WorldWideScience

Sample records for product accumulation curves

  1. Laffer Curves and Home Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotamäki Mauri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the earlier related literature, consumption tax rate Laffer curve is found to be strictly increasing (see Trabandt and Uhlig (2011. In this paper, a general equilibrium macro model is augmented by introducing a substitute for private consumption in the form of home production. The introduction of home production brings about an additional margin of adjustment – an increase in consumption tax rate not only decreases labor supply and reduces the consumption tax base but also allows a substitution of market goods with home-produced goods. The main objective of this paper is to show that, after the introduction of home production, the consumption tax Laffer curve exhibits an inverse U-shape. Also the income tax Laffer curves are significantly altered. The result shown in this paper casts doubt on some of the earlier results in the literature.

  2. M-curves and symmetric products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indranil Biswas

    2017-08-03

    Aug 3, 2017 ... is bounded above by g + 1, where g is the genus of X [11]. Curves which have exactly the maximum number (i.e., genus +1) of components of the real part are called M-curves. Classifying real algebraic curves up to homeomorphism is straightforward, however, classifying even planar non-singular real ...

  3. The importance of the radioiodine accumulation curve of the thyroid in diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policzer, M.

    1979-01-01

    The 131 I-based examination has been carried out since 1956. The first communication on the basis of 500 cases appeared in 1957, reporting mainly on technical details and on the normal curve obtained in the region of Budapest. Between 1968 and 1975 15500 examinations were performed, among which 1157 Basedow diseases and 157 cases of autonomous adenoma were discovered. The shape of the accumulation curve is analyzed in cases of different clinical types of hyperthyroidism. In the case of the Basedow disease the iodine metabolism pointed to hyperthyroidism in 42.9% of the cases, to vegetative dystony in 48.8% and to euthyroid functions in 6.4%. An increase of the iodine uptake was observed in 88.9%, that of iodine storing in 66.6%, while faster iodine release occurred only in 44.9% of the cases. In cases of autonomous adenoma the frequency of euthyroid-type accumulation curve was higher. Thus, it is recommended to determine iodine accumulation 1, 2, 6, 24 and 48 hours after the administration of the isotope. (L.E.)

  4. Accumulation of sucrose in irradiated agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation of agricultural products with ionizing radiation causes various physiological changes and one of the interesting phenomena is the increase of sucrose in irradiated potatoes. The relationship, however, between sucrose content and irradiation dose was not clarified. The author has made the relationship clear and found out that the sucrose content once enhanced by a high dose of irradiation does not lower during storage for a long period. It has been found that the sucrose accumulation caused by irradiation occurred in sweet potatoes and chestnuts as well as potatoes. In this article the effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content of potato tubers, sweet potato roots and chestnuts will be reviewed and the mechanism of this sucrose accumulation will be discussed

  5. Accumulation of sucrose in irradiated agricultural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T. [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1986-03-15

    Irradiation of agricultural products with ionizing radiation causes various physiological changes and one of the interesting phenomena is the increase of sucrose in irradiated potatoes. The relationship, however, between sucrose content and irradiation dose was not clarified. The author has made the relationship clear and found out that the sucrose content once enhanced by a high dose of irradiation does not lower during storage for a long period. It has been found that the sucrose accumulation caused by irradiation occurred in sweet potatoes and chestnuts as well as potatoes. In this article the effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content of potato tubers, sweet potato roots and chestnuts will be reviewed and the mechanism of this sucrose accumulation will be discussed.

  6. Experience curve for natural gas production by hydraulic fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Rokuhei; Greenfield, Carl; Pogue, Katie; Zwaan, Bob van der

    2017-01-01

    From 2007 to 2012 shale gas production in the US expanded at an astounding average growth rate of over 50%/yr, and thereby increased nearly tenfold over this short time period alone. Hydraulic fracturing technology, or “fracking”, as well as new directional drilling techniques, played key roles in this shale gas revolution, by allowing for extraction of natural gas from previously unviable shale resources. Although hydraulic fracturing technology had been around for decades, it only recently became commercially attractive for large-scale implementation. As the production of shale gas rapidly increased in the US over the past decade, the wellhead price of natural gas dropped substantially. In this paper we express the relationship between wellhead price and cumulative natural gas output in terms of an experience curve, and obtain a learning rate of 13% for the industry using hydraulic fracturing technology. This learning rate represents a measure for the know-how and skills accumulated thus far by the US shale gas industry. The use of experience curves for renewable energy options such as solar and wind power has allowed analysts, practitioners, and policy makers to assess potential price reductions, and underlying cost decreases, for these technologies in the future. The reasons for price reductions of hydraulic fracturing are fundamentally different from those behind renewable energy technologies – hence they cannot be directly compared – and hydraulic fracturing may soon reach, or maybe has already attained, a lower bound for further price reductions, for instance as a result of its water requirements or environmental footprint. Yet, understanding learning-by-doing phenomena as expressed by an industry-wide experience curve for shale gas production can be useful for strategic planning in the gas sector, as well as assist environmental policy design, and serve more broadly as input for projections of energy system developments. - Highlights: • Hydraulic

  7. Can Observation Skills of Citizen Scientists Be Estimated Using Species Accumulation Curves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Kelling

    Full Text Available Volunteers are increasingly being recruited into citizen science projects to collect observations for scientific studies. An additional goal of these projects is to engage and educate these volunteers. Thus, there are few barriers to participation resulting in volunteer observers with varying ability to complete the project's tasks. To improve the quality of a citizen science project's outcomes it would be useful to account for inter-observer variation, and to assess the rarely tested presumption that participating in a citizen science projects results in volunteers becoming better observers. Here we present a method for indexing observer variability based on the data routinely submitted by observers participating in the citizen science project eBird, a broad-scale monitoring project in which observers collect and submit lists of the bird species observed while birding. Our method for indexing observer variability uses species accumulation curves, lines that describe how the total number of species reported increase with increasing time spent in collecting observations. We find that differences in species accumulation curves among observers equates to higher rates of species accumulation, particularly for harder-to-identify species, and reveals increased species accumulation rates with continued participation. We suggest that these properties of our analysis provide a measure of observer skill, and that the potential to derive post-hoc data-derived measurements of participant ability should be more widely explored by analysts of data from citizen science projects. We see the potential for inferential results from analyses of citizen science data to be improved by accounting for observer skill.

  8. Rapid accumulation of inhibition accounts for saccades curved away from distractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Devin H; Fallah, Mazyar

    2017-08-01

    Saccades curved toward a distractor are accompanied by a burst of neuronal activation at the distractor locus in the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus (SCi) ~30 ms before the initiation of a saccade. Although saccades curve away from inactivated SCi loci, whether inhibition is restricted to a similar critical epoch for saccades curved away from a distractor remains unclear. We examined this possibility by modeling human saccade curvature as a function of the time between onset of a task irrelevant luminance- or color-modulated distractor and initiation of an impending saccade, referred to as saccade distractor onset asynchrony (SDOA). Our results demonstrated that 70 ms of luminance-modulated distractor processing or 90 ms of color-modulated distractor processing was required to modulate saccade trajectories. As these behavioral, feature-based differences were temporally consistent with the cortically mediated neurophysiological differences in visual onset latencies between luminance and color stimuli observed in the oculomotor and visual system, this method provides a noninvasive means to estimate the timing of peak activation in the oculomotor system. As such, we modeled SDOA functions separately for saccades curved toward and away from distractors and observed that a similar temporal process determined the magnitude of saccade curvatures in both contexts, suggesting that saccades deviate away from a distractor due to a rapid accumulation of inhibition in the critical epoch before saccade initiation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this research article, we propose a novel, noninvasive approach to behaviorally model the time course of competitive oculomotor processing. Our results highly resembled those from previously published neurophysiological experiments utilizing similar oculomotor processing contexts, thus validating our approach. Furthermore, this methodology provided new insights into the underlying neural mechanism subserving oculomotor processing

  9. Changing Patterns of Publication Productivity: Accumulative Advantage or Institutional Isomorphism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Eric L.; Milem, Jeffrey F.; Berger, Joseph B.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates two competing perspectives, accumulated advantage and institutional isomorphism, on the relationship between publication productivity and institutional hierarchy. Accumulated advantage refers to the continuing attraction of students, faculty, and research dollars to prestige universities. Institutional isomorphism denotes the tendency…

  10. Power Curve Measurements, quantify the production increase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    The purpose of this report is to quantify the production increase on a given turbine with respect to another given turbine. The used methodology is the “side by side” comparison method, provided by the client. This method involves the use of two neighboring turbines and it is based...

  11. Cosmic ray production curves below reworking zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanford, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating cosmic ray production profiles below reworking zones. The method uses an input reworking depth determined from data such as signatures in the depth profile of ferromagnetic resonance intensity and input cosmic ray production profiles for an undisturbed surface. Reworking histories are simulated using Monte Carlo techniques, and depth profiles are used to determine cosmic ray exposure age limits with a specified probability. It is shown that the track density profiles predict cosmic ray exposure ages in lunar cores that are consistent with values determined by other methods. Results applied to neutron fluence and spallation rare gases eliminate the use of reworking depth as an adjustable parameter and give cosmic ray exposure ages that are compatible with each other

  12. Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmuleva, N.I.; Barinov, E.Y.; Petukhov, V.L.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - 137 Cs and 90 Sr in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. 137 Cs level was 3.7 to 9.2 times higher than 90 Sr one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio-nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg). (authors)

  13. Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmuleva, N.I.; Barinov, E.Y.; Petukhov, V.L. [Novosibirsk State Agrarian University (Russian Federation)

    2003-05-01

    The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. {sup 137}Cs level was 3.7 to 9.2 times higher than {sup 90}Sr one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio-nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg). (authors)

  14. Phytomass production and nutrient accumulation by green manure species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Soares Mangaravite

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Green manuring is recognized as a viable alternative to improve nutrient cycling in soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation in shoots of the summer green manures jack bean [Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC.], dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajanvar var. Flavus DC., dwarf mucuna [Mucuna deeringiana (Bort Merr] and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., under nitrogen fertilization and/or inoculation with N-fixing bacteria. A split plot design was arranged with the four Fabaceae species as main plots and nitrogen fertilization (with and without and inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria (with and without as the subplots, in a 2² factorial. The experiment was arranged as a randomized complete block design with four replications. In the conditions of this trial, the sunn hemp had the highest production of shoot phytomass (12.4 Mg ha-1 and nutrient accumulation, while the dwarf mucuna had the lowest production of shoot phytomass (3.9 Mg ha-1 and nutrient accumulation. The results showed no effect of nitrogen fertilization or inoculation with N-fixing bacteria on the production of shoot phytomass and nutrient accumulation, except for inoculation without nitrogen fertilization, resulting in greater P accumulation (p <0.05 in the sunn hemp and greater Zn and Mn accumulation in the dwarf mucuna. These findings indicate that N fertilization or inoculation with N2-fixing bacteria for Fabaceae are low efficiency practices in the edaphoclimatic conditions of this study.

  15. Bridging the Barriers: Knowledge Connections, Productivity, and Capital Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    R. Quentin Grafton; Tom Kompas; P. Dorian Owen

    2004-01-01

    The paper explains the large differences in cross-country productivity performance by modeling and testing the effects of social barriers to communication on productivity and capital accumulation. In an optimal growth model, social barriers to communication that impede the formation of knowledge connections are shown to reduce both transitory and steady-state levels of total factor productivity (TFP), per capita consumption, and reproducible capital. A ‘bridging’ parameter in the growth model...

  16. Long-term Behavior of Hydrocarbon Production Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, A.; Karra, S.; O'Malley, D.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Srinivasan, G.

    2017-12-01

    Recovering hydrocarbons (such as natural gas) from naturally-occurring formations with low permeability has had a huge impact on the energy sector, however, recovery rates are low due to poor understanding of recovery and transport mechanisms [1]. The physical mechanisms that control the production of hydrocarbon are only partially understood. Calculations have shown that the short-term behavior in the peak of the production curve is understood to come from the free hydrocarbons in the fracture networks, but the long-term behavior of these curves is often underpredicted [2]. This behavior is thought to be due to small scale processes - such as matrix diffusion, desorption, and connectivity in the damage region around the large fracture network. In this work, we explore some of these small-scale processes using discrete fracture networks (DFN) and the toolkit dfnWorks [3], the matrix diffusion, size of the damage region, and distribution of free gas between the fracture networks and rock matrix. Individual and combined parameter spaces are explored, and comparisons of the resulting production curves are made to experimental site data from the Haynesville formation [4]. We find that matrix diffusion significantly controls the shape of the tail of the production curve, while the distribution of free gas impacts the relative magnitude of the peak to the tail. The height of the damage region has no effect on the shape of the tail. Understanding the constrains of the parameter space based on site data is the first step in rigorously quantifying the uncertainties coming from these types of systems, which can in turn optimize and improve hydrocarbon recovery. [1] C. McGlade, et. al., (2013) Methods of estimating shale gas resources - comparison, evaluation, and implications, Energy, 59, 116-125 [2] S. Karra, et. al., (2015) Effect of advective flow in fractures and matrix diffusion on natural gas production, Water Resources Research, 51(10), 8646-8657 [3] J.D. Hyman, et

  17. Interpreting Gas Production Decline Curves By Combining Geometry and Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R. P.; Hu, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Shale gas production forms an increasing fraction of domestic US energy supplies, but individual gas production wells show steep production declines. Better understanding of this production decline would allow better economic forecasting; better understanding of the reasons behind the decline would allow better production management. Yet despite these incentives, production declines curves remain poorly understood, and current analyses range from Arps' purely empirical equation to new sophisticated approaches requiring multiple unavailable parameters. Models often fail to capture salient features: for example, in log-log space many wells decline with an exponent markedly different from the -0.5 expected from diffusion, and often show a transition from one decline mode to another. We propose a new approach based on the assumption that the rate-limiting step is gas movement from the matrix to the induced fracture network. The matrix is represented as an assemblage of equivalent spheres (geometry), with low matrix pore connectivity (topology) that results in a distance-dependent accessible porosity profile given by percolation theory. The basic theory has just 2 parameters: the sphere size distribution (geometry), and the crossover distance (topology) that characterizes the porosity distribution. The theory is readily extended to include e.g. alternative geometries and bi-modal size distributions. Comparisons with historical data are promising.

  18. Distortion-product otoacoustic emission growth curves in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Alves Barbosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recording of otoacoustic emissions (OAE enabled us to prove that the cochlea is able not only to receive sounds but also to produce acoustic energy. Through the use of distortion-product otoacoustic emission measurements, the growth of the response was seen according to the intensity of the sound stimulus presented (growth curve. Objective: to determine the thresholds for the emergence of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE on frequencies of 2000 and 4000 Hz with a stimulus varying from 20 to 65dB SPL, and to establish the slope values obtained in the growth curves. Methods: 39 neonates aged 5 to 28 days without risk indicators of hearing loss were studied. The DPOAE growth curves were obtained on the frequencies from 2000 Hz and 4000 Hz with a level of intensity ranging from 20 to 65dB SPL divided into two paradigms (20 to 40dB SPL and 40-65dB SPL. Results: there was a statistically significant difference in the thresholds for the emergence of DPOAE depending on the criteria used. The thresholds were on average higher at 4000 Hz than 2000 Hz and the slope was higher on average at 2000 Hz than 4000 Hz, although not statistically significant in either case. Conclusion: the thresholds were on average 30dB SPL at 2000Hz and 35dB SPL at 4000Hz. The slope values varied between 3 and 4 on average, reaching 15 in some cases.

  19. The product form for path integrals on curved manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosche, C.

    1988-03-01

    A general and simple framework for treating path integrals on curved manifolds is presented. The crucial point will be a product ansatz for the metric tensor and the quantum hamiltonian, i.e. we shall write g αβ = h αγh βγ and H = (1/2m)h αγp αp βh βγ + V + ΔV , respectively, a prescription which we shall call “product form” definition. The p α are hermitian momenta and Δ V is a well-defined quantum correction. We shall show that this ansatz, which looks quite special, is in fact - under reasonable assumptions in quantum mechanics - a very general one. We shall derive the lagrangian path integral in the “product form” definition and shall also prove that the Schro¨dinger equation can be derived from the corresponding short-time kernel. We shall discuss briefly an application of this prescription to the problem of free quantum motion on the Poincare´upper half-plane.

  20. The lipid accumulation product as a useful index for identifying abnormal glucose regulation in young Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J-Y; Sung, Y-A; Lee, H J

    2013-04-01

    The lipid accumulation product, a combination of waist circumference and triglycerides concentration, has been suggested as a better marker for abnormal glucose regulation than BMI. We aimed to compare the lipid accumulation product and BMI as useful markers for abnormal glucose regulation in young Korean women. The lipid accumulation product was calculated using the formula [waist circumference (cm) - 58] × triglycerides (mmol/l). Glucose tolerance status was determined using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in 2810 Korean women aged 18-39 years from the general population. The prevalence of abnormal glucose regulation was 6.8% (isolated impaired fasting glucose 1.8%, isolated impaired glucose tolerance 4.0%; impaired fasting glucose + impaired glucose tolerance 0.4% and diabetes mellitus 0.6%). According to the quintile distributions of the lipid accumulation product and BMI, women with a lipid accumulation product quintile greater than their BMI quintile exhibited significantly greater areas under the curve and higher levels of 2-h post-load glucose, insulin, homeostasis model analysis of insulin resistance and lipid profiles than did women with a BMI quintile greater than their lipid accumulation product quintile. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the lipid accumulation product exhibited a higher odds ratio for abnormal glucose regulation than did BMI after adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, previous history of gestational diabetes and family history of diabetes (odds ratios 3.5 and 2.6 of the highest vs. the lowest quintiles of lipid accumulation product and BMI, respectively). The lipid accumulation product could be useful for identifying the young Korean women with abnormal glucose regulation. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  1. Factors Influencing Biogenic Amines Accumulation in Dairy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel M.; del Río, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Martínez, Noelia; Fernández, María; Martín, María Cruz; Álvarez, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Fermented foods are among the food products more often complained of having caused episodes of biogenic amines (BA) poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain potentially harmful levels of BA, specially tyramine, histamine, and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report all those elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting BA biosynthesis and accumulation in dairy foods. Improved knowledge of the factors involved in the synthesis and accumulation of BA should lead to a reduction in their incidence in milk products. Synthesis of BA is possible only when three conditions converge: (i) availability of the substrate amino acids; (ii) presence of microorganisms with the appropriate catabolic pathway activated; and (iii) environmental conditions favorable to the decarboxylation activity. These conditions depend on several factors such as milk treatment (pasteurization), use of starter cultures, NaCl concentration, time, and temperature of ripening and preservation, pH, temperature, or post-ripening technological processes, which will be discussed in this chapter. PMID:22783233

  2. Accumulative effect of food residues on intestinal gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mego, M; Accarino, A; Malagelada, J-R; Guarner, F; Azpiroz, F

    2015-11-01

    As mean transit time in the colon is longer than the interval between meals, several consecutive meal loads accumulate, and contribute to colonic biomass. Our aim was to determine the summation effect of fermentable food residues on intestinal gas production. In eight healthy subjects, the volume of endogenous intestinal gas produced in the intestine over a 4-h period was measured by means of a wash-out technique, using an exogenous gas infusion into the jejunum (24 mL/min) and collection of the effluent via a rectal Foley catheter. The exogenous gas infused was labeled (5% SF6 ) to calculate the proportion of endogenous intestinal gas evacuated. In each subject, four experiments were performed ≥1 week apart combining a 1-day high- or low-flatulogenic diet with a test meal or fast. Basal conditions: on the low-flatulogenic diet, intestinal gas production during fasting over the 4-h study period was 609 ± 63 mL. Effect of diet: during fasting, intestinal gas production on the high-flatulogenic diet was 370 ± 146 mL greater than on the low-flatulogenic diet (p = 0.040). Effect of test meal: on the low-flatulogenic diet, intestinal gas production after the test meal was 681 ± 114 mL greater than during fasting (p = 0.001); a similar effect was observed on the high-flatulogenic diet (599 ± 174 mL more intestinal gas production after the test meal than during fasting; p = 0.021). Our data demonstrate temporal summation effects of food residues on intestinal gas production. Hence, intestinal gas production depends on pre-existing and on recent colonic loads of fermentable foodstuffs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Blood flow in the limbs of hemiplegic patients by 99mTc-HSA accumulation curve and digital plethysmography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, Setsuro

    1985-01-01

    Using 99m Tc-Human-Serum-Albumin (HSA) accumulation curve we have studied the blood flow in the lower extremities of the hemiplegic patients. After injection of 5 - 10 mCi of 99m Tc-HSA into v. mediana cubiti by the Oldendolf method, we recorded the RI count from both knees. We have examined 68 hemiplegic patients (male: 26, female: 42, right: 31, left: 37, average age: 61.7 years, average Brunnstrom stage of the lower extremity: 3.73, average duration post-stroke: 20.2 months). We counted the accumulation of the isotope in both knees 1 and 30 minutes after injection, and calculated the percentage (partic side/right and left sides), and named them as ''1-minute value'' and ''30-minute value''. During the 15 months period after an attack, the paretic leg had more blood flow than the non-paretic leg. After 15 months after attack, on the contrary, the paretic leg had less blood flow than the non-paretic leg. This tendency is clear in the left-sided hemiplegic patients. There is no relation between the blood flow and age, and the Brunnstrom stage, and the ability to walk. Using digital plethysmography, we have studied the blood flow in the finger and toe, too. We have examined 57 hemiplegic patients. We have averaged the five hights of the wave (mV/V), and calculated the percentage involved (paretic side/right and left) and labled it ''the paretic blood flow value (of the finger and of the toe)''. During the 12 month period after an attack, the paretic side had more blood flow than the non-paratic side. After 15 month after an attack, on the contrary, the paretic side had less blood flow than the non-paretic side. This tendency is clear in the finger than the toe. There is no correlation between the blood flow and the age, and the Brunnstrom stage, and the ability to walk. (author)

  4. Statistics for products of traces of high powers of the frobenius class of hyperelliptic curves

    OpenAIRE

    Roditty-Gershon, Edva

    2011-01-01

    We study the averages of products of traces of high powers of the Frobenius class of hyperelliptic curves of genus g over a fixed finite field. We show that for increasing genus g, the limiting expectation of these products equals to the expectation when the curve varies over the unitary symplectic group USp(2g). We also consider the scaling limit of linear statistics for eigenphases of the Frobenius class of hyperelliptic curves, and show that their first few moments are Gaussian.

  5. Product differentiation by analysis of DNA melting curves during the polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ririe, K M; Rasmussen, R P; Wittwer, C T

    1997-02-15

    A microvolume fluorometer integrated with a thermal cycler was used to acquire DNA melting curves during polymerase chain reaction by fluorescence monitoring of the double-stranded DNA specific dye SYBR Green I. Plotting fluorescence as a function of temperature as the thermal cycler heats through the dissociation temperature of the product gives a DNA melting curve. The shape and position of this DNA melting curve are functions of the GC/AT ratio, length, and sequence and can be used to differentiate amplification products separated by less than 2 degrees C in melting temperature. Desired products can be distinguished from undesirable products, in many cases eliminating the need for gel electrophoresis. Analysis of melting curves can extend the dynamic range of initial template quantification when amplification is monitored with double-stranded DNA specific dyes. Complete amplification and analysis of products can be performed in less than 15 min.

  6. Experience curve for natural gas production by hydraulic fracturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukui, R.; Greenfield, C.; Pogue, K.; van der Zwaan, B.

    From 2007 to 2012 shale gas production in the US expanded at an astounding average growth rate of over 50yr, and thereby increased nearly tenfold over this short time period alone. Hydraulic fracturing technology, or ``fracking'', as well as new directional drilling techniques, played key roles in

  7. A strong association between lipid accumulation product and diabetes mellitus in japanese women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Daimon, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Lipid accumulation product (LAP) is a new continuous marker of lipid overaccumulation that predicts cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to determine the cutoff value for LAP and evaluate its usefulness. Using a database of results of health checkup examinations for 10,170 Japanese workers (35-40 years of age) conducted at their workplaces, the cutoff value for a high LAP was calculated by analyzing receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the relationships of LAP with hyperglycemia and diabetes. The cutoff value for LAP was 21.1 for women and 37.2 for men. The values were similar when calculated by analyzing the ROC curves for the relationships with hyperglycemia and diabetes. Using these cutoff values, the prevalence of a high LAP was calculated to be 23.7% in women and 28.8% in men. The odds ratio for diabetes in the subjects with vs. those without a high LAP, calculated after adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol consumption and regular exercise, was 19.09 (95% CI: 6.57-55.50) in women and 7.40 (95% CI: 5.10-10.75) in men. High odds ratios for hypertension (10.66 [95% CI: 7.77-14.63] in women and 7.31 [95% CI: 6.20-8.62] in men) were also obtained in the subjects with vs. those without a high LAP. Cutoff values for a high LAP in women and men were determined, and high odds ratios for diabetes and hypertension were obtained using the cutoff values for LAP. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether the proposed cutoff values are applicable to people of other ages, races and ethnicities.

  8. The characteristics of biomass production, lipid accumulation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glucose was the optimal carbon source for mixotrophic cultivation of C. vulgaris and the effects of glucose content on the alga growth under mixotrophic conditions were considerable because lower glucose content (1 g/l) promoted the production of biomass and photosynthetic pigments; higher glucose contents (>5 g/l) ...

  9. Validity of accessible critical nitrogen dilution curves in perennial ryegrass for seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René; Boelt, Birte

    2009-01-01

    The objectives were to test if accessible critical nitrogen dilution curves (NDCs) in rapeseed, pea, alfalfa, tall fescue, wheat, annual ryegrass and linseed could be used in grass species for seed production and to develop a critical NDC especially in grass species for seed production. The criti......The objectives were to test if accessible critical nitrogen dilution curves (NDCs) in rapeseed, pea, alfalfa, tall fescue, wheat, annual ryegrass and linseed could be used in grass species for seed production and to develop a critical NDC especially in grass species for seed production...... the NDCs in tall fescue, alfalfa, pea and rapeseed. These findings should be used to continue the interesting and necessary work on developing a NDC in grass species for seed production....

  10. Optimization of the flexible mould process for the production of double-curved concrete elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, H.R.; Grunewald, S.; Eigenraam, P.; Raghunath, P.; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    Free-form buildings tend to be expensive. By optimizing the production process, economical and wellperforming concrete structures and elements can be manufactured. In this paper, an innovative method is presented that allows producing highly accurate double curved-elements without the need for

  11. Industrial Learning Curves Series Production of the LHC Main Superconduting Dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Fessia, Paolo; Rossi, Lucio

    2007-01-01

    By mid August 2006, 1160 of the 1232 of LHC main dipoles have been delivered to CERN by the three suppliers in charge of the production. The training of the staff, mostly hired just for this manufacture, and the improvement of the procedures with the acquired experience, naturally decrease the time necessary for the assembly of a unit. The aim of this paper is to apply methodologies like the cost-based learning curves and the time-based learning curves to the LHC Main Dipole production comparing the estimated learning percentage to the ones experienced in other industries. This type of analysis, already presented on 500 units is here extended to more than 1000 completed units. The work also tries to identify which type of industry presents the learning percentages that are the most similar to our case and to investigate the impact of the production strategy on the process efficiency.

  12. A variant of the Hubbert curve for world oil production forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggio, G.; Cacciola, G.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the economic and political aspects of energy problems have prompted many researchers and analysts to focus their attention on the Hubbert Peak Theory with the aim of forecasting future trends in world oil production. In this paper, a model that attempts to contribute in this regard is presented; it is based on a variant of the well-known Hubbert curve. In addition, the sum of multiple-Hubbert curves (two cycles) is used to provide a better fit for the historical data on oil production (crude and natural gas liquid (NGL)). Taking into consideration three possible scenarios for oil reserves, this approach allowed us to forecast when peak oil production, referring to crude oil and NGL, should occur. In particular, by assuming a range of 2250-3000 gigabarrels (Gb) for ultimately recoverable conventional oil, our predictions foresee a peak between 2009 and 2021 at 29.3-32.1 Gb/year.

  13. Comparison of Lipid Accumulation Product Index with Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference as a Predictor of Metabolic Syndrome in Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Lopamudra; Ravichandran, Kandasamy; Nanda, Sunil Kumar

    2018-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), which confers a high risk for cardiovascular diseases, needs early diagnosis and treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality. Lipid accumulation product index has been reported to be an inexpensive marker of visceral fat and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to evaluate lipid accumulation product index as a marker for metabolic syndrome in the Indian population where the prevalence of the condition is steadily increasing. A hospital-based, case-control study was conducted with 72 diagnosed cases of metabolic syndrome and 79 control subjects. In all the participants, body mass index (BMI) and lipid accumulation product index were calculated. The difference between cases and controls in BMI, waist circumference (WC), and lipid accumulation product index was assessed by Mann-Whitney U test/unpaired t-test. Associations of BMI, WC, and lipid accumulation product index with metabolic syndrome were compared by multiple logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic analysis. BMI, WC, and lipid accumulation product index were significantly higher in metabolic syndrome (P product index had the highest prediction accuracy. The parameter also had a high area under curve of 0.901 (95% confidence interval 0.85-0.95) and a high sensitivity (76.4%), specificity (91.1%), positive predictive value (88.7%), and negative predictive value (80.9%) for detection of metabolic syndrome. In the Indian population, lipid accumulation product index is a better predictor of metabolic syndrome compared to BMI and WC and should be incorporated in laboratory reports as early, accurate, and inexpensive indicator of metabolic syndrome.

  14. Entropy Production and the Pressure-Volume Curve of the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Lucas Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate analytically the production of entropy during a breathing cycle in healthy and diseased lungs. First, we calculate entropy production in healthy lungs by applying the laws of thermodynamics to the well-known transpulmonary pressure-volume (P-V curves of the lung under the assumption that lung tissue behaves as an entropy spring-like rubber. The bulk modulus, $B$, of the lung is also derived from these calculations. Second, we extend this approach to elastic recoil disorders of the lung such as occur in pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. These diseases are characterized by particular alterations in the P-V relationship. For example, in fibrotic lungs B increases monotonically with disease progression, while in emphysema the opposite occurs. These diseases can thus be mimicked simply by making appropriate adjustments to the parameters of the P-V curve. Using Clausius's formalism, we show that entropy production, Delta_S, is related to the hysteresis area, Delta_A, enclosed by the P-V curve during a breathing cycle, namely, Delta_S = Delta_A/T, where T is the body temperature. Although Delta_A is highly dependent on the disease, such formula applies to healthy as well as diseased lungs, regardless of the disease stage. Finally, we use ansatzs to predict analytically the entropy produced by the fibrotic and emphysematous lungs.

  15. Modelling ramp-up curves to reflect learning: improving capacity planning in secondary pharmaceutical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin

    2015-01-01

    availability at market launch is ensured. Our MILP model is applied to a real industry case study using three empirically observed ramp-up curves to demonstrate its value as decision support tool. We demonstrate the superiority of our volume-dependent method over the traditional time-dependent ramp......The experience gained during production ramp-up leads to an increase of the effective production capacity over time. However, full utilisation of production capacity is not always possible during ramp-up. In such cases, the experience gained and hence the available effective capacity...... are overestimated. We develop a new method, which captures ramp-up as a function of the cumulative production volume to better reflect the experience gained while producing the new product. The use of the more accurate and computationally effective approach is demonstrated for the case of secondary pharmaceutical...

  16. Understanding the reductions in US corn ethanol production costs: An experience curve approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettinga, W.G.; Junginger, H.M.; Dekker, S.C.; Hoogwijk, M.; McAloon, A.J.; Hicks, K.B.

    2009-01-01

    The US is currently the world's largest ethanol producer. An increasing percentage is used as transportation fuel, but debates continue on its costs competitiveness and energy balance. In this study, technological development of ethanol production and resulting cost reductions are investigated by using the experience curve approach, scrutinizing costs of dry grind ethanol production over the timeframe 1980-2005. Cost reductions are differentiated between feedstock (corn) production and industrial (ethanol) processing. Corn production costs in the US have declined by 62% over 30 years, down to 100$ 2005 /tonne in 2005, while corn production volumes almost doubled since 1975. A progress ratio (PR) of 0.55 is calculated indicating a 45% cost decline over each doubling in cumulative production. Higher corn yields and increasing farm sizes are the most important drivers behind this cost decline. Industrial processing costs of ethanol have declined by 45% since 1983, to below 130$ 2005 /m 3 in 2005 (excluding costs for corn and capital), equivalent to a PR of 0.87. Total ethanol production costs (including capital and net corn costs) have declined approximately 60% from 800$ 2005 /m 3 in the early 1980s, to 300$ 2005 /m 3 in 2005. Higher ethanol yields, lower energy use and the replacement of beverage alcohol-based production technologies have mostly contributed to this substantial cost decline. In addition, the average size of dry grind ethanol plants increased by 235% since 1990. For the future it is estimated that solely due to technological learning, production costs of ethanol may decline 28-44%, though this excludes effects of the current rising corn and fossil fuel costs. It is also concluded that experience curves are a valuable tool to describe both past and potential future cost reductions in US corn-based ethanol production

  17. Atmospheric Pb and Ti accumulation rates from Sphagnum moss: dependence upon plant productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempter, H; Krachler, M; Shotyk, W

    2010-07-15

    The accumulation rates of atmospheric Pb and Ti were obtained using the production rates of Sphagnum mosses collected in four ombrotrophic bogs from two regions of southern Germany: Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern, OB) and the Northern Black Forest (Nordschwarzwald, NBF). Surfaces of Sphagnum carpets were marked with plastic mesh and one year later the production of plant matter was harvested. Metal concentrations were determined in acid digests using sector field ICP-MS employing well established analytical procedures. Up to 12 samples (40 x 40 cm) were collected per site, and 6-10 sites were investigated per bog. Variations within a given sampling site were in the range 2.3-4x for Pb concentrations, 1.8-2.5x for Ti concentrations, 3-8.3x for Pb/Ti, 5.6-7.8x for Pb accumulation rates, and 2.3-6.4x for Ti accumulation rates. However, the median values of these parameters for the sites (6-10 per bog) were quite consistent. The mosses from the bogs in NBF exhibited significantly greater productivity (187-202 g m(-2) a(-1)) compared to the OB peat bogs (71-91 g m(-2) a(-1)), and these differences had a pronounced effect on the Pb and Ti accumulation rates. Highly productive mosses showed no indication of a "dilution effect" of Pb or Ti concentrations, suggesting that more productive plants were simply able to accumulate more particles from the air. The median rates of net Pb accumulation by the mosses are in excellent agreement with the fluxes obtained by direct atmospheric measurements at nearby monitoring stations in both regions (EMEP and MAPESI data).

  18. Spatial and temporal aspects of grain accumulation costs for ethanol production: An Australian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderton, Nikki; Kingwell, Ross

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol production is increasingly commonplace in many grain-producing regions. This paper uses the grain-producing region of south-western Australia to illustrate spatial and temporal aspects of grain accumulation costs for ethanol production. Specifically, this study examines how price variability of various wheat grades, combined with spatial and temporal variability in production of those grades, affects the costs of grain accumulation. These costs are the main components of an ethanol plant's operating costs so lessening these costs can offer a comparative advantage for a plant owner. Logistics models based on mathematical programming are constructed for a range of plant sizes and locations for ethanol production. Modelling results identify low-cost sites that generate cost savings, in present value terms, of between 5 and 7.5 per cent, depending on plant size, over the 9-year study period. At all locations, small to medium-sized plants offer advantages of lower and less variable costs of grain accumulation. Yet, all locations and all plant sizes are characterised by marked volatility in the cost of grain accumulation. The profitability of ethanol production based on wheat in this region of Australia is particularly exposed to any prolonged period of high grain prices relative to petroleum prices, given current biofuel-policy settings in Australia. (author)

  19. Stillage reflux in food waste ethanol fermentation and its by-product accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongzhi; Yang, Jian; Jia, Yan; Wang, Qunhui; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    Raw materials and pollution control are key issues for the ethanol fermentation industry. To address these concerns, food waste was selected as fermentation substrate, and stillage reflux was carried out in this study. Reflux was used seven times during fermentation. Corresponding ethanol and reducing sugar were detected. Accumulation of by-products, such as organic acid, sodium chloride, and glycerol, was investigated. Lactic acid was observed to accumulate up to 120g/L, and sodium chloride reached 0.14mol/L. Other by-products did not accumulate. The first five cycles of reflux increased ethanol concentration, which prolonged fermentation time. Further increases in reflux time negatively influenced ethanol fermentation. Single-factor analysis with lactic acid and sodium chloride demonstrated that both factors affected ethanol fermentation, but lactic acid induced more effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Validation of Ulchin Units 1, 2 CONTEMPT Model Prior to the Production of EQ Envelope Curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Su Hyun; Kim, Min Ki; Hong, Soon Joon; Lee, Byung Chul; Suh, Jeong Kwan; Lee, Jae Yong; Song, Dong Soo

    2010-01-01

    The Ulchin Units 1, 2 will be refurbished with RSG (Replacement of Steam Generator) and PU (Power Uprate). The current EQ (Environmental Qualification) envelope curve should be modified according to RSG and PU. The containment P/T (Pressure/Temperature) analysis in Ulchin Units 1, 2 FSAR was done using EDF computer program PAREO6. PAREO6 uses the same assumptions as the US NRC CONTEMPT program, and the results given by both programs are in good agreement. It is utilized to determine pressure and temperature variations in a PWR containment subsequent to a reactor coolant or secondary system pipe break. But PAREO6 cannot be available to the production of EQ envelope curve, so CONTEMPT code should be used instead of PAREO6. It is essential to validate the CONTEMPT OSG (Original Steam Generator) model prior to the production of EQ envelope curve considering RSG and PU. This study has been performed to validate the CONTEMPT model of Ulchin Units 1, 2 by comparing the CONTEMPT results with the PAERO6 results in Ulchin Units 1, 2 FSAR

  1. Validation of Ulchin Units 1, 2 CONTEMPT Model Prior to the Production of EQ Envelope Curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Su Hyun; Kim, Min Ki; Hong, Soon Joon; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Technology Co., SNU, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jeong Kwan; Lee, Jae Yong; Song, Dong Soo [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The Ulchin Units 1, 2 will be refurbished with RSG (Replacement of Steam Generator) and PU (Power Uprate). The current EQ (Environmental Qualification) envelope curve should be modified according to RSG and PU. The containment P/T (Pressure/Temperature) analysis in Ulchin Units 1, 2 FSAR was done using EDF computer program PAREO6. PAREO6 uses the same assumptions as the US NRC CONTEMPT program, and the results given by both programs are in good agreement. It is utilized to determine pressure and temperature variations in a PWR containment subsequent to a reactor coolant or secondary system pipe break. But PAREO6 cannot be available to the production of EQ envelope curve, so CONTEMPT code should be used instead of PAREO6. It is essential to validate the CONTEMPT OSG (Original Steam Generator) model prior to the production of EQ envelope curve considering RSG and PU. This study has been performed to validate the CONTEMPT model of Ulchin Units 1, 2 by comparing the CONTEMPT results with the PAERO6 results in Ulchin Units 1, 2 FSAR

  2. Age-related accumulation of Maillard reaction products in human articular cartilage collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, N.; Degroot, J.; Oldehinkel, E.; Bank, R. A.; Thorpe, S. R.; Baynes, J. W.; Bayliss, M. T.; Bijlsma, J. W.; Lafeber, F. P.; TeKoppele, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Non-enzymic modification of tissue proteins by reducing sugars, the so-called Maillard reaction, is a prominent feature of aging. In articular cartilage, relatively high levels of the advanced glycation end product (AGE) pentosidine accumulate with age. Higher pentosidine levels have been associated

  3. Effect of collagen turnover on the accumulation of advanced glycation end products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, N.; Degroot, J.; Thorpe, S. R.; Bank, R. A.; Shaw, J. N.; Lyons, T. J.; Bijlsma, J. W.; Lafeber, F. P.; Baynes, J. W.; TeKoppele, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Collagen molecules in articular cartilage have an exceptionally long lifetime, which makes them susceptible to the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In fact, in comparison to other collagen-rich tissues, articular cartilage contains relatively high amounts of the AGE

  4. Application of the Learning Curve Analysis to the LHC Main Dipole Production First Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Fessia, P; Rossi, L

    2006-01-01

    About two third of the LHC main dipoles have been delivered by the three suppliers charged of the production. The training of the staff, mostly hired just for this manufacture, and the natural improvement of the procedures with the acquired experience, decrease naturally the time necessary for the assembly of a unit. The aim of this paper is to apply methodologies like the cost-based learning curves and the time-based learning curves to the LHC Main Dipole comparing the estimated learning percentage to the ones experienced in other industries. This type of analysis, still in a preliminary phase and here applied to about 40% of the total production of the LHC magnets that will end by 2006, shows that our production has a relatively high learning percentage and it is similar to aerospace and complex machine tools for new models. Therefore with the LHC project, accelerator magnets seem to have reached industrial maturity and this production can be used as bench mark for other large scientific projects implying s...

