 mmol/l pre-transition vs. 4.50 mmol/l post-transition; p = 0.583), LDL-cholesterol (2.42 mmol/l vs. 2.41 mmol/l; p = 0.923) and triglycerides (1.50 mmol/l vs. 1.50 mmol/l; p = 0.513). While there was a statistically significant (p = 0.009) difference in HDL-cholesterol levels favouring proprietary atorvastatin, the extent of this change (1.26 mmol/l vs. 1.25 mmol/l) was deemed not to be clinically relevant. There was no statistically significant difference when analyzing the effects on various ethnic groups. Substituting proprietary atorvastatin for its generic formulation atorvastatin calcium does not result in a less effective management of hyperlipidemia. Our findings lend support to the

  18. Pengaruh Brand Personality Pada Brand Trust, Brand Attachment, Brand Commitment, Dan Brand Loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina, Yana Anggi; Khoiriyah, Siti

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of brand personality on brand trust, brand attachment, brand commitment and brand loyalty. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is used as analytical method. This study used purposivesampling techniques for sampling, as many as 230 young people aged 18-21 years old who live in Surakarta and intends to be loyal to soft drink Coca-Cola brand. This study shows positive effect brand personality tobrand trust, brand commitment and brand loyalty; positive effect ...

  19. Revitalizing Brands and Brand Portfolios: Essays on Brand and Brand Portfolio Management Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E. Depecik (Baris)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractHow should consumer products manufacturers and retailers keep their portfolio of brand offerings relevant and energetic when large numbers of new brands are continuously launched into a world of increasingly nonloyal customers with evolving needs? The harsh reality is, at a time when

  20. Two-stage categorization in brand extension evaluation: electrophysiological time course evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo Ma

    Full Text Available A brand name can be considered a mental category. Similarity-based categorization theory has been used to explain how consumers judge a new product as a member of a known brand, a process called brand extension evaluation. This study was an event-related potential study conducted in two experiments. The study found a two-stage categorization process reflected by the P2 and N400 components in brand extension evaluation. In experiment 1, a prime-probe paradigm was presented in a pair consisting of a brand name and a product name in three conditions, i.e., in-category extension, similar-category extension, and out-of-category extension. Although the task was unrelated to brand extension evaluation, P2 distinguished out-of-category extensions from similar-category and in-category ones, and N400 distinguished similar-category extensions from in-category ones. In experiment 2, a prime-probe paradigm with a related task was used, in which product names included subcategory and major-category product names. The N400 elicited by subcategory products was more significantly negative than that elicited by major-category products, with no salient difference in P2. We speculated that P2 could reflect the early low-level and similarity-based processing in the first stage, whereas N400 could reflect the late analytic and category-based processing in the second stage.

  1. The Impact of Brand Delisting on Store Switching and Brand Switching Intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, Laurens A.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    A tool retailers often use to improve their negotiating position with brand manufacturers is to delist - or threaten to delist - the manufacturers' brand. Because brand manufacturers rely mainly on retailers to sell their products to consumers, a brand delisting will cause a sales loss for the brand

  2. Family business : a secondary brand in corporate brand management

    OpenAIRE

    Blombäck, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Why do firms allude to family involvement in their marketing efforts? How can such references influence marketing outcomes? In view of these questions, the current paper argues that the business format “family business” holds a brand of its own; a brand that can offer distinctiveness to brands on corporate as well as product level. Revisiting theory on secondary brand associations and image transfer, the paper interprets the function of references to family in corporate communications and cla...

  3. CHARACTERISTICS BRANDING & BRAND MANAGEMENT IN THE FASHION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UROŠEVIĆ Snežana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Brand allows for market offer to be identified and differentiated from the competitive offers. The very essence of brand is based not only on potential sales figures, but on the philosophy that makes it posssible for a customer to identify with the brand. Faced with the plenty of market offers customers undoubtedly prefer well-known companies and brands, thus minimizing risk and time consuming activities of gaining futher knowledge concerning alternative offers. The consumers often wonder whether the branded goods are more worth from the other, similar goods without any famous trademarks. There are many questions and theories but only one is undeniable: one should never doubt the companies that invest great amount of assets, ideas, talents, love and risk, intend to risk previously stated items with bad design, services or products’ quality. Brand building in textile industry differs from branding of market offers targeting general public. Branding in textile industry requires more focused approach. Fashion companies are facing with bigger challenges when fighting to attract and keep new consumers who are offered new products and markets. In order to create strong brand, it is necessary to possess expert planning and long-term capital investment. Successful brand is actually an excellent product or service, with creatively designed and conducted marketing. Branding has become marketing’s priority, because successful brands achieve higher prices and gain over loyalty, and attract both consumers and financiers. Marketing agents of the successful 21st century brands must be extremely efficient in strategic brand management, which assumes implementation of marketing activities and programmes in order to build brands, as well as brand management to increase its value. Brands and its value must be regarded and recognized as strategic capital.

  4. The influence of sports events endorsement on children’s perceptions of healthy food products and brands

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Catarina

    2016-01-01

    Field lab in marketing: Children consumer behaviour This study aims to explore and evaluate the impact of sports marketing on children’s food choices, more specifically, how different sports marketing strategies on healthy cereals targeted to children can have an impact on their attitudes towards the product and the brand, and on the way they perceive the importance of healthy food consumption and physical activity. For that purpose, two different strategies were tested: a customized pa...

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF PRODUCT QUALITY , PRICE PERCEPTION AND BRAND IMAGE ON SATISFACTION AND CUSTOMER LOYALTY HOLCIM CONCRETE READYMIX IN JAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Sita Budiastari

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to find a picture of the effect of product quality , price perception and brand image on satisfaction and customer loyalty ready mix concrete in Jakarta . This research is a quantitative study with descriptive and causal methods undertaken at Holcim Beton in 2013 with a sample of 100 customers in Jakarta and its surrounding the industrial and commercial segments project . Data collection by questionnaire respondents and analyzed using path analysis with SPSS ve...

  6. Impact of brand or generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faasse, Kate; Martin, Leslie R; Grey, Andrew; Gamble, Greg; Petrie, Keith J

    2016-02-01

    Branding medication with a known pharmaceutical company name or product name bestows on the drug an added assurance of authenticity and effectiveness compared to a generic preparation. This study examined the impact of brand name and generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects. 87 undergraduate students with frequent headaches took part in the study. Using a within-subjects counterbalanced design, each participant took tablets labeled either as brand name "Nurofen" or "Generic Ibuprofen" to treat each of 4 headaches. In reality, half of the tablets were placebos, and half were active ibuprofen (400 mg). Participants recorded their headache pain on a verbal descriptor and visual analogue scale prior to taking the tablets, and again 1 hour afterward. Medication side effects were also reported. Pain reduction following the use of brand name labeled tablets was similar in active ibuprofen or a placebo. However, if the tablets had a generic label, placebo tablets were significantly less effective compared to active ibuprofen. Fewer side effects were attributed to placebo tablets with brand name labeling compared to the same placebo tablets with a generic label. Branding of a tablet appears to have conferred a treatment benefit in the absence of an active ingredient, while generic labeled tablets were substantially less effective if they contained no active ingredient. Branding is also associated with reduced attribution of side effects to placebo tablets. Future interventions to improve perceptions of generics may have utility in improving treatment outcomes from generic drugs. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The effects of selected marketing mix activities on brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Lee Chin

    2004-01-01

    Branding has never been more important than in a competitive environment. Branding is the process of creating an association between symbol / object / emotion / perception and a product / company with the goal of driving loyalty and creating differentiation. The importance of the concept of brand equity has been on the rise. The dimension of brand equity consists of (i) perceived quality, (ii) brand loyalty, (iii) brand awareness, (iv) brand associations and (iv) other proprietary brand asset...

  8. Pengaruh Brand Image dan Brand Trust terhadap Brand Loyalty pada PT Bank Sinarmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sem Christina Hawila Sibagariang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Competition in the banking sector in Indonesia is getting more and more fierceevery day. PT Bank Sinarmas is a rapidly growing bank that continues to increase for the last 3 years. PT Bank Sinarmas committed to maintain this position. Therefore, they need to provide excellent service and deliver good quality savings products to build customer loyalty. The purpose of this study was to determine whether brand image (X1 and brand trust (X2 are partially influencing brand loyalty (Y, and to determine whether both brand image (X1 and brand trust (X2 are simultaneously influencing brand loyalty (Y. The analysis method used is multiple regression analysis using SPSS. Data is obtained through direct survey by distributing questionnaires to 100 clients of the bank at the main branch. The results indicates that the company's brand image significantly influences brand loyalty with R2 = 15.4% with regression equation Y = 1.962 +0.336 X1. Brand trust significantly influences brand loyalty with R2 = 17%, with regression equation Y = 1.838 +0.382 X2. While simultaneously, brand image and brand trust significantly influence brand loyalty, with R2 = 26.4% which form the regression equation Y = 1.281 +0.269 X1 + .315 X2. Thus, PT Bank Sinarmas needs to increase its brand image since a good image might become the company's competitive edge in creating loyalty, and subsequently loyalty will increase profitability.

  9. The Influence of Brand Recognition, Brand Recall, and Top of Mind to Consumer Buying Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Langi, Kalvin

    2013-01-01

    There are several important aspects that can influence brand awareness from the company to make their products have been known in the society, which are Brand Recognition, Brand Recall, and Top of Mind. These three aspects play an important role to create Brand Awareness for Consumer Buying Decision. The research objective is to analyze the influence of Brand Recognition, Brand Recall, and Top of Mind to Consumer Buying Decision in aqua mineral water product on Manado. The population in this ...

  10. Branded Content: A new Model for driving Tourism via Film and Branding Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Horrigan, David

    2009-01-01

    Branded content is described as a fusion of advertising and entertainment into one marketing communications product that is integrated into an organisation’s overall brand strategy intended to be distributed as entertainment content with a highly branded quality. A history of product placement, branded entertainment, and film tourism is presented to identify the effective elements of each strategy in order to inform a more cohesive brand strategy for destinations. A branded content model is...

  11. Country-of-origin Effects on Consumer Brand Perception of Familiar vs. Unfamiliar Brands of Technological Complex Products in a Developed Market Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jeanne; Iacob, Andreea

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to extend the knowledge of the effect of brand familiarity on how Country of Origin influences brand perception in a developed country. We used a 2x2 factorial experimental design to test the effects of COO with two levels of sourcing location – Czech Republic...... usable questionnaires. We used ANOVA to test our hypotheses. The findings suggest that country of origin has a significant positive impact on the consumers’ perception of the Czech manufactured Skoda Fabia, representing the familiar brand, and a significant negative impact on the consumers’ perception...

  12. Implementing a Brand Strategy for a New Product: Releasing a New Product in a Multinational Company

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra ION

    2011-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the issue of using marketing intruments (like innovation, creativity, revitalization) in multinational companies like Coca Cola. The research is about identifying the right options and marketing strategies, for implementing a new and healthy product on the market, and studying the consumer behavior, regarding the subject. In conclusion, this product could be a chance for this company to improve image and to take benefit by increasing the number of consumers.

  13. Employer Branding

    OpenAIRE

    Stroblová, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the Master Thesis is to describe how to build Employer Brand a company. It is based on the description of Employer Branding project of a particular company and the evaluation its process. The thesis is a case study and consists of theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part focuses on trends and changes in leadership approach, definition of Employer Branding and HR Marketing. The practical part deals with the brand building process itself, describes the outputs of the proj...

  14. How global brands compete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Douglas B; Quelch, John A; Taylor, Earl L

    2004-09-01

    It's time to rethink global branding. More than two decades ago, Harvard Business School professor Theodore Levitt argued that corporations should grow by selling standardized products all over the world. But consumers in most countries had trouble relating to generic products, so executives instead strove for global scale on backstage activities such as production while customizing product features and selling techniques to local tastes. Such "glocal" strategies now rule marketing. Global branding has lost more luster recently because transnational companies have been under siege, with brands like Coca-Cola and Nike becoming lightning rods for antiglobalization protests. The instinctive reaction of most transnational companies has been to try to fly below the radar. But global brands can't escape notice. In fact, most transnational corporations don't realize that because of their power and pervasiveness, people view them differently than they do other firms. In a research project involving 3,300 consumers in 41 countries, the authors found that most people choose one global brand over another because of differences in the brands'global qualities. Ratherthan ignore the global characteristics of their brands, firms must learn to manage those characteristics. That's critical, because future growth for most companies will likely come from foreign markets. Consumers base preferences on three dimensions of global brands--quality (signaled by a company's global stature); the cultural myths that brands author; and firms' efforts to address social problems. The authors also found that it didn't matter to consumers whether the brands they bought were American--a remarkable finding considering that the study was conducted when anti-American sentiment in many nations was on the rise.

  15. Brand Relationships 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringberg, Torsten; Bjerregaard, Stine

    Guided by a general curiosity towards consumers‟ responses to proactive relational branding, the study explores a fundamental paradox sofar disregarded in the brand relationship literature, namely the intersection between brands that facilitates deep and committed relationship with as well...... that consumers remain critical toward the Nike+ initiative as an emotional partner as well as a social interaction builder. This consumer resistance endures in spite of Nike fulfills the criteria for relationship building set forth in the literature....