  5. STUDY OF STATIC ELECTRICITY CHARGE ACCUMULATION ON SURFACE OF FLUOROPOLYMER-4 PRODUCTS USING VIBRATING CAPACITOR METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. А. Vershina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents investigations of processes pertaining to surface charge accumulation and running of fluoropolymer-4 products using vibrating capacitor method. Modification of a measurement technique allowing to register distribution of dielectric surface potential without disturbance of the surface charged state has been described in the paper. The paper contains graphics of spatial distribution of surface potential of fluoropolymer-4 products after various treatments. The paper reveals that thermal treatment (tempering reduces static characteristics of fluoropolymer-4.

  6. Production of biodegradable plastic by polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulating bacteria using low cost agricultural waste material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Anteneh; Woldesenbet, Fantahun

    2016-12-12

    Polyhydroxybutyrates (PHBs) are macromolecules synthesized by bacteria. They are inclusion bodies accumulated as reserve materials when the bacteria grow under different stress conditions. Because of their fast degradability under natural environmental conditions, PHBs are selected as alternatives for production of biodegradable plastics. The aim of this work was to isolate potential PHB producing bacteria, evaluate PHB production using agro-residues as carbon sources. Among fifty bacterial strains isolated from different localities, ten PHB accumulating strains were selected and compared for their ability to accumulate PHB granules inside their cells. Isolate Arba Minch Waste Water (AWW) identified as Bacillus spp was found to be the best producer. The optimum pH, temperature, and incubation period for best PHB production by the isolate were 7, 37 °C, and 48 h respectively at 150 rpm. PHB production was best with glucose as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source. The strain was able to accumulate 55.6, 51.6, 37.4 and 25% PHB when pretreated sugar cane bagasse, corn cob, teff straw (Eragrostis tef) and banana peel were used as carbon sources respectively. Fourier transform-infrared authentication results of the extracted and purified PHB identified its functional units as C-H, CH 2 , C=O and C-O groups. UV-Vis spectrophotometric analysis and biodegradability test confirmed the similarity of the extract with standard PHB and its suitability for bioplastic production. The isolated Bacillus sp can be used for feasible production of PHB using agro-residues especially sugarcane bagasse which can reduce the production cost in addition to reducing the disposal problem of these substrates. The yield of PHB can further be boosted by optimization of production parameters as substrates.

  7. Impacts of damage production and accumulation on materials performance in irradiation environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, B.N.

    1998-01-01

    and needs to be extended to temperatures below stage V and to materials of practical interests. This requires, however, that the information regarding the effects of alloying elements and impurity atoms on the nature of the primary damage state are available from molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo...... the damage accumulation, irradiation hardening and the loss of ductility. The recently developed production bias model together with one-dimensional glide of interstitial clusters produced in the cascades has been shown to describe the damage accumulation at temperatures above stage V for pure metals...... type of simulations. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  8. MEASURING THE INFLUENCE OF THE J-CURVE EFFECT ON TRADE IN ROMANIAN FOREST PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela TUTUEANU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the dynamic effect of the Romanian exchange rate  indices on bilateral trade of Romanian forest products namely fibreboard, particle   board and pulp for paper. Special attention is given to investigate the J-curve hypothesis: whether the trade  balance  for   Romanian   forest   products benefits   from a decline in the  value  of  Romanian Leu (RON. We adopted the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL approach   to cointegration to estimate the annual bilateral trade data of Romanian forest products  from  1991 to  2013 with various  countries  in the  world. We found  no evidence  of the J-curve  phenomenon for  the  trade in Romanian forest products. The  long-run   analysis   showed the exchange rate  to  be insignificant  in  influencing   the  trade   balance  of  Romanian forest products. This  implies  that  there  are  no changes  in the  trade   balance  for fibreboard, particle board and pulp for paper trade, regardless of whether the Romanian   exchange rate depreciates or appreciates. However, income variables were found to be important factors in determining Romanian trade, only in pulp for paper products.

  9. Export product diversification and the environmental Kuznets curve: evidence from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozgor, Giray; Can, Muhlis

    2016-11-01

    Countries try to stabilize the demand for energy on one hand and sustain economic growth on the other, but the worsening global warming and climate change problems have put pressure on them. This paper estimates the environmental Kuznets curve over the period 1971-2010 in Turkey both in the short and the long run. For this purpose, the unit root test with structural breaks and the cointegration analysis with multiple endogenous structural breaks are used. The effects of energy consumption and export product diversification on CO 2 emissions are also controlled in the dynamic empirical models. It is observed that the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis is valid in Turkey in both the short run and the long run. The positive effect on energy consumption on CO 2 emissions is also obtained in the long run. In addition, it is found that a greater product diversification of exports yields higher CO 2 emissions in the long run. Inferences and policy implications are also discussed.

  10. Mini-review: The Morphology, Mineralogy and Microbiology of Accumulated Iron Corrosion Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-11

    including the morphology, mineralogy , microbiology and the mecha- nisms for formation. Use of descriptive terms to denote specific iron corrosion product...RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 11-03-2014 Journal Article Mini-review: the morphology, mineralogy and microbiology of...oxides/ hydroxides with a preponderance of α-FeOOH (goethite) and accumulation of metals. Bacteria, particularly iron-oxidizing and sulfatereducing

  11. Effect of sodium accumulation on heterotrophic growth and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production by Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozumder, Md Salatul Islam; Garcia-Gonzalez, Linsey; De Wever, Heleen; Volcke, Eveline I P

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of sodium (Na(+)) concentration on the growth and PHB production by Cupriavidus necator. Both biomass growth and PHB production were inhibited by Na(+): biomass growth became zero at 8.9 g/L Na(+) concentration while PHB production was completely stopped at 10.5 g/L Na(+). A mathematical model for pure culture heterotrophic PHB production was set up to describe the Na(+) inhibition effect. The parameters related to Na(+) inhibition were estimated based on shake flask experiments. The accumulated Na(+) showed non-linear inhibition effect on biomass growth but linear inhibition effect on PHB production kinetics. Fed-batch experiments revealed that a high accumulation of Na(+) due to a prolonged growth phase, using NaOH for pH control, decreased the subsequent PHB production. The model was validated based on independent experimental data sets, showing a good agreement between experimental data and simulation results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Accumulation of carbohydrates in the development of tomato plants treated with different chemical products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Ribeiro Pereira Ramos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work had the purpose to study the physiological effects of pyraclostrobin, boscalid, plant growth regulators and plant extract on the accumulation of carbohydrates during the development of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L., hybrid Giuliana, in protected environment conditions. The treatments were: T1- control; T2- pyraclostrobin 0.2 g L-1; T3- boscalid 0.075 g L-1, T4- pyraclostrobin 0.2 g L-1 + boscalid 0.075 g L-1, T5- IBA + GA3 + kinetin 375 mg L-1, T6- GA4+7 + benzylaminopurine 100 mg L-1 and T7- plant extract 100 mg L-1. The carbohydrate accumulation curve was accomplished with 5 samples, at 20-day intervals between evaluations, the 1st evaluation being carried out at 30 days after transplantation, on the day of the first treatment application. At each sampling the plants were separated in stem, leaves and fruits, of which the contents of total soluble sugars, reducing sugars and saccharose were evaluated. The effects of the treatments on chlorophyll content and gas exchanges were also evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 4 repetitions and 6 destructive evaluations during the development, with 1 plant per experimental unit for each sampling. The pyraclostrobin and boscalid applied in isolation and/or combined favor the increase of carbohydrates in leaves, stems and fruits of tomato hybrid Giuliana

  13. Peatlands in Finland accumulate carbon more than the peat production and utilization liberates it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maentymaa, E.

    1997-01-01

    The peatlands in Finland bind more carbon dioxide then it is liberated into the air in peat combustion and production. Because the carbon accumulation into peatlands is higher than that of liberation, the peat deposits increase all the time in spite of peat economy. The emissions of methane, which is tens of times worse greenhouse gas then CO 2 , have decreased by 40 % due to forest drainage. Very small amounts of methane is released into the atmosphere from peat production sites. This is proven by the national SILMU research programme investigating the atmospheric changes

  14. Rotator cuff tear reduces muscle fiber specific force production and induces macrophage accumulation and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumucio, Jonathan P; Davis, Max E; Bradley, Joshua R; Stafford, Patrick L; Schiffman, Corey J; Lynch, Evan B; Claflin, Dennis R; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2012-12-01

    Full-thickness tears to the rotator cuff can cause severe pain and disability. Untreated tears progress in size and are associated with muscle atrophy and an infiltration of fat to the area, a condition known as "fatty degeneration." To improve the treatment of rotator cuff tears, a greater understanding of the changes in the contractile properties of muscle fibers and the molecular regulation of fatty degeneration is essential. Using a rat model of rotator cuff injury, we measured the force generating capacity of individual muscle fibers and determined changes in muscle fiber type distribution that develop after a full thickness rotator cuff tear. We also measured the expression of mRNA and miRNA transcripts involved in muscle atrophy, lipid accumulation, and matrix synthesis. We hypothesized that a decrease in specific force of rotator cuff muscle fibers, an accumulation of type IIb fibers, and an upregulation in fibrogenic, adipogenic, and inflammatory gene expression occur in torn rotator cuff muscles. Thirty days following rotator cuff tear, we observed a reduction in muscle fiber force production, an induction of fibrogenic, adipogenic, and autophagocytic mRNA and miRNA molecules, and a dramatic accumulation of macrophages in areas of fat accumulation. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  15. Carbon black nanoparticles promote endothelial activation and lipid accumulation in macrophages independently of intracellular ROS production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin; Danielsen, Pernille Høgh

    2014-01-01

    , the concentrations of CB to induce lipid accumulation were lower than the concentrations to promote intracellular ROS production in THP-1a cells. In conclusion, exposure to nano-sized CB induced endothelial dysfunction and foam cell formation, which was not dependent on intracellular ROS production....... and WST-1 assays, especially in THP-1 and THP-1a cells. The CB exposure decreased the glutathione (GSH) content in THP-1 and THP-1a cells, whereas GSH was increased in HUVECs. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was increased in all cell types after CB exposure. A reduction of the intracellular...... GSH concentration by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) pre-treatment further increased the CB-induced ROS production in THP-1 cells and HUVECs. The expression of adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, but not adhesion of THP-1 to HUVECs or culture dishes, was elevated by CB exposure, whereas these effects...

  16. Diagram for a small planet. The Production and Ecosystem Possibilities Curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, Alan Day

    2007-01-01

    With the development of the GPI there is now an ecological alternative to GDP for measuring a country's economic performance, but we still lack an ecological alternative to the PPC for illustrating a country's economic problem. The diagram suggested here illustrates a country's production and ecosystem possibilities - including climate stability, flood control, carbon sequestration, aquifer recharge, scenery, recreation, biological diversity, and so on. Burning a rainforest to clear the land shifts a country's PPC outward, giving the visual impression of an unmitigated improvement; but such development causes a movement along the country's PEPC, as ecosystem services are transformed into GDP. The slope of the PEPC is the marginal rate of transformation, which equals the ratio of the land's marginal marketable product to its marginal ecosystem product. Changes in technology create substitution and income effects that help explain the enclosure movement and the environmental Kuznets curve. Much as employment of the human resource can be restrained to allow more leisure, development of the natural resource can be restrained to preserve more ecosystem services. Commercial lobbying interests and rivalries for positional goods create distortions that move a country along its PEPC to a materialistic misallocation, with too little conservation. An idealistic misallocation is also possible, with too much preservation of the natural environment. Small is beautiful, up to a point, and that is evident in this diagram. Jacob Viner's [Viner, J., 1937. Studies in the Theory of International Trade. Harper and Brothers, New York] analytical objections to the PPC are revived. (author)

  17. Household Production and Environmental Kuznets Curves. Examining the Desirability and Feasibility of Substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaff, Alexander S.P.; Chaudhuri, S. [Department of International and Public Affairs, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Nye, Howard L.M. [Department of Economics, Columbia University SIPA, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2004-02-01

    This paper provides a theoretical explanation for the widely debated empirical finding of 'Environmental Kuznets Curves', i.e., U-shaped relationships between per-capita income and indicators of environmental quality. We present a household-production model in which the degradation of environmental quality is a by-product of household activities. Households can not directly purchase environmental quality, but can reduce degradation by substituting more expensive cleaner inputs to production for less costly dirty inputs. If environmental quality is a normal good, one expects substitution towards the less polluting inputs, so that increases in income will increase the quality of the environment. It is shown that this only holds for middle income households. Poorer households spend all income on dirty inputs. When they buy more, as income rises, the pollution also rises. they do not want to substitute, as this would reduce consumption of non-environmental services for environmental amenities that are already abundant. Thus, as income rises from low to middle levels, a U shape can result. Yet an N shape might eventually result, as richer households spend all income on clean inputs. Further substitution possibilities are exhausted. Thus as income rises again pollution rises and environmental quality falls.

  18. [Characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley genotypes with high nitrogen utilization efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Li, Ting-Xuan; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Ji, Lin

    2014-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted under low (125 mg x kg-1) and normal (250 mg x kg(-1)) nitrogen treatments. The nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency of 22 barley cultivars were investigated, and the characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley were analyzed. The results showed that nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency were different for barley under two nitrogen levels. The maximal values of grain yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index were 2.87, 2.91 and 2.47 times as those of the lowest under the low nitrogen treatment. Grain yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index of barley genotype with high nitrogen utilization efficiency were significantly greater than low nitrogen utilization efficiency, and the parameters of high nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype were 82.1%, 61.5% and 50.5% higher than low nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype under the low nitrogen treatment. Dry matter mass and nitrogen utilization of high nitrogen utilization efficiency was significantly higher than those of low nitrogen utilization efficiency. A peak of dry matter mass of high nitrogen utilization efficiency occurred during jointing to heading stage, while that of nitrogen accumulation appeared before jointing. Under the low nitrogen treatment, dry matter mass of DH61 and DH121+ was 34.4% and 38.3%, and nitrogen accumulation was 54. 8% and 58.0% higher than DH80, respectively. Dry matter mass and nitrogen accumulation seriously affected yield before jointing stage, and the contribution rates were 47.9% and 54.7% respectively under the low nitrogen treatment. The effect of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation on nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain was the largest during heading to mature stages, followed by sowing to jointing stages, with the contribution rate being 29.5% and 48.7%, 29.0% and 15.8%, respectively. In conclusion, barley genotype with high

  19. Characteristic of nitrous oxide production in partial denitrification process with high nitrite accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rui; Peng, Yongzhen; Cao, Shenbin; Wang, Shuying; Niu, Meng

    2016-03-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) production during the partial denitrification process with nitrate (NO3(-)-N) to nitrite (NO2(-)-N) transformation ratio of 80% was investigated in this study. Results showed that N2O was seldom observed before complete depletion of NO3(-)-N, but it was closely related to the reduction of NO2(-)-N rather than NO3(-)-N. High COD/NO3(-)-N was in favor of N2O production in partial denitrification with high NO2(-)-N accumulation. It was seriously enhanced at constant acidic pH due to the free nitrous acid (FNA) inhibition. However, the N2O production was much lower at initial pH of 5.5 and 6.5 due to the pH increase during denitrification process. Significantly, the pH turning point could be chosen as a controlled parameter to denote the end of NO3(-)-N reduction, which could not only achieve high NO2(-)-N accumulation but also decrease the N2O production significantly for practical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gas production potential of disperse low-saturation hydrate accumulations in oceanic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, George J.; Sloan, E. Dendy

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the gas production potential of disperse, low-saturation (S H H hydrate-bearing sediments subject to depressurization-induced dissociation over a 10-year production period. We investigate the sensitivity of items (a)-(c) to the following hydraulic properties, reservoir conditions, and operational parameters: intrinsic permeability, porosity, pressure, temperature, hydrate saturation, and constant pressure at which the production well is kept. The results of this study indicate that, despite wide variations in the aforementioned parameters (covering the entire spectrum of such deposits), gas production is very limited, never exceeding a few thousand cubic meters of gas during the 10-year production period. Such low production volumes are orders of magnitude below commonly accepted standards of economic viability, and are further burdened with very unfavorable gas-to-water ratios. The unequivocal conclusion from this study is that disperse, low-S H hydrate accumulations in oceanic sediments are not promising targets for gas production by means of depressurization-induced dissociation, and resources for early hydrate exploitation should be focused elsewhere

  1. Accumulation of advanced glycation end (AGEs products in intensive care patients: an observational, prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommes Johannes H

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress plays an important role in the course and eventual outcome in a majority of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU. Markers to estimate oxidative stress are not readily available in a clinical setting. AGEs accumulation has been merely described in chronic conditions, but can also occur acutely due to oxidative stress. Since AGEs have emerged to be stable end products, these can be a marker of oxidative stress. Skin autofluorescence (AF is a validated marker of tissue content of AGEs. We hypothesized that AGEs accumulate acutely in ICU patients. Methods We performed an observational prospective study in a medical surgical ICU in a university affiliated teaching hospital. All consecutively admitted ICU patients in a 2 month period were included. Skin AF was measured using an AGE reader in 35 consecutive ICU patients > 18 yrs. As a comparison, historical data of a control group (n = 231 were used. These were also used to calculate age-adjusted AF-levels (AFadj. Values are expressed as median and interquartile range [P25-P75]. Differences between groups were tested by non parametric tests. P Results AFadj values were higher in ICU patients (0.33 [0.00 - 0.68] than in controls (-0.07 [-0.29 - 0.24]; P adj were observed between acute or planned admissions, or presence of sepsis, nor was skin AFadj related to severity of disease as estimated by APACHE-II score, length of ICU, hospital stay or mortality. Conclusion Acute AGE accumulation in ICU patients was shown in this study, although group size was small. This can possibly reflect oxidative stress in ICU patients. Further studies should reveal whether AGE-accumulation will be a useful parameter in ICU patients and whether skin AF has a predictive value for outcome, which was not shown in this small study.

  2. Fatty Liver Index and Lipid Accumulation Product Can Predict Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects without Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Lung Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fatty liver index (FLI and lipid accumulation product (LAP are indexes originally designed to assess the risk of fatty liver and cardiovascular disease, respectively. Both indexes have been proven to be reliable markers of subsequent metabolic syndrome; however, their ability to predict metabolic syndrome in subjects without fatty liver disease has not been clarified. Methods. We enrolled consecutive subjects who received health check-up services at Taipei Veterans General Hospital from 2002 to 2009. Fatty liver disease was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography. The ability of the FLI and LAP to predict metabolic syndrome was assessed by analyzing the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC curve. Results. Male sex was strongly associated with metabolic syndrome, and the LAP and FLI were better than other variables to predict metabolic syndrome among the 29,797 subjects. Both indexes were also better than other variables to detect metabolic syndrome in subjects without fatty liver disease (AUROC: 0.871 and 0.879, resp., and the predictive power was greater among women. Conclusion. Metabolic syndrome increases the cardiovascular disease risk. The FLI and LAP could be used to recognize the syndrome in both subjects with and without fatty liver disease who require lifestyle modifications and counseling.

  3. Diagram for a small planet. The Production and Ecosystem Possibilities Curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haight, Alan Day [Economics Department, SUNY-Cortland, Old Main, Room 136A, Cortland, New York, 13045 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    With the development of the GPI there is now an ecological alternative to GDP for measuring a country's economic performance, but we still lack an ecological alternative to the PPC for illustrating a country's economic problem. The diagram suggested here illustrates a country's production and ecosystem possibilities - including climate stability, flood control, carbon sequestration, aquifer recharge, scenery, recreation, biological diversity, and so on. Burning a rainforest to clear the land shifts a country's PPC outward, giving the visual impression of an unmitigated improvement; but such development causes a movement along the country's PEPC, as ecosystem services are transformed into GDP. The slope of the PEPC is the marginal rate of transformation, which equals the ratio of the land's marginal marketable product to its marginal ecosystem product. Changes in technology create substitution and income effects that help explain the enclosure movement and the environmental Kuznets curve. Much as employment of the human resource can be restrained to allow more leisure, development of the natural resource can be restrained to preserve more ecosystem services. Commercial lobbying interests and rivalries for positional goods create distortions that move a country along its PEPC to a materialistic misallocation, with too little conservation. An idealistic misallocation is also possible, with too much preservation of the natural environment. Small is beautiful, up to a point, and that is evident in this diagram. Jacob Viner's [Viner, J., 1937. Studies in the Theory of International Trade. Harper and Brothers, New York] analytical objections to the PPC are revived. (author)

  4. Performance curves of medical researchers during their career: analysis of scientific production from a retrospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Antoine; Herquelot, Eléonore; Polazzi, Stéphanie; Malbezin, Muriel; Claris, Olivier

    2017-02-24

    To establish the pattern of change in individual scientific production over the career of medical researchers. Retrospective cohort based on prospectively collected data in a hospital information system. Multicentre university hospital in France. Two distinct populations of 1835 researchers (full professors vs non-academic physicians) having produced 44 723 publications between 1995 and 2014. Annual number of publications referenced in Medline/PubMed with a sensitivity analysis based on publications as first/last author and in high impact journals. The individual volume of publications was modelled by age using generalised estimating equations adjusted for birth cohort, biomedical discipline and academic position of researchers. Averaged over the whole career, the annual number of publications was 5.28 (95% CI 4.90 to 5.69) among professors compared to 0.82 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.89) among non-academic physicians (pscientific production between 25 and 35 years (adjusted incidence rate ratio 102.20, 95% CI 60.99 to 171.30), a maturation phase with a slower increase from 35 to 50 years (2.10, 95% CI 1.75 to 2.51) until a stabilisation phase with constant production followed by a potential decline at the end of career (0.90, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.06). The non-academic physicians experienced a slower pace of learning curve at the beginning of their careers (42.38, 95% CI 25.37 to 70.81) followed by a smaller increase in the annual number of publications (1.29, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.51). Compared to full professors, non-academic physicians had a poor capacity to publish, indicating a low productivity when medical doctors have limited time or little interest in undertaking research. This finding highlights the potential for rethinking the missions of medical doctors towards an enlargement of scientific prerogatives in favour of progress in global knowledge. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  5. The association between various smoking behaviors, cotinine biomarkers and skin autofluorescence, a marker for advanced glycation end product accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waateringe, Robert P.; Mook-Kanamori, Marjonneke J.; Slagter, Sandra N.; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Graaff, Reindert; Lutgers, Helen L.; Suhre, Karsten; Selim, Mohammed M. El-Din; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin autofluorescence, a biomarker for advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulation, has been shown to predict diabetes-related cardiovascular complications and is associated with several environmental and lifestyle factors. In the present study, we examined the association

  6. Surgical treatment for the subclavian steal syndrome. Surgical indication and selection of procedures by {sup 123}I-IMP-SPECT imaging and {sup 99m}Tc-HSA accumulation curve in upper extremities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Toyohisa; Tokunaga, Hidemori; Akita, Nobuhisa; Nonaka, Masahiro [Saiseikai Chuwa Hospital, Sakurai, Nara (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    To select reasonable operative procedures in the respective patients, we have studied the cerebral blood flow, especially in the posterior circulation, by {sup 123}I-IMP-SPECT imaging, and the blood flow in the upper extremities by {sup 99m}Tc-HSA accumulation curve in 11 patients with subclavian steal syndrome. Although all patients presented distinct symptoms and signs of vertebrobasilar insufficiency, {sup 123}I-IMP-SPECT early image demonstrated no evident finding of decreased blood flow in the posterior circulation. However, in the delayed image 5 out of 11 patients revealed laterality of IMP uptake in cerebellar hemisphere. Four patients presented symptoms of the upper extremities including arm claudication, and all of them revealed {sup 99m}Tc-HSA accumulation curve indicated decreased blood flow in the affected side of arm and forearm. We performed transposition of vertebral artery to common carotid artery in 7 patients without evidence of decreased blood flow in the upper extremities by {sup 99m}Tc-HSA accumulation curve, common carotid-subclavian dacron graft bypass in 3 cases with evidence of decreased blood flow in the upper extremities, and arch aorta-common carotid dacron graft bypass for the innominate artery occlusion. When the ischemia in the anterior circulation had existed in patients with multiple cerebrovascular occlusive disease, we first corrected the anterior circulation, and then performed the revascularization for the posterior circulation mentioned above by staged operation, resulting in successful treatment of all patients. (K.H.)

  7. Accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in eye structures of mice subjected to whole-body X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakina, N.L.; Dontsov, A.E.; Afanas'ev, G.G.; Ostrovskij, M.A.; Pelevina, I.I.

    1990-01-01

    In studying the effect of whole-body X-irradiation on the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products (conjugated dienes, TBA-active products, and Sciff bases) in retina and retinal pigmented epithelium of pigmented and nonpigmented mice it was shown that irradiation of dark-pigmented mice does not cause even a slight accumulation of lipid peroxidation products as compared to that in the controls. Albino mice exhibited a marked increase in the level of lipid peroxidation products which was manifested soon after irradiation and persisted for at least 3 months after irradiation. Melanine is suggested to participate in protecting eye structures against pro-oxidizing action of ionizing radiation

  8. Production of Curved Precast Concrete Elements for Shell Structures and Free-form Architecture using the Flexible Mould Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, H.R.; Grünewald, S.; Eigenraam, P.; Raghunath, P.; Kok, M.A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Free-form buildings tend to be expensive. By optimizing the production process, economical and well-performing precast concrete structures can be manufactured. In this paper, a method is presented that allows producing highly accurate double curved-elements without the need for milling two expensive

  9. Denitrifying bacterial communities affect current production and nitrous oxide accumulation in a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar-Sanz, Ariadna; Puig, Sebastià; García-Lledó, Arantzazu; Trias, Rosalia; Balaguer, M Dolors; Colprim, Jesús; Bañeras, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    The biocathodic reduction of nitrate in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) is an alternative to remove nitrogen in low carbon to nitrogen wastewater and relies entirely on microbial activity. In this paper the community composition of denitrifiers in the cathode of a MFC is analysed in relation to added electron acceptors (nitrate and nitrite) and organic matter in the cathode. Nitrate reducers and nitrite reducers were highly affected by the operational conditions and displayed high diversity. The number of retrieved species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) for narG, napA, nirS and nirK genes was 11, 10, 31 and 22, respectively. In contrast, nitrous oxide reducers remained virtually unchanged at all conditions. About 90% of the retrieved nosZ sequences grouped in a single OTU with a high similarity with Oligotropha carboxidovorans nosZ gene. nirS-containing denitrifiers were dominant at all conditions and accounted for a significant amount of the total bacterial density. Current production decreased from 15.0 A · m(-3) NCC (Net Cathodic Compartment), when nitrate was used as an electron acceptor, to 14.1 A · m(-3) NCC in the case of nitrite. Contrarily, nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation in the MFC was higher when nitrite was used as the main electron acceptor and accounted for 70% of gaseous nitrogen. Relative abundance of nitrite to nitrous oxide reducers, calculated as (qnirS+qnirK)/qnosZ, correlated positively with N2O emissions. Collectively, data indicate that bacteria catalysing the initial denitrification steps in a MFC are highly influenced by main electron acceptors and have a major influence on current production and N2O accumulation.

  10. Endophyte Chaetomium globosum D38 Promotes Bioactive Constituents Accumulation and Root Production in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza is known for tanshinones and salvianolic acids, which have been shown to have a protective effect against ROS, especially for cardiovascular diseases and other various ailments of human organs. Due to the low yield of tanshinones and their analogs in S. miltiorrhiza, multiple stimulation strategies have been developed to improve tanshinones production in plant tissue cultures. Endophytic fungi have been reported to form different relationships with their host plants, including symbiotic, mutualistic, commensalistic, and parasitic interactions. Thus we take the assumption that endophytic fungi may be a potential microbial tool for secondary metabolism promotion in medicinal plants. We recently isolated Chaetomium globosum D38 from the roots of S. miltiorrhiza and our study aimed to examine the effects of this live endophytic fungus D38 and its elicitor on the accumulation of tanshinones in the hairy root cultures of S. miltiorrhiza. Our results revealed that C. globosum D38 mainly colonized in the intercellular gap of xylem parenchyma cells of S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots during the long term co-existence without any toxicity. Moreover, both of the live fungus and its mycelia extract could increase the production of tanshinones, especially for dihydrotanshinone I and cryptotanshinone. The effect of the mycelia extract was much stronger than that of the live fungus on tanshinones synthesis, which significantly increased the transcriptional activity of those key genes in tanshinone biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, the live C. globosum D38 could also be made into biotic fertilizer used for S. miltiorrhiza seedlings culture, which not only significantly promoted the growth of the host plant, but also notably enhanced the accumulation of tanshinones and salvianolic acids. We thus speculated that, in the soil environment D38 could form bitrophic and mutual beneficial interactions with the host and enhance the plant growth and its

  11. Lipid accumulation product (LAP) as a criterion for the identification of the healthy obesity phenotype in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwow, Felicja; Jedrzejuk, Diana; Milewicz, Andrzej; Szmigiero, Leszek

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and its complications constitute a major health problem in postmenopausal women. The identification of the obesity phenotype, especially that of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) patients, is a necessary part of obesity treatment protocols. There are several methods to define MHO, but unfortunately, all of them are arbitrary and inconsistent. The aim of this work was to determine whether lipid accumulation product (LAP) could be used as a marker of the MHO phenotype in postmenopausal women. A sample of 345 Polish postmenopausal women aged 50-60years old participated in the study. Participants were classified as obese when their BMI was >27. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to estimate the best cutoff for the LAP index value to identify postmenopausal women without metabolic syndrome components. We found that the best cutoff value was LAP ≤29.9, and this value was used to define MHO individuals. With this definition, the identification of MHO individuals could be made when both of the following criteria were met: LAP index ≤29.9 and no arterial hypertension (SBPwomen identified according to the above definition, were compared with those of MHO women identified by two other methods in the literature. These methods and our definition identified similar proportions of MHO women ranging from 11.6% to 16.9%. We found that MHO women identified by all of the definitions used in this study possessed a similar metabolic status, and they did not differ in anthropometric indices or body fat distribution measurements. We concluded that the combination of LAP estimation and arterial blood pressure measurement appear to constitute a useful method for identifying the MHO phenotype in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lipid accumulation product as a marker of cardiometabolic susceptibility in women with different phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božić-Antić, Ivana; Ilić, Dušan; Bjekić-Macut, Jelica; Bogavac, Tamara; Vojnović-Milutinović, Danijela; Kastratovic-Kotlica, Biljana; Milić, Nataša; Stanojlović, Olivera; Andrić, Zoran; Macut, Djuro

    2016-12-01

    There are limited data on cardiometabolic risk factors and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) across the different PCOS phenotypes in Caucasian population. Lipid accumulation product (LAP) is a clinical surrogate marker that could be used for evaluation of MetS in clinical practice. The aim of the study was to analyze metabolic characteristics and the ability of LAP to predict MetS in different PCOS phenotypes. Cross-sectional clinical study analyzing 365 women with PCOS divided into four phenotypes according to the ESHRE/ASRM criteria, and 125 healthy BMI-matched controls. In all subjects, LAP was determined and MetS was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria. Logistic regression and ROC curve analyses were used to determine predictors of MetS in each PCOS phenotype. All analyses were performed with age and BMI adjustment. All PCOS phenotypes in comparison to controls had higher prevalence of MetS assessed by NCEP-ATP III criteria, and only classic phenotypes when IDF and JIS criteria were used. All phenotypes had the same prevalence of MetS irrespective of used definition. LAP and exhibited the highest diagnostic accuracy and was an independent predictor of MetS in all phenotypes. LAP is an independent and accurate clinical determinant of MetS in all PCOS phenotypes in our Caucasian population. All PCOS phenotypes, including non-classic ones, are metabolically challenged and with cardiovascular risk, particularly phenotype B. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  13. Growth, biomass production and ions accumulation in Atriplex nummularia Lindl grown under abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidelblandi F. de Melo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Atriplex nummularia is a halophyte of great importance in the recovery of saline soils and is considered as a model plant to study biosaline scenarios. This study aimed to evaluate biometric parameters, biomass production and the accumulation of ions in A. nummularia grown under abiotic stresses. Cultivation was carried out in a Fluvic Neosol for 100 days, adopting two water regimes: 37 and 70% of field capacity. Plants were irrigated with saline solutions containing two types of salts (NaCl and a mixture of NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 at six levels of electrical conductivity: 0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS m-1, arranged in a 6 x 2 x 2 factorial with 4 replicates, forming 96 plots. At the end of the experiment, plants were divided into leaves, stem and roots, for the determination of fresh matter (FM, dry matter (DM and estimated leaf area (LA, besides the contents of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and Cl-. The type of salt did not influence plant growth or biomass production; however, it influenced the levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and Cl- in the leaves and Mg2+, K+ and Cl- in the roots. Increase in salinity reduced the contents of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and Cl- for all treatments.

  14. Curvas de crescimento na produção animal Growth curves in animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ribeiro de Freitas

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram discutidas as propriedades de sete modelos não-lineares, considerando-se o ajuste de curvas de crescimento na produção animal. Os modelos utilizados: Brody, Richards, Von Bertalanffy e duas alternativas de Gompertz e de Logístico foram ajustados, pelo método de Gauss Newton por meio do procedimento NLIN do SAS, a dados peso-idade de oito espécies: camarão-d'água-doce, rã-pimenta, coelho, frango, ovino, caprino, suíno e bovino. Considerando-se os critérios como: convergência ou não, coeficiente de determinação e interpretabilidade biológica dos parâmetros, concluiu-se que: a o modelo Logístico y= A/(1 + e-ktm estimou o peso em todas as espécies animais, enquanto o de Von Bertalanffy apenas não foi adequado para camarão; b os dois modelos Gompertz foram adequados para camarão, rã, frango, suíno e bovino; c em cada espécie, pelo menos dois dos sete modelos mostraram-se adequados para estimar o crescimento corporal das espécies animais estudadas, pois os coeficientes de determinação foram superiores a 92,0%.The properties of seven nonlinear models were discussed concerning its applications in the fitting of growth curves in animal production. The models used: Brody, Richards, Von Bertalanffy and two alternatives of Gompertz and Logistic models, were fitted by Gauss Newton method to weight-age data from eight animal species: freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergi, pepper frog, rabbit, poultry, sheep, goat, swine and cattle. Considering results of the fitted models such as convergence or not, coefficient of determination and biological interpretation of parameters, it was concluded that: a the Logisticmethod y = A/(1 + e-ktm estimated body weight in all species, while the Von Bertalanffy model was not adequate only for freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergi; b both Gompertz models were adequate for freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergi, pepper frog, poultry, swine and cattle; c for each specie, at least two

  15. Lactation curve of cross-bred buffalo under two production systems in the Amazonian region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Ribeiro Neto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the Agroforestry Research Center of EMBRAPA (CPAFRO, Rondônia, Brazil, to evaluate the lactation curve of crosss-bred buffalo [Murrah (M, Mediterranean (Me and Jafarabadi(J] under two production systems. Production system one (PS1 corresponded to the period of 1984 to 1998 where animals (4471 observation were milked once a day and received only pasture without supplementation. Production system two (PS2 corresponded to the period of 1999 to 2002 where animals (458 observations were milked twice daily with concentrate supplementation to pasture. Eight mathematical functions were used: Inverse Polynomial, Linear Hyperbolic, Incomplete Gamma, Logarithmic, Logarithmic Quadratic, Linear, Quadratic and Jenkins & Ferrel. Statistical analysis was conducted using PROC NLIN of SAS (2005. Results showed that for both production systems, Incomplete Gama was the best function to describe the lactation curve. Values of coefficient of determination, standard-deviation, coefficient of variation and standard-error were 95%, 0.068, 7.20, and 0.003, respectively. The corresponding values for PS2 were 96%, 0.200, 2.12, and 0.003. Values of the lactation curve parameters (a, b, and c for PS1 and PS2, respectively, were (a 7.0035923 and 10.9209, (b -0.1080043 and -0.1614882, (c 0.0434868 and 0.0679365.

  16. Risk factors for chronic transplant dysfunction and cardiovascular disease are related to accumulation of advanced glycation end-products in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Jasper W. L.; de Vries, Aiko P. J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Graaff, Reindert; van Son, Willem J.; van der Heide, Jaap J. Homan; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; de Jong, Paul E.; Smit, Andries J.

    Background. Accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic transplant dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in renal transplant recipients. We aimed to investigate which factors are associated with tissue AGE accumulation in renal

  17. Risk factors for chronic transplant dysfunction and cardiovascular disease are related to accumulation of advanced glycation end-products in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Jasper W. L.; de Vries, Aiko P. J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Graaff, Reindert; van Son, Willem J.; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J.; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; de Jong, Paul E.; Smit, Andries J.

    2006-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic transplant dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in renal transplant recipients. We aimed to investigate which factors are associated with tissue AGE accumulation in renal transplant

  18. Variability of oil and gas well productivities for continuous (unconventional) petroleum accumulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, oil and gas well productivities were estimated using decline-curve analysis for thousands of wells as part of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources in the United States. The estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs) of these wells show great variability that was analyzed at three scales: within an assessment unit (AU), among AUs of similar reservoir type, and among groups of AUs with different reservoir types. Within a particular oil or gas AU (such as the Barnett Shale), EURs vary by about two orders of magnitude between the most productive wells and the least productive ones (excluding those that are dry and abandoned). The distributions of EURs are highly skewed, with most of the wells in the lower part of the range. Continuous AUs were divided into four categories based on reservoir type and major commodity (oil or gas): coalbed gas, shale gas, other low-permeability gas AUs (such as tight sands), and low-permeability oil AUs. Within each of these categories, there is great variability from AU to AU, as shown by plots of multiple EUR distributions. Comparing the means of each distribution within a category shows that the means themselves have a skewed distribution, with a range of approximately one to two orders of magnitude. A comparison of the three gas categories (coalbed gas, shale gas, and other low-permeability gas AUs) shows large overlap in the ranges of EUR distributions. Generally, coalbed gas AUs have lower EUR distributions, shale gas AUs have intermediate sizes, and the other low-permeability gas AUs have higher EUR distributions. The plot of EUR distributions for each category shows the range of variation among developed AUs in an appropriate context for viewing the historical development within a particular AU. The Barnett Shale is used as an example to demonstrate that dividing wells into groups by time allows one to see the changes in EUR distribution. Subdivision into groups

  19. Differentially Encoded LDPC Codes—Part I: Special Case of Product Accumulate Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    (Tiffany JingLi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Part I of a two-part series investigates product accumulate codes, a special class of differentially-encoded low density parity check (DE-LDPC codes with high performance and low complexity, on flat Rayleigh fading channels. In the coherent detection case, Divsalar's simple bounds and iterative thresholds using density evolution are computed to quantify the code performance at finite and infinite lengths, respectively. In the noncoherent detection case, a simple iterative differential detection and decoding (IDDD receiver is proposed and shown to be robust for different Doppler shifts. Extrinsic information transfer (EXIT charts reveal that, with pilot symbol assisted differential detection, the widespread practice of inserting pilot symbols to terminate the trellis actually incurs a loss in capacity, and a more efficient way is to separate pilots from the trellis. Through analysis and simulations, it is shown that PA codes perform very well with both coherent and noncoherent detections. The more general case of DE-LDPC codes, where the LDPC part may take arbitrary degree profiles, is studied in Part II Li 2008.

  20. Accumulation status, sources and phytoavailability of metals in greenhouse vegetable production systems in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Lu, Anxiang; Wang, Jihua; Ma, Zhihong; Pan, Ligang; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Luan, Yunxia

    2015-12-01

    The accumulation status, sources and phytoavailability of selected metals in greenhouse vegetable production systems in peri-urban areas of Beijing were investigated. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in greenhouse soils were 8.44, 0.25, 69.0, 0.09 and 22.0 mg kg(-1), dw, respectively. According to principal component analysis, As, Cd, Cr and Hg are mainly from anthropogenic source, but Pb is likely from natural source. Metal concentrations in all vegetable samples were decreased in the order of Cr>As>Pb>Cd>Hg. Compared with root and fruit vegetables, leaf vegetables had relatively high concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals, except for Cd. By including soil pH, OM and greenhouse soil metals, 10 empirical models were derived using stepwise multiple linear regression analysis to predict heavy metal concentrations in the edible parts of different vegetables. Among the different vegetable groups, the highest intakes of metals occurred through consumption of leaf vegetables for the two age groups, except for Cd. The HI value of the studied metals were all below 1, indicating that consumption of vegetables grown in greenhouse soils was of low risk to consumers in our study area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutrient accumulation and biomass production of alfafa after soil amendment with silicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Cristina Fernandes Deus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the use of silicate correctives in agriculture show that they have great potential to improve soil chemical characteristics, however, little information is available on the reactivity rates of their particle-size fractions. This study investigated whether the reactivity rates obtained experimentally could be considered in the calculation of ECC (effective calcium carbonate for soil liming, promoting adequate development of alfalfa plants. Six treatments were evaluated in the experiment, consisting of two slag types applied in two rates. The experimental ECC was used to calculate one of the rates and the ECC determined in the laboratory was used to calculate the other. Rates of limestone and wollastonite were based on the ECC determined in laboratory. The rates of each soil acidity corretive were calculated to increase the base saturation to 80%. The treatments were applied to a Rhodic Hapludox and an Alfisol Ferrudalfs. The methods for ECC determination established for lime can be applied to steel slag. The application of slag corrected soil acidity with consequent accumulation of Ca, P, and Si in alfalfa, favoring DM production.

  2. Lipid accumulation product is related to metabolic syndrome in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, S; Hua, F; Chen, L; Tang, Y; Jiang, X; Liu, Z

    2013-02-01

    Metabolic disturbances are common features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which possibly enhance the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Lipid accumulation product (LAP) is an emerging cardiovascular risk factor. The aim of this study was to explore the ability of LAP to identify metabolic syndrome (MS) in PCOS women. In a cross-sectional study, anthropometric, biochemical and clinical parameters were measured in 105 PCOS women. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to find out the cut-off points of LAP to predict MS. MS was categorized according to International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. The prevalence of MS was 43.8% in this study. PCOS women with MS had significantly higher LAP levels compared to those without MS. LAP was highly correlated with components of MS. ROC analysis showed that LAP was a significant discriminator for MS in PCOS women, and the optimal cutoff point of LAP to predict MS was 54.2 (93.3% sensitivity, 96.7% specificity). LAP seems to be associated with MS and has a strong and reliable diagnostic accuracy for MS in PCOS women. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric Hg, Pb and As accumulation recorded by peat cores from southern Greenland and Denmark dated using the 14C "bomb pulse curve"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotyk, W.; Goodsite, M. E.; Roos-Barraclough, F.; Frei, R.; Heinemeier, J.; Asmund, G.; Lohse, C.; Hansen, T. S.

    2003-11-01

    Mercury concentrations are clearly elevated in the surface and sub-surface layers of peat cores collected from a minerotrophic ("groundwater-fed") fen in southern Greenland (GL) and an ombrotrophic ("rainwater-fed") bog in Denmark (DK). Using 14C to precisely date samples since ca. AD 1950 using the "atmospheric bomb pulse," the chronology of Hg accumulation in GL is remarkably similar to the bog in DK where Hg was supplied only by atmospheric deposition: this suggests not only that Hg has been supplied to the surface layers of the minerotrophic core (GL) primarily by atmospheric inputs, but also that the peat cores have preserved a consistent record of the changing rates of atmospheric Hg accumulation. The lowest Hg fluxes in the GL core (0.3 to 0.5 μg/m 2/yr) were found in peats dating from AD 550 to AD 975, compared to the maximum of 164 μg/m 2/yr in AD 1953. Atmospheric Hg accumulation rates have since declined, with the value for 1995 (14 μg/m 2/yr) comparable to the value for 1995 obtained by published studies of atmospheric transport modelling (12 μg/m 2/yr). The greatest rates of atmospheric Hg accumulation in the DK core are also found in the sample dating from AD 1953 and are comparable in magnitude (184 μg/m 2/yr) to the GL core; again, the fluxes have since gone into strong decline. The accumulation rates recorded by the peat core for AD 1994 (14 μg/m 2/yr) are also comparable to the value for 1995 obtained by atmospheric transport modelling (18 μg/m 2/yr). Comparing the Pb/Ti and As/Ti ratios of the DK samples with the corresponding crustal ratios (or "natural background values" for preanthropogenic peat) shows that the samples dating from 1953 also contain the maximum concentration of "excess" Pb and As. The synchroneity of the enrichments of all three elements (Hg, Pb, and As) suggests a common source, with coal-burning the most likely candidate. Independent support for this interpretation was obtained from the Pb isotope data ( 206Pb/ 207Pb

  4. Image scaling curve generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  5. Image scaling curve generation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  6. Lactation Curve Pattern and Prediction of Milk Production Performance in Crossbred Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Jingar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data pertaining to 11728 test-day daily milk yields of normal and mastitis Karan Fries cows were collected from the institute herd and divided as mastitis and nonmastitis and parity-wise. The data of lactation curves of the normal and mastitis crossbred cows was analyzed using gamma type function. FTDMY in normal and mastitis cows showed an increasing trend from TD-1 to TD-4 and a gradual decrease (P<0.01 thereafter until the end of lactation (TD-21 in different parities. The FTDMY was maximum (peak yield in the fourth parity. Parity-wise lactation curve revealed a decrease in persistency, steeper decline in descending slope (c, and steeper increase in ascending slope (b from 1st to 5th and above parity. The higher coefficient of determination (R2 and lower root mean square error (RMSE indicated goodness and accuracy of the model for the prediction of milk prediction performance under field conditions. Clinical mastitis resulted in a significantly higher loss of milk yield (P<0.05. The FTDMY was maximum (P<0.05 in the fourth parity in comparison to the rest of parity. It is demonstrated that gamma type function can give the best fit lactation curve in normal and mastitis infected crossbred cows.

  7. Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End Products as a Molecular Mechanism for Aging as a Risk Factor in Osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J. de; Verzijl, N.; Wenting-Wijk, M.J.G. van; Jacobs, K.M.G.; El, B. van; Roermund, P.M. van; Bank, R.A.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; TeKoppele, J.M.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent and disabling chronic conditions affecting the elderly. Its etiology is largely unknown, but age is the most prominent risk factor. The current study was designed to test whether accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which

  8. The influence of body mass index on the accumulation of advanced glycation end products in hemodialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsov, S.; Trajceska, L.; van Oeveren, W.; Smit, A. J.; Dzekova, P.; Stegmayr, B.; Sikole, A.; Rakhorst, G.; Graaff, R.

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The level of skin autofluorescence (AF) at a given moment is an independent predictor of mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Skin AF is a measure of the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of nutrition

  9. The Growth Path of Agricultural Labor Productivity in China: A Latent Growth Curve Model at the Prefectural Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Bin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the shrinking proportion of agriculture output and the growing mobility of the labor force in China, how agricultural labor productivity develops has become an increasingly attractive topic for researchers and policy makers. This study aims to depict the development trajectory of agricultural labor productivity in China after its WTO entry. Based on a balanced panel data containing 287 Chinese prefectures from 2000 to 2013, this study applies the Latent Growth Curve Model (LGCM and finds that the agricultural labor productivity follows a piecewise growth path with two breaking points in the years of 2004 and 2009. This may stem from some exogenous stimulus, such as supporting policies launched in the breaking years. Further statistical analysis shows an expanding gap of agricultural labor productivity among different Chinese prefectures.

  10. Lipid accumulation product and triglycerides/glucose index are useful predictors of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Katsiki, Niki; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Banach, Maciej

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the association of triglycerides/glucose index (TyG index), anthropometrically predicted visceral adipose tissue (apVAT), lipid accumulation product (LAP), visceral adiposity index (VAI) and triglycerides (TG):high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio with insulin resistance (IR) in adult Americans. This study was based on data from three NHANES cycles (2005 to 2010). The TyG index was calculated as ln [TG×fasting glucose/2]. VAI was calculated using gender-specific formulas: men [waist circumference (WC)/39.68+(1.88×body mass index (BMI)]×(TG/1.03)×(1.31/HDL-C); women: [WC/36.58+(1.89×BMI)]×(TG/0.81)×(1.52/HDL-C). LAP index was calculated as [WC-65]×[TG] in men, and [WC-58]×[TG] in women. Correlation and regression analyses accounted for the complex sampling of database. A total of 18,318 subjects was included in this analysis [mean age 47.6Years]; 48.7% (n=8918) men]. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) had a significant positive correlation with the TyG index (r=0.502), LAP (r=0.551), apVAT (r=0.454), TG:HDL-C ratio (r=0.441) and VAI (r=451) (pindex is a simple, cheap and accurate although not perfect, surrogate marker of HOMA-diagnosed IR among adult Americans. Moreover, it has higher predictability than other screening tools which traditionally applied. Among the markers, apVAT had the highest specificity and the TG:HDL-C ratio had the highest sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Calculated model of radioactive fission and corrosion product accumulation and distribution in a fast reactor sodium coolant circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizin, V.D.; Konyashov, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    A simple calculation procedure of radioactive products accumulation and distribution in a primary circuit has been developed on the basis of experimental investigations at the BOR-60 reactor. Common knowledge on the impurity products transfer at the liquid-solid and liquid-gas phase boundary is taken. Use is made of the typical in reactor physics relationships for the description of the products transition to the equipment surfaces, of fission products release, metal corrosion and others. Satisfactory agreement of the calculation data with the experimental ones has been obtained. (orig.)

  12. Nature, origin, and production characteristics of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation, central Appalachian basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R.; Zagorski, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    uplift and erosion, causing gas leakage and a marked reduction in fluid pressure. Most future natural-gas production in the Clinton/Medina sandstones is anticipated to come from the basin-center accumulation. The Tuscarora Sandstone has additional gas resources but typically low reservoir porosity and permeability, and the likelihood of low-energy (in British thermal units) gas reduce the incentive to explore for it.

  13. Alternative wind power modeling methods using chronological and load duration curve production cost models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M R

    1996-04-01

    As an intermittent resource, capturing the temporal variation in windpower is an important issue in the context of utility production cost modeling. Many of the production cost models use a method that creates a cumulative probability distribution that is outside the time domain. The purpose of this report is to examine two production cost models that represent the two major model types: chronological and load duration cure models. This report is part of the ongoing research undertaken by the Wind Technology Division of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in utility modeling and wind system integration.

  14. Understanding the reductions in US corn ethanol production costs: an experience curve approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, W.; Junginger, H.M.; Dekker, S.C.; Hoogwijk, M.; McAloon, A.; Hicks, K.

    2009-01-01

    The US is currently the world's largest ethanol producer. An increasing percentage is used as transportation fuel, but debates continue on its costs competitiveness and energy balance. In this study, technological development of ethanol production and resulting cost reductions are investigated by

  15. The influence of L-DOPA on the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in some brain structures affected by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaev, R.A.; Kocharli, R.Kh.; Akhmedova, G.Sh.; Gasanova, A.A.; Babaev, Kh.F.

    1990-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of L-DOPA on the dynamics of changes in lipid peroxidation products (LPP) and the content of various types of SH-groups in certain brain structures (oblongata, cerebellum, visual and sensorimotor cortex) and their synaptosomal fractions upon irradiation. The preadministration of L-DOPA to irradiated rats inhibited LPP accumulation, prevented the decrease in the content of various types of thiols and thus exerted an antioxidant effect

  16. Curves and tables of neutron cross sections of fission product nuclei in JENDL-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo [ed.

    1992-06-15

    Neutron cross sections of 172 nuclei in the fission product region stored in JENDL-3 are shown in graphs and tables. The evaluation work of these nuclei was made by the Fission Product Nuclear Data Working Group of the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee, in the neutron energy region from 10{sup {minus}5} eV to 20 MeV. Almost of the cross section data reproduced in graphs in this report. The cross section averaged over 38 energy intervals are listed in a table. Shown in order tables are thermal cross sections, resonance integrals, Maxwellian neutron flux average cross sections, fission spectrum average cross sections, 14-MeV cross sections, one group average cross sections in neutron flux of typical types of fission reactors and average cross sections in the 30-keV Maxwellian spectrum.

  17. Curves and tables of neutron cross sections of fission product nuclei in JENDL-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo

    1992-06-01

    Neutron cross sections of 172 nuclei in the fission product region stored in JENDL-3 are shown in graphs and tables. The evaluation work of these nuclei was made by the Fission Product Nuclear Data Working Group of the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee, in the neutron energy region from 10 -5 eV to 20 MeV. Almost all the cross section data are reproduced in graphs in this report. The cross section averaged over 38 energy intervals are listed in a table. Shown in other tables are thermal cross sections, resonance integrals, Maxwellian neutron flux average cross sections, fission spectrum average cross sections, 14-MeV cross sections, one group average cross sections in neutron flux of typical types of fission reactors and average cross sections in the 30-keV Maxwellian spectrum. (author)

  18. Accumulation, spatial policies, and the production of regional labour reserves: a study of Washington New Town

    OpenAIRE

    R Hudson

    1982-01-01

    It has recently been argued by Damette that regional labour reserves have come to occupy a central role in the accumulation process as a source of surplus profits. Moreover, the State has increasingly become involved in creating such reserves via its spatial policies, often with unintended results in relation to the stated aims of these policies. These general propositions are explored in this paper via an investigation of some aspects of the development of Washington New Town, considering in...

  19. Eugenol stimulates lactate accumulation yet inhibits volatile fatty acid production and eliminates coliform bacteria in cattle and swine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Miller, D L

    2004-01-01

    To determine how eugenol affects fermentation parameters and faecal coliforms in cattle and swine waste slurries stored anaerobically. Waste slurries (faeces:urine:water, 50:35:15) were blended with and without additives and aliquoted to triplicate 1-l flasks. Faecal coliforms were eliminated in cattle and swine waste slurries within 1 or 2 days with additions of eugenol at 10.05 mm (0.15%) and 16.75 mm (0.25%). At these concentrations volatile fatty acids (VFA) were reduced ca 70 and 50% in cattle and swine waste, respectively, over 6-8 weeks. Additionally, in cattle waste, eugenol stimulated the accumulation of lactate (>180 mm) when compared with thymol treatment (20 mm lactate). In swine waste, lactate accumulation did not occur without additives; eugenol and thymol stimulated lactate accumulation to concentrations of 22 and 32 mm, respectively. Eugenol added to cattle waste may be more beneficial than thymol because not only does it effectively control faecal coliforms and odour (VFA production), it also stimulates lactate accumulation. This in turn, causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. Plant essential oils have the potential to solve some of the environmental problems associated with consolidated animal feeding operations. Thymol and eugenol reduce fermentative activity, thus, have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and odour, and curtail transmission of pathogens in cattle and swine wastes.

  20. Determination of the equation parameters of carbon flow curves and estimated carbon flow and CO2 emissions from broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, J D; Bockor, L; Borille, R; Coldebella, A; Ribeiro, A M L; Kessler, A M

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the equation parameters of carbon (i.e., C) flow curves and to estimate C flow and carbon dioxide (i.e., CO2) emissions from the production of 1- to 49-day-old broilers from different genetic strains. In total, 384 1-day-old chicks were used, distributed into 4 groups: high-performance males (Cobb-M) and females (Cobb-F), and intermediate-performance males (C44-M) and females (C44-F), with 6 replicates/treatment according to a completely randomized study design. Carbon intake and retention were calculated based on diet and body C composition, and expired C was stoichiometrically estimated as digestible C intake-C retention-C in the urine. Litter C emission was estimated as initial litter C+C in the excreta-final litter C. Carbon flow curves were determined fitting data by nonlinear regression using the Gompertz function. Expired CO2 was calculated based on expired C. The applied nonlinear model presented goodness-of-fit for all responses (R2>0.99). Carbon dioxide production was highly correlated with growth rate. At 42 d age, CO2 expiration (g/bird) was 3,384.4 for Cobb-M, 2,947.9 for Cobb-F, 2,512.5 for C44-M, and 2185.1 for C44-F. Age also significantly affected CO2 production: to achieve 2.0 kg BW, CO2 expiration (g/bird) was 1,794.3 for Cobb-M, 2,016.5 for Cobb-F, 2617.7 for C44-M, and 3,092.3 for C44-F. The obtained equations present high predictability to estimate individual CO2 emissions in strains of Cobb and C44 broilers of any weight, or age, reared between 1 and 49 d age. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. The end of cheap oil: Bottom-up economic and geologic modeling of aggregate oil production curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsson, Kristofer; Bentley, Roger; Söderbergh, Bengt; Aleklett, Kjell

    2012-01-01

    There is a lively debate between ‘concerned’ and ‘unconcerned’ analysts regarding the future availability and affordability of oil. We critically examine two interrelated and seemingly plausible arguments for an unconcerned view: (1) there is a growing amount of remaining reserves; (2) there is a large amount of oil with a relatively low average production cost. These statements are unconvincing on both theoretical and empirical grounds. Oil availability is about flows rather than stocks, and average cost is not relevant in the determination of price and output. We subsequently implement a bottom-up model of regional oil production with micro-foundations in both natural science and economics. An oil producer optimizes net present value under the constraints of reservoir dynamics, technological capacity and economic circumstances. Optimal production profiles for different reservoir drives and economic scenarios are derived. The field model is then combined with a discovery model of random sampling from a lognormal field size-frequency distribution. Regional discovery and production scenarios are generated. Our approach does not rely on the simple assumptions of top-down models such as the Hubbert curve – however it leads to the same qualitative result that production peaks when a substantial fraction of the recoverable resource remains in-ground. - Highlights: ► Remaining oil reserves and average costs are of limited use in forecasting. ► We present a bottom-up approach to the modeling of regional oil production. ► Producers maximize net present value under technological and physical constraints. ► Exploration is modeled as random sampling from a lognormal field size distribution. ► Regional production starts declining before half of the recoverable oil is produced.

  2. Timing and placement of cattle manure and/or gliricidia affects cotton and sunflower nutrient accumulation and biomass productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Dário C; Menezes, Rômulo S C; Oliveira, Fabio F DE; Dubeux Júnior, José Carlos B; Sampaio, Everardo V S B

    2018-01-01

    Organic fertilizers are a viable alternative to increase oilseed productivity in family agriculture systems. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of timing and placement of cattle manure and/or gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp) prunings on cotton (Gossipium hirsutum L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) nutrient accumulation and biomass productivity. Experiments were carried out in 2010 and 2011 in Taperoá, Paraíba, Brazil. The organic fertilization treatments were: GI - gliricidia incorporated before planting; GS - gliricidia applied on surface 45 days after planting (DAP); MI + GI - manure and gliricidia incorporated before planting; MI + GS - manure incorporated before planting and gliricídia applied on the surface 45 DAP; MI - manure incorporated before planting; and T - with no organic fertilization. In 2010, treatment MI + GS increased N, P, and K accumulation in cotton (12 and 7 kg ha-1) as well as in sunflower (20 and 29 kg ha-1). In 2011, GI and GS treatments resulted in higher N, P, K accumulations in both crops. The highest cotton productivity in 2010 was obtained with MI + GS treatment (198 kg ha-1) and in 2011 with GS treatment (594 kg ha-1). For sunflower, MI + GS treatment yielded the highest productivity in 2010 (466 kg ha-1) and GI treatment in 2011 (3542 kg ha-1). GI and MI + GS treatments increased total biomass productivity for cotton and sunflower. The treatment that combined both cattle manure incorporated into the soil before planting and gliricidia applied on the surface 45 days after planting was the most viable management strategy.

  3. Effect of total solids content on biohydrogen production and lactic acid accumulation during dark fermentation of organic waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Anish; Trably, Eric; Frunzo, Luigi; Pirozzi, Francesco; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni; Cazier, Elisabeth A; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-01-01

    Production of biohydrogen and related metabolic by-products was investigated in Solid State Dark Fermentation (SSDF) of food waste (FW) and wheat straw (WS). The effect of the total solids (TS) content and H 2 partial pressure (pp H2 ), two of the main operating factors of SSDF, were investigated. Batch tests with FW at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% TS showed considerable effects of the TS on metabolites distribution. H 2 production was strongly inhibited for TS contents higher than 15% with a concomitant accumulation of lactic acid and a decrease in substrate conversion. Varying the pp H2 had no significant effect on the conversion products and overall degradation of FW and WS, suggesting that pp H2 was not the main limiting factor in SSDF. This study showed that the conversion of complex substrates by SSDF depends on the substrate type and is limited by the TS content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced lipid accumulation and biodiesel production by oleaginous Chlorella protothecoides under a structured heterotrophic-iron (II) induction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuqin; Mu, Jinxiu; Chen, Di; Xu, Hua; Han, Fangxin

    2015-05-01

    A structured heterotrophic-iron (II) induction (HII) strategy was proposed to enhance lipid accumulation in oleaginous Chlorella protothecoides. C. protothecoides subjected to heterotrophic-iron (II) induction achieved a favorable lipid accumulation up to 62 % and a maximum lipid productivity of 820.17 mg/day, representing 2.78-fold and 3.64-fold increase respectively over heterotrophic cultivation alone. HII-induced cells produced significantly elevated levels of 16:0, 18:1(Δ9), and 18:2(Δ9,12) fatty acids (over 90 %). The lipid contents and plant lipid-like fatty acid compositions exhibit the potential of HII-induced C. protothecoides as biodiesel feedstock. Furthermore, 31 altered proteins in HII-induced algal cells were successfully identified. These differentially expressed proteins were assigned into nine molecular function categories, including carbohydrate metabolism, lipid biosynthesis, Calvin cycle, cellular respiration, photosynthesis, energy and transport, protein biosynthesis, regulate and defense, and unclassified. Analysis using the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes and gene ontology annotation showed that malic enzyme, acyltransferase, and ACP were key metabolic checkpoints found to modulate lipid accumulation in C. protothecoides. The results provided possible applications of HII cultivation strategy in other microalgal species and new possibilities in developing genetic and metabolic engineering microalgae for desirable lipid productivity.

  5. Multivariable Real-Time Control of Viscosity Curve for a Continuous Production Process of a Non-Newtonian Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of a multivariable predictive controller to the mixing process for the production of a non-Newtonian fluid is discussed in this work. A data-driven model has been developed to describe the dynamic behaviour of the rheological properties of the fluid as a function of the operating conditions using experimental data collected in a pilot plant. The developed model provides a realistic process representation and it is used to test and verify the multivariable controller, which has been designed to maintain viscosity curves of the non-Newtonian fluid within a given region of the viscosity-vs-shear rate plane in presence of process disturbances occurring in the mixing process.

  6. Spectral lights trigger biomass accumulation and production of antioxidant secondary metabolites in adventitious root cultures of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, Muhammad; Sania, Bibi; Hafsa, Bibi; Kumari, Sana; Khan, Haji; Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Ishfaq; Akbar, Fazal; Ahmad, Naveed; Ali, Sadeeq; Ahmad, Nisar

    2018-05-30

    Stevia rebaudiana (S. rebaudiana) is the most important therapeutic plant species and has been accepted as such worldwide. It has a tendency to accumulate steviol glycosides, which are 300 times sweeter than marketable sugar. Recently, diabetic patients commonly use this plant as a sugar substitute for sweet taste. In the present study, the effects of different spectral lights were investigated on biomass accumulation and production of secondary metabolites in adventitious root cultures of S. rebaudiana. For callus development, leaf explants were excised from seed-derived plantlets and inoculated on a Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing the combination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D, 2.0mg/l) and 6-benzyladenine (BA, 2.0mg/l), while 0.5mg/l naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was used for adventitious root culture. Adventitious root cultures were exposed to different spectral lights (blue, green, violet, red and yellow) for a 30-day period. White light was used as control. The growth kinetics was studied for 30days with 3-day intervals. In this study, the violet light showed the maximum accumulation of fresh biomass (2.495g/flask) as compared to control (1.63g/flask), while red light showed growth inhibition (1.025g/flask) as compared to control. The blue light enhanced the highest accumulation of phenolic content (TPC; 6.56mg GAE/g DW), total phenolic production (TPP; 101mg/flask) as compared to control (5.44mg GAE/g DW; 82.2mg GAE/g DW), and exhibited a strong correlation with dry biomass. Blue light also improved the accumulation of total flavonoid content (TFC; 4.33mg RE/g DW) and total flavonoid production (TFP; 65mg/flask) as compared to control. The violet light showed the highest DPPH inhibition (79.72%), while the lowest antioxidant activity was observed for control roots (73.81%). Hence, we concluded that the application of spectral lights is an auspicious strategy for the enhancement of the required antioxidant secondary metabolites in

  7. Accumulation and health risk of heavy metals in vegetables from harmless and organic vegetable production systems of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Weindorf, David C; Rajan, Nithya; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2013-12-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables is a growing concern for public health. Limited studies have elucidated the heavy metal accumulation characteristics and health risk of different vegetables produced in different facilities such as greenhouses and open-air fields and under different management modes such as harmless and organic. Given the concern over the aforementioned factors related to heavy metal accumulation, this study selected four typical greenhouse vegetable production bases, short-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (SHGVB), middle-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (MHGVB), long-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (LHGVB), and organic greenhouse vegetable base (OGVB), in Nanjing City, China to study heavy metal accumulation in different vegetables and their associated health risks. Results showed that soils and vegetables from SHGVB and OGVB apparently accumulated fewer certain heavy metals than those from other bases, probably due to fewer planting years and special management, respectively. Greenhouse conditions significantly increased certain soil heavy metal concentrations relative to open-air conditions. However, greenhouse conditions did not significantly increase concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn in leaf vegetables. In fact, under greenhouse conditions, Pb accumulation was effectively reduced. The main source of soil heavy metals was the application of large amounts of low-grade fertilizer. There was larger health risk for producers' children to consume vegetables from the three harmless vegetable bases than those of residents' children. The hazard index (HI) over a large area exceeded 1 for these two kinds of children in the MHGVB and LHGVB. There was also a slight risk in the SHGVB for producers' children solely. However, the HI of the whole area of the OGVB for two kinds of children was below 1, suggesting low risk of heavy metal exposure through the food chain. Notably, the contribution rate of Cu and Zn to the HI were

  8. Electron-cooled accumulation of $4 × 10^9$ positrons for production and storage of antihydrogen atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzakerley, DW; Hessels, E A; Skinner, T D G; Storry, C H; Weel, M; Gabrielse, G; Hamley, C D; Jones, N; Marable, K; Tardiff, E; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Zielinski, M

    2016-01-01

    Four billion positrons (e+) are accumulated in a Penning–Ioffe trap apparatus at 1.2 K and <6 × 10−17 Torr. This is the largest number of positrons ever held in a Penning trap. The e+ are cooled by collisions with trapped electrons (e−) in this first demonstration of using e− for efficient loading of e+ into a Penning trap. The combined low temperature and vacuum pressure provide an environment suitable for antihydrogen ($\\bar{{\\rm{H}}}$) production, and long antimatter storage times, sufficient for high-precision tests of antimatter gravity and of CPT.

  9. Accumulation of nuclear fission products by vegetable crops and their removal during processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    The accumulation and turn over of 90 Sr and 137 Cs throughout the growth cycle of a vegetable crop was studied as well as the removal of these radionuclides in several vegetables by washing, blanching, freezing, canning, and pickling procedures. The results indicated that radiocontamination of vegetable crops with 137 Cs would result in greatest internal concentrations if exposure occurred early in the growth cycle of the plant, whereas, the greatest contamination by 90 Sr would occur from exposure during the middle of the growing period. Pulse labelling experiments were employed to examine turn over of radionuclides in kale. No net efflux of radionuclides from plants following exposure to either radionuclide was observed. Of the processing treatments employed on several types of vegetables, a combination of pickling and canning of cucumbers resulted in the greatest decontamination - 94% for 137 Cs and 65% for 90 Sr. Canning was highly effective in reducing radionuclide concentrations in beans and kale. However, freezing significantly reduced the radionuclide content of only 137 Cs in kale. Preparatory procedures prior to processing did not significantly reduce radionuclide levels except for 137 Cs in beans. The combination of washing, blanching, and canning sweet potatoes exposed to radionuclides resulted in the removal of 1.4% 137 Cs and 26.5% 90 Sr relative to unprocessed controls. The blanching process resulted in a transfer of radioactivity from the peel to the core, indicating that skins of contaminated potatoes should be removed prior to thermal treatment

  10. ROBUST DECLINE CURVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutawanir Darwis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Empirical decline curve analysis of oil production data gives reasonable answer in hyperbolic type curves situations; however the methodology has limitations in fitting real historical production data in present of unusual observations due to the effect of the treatment to the well in order to increase production capacity. The development ofrobust least squares offers new possibilities in better fitting production data using declinecurve analysis by down weighting the unusual observations. This paper proposes a robustleast squares fitting lmRobMM approach to estimate the decline rate of daily production data and compares the results with reservoir simulation results. For case study, we usethe oil production data at TBA Field West Java. The results demonstrated that theapproach is suitable for decline curve fitting and offers a new insight in decline curve analysis in the present of unusual observations.

  11. Lipid accumulation from pinewood pyrolysates by rhodosporidium diobovatum and chlorella vulgaris for biodiesel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, L.; Orr, V.C.A.; Chen, S.; Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria; Oudenhoven, Stijn; van Rossum, G.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Berruti, F.; Rehmann, L.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the suitability of pinewood pyrolysates as a carbon source for lipid production and cultivation of the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium diobovatum and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. Thermal decomposition of pinewood and fractional condensation were used to obtain an oil rich

  12. Clonal variation in heavy metal accumulation and biomass production in a poplar coppice culture. II. Vertical distribution and phytoextraction potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laureysens, I.; Temmerman, L. de; Hastir, T.; Gysel, M. van; Ceulemans, R.

    2005-01-01

    Short rotation coppice cultures (SRC) are intensively managed, high-density plantations of multi-shoot trees. In April 1996, an SRC field trial with 17 different poplar clones was established in Boom (Belgium) on a former waste disposal site. In December 1996 and January 2001, all shoots were cut back to a height of 5 cm to create a coppice culture. For six clones, wood and bark were sampled at the bottom, middle and top of a shoot in August and November 2002. No significant height effect of metal concentration was found, but for wood, metal concentrations generally increased toward the top of the shoot in August, and decreased toward the top of the shoot in November. Phytoextraction potential of a clone was primarily determined by metal concentration and by biomass production. Shoot size and number of shoots per stool were less important, as a high biomass production could be achieved by producing a few large shoots or many smaller shoots. Clone Fritzi Pauley accumulated 1.4 kg ha -1 of Al over two years; Wolterson and Balsam Spire showed a relatively high accumulation of Cd and Zn, i.e. averaging, respectively 47 and 57 g ha -1 for Cd and 2.4 and 2.0 kg ha -1 for Zn over two years. - Poplar shows potential for phytoextraction of Al, Cd and Zn on slightly contaminated soils

  13. Clonal variation in heavy metal accumulation and biomass production in a poplar coppice culture. II. Vertical distribution and phytoextraction potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laureysens, I. [University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Biology, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)]. E-mail: ilse.laureysens@ua.ac.be; Temmerman, L. de [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (VAR), Leuvensesteenweg 17, B-3080 Tervuren (Belgium); Hastir, T. [University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Biology, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Gysel, M. van [University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Chemistry, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Ceulemans, R. [University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Biology, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2005-02-01

    Short rotation coppice cultures (SRC) are intensively managed, high-density plantations of multi-shoot trees. In April 1996, an SRC field trial with 17 different poplar clones was established in Boom (Belgium) on a former waste disposal site. In December 1996 and January 2001, all shoots were cut back to a height of 5 cm to create a coppice culture. For six clones, wood and bark were sampled at the bottom, middle and top of a shoot in August and November 2002. No significant height effect of metal concentration was found, but for wood, metal concentrations generally increased toward the top of the shoot in August, and decreased toward the top of the shoot in November. Phytoextraction potential of a clone was primarily determined by metal concentration and by biomass production. Shoot size and number of shoots per stool were less important, as a high biomass production could be achieved by producing a few large shoots or many smaller shoots. Clone Fritzi Pauley accumulated 1.4 kg ha{sup -1} of Al over two years; Wolterson and Balsam Spire showed a relatively high accumulation of Cd and Zn, i.e. averaging, respectively 47 and 57 g ha{sup -1} for Cd and 2.4 and 2.0 kg ha{sup -1} for Zn over two years. - Poplar shows potential for phytoextraction of Al, Cd and Zn on slightly contaminated soils.

  14. Biomass production and nitrogen accumulation in pea, oat, and vetch green manure mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannink, J.L.; Liebman, M.; Merrick, L.C.

    1996-01-01

    Interest in the use of green manures has revived because of their role in improving soil quality and their beneficial N and non-N rotation effects. This study evaluated biomass production, N content, radiation interception (RI), and radiation use efficiency (RUE) of pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) mixtures. Treatments were a three-way factorial of pea genotype ('Century' vs 'Tipu'), pea planting density (90 vs 224 kg ha -1 ), and cropping mixture (solecropped pea vs pea planted with a mixture of oat and hairy vetch). A mixture of oat and vetch without pea was also planted. Treatments were planted in early June on a Caribou gravelly loam (coarse-loamy, mixed, frigid Typic Haplorthods) in Presque Isle, ME, in 1993 and 1994. Biomass production and radiation interception were measured by repeated sampling. Mixture biomass was affected by a year x pea density interaction: respective yields for mixtures containing low-density and high-density pea were 770 and 880 g m -2 in 1993 vs 820 and 730 g m -2 in 1994. Mixture N content paralleled biomass production and averaged 209 g m -2 across all treatments. While pea sole crops did not consistently produce biomass or N equal to three-species mixtures the two-species mixture of oat and vetch did, yielding 820 g m -2 of biomass and 21.7 g m -2 of N, averaged over the 2 yr. Multiple regression showed that 61% of the variability in mixture biomass production was accounted for by a combination of early-season pea RI and midseason total mixture RUE. Economic analyses showed that rotation including these green manures may be economically competitive with a conventional rotation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) undersown with clover (Trifolium spp.) in a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production system

  15. Numerical simulation studies of gas production scenarios from hydrate accumulations at the Mallik Site, McKenzie Delta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, George J.; Collett, Timothy S.; Dallimore, Scott R.; Satoh, Tohru; Hancock, Stephen; Weatherill, Brian

    2002-01-01

    The Mallik site represents an onshore permafrost-associated gas hydrate accumulation in the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada. An 1150 m deep gas hydrate research well was drilled at the site in 1998. The objective of this study is the analysis of various gas production scenarios from several gas-hydrate-bearing zones at the Mallik site. The TOUGH2 general-purpose simulator with the EOSHYDR2 module were used for the analysis. EOSHYDR2 is designed to model the non-isothermal CH(sub 4) (methane) release, phase behavior and flow under conditions typical of methane-hydrate deposits by solving the coupled equations of mass and heat balance, and can describe any combination of gas hydrate dissociation mechanisms. Numerical simulations indicated that significant gas hydrate production at the Mallik site was possible by drawing down the pressure on a thin free-gas zone at the base of the hydrate stability field. Gas hydrate zones with underlying aquifers yielded significant gas production entirely from dissociated gas hydrate, but large amounts of produced water. Lithologically isolated gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs with no underlying free gas or water zones, and gas-hydrate saturations of at least 50% were also studied. In these cases, it was assumed that thermal stimulation by circulating hot water in the well was the method used to induce dissociation. Sensitivity studies indicated that the methane release from the hydrate accumulations increases with gas-hydrate saturation, the initial formation temperature, the temperature of the circulating water in the well, and the formation thermal conductivity. Methane production appears to be less sensitive to the rock and hydrate specific heat and permeability of the formation

  16. An integrated system for the energy production and accumulation from renewable sources: a rural tower prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Silvia; Petrozzi, Alessandro; Montesarchio, Valeria

    2014-05-01

    This research work presents the implementation of an architectural prototype aiming at the complete energy self-sufficiency through an integrated system based on renewable energy. It is suitable for historical buildings in rural areas, isolated but important from natural and architectonical point of view. In addition to the energy aspects, it is important to protect the impact in terms of land-use and environment. This idea is also especially powerful because in the rural countries there are many little building centers abandoned because they are devoid of a connection to the electric energy grid and methane piping. Thus, taking inspiration from dove towers, architectural typology widespread in central Italy, a virtual model has been developed as an integrated system for renewable energy production, storage and supply. While recovering the ancient tower, it is possible to design and assembly an integrated intelligent system, able to combine energy supply and demand: a new tower that should be flexible, efficient and replicable in other contexts as manufacturing, commercial and residential ones. The prototype has been applied to a real case of study, an ancient complex located in Umbria Region. The sources for electric production installed on the tower are photovoltaics, on the head and shaft of the tower, hydropower and a biomass gasifier providing thermal too. A tank at the head of the tower allows an available hydraulic potential energy, for the turbine at any time, to cover photovoltaic lacks, caused by sudden loss of production, for environmental causes. Conversely, photovoltaic peaks, otherwise unusable, can be used to reload the water from the receiving tank at the foot of the tower, up to the tank in the head. The same underground tank acts as a thermal flywheel to optimize the geothermal heat pumps for the heat and cold production. Keywords: hydropower, photovoltaics, dove tower.