  16. Brand Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, John

    1998-01-01

    Instead of differentiating themselves by building "brand identities," colleges and universities often focus on competing with price. As a result, fewer and fewer institutions base their identities on value, the combination of quality and price. Methods of building two concepts to influence customers' brand image and brand loyalty are…

  17. Consumer Attitudes Toward Advertisement and Brand, Based on the Number of Endorsers and Product Involvement: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanti Handriana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing endorsers in the advertising industry to promote products is currently on the rise, and employing celebrities as the endorsers is still the marketers’ favorite method. This study aims to analyze the influence of the number of endorsers and the product’s involvement on the consumers’ attitude towards the advertisement and the brand. The research’s approach used a 2x2 factorial experimental design. A total of 120 undergraduate students, who were further divided into 4 groups, were selected as the respondents of this study. The results show the differences in consumer attitudes towards advertisements and the brand, based on the number of endorsers and the product’s involvement. The study also reveals that if there is low involvement with the product, multiple celebrity endorsements will generate a better consumers’ attitude towards it than a single celebrity endorsement. Multiple celebrity endorsements will also generate a better attitude among the consumers towards the brand than a single celebrity endorsement will produce.

  18. 29 CFR 784.110 - Performing operations both on nonaquatic products and named aquatic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the exemptions is applicable to the making of any commodities from ingredients only part of which... codfish cakes, clam chowder, dog food, crab cakes, or livestock food containing aquatic products is often...

  19. Nomenclature and traceability debate for biosimilars: small-molecule surrogates lend support for distinguishable nonproprietary names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jingdong; Skup, Martha; Alexander, Emily; Tundia, Namita; Macaulay, Dendy; Wu, Eric; Mulani, Parvez

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the traceability of adverse events (AEs) for branded and generic drugs with identical nonproprietary names and to consider potential implications for the traceability of AEs for branded and biosimilar biologics. Adverse event reports in the Food and Drug Administration AE Reporting System (FAERS) were compared with those in a commercial insurance claims database (Truven Health MarketScan(®)) for 2 drugs (levetiracetam and enoxaparin sodium) with manufacturing or prescribing considerations potentially analogous to those of some biosimilars. Monthly rates of branded- and generic-attributed AEs were estimated pre- and post-generic entry. Post-entry branded-to-generic AE relative rate ratios were calculated. In FAERS, monthly AE rate ratios during the post-generic period showed a pattern in which AE rates for the branded products were greater than for the generic products. Differences in rates of brand- and generic-attributed AEs were statistically significant for both study drugs; the AE rate for the branded products peaked at approximately 10 times that of the generic levetiracetam products and approximately 4 times that of the generic enoxaparin sodium products. In contrast, monthly ratios for the MarketScan data were relatively constant over time. Use of the same nonproprietary name for generic and branded products may contribute to poor traceability of AEs reported in the FAERS database due to the significant misattribution of AEs to branded products (when those AEs were in fact associated with patient use of generic products). To ensure accurate and robust safety surveillance and traceability for biosimilar products in the United States, improved product identification mechanisms, such as related but distinguishable nonproprietary names for biosimilars and reference biologics, should be considered.

  20. Effects of Nitric Oxide Production Inhibitor Named, NG-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME, on Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Arfaei

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Recently, the findings of some studies have shown that, nitric oxide (NO probably has an important role in differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of nitric oxide production inhibitor named, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, on rat mesenchymal stem cells differentiation to osteoblasts in vitro. Materials & Methods: This was an experimental study conducted at Hamedan University of Medical Sciences in 2009, in which rat bone marrow stem cells were isolated in an aseptic condition and cultured in vitro. After third passage, the cells were cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium. To study the effects of L-NAME on osteogenic differentiation, the L-NAME was added to the culture medium at a concentration of 125, 250, and 500 μM in some culture plates. During the culture procedure, the media were replaced with fresh ones, with a three days interval. After 28 days of culturing the mineralized matrix was stained using Alizarian red staining method. The gathered data were analyzed by SPSS software version 12 using one way ANOVA. Results: The findings of this study showed that in the presence of L-NAME, differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts was disordered and matrix mineralization significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: This study revealed that, inhibition of nitric oxide production using L-NAME can prevent the differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblast. The results imply that NO is an important constituent in differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell to osteoblasts.

  1. The impact of social identity of brand on brand loyalty development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Bakhshizadeh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been increasing discussions on the impact of brand in business units. Many researchers have concluded that the best way to increase sales is to introduce the brand in society. In this study, we consider the impact of brand identity on increasing product loyalty in one of Iranian dairy products. The proposed study is implemented in city of Tehran by choosing 475 people. The proposed model is analyzed using structural equation model and factor analysis. The results indicate that there is a direct positive relationship between brand and loyalty and a powerful brand could help setup a long-term relationship between customer and firm, which leads to brand loyalty. In other words, brand identity influences perception value, customer satisfaction, brand trust while perception value influences customer satisfaction and brand trust. In addition, customer satisfaction influences brand trust, brand trust influences customer loyalty and finally brand identity indirectly influences customer loyalty.

  2. Branding trends in Asian markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Diederich; Segers, Rien

    This chapter examines current branding trends in significant Asian markets, namely Japan, South Korea, and India, with a special focus on one emerging branding nation, China. No generalizations towards the whole of Asia can be drawn from this research. However, research identified some aspects in

  3. Cognitive Tools for Successful Branding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Lorena Perez

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to fill a gap in current studies on the semantics of branding. Through the analysis of a number of well-known international brand names, we provide ample evidence supporting the claim that a finite set of cognitive operations, such as those of domain reduction and expansion, mitigation, and strengthening, among others, can…

  4. THE DEVELOPMENT AND POSITIONING OF THE ZARAZA BRAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurau Calin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a case study approach, this paper investigates the advertising and promotion campaign applied to develop and position the brand of distilled wine Zaraza, on the Romanian market of alcoholic beverages. The literature review is centred on the concept of brand identification and on the process of consumer-brand relationship. The brand personality can facilitate the development and the manifestation of a social identity, helping individuals to identify as members of a group. This process is highly desirable especially when launching a new brand or re-branding an existing product, resulting in an instant segmentation of the market, as well as a clear positioning of the new brand. The methodology collected and analysed both secondary and primary data, which were combined using triangulation. Primary data was collected through a series of face-to-face semi-structured interviews, lasting between 16 and 20 minutes, with 25 consumers and 10 distribution personnel. The discussion themes were centred on the effect of the advertising campaign for the Zaraza brand in terms of brand awareness, purchase intention, and value perception. In addition, in the case of customers we also investigated the process of developing an in-group social identity of the targeted group of customers, and, in the case of distributors, on the specific challenges raised by the innovative promotion method used for selling the Zaraza products. The analysis outline the innovative approach of the promotional campaign, characterized by a direct, almost brutal definition of the brand social identity, and by the association of fiction books and alcoholic beverages during three periods of product promotion. The discussion of the main findings is complemented by a presentation and interpretation of several verbatim citations of the answers obtained during the interview, regarding the Zaraza brand name, the adverts used in the promotional campaign, and the organization of the promotion

  5. The Impact of Brands on Consumer Buying Behavior: An Empirical Study On Smartphone Buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulas Akkucuk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to understand the factors behind smartphone purchase decisions of consumers. Nowadays companies make use of various strategies in order to attract new customers, retain existing customers and differentiate their products from those of their competitors. Perhaps, the most important and effective strategy to influence consumer behavior in the product selection is emphasizing the “brand name” of the products. Our aim in this paper is to investigate how smartphone brands can influence consumers’ buying decisions. Brand equity is a set of brand assets and liabilities linked to a brand name and symbol, which add to or subtract from the value provided by a product or service. It enhances the customer’s ability to interpret and process information, improves confidence in the purchase decision and affects the quality of the user experience. Using this construct widely discussed in the literature, we use and build our hypothesis based on Aaker model about the brand equity, including perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association and brand loyalty. The study involved a questionnaire administered to 171 smartphone consumers between December 2015 and March 2016. The consumers were chosen by convenience sampling among the students from a prestigious university in the Istanbul district of Turkey.

  6. Branding water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-06-15

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Branding water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water – specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks – are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

  8. Redefining brand identity - Case BobbyHouston

    OpenAIRE

    Sotaniemi, Elina

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this product thesis is to build a theoretically based framework and analysis that enables a better understanding of corporate rebranding processes among small compa- nies. Corporate rebranding is created as tangible manual concentrating on changes to corpo- rate identity, visual elements, position, name and logo as well as perception, competitive ad- vantage and value proposition. The theoretical background and competition analysis is based on literary of brand identity, rebran...

  9. Studying brand loyalty in the cosmetics industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Yousaf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this research is to know the brand loyalty and contribute to the knowledge that how brand credibility, brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, and product knowledge is important to build brand loyalty. Method: Data were collected from the female's students of department from the university of Sargodha Final analysis was performed on 125 valid respondents. Cronbach's Alpha statistic was used in order to check the reliability of the scale.  Regression was used in order to test the hypothesis. Correlation analysis was used to study the relationship between the variables such that this analysis studied the positive relation of all the independent variables (brand credibility, brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality and product knowledge with the dependent variable (brand loyalty. Results and Conclusion: The results indicate the positive relationships between brand credibility, brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, product knowledge (independent variables and brand loyalty (dependent variables. Further among all the variables studied brand awareness has the highest impact on brand loyalty and according to this research L'Oreal consumer is more as compare to other brands.  Although this research specifically studies the Brand Loyalty in University of Sargodha. However more importantly, the purpose of this study is that cosmetic industry must focus on brand association, perceived quality, product knowledge, brand credibility in order to build Brand Loyalty. To the best of researcher's knowledge, this research is first of its kind in the University of Sargodha which studies student's credibility, awareness, association, perceived quality, product knowledge and loyalty toward their favorite cosmetics brand. The results of this study are limited by the specificity of the geographic context by taking a sample of 125 students of one department from total population of University of

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BRAND LOYALTY AND MARKET SHARE AMONG DURABLE AND NON-DURABLE PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu I. MOISESCU; Andrej BERTONCELJ

    2010-01-01

    Marketing specialists widely accept that brand loyalty, as core component of brand equity, can leverage several positive effects on brand commercial performance and on other dimensions of brand equity, loyalty being both an input and an output from this perspective. Starting from the supposition that higher brand loyalty can generate higher market share, the paper investigates the relationship between the two, considering repurchase and recommend intentions as main measurements of loyalty. An...

  11. Ultra-processed food product brands on Facebook pages: highly accessed by Brazilians through their marketing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Paula M; Rodrigues, Fernanda T; Dos Santos, Luana C

    2018-06-01

    To analyse the content and extent of marketing of ultra-processed food products (UPP) and their brand pages on Facebook, which are highly accessed by Brazilians. Descriptive. Sixteen UPP brand pages on Facebook were selected from 250 pages that were the most liked by Brazilians in October 2015. We analysed the frequency of 'likes' and members 'talking about' each one of the pages, in addition to fifteen marketing techniques used in the previous year (September 2014 to October 2015). The number of posts, likes, 'shares' and 'commentaries', and the mean number of likes, shares and commentaries per post, were collected for one month, from 23 September to 23 October 2015. The two most liked pages were: Coke® (93 673 979 likes) and McDonald's® (59 749 819 likes). Regarding the number of people talking about the pages, McDonald's led with 555 891 commentaries, followed by Coke (287 274), Burger King® (246 148) and Kibon® (244 523). All pages used marketing techniques, which included photos, user conversations, presence of brand elements and links. Videos were observed on 93·8 % of the pages; promotions on 68·8 %; and celebrities on 62·5 %. In one month, Garoto®, Outback® and Coke were brands that published more than one post per day. Kibon achieved the highest ratio of likes per post (285 845·50) and Burger King had the highest mean shares per post (10 083·93), including commentaries per post (7958·13). UPP marketing is extensively used on Facebook pages and is highly accessed by Brazilians, with UPP companies employing a diversity of marketing strategies.

  12. Effects of Brand Extension Strategies on University Students’ Purchase Intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükran KARACA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The brand extension strategy today preferred by many companies is an application that companies want to transfer the existing certain brand image and reputation in consumers value to new products as they existing brand name to the new products and in this way marketing. In this study, they apply business expansion strategy for the brand and consumer attitudes to identify the variables that influence these attitudes by means of brand extension strategies on consumer purchase intent was to determine the effects. Within this research, 445 students studying at the Cumhuriyet University of face to face interviews were conducted. Results were evaluated using SPSS 20.0 program, students’ frequencies and percentages of the responses received; the responses were analyzed using t-test and ANOVA. In this study, students Adidas company's brand for the expansion of applications imaginary product categories with jeans products against the positive attitude that the other imaginary product categories such as cell phones and laptop computers in terms of some factors other than a positive attitude that has emerged.

  13. Direct and Indirect Effects of Marketing Effort on Brand Awareness and Brand Image.

    OpenAIRE

    Villarejo Ramos, Ángel Francisco; Rondán Cataluña, Francisco Javier; Sánchez Franco, Manuel Jesús

    2008-01-01

    The marketing effort orientated to towards strengthening the brand means to increase the degree of knowledge of the brand name. In this paper we want to show the relationship between brand awareness and brand image. Starting out from a theoretical review, we set out a model of direct and indirect effects of the marketing effort-as the brand's antecedents-on brand awareness and brand image. Via the empirical support used, a questionnaire of a sample of consumers, we try to find out how the mar...

  14. A rough set-based association rule approach implemented on a brand trust evaluation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu-Hsien; Chen, Yin-Ju

    2017-09-01

    In commerce, businesses use branding to differentiate their product and service offerings from those of their competitors. The brand incorporates a set of product or service features that are associated with that particular brand name and identifies the product/service segmentation in the market. This study proposes a new data mining approach, a rough set-based association rule induction, implemented on a brand trust evaluation model. In addition, it presents as one way to deal with data uncertainty to analyse ratio scale data, while creating predictive if-then rules that generalise data values to the retail region. As such, this study uses the analysis of algorithms to find alcoholic beverages brand trust recall. Finally, discussions and conclusion are presented for further managerial implications.

  15. The fight between store brands and national brands: What's the score?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2006-01-01

    In the Western world market shares for store brands have increased across all product categories. The competitive position of store brands compared to national brands may depend on the product category and a retail chain's overall brand assortment strategy. In order to investigate these possible...... chain and category effects we have selected five chains with different store brand strategies and three product categories that differ with respect to the number of strong national brands in a category. The results we report focus on the competitive position of store brands compared to national brands...... from a consumer point of view. We find that store brands are in a weak competitive position compared to national brands independent of category and retail chain brand assortment strategy....

  16. Hedonic Retail Beef and Pork Product Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2007-01-01

    Consumer-level hedonic models are estimated to determine factors affecting retail pork and beef meat cuts. Results indicate that brand premium and discount varies across private, national, and store brands and that brand premium varies across meat cuts carrying the same brand name. Product size discounts are linear for beef and nonlinear for pork, meat items on sale are significantly discounted to non-sale items, specialty stores typically will not garner higher prices than supermarket/grocer...

  17. Brand gender, brand personality and brand loyalty relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Gumus, Izzet

    2016-01-01

    Brand personality, especially brand gender concepts are quite new in Turkey, therefore these concepts have not been used  as a topic in research. The aim of this research is to shed light on the literature by emphasizing the relationship between brand  personality, brand gender and brand loyalty.  This research is conducted to demonstrate the effects of brands loyalty on consumers in terms of gender and personality. Brand categories and brands are chosen in...

  18. Brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrandt, Lutz; Tischer, Sven

    2012-01-01

    To explore how occurring critical incidents affect customer-brand relations, this study measures the impact on the basis of an online experiment. For this purpose, 1,122 usable responses are gathered considering the smartphone brands of Apple and Nokia as well as different scenarios. The respective reactions to these negative incidents are evaluated using the concept of customer-based brand equity. More precisely, a structure equation model is specified and differences in latent factor means ...

  19. When symbolism overtakes quality: Materialists consumers disregard product quality when faced with luxury brands

    OpenAIRE

    Audrin, Catherine; Brosch, Tobias; Chanal, Julien; Sander, David

    2017-01-01

    Consumers use extrinsic and intrinsic cues to set preferences and make purchase decisions. However, the extent to which luxury-related extrinsic cues determine consumer preferences and whether the relative weighting of extrinsic vs. intrinsic cues depends on consumers' values is still unclear. We investigated how luxury vs. non-luxury brands affect consumer preferences, and how this impact is moderated by consumers' materialistic values. Results from Experiment 1 showed that materialistic and...

  20. Conformity of package inserts information to regulatory requirements among selected branded and generic medicinal products circulating on the East African market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillo, Hiiti B; Masota, Nelson E; Kisoma, Sunday; Rago, Lembit; Mgoyela, Veronica; Kaale, Eliangiringa A

    2018-01-01

    Availability of correct and adequate information about medicines is an important aspect in ensuring rational use of medicines and hence facilitating safety and expected efficacy of medicines during therapy. Package inserts have proven to be a good source of information to the prescribers and patients whereby they have been useful in highlighting important information pertaining proper use and handling of the medicines. The present study was aimed at establishing the extent to which package inserts of medicines circulating on the markets of the East African Community (EAC) Partner States conform to medicines information requirements as established in the harmonized guidelines as well as national guidelines. A total of 99 package inserts from six (6) types of medicines namely Albendazole, Artemether/Lumefantrine (ALu), Ciprofloxacin, Paracetamol, Amoxicillin and Metronidazole were purposefully collected from three EAC Partner States: Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The medicines were selected based on their indications as first line treatments, high rates of utilization within the medicines supply system and their positions in treatment of diseases of public importance across EAC Partner States. The inserts were evaluated on the availability of information regarding fifteen (15) parameters as extracted from the EAC harmonized guidelines for registration of medicines. Moreover, comparisons were made between the percentage conformity of the branded versus generic products, markets from which the samples were collected, origin of the manufacturer and type of medicine. Majority (93.9-100%) of the medicines' package inserts highly conformed to the inclusion of the information regarding the description and composition of the medications, indications, dosage and methods of administration, warnings and precautions, contraindications and storage conditions. However, the information on handling and disposal, container package description, excipients used, clinical pharmacology of

  1. Food health branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2010-01-01

    The soaring rates of dietary-related diseases have increased the need for interventions in consumers' healthy eating behaviour. The two main avenues followed so far have focused on either making consumers change their food choices or improving the nutrition content of food products. Both avenues...... are said to have limitations since consumers often base their choices on heuristics that simplify their choices, such as brands. Therefore, branding is considered an important tool in communicating the value of health and contributing towards healthier food choices. However, branding a food product based...... on the value of health is not an easy practice as strategies employed may often fail to convey the value of health. Based on a case study approach drawn from the Danish food industry, this paper has two objectives: 1) provide a line of insight on how marketing mix elements are used to convey a healthy brand...

  2. Operational plan of Iran saffron’s branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Masoomzadeh Zavareh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the extensive production and export of saffron in Iran, we have no strong and credible brand of Iranian saffron in global market. In other words, the absence of strong brands in the global market has made almost no name of Iran in these markets. Thus, it is useful to aware of the importance of branding for export crops such as saffron and exploring the solutions of leading brands using in the global market. The present study with regard to theoretical foundations, comparative studies and by using the opinions of saffron industry experts via in-depth interview and questionnaire, have addressed the challenges facing the industry, and Using SWOT matrix for formulating branding strategies and operational plans. The results of the study show that branding in the industry is so weak and has a lot of weaknesses and threats. Therefore, to develop branding in the industry, four main strategy categories were presented. By using these strategies we can guarantee the improvement in the industry.

  3. Erosion and variability in brand loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Dekimpe, Marnik; Mellens, M; Steenkamp, J; Vanden Abeele, Pierre

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the over-time behavior of brand loyalty for a large set of brands drawn from many product categories. Using the brand-loyalty operationalization of Colombo and Morrison (1989), the following conclusions are obtained. First, little support is found for the often-heard contention that brand loyalty is gradually declining over time. Second, while the short-run variability around a brand's mean loyalty level is not negligible, no evidence is found that this variability...

  4. THE ROLE OF BRANDING IN MARKETING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana DUMITRIU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I made a discussion concerning the importance of branding in the strategy of the company. Branding theory and practice evolved in the latest years, being considered a valuable marketing investment. Branding is essential in creating value for the products of a company. Branding is important because it gives meaning to the consumption process. Companies understood that selling without the presence of a strong brand is much more difficult. As a methodology I realized an intersection of the branding and marketing strategy theories. The result is that branding can be regarded as a tool that can enforce all resources of a company towards implementing the strategy.

  5. Does segmental overlap help or hurt? Evidence from blocked cyclic naming in spoken and written production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breining, Bonnie; Nozari, Nazbanou; Rapp, Brenda

    2016-04-01

    Past research has demonstrated interference effects when words are named in the context of multiple items that share a meaning. This interference has been explained within various incremental learning accounts of word production, which propose that each attempt at mapping semantic features to lexical items induces slight but persistent changes that result in cumulative interference. We examined whether similar interference-generating mechanisms operate during the mapping of lexical items to segments by examining the production of words in the context of others that share segments. Previous research has shown that initial-segment overlap amongst a set of target words produces facilitation, not interference. However, this initial-segment facilitation is likely due to strategic preparation, an external factor that may mask underlying interference. In the present study, we applied a novel manipulation in which the segmental overlap across target items was distributed unpredictably across word positions, in order to reduce strategic response preparation. This manipulation led to interference in both spoken (Exp. 1) and written (Exp. 2) production. We suggest that these findings are consistent with a competitive learning mechanism that applies across stages and modalities of word production.

  6. Image of Luxury Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Díaz-Bustamante

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The luxury market has experienced considerable growth over recent years, being one of the sectors that have been the most resistant to the current economic recession. Selective fragrances make up one of the primary categories of the so-called accessible luxury consumed by a middle class that is seeking to approach the upper classes by copying their lifestyle. Despite the importance of this market, there is relatively little literature existing in regard to the study of the image of luxury brands due to the complexity of the luxury phenomenon. This article presents the results of an initial qualitative study conducted on focus groups of luxury fragrance consumers, making it possible to identify the types of attributes to be considered when studying the brand image of said luxury products. Subsequently, a quantitative study was conducted to determine the perceived image of the main luxury fragrances brands by consumers. Thanks to this study, it has been possible to determine the typical profile of each of the analyzed brands, to define the underlying dimensions of the image of luxury fragrances brands, and to analyze the correlations and dependency relations existing between the luxury brand dimension and the other attributes of image for the studied brands and between all the image attributes themselves.

  7. Can You Say My Name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo T.

    Whereas brand name research has focused on the semantic meaning or sounds of names, processing fluency lends further support to the idea that meaning goes beyond semantics. Extant research has shown that phonological fluency, i.e., the ease or difficulty with which people pronounce names, can...

  8. Application of Emotional Branding Strategy in the Model Development of Sports Brand of The Bottled Water Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Jankovic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The new economy has brought new meaning to the brand, which is characterized by a brand, but also has a human touch, turning into an emotional brand. Alternative branding strategies put emphasis on brand experience in terms of emotional, holistic and socially responsible. Bottled water has become the world's "liquid gold" in the last 40 years, because it is a natural product, which is made with minimal costs. The paper develops the idea to perform a kind of humanization and the introduction of a new emotional brand of bottled water on the market, which will bear the name "Aqua F.I.F.A" designed label of FIFA international organizations, as well as the roof of the organizers of the most important football events in the world and the label of the national team. This paper will analyze in detail the market opportunities and prospects of introducing a unique sports brand, on the emotional aspect, with the use of effective marketing communication strategy.

  9. Building online brand perceptual map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, I-Ping; Lin, Chih-Ying; Wang, Kaisheng M

    2008-10-01

    Many companies have launched their products or services online as a new business focus, but only a few of them have survived the competition and made profits. The most important key to an online business's success is to create "brand value" for the customers. Although the concept of online brand has been discussed in previous studies, there is no empirical study on the measurement of online branding. As Web 2.0 emerges to be critical to online branding, the purpose of this study was to measure Taiwan's major Web sites with a number of personality traits to build a perceptual map for online brands. A pretest identified 10 most representative online brand perceptions. The results of the correspondence analysis showed five groups in the perceptual map. This study provided a practical view of the associations and similarities among online brands for potential alliance or branding strategies. The findings also suggested that brand perceptions can be used with identified consumer needs and behaviors to better position online services. The brand perception map in the study also contributed to a better understanding of the online brands in Taiwan.

  10. Building brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ataman, B.M.; Mela, C.; van Heerde, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Which marketing strategies are most effective for introducing new brands? This paper sheds light on this question by ascribing growth performance to firms' postlaunch marketing choices. We decompose the success of a new brand into its ultimate market potential and the rate at which it achieves this

  11. Levende branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Majken

    2013-01-01

    Mottoet »Boston Strong« efter bombeangrebet ved Boston Marathon viser, at ingen branding er stærkere end det, der vokser ud af det levede liv.......Mottoet »Boston Strong« efter bombeangrebet ved Boston Marathon viser, at ingen branding er stærkere end det, der vokser ud af det levede liv....

  12. Managing brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ataman, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    How are strong brands built and maintained? Which elements of the marketing mix are most critical in building and maintaining brand equity? These questions have endured for decades because their resolution requires extensive data sets and advanced modeling techniques, which only became available to

  13. Survey data on consumer behaviour in olive oil markets: The role of product knowledge and brand credence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Ordóñez, Melania; Rodríguez-Entrena, Macario; Cabrera, Elena R; Henseler, Jörg

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents data conducted to analyse consumer behaviour in agri-food markets, where product differentiation failures occur, with the aim of disentangling the roles played by both consumer information and inferences made from informational stimuli. We thus examined consumer knowledge structures and brand credence related to attitudes towards a particular foodstuff and a product alternative, as well as the actual consumption of the foodstuff. To do so, the selected case study was the olive oil markets in Spain, given that products such as extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and refined olive oil (ROO), that differ in terms of intrinsic features, become undifferentiated. The data of the observed variables were collected from 700 regular buyers from an online panel at the household level in southern Spain. The data were processed using both Excel for checking, cleaning and descriptive purposes and ADANCO 2.0 (Dijkstra and Henseler, 2015) [1] for performing the model estimations.