  17. Somatic embryogenesis, pigment accumulation, and synthetic seed production in Digitalis davisiana Heywood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sandeep Kumar; Sahin, Gunce; Gurel, Ekrem

    2016-04-01

    Digitalis davisiana, commonly called Alanya foxglove, from Turkey, is an important medicinal herb as the main source of cardiac glycosides, cardenolides, anthraquinones, etc. It is also known in the Indian Medicine for treatment of wounds and burns. It has ornamental value as well. Overexploitation of D. davisiana has led this species to be declared protected, and thereby encouraged various methods for its propagation. In this study, an optimized and efficient plant tissue culture protocol was established using cotyledonary leaf, hypocotyl and root explants of D. davisiana. Callus tissues were obtained from the cotyledonary leaf, hypocotyl and root segments cultured on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium containing different plant growth regulators. The maximum number of somatic embryos were achieved by the MS medium containing 6-benzyladenine (1.0 mg/L BAP) or 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acids (0.1 mg/L 2,4-D), which produced an average of 8.3 ± 1.5 or 5.3 ± 1.5 embryos per cotyledonary leaf, respectively. After 3 wk of culture in MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D, callus showed a clear accumulation of orange pigmentation. Shoot regeneration was remarkably higher (14.3 indirect shoots) in a combination of α-naphthalene acetic acid (0.25 mg/L NAA) plus 3.0 mg/L BAP than 2.0 mg/L zeatin (10.3 ± 0.5 direct shoots) alone. The shoots were successfully rooted on MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.1-1.0 mg/L). In addition, synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating shoot tips in 4% sodium alginate solution. Maximum conversion frequency of 76.6% was noted from encapsulated shoot tips cultured on 0.25 mg/L NAA with 1.0 mg/L BAP. The encapsulated shoot tips could be stored up to 60 days at 4 °C. Regenerated plantlets of D. davisiana were successfully acclimatized and transferred to soil. This study has demonstrated successful preservation of elite genotypes of D. davisiana.

  18. Accumulated polymer degradation products as effector molecules in cytotoxicity of polymeric nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman Preet; Ramarao, Poduri

    2013-11-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) are a promising platform for drug, gene, and vaccine delivery. Although generally regarded as safe, the toxicity of PNPs is not well documented. The present study investigated in vitro toxicity of poly-ε-caprolactone, poly(DL-lactic acid), poly(lactide-cocaprolactone), and poly(lactide-co-glycide) NPs and possible mechanism of toxicity. The concentration-dependent effect of PNPs on cell viability was determined in a macrophage (RAW 264.7), hepatocyte (Hep G2), lung epithelial (A549), kidney epithelial (A498), and neuronal (Neuro 2A) cell lines. PNPs show toxicity at high concentrations in all cell lines. PNPs were efficiently internalized by RAW 264.7 cells and stimulated reactive oxygen species and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. However, reactive nitrogen species and interleukin-6 production as well as lysosomal and mitochondrial stability remained unaffected. The intracellular degradation of PNPs was determined by monitoring changes in osmolality of culture medium and a novel fluorescence recovery after quenching assay. Cell death showed a good correlation with osmolality of culture medium suggesting the role of increased osmolality in cell death.

  19. The effect of natural antioxidants on the rate of accumulation of oxidation products in the fat phase of butter cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Voronina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Describes the main finishing prefabricated pastries and cakes-cream. Researched range of cream depending on the fruit components and method of production. Aim: to study the degree of oxidation cream with natural antioxidants from fruits and berries processing products, namely in the form of concentrated juice of fruits and berries. Outlines the process of oxidation of lipids, one of the fundamental processes of loss of quality food products. Describes the action of antioxidants as antioxidants on accumulation intensity concentrations of primary and secondary oxidation products, making the final product unsuitable for the consumer and the bounding its shelf life. Presents the results of a study of the contents of primary and secondary oxidation products in butter cream immediately after cooking, as well as samples, stored for five days with the addition of antioxidants in the form of concentrated juice of fruits and berries in the amount of 2–7% by weight of cream. As a control sample has been used cream with no additives. Quality indicators to characterize the degree of oxidation of the product: acid, peroxide, anizidin and tioburbit number. The study found that adding a concentrated juice of fruits and berries as antioxidant in recipe cream reduces the growth rate of the concentration of free fatty acids on the fifth day, as compared with the reference sample. Adding concentrated juice of fruits and berries slows down the process of dissolution of the fat molecules in fat fraction of cream with the formation of free fatty acids; intensity decay reaction of peroxides and hydroxides slows down and, consequently, decreases the formation of aldehydes, deteriorating the taste and smell of the cream; quantitatively reduced the growth of education malondial′degida.

  20. Maturation curves and degree-days accumulation for fruits of 'Folha Murcha' orange trees Curvas de maturação e graus-dia acumulados para frutos de plantas de laranjeira 'Folha Murcha'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Maria Colauto Stenzel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermal summation on orange fruit growth on different rootstocks has not been studied for the State of Paraná, Brazil. This research evaluated the growth of fruits by means of maturation curves, and quantified the growing degree-days (GDD accumulation required for fruit maturation in 'Folha Murcha' orange trees budded on 'Rangpur' lime, 'Volkamer' lemon, 'Sunki' mandarin, and 'Cleopatra' mandarin, in Paranavaí and Londrina, PR. In both locations and all rootstocks, the fruits showed evolution in total soluble solids (TSS content in relation to GDD accumulation, with a quadratic tendency of curve fitting; total titratable acidity (TTA had an inverse quadratic fitting, and the (TSS/TTA ratio showed a positive linear regression. Fruits in Paranavaí presented a higher development rate towards maturity than those in Londrina, for all rootstocks. The advancing of the initial maturation stage of fruits in Paranavaí in relation to those in Londrina occurred in the following descending order: 'Volkamer' lemon (92 days, 'Cleopatra' mandarin (81 days, 'Sunki' mandarin (79 days, 'Rangpur' lime (77 days. In Londrina, trees on 'Rangpur' lime and 'Volkamer' lemon were ready for harvest 8 and 15 days before those on the 'Cleopatra' and 'Sunki' mandarins, respectively. In Paranavaí, the beginning of fruit maturation in trees on 'Volkamer' lemon occurred 15, 19, and 28 days earlier than on 'Rangpur' lime, 'Cleopatra' mandarin, and 'Sunki' mandarin, respectively. Considering 12.8ºC as the lower base temperature, the thermal sum for fruit growth and maturation of 'Folha Murcha' orange ranged from 4,462 to 5,090 GDD.O efeito da soma térmica no crescimento do fruto de laranja em diferentes porta-enxertos não tem sido estudado no Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Esta pesquisa avaliou o crescimento dos frutos por meio de curvas de maturação e quantificou os graus-dia acumulados (GDA necessários para a maturação dos frutos em laranjeiras 'Folha

  1. Lipid accumulation from pinewood pyrolysates by Rhodosporidium diobovatum and Chlorella vulgaris for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Luis; Orr, Valerie C A; Chen, Sean; Westerhof, Roel; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Rossum, Guus van; Kersten, Sascha; Berruti, Franco; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the suitability of pinewood pyrolysates as a carbon source for lipid production and cultivation of the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium diobovatum and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. Thermal decomposition of pinewood and fractional condensation were used to obtain an oil rich in levoglucosan which was upgraded to glucose by acid hydrolysis. Blending of pyrolytic sugars with pure glucose in both nitrogen rich and nitrogen limited conditions was studied for R. diobovatum, and under nitrogen limited conditions for C. vulgaris. Glucose consumption rate decreased with increasing proportions of pyrolytic sugars increasing cultivation time. While R. diobovatum was capable of growth in 100% (v/v) pyrolytic sugars, C. vulgaris growth declined rapidly in blends greater than 20% (v/v) until no growth was detected in blends >40%. Finally, the effects of pyrolysis sugars on lipid composition was evaluated and biodiesel fuel properties were estimated based on the lipid profiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Atomic physics and synchrotron radiation: The production and accumulation of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.M.; Meron, M.; Agagu, A.; Jones, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation can be used to produce highly-charged ions, and to study photoexcitation and photoionization for ions of virtually any element in the periodic table. To date, with few exceptions, atomic physics studies have been limited to rare gases and a few metal vapors, and to photoexcitation energies in the VUV region of the electromagnetic spectrum. These limitations can now be overcome using photons produced by high-brightness synchrotron storage rings, such as the x-ray ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven. Furthermore, calculations indicate that irradiation of an ion trap with an intense energetic photon beam will result in a viable source of highly-charged ions that can be given the name PHOBIS: the PHOton Beam Ion Source. Promising results, which encourage the wider systematic use of synchrotron radiation in atomic physics research, have been obtained in recent experiments on VUV photoemission and the production and storage of multiply-charged ions. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Membrane engineering - A novel strategy to enhance the production and accumulation of β-carotene in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Ye, Lijun; Zhao, Dongdong; Li, Siwei; Li, Qingyan; Zhang, Bolin; Bi, Changhao; Zhang, Xueli

    2017-09-01

    Carotenoids are a class of terpenes of commercial interest that exert important biological functions. While various strategies have been applied to engineer β-carotene production in microbial cell factories, no work has been done to study and improve the storage of hydrophobic terpene products inside the heterologous host cells. Although the membrane is thought to be the cell compartment that accumulates hydrophobic terpenes such as β-carotene, direct evidence is still lacking. In this work, we engineered the membrane of Escherichia coli in both its morphological and biosynthetic aspects, as a means to study and improve its storage capacity for β-carotene. Engineering the membrane morphology by overexpressing membrane-bending proteins resulted in a 28% increase of β-carotene specific producton value, while engineering the membrane synthesis pathway led to a 43% increase. Moreover, the combination of these two strategies had a synergistic effect, which caused a 2.9-fold increase of β-carotene specific production value (from 6.7 to 19.6mg/g DCW). Inward membrane stacks were observed in electron microscopy images of the engineered E. coli cells, which indicated that morphological changes were associated with the increased β-carotene storage capacity. Finally, membrane separation and analysis confirmed that the increased β-carotene was mainly accumulated within the cell membrane. This membrane engineering strategy was also applied to the β-carotene hyperproducing strain CAR025, which led to a 39% increase of the already high β-carotene specific production value (from 31.8 to 44.2mg/g DCW in shake flasks), resulting in one of the highest reported specific production values under comparable culture conditions. The membrane engineering strategy developed in this work opens up a new direction for engineering and improving microbial terpene producers. It is quite possible that a wide range of strains used to produce hydrophobic compounds can be further improved

  4. Measurement of helium production cross sections of iron for d-T neutrons by helium accumulation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, Yoshiyuki; Kanda, Yukinori; Nagae, Koji; Fujimoto, Toshihiro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Ikeda, Yujiro

    1997-03-01

    Helium production cross sections of Iron were measured by helium accumulation method for neutron energies from 13.5 to 14.9 MeV. Iron samples were irradiated with FNS, an intense d-T neutron source of JAERI. As the neutron energy varies according to the emission angle at the neutron source, the samples were set around the neutron source and were irradiated by neutrons of different energy depending on each sample position. The amount of helium produced in a sample was measured by Helium Atoms Measurement System at Kyushu University. The results of this work are in good agreement with other experimental data in the literature and also compared with the evaluated values in JENDL-3. (author)

  5. Chemopreventive glucosinolate accumulation in various broccoli and collard tissues: Microfluidic-based targeted transcriptomics for by-product valorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sang; Ku, Kang-Mo; Becker, Talon M; Juvik, John A

    2017-01-01

    Floret, leaf, and root tissues were harvested from broccoli and collard cultivars and extracted to determine their glucosinolate and hydrolysis product profiles using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromotography. Quinone reductase inducing bioactivity, an estimate of anti-cancer chemopreventive potential, of the extracts was measured using a hepa1c1c7 murine cell line. Extracts from root tissues were significantly different from other tissues and contained high levels of gluconasturtiin and glucoerucin. Targeted gene expression analysis on glucosinolate biosynthesis revealed that broccoli root tissue has elevated gene expression of AOP2 and low expression of FMOGS-OX homologs, essentially the opposite of what was observed in broccoli florets, which accumulated high levels of glucoraphanin. Broccoli floret tissue has significantly higher nitrile formation (%) and epithionitrile specifier protein gene expression than other tissues. This study provides basic information of the glucosinolate metabolome and transcriptome for various tissues of Brassica oleracea that maybe utilized as potential byproducts for the nutraceutical market.

  6. Accumulation of heavy metals in edible organs of different meat products available in the markets of lahore, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baqar, N.; Manzoor, M.; Qadir, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the accumulation of selected heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Pb and Cu) indifferent organs including brain, heart, lungs, liver, stomach, kidney and flesh (muscles) of several animals commercially available in the market of Lahore, Pakistan. The concentrations found in different organs of chicken, goat and cow ranged between 0.132-2.165 mg/g for Cd, 0.768-2.335 mg/g for Cr, 0.260-1.411 mg/g for Pb and 0.092-1.195 mg/g for Cu. In the absence of national safety standards in respect to the content of heavy metals in foodstuffs, the results obtained were compared with international guidelines and found concentrations considerably higher than the prescribed safe limits. Therefore, immediate attention must be paid to prevent public health risks associated with the presence of toxic heavy metals in the commercially available meat products. (author)

  7. The Bibenzyl Canniprene Inhibits the Production of Pro-Inflammatory Eicosanoids and Selectively Accumulates in Some Cannabis sativa Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrone, Gianna; Pollastro, Federica; Magagnini, Gianmaria; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Seegers, Julia; Koeberle, Andreas; Werz, Oliver; Appendino, Giovanni

    2017-03-24

    Canniprene (1), an isoprenylated bibenzyl unique to Cannabis sativa, can be vaporized and therefore potentially inhaled from marijuana. Canniprene (1) potently inhibited the production of inflammatory eicosanoids via the 5-lipoxygenase pathway (IC 50 0.4 μM) and also affected the generation of prostaglandins via the cyclooxygenase/microsomal prostaglandin E 2 synthase pathway (IC 50 10 μM), while the related spiranoid bibenzyls cannabispiranol (2) and cannabispirenone (3) were almost inactive in these bioassays. The concentration of canniprene (1) was investigated in the leaves of 160 strains of C. sativa, showing wide variations, from traces to >0.2%, but no correlation was found between its accumulation and a specific phytocannabinoid profile.

  8. Accumulative charge separation for solar fuels production: coupling light-induced single electron transfer to multielectron catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, Leif

    2015-03-17

    The conversion and storage of solar energy into a fuel holds promise to provide a significant part of the future renewable energy demand of our societies. Solar energy technologies today generate heat or electricity, while the large majority of our energy is used in the form of fuels. Direct conversion of solar energy to a fuel would satisfy our needs for storable energy on a large scale. Solar fuels can be generated by absorbing light and converting its energy to chemical energy by electron transfer leading to separation of electrons and holes. The electrons are used in the catalytic reduction of a cheap substrate with low energy content into a high-energy fuel. The holes are filled by oxidation of water, which is the only electron source available for large scale solar fuel production. Absorption of a single photon typically leads to separation of a single electron-hole pair. In contrast, fuel production and water oxidation are multielectron, multiproton reactions. Therefore, a system for direct solar fuel production must be able to accumulate the electrons and holes provided by the sequential absorption of several photons in order to complete the catalytic reactions. In this Account, the process is termed accumulative charge separation. This is considerably more complicated than charge separation on a single electron level and needs particular attention. Semiconductor materials and molecular dyes have for a long time been optimized for use in photovoltaic devices. Efforts are made to develop new systems for light harvesting and charge separation that are better optimized for solar fuel production than those used in the early devices presented so far. Significant progress has recently been made in the discovery and design of better homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts for solar fuels and water oxidation. While the heterogeneous ones perform better today, molecular catalysts based on transition metal complexes offer much greater tunability of electronic and

  9. Temperate grassland songbird species accumulate incrementally along a gradient of primary productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L Harrower

    Full Text Available Global analyses of bird communities along elevation gradients suggest that bird diversity on arid mountains is primarily limited by water availability, not temperature or altitude. However, the mechanism by which water availability, and subsequently primary productivity, increases bird diversity is still unclear. Here we evaluate two possible mechanisms from species-energy theory. The more individuals hypothesis proposes that a higher availability of resources increases the total number of individuals that can be supported, and therefore the greater number of species that will be sampled. By contrast, the more specialization hypothesis proposes that increasing resource availability will permit specialists to exploit otherwise rare resources, thus increasing total diversity. We used 5 years of surveys of grassland songbird communities along an elevational gradient in British Columbia, Canada, to distinguish between these hypotheses. Vegetation changed markedly in composition along the gradient and contrary to the expectations of the more specialization hypothesis, bird community composition was remarkably constant. However, both total abundance and species richness of birds increased with increasing water availability to plants. When we used rarefaction to correct species richness for differences in total abundance, much of the increase in bird diversity was lost, consistent with the expectations of the more individuals hypothesis. Furthermore, high species richness was associated with reductions in territory size of common bird species, rather than the fine-scale spatial partitioning of the landscape. This suggests that bird diversity increases when greater resource availability allows higher densities rather than greater habitat specialization. These results help explain a pervasive global pattern in bird diversity on arid mountains, and suggest that in such landscapes conservation of grassland birds is strongly linked to climate and hydrology.

  10. beta-diversity and species accumulation in antarctic coastal benthos: influence of habitat, distance and productivity on ecological connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon F Thrush

    Full Text Available High Antarctic coastal marine environments are comparatively pristine with strong environmental gradients, which make them important places to investigate biodiversity relationships. Defining how different environmental features contribute to shifts in beta-diversity is especially important as these shifts reflect both spatio-temporal variations in species richness and the degree of ecological separation between local and regional species pools. We used complementary techniques (species accumulation models, multivariate variance partitioning and generalized linear models to assess how the roles of productivity, bio-physical habitat heterogeneity and connectivity change with spatial scales from metres to 100's of km. Our results demonstrated that the relative importance of specific processes influencing species accumulation and beta-diversity changed with increasing spatial scale, and that patterns were never driven by only one factor. Bio-physical habitat heterogeneity had a strong influence on beta-diversity at scales 40 km. Our analysis supports the emphasis on the analysis of diversity relationships across multiple spatial scales and highlights the unequal connectivity of individual sites to the regional species pool. This has important implications for resilience to habitat loss and community homogenisation, especially for Antarctic benthic communities where rates of recovery from disturbance are slow, there is a high ratio of poor-dispersing and brooding species, and high biogenic habitat heterogeneity and spatio-temporal variability in primary production make the system vulnerable to disturbance. Consequently, large areas need to be included within marine protected areas for effective management and conservation of these special ecosystems in the face of increasing anthropogenic disturbance.

  11. beta-diversity and species accumulation in antarctic coastal benthos: influence of habitat, distance and productivity on ecological connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrush, Simon F; Hewitt, Judi E; Cummings, Vonda J; Norkko, Alf; Chiantore, Mariachiara

    2010-07-30

    High Antarctic coastal marine environments are comparatively pristine with strong environmental gradients, which make them important places to investigate biodiversity relationships. Defining how different environmental features contribute to shifts in beta-diversity is especially important as these shifts reflect both spatio-temporal variations in species richness and the degree of ecological separation between local and regional species pools. We used complementary techniques (species accumulation models, multivariate variance partitioning and generalized linear models) to assess how the roles of productivity, bio-physical habitat heterogeneity and connectivity change with spatial scales from metres to 100's of km. Our results demonstrated that the relative importance of specific processes influencing species accumulation and beta-diversity changed with increasing spatial scale, and that patterns were never driven by only one factor. Bio-physical habitat heterogeneity had a strong influence on beta-diversity at scales 40 km. Our analysis supports the emphasis on the analysis of diversity relationships across multiple spatial scales and highlights the unequal connectivity of individual sites to the regional species pool. This has important implications for resilience to habitat loss and community homogenisation, especially for Antarctic benthic communities where rates of recovery from disturbance are slow, there is a high ratio of poor-dispersing and brooding species, and high biogenic habitat heterogeneity and spatio-temporal variability in primary production make the system vulnerable to disturbance. Consequently, large areas need to be included within marine protected areas for effective management and conservation of these special ecosystems in the face of increasing anthropogenic disturbance.

  12. Lutein accumulates in subcellular membranes of brain regions in adult rhesus macaques: Relationship to DHA oxidation products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S Mohn

    Full Text Available Lutein, a carotenoid with anti-oxidant functions, preferentially accumulates in primate brain and is positively related to cognition in humans. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA, is also beneficial for cognition, but is susceptible to oxidation. The present study characterized the membrane distribution of lutein in brain regions important for different domains of cognitive function and determined whether membrane lutein was associated with brain PUFA oxidation.Adult rhesus monkeys were fed a stock diet (~2 mg/day lutein or ~0.5 μmol/kg body weight/day (n = 9 or the stock diet plus a daily supplement of lutein (~4.5 mg/day or~1 μmol/kg body weight/day and zeaxanthin (~0.5 mg/day or 0.1 μmol/kg body weight/day for 6-12 months (n = 4. Nuclear, myelin, mitochondrial, and neuronal plasma membranes were isolated using a Ficoll density gradient from prefrontal cortex (PFC, cerebellum (CER, striatum (ST, and hippocampus (HC. Carotenoids, PUFAs, and PUFA oxidation products were measured using HPLC, GC, and LC-GC/MS, respectively.All-trans-lutein (ng/mg protein was detected in all regions and membranes and was highly variable among monkeys. Lutein/zeaxanthin supplementation significantly increased total concentrations of lutein in serum, PFC and CER, as well as lutein in mitochondrial membranes and total DHA concentrations in PFC only (P<0.05. In PFC and ST, mitochondrial lutein was inversely related to DHA oxidation products, but not those from arachidonic acid (P <0.05.This study provides novel data on subcellular lutein accumulation and its relationship to DHA oxidation in primate brain. These findings support the hypothesis that lutein may be associated with antioxidant functions in the brain.

  13. Complete Nutrient Removal Coupled to Nitrous Oxide Production as a Bioenergy Source by Denitrifying Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Han; Liu, Miaomiao; Griffin, James S; Xu, Longcheng; Xiang, Da; Scherson, Yaniv D; Liu, Wen-Tso; Wells, George F

    2017-04-18

    Coupled aerobic-anoxic nitrous decomposition operation (CANDO) is a promising emerging bioprocess for wastewater treatment that enables direct energy recovery from nitrogen (N) in three steps: (1) ammonium oxidation to nitrite; (2) denitrification of nitrite to nitrous oxide (N 2 O); and (3) N 2 O conversion to N 2 with energy generation. However, CANDO does not currently target phosphorus (P) removal. Here, we demonstrate that denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating organism (PAO) enrichment cultures are capable of catalyzing simultaneous biological N and P removal coupled to N 2 O generation in a second generation CANDO process, CANDO+P. Over 7 months (>300 cycles) of operation of a prototype lab-scale CANDO+P sequencing batch reactor treating synthetic municipal wastewater, we observed stable and near-complete N removal accompanied by sustained high-rate, high-yield N 2 O production with partial P removal. A substantial increase in abundance of the PAO Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis was observed, increasing from 5% of the total bacterial community in the inoculum to over 50% after 4 months. PAO enrichment was accompanied by a strong shift in the dominant Accumulibacter population from clade IIC to clade IA, based on qPCR monitoring of polyphosphate kinase 1 (ppk1) gene variants. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of combining high-rate, high-yield N 2 O production for bioenergy production with combined N and P removal from wastewater, and it further suggests a putative denitrifying PAO niche for Accumulibacter clade IA.

  14. Fostering triacylglycerol accumulation in novel oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus psychrotolerans IITRFD utilizing groundnut shell for improved biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeba, Farha; Pruthi, Vikas; Negi, Yuvraj S

    2017-10-01

    The investigation was carried out to examine the potential of triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation by novel oleaginous yeast isolate Cryptococcus psychrotolerans IITRFD on utilizing groundnut shell acid hydrolysate (GSH) as cost-effective medium. The maximum biomass productivity and lipid productivity of 0.095±0.008g/L/h and 0.044±0.005g/L/h, respectively with lipid content 46% was recorded on GSH. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile obtained by GC-MS analysis revealed oleic acid (37.8%), palmitic (29.4%) and linoleic (32.8%) as major fatty acids representing balance between oxidative stability (OS) and cold flow filter properties (CFFP) for improved biodiesel quality. The biodiesel property calculated were correlated well with the fuel standards limits of ASTM D6751, EN 14214 and IS 15607. The present findings raise the possibility of using agricultural waste groundnut shell as a substrate for production of biodiesel by novel oleaginous yeast isolate C. psychrotolerans IITRFD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Thai banana (Musa AA group) in reducing accumulation of oxidation end products in UVB-irradiated mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerach, Nontaphat; Yakaew, Swanya; Phimnuan, Preeyawass; Soimee, Wichuda; Nakyai, Wongnapa; Luangbudnark, Witoo; Viyoch, Jarupa

    2017-03-01

    Chronic UVB exposure causes skin disorders and cancer through DNA strand breaks and oxidation of numerous functional groups of proteins and lipids in the skin. In this study, we investigated the effects of Thai banana (Musa AA group, "Khai," and Musa ABB group, "Namwa") on the prevention of UVB-induced skin damage when fed to male ICR mice. Mice were orally fed banana (Khai or Namwa) fruit pulps at dose of 1mg/g body weight/day for 12weeks. The shaved backs of the mice were irradiated with UVB for 12weeks. The intensity dose of UVB-exposure was increased from 54mJ/cm 2 /exposure at week 1 to 126mJ/cm 2 /exposure at week 12. A significant increase in skin thickness, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation end products, and expression of MMP-1 was observed in UVB-irradiated mouse skin. A reduction in the accumulation of oxidation end products was found in the skin of UVB-irradiated mice receiving Khai. This occurred in conjunction with a reduction in MMP-1 expression, inhibition of epidermal thickening, and induction of γ-GCS expression. The dietary intake of Khai prevented skin damage from chronic UVB exposure by increased γ-GCS expression and reduced oxidation end products included carbonyls, malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Future technological and economic performance of IGCC and FT production facilities with and without CO2 capture: Combining component based learning curve and bottom-up analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoope, M.M.J.; Meerman, J.C.; Ramirez, C.A.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the technological and economic prospects of integrated gasification facilities for power (IGCC) and Fischer–Tropsch (FT) liquid production with and without CCS over time. For this purpose, a component based experience curve was constructed and applied to identify the

  17. Inactivation of dhaD and dhaK abolishes by-product accumulation during 1,3-propanediol production in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Yu-Tze; Chang, Kai-Chih; Chou, Ta-Chung; Yu, Chung-Jen; Chien, Chih-Ching; Wei, Yu-Hong; Soo, Po-Chi

    2010-07-01

    1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PD) can be used for the industrial synthesis of a variety of compounds, including polyesters, polyethers, and polyurethanes. 1,3-PD is generated from petrochemical and microbial sources. 1,3-Propanediol is a typical product of glycerol fermentation, while acetate, lactate, 2,3-butanediol, and ethanol also accumulate during the process. Substrate and product inhibition limit the final concentration of 1,3-propanediol in the fermentation broth. It is impossible to increase the yield of 1,3-propanediol by using the traditional whole-cell fermentation process. In this study, dhaD and dhaK, the genes for glycerol dehydrogenase and dihydroxyacetone kinase, respectively, were inactivated by homologous recombination in Klebsiella pneumoniae. The dhaD/dhaK double mutant (designated TC100), selected from 5,000 single or double cross homologous recombination mutants, was confirmed as a double cross by using polymerase chain reaction. Analysis of the cell-free supernatant with high-performance liquid chromatography revealed elimination of lactate and 2,3-butanediol, as well as ethanol accumulation in TC100, compared with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, 1,3-propanediol productivity was increased in the TC100 strain expressing glycerol dehydratase and 1,3-PDO dehydrogenase regulated by the arabinose P(BAD) promoter. The genetic engineering and medium formulation approaches used here should aid in the separation of 1,3-propanediol from lactate, 2,3-butanediol, and ethanol and lead to increased production of 1,3-propanediol in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  18. Use of magnetite in the production of bricks for heat accumulation. La magnetita en la fabricacion de ladrillos para la acumulacion de calor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero de la Gandara, J.L.; Alvarez, P. (Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    The general aspects concerning the domestic heating by means of ceramic heat-accumulators are reviewed. The heat transfer and the properties of the materials which are to be used are considered as well as the design characteristics of the commercial equipment. Special attention is devoted to the operation at the several stages in the production processes of Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] ceramic components to be used as heat-accumulators. Magnetite is taken as a raw material. Finally, some possible improvements are presented to achieve the optimization of heat-accumulators equipment by taking advantage of the thermal and mechanical properties of the ceramic materials. (Author) 13 refs.

  19. The effects of dietary calcium iodate on productive performance, egg quality and iodine accumulation in eggs of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshalinejad, R; Hassanabadi, A; Nassiri-Moghaddam, H; Zarghi, H

    2018-01-25

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of various levels of supplemental calcium iodate (CI) on productive performance, egg quality, blood indices and iodine (I) accumulation in the eggs in commercial laying hens. A total of 240 White Leghorn layers (Hy-line W36) were divided through a completely randomized design into six treatments with five replicates and eight hens per each at 32 weeks of age. This experiment lasted for 12 weeks. Concentrations of I in the mash diets were 0.74, 3.13, 5.57, 8.11, 10.65 and 12.94 mg I/kg of feed in treatments 1-6 respectively. The added doses of CI were included 0.0 (control), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 mg/kg of diet for treatments 1-6 respectively. There were no significant differences in productive performance among the treatments. The highest eggshell strength was observed in group fed diet containing 3.13 mg I/kg (p = .014). The highest percentage of calcium and lowest percentage of phosphorus in eggshell were observed in group fed diet containing 12.94 mg I/kg (p = .0001). Feeding hens with diet containing 12.94 mg I/kg increased serum triiodothyronine-to-thyroxine ratio (p = .0001). Serum alanine aminotransferase activity in hens fed diet containing 12.94 mg I/kg was significantly more than control (p = .041). Blood Serum triglycerides in hens fed diet containing 8.11 mg I/kg were significantly higher than control (p = .0001). Edible fraction of the eggs of birds fed diet containing 12.94 mg I/kg was enriched by I almost 3 times more than those fed diet containing 0.74 mg I/kg. The results suggested that egg production, egg mass, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not significantly affected by dietary I levels. Iodine accumulation in the eggs were increased by increasing dietary I levels and the level of 10 mg/kg CI could supply I enrichment of the eggs. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Accumulation of carbonyls accelerates the formation of pentosidine, an advanced glycation end product: carbonyl stress in uremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, T; Ueda, Y; Yamada, Y; Izuhara, Y; Wada, T; Jadoul, M; Saito, A; Kurokawa, K; van Ypersele de Strihou, C

    1998-12-01

    Advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation is related to hyperglycemia in diabetes but not in uremia, because plasma AGE levels do not differ between diabetic and nondiabetic hemodialysis patients. The mechanism of this phenomenon remains elusive. Previously, it was suggested that elevation of AGE levels in uremia might result from the accumulation of unknown AGE precursors. The present study evaluates the in vitro generation of pentosidine, a well identified AGE structure. Plasma samples from healthy subjects and nondiabetic hemodialysis patients were incubated under air for several weeks. Pentosidine levels were determined at intervals by HPLC assay. Pentosidine rose to a much larger extent in uremic than in control plasma. Pentosidine yield, i.e., the change in pentosidine level between 0 and 4 wk divided by 28 d, averaged 0.172 nmol/ml per d in uremic versus 0.072 nmol/ml per d in control plasma (P aminoguanidine and OPB-9195, which inhibit the Maillard reaction, lowered pentosidine yield in both uremic and control plasma. When ultrafiltrated plasma was exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, the yield of hydrazones, formed by interaction with carbonyl groups, was markedly higher in uremic than in control plasma. These observations strongly suggest that the pentosidine precursors accumulated in uremic plasma are carbonyl compounds. These precursors are unrelated to glucose or ascorbic acid, whose concentration is either normal or lowered in uremic plasma. They are also unrelated to 3-deoxyglucosone, a glucose-derived dicarbonyl compound whose level is raised in uremic plasma: Its addition to normal plasma fails to increase pentosidine yield. This study reports an elevated level of reactive carbonyl compounds ("carbonyl stress") in uremic plasma. Most have a lower than 5000 Da molecular weight and are thus partly removed by hemodialysis. Their effect on pentosidine generation can be inhibited by aminoguanidine or OPB-9195. Carbonyl stress might contribute to

  1. Alleviation of harmful effect in stillage reflux in food waste ethanol fermentation based on metabolic and side-product accumulation regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongzhi; Yang, Jian; Jia, Yan; Wang, Qunhui; Ma, Xiaoyu; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    Stillage reflux fermentation in food waste ethanol fermentation could reduce sewage discharge but exert a harmful effect because of side-product accumulation. In this study, regulation methods based on metabolic regulation and side-product alleviation were conducted. Result demonstrated that controlling the proper oxidation-reduction potential value (-150mV to -250mV) could reduce the harmful effect, improve ethanol yield by 21%, and reduce fermentation time by 20%. The methods of adding calcium carbonate to adjust the accumulated lactic acid showed that ethanol yield increased by 17.3%, and fermentation time decreased by 20%. The accumulated glyceal also shows that these two methods can reduce the harmful effect. Fermentation time lasted for seven times without effect, and metabolic regulation had a better effect than side-product regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of environmental parameters on production of the acrolein precursor 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde by Lactobacillus reuteri DSMZ 20016 and its accumulation by wine lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Rolene; du Toit, Maret; Kossmann, Jens

    2010-01-31

    Lactic acid bacteria belonging to the genus Lactobacillus are known to convert glycerol into 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) during anaerobic glycerol fermentation. Wine quality can be gravely compromised by the accumulation of 3-HPA, due to its spontaneous conversion to acrolein under wine making conditions. Acrolein is not only a dangerous substance for the living cell, but has been implicated in the development of unpleasant bitterness in beverages. This study evaluates the effect of individual environmental parameters on 3-HPA production by Lactobacillus reuteri DSMZ 20016, which only proved possible under conditions that allow accumulation well below the threshold concentration affecting cell viability. 3-HPA production was optimal at pH 6 and in the presence of 300 mM glycerol. Production increased with an increase in cell concentration up to an OD(600) of 50, whereas higher cell concentrations inhibited accumulation. Data presented in this study suggest that 3-HPA plays a role in regulating its own production through quorum sensing. Glycerol dehydratase possessing bacterial strains isolated from South African red wine, L. pentosus and L. brevis, tested positive for 3-HPA accumulation. 3-HPA is normally intracellularly reduced to 1,3-propanediol. This is the first study demonstrating the ability of wine lactobacilli to accumulate 3-HPA in the fermentation media. Recommendations are made on preventing the formation of acrolein and its precursor 3-HPA in wine. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Adiposity indicators lipid accumulation product and triglyceride-glucose index as alternate criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic obesity in adult

    OpenAIRE

    Mariya Tabassum; Md. Matiur Rahman; Miliva Mozaffor

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic obesity refers to the state of having metabolic syndrome irrespective of one’s BMI. This study was aimed to elucidate the lipid accumulation product and triglyceride-glucose index as simple and alternate criteria for the detecting metabolic obesity in adult. The study was conducted in 200 adult (age range: 19-45 years). According to lipid accumulation product and Triglyceride-glucose index, the prevalence of metabolic obesity was 54.0% and 53.5% respectively. With a cutoff value of ...

  4. Learning Curve? Which One?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Prochno

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning curves have been studied for a long time. These studies provided strong support to the hypothesis that, as organizations produce more of a product, unit costs of production decrease at a decreasing rate (see Argote, 1999 for a comprehensive review of learning curve studies. But the organizational mechanisms that lead to these results are still underexplored. We know some drivers of learning curves (ADLER; CLARK, 1991; LAPRE et al., 2000, but we still lack a more detailed view of the organizational processes behind those curves. Through an ethnographic study, I bring a comprehensive account of the first year of operations of a new automotive plant, describing what was taking place on in the assembly area during the most relevant shifts of the learning curve. The emphasis is then on how learning occurs in that setting. My analysis suggests that the overall learning curve is in fact the result of an integration process that puts together several individual ongoing learning curves in different areas throughout the organization. In the end, I propose a model to understand the evolution of these learning processes and their supporting organizational mechanisms.

  5. Betel-quid and alcohol use were associated with lipid accumulation product among male factory workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Fang; Chen, Chao-Tung; Wang, Pei-Ming; Koo, Malcolm

    2015-05-01

    In this study, cardiometabolic risk associated with betel-quid, alcohol and cigarette use, based on a simple index-lipid accumulation product (LAP), was investigated in Taiwanese male factory workers. Male factory workers were recruited during their annual routine health examination at a hospital in south Taiwan. The risk of cardiometabolic disorders was estimated by the use of LAP, calculated as (waist circumference [cm]-65)×(triglyceride concentration [mmol/l]). Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the risk factors of natural logarithm-transformed LAP. Of the 815 participants, 40% (325/815) were current alcohol users, 30% (248/815) were current smokers and 7% (53/815) were current betel-quid users. Current betel-quid use, alcohol use, older age, lack of exercise and higher body mass index were found to be significant and independent factors associated with natural logarithm-transformed LAP. Betel-quid and alcohol, but not cigarette use, were independent risk factors of logarithm-transformed LAP, adjusting for age, exercise and body mass index in male Taiwanese factory workers. LAP can be considered as a simple and useful method for screening of cardiometabolic risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Light mirror reflection combined with heating/cooling curves as a method of studying phase transitions in transparent and opaque petroleum products: Apparatus and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkin, Yu.L.