  14. Survey data on consumer behaviour in olive oil markets: The role of product knowledge and brand credence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Salazar-Ordóñez

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data conducted to analyse consumer behaviour in agri-food markets, where product differentiation failures occur, with the aim of disentangling the roles played by both consumer information and inferences made from informational stimuli. We thus examined consumer knowledge structures and brand credence related to attitudes towards a particular foodstuff and a product alternative, as well as the actual consumption of the foodstuff. To do so, the selected case study was the olive oil markets in Spain, given that products such as extra virgin olive oil (EVOO and refined olive oil (ROO, that differ in terms of intrinsic features, become undifferentiated. The data of the observed variables were collected from 700 regular buyers from an online panel at the household level in southern Spain. The data were processed using both Excel for checking, cleaning and descriptive purposes and ADANCO 2.0 (Dijkstra and Henseler, 2015 [1] for performing the model estimations.

  15. Network brand management : study of competencies of place branding ski destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Moilanen, Teemu

    2008-01-01

    Several industries have turned to a network form of organization to coordinate complex products or services in uncertain and competitive environments, and the network form of organization also appears to be becoming more common in the field of branding. Examples of brands formed by a network of independent firms include One-World and Star Alliance brands in the airline industry, Verbier and Chamonix ski destination brands in tourism industry and the Santa Foods brand in food production. Many ...

  16. Analyzing Brand Equity On Purchase Intention Through Brand Preference Of Samsung Smartphone User In Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Emor, Angelina M.

    2015-01-01

    Consumers nowadays tend to value a product from its brand. Strong brand equity brings positive effect to the product. Thus, it is assumed that brand equity affects preference and purchase intention as well. Samsung has become popular in the Smartphone market these years. Currently, Samsung holds the place at the top of Android-based Smartphones globally. This research wants to study about the effect of brand equity on purchase intention through brand preference of Samsung Smartphone users in ...

  17. Studi Pendapat Konsumen Terhadap Brand Awareness Brand Equity Dan Brand Image Minuman Coca-cola Di Kota Makassar

    OpenAIRE

    Rezkiawaty, Sitti Utami

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the research are to find out (1) the implementation of the strategy of PT Coca-Cola bottling Indonesia southern Sulawesi in creating brand awareness, brand equity and brand image of coca-cola beverages in the city of Makassar, (2) the consumer opinion about coca-cola beverage product in the city of Makassar, (3) the factors that influence consumer ratings of brand awareness, brand equity, brand image coca-cola beverage products. The research was a descriptive quantitative study co...

  18. Brand strategy: The Stormers' case | Gerber | African Journal for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brand strategy: The Stormers' case. ... Brands enable marketers to develop and communicate specific images for individual products. ... a new area of rugby competition, giving the South African rugby franchises an opportunity for new brands.

  19. Terrorist Group Brands: Understanding Terrorist Group Strategies Through Brand Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    in the minds of targeted consumers, so they remember the product at the right time to maximize the benefit of the brand. This is done by...Beverland, “Crafting Brand Authenticity: The Case of Luxury Wines ,” Journal of Management Studies 42, no. 5 (07, 2005): 1003–1029. doi:10.1111/j.1467...recognition and recall 20 Beverland, Crafting Brand Authenticity: The Case of Luxury Wines , 1003–1029

  20. Price promotions and brand equity: the role of brand types

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntner, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – This study investigates whether the influence of selected marketing-mix elements on brand equity differs for different types of brands. The main focus is on price promotions’ influence. In addition, the impact of discount-store distribution is explored. Design/methodology/approach – This study applies fixed-effects regression to analyze German panel data, which includes 126 national brands in four product categories across five years. Findings – The results reveal that frequent pric...

  1. The lure of global branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaker, D A; Joachimsthaler, E

    1999-01-01

    As more and more companies begin to see the world as their market, brand builders look with envy upon those businesses that appear to have created global brands--brands whose positioning, advertising strategy, personality, look, and feel are in most respects the same from one country to another. Attracted by such high-profile examples of success, these companies want to globalize their own brands. But that's a risky path to follow, according to David Aaker and Erich Joachimsthaler. Why? Because creating strong global brands takes global brand leadership. It can't be done simply by edict from on high. Specifically, companies must use organizational structures, processes, and cultures to allocate brand-building resources globally, to create global synergies, and to develop a global brand strategy that coordinates and leverages country brand strategies. Aaker and Joachimsthaler offer four prescriptions for companies seeking to achieve global brand leadership. First, companies must stimulate the sharing of insights and best practices across countries--a system in which "it won't work here" attitudes can be overcome. Second, companies should support a common global brand-planning process, one that is consistent across markets and products. Third, they should assign global managerial responsibility for brands in order to create cross-country synergies and to fight local bias. And fourth, they need to execute brilliant brand-building strategies. Before stampeding blindly toward global branding, companies need to think through the systems they have in place. Otherwise, any success they achieve is likely to be random--and that's a fail-safe recipe for mediocrity.

  2. The devil you know: The effect of brand recognition and product ratings on consumer choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Thoma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on the role of recognition in decision-making in inferential choice has focussed on the Recognition Heuristic (RH, which proposes that in situations where recognition is predictive of a decision criterion, recognized objects will be chosen over unrecognized ones, regardless of any other available relevant information. In the current study we examine the role of recognition in preferential choice, in which subjects had to choose one of a pair of consumer objects that were presented with quality ratings (positive, neutral, and negative. The results showed that subjects' choices were largely based on recognition, as the famous brand was preferred even when additional star ratings rendered it as less attractive. However, the additional information did affect the proportion of chosen famous items, in particular in the cases when star ratings for the recognised brand were negative. This condition also resulted in longer response times compared to neutral and positive conditions. Thus, the current data do not point to a simple compensatory mechanism in preferential choice: although choice is affected by additional information, it seems that recognition is employed as an initial important first step in the decision-making process.

  3. Place Branding as Efficient Management Tool for Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica PETREA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic liberalism, globalization and more recently the economic crisis are general phenomena leading to changes of territorial management practices. Within these practices, place marketing and branding are of crucial importance in promoting an image of the city and bringing some added value to a place. Although an emerging challenging problem for local authorities, few scholars are currently addressing the subject, in terms of delivering a branding modus operandi for the practitioners, be they local authorities or private agencies. The present paper conducts an in-depth analysis of the most recent writings showing how product marketing techniques apply to place marketing, with an emphasis on city branding, presenting the manner in which the place branding process was improved in two of the most representative cities of Transylvania: Sibiu and Cluj-Napoca. The paper’s main objective is to highlight the role of territorial marketing which can become, through one of its components, namely place branding, an important trigger for the local communities development by the means of strategic planning. In this respect, the present work displays an overview of some of the most illustrative theoretical models regarding city branding, an insight on the Romanian city branding process within the two aforementioned cities and, finally, some brief recommendations regarding the place and the role of branding process for local authorities. The paper assumes that although place branding is an efficient tool for promoting a territory’s identity (already proven in several European cities, Romania is at the beginning of this process. The few significant achievements (the ones from Sibiu and Cluj-Napoca being the most notable still cannot make the most of their urban identities and values, neither at national, nor at international level. Last but not least, this kind of papers might raise some awareness among local stakeholders on the importance of these

  4. Analysis of Branding Strategy through Instagram with Storytelling in Creating Brand Image on Proud Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handy Martinus

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the article were to study the branding strategy of a new age media company through social media with storytelling, how it could be utilized in the building of brand image, and what were the special characteristics of storytelling in social media environment, especially Instagram. The study provided an overview of factors in the online content update from social media to elevate interaction and to maintain the relationship between the company and its audience. Also specifying the points on how the information looked desirable to the customer. The qualitative descriptive content analysis was conducted to investigate how a new age media company with Instagram as the platform, which products were intangible and used storytelling in the delivery utilizes and mixes both components. Data were obtained by conducting the in-depth interview with company’s representative, public relations practitioner, and a follower of the company’s Instagram account, which then analyzed through data reduction. The research suggests that storytelling combined with social media features potentially strengthens all dimensions of brand equity with the brand image as the focus, primarily due to its engaging content, its ability to enhance the formation of an emotional connection, and its capabilities in improving recall and recognition. Branding activities conducted by Proud through Instagram can be said to be effective, taking into account the six main factors in providing updates, namely vividness, interactivity, informational content, entertaining content, position and valence of comments. Storytelling plays a role in communicating the company's brand and value. In addition, storytelling is also a branding tool that becomes an element that uniquely unveils a company with a competitor.

  5. Nation branding as an emerging field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkelsen, Henrik; Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard

    2016-01-01

    presents itself as a theoretical possibility and a practical necessity. We propose that what made a travel possible from product branding via corporate branding to nation branding was the semantic flexibility of the brand concept. We argue that the brand concept is almost void of meaning......Nation branding is a remarkable phenomenon. In less than two decades, it has established itself as the preferred framework for interstate strategic communication and as an emerging academic field. The paper describes how this extraordinary expansion was possible by showing how nation branding...... and that this feature has been an indispensable requisite for establishing nation branding as a field of practice and as an academic field. Despite the indisputable academic productivity that is a result of the vagueness of the brand concept, we suggest that to reach a normal science-like situation in the field...

  6. Teknologi Informasi Dalam Membentuk Atribut Brand Equity Suatu Produk

    OpenAIRE

    Damayanti, Kristiana Asih

    2004-01-01

    Product is known from its merk and Customer will choice and buy product which havegood and famous merk. For it, Company have to built good merk which can describe fromBrand Equity. Brand Equity has five atributes: Brand Assosiation, Brand Awareness,Perceived Quality, Brand Loyalty, and other atributes.This paper has a goal to make a model how Information Technology in built everyatributes of Brand Equity.

  7. Black tattoo inks induce reactive oxygen species production correlating with aggregation of pigment nanoparticles and product brand but not with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsberg, Trine; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Clausen, Per Axel; Serup, Jørgen

    2013-07-01

    Black tattoo inks are composed of carbon nanoparticles, additives and water and may contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We aimed to clarify whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by black inks in vitro is related to pigment chemistry, physico-chemical properties of the ink particles and the content of chemical additives and contaminants including PAHs. The study included nine brands of tattoo inks of six colours each (black, red, yellow, blue, green and white) and two additional black inks of different brands (n = 56). The ROS formation potential was determined by the dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) assay. A semiquantitative method was developed for screening extractable organic compounds in tattoo ink based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Two black inks produced high amounts of ROS. Peroxyl radicals accounted for up to 72% of the free radicals generated, whereas hydroxyl radicals and H₂O₂ accounted for inks aggregated strongly in water in contrast to the other black inks. They did not exhibit any shared pattern in PAHs and other organic substances. Aggregation was exclusively shared by all ink colours belonging to the same two brands. Ten of 11 black inks had PAH concentrations exceeding the European Council's recommended level, and all 11 exceeded the recommended level for benzo(a)pyrene. It is a new finding that aggregation of tattoo pigment particles correlates with ROS production and brand, independently of chemical composition including PAHs. ROS is hypothesized to be implicated in minor clinical symptoms. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. 9 CFR 381.117 - Name of product and other labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... “roasting chicken”, rather than “roaster.” The appropriate names for cut-up parts are set forth in § 381.170... either of the following forms: The name of the kind (such as chicken, turkey, or duck) preceded by the..., except that the name “chicken” may be used without such qualification with respect to a ready-to-cook...

  9. Brand personality, product meaning and impulsiveness when buying: a study in a shopping center environment [doi: 10.21529/RECADM.2017007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconi Freitas da Costa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of product meaning, brand personality and impulsiveness when buying in the mall environment. The research seeks to explain impulse buying taking into account the importance of the individual impulsivity as a significant factor influence on impulse buying and bring a contribution to the inclusion of two theories that hitherto have not been explored jointly in studies of impulse buying: product meaning and brand personality. A descriptive and correlational research was done with quantitative approach. The sample is composed of 317 respondents. The results allowed us to confirm that individuals who are more impulsive tend to make impulse purchases more frequently, that is, they have difficulty controlling their buying impulses. In addition, and as a contribution to this research, products purchased impulsively are those compatible with the image of consumers that reflect who they are. The participants noted that they were attributed personalities to products purchased impulsively. The more the brand personality can identify with the consumer and his lifestyle, more products would be likely to be purchased impulsively.   Keywords Impulse buying; Impulsiveness; Brand personality; Product meaning; Shopping Center.

  10. Place Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medway, Dominic; Swanson, Kathryn; Neirotti, Lisa Delpy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to report on a special session entitled “Place branding: Are we wasting our time?”, held at the American Marketing Association’s Summer Marketing Educators’ conference in 2014. Design/methodology/approach: – The report details the outcome of an Oxford......: – The outcome of the debate points towards a need for place brands to develop as more inclusive and organic entities, in which case it may be best for place practitioners to avoid creating and imposing a place brand and instead help shape it from the views of stakeholder constituencies. This shifts the notion...... of place branding towards an activity centred on “curation”. Originality/value: – The use of a competitive debating format as a means for exploring academic ideas and concepts in the place management field....

  11. Employer branding

    OpenAIRE

    Mičková, Kateřina

    2008-01-01

    The demand for qualified employees is higher then the offering, both in Czech republic and internationally. Demand for specific skills, in addition to a greater demand for workforce generally, is making employee recruitment and retention much more difficult and expensive. Employer Branding claims to be an answer to this new challenge. This international concept focuses on developing an "employer brand" - mental image of a company as an employer. To achieve this, it is necessary to demonstrate...

  12. Pencapaian Brand Corporate Melalui Brand Activation Pendekatan Experiential Marketing (Studi Kasus Laboratorium Klinik)

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Mahdalena; Ganiem, Leila Mona

    2017-01-01

    Brand activation is a corporation's endeavor to look deeper into what's in the brand, strategy and position of the brand. A new approach to brand activation by maximizing the range of relevant assets through product and service, employees, identity and communication combined with experiential marketing through sense, feel, think, act, relate, is considered highly effective in achieving corporate brand because it emphasizes the differentiation of competitors. This study aimed to find out how t...

  13. Systematic review of public health branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Hersey, James C; Renaud, Jeanette; Yaroch, Amy L

    2008-12-01

    Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health brands; developed a methodology for describing branded health messages and campaigns; and examined specific branding strategies across a range of topic areas, campaigns, and global settings. We searched the literature for published studies on public health branding available through all relevant, major online publication databases. Public health branding was operationalized as any manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on branding or brands in health promotion marketing. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 154 articles and reviewed a final set of 37, 10 from Africa, Australia, and Europe. Branded health campaigns spanned most of the major domains of public health and numerous communication strategies and evaluation methodologies. Most studies provided clear information on planning, development, and evaluation of the branding effort, while some provided minimal information. Branded health messages typically are theory based, and there is a body of evidence on their behavior change effectiveness, especially in nutrition, tobacco control, and HIV/AIDS. More rigorous research is needed, however, on how branded health messages impact specific populations and behaviors.

  14. Investigating effectiveness of clandestine advertisement and organizational strategy in brand management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Shojaei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation tries to examine correlation between clandestine advertisement and organizational strategy in brand management via available sources and by using a field study. In fact, it intends to raise the question “Are clandestine advertisement and organizational strategy effective in management of products brands?” This is an applied and descriptive-approaching study. The study chooses a sample of 171 regular customers who do their day-to-day banking business activities through an Iranian bank named Sepah bank in city of Tehran, Iran. Using structural equation modeling, the study confirms a positive and meaningful relationship between clandestine advertisement and organizational strategy in brand management.

  15. WHAT’S IN A NAME: The Amateur‘s View of Good Practices in Naming an Online Educational Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. ROSZKOWSKI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Branding is considered to be particularly important in the marketing of online educational programs. A critical step to establishing the brand is naming the product appropriately. To this end, one can secure the services of professionals or rely on a do-it-yourself approach. The research reported here aimed to identify the features that non-professionals (graduate students consider to be important in the name for an online educational product, and to compare these to the recommendations made by naming professionals (as reported in the literature. A survey directed at current and prospective graduate students at a traditional university asked about the desirability of 16 characteristics in the name of a new line of online courses. The six characteristics that were deemed most critical are (in order of importance: self-explanatory, memorable, easy to pronounce, has appealing associations, suggests/hints at the key features, and short. These are the same features that professionals in the business of creating new product names generally consider as best practices in creating a name. The results show that contrary to the concerns expressed by some practitioners in the naming industry, college-educated individuals who do not create names for a living nonetheless demonstrate an awareness and appreciation for the features of a good name in an Internet-based course delivery system.

  16. The genealogy of personal names: towards a more productive method in historical onomastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    It is essential to combine genealogical and collective biographical approaches with network analysis if one wants to take full advantage of the evidence provided by (hereditary) personal names in historical and linguistic onomastic research. The naming practices of rural families and clans from the 18th to the 20th century can bring us much fresh information about their enduring attitudes and values, as well as about other mentalities of everyday life. Personal names were cultural symbols that contained socially shared meanings. With the help of genealogical method it is possible to obtain a more nuanced understanding of these past naming practices, for example by comparing the conventions of different communities. A long-term and systematic empirical research also enables us to dispute certain earlier assumptions that have been taken for granted in historical onomastics. Therefore, the genealogical method is crucial in studying the criteria for the choices of personal names in the past.

  17. Skimming or Penetration? Strategic Dynamic Pricing for New Products

    OpenAIRE

    Spann, Martin; Fischer, Marc; Tellis, Gerard J.

    2015-01-01

    Current complex dynamic markets are characterized by numerous brands, each with multiple products and price points, and differentiated on a variety of product attributes plus a large number of new product introductions. This study seeks to analyze dynamic pricing paths in a highly complex branded market, consisting of 663 products under 79 brand names of digital cameras. The authors develop a method to classify dynamic pricing strategies and analyze the choice and correlates of observed prici...

  18. Building brands without mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachimsthaler, E; Aaker, D A

    1997-01-01

    Costs, market fragmentation, and new media channels that let customers bypass advertisements seem to be in league against the old ways of marketing. Relying on mass media campaigns to build strong brands may be a thing of the past. Several companies in Europe, making a virtue of necessity, have come up with alternative brand-building approaches and are blazing a trail in the post-mass-media age. In England, Nestlé's Buitoni brand grew through programs that taught the English how to cook Italian food. The Body Shop garnered loyalty with its support of environmental and social causes. Cadbury funded a theme park tied to its history in the chocolate business. Häagen-Dazs opened posh ice-cream parlors and got itself featured by name on the menus of fine restaurants. Hugo Boss and Swatch backed athletic or cultural events that became associated with their brands. The various campaigns shared characteristics that could serve as guidelines for any company hoping to build a successful brand: senior managers were closely involved with brand-building efforts; the companies recognized the importance of clarifying their core brand identity; and they made sure that all their efforts to gain visibility were tied to that core identity. Studying the methods of companies outside one's own industry and country can be instructive for managers. Pilot testing and the use of a single and continuous measure of brand equity also help managers get the most out of novel approaches in their ever more competitive world.

  19. Naming "sensory equivalents" of established food products: Is the word wrong, or is it the world going wrong?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Grethe; schmit, Viktor; Møgelvang-Hansen, Peter

    Is a food name like Halal-Ham a blatant self-contradiction invented by unscrupulous manufacturers just to promote sales? Or is it an honest attempt to convey in a compact way the following subtle message: This is as close as you get to something that looks, tastes, and feels like ham without....... Starting from a review of 821 Danish regulatory cases concerning misleading food naming and labeling, we specifically address conflict scenarios that relate to the naming of innovative “sensory equivalents” to well-established food products. The arguments and assumptions put forward in real-life cases...

  20. Brand Revitalization: Don’t Let Your Brands Turn Into Sleepyheads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziva Kolbl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Brand revitalization is a process, which is often necessary when the brand’s offer of products as well as associated attention from consumers decline. Even so, the core of a brand needs to be clearly defined, in order for brand revitalization to be successfully implemented. Marketing managers need to be able to recognize the acute, as well as the latent signs of brand aging, and need to implement brand revitalization elements and strategies that are most suitable for a certain brand. The goal of the paper is presenting brand revitalization through the practical example of two Slovenian brands, which both went through the process of brand revitalization. With the review of secondary data, as well as interviews with the brand’s marketing managers, the paper proposes main steps and serves as a guideline to other managers, when going through brand revitalization.

  1. Expanding Brand Personality Congruence to Brand Personality Fit: The Importance of Customer Value Proposition as a Moderating Fit on Brand Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardi Wirdamulia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research demonstrates that brand performance can be enhanced not only through brand personality congruence with customer personality, but also through brand personality fit, namely the moderating fit of customer value proposition to brand personality. Through a study covering 125 brands, the result demonstrates that the moderating fit between brand personality and the different level of customer value proposition positively affects brand performance. Price-quality relationship for attribute-based customer value, self-construal for consequences-based customer value and self-regulatory focus as goal-based customer value are used to test this moderating fit relationship. Other findings show that this moderating fit is strongest toward the brand cognitive performance. Finally, the result of this study suggests marketers to incorporate the brand personality design into their positioning statement so that the overall customer value proposition can be developed in a more integrated manner, leading to higher brand performance

  2. THE EFFECT OF NEW IDENTITY, NEW IMAGE, AND REPOSITIONING AS A PROCESS OF REBRANDING TOWARD BRAND LOYALTY, BRAND ASSOCIATIONS, PERCEIVED QUALITY AS PART OF BRAND EQUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiani T.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Media companies are growing rapidly, along with technological advances, where the success of a media must be supported by brand management. This study examines corporate rebranding by changing name, logo and slogan in influencing brand equity in media companies. Not only to measure the concepts of corporate rebranding and brand equity, the study also examines the relationships between indicators that are used as variables, namely new identity with brand association, new image with brand association, new image with perceived quality, new image with brand loyalty, repositioning with brand association, repositioning with perceived quality and repositioning with brand loyalty. The method of analysis in this study using multiple linear with SPSS analysis. 110 respondents who are advertiser of Radio Kencana Malang in 2017. This study shows a significant effect between corporate rebranding to brand equity simultaneously, new identity with brand association, new image with brand association, repositioning with brand association, new identity with perceived quality, new image with perceived quality, repositioning with brand loyalty, and new identity with brand loyalty. However, there is no significant effect between repositioning with perceived quality and new image with brand loyalty on Radio Kencana Malang.

  3. The Brand Identity: A Strategic Shift for Success

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Danciu

    2010-01-01

    The strong identity is a key condition for the real success of a brand strategy. The identity reflects the inner value of the brand and describes its potential success. In order to maximize this value a brand identity should include and develop all dimensions of its complex structure. The product, the organizational, the personality and the symbolic dimension of the brand identity could develop a great capability for many associations that could be made to the brand. Apple is a brand that has...

  4. The Relationship Between Hotel Brand Personality And Customer Loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Yasin, Bahar; Jamontaite, Kamile; Ahmedova, Saida; Akin, Mahmut Selami

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between brand personality and customer loyalty in the five-star business hotel and propose an effective way for developing a remarkable hotel brand and improving its customer loyalty. The reason for choosing a particular hotel is that it is a member of a famous international hotel chain with a well-known brand name. According to the literature, business hotels usually have stronger brand names comparing to leisure hotels. Literature r...

  5. Symbolic meaning integration in design and its influence on product and brand evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, Thomas Johannes Lucas; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.; Tieke, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Previous research and theorizing in product design and consumer psychology testifies to the importance of congruence among symbolic meanings connoted through elements in visual communications such as advertisements, product appearance, and product packaging. However, understanding of the processes

  6. Tell Me Your Name and I'll Tell You How Creative Your Work Is: Author's Name and Gender as Factors Influencing Assessment of Products' Creativity in Four Different Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebuda, Izabela; Karwowski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine the effects of authors' name and gender on judges' assessment of product creativity in 4 different domains (art, science, music, and poetry). A total of 119 participants divided into 5 groups assessed products signed with a fictional author's name (unique vs. typical, male vs. female) or in an anonymous…

  7. Influence of brand differential on motivation to conform and manufacturer versus store brand purchase intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran, E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Relationships and characteristics that influence consumers’ purchase decision between store brand and manufacturer brand product offerings have emerged as an interesting and practical area of research. From a management perspective, understanding the process by which consumers make purchase choices between these brand offerings would lead to both theoretical and practical applications. Therefore, this study attempts to enhance understanding about the factors that influence consumers’ manufacturer versus store brand purchase decisions. A conceptual model is developed to integrate the manner by which a consumer’s motivation to conform to the perceived social norm of purchasing manufacturer brand products influences this purchase decision. The model is tested using survey data. Findings indicate the importance of the intensity of perceived differences between store brand and manufacturer brand product offerings in affecting consumers’ purchase intention of these products. The relationship is also mediated by consumers’ motivation to conform to manufacturer brand products in their purchase decision.

  8. Identitetsbaseret branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Judy

    2009-01-01

      Det er efterhånden almindeligt anerkendt, at branding spiller en central rolle i virksomhedens værdiskabelse. Men hvad det præcist er, der bestemmer, om et brand får succes eller ej, er stadigvæk ikke så let at pege på. En af grundene er, ifølge artiklens forfattere, at forskningen i stor...... udstrækning arbejder med en alt for statisk brandforståelse: Enten fokuserer den kun på brandet, sådan som det opfattes af forbrugeren, dvs. et 'udefra og ind perspektiv' - eller også opererer den udelukkende med et 'indefra og ud perspektiv'og ser på brandet, sådan som det konstrueres og styres af brand...

  9. Brand Resonance Behavior among Online Brand Community

    OpenAIRE

    Shaari, Hasnizam; Ahmad, Intan Shafinaz

    2017-01-01

    Brand commitment studies had gained considerable attention in today’s marketing practices. Sustaining the brand competitive advantages become challenging especially in the context of digital marketing. Development of Web 2.0 that enables interactive communication had offered a new mechanism for owner of the brand to strengthen the bond among their admirers and users via online brand community. Attitude and behavior of online brand community members can be crucial to overall brand competitive...

  10. Co-branding of payment cards

    OpenAIRE

    Přikryl, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with possibilities and use of co-branding within the financial institutions. It mainly focuses on co-branding payment cards aiming both, the analysis of the current situation on the market for these products in the Czech Republic as well as the outline of their new usage opportunities. The theoretical part defines not only the basic concepts of the branding phenomenon but also more deeply characterizes its part called co-branding. The paper then offers fundamental in...