    2007-01-01

    A portable low weight low cost apparatus 'Phasafot' and method for determining pour and cloud points of petroleum products, as well as precipitation and melting temperatures of paraffins in both transparent (diesel fuels), semi-transparent (lube oils) and opaque (crude oils) samples are described. The method consists in illuminating the surface of a sample with an oblique light beam and registering the intensity of specularly reflected light while heating/cooling the sample in the temperature range of its structural transitions. The mirror reflection of a light beam from an ideally smooth liquid surface falls in intensity when the surface becomes rough (dim) due to crystal formation. Simultaneous recording of the temperature ramp curve and the mirror reflection curve enables the determination of the beginning and end of crystallization of paraffins in both transparent and opaque petroleum products. Besides, their rheological properties can be accurately determined by rocking or tilting the instrument while monitoring the sample movement via its mirror reflection

  7. D-stat culture for studying the metabolic shifts from oxidative metabolism to lipid accumulation and citric acid production in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Estopier, Abril; Guillouet, Stéphane E

    2014-01-20

    Lipid accumulation in oleaginous yeasts is triggered by nutrient imbalance in the culture medium between the carbon source in excess and the nitrogen source in limiting concentration. However Yarrowia lipolytica when cultivated on glucose as the sole carbon source, mainly produces citric acid upon nitrogen limitation over lipid accumulation (only 5-10% triacylglycerol). Therefore for developing bioprocess for the production of triacylglycerol from renewable carbon source as glucose it is of first importance to control this imbalance in order to avoid citric acid production during TAG accumulation. Using D-stat cultivation system, where the N/C was linearly decreased using a constant change rate we were able to identify the N/C ratio inducing TAG accumulation (0.085NmolCmol(-1)) and citric acid (0.021NmolCmol(-1)). We therefore demonstrated that it was possible to accumulate lipids without excretion citric acid as long as the N/C was within this indicated range. Moreover enzyme specific activities measurement during the D-stat indicated that ATP-citrate lyase, malic enzyme and acetyl-coA carboxylase were strongly induced at the onset of lipid accumulation and showed different patterns when citric acid was excreted. Our results give relevant information for future industrial bioprocess development concerning the production of lipids using renewable carbohydrate substrates as an alternative way to produce synthons for fuel or chemical industry. By controlling the N/C over the fermentation process on glucose Y. lipolytica can accumulate lipids without excreting citric acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Accumulation of advanced glycation end-products and activation of the SCAP/SREBP Lipogenetic pathway occur in diet-induced obese mouse skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Mastrocola

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to investigate whether advanced glycation end-products (AGEs accumulate in skeletal myofibers of two different animal models of diabesity and whether this accumulation could be associated to myosteatosis. Male C57Bl/6j mice and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice were divided into three groups and underwent 15 weeks of dietary manipulation: standard diet-fed C57 group (C57, n = 10, high-fat high-sugar diet-fed C57 group (HFHS, n = 10, and standard diet-fed ob/ob group (OB/OB, n = 8. HFHS mice and OB/OB mice developed glycometabolic abnormalities in association with decreased mass of the gastrocnemius muscle, fast-to-slow transition of muscle fibers, and lipid accumulation (that occurred preferentially in slow compared to fast fibers. Moreover, we found in muscle fibers of HFHS and OB/OB mice accumulation of AGEs that was preferential for the lipid-accumulating cells, increased expression of the lipogenic pathway SCAP/SREBP, and co-localisation between AGEs and SCAP-(hyperexpressing cells (suggestive for SCAP glycosylation. The increased expression of the SCAP/SREBP lipogenic pathway in muscle fibers is a possible mechanism underlying lipid accumulation and linking myosteatosis to muscle fiber atrophy and fast-to-slow transition that occur in response to diabesity.

  9. The relationship between lipid accumulation product, visceral adiposity index and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan ZHANG

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the correlation between lipid accumulation product (LAP, visceral adiposity index (VAI and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP in adults, and explore whether to use such correlation as indications is superior to the traditional body fat index based on body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR and waist-height ratio (WHtR. Methods  The present work was a cross-sectional study involving 501 healthy adults (321 males and 180 females from the community of Chongqing Municipality. Anthropometric indexes [height, weight, WC, hip circumference (HC], blood pressure (BP, fasting lipid profile and levels of fasting and post-load glucose, insulin and hs-CRP were measured, and BMI, WHR, WHtR, fasting insulin resistant homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR, LAP and VAI were calculated. The correlations between hs-CRP and other variables were analyzed. Results  Following the elevation of titer of the hs-CRP, LAP, VAI, BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, BP, glucose level, HOMA-IR, insulin, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and apolipoprotein B (ApoB increased (P<0.05, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1 levels declined (P<0.0001. Pearson's correlation analysis demonstrated that hs-CRP was correlated with all variances (P<0.01 except for total cholesterol (TC (P=0.181 and LDL -C (P=0.325. According to forward stepwise multiple regression analysis with hs-CRP as the dependent variance, WC was the only variance entering the regression model. Conclusion  LAP, VAI levels are correlated with hs-CRP level but not the major determinant factors of hs-CRP. WC is stronger than other variances in the association with hs-CRP in adults, and is still an independent predictor of inflammation.

  10. Receptor for advanced glycation end products mediates sepsis-triggered amyloid-β accumulation, Tau phosphorylation, and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto, Juciano; Girardi, Carolina S; Somensi, Nauana; Ribeiro, Camila T; Moreira, José C F; Michels, Monique; Sonai, Beatriz; Rocha, Mariane; Steckert, Amanda V; Barichello, Tatiana; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Gelain, Daniel P

    2018-01-05

    Patients recovering from sepsis have higher rates of CNS morbidities associated with long-lasting impairment of cognitive functions, including neurodegenerative diseases. However, the molecular etiology of these sepsis-induced impairments is unclear. Here, we investigated the role of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration-associated changes, and cognitive dysfunction arising after sepsis recovery. Adult Wistar rats underwent cecal ligation and perforation (CLP), and serum and brain (hippocampus and prefrontal cortex) samples were obtained at days 1, 15, and 30 after the CLP. We examined these samples for systemic and brain inflammation; amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and Ser-202-phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau Ser-202 ) levels; and RAGE, RAGE ligands, and RAGE intracellular signaling. Serum markers associated with the acute proinflammatory phase of sepsis (TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6) rapidly increased and then progressively decreased during the 30-day period post-CLP, concomitant with a progressive increase in RAGE ligands (S100B, N ϵ-[carboxymethyl]lysine, HSP70, and HMGB1). In the brain, levels of RAGE and Toll-like receptor 4, glial fibrillary acidic protein and neuronal nitric-oxide synthase, and Aβ and p-Tau Ser-202 also increased during that time. Of note, intracerebral injection of RAGE antibody into the hippocampus at days 15, 17, and 19 post-CLP reduced Aβ and p-Tau Ser-202 accumulation, Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling, levels of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein, and behavioral deficits associated with cognitive decline. These results indicate that brain RAGE is an essential factor in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders following acute systemic inflammation. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. The "lipid accumulation product" performs better than the body mass index for recognizing cardiovascular risk: a population-based comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahn Henry S

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 may not be the best marker for estimating the risk of obesity-related disease. Consistent with physiologic observations, an alternative index uses waist circumference (WC and fasting triglycerides (TG concentration to describe lipid overaccumulation. Methods The WC (estimated population minimum 65 cm for men and 58 cm for women and TG concentration from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 9,180, statistically weighted to represent 100.05 million US adults were used to compute a "lipid accumulation product" [LAP = (WC-65 × TG for men and (WC-58 × TG for women] and to describe the population distribution of LAP. LAP and BMI were compared as categorical variables and as log-transformed continuous variables for their ability to identify adverse levels of 11 cardiovascular risk factors. Results Nearly half of the represented population was discordant for their quartile assignments to LAP and BMI. When 23.54 million with ordinal LAP quartile > BMI quartile were compared with 25.36 million with ordinal BMI quartile > LAP quartile (regression models adjusted for race-ethnicity and sex the former had more adverse risk levels than the latter (p 0.1. As continuous variables, LAP provided a consistently more adverse beta coefficient (slope than BMI for nine cardiovascular risk variables (p 0.2. Conclusion LAP (describing lipid overaccumulation performed better than BMI (describing weight overaccumulation for identifying US adults at cardiovascular risk. Compared to BMI, LAP might better predict the incidence of cardiovascular disease, but this hypothesis needs prospective testing.

  12. Matter accumulation and changes of assimilation product transport and carbohydrate regime in barley plants as induced by infection with Puccinia striiformis West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, J. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Aschersleben. Inst. fuer Phytopathologie)

    1982-01-01

    Accumulation of nuclides (/sup 32/P, /sup 14/C), /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ assimilation and /sup 14/C transport were studied in several barley cultivars differing in their resistance to yellow rust. Increased matter accumulation was found in the rust pustules. Mycelium was proved by means of autoradiography. Infection causes changes with regard to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ assimilation, carbohydrate regime and transport of /sup 14/C assimilation products. Certain relationships exist between these changes and plant resistance to yellow rust. During germination the rust uredospores release substances, particularly amino acids, to be transported in the plant.

  13. AGAPEROS Searches for microlensing in the LMC with the Pixel Method; 1, Data treatment and pixel light curves production

    CERN Document Server

    Melchior, A.-L.; Ansari, R.; Aubourg, E.; Baillon, P.; Bareyre, P.; Bauer, F.; Beaulieu, J.-Ph.; Bouquet, A.; Brehin, S.; Cavalier, F.; Char, S.; Couchot, F.; Coutures, C.; Ferlet, R.; Fernandez, J.; Gaucherel, C.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Goldman, B.; Gondolo, P.; Gros, M.; Guibert, J.; Gry, C.; Hardin, D.; Kaplan, J.; de Kat, J.; Lachieze-Rey, M.; Laurent, B.; Lesquoy, E.; Magneville, Ch.; Mansoux, B.; Marquette, J.-B.; Maurice, E.; Milsztajn, A.; Moniez, M.; Moreau, O.; Moscoso, L.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perdereau, O.; Prevot, L.; Renault, C.; Queinnec, F.; Rich, J.; Spiro, M.; Vigroux, L.; Zylberajch, S.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Magneville, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    The presence and abundance of MAssive Compact Halo Objects (MACHOs) towards the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) can be studied with microlensing searches. The 10 events detected by the EROS and MACHO groups suggest that objects with 0.5 Mo could fill 50% of the dark halo. This preferred mass is quite surprising, and increasing the presently small statistics is a crucial issue. Additional microlensing of stars too dim to be resolved in crowded fields should be detectable using the Pixel Method. We present here an application of this method to the EROS 91-92 data (one tenth of the whole existing data set). We emphasize the data treatment required for monitoring pixel fluxes. Geometric and photometric alignments are performed on each image. Seeing correction and error estimates are discussed. 3.6" x 3.6" super-pixel light curves, thus produced, are very stable over the 120 days time-span. Fluctuations at a level of 1.8% of the flux in blue and 1.3% in red are measured on the pixel light curves. This level of stabil...

  14. Marginal cost curves for water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: a policy and decision making guide for efficient water use in crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalla, Abebe; Krol, Maarten; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2016-04-01

    Reducing water footprints (WF) in irrigated crop production is an essential element in water management, particularly in water-scarce areas. To achieve this, policy and decision making need to be supported with information on marginal cost curves that rank measures to reduce the WF according to their cost-effectiveness and enable the estimation of the cost associated with a certain WF reduction target, e.g. towards a certain reasonable WF benchmark. This paper aims to develop marginal cost curves (MCC) for WF reduction. The AquaCrop model is used to explore the effect of different measures on evapotranspiration and crop yield and thus WF that is used as input in the MCC. Measures relate to three dimensions of management practices: irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip); irrigation strategies (full and deficit irrigation); and mulching practices (no mulching, organic and synthetic mulching). A WF benchmark per crop is calculated as resulting from the best-available production technology. The marginal cost curve is plotted using the ratios of the marginal cost to WF reduction of the measures as ordinate, ranking with marginal costs rise with the increase of the reduction effort. For each measure, the marginal cost to reduce WF is estimated by comparing the associated WF and net present value (NPV) to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The NPV for each measure is based on its capital costs, operation and maintenances costs (O&M) and revenues. A range of cases is considered, including: different crops, soil types and different environments. Key words: marginal cost curve, water footprint benchmark, soil water balance, crop growth, AquaCrop

  15. Correlation of different spectral lights with biomass accumulation and production of antioxidant secondary metabolites in callus cultures of medicinally important Prunella vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Hina; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Ali, Syed Shujait; Akbar, Fazal; Kanwal, Farina

    2016-06-01

    Light is one of the key elicitors that directly fluctuates plant developmental processes and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In this study, the effects of various spectral lights on biomass accumulation and production of antioxidant secondary metabolites in callus cultures of Prunella vulgaris were investigated. Among different spectral lights, green light induced the maximum callogenic response (95%). Enhanced fresh biomass accumulation was observed in log phases on day-35, when callus cultures were exposed to yellow and violet lights. Yellow light induced maximum biomass accumulation (3.67g/100ml) from leaf explants as compared to control (1.27g/100ml). In contrast, violet lights enhanced biomass accumulation (3.49g/100ml) from petiole explant. Maximum total phenolics content (TPC; 23.9mg/g-DW) and total flavonoids content (TFC; 1.65mg/g-DW) were observed when cultures were grown under blue lights. In contrast, green and yellow lights enhanced total phenolics production (TPP; 112.52g/100ml) and total flavonoids production (TFP; 9.64g/100ml) as compared to control. The calli grown under green, red and blue lights enhanced DPPH-free radical scavenging activity (DFRSA; 91.3%, 93.1% and 93%) than control (56.44%) respectively. The DFRSA was correlated either with TPC and TFC or TPP and TFP. Furthermore, yellow lights enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and protease activities, however, the content of total protein (CTP) was higher in control cultures (186μg BSAE/mg FW) as compared to spectral lights. These results suggest that the exposure of callus cultures to various spectral lights have shown a key role in biomass accumulation and production of antioxidant secondary metabolites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulation of photosynthesis by end-product accumulation in leaves of plants storing starch, sucrose, and hexose sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, E E; Huber, S C

    1992-08-01

    demonstrate the possibility of the occurrence of end-product inhibition of photosynthesis in a large number of crop plants. The long-term inhibition of photosynthesis in girdled leaves is not confined to stomatal responses since the A(max) declined up to 50%. The inhibition of A(max) by girdling was strongest in starch storers, but starch itself cannot be directly responsible, because the starchless mutant of N. sylvestris was also strongly inhibited. Similarly, the inhibition cannot be attributed to hexose sugars either, because soybean, cotton, and cucumber are among the plants most strongly inhibited although they do not maintain a large hexose pool. Spinach, a sucrose storer, showed the least inhibition in both girdled and excised leaf systems, which indicates that sucrose is probably not directly responsible for the end-product inhibition of photosynthesis. The occurrence of strong end-product inhibition appears to be correlated with high acid-invertase activity in fully expanded leaves. The inhibition may be related to the nature of soluble sugar metabolism in the extrachloroplastic compartment and may be caused by a metabolite that has different rates of accumulation and turnover in sucrose storers and other plants.

  17. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  18. Balanced activation of IspG and IspH to eliminate MEP intermediate accumulation and improve isoprenoids production in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingyan; Fan, Feiyu; Gao, Xiang; Yang, Chen; Bi, Changhao; Tang, Jinlei; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Xueli

    2017-11-01

    The MEP pathway genes were modulated to investigate whether there were new rate-limiting steps and toxic intermediates in this pathway. Activating IspG led to significant decrease of cell growth and β-carotene production. It was found that ispG overexpression led to accumulation of intermediate HMBPP, which seriously interfered with synthesis machinery of nucleotide and protein in Escherichia coli. Activation of the downstream enzyme IspH could solve HMBPP accumulation problem and eliminate the negative effects of ispG overexpression. In addition, intermediate MECPP accumulated in the starting strain, while balanced activation of IspG and IspH could push the carbon flux away from MECPP and led to 73% and 77% increase of β-carotene and lycopene titer respectively. Our work for the first time identified HMBPP to be a cytotoxic intermediate in MEP pathway and demonstrated that balanced activation of IspG and IspH could eliminate accumulation of HMBPP and MECPP and improve isoprenoids production. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Accumulation of radioactive corrosion products on steel surfaces of VVER type nuclear reactors. I. 110mAg

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hirschberg, G

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available contaminants in the passive layer formed on austenitic stainless steel. In the first part of the series the accumulation of 110mAg has been investigated. Potential dependent sorption of Ag+. ions (cementation) is found to be the predominant process...

  20. Tobacco as a production platform for biofuel: overexpression of Arabidopsis DGAT and LEC2 genes increases accumulation and shifts the composition of lipids in green biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianov, Vyacheslav; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Pogrebnyak, Natalia; Brinker, Anita; Dixon, Joseph; Spitsin, Sergei; Flynn, John; Matyszczuk, Paulina; Andryszak, Karolina; Laurelli, Marilyn; Golovkin, Maxim; Koprowski, Hilary

    2010-04-01

    When grown for energy production instead for smoking, tobacco can generate a large amount of inexpensive biomass more efficiently than almost any other agricultural crop. Tobacco possesses potent oil biosynthesis machinery and can accumulate up to 40% of seed weight in oil. In this work, we explored two metabolic engineering approaches to enhance the oil content in tobacco green tissues for potential biofuel production. First, an Arabidopsis thaliana gene diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) coding for a key enzyme in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis, was expressed in tobacco under the control of a strong ribulose-biphosphate carboxylase small subunit promoter. This modification led to up to a 20-fold increase in TAG accumulation in tobacco leaves and translated into an overall of about a twofold increase in extracted fatty acids (FA) up to 5.8% of dry biomass in Nicotiana tabacum cv Wisconsin, and up to 6% in high-sugar tobacco variety NC-55. Modified tobacco plants also contained elevated amounts of phospholipids. This increase in lipids was accompanied by a shift in the FA composition favourable for their utilization as biodiesel. Second, we expressed in tobacco Arabidopsis gene LEAFY COTYLEDON 2 (LEC2), a master regulator of seed maturation and seed oil storage under the control of an inducible Alc promoter. Stimulation of LEC2 expression in mature tobacco plants by acetaldehyde led to the accumulation of up to 6.8% per dry weight of total extracted FA. The obtained data reveal the potential of metabolically modified plant biomass for the production of biofuel.

  1. How Good Is Good: Improved Tracking and Managing of Safety Goals, Performance Indicators, Production Targets and Significant Events Using Learning Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, Rommey B.; Saull, John W.

    2002-01-01

    We show a new way to track and measure safety and performance using learning curves derived on a mathematical basis. When unusual or abnormal events occur in plants and equipment, the regulator and good management practice requires they be reported, investigated, understood and rectified. In addition to reporting so-called 'significant events', both management and the regulator often set targets for individual and collective performance, which are used for both reward and criticism. For almost completely safe systems, like nuclear power plants, commercial aircraft and chemical facilities, many parameters are tracked and measured. Continuous improvement has to be demonstrated, as well as meeting reduced occurrence rates, which are set as management goals or targets. This process usually takes the form of statistics for availability of plant and equipment, forced or unplanned maintenance outage, loss of safety function, safety or procedural violations, etc. These are often rolled up into a set of so-called 'Performance Indicators' as measures of how well safety and operation is being managed at a given facility. The overall operating standards of an industry are also measured. A whole discipline is formed of tracking, measuring, reporting, managing and understanding the plethora of indicators and data. Decreasing occurrence rates and meeting or exceeding goals are seen and rewarded as virtues. Managers and operators need to know how good is their safety management system that has been adopted and used (and paid for), and whether it can itself be improved. We show the importance of accumulated experience in correctly measuring and tracking the decreasing event and error rates speculating a finite minimum rate. We show that the rate of improvement constitutes a measurable 'learning curve', and the attainment of the goals and targets can be affected by the adopted measures. We examine some of the available data on significant events, reportable occurrences, and loss of

  2. Remediation and Safe Production of cd Contaminated Soil Via Multiple Cropping Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. and Low Accumulation Chinese Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mingfen; Wei, Shuhe; Bai, Jiayi; Wang, Siqi; Ji, Dandan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple crop experiment of hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. with low accumulation Chinese cabbage Fenyuanxin 3 were conducted in a cadmium (Cd) contaminated vegetable field. In the first round, the average removal rate of S. nigrum to Cd was about 10% without assisted phytoextraction reagent addition for the top soil (0-20 cm) with Cd concentration at 0.53-0.97 mg kg(-1) after its grew 90 days. As for assisted phytoextraction reagent added plots, efficiency of Cd remediation might reach at 20%. However, in the second round, Cd concentration in Chinese cabbage was edible, even in the plots with assisted phytoextraction reagent added. Thus, multiple cropping hyperaccumulator with low accumulation crop could normally remediate contaminated soil and produce crop (obtain economic benefit) in one year, which may be one practical pathway of phytoremediating heavy metal contaminated soil in the future.

  3. The Extract of Litsea japonica Reduced the Development of Diabetic Nephropathy via the Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End Products Accumulation in db/db Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjin Sohn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that advanced glycation end products (AGEs contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of L. japonica extract (LJE against renal damage in the db/db mouse. LJE (100 or 250 mg/kg per day was given to diabetic mice for 12 weeks. Body weight, blood glucose levels, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels, and proteinuria were examined. In in vitro assay of the inhibition of AGE formation, immunohistochemical analysis of podocyte loss and AGE accumulations were performed. In 20-week-old db/db mice, severe hyperglycemia developed, and proteinuria was significantly increased. Diabetes induced markedly morphological alterations to the renal glomerular cells. AGE accumulations and podocyte loss were detected in renal glomeruli. LJE treatment significantly reduced proteinuria and AGE accumulations in diabetic mice. Moreover, the loss of nephrin, an important slit diaphragm component in the kidneys, was restored by LJE treatment. Our studies suggest that LJE might be beneficial for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. The ability of LJE to attenuate proteinuria and podocyte dysfunction may be mediated by the inhibition of AGE accumulation in the context of diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice.

  4. Reference values for the Chinese population of skin autofluorescence as a marker of advanced glycation end products accumulated in tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yue, X.; Hu, H.; Koetsier, M.; Graaff, R.; Han, C.

    Aim Advanced glycation end products play an important role in the pathophysiology of several chronic and age-related diseases, especially diabetes mellitus. Skin autofluorescence is a non-invasive method for assessing levels of tissue advanced glycation end products. This study aims to establish the

  5. Anaerobic fermentation combined with low-temperature thermal pretreatment for phosphorus-accumulating granular sludge: Release of carbon source and phosphorus as well as hydrogen production potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jinte; Li, Yongmei

    2016-10-01

    Releases of organic compounds and phosphorus from phosphorus-accumulating granular sludge (PGS) and phosphorus-accumulating flocculent sludge (PFS) during low-temperature thermal pretreatment and anaerobic fermentation were investigated. Meanwhile, biogas production potential and microbial community structures were explored. The results indicate that much more soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and phosphorus were released from PGS than from PFS via low-temperature thermal pretreatment because of the higher extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content in PGS and higher ratio of phosphorus reserved in EPS. Furthermore, PGS contains more anaerobes and dead cells, resulting in much higher SCOD and volatile fatty acids release from PGS than those from PFS during fermentation. PGS fermentation facilitated the n-butyric acid production, and PGS exhibited the hydrogen production potential during fermentation due to the presence of hydrogen-producing bacteria. Therefore, anaerobic fermentation combined with low-temperature thermal pretreatment can facilitate the recovery of carbon and phosphorus as well as producing hydrogen from PGS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biomass Accumulation and Net Primary Production during the Early Stage of Secondary Succession after a Severe Forest Disturbance in Northern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomotsugu Yazaki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative evaluations of biomass accumulation after disturbances in forests are crucially important for elucidating and predicting forest carbon dynamics in order to understand the carbon sink/source activities. During early secondary succession, understory vegetation often affects sapling growth. However, reports on biomass recovery in naturally-regenerating sites are limited in Japan. Therefore, we traced annual or biennial changes in plant species, biomass, and net primary production (NPP in a naturally regenerating site in Japan after windthrow and salvage-logging plantation for nine years. The catastrophic disturbance depleted the aboveground biomass (AGB from 90.6 to 2.7 Mg·ha−1, changing understory dominant species from Dryopteris spp. to Rubus idaeus. The mean understory AGB recovered to 4.7 Mg·ha−1 in seven years with the dominant species changing to invasive Solidago gigantea. Subsequently, patches of deciduous trees (mainly Betula spp. recovered whereas the understory AGB decreased. Mean understory NPP increased to 272 g·C·m−2·year−1 within seven years after the disturbance, but decreased thereafter to 189 g·C·m−2·year−1. Total NPP stagnated despite increasing overstory NPP. The biomass accumulation is similar to that of naturally regenerating sites without increase of trees in boreal and temperate regions. Dense ground vegetation and low water and nutrient availability of the soil in the study site restrict the recovery of canopy-forming trees and eventually influence the biomass accumulation.

  7. Growth and lipid accumulation characteristics of Scenedesmus obliquus in semi-continuous cultivation outdoors for biodiesel feedstock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pingzhong; Yang, Kang; Xu, Zhongbin; Wang, Zhongming; Fan, Lu; Qin, Lei; Zhu, Shunni; Shang, Changhua; Chai, Peng; Yuan, Zhenhong; Hu, Lei

    2014-12-01

    In an effort to identify suitable microalgal species for biodiesel production, seven species were isolated from various habitats and their growth characteristics were compared. The results demonstrated that a green alga Scenedesmus obliquus could grow more rapidly and synthesize more lipids than other six microalgal strains. S. obliquus grew well both indoors and outdoors, and reached higher μmax indoors than that outdoors. However, the cells achieved higher dry weight (4.36 g L(-1)), lipid content (49.6%) and productivity (183 mg L(-1) day(-1)) outdoors than in indoor cultures. During the 61 days semi-continuous cultivation outdoors, high biomass productivities (450-550 mg L(-1) day(-1)) and μmax (1.05-1.44 day(-1)) were obtained. The cells could also achieve high lipid productivities (151-193 mg L(-1) day(-1)). These results indicated that S. obliquus was promising for lipids production in semi-continuous cultivation outdoors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lagrangian Curves on Spectral Curves of Monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilfoyle, Brendan; Khalid, Madeeha; Ramon Mari, Jose J.

    2010-01-01

    We study Lagrangian points on smooth holomorphic curves in TP 1 equipped with a natural neutral Kaehler structure, and prove that they must form real curves. By virtue of the identification of TP 1 with the space LE 3 of oriented affine lines in Euclidean 3-space, these Lagrangian curves give rise to ruled surfaces in E 3 , which we prove have zero Gauss curvature. Each ruled surface is shown to be the tangent lines to a curve in E 3 , called the edge of regression of the ruled surface. We give an alternative characterization of these curves as the points in E 3 where the number of oriented lines in the complex curve Σ that pass through the point is less than the degree of Σ. We then apply these results to the spectral curves of certain monopoles and construct the ruled surfaces and edges of regression generated by the Lagrangian curves.

  9. Production data from five major geothermal fields in Nevada analysed using a physiostatistical algorithm developed for oil and gas: temperature decline forecasts and type curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Golubkova, A.; Eklund, C.

    2015-12-01

    Nevada has the second largest output of geothermal energy in the United States (after California) with 14 major power plants producing over 425 megawatts of electricity meeting 7% of the state's total energy needs. A number of wells, particularly older ones, have shown significant temperature and pressure declines over their lifetimes, adversely affecting economic returns. Production declines are almost universal in the oil and gas (O&G) industry. BetaZi (BZ) is a proprietary algorithm which uses a physiostatistical model to forecast production from the past history of O&G wells and to generate "type curves" which are used to estimate the production of undrilled wells. Although BZ was designed and calibrated for O&G, it is a general purpose diffusion equation solver, capable of modeling complex fluid dynamics in multi-phase systems. In this pilot study, it is applied directly to the temperature data from five Nevada geothermal fields. With the data appropriately normalized, BZ is shown to accurately predict temperature declines. The figure shows several examples of BZ forecasts using historic data from Steamboat Hills field near Reno. BZ forecasts were made using temperature on a normalized scale (blue) with two years of data held out for blind testing (yellow). The forecast is returned in terms of percentiles of probability (red) with the median forecast marked (solid green). Actual production is expected to fall within the majority of the red bounds 80% of the time. Blind tests such as these are used to verify that the probabilistic forecast can be trusted. BZ is also used to compute and accurate type temperature profile for wells that have yet to be drilled. These forecasts can be combined with estimated costs to evaluate the economics and risks of a project or potential capital investment. It is remarkable that an algorithm developed for oil and gas can accurately predict temperature in geothermal wells without significant recasting.

  10. Complex research and qualification methods of cement products for the processing, accumulation and storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalinska, T.; Ostapenko, I.; Sakhno, V.

    2015-01-01

    INR (Ukrainian Institute for Nuclear Research) has developed an installation to assess the degradation of cements and concretes over accelerated time and in hard operating conditions involving mechanical and chemical effects, radiation, high temperatures, electric fields...This testing installation is called a reactionary chamber. The experimental data obtained during these tests characterize the product functionality in the stationary, transitional and emergency modes. These data allow the solving of the equation system representing the state of a product at a current moment of time and to determine its reactions to various external influences. An example is given through the testing of concrete containers that are intended to store radioactive waste

  11. Reproduction impact of mancozeb on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W. and accumulation of its carcinogen metabolite, ethylene thiourea in fish products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena TZANOVA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides can be taken up from the water and accumulated in tissues of hydrobionts, often becoming multiplied thousands of times higher in the organism than in the surrounding water. The dithiocarbamate mancozeb is applied in plant protection as fungicide. In recent years the amount of mancozeb used in Europe significantly increased. It is carcinogen due to its metabolite - ethylene thiourea (ETU, which causes thyroid and pituitary tumors. The purpose of this study is to determinate the quantity of ethylene thiourea in products of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W., reared in environment containing permissible, according to the European law, amount of mancozeb. Seeking an answer to the question: is this concentration limit really safe for the reproduction of rainbow trout and can the more toxic metabolite - ETU, be accumulated in the fish eggs and fillet and afterwards make them harmful to the consumers? The study included 3 stages: feeding, analysis of ethylene thiourea in fish eggs and fillet by a new developed and validated HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography method and study of the reproductive indicators. The assays of ETU in all analyzed samples (fish and water were below the limit of quantification of the method, 0.05 mg*l-1, so fish do not accumulate the carcinogen degradation product of mancozeb and the maximum residue level of mancozeb is really safe for the humans as consumers. But these environmental conditions caused reproductive disorders. They can be partly compensated by using sperm activation medium for artificial insemination of trout eggs, but successful fertilization does not guarantee successful hatching, especially of eggs in trout farms with presence of mancozeb in water, even in allowable concentration. The presented results confirm previous investigation, that Salmonidae are very sensitive fish species, react to the lowest deviations in concentration levels of xenobiotics and are used for indicator of non

  12. Accumulation of methylglyoxal increases the advanced glycation end-product levels in DRG and contributes to lumbar disk herniation-induced persistent pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cui-Cui; Zhang, Xin-Sheng; Ruan, Yu-Ting; Huang, Zhu-Xi; Zhang, Su-Bo; Liu, Meng; Luo, Hai-Jie; Wu, Shao-Ling; Ma, Chao

    2017-08-01

    Lumbar disk herniation (LDH) with discogenic low back pain and sciatica is a common and complicated musculoskeletal disorder. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, and there are no effective therapies for LDH-induced pain. In the present study, we found that the patients who suffered from LDH-induced pain had elevated plasma methylglyoxal (MG) levels. In rats, implantation of autologous nucleus pulposus (NP) to the left lumbar 5 spinal nerve root, which mimicked LDH, induced mechanical allodynia, increased MG level in plasma and dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and enhanced the excitability of small DRG neurons (DRG neurons ex vivo increased the number of action potentials evoked by depolarizing current pulses. Furthermore, inhibition of MG accumulation by aminoguanidine attenuated the enhanced excitability of small DRG neurons and the mechanical allodynia induced by NP implantation. In addition, NP implantation increased levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in DRG, and intrathecal injection of MG-derived AGEs induced the mechanical allodynia and DRG neuronal hyperactivity. Intrathecal injection of MG also significantly increased the expression of AGEs in DRG. Importantly, scavenging of MG by aminoguanidine also attenuated the increase in AGEs induced by NP implantation. These results suggested that LDH-induced MG accumulation contributed to persistent pain by increasing AGE levels. Thus generation of AGEs from MG may represent a target for treatment of LDH-induced pain. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our study demonstrates that methylglyoxal accumulation via increasing advanced glycation end-product levels in dorsal root ganglion contributes to the persistent pain induced by lumbar disk herniation, which proposed potential targets for the treatment of lumbar disk herniation-induced persistent pain. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Extract from Edible Red Seaweed (Gelidium amansii) Inhibits Lipid Accumulation and ROS Production during Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min-Jung; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2012-06-01

    Gelidium (G.) amansii is a red alga widely distributed in the shallow waters around East Asian countries. We investigated the effect of G. amansii on lipid accumulation and ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) production in 3T3-L1 cells. G. amansii extracts dose-dependently inhibited lipid formation and ROS generation in cultured cells. Our results showed that anti-adipogenic effect of G. amansii was due to the reduction in mRNA expressions of PPARγ peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and aP2 (adipocyte protein 2). G. amansii extracts significantly decreased mRNA levels of a ROS-generator, NOX4 (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen oxidase 4), and increased the protein levels of antioxidant enzymes including SOD1/2 (superoxide dis-mutases), Gpx (glutathione peroxidase), and GR (glutathione reductase), which can lead to the reduction of ROS in the cell. In addition, the G. amansii extract enhanced mRNA levels of adiponectin, one of the adipokines secreted from adipocytes, and GLUT4, glucose uptake protein. Taken together, our study shows that G. amansii extract inhibited lipid accumulation and ROS production by controlling adipogenic signals and ROS regulating genes.

  14. Effect of cephalandra indica against advanced glycation end products, sorbitol accumulation and aldose reductase activity in homoeopathic formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Kishore

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extreme generation of free radicals leads to oxidative stress which has been apprehensive in several disease processes such as diabetic complications and vascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the potential of homoeopathic preparations of Cephalandra indica L. against oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Potencies of Cephalandra indica (mother tincture, 6C and 30C were procured from Dr. Willmar Schwabe India Pvt. Ltd. The antioxidant activity of Cephalandra indica was evaluated by employing various in vitro antioxidant methods. Results: The total phenol content was found to be 1905, 849 and 495 mg/g gallic acid equivalents in mother tincture, 6C and 30C of Cephalandra indica and total antioxidant capacity was found to be 2710, 759 and 510 μM/g ascorbic acid equivalents, respectively. Mother tincture, 6C and 30C of Cephalandra indica was found to have strong reducing power, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Percentage inhibition of AGEs formation by mother tincture, 6C and 30C of Cephalandra indica (10–50 μl was found to be 30.34%–91.77%, 29.98%–65.71% and 33.05%–57.75%, respectively. Mother tincture, 6C and 30C of Cephalandra indica showed inhibitory effect against sorbitol accumulation with IC50value of 26.12 μl, 203.10 μl and 897.3 μl, respectively, whereas, in aldose reductase inhibition assay, the IC50value was 32.54 μl, 175.02 μl and 834.34 μl, respectively. Conclusion: The results revealed that homoeopathic preparations of Cephalandra indica exhibit protective effect against oxidative stress.

  15. Action of UV-A and blue light on enzymes activity and accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in attached and detached frog retinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapina, Victoria A.; Doutsov, Alexander E.

    1994-07-01

    The effect of the UV-A and blue light on the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and activities of succinate dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase in the retina was examined in eye cup model of dark and light adapted frogs R. temporaria. Retinas were exposed to UV-A radiation (8 mW/cm2) and blue light (10 to 150 mW/cm2) for periods from 5 min to 1 hr. We have measured TBA-active products both in the retina homogenates and in the reaction media. Enzyme activities was measured in the retina homogenates only. The measurements revealed a significant increase in the endogenous and exogenous forms of lipid peroxidation products in the retina of dark adapted frog (1.6+/- 0.4; 1.4+/- 0.3 nmole TBA-active products per mg protein, respectively) compared to light adapted (0.85+/- 0.16; 0.32+/- 0.06 nmole TBA-active products per mg protein, respectively). In the same conditions succinate dehydrogenase activity was decline more than 50% but superoxide dismutase activity didn't decrease. Disorganized inner and outer segments were observed after 40 min exposures. No light microscopic changes were detected after 5 min exposures. Light damage was significantly higher in the retina of dark adapted frog. The results indicate that the retina from eye cup of dark adapted frog is more susceptible to UV-A and blue light damages.

  16. Enhanced energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater by sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and algal lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Yu; Liu, Bing-Feng; Kong, Fanying; Zhao, Lei; Xing, Defeng; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2014-04-01

    A two-stage process of sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and microalgal cultivation was applied to enhance the energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater. Ethanol fermentation bacterium Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 was used as hydrogen producer, and the energy conversion efficiency and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency reached 18.6% and 28.3% in dark fermentation. Acetate was the main soluble product in dark fermentative effluent, which was further utilized by microalga Scenedesmus sp. R-16. The final algal biomass concentration reached 1.98gL(-1), and the algal biomass was rich in lipid (40.9%) and low in protein (23.3%) and carbohydrate (11.9%). Compared with single dark fermentation stage, the energy conversion efficiency and COD removal efficiency of two-stage system remarkably increased 101% and 131%, respectively. This research provides a new approach for efficient energy production and wastewater treatment using a two-stage process combining dark fermentation and algal cultivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced saturated fatty acids accumulation in cultures of newly-isolated strains of Schizochytrium sp. and Thraustochytriidae sp. for large-scale biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuzhen; Sen, Biswarup; Liu, Xianhua; He, Yaodong; Xie, Yunxuan; Wang, Guangyi

    2018-08-01

    Heterotrophic marine protists (Thraustochytrids) have received increasingly global attention as a renewable, sustainable and alternative source of biodiesel because of their high ability of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) accumulation. Yet, the influence of extrinsic factors (nutrients and environmental conditions) on thraustochytrid culture and optimal conditions for high SFAs production are poorly described. In the present study, two different thraustochytrid strains, Schizochytrium sp. PKU#Mn4 and Thraustochytriidae sp. PKU#Mn16 were studied for their growth and SFAs production profiles under various conditions (carbon, nitrogen, temperature, pH, KH 2 PO 4 , salinity, and agitation speed). Of the culture conditions, substrates (C and N) source and conc., temperature, and agitation speed significantly influenced the cell growth and SFAs production of both strains. Although both the strains were capable of growth and SFAs production in the broad range of culture conditions, their physiological responses to KH 2 PO 4 , pH, and salinity were dissimilar. Under their optimal batch culture conditions, peak SFAs productions of 3.3g/L and 2.2g/L with 62% and 49% SFAs contents (relative to total fatty acids) were achieved, respectively. The results of 5-L fed-batch fermentation under optimal conditions showed a nearly 4.5-fold increase in SFAs production (i.e., 7.5g/L) by both strains compared to unoptimized conditions. Of the two strains, the quality of biodiesel produced from the fatty acids of PKU#Mn4 met the biodiesel standard defined by ASTM6751. This study, to the knowledge of the authors, is the first comprehensive report of optimal fermentation conditions demonstrating enhanced SFAs production by strains belonging to two different thraustochytrid genera and provides the basis for large-scale biodiesel production. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Uncertainty on Fatigue Damage Accumulation for Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper stochastic models for fatigue damage accumulation for composite materials are presented based on public available constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests. The methods used for estimating the SN-curve and accumulated fatigue damage are presented.......In the present paper stochastic models for fatigue damage accumulation for composite materials are presented based on public available constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests. The methods used for estimating the SN-curve and accumulated fatigue damage are presented....