  11. A study on relationship of brand characteristics and customer satisfaction with brand loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Zarepour Nasirabadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Brands are considered as valuable assets of a company both economically and strategically. Thus, having customers who are loyal to a brand is one of the main goals of businesses companies. Identifying and anticipating the customers’ needs are vital to the enterprises gaining competitive advantage and market segmentation. Maintaining and enforcing customers’ loyalty is a strategic challenge for companies seeking to keep and promote their competitive status in the market. High brand loyalty of the customers generates competitive advantage for the company and it increases the income and decreases the costs of marketing. In addition to increasing the market share, loyalty allows to ask for higher prices compared with its competitors. This study seeks to investigate the factors influencing customer loyalty to sport brands. The statistical population of this research was Tehran city. Using simple cluster sampling, 502 customers of four known brand sports, i.e. Nike, Puma, Adidas, Reebok, and Fila were chosen. Furthermore, a questionnaire, which assessed seven variables including reputations, brand name, brand image, brand loyalty, customer satisfaction, promotion and the price was used and the hypotheses were analyzed using statistical tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (K-S test, Spearman correlation, simultaneous linear regression and binomial test. The findings suggested that the brand name has a strong correlation with brand loyalty. Moreover, variables such as reputation, brand image, customer satisfaction, price and promotions also have positive and significant effect on the brand loyalty.

  12. Strategies of internationalization and positioning of brands and products of south of minas gerais in the international market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton dos Santos Portugal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The region of the South of Minas Gerais have important polar regions of industrial growth, with segments of intermediate goods of consumption such as nourishing aluminum, electronics, clothes, footwear products and a modern industrial park of pieces to automobile industry. The force of the commerce and the agriculture business are still distinguished. With a US$ 2 billion average monthly, Minas exportations in 2008 grew above national average, the state is the second bigger exporter of the country and the south region its third bigger force (State Secretary of Economic Development - January 2009. In this direction, the study is justified for the fact that it is important to know the strategies used for sucessful companies which act in the international market, being able to serve as research source and parameter for those that have potential for such performance contributing for the development of the e region and economic growth of the country. The work presents a bibliographical revision on internationalization strategies and positioning of value, finishing with a study of multiple cases in two big companies, of the South of Minas Gerais, exporting of finished products, its strategies for the exportations, positioning of its products and brand in the international trade and the restrict factors of this internationalization, as well as its consequences in the development of these organizations.

  13. Controlled categorisation processing in brand extension evaluation by Indo-European language speakers. An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudali-Czyż, Agnieszka; Ratomska, Marta; Cudo, Andrzej; Francuz, Piotr; Kopiś, Natalia; Tużnik, Przemysław

    2016-08-15

    The purpose of our experiment was to test event-related potentials (ERP) accompanying the process of brand extension evaluation in people speaking Indo-European languages. The experimental procedure consisted of sequential presentations of pairs of stimuli; namely, a beverage brand name and a product name. The products fell into the category of beverages (congruent trials) or clothes (incongruent trials). In the response condition (RC), the participants decided whether they accepted the product as an extension of the brand. In the no-response condition (NRC), the participants' task was to attend the stimuli and try to remember them. In the response condition, the amplitudes of the N270, P300 and N400 components were sensitive to incongruence between the product category and the previously presented brand. However, in the no-response condition, differences emerged only at the level of early P1 and P2 components. Our results suggest that, in people speaking one of the Indo-European languages, the process of categorisation in brand extension evaluation is not automatic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Brand Evaluation - A Basic Feature in Modern Brand Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin IRIMIEŞ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Defined as the sum of features that make a subject unique, the brand has turned into one of the most important characteristics of the way products, services and institutions conduct their public relations or are presented to the contemporary consumer. Taking into consideration that branding is an extremely flexible process and can be applied to a very wide range of subjects, the brand management has become one of the most important instruments of modern marketing and is used in every selling/buying transaction. The purpose of this article is to make a comprehensive analysis of the evaluation methods of brands, to present the situations that usually need a brand evaluation as well as to see whether Romania has made any progress from this point of view.

  15. Measuring Brand Image Effects of Flagship Projects for Place Brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenker, Sebastian; Beckmann, Suzanne C.

    2013-01-01

    Cities invest large sums of money in ‘flagship projects’, with the aim of not only developing the city as such, but also changing the perceptions of the city brand towards a desired image. The city of Hamburg, Germany, is currently investing euro575 million in order to build a new symphony hall...... (Elbphilharmonie), euro400 million to develop the ‘International Architectural Fair’ and it is also considering candidature again for the ‘Olympic Games’ in 2024/2028. As assessing the image effects of such projects is rather difficult, this article introduces an improved version of the Brand Concept Map approach......, which was originally developed for product brands. An experimental design was used to first measure the Hamburg brand as such and then the changes in the brand perceptions after priming the participants (N=209) for one of the three different flagship projects. The findings reveal several important...

  16. Reducing calorie sales from supermarkets - "silent" reformulation of retailer-brand food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Sommer, Iben

    2017-01-01

    Background Food product reformulation is seen as one among several tools to promote healthier eating. Reformulating the recipe for a processed food, e.g. reducing the fat, sugar or salt content of the foods, or increasing the content of whole-grains, can help the consumers to pursue a healthier......’ sales data – enriched with data on products’ energy density - from a Danish retail chain. Sales of eight product categories were studied. Within each of these categories, specific products had been reformulated during the 52 weeks data period. Using econometric methods, we decompose the changes...... in calorie turnover and sales value into direct and indirect effects of product reformulation. Results For all considered products, the direct effect of product reformulation was a reduction in the sale of calories from the respective product categories - between 0.5 and 8.2%. In several cases...

  17. Employer Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Mønsted, Bolette Rye

    2012-01-01

    Employer branding er både for den private og den offentlige sektor blevet en måde, de kan imødekomme ændrede arbejdsmarkedsvilkår og organisatoriske udfordringer i en postmoderne og globaliseret verden. Den aktuelle finanskrise har skabt nye udfordringer for organisationer i deres bestræbelser på...... at tiltrække- og fastholde attraktive medarbejdere. Men hvilken betydning har det, når Grundfos siger ”Mennesket er i fokus”, og hvad siger ”mangfoldighed” om Københavns Kommune som arbejdsplads i relation til employer branding? Er der egentlig sammenhæng mellem tankerne bag employer branding og de eksternt...... kommunikerede employer brandprodukter. Eller bliver det unikke ved arbejdspladserne ersattet af buzzwords uden substans og inddragelse af ansatte og interessenter? Artiklen har til formål at vurdere disse spørgsmål på baggrund af analyser af to cases med employer branding....

  18. Assessing tobacco marketing receptivity among youth: integrating point of sale marketing, cigarette package branding and branded merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Sandra; Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Barrientos, Inti; Mejía, Raúl; Morello, Paola; Sargent, James D; Thrasher, James F

    2016-11-01

    As countries prohibit tobacco marketing through traditional channels, marketing at point of sale (PoS) and through tobacco packaging is increasingly important for promoting tobacco consumption. Assess the validity of a novel marketing receptivity index that considers frequency of PoS exposures, tobacco brand recall and ownership of branded merchandise. Data come from a cross-sectional survey of 3172 secondary school students in Argentina. Questions assessed frequency of going to stores where tobacco is often sold; cued recall of brand names for 3 cigarette packages with brand name removed and ownership of branded merchandise. A four-level marketing receptivity index was derived: low PoS exposure only; high PoS exposure or recall of 1 brand; recall of 2 or more brands; and ownership of branded merchandise. Indicators of marketing receptivity and smoking involvement were regressed on the index, including in adjusted models that controlled for sociodemographics, social influences and sensation seeking. Among never-smokers, the index had independent positive associations with smoking susceptibility (ie, adjusted OR (AOR) 2v1 =1.66; AOR 3v1 =1.64; AOR 4v1 =2.95), willingness to try a specific brand (ie, AOR 2v1 =1.45; AOR 3v1 =2.38; AOR 4v1 =2.20) and positive smoking expectancies (ie, B adj 2v1 =0.09; B adj 3v1 =0.18; B adj 4v1 =0.34). A more marked dose-response independent association was found with current smoking behaviour (ie, AOR 2v1 =2.47; AOR 3v1 =3.16; AOR 4v1 =3.62). The marketing receptivity index was associated with important variation in smoking-related perceptions, intentions and behaviour among Argentine adolescents. Future research should determine the predictive validity and generalisability of this measure to other contexts, including the explanatory power gained by integrating cigarette package brand recognition tasks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. DIGITAL MARKETING AND ITS INFLUENCES ON THE PERCEPTION REGARDING PRODUCT VALUES AND LUXURY BRANDS

    OpenAIRE

    ADRIAN RAZVAN JOANTA (RUSAN); MARWA BEZZAOUIA

    2016-01-01

    For many years, the world of deluxe products had been accessible only to an exclusive and selected public. There had been created an impression that it was impossible for an outsider to gain access to this world. Specialists in the field of deluxe products had created almost Utopian worlds, where clients could enjoy the quality, history and legacy of deluxe products. In our day and age, more and more researchers are trying to explain and find the determining factors in the consump...

  20. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRODUCT HAPTIC ACCESSIBILITY AND CONSUMER RESPONSE: A BRAND PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Karangi, Sheena Wanjiku

    2017-01-01

    Consumers generally like touching products before buying and prior research indicates that touching influences the purchase decision-making process (e.g. McCabe & Nowlis, 2003; Peck & Childers, 2003a; Peck & Johnson, 2011; Peck & Shu, 2009; Webb & Peck, 2015). For example, touching products has a positive effect on consumer attitudes, intentions and behaviours and these effects seem to vary by product category, situational context and need for touch. Touch research however has principally rec...

  1. Application of Specific Features of Industrial Products when Forming and Developing Brands of Industrial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatsentiuk Stanislav V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses and structures approaches and principles of formulation of industrial products. It offers classification of goods and markets of industrial products by their characteristics and participants. It identifies main participants that make decisions at B2C and B2B markets and characterises their specific features and motivation when making decisions on purchase of products of industrial enterprises. It studies and analyses indicators of development of domestic markets of consumer goods and market of industrial products and dynamics of development of their relation in retrospective view.

  2. Cigarette brand variant portfolio strategy and the use of colour in a darkening market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, Steven J

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate cigarette branding strategies used to segment a market with some of the toughest tobacco controls. To document brand variant and packaging portfolios and assess the role played by colour before plain packaging, as well as consider the threat that recently implemented legislation poses for tobacco manufacturers. Brand variant and packaging details were extracted from manufacturer ingredient reports, as well as a retail audit of Australian supermarkets. Details were also collected for other product categories to provide perspective on cigarette portfolios. Secondary and primary data sources were analysed to evaluate variant and packaging portfolio strategy. In Australia, 12 leading cigarette brands supported 120 brand variants. Of these 61 had names with a specific colour and a further 26 had names with colour connotation. There were 338 corresponding packaging configurations, with most variants available in the primary cigarette distribution channel in four pack size options. Tobacco companies microsegment Australian consumers with highly differentiated product offerings and a family branding strategy that helps ameliorate the effects of marketing restrictions. To date, tobacco controls have had little negative impact upon variant and packaging portfolios, which have continued to expand. Colour has become a key visual signifier differentiating one variant from the next, and colour names are used to extend brand lines. However, the role of colour, as a heuristic to simplify consumer decision-making processes, becomes largely redundant with plain packaging. Plain packaging's impact upon manufacturers' branding strategies is therefore likely to be significant. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Pricing of brand extensions based on perceptions of brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Arsenos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the role of brand equity when pricing hypothetical brand extensions. Companies tend to use different pricing techniques for their products, and their pricing decisions are based on many factors, including image and category fit of the product with the existing image and products of the company. Brand extensions are usually investigated from a consumer perspective, focusing on the extension attitude, however, it is essential to understand the corporate decision-making process regarding pricing. Exploring this matter using quantitative research methods, the study provides empirical evidence that companies that have invested heavily in marketing actions in the past and have built strong brand equity over-time, show flexibility in the mark-up during the cost decision-making process of a hypothetical brand extensions. Variations in mark-up percentages are also observed when there is a difference in image and category fit of the extension to the original brand. However, companies characterized by greater brand equity exhibited greater flexibility in the mark-up percentages, even for low fit extensions.

  4. The Impact of Brand Awareness and Customer Experience on the Brand Loyalty of MI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the impact of brand awareness and customer experience on brand loyalty of MI. This study randomly selected the people who have purchased the MI’s product to complete the questionnaire. The variables of this questionnaire included population statistics variables, the brand awareness of consumers, the experience of consumers when purchasing, and the customer’s loyalty of its brand. By using the SPSS to analyze the date from reliability analysis, validity analysis, correlation analysis and descriptive statistical analysis of each variable. As the results shown, brand awareness can positively predict brand loyalty. Service experience and emotional experience can positively affect brand loyalty. There existed significantly positive correlation among brand awareness, service eexperience, emotional eexperience and brand loyalty. Finally, summarizing the empirical results, and bringing up some limitation and expanding direction of this research.

  5. FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI SIKAP AUDIENCE TERHADAP PRODUCT/BRAND PLACEMENT DALAM ACARA TV (STUDI KASUS INDONESIAN IDOL 2007 & MAMAMIA SHOW 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Julivan Rumambi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Product/brand placement is not such a new matter in the marketing world, including in Indonesia in the last few years. These practice have been conducted at 1920 by cigarette's company in USA, while on the success story can be found on E.T (Extra-Terrestrial: the movie by 1982 presenting Reese's Pieces candy. Product/brand placement can be found widely in various medium starting from movies, TV shows, comics, games, video clip, etc. Today, various TV shows like 'Akademi Fantasi Indosiar (AFI', 'Indonesian Idol', 'Mamamia Show', 'Kontes Dangdut Indonesia (KDI', 'Empat Mata', 'Katakan Cinta', 'I-Gosip' & 'Cek & Ricek' are popular to advertise and become alternative medium for product / brand placement. In order to make the right decisions by conducting product/brand placement especially in TV shows, the company should know & understand several factors that influence audience attitude towards product/brand placement. Based on article entitled 'audience attitude towards product placement in movies: a case from Turkey' as a referred journal, the result of the research conducted have been formed four factors influencing attitude of audience toward product/brand placement. The four factors are 'attention', 'acceptance', 'reference' and 'ethics & regulation' with total variance explained equal to 53,53%. By conducting principal component factor analysis for this research, there are five factors influencing audience attitude toward product/brand placement formed with the total variance explained equal to 63,823 %. Three among other formed factors have several similar variables with the factor in the referred journal, while the two other factors compiled with only two variable/statement item for each. The percentage of each factor were 'acceptance' (18,923%, ethics & regulation (14,978%, attention (13,844%, reference (9,139% and interest (6,939%. The result of this research tried to conclude and give some input related with the final result of the main

  6. Branded smart phone applications: an efficient marketing strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Vaddé, Mathilde

    2012-01-01

    Advertising through smart phone applications is one of the fastest growing categories in advertising nowadays. Branded game-apps on mobile phones have several very innovative and attractive aspects, they physically engage their customers into a game, creating on a first level an entertainment but mainly they are advertising their products and the brand’s name. Many studies have been written on gaming, customer engagement and marketing strategies, but only few studies has been written on the c...

  7. Brand-new world. Medical marketing the business way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Melinda Hinson

    2006-01-01

    If someone mentioned the name of your practice, would y our patients, prospects and referring physicians feel, think or say? Are these images and adjectives consistent with the image you endeavor to build? Do people even know the vision for your practice? A well-planned brand strategy--aligned with overall business objectives--guides internal and external communications, new product introductions, acquisitions and mergers.

  8. Do sport tourism events have a brand image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriaki Kaplanidou; Christine Vogt

    2007-01-01

    Sport tourism events are used by destinations to enhance their image. The components of an event's brand image, however, have not been well studied. Keller (1993) suggested that brand image consists of brand associations featuring attributes, benefits, and attitudes toward the "product." Understanding these brand associations will help determine those...

  9. Efficacy and Safety of a Mixture of Two Different Brands of Insulin Products in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Bin Chiou

    2005-11-01

    Conclusion: This retrospective study demonstrated that using a mixture of different brands of insulin (Insulatard HM plus Humulin R for 6 months did not change the efficacy of insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  10. Strategic Design through Brand Contextualization

    OpenAIRE

    Karjalainen, Toni-Matti; Nikitas, Alexandros; Rahe, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Providing meaningful customer experience is at the core of any successful business activity. Brands can function as vehicles to bundle the ingredients of experience together and give them structure by which consumers are able to understand and interpret products and services. To complement the technical and functional reality and experience, brands create particular narratives around products and services, within the realm of their use experience. This paper aims to contribute to understandin...

  11. The Impact of Cosumers' Attitude on Online Video Advertising Towards Product Branding

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Lunardi

    2015-01-01

    Online video advertising is becoming much more common and data shows that companies' demand for online video advertising is increasing rapidly. However, there is a scarcity of research done about the consumers' perspective on online video advertising and there is still little evidence that online video advertising is beneficial for companies and the products being advertised. This research would like to find out the impact of consumers' attitude on online video advertising towards product bra...

  12. The impact of brand image fit on attitude towards a brand alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Debra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Co-branding has become an increasingly popular strategy over recent decades. Studies have found that the pre-existing attitudes to the parent brands, fit between their product categories and perceived fit in the brands themselves as important drivers of a co-brand success. Despite its importance, most studies have treated brand fit as a simple measure of complementarily and consistency. Recently, a few papers have challenged this view, suggesting that a broader range of brand attributes (such as personality, functional and hedonic characteristics, cultural meaning should also be considered when investigating brand alliances. The current study draws on these findings, exploring the fit between partners’ brand images and how they influence perceptions of a brand alliance. We treat brand image as a multi-dimensional construct, consisting of economic, symbolic, sensory, futuristic and utilitarian elements. Using an experimental design with nine hypothetical brand pairings with 221 respondents, we find brand image fit provides greater explanatory power over a traditional unidimensional measure of brand fit, with economic, futuristic and utilitarian dimensions having a significant influence on co-brand perceptions.

  13. How well does consumer-based brand equity align with sales-based brand equity and marketing mix response?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, Hannes; Ailawadi, Kusum L.; van Heerde, H.J.

    Brand equity is the differential preference and response to marketing effort that a product obtains because of its brand identification. Brand equity can be measured based on either consumer perceptions or on sales. Consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) measures what consumers think and feel about the

  14. Development of procedures for spectrometer brand Spectral Products to capture spectra of incoherent optical radiation for the Laboratorio de Fotonica y Tecnologia Laser Aplicada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Avendano, Fabio Andres

    2008-01-01

    The procedure to capture spectra of incoherent optical radiation for the Laboratorio de Fotonica y Tecnologia Laser Aplicada (LAFTLA), of the Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica de la Universidad de Costa Rica is developed through the use of a spectrometer brand Spectral Products. The thorough understanding of manuals spectrometer brand Spectral Products was necessary for the satisfactory development of the project. Spectrometer and the card National Instruments are installed and run both devices with a montage of suitable laboratory. Two catches of spectrum for two different sources of optical radiation are performanced, since damages to the files .ddl precluded that the SM 240 spectrometer worked properly to take more catches to other sources of optical radiation. A final report containing the two catches is produced with the respective analysis. (author) [es

  15. Brand Evaluation - A Basic Feature in Modern Brand Management

    OpenAIRE

    Cosmin IRIMIEŞ

    2012-01-01

    Defined as the sum of features that make a subject unique, the brand has turned into one of the most important characteristics of the way products, services and institutions conduct their public relations or are presented to the contemporary consumer. Taking into consideration that branding is an extremely flexible process and can be applied to a very wide range of subjects, the brand management has become one of the most important instruments of modern marketing and is used in every selling/...

  16. Does Luxury Brand Perception Matter In Purchase Intention? A Comparison Between A Japanese Brand And A German Brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research regarding luxury products in developed economies can be found in many literatures, nevertheless similar research in developing economies are still limited. Since this topic is still underexplored, particularly in developing economies, the purpose of this study is to investigate Indonesian consumers’ perception of two different luxury brands that comes from different countries, namely BMW (Germany and Lexus (Japan. Data was collected from diverse Indonesian BMW and Lexus owners. The consumers’ general brand perception and perceived values of luxury car are examined in this study. Data analysis used structural equation modeling (SEM. Results indicated that Indonesian consumers considered Japanese luxury car’s (Lexus conspicuous value higher than German luxury car (BMW. Nevertheless, BMW was considered to have higher value in all of the rest of the aspects studied such as quality value, social value, and hedonic value. Even though so, the result of the study finds that Lexus owners have a higher purchase intention than BMW owners. The research concludes that luxury brand perception is highly affecting consumers’ purchase intention in this luxury automotive industry.

  17. The categorisation of brands: The case of P&G™ branding strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente-Díaz, Rogelio; Cavazos-Arroyo, Judith

    2017-06-01

    In 2 studies, we tested what we considered to be the core of Procter and Gamble™ (P&G™) latest branding strategy: making the association between its corporate brand and its product brands explicit. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the conditions: explicit association between P&G™ and one of its product brands and a control condition. Results from Study 1 showed a positive influence of the corporate brand on judgements of brand quality for Crest™. Similarly, results from Study 2 showed a positive influence of the corporate brand on judgements of brand quality and trust for Oral-B™. From a multidisciplinary perspective, we discussed the theoretical and applied implications of our results. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. Competition in prescription drug markets: the roles of trademarks, advertising, and generic names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Roger; Lobo, Félix

    2013-08-01

    We take on two subjects of controversy among economists-advertising and trademarks-in the context of the market for generic drugs. We outline a model in which trademarks for drug names reduce search costs but increase product differentiation. In this particular framework, trademarks may not benefit consumers. In contrast, the generic names of drugs or "International Nonproprietary Names" (INN) have unquestionable benefits in both economic theory and empirical studies. We offer a second model where advertising of a brand-name drug creates recognition for the generic name. The monopoly patent-holder advertises less than in the absence of a competitive spillover.

  19. Is There Evidence to Support Brand to Generic Interchange of the Mycophenolic Acid Products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Karen; Reddy, Prabashni; Gabardi, Steven

    2017-02-01

    The uptake of generic immunosuppressants lags comparatively to other drug classes, despite that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) uses identical bioequivalence standards for all drugs. Transplant societies acknowledge the cost savings associated with generic immunosuppressants and support their use following heart, lung, kidney, or bone marrow transplantation. Seven studies of the pharmacokinetics or clinical efficacy of generic mycophenolate mofetil compared to the innovator product are published; all studies and products were ex-United States. Three studies did not demonstrate any pharmacokinetic differences between generic and innovator products in healthy subjects, achieving FDA bioequivalence requirements. Two studies in renal allograft recipients demonstrated no difference in area under the curves between generic and innovator products, and in one, the maximum concentration (Cmax) fell outside the FDA regulatory range. Two studies revealed no difference in acute organ rejection or graft function in renal allograft recipients. Patient surveys indicate that cost is a barrier to immunosuppressant adherence. Generics present a viable method to reduce costs to payers, patients, and health care systems. Adherence to immunosuppressants is crucial to prevent graft failure. An affordable regimen potentially confers greater adherence. Concerns regarding the presumed inferiority of generic immunosuppressants should be assuaged by regulatory requirements for bioequivalency testing, transplant society position statements, and pharmacokinetic and clinical studies.

  20. Customer Satisfaction Index Model on Three Level Of Socioeconomic Status In Bogor Case Study: Customer Satisfaction on Branded Cooking Oil Product

    OpenAIRE

    Budi Setiawan

    2014-01-01

    Customer satisfaction index models have been developed in many countries, including Indonesia. Those models were commonly not focused on the socioeconomic status (SES) of the customer, sothis condition could be a research gap. The aims of this research is to analyze the customer satisfaction index model of branded cooking oil product in Bogor, Indonesia based on SES established from the household monthly routine consumption. Questionnaires were used as primary data collection instrument in th...

  1. Effect of Product Quality, Promotion, and Brand Image on Purchase Decision of Nike Sports Shoes (Case Study on S1 Fisip Undip Students)

    OpenAIRE

    Saputra, Denny; Waluyo, Handoyo Djoko; Listyorini, Sari

    2014-01-01

    Complex consumer needs all critical and followed increasingly competitive market competition lead to Nike Sports Shoes must to compete and also maintain their market consumer seized from its competitors. Consumers who take the decision to choose Nike Sports Shoes will consider various things before buying it. Consideration to make a decision consist of influenced the quality of the product, promotion, and brand image of Nike Sport Shoes. The problem in this research is Sports Shoes Nike fluct...

  2. PENCAPAIAN BRAND CORPORATE MELALUI BRAND ACTIVATION PENDEKATAN EXPERIENTIAL MARKETING ( STUDI KASUS LABORATORIUM KLINIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdalena Lubis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Brand activation is a corporation's endeavor to look deeper into what's in the brand, strategy and position of the brand. A new approach to brand activation by maximizing the range of relevant assets through product and service, employees, identity and communication combined with experiential marketing through sense, feel, think, act, relate, is considered highly effective in achieving corporate brand because it emphasizes the differentiation of competitors. This study aimed to find out how the achievement of corporate brand through brand activation experiential marketing conducted by Clinical Laboratory with the object of PT. Prodia Widyahusada Tbk. This descriptive case study study obtained data through interviews and observations. This research finds the fact that companies do brand activation to achieve corporate brand is holistic to maximize brand in competitive competition, but to create experiential marketing, company can emphasize certain points in accordance with objectives desired by company. At the same time, denial of Schmitt's theory of surprise is the most important, in contrast to that done in the research object that sense and feel are the strongest according to the needs or goals of the company's customers. Utilization of brand activation experiential marketing can create trust, engagement, loyalty, acquisition, share, differentiator with competitors and lead to the achievement of a corporate brand of reputation. Brand activation merupakan usaha korporasi untuk melihat lebih dalam mengenai berbagai hal yang ada di dalam brand, strategi dan posisi dari brand tersebut. Pendekatan baru terhadap brand activation dengan memaksimalkan berbagai asset yang relevan melalui product and service, employees, identity dan communication dipadu dengan experiential marketing melalui sense, feel, think, act, relate, dinilai sangat efektif untuk mencapai brand corporate karena lebih menekankan differensiasi terhadap kompetitor. Penelitian ini

  3. Building Blocks for Personal Brands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the four essential building blocks for personal brands: (1) name; (2) message; (3) channels; and (4) bridges. However, outstanding building materials can only take a person so far. The author emphasizes that vision, determination, faith, a sense of humor, and humility are also required.

  4. The impact of retailers own brand Fair Trade products on developing countries producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, L. K.; Vieira, L. M.; Ferreira, G. C.