  19. Milk production and composition, and progeny performance in young ewes with high merit for rapid growth and muscle and fat accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Nieto, C A; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Wood, D A; Martin, G B; Bencini, R; Thompson, A N

    2018-02-26

    In ewe lambs, acceleration of growth and accumulation of both muscle and fat leads to earlier sexual maturity and better reproductive performance. The next stage in the development of this theme is to test whether these aspects of growth in young ewes affect milk production in their first lactation and the growth of their first progeny. We studied 75 young Merino ewes that had known phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT), and known Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post-weaning weight (PWT) and depths of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT). They lambed for the first time at 1 year of age. Their lambs were weighed weekly from birth to weaning at 10 weeks to determine live weight gain and weaning weight. Progeny birth weight was positively associated with live weight gain and weaning weight (P0.05). The PWT of the sire was positively associated with live weight gain (P0.05). The concentrations of fat, protein, lactose and total solids in the milk were not affected by the phenotype or genotype of the mothers or of the sires of the mothers, or by the sex of the progeny (P>0.05). We conclude that selection of young Merino ewes for better growth, and more rapid accumulation of muscle and fat, will lead to progeny that are heavier at birth, grow faster and are heavier at weaning. Moreover, milk production and composition do not seem to be affected by the genetic merit of the mother for post-weaning live weight or PEMD or PFAT. Therefore, Merino ewes can lamb at 1 year of age without affecting the production objectives of the Merino sheep industry.

  20. Cost curves for implantation of small scale hydroelectric power plant project in function of the average annual energy production; Curvas de custo de implantacao de pequenos projetos hidreletricos em funcao da producao media anual de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veja, Fausto Alfredo Canales; Mendes, Carlos Andre Bulhoes; Beluco, Alexandre

    2008-10-15

    Because of its maturity, small hydropower generation is one of the main energy sources to be considered for electrification of areas far from the national grid. Once a site with hydropower potential is identified, technical and economical studies to assess its feasibility shall be done. Cost curves are helpful tools in the appraisal of the economical feasibility of this type of projects. This paper presents a method to determine initial cost curves as a function of the average energy production of the hydropower plant, by using a set of parametric cost curves and the flow duration curve at the analyzed location. The method is illustrated using information related to 18 pre-feasibility studies made in 2002, at the Central-Atlantic rural region of Nicaragua. (author)

  1. Accumulation of glycation products in. cap alpha. -H pig lens crystallin and its bearing to diabetic cataract genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, P; Cabezas-Cerrato, J

    1988-01-01

    The incorporation of /sup 11/C-glucose in native pig crystalline by in vitro incubation was found, after subsequent dialysis, to affect all 5 classes of crystallin separated by Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. Though the radioactivity of the ..cap alpha..-H fraction was three times greater than that of any of the others, autoradiographs of SDS-PAGE gels showed /sup 11/C-glucose adducts to be present in all soluble protein subunits, without there being any evidence of preferential glycation of the ..cap alpha..-H subunits. The concentration of stable glycation products in the ..cap alpha..-H chromatographic fraction of soluble crystallins is suggested to be due the addition of glycated material to this fraction as result of glycation-induced hyperaggregation, and not because the ..cap alpha..-H subunits were especially susceptible to glycation.

  2. Increased growth and root Cu accumulation of Sorghum sudanense by endophytic Enterobacter sp. K3-2: Implications for Sorghum sudanense biomass production and phytostabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Wang, Qi; Wang, Lu; He, Lin-Yan; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic bacterial strain K3-2 was isolated from the roots of Sorghum sudanense (an bioenergy plant) grown in a Cu mine wasteland soils and characterized. Strain K3-2 was identified as Enterobacter sp. based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Strain K3-2 exhibited Cu resistance and produced 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores, and arginine decarboxylase. Pot experiments showed that strain K3-2 significantly increased the dry weight and root Cu accumulation of Sorghum sudanense grown in the Cu mine wasteland soils. Furthermore, increase in total Cu uptake (ranging from 49% to 95%) of the bacterial inoculated-Sorghum sudanense was observed compared to the control. Notably, most of Cu (83-86%) was accumulated in the roots of Sorghum sudanense. Furthermore, inoculation with strain K3-2 was found to significantly increase Cu bioconcentration factors and the proportions of IAA- and siderophore-producing bacteria in the root interiors and rhizosphere soils of Sorghum sudanense compared with the control. Significant decrease in the available Cu content was also observed in the rhizosphere soils of the bacterial-inoculated Sorghum sudanense. The results suggest that the endophytic bacterial strain K3-2 may be exploited for promoting Sorghum sudanense biomass production and Cu phytostabilization in the Cu mining wasteland soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs accumulation in skin: relations with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Almeida França

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, main causes related with cardiovascular disease (CVD and bone mineral disorder (CKD-BMD. Uremic toxins, as advanced glycation end products (AGEs, are non-traditional cardiovascular risk factor and play a role on development of CKD-BMD in CKD. The measurement of skin autofluorescence (sAF is a noninvasive method to assess the level of AGEs in tissue, validated in CKD patients. Objective: The aim of this study is analyze AGEs measured by sAF levels (AGEs-sAF and its relations with CVD and BMD parameters in HD patients. Methods: Twenty prevalent HD patients (HD group and healthy subjects (Control group, n = 24, performed biochemical tests and measurements of anthropometric parameters and AGEs-sAF. In addition, HD group performed measurement of intact parathormone (iPTH, transthoracic echocardiogram and radiographies of pelvis and hands for vascular calcification score. Results: AGEs-sAF levels are elevated both in HD and control subjects ranged according to the age, although higher at HD than control group. Single high-flux HD session does not affect AGEs-sAF levels. AGEs-sAF levels were not related to ventricular mass, interventricular septum or vascular calcification in HD group. AGEs-sAF levels were negatively associated with serum iPTH levels. Conclusion: Our study detected a negative correlation of AGEs-sAF with serum iPTH, suggesting a role of AGEs on the pathophysiology of bone disease in HD prevalent patients. The nature of this relation and the clinical application of this non-invasive methodology for evaluation AGEs deposition must be confirmed and clarified in future studies.

  4. Boosting TAG Accumulation with Improved Biodiesel Production from Novel Oleaginous Microalgae Scenedesmus sp. IITRIND2 Utilizing Waste Sugarcane Bagasse Aqueous Extract (SBAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Neha; Patel, Alok; Pruthi, Parul A; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-09-01

    This investigation utilized sugarcane bagasse aqueous extract (SBAE), a nontoxic, cost-effective medium to boost triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in novel fresh water microalgal isolate Scenedesmus sp. IITRIND2. Maximum lipid productivity of 112 ± 5.2 mg/L/day was recorded in microalgae grown in SBAE compared to modified BBM (26 ± 3 %). Carotenoid to chlorophyll ratio was 12.5 ± 2 % higher than in photoautotrophic control, indicating an increase in photosystem II activity, thereby increasing growth rate. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile revealed presence of C14:0 (2.29 %), C16:0 (15.99 %), C16:2 (4.05 %), C18:0 (3.41 %), C18:1 (41.55 %), C18:2 (12.41), and C20:0 (1.21 %) as the major fatty acids. Cetane number (64.03), cold filter plugging property (-1.05 °C), and oxidative stability (12.03 h) indicated quality biodiesel abiding by ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 fuel standards. Results consolidate the candidature of novel freshwater microalgal isolate Scenedesmus sp. IITRIND2 cultivated in SBAE, aqueous extract made from copious, agricultural waste sugarcane bagasse to increase the lipid productivity, and could further be utilized for cost-effective biodiesel production.

  5. ECM using Edwards curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Daniel J.; Birkner, Peter; Lange, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    -arithmetic level are as follows: (1) use Edwards curves instead of Montgomery curves; (2) use extended Edwards coordinates; (3) use signed-sliding-window addition-subtraction chains; (4) batch primes to increase the window size; (5) choose curves with small parameters and base points; (6) choose curves with large...

  6. Age-related accumulation of advanced glycation end-products-albumin, S100β, and the expressions of advanced glycation end product receptor differ in visceral and subcutaneous fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Kuk Hui; Son, Myeongjoo; Ahn, Hyosang; Oh, Seyeon; Yum, Yoonji; Choi, Chang Hu; Park, Kook Yang; Byun, Kyunghee

    2016-01-01

    Visceral fat induces more inflammation by activating macrophages than subcutaneous fat, and inflammation is an underlying feature of the pathogeneses of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), S100β, and their receptors, the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), lead to macrophage activation. However, little information is available regarding the differential accumulations of AGE-albumin (serum albumin modified by AGEs), S100β, or expressions of RAGE in different adipocyte types in fat tissues. In this study, the authors investigated whether age-related AGE-albumin accumulations S100β level, and RAGE expressions differ in subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were harvested from 3- and 28-week-old rats. Macrophage activation was confirmed by Iba1 staining, and AGE-albumin accumulations and RAGE expressions were assessed by confocal microscopy. S100β were analyzed by immunoblotting. It was found that activated macrophage infiltration, AGE-albumin accumulation, and S100β in visceral fat was significantly greater in 28-week-old rats than in 3-week-old rats, but similar in subcutaneous fat. The expression of RAGE in visceral fat was much greater in 28-week-old rats, but its expression in subcutaneous fat was similar in 3- and 28-week-old rats. Furthermore, inflammatory signal pathways (NFκB, TNF-α) and proliferation pathways (FAK) in visceral fat were more activated in 28-week-old rats. These results imply that age-related AGE-albumin accumulation, S100β, and RAGE expression are more prominent in visceral than in subcutaneous fat, suggesting that visceral fat is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation-induced diseases in the elderly. - Highlights: • The age-related AGE-albumin accumulation and S100β were more prominent in visceral than subcutaneous fat. • The age-related RAGE expression were more prominent in visceral than subcutaneous fat.

  7. Age-related accumulation of advanced glycation end-products-albumin, S100β, and the expressions of advanced glycation end product receptor differ in visceral and subcutaneous fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Kuk Hui [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Myeongjoo [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Gachon University Graduate School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Functional Cellular Networks Laboratory, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyosang; Oh, Seyeon; Yum, Yoonji [Functional Cellular Networks Laboratory, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Chang Hu [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kook Yang, E-mail: kkyypark@ghil.com [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Kyunghee, E-mail: khbyun1@gachon.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Gachon University Graduate School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Functional Cellular Networks Laboratory, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-19

    Visceral fat induces more inflammation by activating macrophages than subcutaneous fat, and inflammation is an underlying feature of the pathogeneses of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), S100β, and their receptors, the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), lead to macrophage activation. However, little information is available regarding the differential accumulations of AGE-albumin (serum albumin modified by AGEs), S100β, or expressions of RAGE in different adipocyte types in fat tissues. In this study, the authors investigated whether age-related AGE-albumin accumulations S100β level, and RAGE expressions differ in subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were harvested from 3- and 28-week-old rats. Macrophage activation was confirmed by Iba1 staining, and AGE-albumin accumulations and RAGE expressions were assessed by confocal microscopy. S100β were analyzed by immunoblotting. It was found that activated macrophage infiltration, AGE-albumin accumulation, and S100β in visceral fat was significantly greater in 28-week-old rats than in 3-week-old rats, but similar in subcutaneous fat. The expression of RAGE in visceral fat was much greater in 28-week-old rats, but its expression in subcutaneous fat was similar in 3- and 28-week-old rats. Furthermore, inflammatory signal pathways (NFκB, TNF-α) and proliferation pathways (FAK) in visceral fat were more activated in 28-week-old rats. These results imply that age-related AGE-albumin accumulation, S100β, and RAGE expression are more prominent in visceral than in subcutaneous fat, suggesting that visceral fat is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation-induced diseases in the elderly. - Highlights: • The age-related AGE-albumin accumulation and S100β were more prominent in visceral than subcutaneous fat. • The age-related RAGE expression were more prominent in visceral than subcutaneous fat.

  8. A Bragg curve counter with an internal production target for the measurement of the double-differential cross-section of fragment production induced by neutrons at energies of tens of MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanami, T.; Hagiwara, M.; Oishi, T.; Hosokawa, M.; Kamada, S.; Tanaka, Su.; Iwamoto, Y.; Nakashima, H.; Baba, M.

    2009-01-01

    A Bragg curve counter equipped with an internal production target was developed for the measurements of double-differential cross-sections of fragment production induced by neutrons at energies of tens of MeV. The internal target permitted a large detection solid angle and thus the registration of processes at low production rates. In this specific geometry, the detection solid angle depends on the emission angle and the range of the particle. Therefore the energy, atomic number, and angle of trajectory of the particle have to be taken into account for the determination of the solid angle. For the selection of events with tracks confined within a defined cylindrical volume around the detector axis, a segmented anode was applied. The double-differential cross-sections for neutron-induced production of lithium, beryllium, and boron fragments from a carbon target were measured at 0 deg. for 65 MeV neutrons. The results are in good agreement with theoretical calculation using PHITS code with GEM and ISOBAR model.

  9. Management of the learning curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter-Christian; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – This paper focuses on the management of the learning curve in overseas capacity expansions. The purpose of this paper is to unravel the direct as well as indirect influences on the learning curve and to advance the understanding of how these affect its management. Design...... the dimensions of the learning process involved in a capacity expansion project and identified the direct and indirect labour influences on the production learning curve. On this basis, the study proposes solutions to managing learning curves in overseas capacity expansions. Furthermore, the paper concludes...... with measures that have the potential to significantly reduce the non-value-added time when establishing new capacities overseas. Originality/value – The paper uses a longitudinal in-depth case study of a Danish wind turbine manufacturer and goes beyond a simplistic treatment of the lead time and learning...

  10. External validation of the fatty liver index and lipid accumulation product indices, using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, to identify hepatic steatosis in healthy controls and obese, insulin-resistant individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Weickert, Martin O; Lythgoe, Daniel; Sprung, Victoria S; Dobson, Rebecca; Shoajee-Moradie, Fariba; Umpleby, Margot; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Thomas, E Louise; Bell, Jimmy D; Jones, Helen; Kemp, Graham J

    2014-11-01

    Simple clinical algorithms including the fatty liver index (FLI) and lipid accumulation product (LAP) have been developed as surrogate markers for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), constructed using (semi-quantitative) ultrasonography. This study aimed to validate FLI and LAP as measures of hepatic steatosis, as determined quantitatively by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Data were collected from 168 patients with NAFLD and 168 controls who had undergone clinical, biochemical and anthropometric assessment. Values of FLI and LAP were determined and assessed both as predictors of the presence of hepatic steatosis (liver fat>5.5%) and of actual liver fat content, as measured by 1H-MRS. The discriminative ability of FLI and LAP was estimated using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC). As FLI can also be interpreted as a predictive probability of hepatic steatosis, we assessed how well calibrated it was in our cohort. Linear regression with prediction intervals was used to assess the ability of FLI and LAP to predict liver fat content. Further validation was provided in 54 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. FLI, LAP and alanine transferase discriminated between patients with and without steatosis with an AUROC of 0.79 (IQR=0.74, 0.84), 0.78 (IQR=0.72, 0.83) and 0.83 (IQR=0.79, 0.88) respectively although could not quantitatively predict liver fat. Additionally, the algorithms accurately matched the observed percentages of patients with hepatic steatosis in our cohort. FLI and LAP may be used to identify patients with hepatic steatosis clinically or for research purposes but could not predict liver fat content. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  11. In parkinsonian substantia nigra, alpha-synuclein is modified by acrolein, a lipid-peroxidation product, and accumulates in the dopamine neurons with inhibition of proteasome activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoto-Nagai, M; Maruyama, W; Hashizume, Y; Yoshida, M; Osawa, T; Riederer, P; Naoi, M

    2007-01-01

    alpha-Synuclein (alphaSYN) plays a central role in the neural degeneration of Parkinson's disease (PD) through its conformational change. In PD, alphaSYN, released from the membrane, accumulates in the cytoplasm and forms Lewy body. However, the mechanism behind the translocation and conformational change of alphaSYN leading to the cell death has not been well elucidated. This paper reports that in the dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra containing neuromelanin from PD patients, alphaSYN was modified with acrolein (ACR), an aldehyde product of lipid peroxidation. Histopathological observation confirmed the co-localization of protein immunoreactive to anti-alphaSYN and ACR antibody. By Western blot analyses of samples precipitated with either anti-alphaSYN or anti-ACR antibody, increase in ACR-modified alphaSYN was confirmed in PD brain. Modification of recombinant alphaSYN by ACR enhanced its oligomerization, and at higher ACR concentrations alphaSYN was fragmented and polymerized forming a smear pattern in SDS-PAGE. ACR reduced 20S proteasome activity through the direct modification of the proteasome proteins and the production of polymerized ACR-modified proteins, which inhibited proteasome activity in vitro. These results suggest that ACR may initiate vicious cycle of modification and aggregation of proteins, including alphaSYN, and impaired proteolysis system, to cause neuronal death in PD.

  12. Is Vitamin D Deficiency Related to Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End Products, Markers of Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Subjects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Šebeková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In diabetes accumulated advanced glycation end products (AGEs are involved in the striking cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. We asked whether a hypovitaminosis D associates with an increased formation and toxicity of AGEs in diabetes. Methods. In 276 diabetics (160 M/116 F, age: 65.0±13.4; 43 type 1,T1DM, and 233 type 2 patients, T2DM and 121 nondiabetic controls (60 M/61 F; age: 58.6±15.5 years routine biochemistry, levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-(OHD, skin autofluorescence (SAF, plasma AGE-associated fluorescence (AGE-FL, Nε-(carboxymethyllysine (CML, soluble receptor for AGEs (sRAGE, soluble vascular adhesion protein-1 (sVAP-1, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, and renal function (eGFR were determined. Results. In the diabetics SAF and AGE-Fl were higher than those of the controls and correlated with age, duration of diabetes, and degree of renal impairment. In T2DM patients but not in T1DM the age-dependent rise of SAF directly correlated with hs-CRP and sVAP-1. 25-(OHD levels in diabetics and nondiabetics were lowered to a similar degree averaging 22.5 ng/mL. No relationship between 25-(OHD and studied markers except for sVAP-1 was observed in the diabetics. Conclusion. In diabetics hypovitaminosis D does not augment accumulation of AGEs and studied markers of microinflammation and oxidative stress except for sVAP-1.

  13. Formation and accumulation of radiation-induced defects and radiolysis products in modified lithium orthosilicate pebbles with additions of titanium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarins, Arturs; Valtenbergs, Oskars; Kizane, Gunta; Supe, Arnis; Knitter, Regina; Kolb, Matthias H. H.; Leys, Oliver; Baumane, Larisa; Conka, Davis

    2016-03-01

    Lithium orthosilicate (Li4SiO4) pebbles with 2.5 wt.% excess of silicon dioxide (SiO2) are the European Union's designated reference tritium breeding ceramics for the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Test Blanket Module (TBM). However, the latest irradiation experiments showed that the reference Li4SiO4 pebbles may crack and form fragments under operation conditions as expected in the HCPB TBM. Therefore, it has been suggested to change the chemical composition of the reference Li4SiO4 pebbles and to add titanium dioxide (TiO2), to obtain lithium metatitanate (Li2TiO3) as a second phase. The aim of this research was to investigate the formation and accumulation of radiation-induced defects (RD) and radiolysis products (RP) in the modified Li4SiO4 pebbles with different contents of TiO2 for the first time, in order to estimate and compare radiation stability. The reference and the modified Li4SiO4 pebbles were irradiated with accelerated electrons (E = 5 MeV) up to 5000 MGy absorbed dose at 300-990 K in a dry argon atmosphere. By using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy it was determined that in the modified Li4SiO4 pebbles, several paramagnetic RD and RP are formed and accumulated, like, E' centres (SiO33-/TiO33-), HC2 centres (SiO43-/TiO3-) etc. On the basis of the obtained results, it is concluded that the modified Li4SiO4 pebbles with TiO2 additions have comparable radiation stability with the reference pebbles.

  14. Metal contaminant accumulation in the hive: Consequences for whole-colony health and brood production in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladun, Kristen R; Di, Ning; Liu, Tong-Xian; Trumble, John T

    2016-02-01

    Metal pollution has been increasing rapidly over the past century, and at the same time, the human population has continued to rise and produce contaminants that may negatively impact pollinators. Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) forage over large areas and can collect contaminants from the environment. The primary objective of the present study was to determine whether the metal contaminants cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) can have a detrimental effect on whole-colony health in the managed pollinator A. mellifera. The authors isolated small nucleus colonies under large cages and fed them an exclusive diet of sugar syrup and pollen patty spiked with Cd, Cu, Pb, and Se or a control (no additional metal). Treatment levels were based on concentrations in honey and pollen from contaminated hives around the world. They measured whole-colony health including wax, honey, and brood production; colony weight; brood survival; and metal accumulation in various life stages. Colonies treated with Cd or Cu contained more dead pupae within capped cells compared with control, and Se-treated colonies had lower total worker weights compared to control. Lead had a minimal effect on colony performance, although many members of the hive accumulated significant quantities of the metal. By examining the honey bee as a social organism through whole-colony assessments of toxicity, the authors found that the distribution of toxicants throughout the colony varied from metal to metal, some caste members were more susceptible to certain metals, and the colony's ability to grow over time may have been reduced in the presence of Se. Apiaries residing near metal-contaminated areas may be at risk and can suffer changes in colony dynamics and survival. © 2015 SETAC.

  15. Hydraulic conductance as well as nitrogen accumulation plays a role in the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis of the most productive variety of rice in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylaran, Renante D; Adachi, Shunsuke; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Usuda, Hideaki; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2011-07-01

    An indica variety Takanari is known as one of the most productive rice varieties in Japan and consistently produces 20-30% heavier dry matter during ripening than Japanese commercial varieties in the field. The higher rate of photosynthesis of individual leaves during ripening has been recognized in Takanari. By using pot-grown plants under conditions of minimal mutual shading, it was confirmed that the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis is responsible for the higher dry matter production after heading in Takanari as compared with a japonica variety, Koshihikari. The rate of leaf photosynthesis and shoot dry weight became larger in Takanari after the panicle formation and heading stages, respectively, than in Koshihikari. Roots grew rapidly in the panicle formation stage until heading in Takanari compared with Koshihikari. The higher rate of leaf photosynthesis in Takanari resulted not only from the higher content of leaf nitrogen, which was caused by its elevated capacity for nitrogen accumulation, but also from higher stomatal conductance. When measured under light-saturated conditions, stomatal conductance was already decreased due to the reduction in leaf water potential in Koshihikari even under conditions of a relatively small difference in leaf-air vapour pressure difference. In contrast, the higher stomatal conductance was supported by the maintenance of higher leaf water potential through the higher hydraulic conductance in Takanari with the larger area of root surface. However, no increase in root hydraulic conductivity was expected in Takanari. The larger root surface area of Takanari might be a target trait in future rice breeding for increasing dry matter production.

  16. Effect of Free Nitrous Acid on Nitrous Oxide Production and Denitrifying Phosphorus Removal by Polyphosphorus-Accumulating Organisms in Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijia Miao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of free nitrous acid (FNA on denitrifying phosphorus removal has been widely reported for enhanced biological phosphorus removal; however, few studies focus on the nitrous oxide (N2O production involved in this process. In this study, the effects of FNA on N2O production and anoxic phosphorus metabolism were investigated using phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAOs culture highly enriched (91±4% in Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis. Results show that the FNA concentration notably inhibited anoxic phosphorus metabolism and phosphorus uptake. Poly-β-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA degradation was completely inhibited when the FNA concentration was approximately 0.0923 mgHNO2-N/L. Higher initial FNA concentrations (0.00035 to 0.0103 mgHNO2-N/L led to more PHA consumption/TN (0.444 to 0.916 mmol-C/(mmol-N·gVSS. Moreover, it was found that FNA, rather than nitrite and pH, was likely the true inhibitor of N2O production. The highest proportion of N2O to TN was 78.42% at 0.0031 mgHNO2-N/L (equivalent to 42.44 mgNO2-N/L at pH 7.5, due to the simultaneous effects of FNA on the subsequent conversion of NO2 into N2O and then into N2. The traditional nitrite knee point can only indicate the exhaustion of nitrite, instead of the complete removal of TN.

  17. Synthesis of the oxysterol, 24(S, 25-epoxycholesterol, parallels cholesterol production and may protect against cellular accumulation of newly-synthesized cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Andrew J

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim The effects of 24(S,25-epoxycholesterol (24,25EC on aspects of cholesterol homeostasis is well-documented. When added to cells, 24,25EC decreases cholesterol synthesis and up-regulates cholesterol efflux genes, including ABCA1. Synthesis of 24,25EC occurs in a shunt of the mevalonate pathway which also produces cholesterol. Therefore, 24,25EC synthesis should be subject to the same negative feedback regulation as cholesterol synthesis. To date, no role has been ascribed to 24,25EC in light of the fact that increased accumulation of cholesterol should decrease formation of this oxysterol through feedback inhibition. This leads to the intriguing paradox: why inhibit production of an apparently important regulator of cholesterol homeostasis when it is needed most? Methods We used a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches in Chinese Hamster Ovary cell-lines to investigate this paradox. Endogenous synthesis of 24,25EC was manipulated using partial inhibition of the enzyme, Oxidosqualene Cyclase. Changes in cholesterol and 24,25EC synthesis were determined using metabolic labelling with [1-14C]-acetate, thin-layer chromatography and phosphorimaging. Transcriptional effects mediated via SREBP and LXR were analysed by luciferase reporter assays. Results We showed that cholesterol addition to cells lead to a rapid and preferential inhibition of 24,25EC synthesis. Addition of 24,25EC resulted in parallel inhibition of 24,25EC and cholesterol synthesis. Furthermore, we used a variety of approaches to examine the relationship between cholesterol and 24,25EC synthesis, including cell-lines with different rates of cholesterol synthesis, varying cholesterol synthetic rates by pre-treatment with a statin, or lipoprotein cholesterol loading of macrophages. In all cases, we showed that 24,25EC synthesis faithfully tracked cholesterol synthesis. Moreover, changes in 24,25EC synthesis exerted downstream effects, reducing SREBP

  18. Power forward curves: a managerial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagarajan, Shankar

    1999-01-01

    This chapter concentrates on managerial application of power forward curves, and examines the determinants of electricity prices such as transmission constraints, its inability to be stored in a conventional way, its seasonality and weather dependence, the generation stack, and the swing risk. The electricity forward curve, classical arbitrage, constructing a forward curve, volatilities, and electricity forward curve models such as the jump-diffusion model, the mean-reverting heteroscedastic volatility model, and an econometric model of forward prices are examined. A managerial perspective of the applications of the forward curve is presented covering plant valuation, capital budgeting, performance measurement, product pricing and structuring, asset optimisation, valuation of transmission options, and risk management

  19. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  20. Production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid by microorganisms accumulated from river water using a two-stage perfusion culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, T; Tashiro, F; Nagashima, H; Nishizawa, K; Nagata, F; Yokogawa, Y; Suzuki, T

    2000-01-01

    The perfusion culture system using a shaken ceramic membrane flask (SCMF) was employed to accumulate microorganisms separated from river water and to produce poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB). Using a two-step culture method with a single SCMF, river microorganisms were cultured by separately feeding four representative carbon sources, n-propanol, lactic acid, methanol, and formic acid. After 140 h culture, the cell concentration and PHB content respectively reached 43 g/l and 35% when a propanol medium was fed. Using a two-stage perfusion culture with twin SCMFs, the seed cell mass was increased in the first SCMF and then supplied to the second flask for PHB production. As a consequence, the cellular PHB content rose to 51% in the second SCMF, while the cell concentration gradually increased to 25 g/l after 175 h perfusion culture. These results demonstrated the utility of the two-stage perfusion culture system for developing a cheap means of producing PHB coincident with wastewater treatment.

  1. The predictive effect of inflammatory markers and lipid accumulation product index on clinical symptoms associated with polycystic ovary syndrome in nonobese adolescents and younger aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tola, Esra Nur; Yalcin, Serenat Eris; Dugan, Nadiye

    2017-07-01

    The aim of our study is to analyse the inflammatory markers and lipid accumulation product (LAP) index in nonobese adolescents and younger aged women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with age and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls and to determine whether the investigated parameters are potential markers for the etiopathogenesis of PCOS. We also aim to determine whether these inflammatory markers are predictive for developing some clinical implications, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and insulin resistance (IR), associated with PCOS. A total of 34 adolescents and younger aged females with PCOS, and 33 age and BMI-matched healthy controls were recruited for our study. All participants were nonobese (BMIpredictive effect of investigated inflammatory markers and LAP index on CVD risk among PCOS patients after adjustment for abdominal obesity. We also found a positive predictive effect of WBC and a negative predictive effect of lymphocytes on IR in PCOS patients after adjustment for abdominal obesity. We did not find any predictor effect of NEO on IR, but it was a positive predictive marker for an elevated HOMA-IR index. Elevated NEO, CRP levels and LAP index could have potential roles in the etiopathogenesis of PCOS in nonobese adolescents and younger aged females,NEO could be a predictive marker for elevated HOMA-IR index, and WBC and lymphocytes could be predictive for the development of IR among nonobese adolescents and younger aged females with PCOS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations of breed and feeding management with milk production curves at herd level using a random regression test-day model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caccamo, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Ferguson, J.D.; Petriglieri, R.; Terra, La F.; Licitra, G.

    2010-01-01

    Earlier studies identified large between-herd variation in estimated lactation curve parameters from test-day milk yield and milk composition records collected in Ragusa province, Italy. The objective of this study was to identify sources of variation able to explain these between-herd differences

  3. Gelidium elegans, an edible red seaweed, and hesperidin inhibit lipid accumulation and production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in 3T3-L1 and RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hui-Jeon; Seo, Min-Jung; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2014-11-01

    Gelidium elegans is an edible red alga native to the intertidal area of northeastern Asia. We investigated the effect of G. elegans extract and its main flavonoids, rutin and hesperidin, on lipid accumulation and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in 3T3-L1 and RAW264.7 cells. Our data show that G. elegans extract decreased lipid accumulation and ROS/RNS production in a dose-dependent manner. The extract also inhibited the mRNA expression of adipogenic transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, while enhancing the protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutases 1 and 2, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase compared with controls. In addition, lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production was significantly reduced in G. elegans extract-treated RAW264.7 cells. In analysis of the effects of G. elegans flavonoids on lipid accumulation and ROS/RNS production, only hesperidin showed an inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation and ROS production; rutin did not affect adipogenesis and ROS status. The antiadipogenic effect of hesperidin was evidenced by the downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, and fatty acid binding protein 4 gene expression. Collectively, our data suggest that G. elegans is a potential food source containing antiobesity and antioxidant constituents. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Formation and accumulation of radiation-induced defects and radiolysis products in modified lithium orthosilicate pebbles with additions of titanium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarins, Arturs, E-mail: arturs.zarins@lu.lv [University of Latvia, Institute of Chemical Physics, Jelgavas Street 1, LV-1004, Riga (Latvia); University of Latvia, Faculty of Chemistry, Jelgavas Street 1, LV-1004, Riga (Latvia); Valtenbergs, Oskars [University of Latvia, Institute of Chemical Physics, Jelgavas Street 1, LV-1004, Riga (Latvia); University of Latvia, Faculty of Chemistry, Jelgavas Street 1, LV-1004, Riga (Latvia); Kizane, Gunta; Supe, Arnis [University of Latvia, Institute of Chemical Physics, Jelgavas Street 1, LV-1004, Riga (Latvia); Knitter, Regina; Kolb, Matthias H.H.; Leys, Oliver [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-KWT), 76021, Karlsruhe (Germany); Baumane, Larisa [University of Latvia, Institute of Chemical Physics, Jelgavas Street 1, LV-1004, Riga (Latvia); Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis, Aizkraukles Street 21, LV-1006, Riga (Latvia); Conka, Davis [University of Latvia, Institute of Chemical Physics, Jelgavas Street 1, LV-1004, Riga (Latvia); University of Latvia, Faculty of Chemistry, Jelgavas Street 1, LV-1004, Riga (Latvia)

    2016-03-15

    Lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) pebbles with 2.5 wt.% excess of silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) are the European Union's designated reference tritium breeding ceramics for the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Test Blanket Module (TBM). However, the latest irradiation experiments showed that the reference Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles may crack and form fragments under operation conditions as expected in the HCPB TBM. Therefore, it has been suggested to change the chemical composition of the reference Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles and to add titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), to obtain lithium metatitanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) as a second phase. The aim of this research was to investigate the formation and accumulation of radiation-induced defects (RD) and radiolysis products (RP) in the modified Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles with different contents of TiO{sub 2} for the first time, in order to estimate and compare radiation stability. The reference and the modified Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles were irradiated with accelerated electrons (E = 5 MeV) up to 5000 MGy absorbed dose at 300–990 K in a dry argon atmosphere. By using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy it was determined that in the modified Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles, several paramagnetic RD and RP are formed and accumulated, like, E' centres (SiO{sub 3}{sup 3−}/TiO{sub 3}{sup 3−}), HC{sub 2} centres (SiO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/TiO{sub 3}{sup −}) etc. On the basis of the obtained results, it is concluded that the modified Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles with TiO{sub 2} additions have comparable radiation stability with the reference pebbles. - Highlights: • Formation of RD and RP in modified Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles with additions of TiO{sub 2} is analysed for the first time. • Due to additions of TiO{sub 2}, concentration of paramagnetic RD slightly increased in modified Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles. • Modified Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles have good radiation stability compared to

  5. Multiplying Forest Garden Systems with biochar based organic fertilization for high carbon accumulation, improved water storage, nutrient cycling, and increased food diversity and farm productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Lucht, Wolfgang; Gerten, Dieter; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    10 years). Besides covering the set-up costs, farmers received and continue to receive carbon payments for each survived tree during the first three years. Based on a voluntary carbon credit price of 35 USD per t CO2, the annual income of the farmers increase by 6 to 13% depending on their poverty level. After this initial period of three years, the income from tree crops (fruits, nuts, medicine, essential oil, silk, perfume, honey, timber, animal fodder) exceeds by far the (catalyzer) carbon credits (average crop income for the 25,000 trees including secondary mixed cropping > 150,000 USD). The trees will accumulate carbon for 15 to 75 years depending on the tree species. While trunk wood will be used for construction timber and thus continue to sequester carbon for probably 50 years. While part of the wood will be used for cooking, at least 50% of the tree biomass will be pyrolyzed to biochar to produce organic biochar-based fertilizers and for using the pyrolysis heat for the production of essential oil, pasteurization and fruit or tea leaves drying. Compared to the barren terraces, sparsely covered with grasses and prone to erosion, the forest garden system with organic biochar-based fertilizer, continuous soil cover, mulching, leaf litter fall, root growth and root exudates, rotating cover crops and animal pasture, soil organic carbon (SOC) is expected to increase annually. Therefore, for each participating farmer at least one land spot is GIS marked for soil organic carbon analysis to be executed every five years and to calculate and certify soil organic carbon increases for additional or bonus carbon credits. In our presentation we will show and document the establishment of the forest garden systems, and discuss the link between local carbon sequestration and global carbon markets, the carbon calculation and certification procedures, and the challenge for multiplying such systems inter-regional and internationally.

  6. Vertex algebras and algebraic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Frenkel, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Vertex algebras are algebraic objects that encapsulate the concept of operator product expansion from two-dimensional conformal field theory. Vertex algebras are fast becoming ubiquitous in many areas of modern mathematics, with applications to representation theory, algebraic geometry, the theory of finite groups, modular functions, topology, integrable systems, and combinatorics. This book is an introduction to the theory of vertex algebras with a particular emphasis on the relationship with the geometry of algebraic curves. The notion of a vertex algebra is introduced in a coordinate-independent way, so that vertex operators become well defined on arbitrary smooth algebraic curves, possibly equipped with additional data, such as a vector bundle. Vertex algebras then appear as the algebraic objects encoding the geometric structure of various moduli spaces associated with algebraic curves. Therefore they may be used to give a geometric interpretation of various questions of representation theory. The book co...

  7. Complexity of Curved Glass Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosić, T.; Svetel, I.; Cekić, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Despite the increasing number of research on the architectural structures of curvilinear forms and technological and practical improvement of the glass production observed over recent years, there is still a lack of comprehensive codes and standards, recommendations and experience data linked to real-life curved glass structures applications regarding design, manufacture, use, performance and economy. However, more and more complex buildings and structures with the large areas of glass envelope geometrically complex shape are built every year. The aim of the presented research is to collect data on the existing design philosophy on curved glass structure cases. The investigation includes a survey about how architects and engineers deal with different design aspects of curved glass structures with a special focus on the design and construction process, glass types and structural and fixing systems. The current paper gives a brief overview of the survey findings.

  8. Gender-specific contribution of cardiometabolic index and lipid accumulation product to left ventricular geometry change in general population of rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoyu; Sun, Yingxian; Li, Zhao; Guo, Xiaofan; Chen, Shuang; Ye, Ning; Tian, Yichen; Zhang, Lijun

    2018-04-10

    Despite current interest in the unfavorable impact of cardiometabolic index (CMI) and lipid accumulation product (LAP) on diabetes and cardiovascular risk, information regarding the relation of CMI and LAP to left ventricular (LV) geometry has not been specifically addressed. We aimed to examine the hypothesis: (1) CMI and LAP represent an independent determinant of LV remodeling in general population of rural China; (2) there are gender differences in obesity-related alterations in terms of LV morphology. The sample for this cross-sectional analysis included 11,258 participants (mean age 53.9 years; 54.0% females) who underwent assessment of basic metabolic and anthropometric parameters in rural areas of northeast China. Comprehensive echocardiography-defined LV geometric pattern was determined according to left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness. The prevalence rate of eccentric and concentric LV hypertrophy (LVH) presented a proportional increase with elevated quartiles of CMI and LAP in a dose-response manner (all P factor of 3.552 and 1.768 in females and males, respectively. In contrast to females, where LAP fourth quartile and concentric LVH were positively associated (OR:2.544, 95%CI:1.537-4.209), higher LAP did not correlate with concentric LVH in males (OR:1.234, 95%CI:0.824-1.849). CMI and LAP give rise to a new paradigm of accounting for gender difference in obesity-related abnormal LV geometry, an effect that was substantially greater in females. These two indices, acting in concert, may also be advantageous prognostically for refining cardiovascular risk stratification in individuals with LV remodeling.

  9. Lipid Accumulation Product (LAP) and Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) as Markers of Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Associated Disturbances in Young Argentine Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abruzzese, Giselle A; Cerrrone, Gloria E; Gamez, Juan M; Graffigna, Mabel N; Belli, Susana; Lioy, Gustavo; Mormandi, Eduardo; Otero, Patricia; Levalle, Oscar A; Motta, Alicia B

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder. PCOS women are at high risk of developing insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular disorders since young age. We aimed to study the reliability of lipid accumulation product (LAP) and visceral adiposity index (VAI) as markers of metabolic disturbances (MD) associated with IR in young reproductive aged PCOS patients. We also evaluated the association between LAP and VAI and the presence of hyperandrogenism. In a cross-sectional study, 110 PCOS patients and 88 control women (18-35 years old) were recruited. PCOS patients were divided into 2 groups, as hyperandrogenic and non-hyperandrogenic considering the signs of hyperandrogenism (clinical or biochemical). Anthropometric measurements were taken and blood samples collected. Metabolic and anthropometric characteristics and their association with IR and associated MD were evaluated and LAP and VAI were calculated. LAP and VAI were compared with TC/HDL-c and TG/HDL-c to define the best markers of MD in this population. Independently of the phenotype, young PCOS patients showed high IR and dyslipidemia. Both LAP and VAI showed to be more effective markers to assess MD and IR in these young women than TG/HDL-c or TC/HDL-c [cut-off values: LAP: 18.24 (sensitivity: 81.43% specificity: 73.49%), positive predictive value (PPV): 75.0%, negative predictive value (NPV): 77.27%, VAI: 2.19 (sensitivity: 81.16% specificity: 72.15% PPV: 74.65% NPV: 72.22%)]. LAP and VAI are representative markers to assess MD associated with IR in young PCOS patients. All PCOS patients, independently of their androgenic condition, showed high metabolic risk. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. JUMPING THE CURVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the notion ofjump ing the curve,following from Handy 's S-curve onto a new curve with new rules policies and procedures. . It claims that the curve does not generally lie in wait but has to be invented by leadership. The focus of this paper is the identification (mathematically and inferentially ofthat point in time, known as the cusp in catastrophe theory, when it is time to change - pro-actively, pre-actively or reactively. These three scenarios are addressed separately and discussed in terms ofthe relevance ofeach.

  11. Accumulation, sources and health risks of trace metals in elevated geochemical background soils used for greenhouse vegetable production in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haidong; Huang, Biao; Dong, Linlin; Hu, Wenyou; Akhtar, Mohammad Saleem; Qu, Mingkai

    2017-03-01

    Greenhouse vegetable cultivation with substantive manure and fertilizer input on soils with an elevated geochemical background can accumulate trace metals in soils and plants leading to human health risks. Studies on trace metal accumulation over a land use shift duration in an elevated geochemical background scenario are lacking. Accumulation characteristics of seven trace metals in greenhouse soil and edible plants were evaluated along with an assessment of the health risk to the consumers. A total of 118 greenhouse surface soils (0-20cm) and 30 vegetables were collected from Kunming City, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, and analyzed for total Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, As, Hg, and Cr content by ICP-MS and AFS. The trace metals were ordered Cu>Cd>Hg>Zn>Pb>As>Cr in greenhouse soils accumulation level, and the geo-accumulation index suggested the soil more severely polluted with Cd, Cu, Hg and Zn. The greenhouse and open-field soils had significant difference in Cd, Cr and Zn. The duration of shift from paddy to greenhouse land-use significantly influenced trace metal accumulation with a dramatic change during five to ten year greenhouse land-use, and continuous increase of Cd and Hg. A spatial pattern from north to south for Cd and Hg and a zonal pattern for Cu and Zn were found. An anthropogenic source primarily caused trace metal accumulation, where the principal component analysis/multiple linear regression indicated a contribution 61.2%. While the assessment showed no potential risk for children and adults, the hazard health risks index was greater than one for adolescents. The extended duration of land use as greenhouses caused the trace metal accumulation, rotation in land use should be promoted to reduce the health risks. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Tornado-Shaped Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Sol Sáez; de la Rosa, Félix Martínez; Rojas, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    In Advanced Calculus, our students wonder if it is possible to graphically represent a tornado by means of a three-dimensional curve. In this paper, we show it is possible by providing the parametric equations of such tornado-shaped curves.

  13. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even, Wesley Paul; Dolence, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth's atmosphere.

  14. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even, Wesley Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dolence, Joshua C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.

  15. Tempo curves considered harmful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.; Honing, H.

    1993-01-01

    In the literature of musicology, computer music research and the psychology of music, timing or tempo measurements are mostly presented in the form of continuous curves. The notion of these tempo curves is dangerous, despite its widespread use, because it lulls its users into the false impression

  16. The curve shortening problem

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Kai-Seng

    2001-01-01

    Although research in curve shortening flow has been very active for nearly 20 years, the results of those efforts have remained scattered throughout the literature. For the first time, The Curve Shortening Problem collects and illuminates those results in a comprehensive, rigorous, and self-contained account of the fundamental results.The authors present a complete treatment of the Gage-Hamilton theorem, a clear, detailed exposition of Grayson''s convexity theorem, a systematic discussion of invariant solutions, applications to the existence of simple closed geodesics on a surface, and a new, almost convexity theorem for the generalized curve shortening problem.Many questions regarding curve shortening remain outstanding. With its careful exposition and complete guide to the literature, The Curve Shortening Problem provides not only an outstanding starting point for graduate students and new investigations, but a superb reference that presents intriguing new results for those already active in the field.

  17. Investigation of learning and experience curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thornton, J.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    The applicability of learning and experience curves for predicting future costs of solar technologies is assessed, and the major test case is the production economics of heliostats. Alternative methods for estimating cost reductions in systems manufacture are discussed, and procedures for using learning and experience curves to predict costs are outlined. Because adequate production data often do not exist, production histories of analogous products/processes are analyzed and learning and aggregated cost curves for these surrogates estimated. If the surrogate learning curves apply, they can be used to estimate solar technology costs. The steps involved in generating these cost estimates are given. Second-generation glass-steel and inflated-bubble heliostat design concepts, developed by MDAC and GE, respectively, are described; a costing scenario for 25,000 units/yr is detailed; surrogates for cost analysis are chosen; learning and aggregate cost curves are estimated; and aggregate cost curves for the GE and MDAC designs are estimated. However, an approach that combines a neoclassical production function with a learning-by-doing hypothesis is needed to yield a cost relation compatible with the historical learning curve and the traditional cost function of economic theory.

  18. Visceral Adiposity Index and Lipid Accumulation Product Index: Two Alternate Body Indices to Identify Chronic Kidney Disease among the Rural Population in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxue Dai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to compare the relative strength of the association between anthropometric obesity indices and chronic kidney disease (CKD. Another objective was to examine whether the visceral adiposity index (VAI and lipid accumulation product index (LAPI can identify CKD in the rural population of China. There were 5168 males and 6024 females involved in this cross-sectional study, and 237 participants (2.12% suffered from CKD. Obesity indices included body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, VAI and LAPI. VAI and LAPI were calculated with triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, BMI and WC. VAI = [WC/39.68 + (1.88 × BMI] × (TG /1.03 × (1.31/ HDL for males; VAI = [WC/36.58 + (1.89 × BMI] × (TG/0.81 × (1.52/HDL for females. LAPI = (WC-65 × TG for males, LAPI = (WC-58 × TG for females. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR of less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. The prevalence of CKD increased across quartiles for WHtR, VAI and LAPI. A multivariate logistic regression analysis of the presence of CKD for the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile of each anthropometric measure showed that the VAI was the best predictor of CKD in females (OR: 4.21, 95% CI: 2.09–8.47, p < 0.001. VAI showed the highest AUC for CKD (AUC: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.65–0.72 and LAPI came second (AUC: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.61–0.70 in females compared with BMI (both p-values < 0.001. However, compared with the traditional index of the BMI, the anthropometric measures VAI, LAPI, WC, and WHtR had no statistically significant capacity to predict CKD in males. Our results showed that both VAI and LAPI were significantly associated with CKD in the rural population of northeast China. Furthermore, VAI and LAPI were superior to BMI, WC and WHtR for predicting CKD only in females.

  19. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and lipid accumulation product in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macut, D; Tziomalos, K; Božić-Antić, I; Bjekić-Macut, J; Katsikis, I; Papadakis, E; Andrić, Z; Panidis, D

    2016-06-01

    What are the most relevant factors associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? Insulin resistance (IR) and lipid accumulation product (LAP) are independently associated with NAFLD in PCOS. Obesity and IR are frequently present in both women with PCOS and subjects having NAFLD. The coexistence of PCOS and NAFLD might synergistically increase the risk for both type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). LAP, calculated from waist circumference (WC) and triglycerides (TGs) concentrations [(WC-58) × TGs], has been shown to represent an integrated marker of cardiometabolic risk in women with PCOS. This cross-sectional study included 600 Caucasian women diagnosed with PCOS by the Rotterdam criteria between May 2008 and May 2013. The study was done at the university hospitals in Belgrade, Serbia and Thessaloniki, Greece. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements and analyses of fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipids, total testosterone and SHBG, as well as liver tests (transaminases, γ-glutamyltransaminase, total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase). Calculations for a NAFLD liver fat score (NAFLD-LFS) (with, accordingly, determination of metabolic syndrome and testing for T2DM) as well as homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), LAP as a marker of visceral adiposity, and free androgen index (FAI) were performed. We evaluated the prevance of NAFLD and analyzed associations of the above variables with NAFLD. NAFLD was more prevalent in patients with PCOS than in controls (50.6 versus 34.0%, respectively). Women with PCOS had higher readings for WC, LAP, insulin and HOMA-IR, total cholesterol and TGs than controls (P risk of complications while magnetic resonance spectroscopy does not provide any information regarding the presence of fibrosis and is not routinely available. Another possible limitation could be the measurement of total testosterone by radioimmunoassay, which can be

  20. The crime kuznets curve

    OpenAIRE

    Buonanno, Paolo; Fergusson, Leopoldo; Vargas, Juan Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We document the existence of a Crime Kuznets Curve in US states since the 1970s. As income levels have risen, crime has followed an inverted U-shaped pattern, first increasing and then dropping. The Crime Kuznets Curve is not explained by income inequality. In fact, we show that during the sample period inequality has risen monotonically with income, ruling out the traditional Kuznets Curve. Our finding is robust to adding a large set of controls that are used in the literature to explain the...

  1. Wind Turbine Power Curves Incorporating Turbulence Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse

    2014-01-01

    . The model and method are parsimonious in the sense that only a single function (the zero-turbulence power curve) and a single auxiliary parameter (the equivalent turbulence factor) are needed to predict the mean power at any desired turbulence intensity. The method requires only ten minute statistics......The performance of a wind turbine in terms of power production (the power curve) is important to the wind energy industry. The current IEC-61400-12-1 standard for power curve evaluation recognizes only the mean wind speed at hub height and the air density as relevant to the power production...

  2. Productivity and selective accumulation of carotenoids of the novel extremophile microalga Chlamydomonas acidophila grown with different carbon sources in batch systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuaresma, M.; Casal, C.; Forján, E.; Vílchez, C.

    2011-01-01

    Cultivation of extremophile microorganisms has attracted interest due to their ability to accumulate highvalue compounds. Chlamydomonas acidophila is an acidophile green microalga isolated by our group from Tinto River, an acidic river that flows down from the mining area in Huelva, Spain. This

  3. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  4. SRHA calibration curve

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — an UV calibration curve for SRHA quantitation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Chang, X., and D. Bouchard. Surfactant-Wrapped Multiwalled...

  5. Bragg Curve Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, C.R.

    1981-05-01

    An alternative utilization is presented for the gaseous ionization chamber in the detection of energetic heavy ions, which is called Bragg Curve Spectroscopy (BCS). Conceptually, BCS involves using the maximum data available from the Bragg curve of the stopping heavy ion (HI) for purposes of identifying the particle and measuring its energy. A detector has been designed that measures the Bragg curve with high precision. From the Bragg curve the range from the length of the track, the total energy from the integral of the specific ionization over the track, the dE/dx from the specific ionization at the beginning of the track, and the Bragg peak from the maximum of the specific ionization of the HI are determined. This last signal measures the atomic number, Z, of the HI unambiguously

  6. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Federici, Paolo

    This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2.......This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2....

  7. Curves and Abelian varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, Valery; Clemens, C Herbert; Beauville, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    This book is devoted to recent progress in the study of curves and abelian varieties. It discusses both classical aspects of this deep and beautiful subject as well as two important new developments, tropical geometry and the theory of log schemes. In addition to original research articles, this book contains three surveys devoted to singularities of theta divisors, of compactified Jacobians of singular curves, and of "strange duality" among moduli spaces of vector bundles on algebraic varieties.

  8. Fermions in curved spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippoldt, Stefan

    2016-01-21

    In this thesis we study a formulation of Dirac fermions in curved spacetime that respects general coordinate invariance as well as invariance under local spin base transformations. We emphasize the advantages of the spin base invariant formalism both from a conceptual as well as from a practical viewpoint. This suggests that local spin base invariance should be added to the list of (effective) properties of (quantum) gravity theories. We find support for this viewpoint by the explicit construction of a global realization of the Clifford algebra on a 2-sphere which is impossible in the spin-base non-invariant vielbein formalism. The natural variables for this formulation are spacetime-dependent Dirac matrices subject to the Clifford-algebra constraint. In particular, a coframe, i.e. vielbein field is not required. We disclose the hidden spin base invariance of the vielbein formalism. Explicit formulas for the spin connection as a function of the Dirac matrices are found. This connection consists of a canonical part that is completely fixed in terms of the Dirac matrices and a free part that can be interpreted as spin torsion. The common Lorentz symmetric gauge for the vielbein is constructed for the Dirac matrices, even for metrics which are not linearly connected. Under certain criteria, it constitutes the simplest possible gauge, demonstrating why this gauge is so useful. Using the spin base formulation for building a field theory of quantized gravity and matter fields, we show that it suffices to quantize the metric and the matter fields. This observation is of particular relevance for field theory approaches to quantum gravity, as it can serve for a purely metric-based quantization scheme for gravity even in the presence of fermions. Hence, in the second part of this thesis we critically examine the gauge, and the field-parametrization dependence of renormalization group flows in the vicinity of non-Gaussian fixed points in quantum gravity. While physical

  9. Combination of Medicinal Herbs KIOM-79 Reduces Advanced Glycation End Product Accumulation and the Expression of Inflammatory Factors in the Aorta of Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjin Sohn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that KIOM-79 shows a strong inhibitory effect on AGE formation and inhibited a proinflammatory state in a murine macrophage cell line. In the present study, we investigated the effect of KIOM-79 on AGE accumulation and vascular inflammation in the aorta of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats, a commonly used model of type 2 diabetes. Seven-week-old male ZDF rats were treated with KIOM-79 (50 mg/kg once a day orally for 13 weeks. We examined the dissected aortas for AGE accumulation, expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE, and the expression of proinflammatory factors, including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were also measured by Southwestern histochemistry, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA, and immunohistochemistry, respectively. KIOM-79 markedly reduced the accumulation of AGEs and the expression of RAGE in the aorta. We also found that KIOM-79 attenuated the expression of inflammatory factors including NF-κB, MCP-1, VEGF, VCAM-1, and iNOS in the aortas of ZDF rats. These data suggest that KIOM-79 may prevent or retard the development of inflammation in diabetic vascular disease.

  10. Approximation by planar elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    2016-01-01

    We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....

  11. Biomass production on the Olympic and Kitsap Peninsulas, Washington: updated logging residue ratios, slash pile volume-to-weight ratios, and supply curves for selected locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason C. Cross; Eric C. Turnblom; Gregory J. Ettl

    2013-01-01

    Biomass residue produced by timber harvest operations is estimated for the Olympic and Kitsap Peninsulas, Washington. Scattered residues were sampled in 53 harvest units and piled residues were completely enumerated in 55 harvest units. Production is based on 2008 and 2009 data and is stratified by forest location, ownership type, harvest intensity, and harvest method...

  12. Advanced accumulator for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimura, Taiki; Chikahata, Hideyuki

    1997-01-01

    Advanced accumulators have been incorporated into the APWR design in order to simplify the safety system configuration and to improve reliability. The advanced accumulators refill the reactor vessel with a large discharge flow rate in a large LOCA, then switch to a small flow rate to continue safety injection for core reflooding. The functions of the conventional accumulator and the low head safety injection pump are integrated into this advanced accumulator. Injection performance tests simulating LOCA conditions and visualization tests for new designs have been carried out. This paper describes the APWR ECCS configuration, the advanced accumulator design and some of the injection performance and visualization test results. It was verified that the flow resistance of the advanced accumulator is independent of the model scale. The similarity law and performance data of the advanced accumulator for applying APWR was established. (author)

  13. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  14. Curved electromagnetic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.M.; Shen, H.M.; Wu, T.T.

    1989-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic fields can exhibit interesting behavior in the limit of great distances from their sources. In situations of finite total radiated energy, the energy reaching a distant receiver can decrease with distance much more slowly than the usual r - 2 . Cases of such slow decrease have been referred to as electromagnetic missiles. All of the wide variety of known missiles propagate in essentially straight lines. A sketch is presented here of a missile that can follow a path that is strongly curved. An example of a curved electromagnetic missile is explicitly constructed and some of its properties are discussed. References to details available elsewhere are given

  15. Algebraic curves and cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, V Kumar

    2010-01-01

    It is by now a well-known paradigm that public-key cryptosystems can be built using finite Abelian groups and that algebraic geometry provides a supply of such groups through Abelian varieties over finite fields. Of special interest are the Abelian varieties that are Jacobians of algebraic curves. All of the articles in this volume are centered on the theme of point counting and explicit arithmetic on the Jacobians of curves over finite fields. The topics covered include Schoof's \\ell-adic point counting algorithm, the p-adic algorithms of Kedlaya and Denef-Vercauteren, explicit arithmetic on

  16. IGMtransmission: Transmission curve computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christopher M.; Meiksin, Avery; Stock, David

    2015-04-01

    IGMtransmission is a Java graphical user interface that implements Monte Carlo simulations to compute the corrections to colors of high-redshift galaxies due to intergalactic attenuation based on current models of the Intergalactic Medium. The effects of absorption due to neutral hydrogen are considered, with particular attention to the stochastic effects of Lyman Limit Systems. Attenuation curves are produced, as well as colors for a wide range of filter responses and model galaxy spectra. Photometric filters are included for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Keck telescope, the Mt. Palomar 200-inch, the SUBARU telescope and UKIRT; alternative filter response curves and spectra may be readily uploaded.

  17. Construction of a model of the process of accumulation of radionuclides of corrosion products on the equipment in nuclear power plants with boiling-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevlin, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of corrosion of the structural materials of the reactor loop. This problem can be solved by constructing physical models of the process of accumulation of radionuclides on the equipment at nuclear power plants and by constructing the analytical apparatus for describing them. These models are presented here, and allow the analyzing of the effect of separate states and thermophysical factors, determination of the basic factors, and the ability to foresee in timely fashion the water state and structural measures required to lower the rate of growth and to decrease the amount of radionuclides deposited on the equipment in the nuclear power plant

  18. Morse theory on timelike and causal curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everson, J.; Talbot, C.J.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the set of timelike curves in a globally hyperbolic space-time manifold can be given the structure of a Hilbert manifold under a suitable definition of 'timelike.' The causal curves are the topological closure of this manifold. The Lorentzian energy (corresponding to Milnor's energy, except that the Lorentzian inner product is used) is shown to be a Morse function for the space of causal curves. A fixed end point index theorem is obtained in which a lower bound for the index of the Hessian of the Lorentzian energy is given in terms of the sum of the orders of the conjugate points between the end points. (author)

  19. Learning from uncertain curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallasto, Anton; Feragen, Aasa

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel framework for statistical analysis of populations of nondegenerate Gaussian processes (GPs), which are natural representations of uncertain curves. This allows inherent variation or uncertainty in function-valued data to be properly incorporated in the population analysis. Us...

  20. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  1. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  2. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  3. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  4. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, L.F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073642398

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across

  5. The Axial Curve Rotator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Walter M.

    This document contains detailed directions for constructing a device that mechanically produces the three-dimensional shape resulting from the rotation of any algebraic line or curve around either axis on the coordinate plant. The device was developed in response to student difficulty in visualizing, and thus grasping the mathematical principles…

  6. Nacelle lidar power curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  7. Power curve report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...

  8. ECM using Edwards curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Birkner, P.; Lange, T.; Peters, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces EECM-MPFQ, a fast implementation of the elliptic-curve method of factoring integers. EECM-MPFQ uses fewer modular multiplications than the well-known GMP-ECM software, takes less time than GMP-ECM, and finds more primes than GMP-ECM. The main improvements above the

  9. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  10. Neutron cross sections: Book of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Neuton Cross Sections: Book of Curves represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, CURVES. Data is presented only for (i.e., intergrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy for the energy range 0.01 eV to 200 MeV. For the first time, isometric state production cross sections have been included. 11 refs., 4 figs

  11. The Epstein-Barr virus miR-BHRF1-1 targets RNF4 during productive infection to promote the accumulation of SUMO conjugates and the release of infectious virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlin Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-translational modification by the Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO regulates a variety of cellular functions, and is hijacked by viruses to remodel the host cell during latent and productive infection. Here we have monitored the activity of the SUMO conjugation machinery in cells productively infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. We found that SUMO2/3 conjugates accumulate during the late phase of the productive virus cycle, and identified several viral proteins as bone fide SUMOylation substrates. Analysis of the mechanism involved in the accumulation of SUMOylated proteins revealed upregulation of several components of the SUMO-conjugation machinery and post-transcriptional downregulation of the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4. The latter effect was mediated by selective inhibition of RNF4 protein expression by the viral miR-BHRF1-1. Reconstitution of RNF4 in cells expressing an inducible miR-BHRF1-1 sponge or a miR-BHRF1-1 resistant RNF4 was associated with reduced levels of early and late viral proteins and impaired virus release. These findings illustrate a novel strategy for viral interference with the SUMO pathway, and identify the EBV miR-BHRF1-1 and the cellular RNF4 as regulators of the productive virus cycle.

  12. The Epstein-Barr virus miR-BHRF1-1 targets RNF4 during productive infection to promote the accumulation of SUMO conjugates and the release of infectious virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinlin; Callegari, Simone; Masucci, Maria G

    2017-04-01

    Post-translational modification by the Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) regulates a variety of cellular functions, and is hijacked by viruses to remodel the host cell during latent and productive infection. Here we have monitored the activity of the SUMO conjugation machinery in cells productively infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We found that SUMO2/3 conjugates accumulate during the late phase of the productive virus cycle, and identified several viral proteins as bone fide SUMOylation substrates. Analysis of the mechanism involved in the accumulation of SUMOylated proteins revealed upregulation of several components of the SUMO-conjugation machinery and post-transcriptional downregulation of the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4. The latter effect was mediated by selective inhibition of RNF4 protein expression by the viral miR-BHRF1-1. Reconstitution of RNF4 in cells expressing an inducible miR-BHRF1-1 sponge or a miR-BHRF1-1 resistant RNF4 was associated with reduced levels of early and late viral proteins and impaired virus release. These findings illustrate a novel strategy for viral interference with the SUMO pathway, and identify the EBV miR-BHRF1-1 and the cellular RNF4 as regulators of the productive virus cycle.

  13. Learning curve tool applications in DOE materials management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper will examine the application of learning curve theory, an economic theory that quantifies cost savings over time in a labor intensive process. Learning curve theory has been traditionally applied to a production process. This paper examines the application of learning curve theory in cost estimating of waste characterization in storage at a DOE facility

  14. Curves and graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitelli, T.

    1976-01-01

    The study of a 'f(x)' function in a cartesian system is made and orientation is given about the square minimum method. The use of logarithimic and dilogarithimic system is analysed. In the graphic representation, the linear diagram, hystograms and the accumulated frequency polygon are analysed. In all the study, several examples applyed to nuclear medicine are given [pt

  15. Updated Hubbert curves analyze world oil supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanhoe, L.F.

    1996-01-01

    The question is not whether, but when, world crude oil production will start to decline, ushering in the permanent oil shock era. While global information for predicting this event is not so straightforward as the data M. King Hubbert used in creating his famous Hubbert Curve that predicted the US (Lower 48 states, or US/48) 1970 oil production peak, there are strong indications that most of the world's large exploration targets have now been found. Meanwhile, the earth's population is exploding along with the oil needs of Asia's developing nations. This article reviews Hubbert's original analyses on oil discovery and production curves for the US/48 and projects his proven methodology onto global oil discoveries and production as of 1992. The world's oil discovery curve peaked in 1962, and thence declined, as a Hubbert Curve predicts. However, global production was restricted after the 1973 Arab oil embargo. Otherwise, world production would have peaked in the mid-1990s. Two graphs show alternate versions of future global oil production

  16. An associative and noncommutative product for the low energy effective theory of a D-brane in curved backgrounds and bi-local fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Nakayama, Ryuichi

    2002-01-01

    We point out that when a D-brane is placed in an NS-NS B field background with nonvanishing field strength (H=dB) along the D-brane worldvolume, the coordinate of one end of the open string does not commute with that of the other in the low energy limit. The degrees of the freedom associated with both ends are not decoupled and accordingly, the effective action must be quite different from that of the ordinary noncommutative gauge theory for a constant B background. We construct an associative and noncommutative product * which operates on the coordinates of both ends of the string and propose a new type of noncommutative gauge action for the low energy effective theory of a Dp-brane. This effective theory is bi-local and lives in twice as large dimensions (2D=2(p+1)) as in the H=0 case. When viewed as a theory in the D-dimensional space, this theory is nonlocal and we must force the two ends of the string to coincide. We will then propose a prescription for reducing this bi-local effective action to that in D dimensions and obtaining a local effective action

  17. Codes and curves

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Judy L

    2000-01-01

    When information is transmitted, errors are likely to occur. Coding theory examines efficient ways of packaging data so that these errors can be detected, or even corrected. The traditional tools of coding theory have come from combinatorics and group theory. Lately, however, coding theorists have added techniques from algebraic geometry to their toolboxes. In particular, by re-interpreting the Reed-Solomon codes, one can see how to define new codes based on divisors on algebraic curves. For instance, using modular curves over finite fields, Tsfasman, Vladut, and Zink showed that one can define a sequence of codes with asymptotically better parameters than any previously known codes. This monograph is based on a series of lectures the author gave as part of the IAS/PCMI program on arithmetic algebraic geometry. Here, the reader is introduced to the exciting field of algebraic geometric coding theory. Presenting the material in the same conversational tone of the lectures, the author covers linear codes, inclu...

  18. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, L. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across countries. These tools allow policy-makers and the general public to grasp at a single glance the impact of conventional distribution rules such as equal caps or grandfathering, or more sophisticated ones, on the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions. Second, using the Samuelson rule for the optimal provision of a public good, the Pareto-optimal distribution of carbon emissions is compared with the distribution that follows if countries follow Nash-Cournot abatement strategies. It is shown that the Pareto-optimal distribution under the Samuelson rule can be approximated by the equal cap division, represented by the diagonal in the Lorenz curve diagram.

  19. Dynamics of curved fronts

    CERN Document Server

    Pelce, Pierre

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, much progress has been made in the understanding of interface dynamics of various systems: hydrodynamics, crystal growth, chemical reactions, and combustion. Dynamics of Curved Fronts is an important contribution to this field and will be an indispensable reference work for researchers and graduate students in physics, applied mathematics, and chemical engineering. The book consist of a 100 page introduction by the editor and 33 seminal articles from various disciplines.

  20. International Wage Curves

    OpenAIRE

    David G. Blanchflower; Andrew J. Oswald

    1992-01-01

    The paper provides evidence for the existence of a negatively sloped locus linking the level of pay to the rate of regional (or industry) unemployment. This "wage curve" is estimated using microeconomic data for Britain, the US, Canada, Korea, Austria, Italy, Holland, Switzerland, Norway, and Germany, The average unemployment elasticity of pay is approximately -0.1. The paper sets out a multi-region efficiency wage model and argues that its predictions are consistent with the data.

  1. Anatomical curve identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Adrian W.; Katina, Stanislav; Smith, Joanna; Brown, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Methods for capturing images in three dimensions are now widely available, with stereo-photogrammetry and laser scanning being two common approaches. In anatomical studies, a number of landmarks are usually identified manually from each of these images and these form the basis of subsequent statistical analysis. However, landmarks express only a very small proportion of the information available from the images. Anatomically defined curves have the advantage of providing a much richer expression of shape. This is explored in the context of identifying the boundary of breasts from an image of the female torso and the boundary of the lips from a facial image. The curves of interest are characterised by ridges or valleys. Key issues in estimation are the ability to navigate across the anatomical surface in three-dimensions, the ability to recognise the relevant boundary and the need to assess the evidence for the presence of the surface feature of interest. The first issue is addressed by the use of principal curves, as an extension of principal components, the second by suitable assessment of curvature and the third by change-point detection. P-spline smoothing is used as an integral part of the methods but adaptations are made to the specific anatomical features of interest. After estimation of the boundary curves, the intermediate surfaces of the anatomical feature of interest can be characterised by surface interpolation. This allows shape variation to be explored using standard methods such as principal components. These tools are applied to a collection of images of women where one breast has been reconstructed after mastectomy and where interest lies in shape differences between the reconstructed and unreconstructed breasts. They are also applied to a collection of lip images where possible differences in shape between males and females are of interest. PMID:26041943

  2. Estimating Corporate Yield Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Antionio Diaz; Frank Skinner

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents the first study of retail deposit spreads of UK financial institutions using stochastic interest rate modelling and the market comparable approach. By replicating quoted fixed deposit rates using the Black Derman and Toy (1990) stochastic interest rate model, we find that the spread between fixed and variable rates of interest can be modeled (and priced) using an interest rate swap analogy. We also find that we can estimate an individual bank deposit yield curve as a spr...

  3. LCC: Light Curves Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Light Curves Classifier uses data mining and machine learning to obtain and classify desired objects. This task can be accomplished by attributes of light curves or any time series, including shapes, histograms, or variograms, or by other available information about the inspected objects, such as color indices, temperatures, and abundances. After specifying features which describe the objects to be searched, the software trains on a given training sample, and can then be used for unsupervised clustering for visualizing the natural separation of the sample. The package can be also used for automatic tuning parameters of used methods (for example, number of hidden neurons or binning ratio). Trained classifiers can be used for filtering outputs from astronomical databases or data stored locally. The Light Curve Classifier can also be used for simple downloading of light curves and all available information of queried stars. It natively can connect to OgleII, OgleIII, ASAS, CoRoT, Kepler, Catalina and MACHO, and new connectors or descriptors can be implemented. In addition to direct usage of the package and command line UI, the program can be used through a web interface. Users can create jobs for ”training” methods on given objects, querying databases and filtering outputs by trained filters. Preimplemented descriptors, classifier and connectors can be picked by simple clicks and their parameters can be tuned by giving ranges of these values. All combinations are then calculated and the best one is used for creating the filter. Natural separation of the data can be visualized by unsupervised clustering.

  4. Microbial accumulation of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Dong Faqin; Dai Qunwei

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of microbial accumulation of uranium and the effects of some factors (including pH, initial uranium concentration, pretreatment of bacteria, and so on) on microbial accumulation of uranium are discussed briefly. The research direction and application prospect are presented. (authors)

  5. Growth curve of lambs from three systems of production in Northeastern BrazilCurva de crescimento de cordeiros oriundos de três sistemas de produção na Região Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio Costa Teixeira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to analyze nonlinear models to describe growth of lambs in three production systems. The models used were: Brody, Von Bertalanffy, Gompertz and Richards. In a 1 production system was used lambs in “creep feeding”, weaned at 60 days old and kept on pasture until they reach average 20 kg, when they were confined, slaughtered between 28 and 30 kg. In the 2 production system, lambs weaned at 90 days and kept on cultivated pasture and slaughtered between 28 and 30 kg, were used. In 3 Production System, lambs weaned at 90 days old and kept in an area of native pasture supplemented with elephant grass and leucena, in the critical period of the year and slaughtered at 28 to 30 kg were used. 17 weights of 30 animals, 10 animals for each system, from birth to 450 days, were used. Based on the study of the growth curves that are best adapted to predict the results of growth were those of Richards and Brody models, however none of the models simulated curve showed satisfactory results for the three production systems.O objetivo foi analisar modelos não lineares para descrever o crescimento de cordeiros criados em três Sistemas de produção. Os modelos utilizados forram: Brody, Von Bertalanffy, Richards e Gompertz. No Sistema de produção 1 utilizaram-se cordeiros alimentados em “creep-feeding”, desmamados aos 60 dias de idade e mantidos em pastagem cultivada até atingirem media de 20 kg, quando foram confinados, e abatidos entre 28 e 30 kg. No Sistema de produção 2 utilizaram-se cordeiros desmamados aos 90 dias e mantidos em pastagem cultivada, sendo abatidos entre 28 e 30 kg. No Sistema de produção 3 utilizaram-se cordeiros desmamados com 90 dias de idade e mantidos em área de pastagem nativa suplementados com feno de capim elefante e de leucena no período crítico do ano e abatidos aos 28 e 30 kg. Foram utilizadas 17 pesagens de 30 animais, sendo 10 animais para cada Sistema, do nascimento aos 450 dias. Com base no

  6. Accumulation of sunscreen in human skin after daily applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Akerström, Ulf; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sunscreen applied to the skin provides a considerable sun protection factor (SPF) even after 8 h. Sunscreen use for consecutive days may therefore result in an accumulation of the product. This study investigated the consequences of accumulation for SPF....

  7. Implementation Learning and Forgetting Curve to Scheduling in Garment Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad Badri, Huda; Deros, Baba Md; Syahri, M.; Saleh, Chairul; Fitria, Aninda

    2016-02-01

    The learning curve shows the relationship between time and the cumulative number of units produced which using the mathematical description on the performance of workers in performing repetitive works. The problems of this study is level differences in the labors performance before and after the break which affects the company's production scheduling. The study was conducted in the garment industry, which the aims is to predict the company production scheduling using the learning curve and forgetting curve. By implementing the learning curve and forgetting curve, this paper contributes in improving the labors performance that is in line with the increase in maximum output 3 hours productive before the break are 15 unit product with learning curve percentage in the company is 93.24%. Meanwhile, the forgetting curve improving maximum output 3 hours productive after the break are 11 unit product with the percentage of forgetting curve in the company is 92.96%. Then, the obtained 26 units product on the productive hours one working day is used as the basic for production scheduling.

  8. Uniformization of elliptic curves

    OpenAIRE

    Ülkem, Özge; Ulkem, Ozge

    2015-01-01

    Every elliptic curve E defined over C is analytically isomorphic to C*=qZ for some q ∊ C*. Similarly, Tate has shown that if E is defined over a p-adic field K, then E is analytically isomorphic to K*=qZ for some q ∊ K . Further the isomorphism E(K) ≅ K*/qZ respects the action of the Galois group GK/K, where K is the algebraic closure of K. I will explain the construction of this isomorphism.

  9. Flow characteristics of curved ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf P.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Curved channels are very often present in real hydraulic systems, e.g. curved diffusers of hydraulic turbines, S-shaped bulb turbines, fittings, etc. Curvature brings change of velocity profile, generation of vortices and production of hydraulic losses. Flow simulation using CFD techniques were performed to understand these phenomena. Cases ranging from single elbow to coupled elbows in shapes of U, S and spatial right angle position with circular cross-section were modeled for Re = 60000. Spatial development of the flow was studied and consequently it was deduced that minor losses are connected with the transformation of pressure energy into kinetic energy and vice versa. This transformation is a dissipative process and is reflected in the amount of the energy irreversibly lost. Least loss coefficient is connected with flow in U-shape elbows, biggest one with flow in Sshape elbows. Finally, the extent of the flow domain influenced by presence of curvature was examined. This isimportant for proper placement of mano- and flowmeters during experimental tests. Simulations were verified with experimental results presented in literature.

  10. Roc curves for continuous data

    CERN Document Server

    Krzanowski, Wojtek J

    2009-01-01

    Since ROC curves have become ubiquitous in many application areas, the various advances have been scattered across disparate articles and texts. ROC Curves for Continuous Data is the first book solely devoted to the subject, bringing together all the relevant material to provide a clear understanding of how to analyze ROC curves.The fundamental theory of ROC curvesThe book first discusses the relationship between the ROC curve and numerous performance measures and then extends the theory into practice by describing how ROC curves are estimated. Further building on the theory, the authors prese

  11. Estimation of accumulated individual doses from waterborne pulse releases of tritium and activation products into the Baltic Sea from a hypothetical fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edlund, O

    1995-04-01

    The committed effective dose to a critical group during 50 years attributed to pulse unit releases of tritium and activation products (in total 66 nuclides) from a thought postulated fusion power plant into Tvaeren Bay, a part of the Baltic Sea with brackish water, outside Studsvik, Sweden, is calculated. The purpose of this work is to obtain (simple) relationships between release and dose for relevant nuclides for use in the future when realistic source terms are known. 26 refs, 8 tabs, 4 figs.

  12. Estimation of accumulated individual doses from waterborne pulse releases of tritium and activation products into the Baltic Sea from a hypothetical fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlund, O.

    1995-04-01

    The committed effective dose to a critical group during 50 years attributed to pulse unit releases of tritium and activation products (in total 66 nuclides) from a thought postulated fusion power plant into Tvaeren Bay, a part of the Baltic Sea with brackish water, outside Studsvik, Sweden, is calculated. The purpose of this work is to obtain (simple) relationships between release and dose for relevant nuclides for use in the future when realistic source terms are known. 26 refs, 8 tabs, 4 figs

  13. M-curves and symmetric products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. INDRANIL BISWAS1 SHANE D'MELLO2. School of Mathematics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India; Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411 008, India ...