    Fair Trade certification allows small producers to access international markets and to add value to their products. The Fair-Trade Labelling Organisation certification body (FLOCERT) is responsible for organising and transferring technical information from the consumer market to producers...... in developing countries. Fair trade certification reduces the complexity of transactions and enables producers to adhere to the certification system. FLOCERT exercises governance power in production sites to meet demand by the enforcement of the standards not dissimilar to what happens in global value chains....... Large food retailers have changed practices in the agro-food sector and opened markets to small producers from developing countries. Nevertheless, results reveal that certification imparts in high entry barriers in the form of the need for formal producers' associations, minimum export capacity...

  5. Experiential Marketing On Brand Advocacy: A Mixed-Method Approach On Global Apple Product Users

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Machado; Michael C. Cant; Helen Seaborne

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, marketing was about delivering the right product to the consumer at the right place and set at the right price. In recent years, experiential marketing has increased in popularity among companies that aim at delivering holistic experiences to be enjoyed by their consumers. With the technology explosion and the level of development the past number of years, marketers have become more and more focussed on different ways and methods to reach consumers. The use of experiential mark...

  6. The role of perceived brand congruency, team identification and perceived community concern in sports brand alliances

    OpenAIRE

    Beus, Shenae June

    2017-01-01

    Sports teams are attractive alliance partners for brands looking to enhance their sales potential and differentiate themselves in highly competitive markets. Whilst such brand alliances provide many benefits, they may also expose the partnering brands to risk. This is particularly so when the alliance partner is a potentially undesirable brand (e.g., offers products or services that have the potential to harm vulnerable consumers). A conceptual model comprising the Social Dilemma Perspective ...

  7. Strategic Brand Management in Hospitality Sector: How to Manage Co-branding in Hotels and Restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhet Genc

    2010-01-01

    Companies in the hospitality sector (hotels, restaurants etc.) aim to distinguish their brand image and differentiate their product or service among the competitors by adopting particular brand strategies since identifying a target customer base and understanding their needs and preferences are of primary significance for hospitality firms. The achievement of a distinguished designation necessitates utilizing research based and strategic branding techniques and suggestions. One major branding...

  8. The impact of packaging, price and brand awareness on brand loyalty: Evidence from the paint retailing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manilall Dhurup

    2014-04-01

    Rationale: The study sought to extend empirical evidence on the association between brand loyalty and product-related factors: packaging, price and brand awareness. Methodology: The study adopted a quantitative survey approach and was conducted in a paint retailing environment. Data were elicited from a conveniently selected sample of 212 consumers who purchased various brands of paint. Regression analysis and the one-way analysis of variance test were conducted to investigate the impact of packaging, price and brand awareness on brand loyalty. Findings: Packaging, price and brand awareness showed significant positive relationships with brand loyalty, which implied their significant predictive influence on brand loyalty. The results suggest that management should, inter alia, initiate and implement effective packaging, pricing and brand awareness in order to enhance consumers’ brand loyalty to the company’s products. Value of research: The research provides valuable insights to managers of companies on the need to continuously enhance their products’ packaging with competitive pricing strategies in order to improve brand awareness and brand loyalty and remain competitive in the market. The study also provides evidence of the relationship between brand loyalty and packaging, price and brand awareness in a South African context. Conclusion: The marketing success of businesses depends on their ability to continuously enhance their products’ packaging with competitive pricing and brand awareness strategies in order to improve brand loyalty. Future studies should be extended to other retailing environments and product categories.

  9. An Empirical Investigation to Analyze the Brand Equity and Resonance of Banking Services: Evidence from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Gautam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to verify the determinants of brand equityof services based on consumers’ perception of a banking service.The present study is based on customer-based brand equity calledthe Brand Resonance model suggested by Keller (2001, whichcomprises six brand equity constructs, such as: brand resonance;brand judgements; brand feelings; brand performance; brand imagery;brand salience. Exploratory factor analysis was performedto reduce the total number of items to a small number of underlyingfactors, and the results produced six factors, namely: brandresonance; brand judgements; brand feelings; brand performance;brand imagery; brand salience. These alpha coefficients ofthe reliability test were found to be ranging from 0.781 to 0.912for all of the brand equity constructs individually, and for the entirescale the value of alpha was found to be 0.837. Correlationanalysis was performed to find out relationships among variouscomponents of brand equity. From the findings of multiple regressionanalysis it is evident that brand performance emergedas the most important determinant of brand resonance, followedby brand feelings (0.427 and brand judgements (0.306.

  10. The effect of educational gifts from pharmaceutical firms on medical students' recall of company names or products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, W S; Carlos, R; Sandberg, E H; Roizen, M F

    1997-10-01

    To assess the influence of pharmaceutical advertising (in the form of books) directed at medical students and also to examine students' attitudes toward pharmaceutical representatives after interacting with them. Two groups of fourth-year medical students were surveyed: 166 residency applicants to the Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care between 1991 and 1993, who were questioned during their personal interviews with the department chair, and 39 fourth-year students from the University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine in 1994-95, who were surveyed by telephone. The students were asked if they had ever received a book from a pharmaceutical representative and, if so, to name the book. Then they were asked to name the book-giving company or a product associated with the company. Responses were compared using chi-square analysis. In all, 90% of the students had received one or more books and accurately recalled titles for 89% of them. However, only 25% of the named books were accurately associated with a pharmaceutical company or product. The Pritzker students, asked to recall interactions with pharmaceutical representatives, reported being skeptical of representatives who ignored them because they were students, but they rated as helpful and informative those who conversed with them or gave them gifts. Although gifts to medical students do not necessarily engender company or product recall, attention paid to medical students by pharmaceutical representatives engenders goodwill toward the representatives and their messages.

  11. Acknowledgment of Korean Products Origin in Order to Strengthen Its Nation Brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfonso Macías Valadez Elías

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Samsung and Lg electronic products are recognized around the world due to their high quality. However, in many countries, particularly in Latin America, there is a misconception related to the origin of these trademarks. In order to confirm this, a marketing research took place in Mexico, Chile and Argentina. Following the confirmation of the abovementioned hypothesis, it is compulsive to design strategies in order to promote the country image of South Korea, taking advantage of the outstanding reputation of its businesses worldwide.

  12. Analysis of Interbrand, BrandZ and BAV brand valuation methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Bojan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brand valuation is considered for one of the most significant challenges of not only theory and practice of contemporary marketing, but other disciplines, as well. Namely, the complex nature of this issue implies the need for multidisciplinary approach and creation of methodology which goes beyond the borders of marketing as a discipline, and includes knowledge derived from accounting, finance and other areas. However, mostly one-sided approaches oriented towards determining brand value either based on research results of consumer behavior and attitudes or based on financial success of the brand are dominant in marketing and financial literature. Simultaneously with these theoretical methodologies, agencies for consultancy and marketing and other subjects have been developing their own brand valuation methods and models. Some of them can be appointed to comprehensive approach to brand valuation, which overcomes mentioned problem considering one-sided analysis of brand value. The comprehensive approach, namely, presumes brand valuation based on benefits which brand provides to both customers and enterprise that owns it, in other words - based on qualitative and quantitative measures respectively reflecting behavior and attitudes of consumers and assumed financial value of the brand, or, more precisely, brand value capitalization. According to the defined research subject, this paper is structured as follows: importance and problem of brand value are reviewed in the Introduction, and three most well-known brand valuation methodologies developed by consultancy agencies - Interbrand methodology and BrandZ and BAV models are analyzed in the next section. In the further considerations the results of comparative analysis of these methodologies are presented and implications for adequate brand valuation suggested.

  13. Building Brand Loyalty Through Increasing Brand Trust And Brand Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Choirul Afif

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Loyalty is one indicator of the success of marketing performance. Various studies have shown that brand loyalty increases the number of customers and sales. In addition brand loyalty is also lowering the cost to acquire new customers. Marketing managers need to give special attention to the issue of brand loyalty including the services of an English course.As one of the requirements to be able to compete at the global level is the mastery international language. However Indonesian English ability is lower than ASEAN countries such as Malaysia and Singapore. These conditions increase the number of English Courses in Indonesia rapid grow. But some people do not get the results as expected and are still looking for other colleges that are considered to have high quality with affordable prices. English village situated in Pare Kediri. About the qualifications of teaching staff infrastructure and management colleges in big cities is better than the village colleges in the Pare Kediri. Some participants still chose KampungInggris Pare Kediri as a place to learn English. The purpose of this research is how to analyze the important aspect to build brand loyalty. The results is the key factors to build brand loyalty is brand trust and brand brand affect. Brand trust and brand affect affected brand loyalty both simultaneously and partially. Marketing managers of English Courses in Indonesia must give more attention these aspects to increase brand loyalty.

  14. Associating a product with a luxury brand label modulates neural reward processing and favors choices in materialistic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrin, Catherine; Ceravolo, Leonardo; Chanal, Julien; Brosch, Tobias; Sander, David

    2017-11-23

    The present study investigated the extent to which luxury vs. non-luxury brand labels (i.e., extrinsic cues) randomly assigned to items and preferences for these items impact choice, and how this impact may be moderated by materialistic tendencies (i.e., individual characteristics). The main objective was to investigate the neural correlates of abovementioned effects using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Behavioural results showed that the more materialistic people are, the more they choose and like items labelled with luxury brands. Neuroimaging results revealed the implication of a neural network including the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex that was modulated by the brand label and also by the participants' preference. Most importantly, items with randomly assigned luxurious brand labels were preferentially chosen by participants and triggered enhanced signal in the caudate nucleus. This effect increased linearly with materialistic tendencies. Our results highlight the impact of brand-item association, although random in our study, and materialism on preference, relying on subparts of the brain valuation system for the integration of extrinsic cues, preferences and individual characteristics.

  15. Pemanfaatan Facebook Ads Untuk meningkatkan Brand Awareness pada Produk Lokal

    OpenAIRE

    Gita Aprinta

    2016-01-01

    Facebook ads is the most recent feature ad in facebook. Its simply stated as paid advertisment to help products in increasing their brand awareness.  The objective is to optimazing brands who want to reach thousands of costumers, by maximzing promotion through facebook ads.  Brand awareness is quite important for costumer to help them recalling brand, doing the purchasing, and have loyal to specific brand. Facebook ads providing huge opportunity for  each costumer to know, recall, involve and...

  16. 76 FR 44855 - Common or Usual Name for Raw Meat and Poultry Products Containing Added Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...'s experience in reviewing labels of meat and poultry products with added solution, the Agency has... or prior to consumption. Therefore, to ensure that labels adequately inform consumers that raw... of identity and that are sold for retail sale, institutional use, or further processing. If retail...

  17. Environmental services coupled to food products and brands: food companies interests and on-farm accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempa, Daniela

    2013-09-01

    Much research has been carried out on governmental support of agri environmental measures (AEM). However, little is known about demands on and incentives from the commercial market for environmental contributions of the farmers. The factors farm structures, level of remuneration and legal framework have been thoroughly investigated. However, demands of the food industry for environmentally friendly goods(1) and their effects on farmers' decisions have not yet been analyzed. Leading companies in the food industry have observed an increasing consumer awareness and, due to higher competition, see an additional need to communicate environmental benefits which result from either organic production methods or agri-environmental measures. To address this research deficit, two case studies were carried out. The first case study is a survey aimed at the industrial food producers' demands with regards to the environmental performance of supplying farms. Concurrently, within a second survey farmers were questioned to find out what conditions are required to implement agri-environmental measures beyond cross compliance and document their environmental performance. This article presents the outcomes of the first case study. The results show that food companies have an interest in the documentation of environmental benefits of supplying farms for their marketing strategies. Provision of support by finance or contract-design is also seen as appropriate tool to promote an environmentally friendly production. In turn the food producers' demand and support for documented environmental services can have a positive influence on farmers' decisions for implementation and documentation of these services. Thus, the surveys provide essential findings for further development of documentation strategies for environmental benefits within the supply chain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Can You Say My Name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo T.

    affect their judgments of people and objects. We extend this research by investigating the effect of phonological fluency on recognition and recall of novel non-word brand names in three laboratory experiments. The results provide us with a more fine-grained idea of fluency effects on memory of non...

  19. Customer Perceived Brand Equity in Measuring Consumption Preference towards Local and Imported Products: A serial Studies on Urban and Suburban Level of Indonesia Society in Greater Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study generally aims to analyze how the preferences of Indonesian as a customer in consuming local and imported products. The specific purpose of this study is to confirm measurement tools of the customer perceived brand equity, which are product country image, culture, marketing mix, and product quality. The result of this study indicates that Indonesian consider much about the marketing mix and product quality, while not so much considering culture.The product country image on the other hand gives the opposite effect. It is significantly related but has negative impact to the customer preference. This study is expected to provide insight on factors that contribute to form customer preference, consumption, and behavior in consuming local and imported product. It is expected that this study can bring impact in increasing local product competitiveness so that local and imported product could compete equally.

  20. Brand Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    a. Lisa Ann Richey, Roskilde University and Stefano Ponte, Danish Institute for International Studies - Brand Aid and Africa b. Fantu Cheru, Nordic Africa Institute - The Right to Consume: Compassion and the Intricate New Phase of Capitalism and Africa c. Rita Abrahamsen, University of Ottawa...... - Africa in a Global Political Economy of Symbolic Goods d. Graham Harrison, University of Sheffield - Images and Representations of Africa: Old, New and Beyond e. Claire Mercer, London School of Economics and Political Science - The Privatisation of Aid? f. Dan Brockington, University of Manchester...