  14. Global experience curves for wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, M.; Faaij, A.; Turkenburg, W.C.

    2005-01-01

    In order to forecast the technological development and cost of wind turbines and the production costs of wind electricity, frequent use is made of the so-called experience curve concept. Experience curves of wind turbines are generally based on data describing the development of national markets, which cause a number of problems when applied for global assessments. To analyze global wind energy price development more adequately, we compose a global experience curve. First, underlying factors for past and potential future price reductions of wind turbines are analyzed. Also possible implications and pitfalls when applying the experience curve methodology are assessed. Second, we present and discuss a new approach of establishing a global experience curve and thus a global progress ratio for the investment cost of wind farms. Results show that global progress ratios for wind farms may lie between 77% and 85% (with an average of 81%), which is significantly more optimistic than progress ratios applied in most current scenario studies and integrated assessment models. While the findings are based on a limited amount of data, they may indicate faster price reduction opportunities than so far assumed. With this global experience curve we aim to improve the reliability of describing the speed with which global costs of wind power may decline

  15. Hypertension induces brain β-amyloid accumulation, cognitive impairment, and memory deterioration through activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products in brain vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Daniela; Mascio, Giada; D'Andrea, Ivana; Fardella, Valentina; Bell, Robert D; Branchi, Igor; Pallante, Fabio; Zlokovic, Berislav; Yan, Shirley Shidu; Lembo, Giuseppe

    2012-07-01

    Although epidemiological data associate hypertension with a strong predisposition to develop Alzheimer disease, no mechanistic explanation exists so far. We developed a model of hypertension, obtained by transverse aortic constriction, leading to alterations typical of Alzheimer disease, such as amyloid plaques, neuroinflammation, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, and cognitive impairment, shown here for the first time. The aim of this work was to investigate the mechanisms involved in Alzheimer disease of hypertensive mice. We focused on receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) that critically regulates Aβ transport at the blood-brain barrier and could be influenced by vascular factors. The hypertensive challenge had an early and sustained effect on RAGE upregulation in brain vessels of the cortex and hippocampus. Interestingly, RAGE inhibition protected from hypertension-induced Alzheimer pathology, as showed by rescue from cognitive impairment and parenchymal Aβ deposition. The increased RAGE expression in transverse aortic coarctation mice was induced by increased circulating advanced glycation end products and sustained by their later deposition in brain vessels. Interestingly, a daily treatment with an advanced glycation end product inhibitor or antioxidant prevented the development of Alzheimer traits. So far, Alzheimer pathology in experimental animal models has been recognized using only transgenic mice overexpressing amyloid precursor. This is the first study demonstrating that a chronic vascular insult can activate brain vascular RAGE, favoring parenchymal Aβ deposition and the onset of cognitive deterioration. Overall we demonstrate that RAGE activation in brain vessels is a crucial pathogenetic event in hypertension-induced Alzheimer disease, suggesting that inhibiting this target can limit the onset of vascular-related Alzheimer disease.

  16. On the hazard accumulation of actinide waste in a Pu-fueled LMFBR power economy with and without by-product actinide recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmi, L.; Caruso, K.; Hage, W.; Schmidt, E.

    1979-01-01

    The actinide waste arisings in terms of hazard potential for ingestion and inhalation are given for a Pu-fueled LMFBR Power Economy as function of decay time. The data were assessed for two simplified fuel cycles, one considering the recycling of by-product actinides and the other their complete discharge to the high-level waste. Two durations of nuclear power and several loss fractions of actinides to the waste were considered. The major contributors in form of chemical elements or isotopes to the actinide waste hazard built up during the nuclear power duration were identified for various decay intervals

  17. Curved Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrowolski, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    The constant curvature one and quasi-one dimensional Josephson junction is considered. On the base of Maxwell equations, the sine–Gordon equation that describes an influence of curvature on the kink motion was obtained. It is showed that the method of geometrical reduction of the sine–Gordon model from three to lower dimensional manifold leads to an identical form of the sine–Gordon equation. - Highlights: ► The research on dynamics of the phase in a curved Josephson junction is performed. ► The geometrical reduction is applied to the sine–Gordon model. ► The results of geometrical reduction and the fundamental research are compared.

  18. Curved-Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyun Baekt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is conducted on the fully-developed laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a square duct rotating about a perpendicular axis to the axial direction of the duct. At the straight duct, the rotation produces vortices due to the Coriolis force. Generally two vortex cells are formed and the axial velocity distribution is distorted by the effect of this Coriolis force. When a convective force is weak, two counter-rotating vortices are shown with a quasi-parabolic axial velocity profile for weak rotation rates. As the rotation rate increases, the axial velocity on the vertical centreline of the duct begins to flatten and the location of vorticity center is moved near to wall by the effect of the Coriolis force. When the convective inertia force is strong, a double-vortex secondary flow appears in the transverse planes of the duct for weak rotation rates but as the speed of rotation increases the secondary flow is shown to split into an asymmetric configuration of four counter-rotating vortices. If the rotation rates are increased further, the secondary flow restabilizes to a slightly asymmetric double-vortex configuration. Also, a numerical study is conducted on the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a 90°-bend square duct that rotates about axis parallel to the axial direction of the inlet. At a 90°-bend square duct, the feature of flow by the effect of a Coriolis force and a centrifugal force, namely a secondary flow by the centrifugal force in the curved region and the Coriolis force in the downstream region, is shown since the centrifugal force in curved region and the Coriolis force in downstream region are dominant respectively.

  19. Elliptic curves for applications (Tutorial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, T.; Bernstein, D.J.; Chatterjee, S.

    2011-01-01

    More than 25 years ago, elliptic curves over finite fields were suggested as a group in which the Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP) can be hard. Since then many researchers have scrutinized the security of the DLP on elliptic curves with the result that for suitably chosen curves only exponential

  20. Titration Curves: Fact and Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, John

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ways in which datalogging equipment can enable titration curves to be measured accurately and how computing power can be used to predict the shape of curves. Highlights include sources of error, use of spreadsheets to generate titration curves, titration of a weak acid with a strong alkali, dibasic acids, weak acid and weak base, and…

  1. Comparison of wind turbines based on power curve analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    In the study measured power curves for 46 wind turbines were analyzed with the purpose to establish the basis for a consistent comparison of the efficiency of the wind turbines. Emphasis is on wind turbines above 500 kW rated power, with power curves measured after 1994 according to international recommendations. The available power curves fulfilling these requirements were smoothened according to a procedure developed for the purpose in such a way that the smoothened power curves are equally representative as the measured curves. The resulting smoothened power curves are presented in a standardized format for the subsequent processing. Using wind turbine data from the power curve documentation the analysis results in curves for specific energy production (kWh/M{sup 2}/yr) versus specific rotor load (kW/M{sup 2}) for a range of mean wind speeds. On this basis generalized curves for specific annual energy production versus specific rotor load are established for a number of generalized wind turbine concepts. The 46 smoothened standardized power curves presented in the report, the procedure developed to establish them, and the results of the analysis based on them aim at providers of measured power curves as well as users of them including manufacturers, advisors and decision makers. (au)

  2. Productivity and accumulation of nutrients in plants of jambu, under mineral and organic fertilizationProdutividade e acúmulo de nutrientes em plantas de jambu, sob adubação orgânica e mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana da Silva Borges

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The organic production is a system that allows achieving good levels of productivity, while avoiding the risks of chemical contamination of farmers, consumers and the environment. Because jambu plant is widely used as alternative medicine and cosmetics industries, has been increasing interest in its cultivation. The aim of this study was to analyze the biomass, accumulation of nutrient, productivity and determine the pesticide residue in plant jambu when grown under organic and mineral fertilization. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm São Manuel, FCA / UNESP. The experiment was conducted at São Manuel Experimental Farm UNESP. The statistical was arranged in the randomized block design, in a 2 x 6 factorial scheme, two sources of fertilizers (organic and mineral and six doses of nitrogen, with four replications. The characteristics evaluated were plant height, fresh and dry weight, nutrients of accumulation in shoots and productivity. Mineral fertilizer gave higher biomass, productivity and accumulation of N and K in relation to organic fertilizer used. It is recommended the dose of 90g m-2 of urea as appropriate to obtain these results. However the organic fertilization favored the accumulation of phosphorus in plants jambu in relation the mineral fertilizer, and the dose of 10 kg m-2 of cattle manure recommended to achieve this result in plants jambu. We did not detect the presence of phosphorous and carbamate on leaves of jambu under organic and mineral fertilization. However, we observed the presence of chlorine in the leaves used for the two fertilizations.A produção orgânica é um sistema que permite alcançar bons níveis de produtividade, evitando ao mesmo tempo os riscos de contaminação química do agricultor, dos consumidores e do meio ambiente. Pelo fato da planta de jambu ser bastante utilizada como medicamento alternativo e por indústrias de cosméticos, vem aumentando o interesse pelo seu cultivo. Assim, o

  3. A Journey Between Two Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Cherkis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A typical solution of an integrable system is described in terms of a holomorphic curve and a line bundle over it. The curve provides the action variables while the time evolution is a linear flow on the curve's Jacobian. Even though the system of Nahm equations is closely related to the Hitchin system, the curves appearing in these two cases have very different nature. The former can be described in terms of some classical scattering problem while the latter provides a solution to some Seiberg-Witten gauge theory. This note identifies the setup in which one can formulate the question of relating the two curves.

  4. Heat and cold accumulators in vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauranen, P.; Wikstroem, L. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Advanced Materials, Tampere (Finland)); Heikkinen, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Building Services and Indoor Environment, Espoo (Finland)); Laurikko, J.; Elonen, T. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Emission Control, Espoo (Finland)); Seppaelae, A. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Applied Thermodynamics, Espoo (Finland)). Email: ari.seppala@tkk.fi

    2009-07-01

    Phase Change Material (PCM) based heat and cold accumulators have been tailored for transport applications including a mail delivery van as well as the cold chains of foodstuff and blood products. The PCMs can store relative large amount of thermal energy in a narrow temperature interval as latent heat of fusion of their melting and crystallization processes. Compact heat and cold accumulators can be designed using PCMs. The aim of the project has been to reduce the exhaust gas and noise emissions and improve the fuel economy of the transport systems and to improve the reliability of the cold chains studied by storing thermal energy in PCM accumulators. (orig.)

  5. Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.; Kim, J.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    Potential water retention, S, is one of parameters commonly used in hydrologic modeling for soil moisture accounting. Physically, S indicates total amount of water which can be stored in soil and is expressed in units of depth. S can be represented as a change of soil moisture content and in this context is commonly used to estimate direct runoff, especially in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number (CN) method. Generally, the lumped and the distributed hydrologic models can easily use the SCS-CN method to estimate direct runoff. Changes in potential water retention have been used in previous SCS-CN studies; however, these studies have focused on long-term hydrologic simulations where S is allowed to vary at the daily time scale. While useful for hydrologic events that span multiple days, the resolution is too coarse for short-term applications such as flash flood events where S may not recover its full potential. In this study, a new method for estimating a time-variable potential water retention at hourly time-scales is presented. The methodology is applied for the Napa River basin, California. The streamflow gage at St Helena, located in the upper reaches of the basin, is used as the control gage site to evaluate the model performance as it is has minimal influences by reservoirs and diversions. Rainfall events from 2011 to 2012 are used for estimating the event-based SCS CN to transfer to S. As a result, we have derived the potential water retention curve and it is classified into three sections depending on the relative change in S. The first is a negative slope section arising from the difference in the rate of moving water through the soil column, the second is a zero change section representing the initial recovery the potential water retention, and the third is a positive change section representing the full recovery of the potential water retention. Also, we found that the soil water moving has traffic jam within 24 hours after finished first

  6. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  7. Effect of pretreatment severity on accumulation of major degradation products from dilute acid pretreated corn stover and subsequent inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Byung-Hwan; van Walsum, G Peter

    2012-09-01

    The concept of reaction severity, which combines residence time and temperature, is often used in the pulp and paper and biorefining industries. The influence of corn stover pretreatment severity on yield of sugar and major degradation products and subsequent effects on enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis was investigated. The pretreatment residence time and temperature, combined into the severity factor (Log R(o)), were varied with constant acid concentration. With increasing severity, increasing concentrations of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) coincided with decreasing yields of oligosaccharides. With further increase in severity factor, the concentrations of furans decreased, while the formation of formic acid and lactic acid increased. For example, from severity 3.87 to 4.32, xylose decreased from 6.39 to 5.26 mg/mL, while furfural increased from 1.04 to 1.33 mg/mL; as the severity was further increased to 4.42, furfural diminished to 1.23 mg/mL as formate rose from 0.62 to 1.83 mg/mL. The effects of dilute acid hydrolyzate, acetic acid, and lignin, in particular, on enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated with a rapid microassay method. The microplate method gave considerable time and cost savings compared to the traditional assay protocol, and it is applicable to a broad range of lignocellulosic substrates.

  8. Expression of TPS1 gene from Saccharomycopsis fibuligera A11 in Saccharomyces sp. W0 enhances trehalose accumulation, ethanol tolerance, and ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tian-Shu; Chi, Zhe; Liu, Guang-Lei; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that trehalose plays an important role in stress tolerance in yeasts. Therefore, in order to construct a stably recombinant Saccharomyces sp. W0 with higher ethanol tolerance, the TPS1 gene encoding 6-phosphate-trehalose synthase cloned from Saccharomycopsis fibuligera A11 was ligated into the 18S rDNA integration vector pMIRSC11 and integrated into chromosomal DNA of Saccharomyces sp. W0. The transformant Z8 obtained had the content of 6.23 g of trehalose/100 g of cell dry weight, while Saccharomyces sp. W0 only contained 4.05 g of trehalose/100 g of cell dry weight. The transformant Z8 also had higher ethanol tolerance (cell survival was 25.1 % at 18 ml of ethanol/100 ml of solution) and trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (Tps1) activity (1.3 U/mg) and produced more ethanol (16.4 ml of ethanol/100 ml of medium) than Saccharomyces sp. W0 (cell survival was 12.1 % at 18 ml of ethanol/100 ml of solution, Tps1 activity was 0.8 U/mg and the produced ethanol concentration was 14.2 ml of ethanol/100 ml of medium) under the same conditions. The results show that trehalose indeed can play an important role in ethanol tolerance and ethanol production by Saccharomyces sp. W0.

  9. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  10. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  11. Creation / accumulation city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doevendans, C.H.; Schram, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    A distinction between basic archetypes of urban form was made by Bruno Fortier: the accumulation city as opposed to the creation city. These archetypes derive from archaeology - being based on the Roman and the Egyptian city - but are interpreted as morphological paradigms, as a set of assumptions

  12. Produção de fitomassa e acúmulo de nutrientes na parte aérea do sorgo de Guiné gigante Biomass production and accumulation of nutrients in shoots of Giant Guinea sorghum plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Pavan Mateus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A escolha de espécies com elevada produção de fitomassa para utilização como plantas de cobertura no sistema de semeadura direta é extremamente importante em regiões de inverno seco. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de fitomassa e acúmulo de nutrientes na parte aérea das plantas de sorgo Guiné gigante (Sorghum bicolor subespécie bicolor raça guinea, semeados em diferentes épocas de semeadura. Foi utilizado um delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por seis épocas de semeadura (25/09/2000; 25/10/2000; 24/11/2000; 22/12/2000; 22/02/2001 e 03/04/2001. Por ocasião do florescimento das plantas, avaliou-se a produção de matéria seca, o número e diâmetro de colmos e a altura das plantas. Também foi determinado o teor e acúmulo de macro e micronutrientes, além da relação C/N. O ciclo das plantas diminuiu com o atraso da época de semeadura, e, conseqüentemente, a produção de matéria seca e a relação C/N também foram menores. Comportamento contrário foi observado para o teor de nutrientes. O sorgo de Guiné gigante é sensível ao fotoperíodo e, portanto, semeaduras mais tardias ocasionam diminuição do crescimento das plantas, produção de biomassa e acúmulo de nutrientes. Esta espécie consiste em uma boa opção para cultivo como planta de cobertura no sistema de semeadura direta devido a alta produção de fitomassa e ciclagem de N, P e K.Choosing species with high phytomass production to be cropped in no tillage system is extremely important in dry winter regions. The purpose of this research was to study plant biomass production and accumulation of nutrients in shoots of Giant Guinea sorghum plants (Sorghum bicolor subspecies bicolor race Guinea sown in different sowing dates. A randomized complete block design with six treatments and four replications was performed. Treatments consisted of six sowing dates (09/25/2000; 10

  13. Incorporating experience curves in appliance standards analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina; Kantner, Colleen; Van Buskirk, Robert; Yang, Hung-Chia

    2013-01-01

    There exists considerable evidence that manufacturing costs and consumer prices of residential appliances have decreased in real terms over the last several decades. This phenomenon is generally attributable to manufacturing efficiency gained with cumulative experience producing a certain good, and is modeled by an empirical experience curve. The technical analyses conducted in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have, until recently, assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. This assumption does not reflect real market price dynamics. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards analyses for these products. Including experience curves increases the national consumer net present value of potential standard levels. In some cases a potential standard level exhibits a net benefit when considering experience, whereas without experience it exhibits a net cost. These results highlight the importance of modeling more representative market prices. - Highlights: ► Past appliance standards analyses have assumed constant equipment prices. ► There is considerable evidence of consistent real price declines. ► We incorporate experience curves for several large appliances into the analysis. ► The revised analyses demonstrate larger net present values of potential standards. ► The results imply that past standards analyses may have undervalued benefits.

  14. Development of a statistically-based lower bound fracture toughness curve (Ksub(IR) curve)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wullaert, R.A.; Server, W.L.; Oldfield, W.; Stahlkopf, K.E.

    1977-01-01

    A program of initiation fracture toughness measurements on fifty heats of nuclear pressure vessel production materials (including weldments) was used to develop a methodology for establishing a revised reference toughness curve. The new methodology was statistically developed and provides a predefined confidence limit (or tolerance limit) for fracture toughness based upon many heats of a particular type of material. Overall reference curves were developed for seven specific materials using large specimen static and dynamic fracture toughness results. The heat-to-heat variation was removed by normalizing both the fracture toughness and temperature data with the precracked Charpy tanh curve coefficients for each particular heat. The variance and distribution about the curve were determined, and lower bounds of predetermined statistical significance were drawn based upon a Pearson distribution in the lower shelf region (since the data were skewed to high values) and a t-distribution in the transition temperature region (since the data were normally distributed)

  15. Models of genus one curves

    OpenAIRE

    Sadek, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we give insight into the minimisation problem of genus one curves defined by equations other than Weierstrass equations. We are interested in genus one curves given as double covers of P1, plane cubics, or complete intersections of two quadrics in P3. By minimising such a curve we mean making the invariants associated to its defining equations as small as possible using a suitable change of coordinates. We study the non-uniqueness of minimisations of the genus one curves des...

  16. Selenium accumulation by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate 100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible tissues, which

  17. Accumulation of satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, V.S.; Ruskol, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    Formation and evolution of circumplanetary satellite swarms are investigated. Characteristic times of various processes are estimated. The characteristic time for the accumulation of the bodies in the swarm was several orders of magnitude shorter than that of the planet, i.e. than the time of the replenishment of the material by the swarm (10 8 yr). The model of the accumulation of the swarm is constructed taking into account the increase of its mass due to trapping of heliocentrically moving particles and its decrease due to outfall of the inner part of the swarm onto the growing planet. The accumulation of circumplanetary bodies is also considered. The main features of the evolution of the swarm essentially depend on the size distribution of bodies in the swarm and in the zone of the planet and also on the degree of the concentration of the swarm mass toward the planet. If the sum of the exponents of the inverse power laws of these distributions is less than 7, the model of the transparent swarm developed in this paper should be preferred. When this sum is greater than 7, the model of opaque swarm suggested by A. Harris and W.M. Kaula is better. There is predominant trapping of small particles into the swarm due to their more frequent collisions. Optical thickness of the protoplanetary cloud in radial direction is estimated. It is shown that at the final stage of the planetary accumulation, the cloud was semitransparent in the region of terrestrial planets and volatile substances evaporated at collisions could be swept out from the outer parts of the satellite swarm by the solar wind

  18. Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1980-01-01

    The AA in its final stage of construction, before it disappeared from view under concrete shielding. Antiprotons were first injected, stochastically cooled and accumulated in July 1980. From 1981 on, the AA provided antiprotons for collisions with protons, first in the ISR, then in the SPS Collider. From 1983 on, it also sent antiprotons, via the PS, to the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). The AA was dismantled in 1997 and shipped to Japan.

  19. Rapid charging of nickel-cadmium accumulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruck, F

    1972-01-01

    Four types of charging of gas-tight Ni-Cd accumulators (a) normal; (b) accelerated; (c) rapid; and (d) ultra-rapid are described. For rapid charging, a built-in temperature sensor cuts off charging current at a prescribed point. In ultra-rapid charging, 50% charge can be attained in 3.5 min. and 25% charge within 50 sec. In the second phase of ultra-rapid charging, a surplus of oxygen is released at the positive electrode and a safety valve is provided for pressure reduction. Characteristic curves are given for various rates of charging and some data on discharge rates is also given.

  20. Modelagem Não-linear da Produção Acumulada de Biogás em Rede de Biodigestores Anaeróbios. = Non lineal model of the biogas accumulated production in anaerobe digester’s network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Nunes Lopes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente nota tem por objetivo descrever o modelo padrão não linear (determinístico Gompertz e exponencial de base γ da produção acumulada de biogás em rede de biodigestores anaeróbios. Modelam-se os efeitos da variação da quantidade de biomassa, água e inóculo na produção de biogás e da redução nos teores de sólidos totais e voláteis. E faz-se correção de volume de biogás para a CNTP (200C, 1atm. = The present technical notes aims to describe a nonlinear standard model (Gompertz deterministic and γ base exponential for accumulated production of biogas in a network of anaerobic digester’s. In this way, some variation effects were modelled for biomass, water and inoculate quantities, considering the biogas production as well as reduction of total solids and volatile contents. It also includes the correction of biogas volumes for normal temperature and pressure conditions (200C, 1 atm.

  1. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  2. Quantum fields in curved space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birrell, N.D.; Davies, P.C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The book presents a comprehensive review of the subject of gravitational effects in quantum field theory. Quantum field theory in Minkowski space, quantum field theory in curved spacetime, flat spacetime examples, curved spacetime examples, stress-tensor renormalization, applications of renormalization techniques, quantum black holes and interacting fields are all discussed in detail. (U.K.)

  3. Extended analysis of cooling curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurdjevic, M.B.; Kierkus, W.T.; Liliac, R.E.; Sokolowski, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal Analysis (TA) is the measurement of changes in a physical property of a material that is heated through a phase transformation temperature range. The temperature changes in the material are recorded as a function of the heating or cooling time in such a manner that allows for the detection of phase transformations. In order to increase accuracy, characteristic points on the cooling curve have been identified using the first derivative curve plotted versus time. In this paper, an alternative approach to the analysis of the cooling curve has been proposed. The first derivative curve has been plotted versus temperature and all characteristic points have been identified with the same accuracy achieved using the traditional method. The new cooling curve analysis also enables the Dendrite Coherency Point (DCP) to be detected using only one thermocouple. (author)

  4. Hydrogen technologies and the technology learning curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.-H.

    1998-01-01

    On their bumpy road to commercialization, hydrogen production, delivery and conversion technologies not only require dedicated research, development and demonstration efforts, but also protected niche markets and early adopters. While niche markets utilize the unique technological properties of hydrogen, adopters exhibit a willingness to pay a premium for hydrogen fueled energy services. The concept of the technology learning curve is applied to estimate the capital requirements associated with the commercialization process of several hydrogen technologies. (author)

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plastic products, indoor dust, sediment and fish from informal e-waste recycling sites in Vietnam: a comprehensive assessment of contamination, accumulation pattern, emissions, and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Hoang Quoc; Nam, Vu Duc; Tri, Tran Manh; Ha, Nguyen Manh; Ngoc, Nguyen Thuy; Mai, Pham Thi Ngoc; Anh, Duong Hong; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Minh, Tu Binh

    2017-08-01

    Residue concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in different kinds of samples including consumer products, indoor dust, sediment and fish collected from two e-waste recycling sites, and some industrial, urban and suburban areas in Vietnam were determined to provide a comprehensive assessment of the contamination levels, accumulation pattern, emission potential and human exposure through dust ingestion and fish consumption. There was a large variation of PBDE levels in plastic parts of obsolete electronic equipment (from 1730 to 97,300 ng/g), which is a common result observed in consumer plastic products reported elsewhere. PBDE levels in indoor dust samples collected from e-waste recycling sites ranged from 250 to 8740 ng/g, which were markedly higher than those in industrial areas and household offices. Emission rate of PBDEs from plastic parts of disposed electronic equipment to dust was estimated to be in a range from 3.4 × 10 -7 to 1.2 × 10 -5 (year -1 ) for total PBDEs and from 2.9 × 10 -7 to 7.2 × 10 -6 (year -1 ) for BDE-209. Some fish species collected from ponds in e-waste recycling villages contained elevated levels of PBDEs, especially BDE-209, which were markedly higher than those in fish previously reported. Overall, levels and patterns of PBDE accumulation in different kinds of samples suggest significant emission from e-waste sites and that these areas are potential sources of PBDE contamination. Intakes of PBDEs via fish consumption were generally higher than those estimated through dust ingestion. Intake of BDE-99 and BDE-209 through dust ingestion contributes a large proportion due to higher concentrations in dust and fish. Body weight normalized daily intake through dust ingestion estimated for the e-waste recycling sites (0.10-3.46 ng/day/kg body wt.) were in a high range as compared to those reported in other countries. Our results highlight the potential releases of PBDEs from informal recycling activities and

  6. Computational aspects of algebraic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Shaska, Tanush

    2005-01-01

    The development of new computational techniques and better computing power has made it possible to attack some classical problems of algebraic geometry. The main goal of this book is to highlight such computational techniques related to algebraic curves. The area of research in algebraic curves is receiving more interest not only from the mathematics community, but also from engineers and computer scientists, because of the importance of algebraic curves in applications including cryptography, coding theory, error-correcting codes, digital imaging, computer vision, and many more.This book cove

  7. Accumulative pollution, "clean technology," and policy design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toman, M.A.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the optimal long-term management of an accumulative but assimilable pollutant through economic incentive policies that restrict more damaging production processes and induce more benign alternatives. Using a simple general equilibrium approach, we consider the possibility that

  8. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) nursery runner plants, cv. eCamarosaf, was determined for three growing seasons. Plant growth and fruit production patterns were also evaluated. The experiments were carried out on plants propagated in high ...

  9. Reinforcement Toolbox, a Parametric Reinforcement Modelling Tool for Curved Surface Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauppe, J.; Rolvink, A.; Coenders, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a computational strategy and parametric modelling toolbox which aim at enhancing the design- and production process of reinforcement in freeform curved surface structures. The computational strategy encompasses the necessary steps of raising an architectural curved surface model

  10. Produtividade acumulada como critério de seleção em fêmeas da raça nelore Accumulated productivity as selection criteria in nellore breed females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Brum Schwengber

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar os componentes de variância e estimar a herdabilidade da produtividade acumulada (PAC de 15.070 fêmeas, criadas em diferentes rebanhos participantes do Programa de Melhoramento Genético da Raça Nelore. A PAC é um índice que considera a produção total de bezerros desmamados em kg, o tempo total de produção de bezerros e o início de parição. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas por meio do programa SAS (Statistical Analysis System e os componentes de variância pelo método de máxima verossimilhança restrita utilizando o software MTDFREML. A média da PAC foi de 130kg de bezerros desmamados por vaca ao ano, e os efeitos do pai da vaca, rebanho e ano de nascimento da vaca foram significativos (PThis work had for objective to determine the variance components and to estimate the heritability of the accumulated productivity (ACP of 15,070 females, reared in different participant herds of the Nellore Breeding Program. ACP is an index that considers the total production of calves weaned in kg, the total time of production of calves and the calving beginning. The statistical analyses were accomplished through the SAS program (Statistical Analysis System and the variance components for the restricted maximum likelihood method using the software MTDFREML. The average of ACP was of 130kg of calves weaned by cow to the year, and the sire of cow effects, herd and year of the birth cow significatly (P<0.0001 affected in the variation of this characteristic. The coefficient of heritability of ACP was estimated in 0.15, indicating the existence of enough genetic variability for its inclusion in the improvement programs, what would result in the obtaining of more productive females in the herds.

  11. 51Cr - erythrocyte survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva Costa, J. de.

    1982-07-01

    Sixteen patients were studied, being fifteen patients in hemolytic state, and a normal individual as a witness. The aim was to obtain better techniques for the analysis of the erythrocytes, survival curves, according to the recommendations of the International Committee of Hematology. It was used the radiochromatic method as a tracer. Previously a revisional study of the International Literature was made in its aspects inherent to the work in execution, rendering possible to establish comparisons and clarify phonomena observed in cur investigation. Several parameters were considered in this study, hindering both the exponential and the linear curves. The analysis of the survival curves of the erythrocytes in the studied group, revealed that the elution factor did not present a homogeneous answer quantitatively to all, though, the result of the analysis of these curves have been established, through listed programs in the electronic calculator. (Author) [pt

  12. Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, H.; Altmann, H.; Kehrer, M.

    1978-08-01

    Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA and data derived of them, are reported. The diminished stability is explained by basedestruction. DNA denatures completely at room temperature, if at least every fifth basepair is broken or weakened by irradiation. (author)

  13. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-01-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls co...

  14. Flow over riblet curved surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, J B R; Freire, A P Silva, E-mail: atila@mecanica.ufrj.br [Mechanical Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), C.P. 68503, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-22

    The present work studies the mechanics of turbulent drag reduction over curved surfaces by riblets. The effects of surface modification on flow separation over steep and smooth curved surfaces are investigated. Four types of two-dimensional surfaces are studied based on the morphometric parameters that describe the body of a blue whale. Local measurements of mean velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained through laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  15. Swift Burst Alert Telescope Data Products and Analysis Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimm, Hans A.; Barbier, Louis M.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Cummings, Jay R.; Gehrels, Neil; Parsons, Ann M.; Tueller, Jack; Fenimore, Edward E.; Palmer, David M.; Hullinger, Derek D.; Markwardt, Craig B.

    2004-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on the Swift gamma-ray burst mission serves as the GRB trigger for Swift as well as a sensitive imaging telescope for the energy range of 15-150 keV. All BAT data products will be available to the astronomical community along with a complete set of analysis tools. Gamma-ray burst data products include rapid discovery messages delivered immediately via the GRB Coordinates Network, and event-by-event data from which light curves and spectra of the burst are generated. During nominal operations, the instrument provides accumulated survey histograms with 5-minute time sampling and appropriate energy resolution. These survey accumulations are analyzed in a pipeline to detect new sources and derive light curves of known sources. The 5-minute surveys will also be combined to produce the BAT all sky hard X-ray survey. In addition, the instrument accumulates high time resolution light curves of the brightest BAT sources in multiple energy bands, which are merged into a source light curve database on the ground. The BAT science data products and analysis tools will be described in this paper

  16. Predictive performances of lipid accumulation product vs. adiposity measures for cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality, 8.6-year follow-up: Tehran lipid and glucose study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi Fereidoun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The body mass index (BMI is the most commonly used marker for evaluating obesity related risks, however, central obesity measures have been proposed to be more informative. Lipid accumulation product (LAP is an alternative continuous index of lipid accumulation. We sought in this study to assess if LAP can outperform BMI, waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR, or waist-to-hip-ratio (WHpR in predicting incident cardiovascular disease (CVD or all-cause mortality. Results Among participants of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, 6,751 participants (2,964 men, aged ≥ 30 years, were followed for a median of 8.6 years. We observed 274 deaths (men: 168 and 447 CVD events (men: 257. Levels of common CVD risk factors significantly increased across LAP quartiles. Mortality rates did not differ by LAP quartiles. Among participants free of CVD at baseline [6331 (2,741 men], CVD incident rates per 1000 person increased in a stepwise fashion with increasing LAP quartile values in both men (from 6.9 to 17.0 and women (from 1.3 to 13.0, (Ps Among women, a 1-SD increment in log-LAP conferred a 41% increased risk for CVD (HR 1.41, 95% CIs 1.02-1.96. Among men, however, LAP was not observed to be independently associated with increased risk of CVD; except in a sub-group of men assigned to the lifestyle modification interventions, where, LAP predicted CVD risk. After adjustment with CVD risk factors LAP turned to be inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality (HR, men 0.74, 95% CIs 0.61-0.90; women, 0.94 95% CIs 0.74-1.20. Among women, magnitude of increased risk of CVD due to LAP was not different from those of anthropometric measures. Among men, however, WHpR was observed to be more strongly associated with increased risk of CVD than was LAP. Among neither men nor women were the predictive performances (discrimination, calibration, goodness-of-fit of the LAP better than those of different anthropometric measures were. Conclusions If LAP is to be

  17. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  18. Intersection numbers of spectral curves

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B.

    2011-01-01

    We compute the symplectic invariants of an arbitrary spectral curve with only 1 branchpoint in terms of integrals of characteristic classes in the moduli space of curves. Our formula associates to any spectral curve, a characteristic class, which is determined by the laplace transform of the spectral curve. This is a hint to the key role of Laplace transform in mirror symmetry. When the spectral curve is y=\\sqrt{x}, the formula gives Kontsevich--Witten intersection numbers, when the spectral curve is chosen to be the Lambert function \\exp{x}=y\\exp{-y}, the formula gives the ELSV formula for Hurwitz numbers, and when one chooses the mirror of C^3 with framing f, i.e. \\exp{-x}=\\exp{-yf}(1-\\exp{-y}), the formula gives the Marino-Vafa formula, i.e. the generating function of Gromov-Witten invariants of C^3. In some sense this formula generalizes ELSV, Marino-Vafa formula, and Mumford formula.

  19. Dissolution glow curve in LLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverkamp, U.; Wiezorek, C.; Poetter, R.

    1990-01-01

    Lyoluminescence dosimetry is based upon light emission during dissolution of previously irradiated dosimetric materials. The lyoluminescence signal is expressed in the dissolution glow curve. These curves begin, depending on the dissolution system, with a high peak followed by an exponentially decreasing intensity. System parameters that influence the graph of the dissolution glow curve, are, for example, injection speed, temperature and pH value of the solution and the design of the dissolution cell. The initial peak does not significantly correlate with the absorbed dose, it is mainly an effect of the injection. The decay of the curve consists of two exponential components: one fast and one slow. The components depend on the absorbed dose and the dosimetric materials used. In particular, the slow component correlates with the absorbed dose. In contrast to the fast component the argument of the exponential function of the slow component is independent of the dosimetric materials investigated: trehalose, glucose and mannitol. The maximum value, following the peak of the curve, and the integral light output are a measure of the absorbed dose. The reason for the different light outputs of various dosimetric materials after irradiation with the same dose is the differing solubility. The character of the dissolution glow curves is the same following irradiation with photons, electrons or neutrons. (author)

  20. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Section 06 - 08*) of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A vacuum-tank, two bending magnets (BST06 and BST07 in blue) with a quadrupole (QDN07, in red) in between, another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and a further tank . The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of BST06 contained the stack core pickup for stochastic cooling (see 7906193, 7906190, 8005051), the two other tanks served mainly as vacuum chambers in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on BST06. *) see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984)

  1. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  2. Peak oil analyzed with a logistic function and idealized Hubbert curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A logistic function is used to characterize peak and ultimate production of global crude oil and petroleum-derived liquid fuels. Annual oil production data were incrementally summed to construct a logistic curve in its initial phase. Using a curve-fitting approach, a population-growth logistic function was applied to complete the cumulative production curve. The simulated curve was then deconstructed into a set of annual oil production data producing an 'idealized' Hubbert curve. An idealized Hubbert curve (IHC) is defined as having properties of production data resulting from a constant growth-rate under fixed resource limits. An IHC represents a potential production curve constructed from cumulative production data and provides a new perspective for estimating peak production periods and remaining resources. The IHC model data show that idealized peak oil production occurred in 2009 at 83.2 Mb/d (30.4 Gb/y). IHC simulations of truncated historical oil production data produced similar results and indicate that this methodology can be useful as a prediction tool. - Research Highlights: →Global oil production data were analyzed by a simple curve fitting method. →Best fit-curve results were obtained using two logistic functions on select data. →A broad potential oil production peak is forecast for the years from 2004 to 2014. →Similar results were obtained using historical data from about 10 to 30 years ago. →Two potential oil production decline scenarios were presented and compared.

  3. Curve Boxplot: Generalization of Boxplot for Ensembles of Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzargar, Mahsa; Whitaker, Ross T; Kirby, Robert M

    2014-12-01

    In simulation science, computational scientists often study the behavior of their simulations by repeated solutions with variations in parameters and/or boundary values or initial conditions. Through such simulation ensembles, one can try to understand or quantify the variability or uncertainty in a solution as a function of the various inputs or model assumptions. In response to a growing interest in simulation ensembles, the visualization community has developed a suite of methods for allowing users to observe and understand the properties of these ensembles in an efficient and effective manner. An important aspect of visualizing simulations is the analysis of derived features, often represented as points, surfaces, or curves. In this paper, we present a novel, nonparametric method for summarizing ensembles of 2D and 3D curves. We propose an extension of a method from descriptive statistics, data depth, to curves. We also demonstrate a set of rendering and visualization strategies for showing rank statistics of an ensemble of curves, which is a generalization of traditional whisker plots or boxplots to multidimensional curves. Results are presented for applications in neuroimaging, hurricane forecasting and fluid dynamics.

  4. Influence of Media on Seasonal Influenza Epidemic Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Satoshi; Saito, Norihiro; Itoga, Masamichi; Ozaki, Hiromi; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Okamura, Yuji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kayaba, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    Theoretical investigations predicting the epidemic curves of seasonal influenza have been demonstrated so far; however, there is little empirical research using ever accumulated epidemic curves. The effects of vaccine coverage and information distribution on influenza epidemics were evaluated. Four indices for epidemics (i.e., onset-peak duration, onset-end duration, ratio of the onset-peak duration to onset-end duration and steepness of epidemic curves) were defined, and the correlations between these indices and anti-flu drug prescription dose, vaccine coverage, the volume of media and search trend on influenza through internet were analyzed. Epidemiological data on seasonal influenza epidemics from 2002/2003 to 2013/2014 excluding 2009/2010 season were collected from National Institute of Infectious Diseases of Japan. The onset-peak duration and its ratio to onset-end duration correlated inversely with the volume of anti-flu drug prescription. Onset-peak duration correlated positively with media information volume on influenza. The steepness of the epidemic curve, and anti-flu drug prescription dose inversely correlated with the volume of media information. Pre-epidemic search trend and media volume on influenza correlated with the vaccine coverage in the season. Vaccine coverage had no strong effect on epidemic curve. Education through media has an effect on the epidemic curve of seasonal influenza. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Considerations for reference pump curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, N.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines problems associated with inservice testing (IST) of pumps to assess their hydraulic performance using reference pump curves to establish acceptance criteria. Safety-related pumps at nuclear power plants are tested under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section 11. The Code requires testing pumps at specific reference points of differential pressure or flow rate that can be readily duplicated during subsequent tests. There are many cases where test conditions cannot be duplicated. For some pumps, such as service water or component cooling pumps, the flow rate at any time depends on plant conditions and the arrangement of multiple independent and constantly changing loads. System conditions cannot be controlled to duplicate a specific reference value. In these cases, utilities frequently request to use pump curves for comparison of test data for acceptance. There is no prescribed method for developing a pump reference curve. The methods vary and may yield substantially different results. Some results are conservative when compared to the Code requirements; some are not. The errors associated with different curve testing techniques should be understood and controlled within reasonable bounds. Manufacturer's pump curves, in general, are not sufficiently accurate to use as reference pump curves for IST. Testing using reference curves generated with polynomial least squares fits over limited ranges of pump operation, cubic spline interpolation, or cubic spline least squares fits can provide a measure of pump hydraulic performance that is at least as accurate as the Code required method. Regardless of the test method, error can be reduced by using more accurate instruments, by correcting for systematic errors, by increasing the number of data points, and by taking repetitive measurements at each data point

  6. The high-production volume fungicide pyraclostrobin induces triglyceride accumulation associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, and promotes adipocyte differentiation independent of PPARγ activation, in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Anthony L; Kassotis, Christopher D; Stapleton, Heather M; Meyer, Joel N

    2018-01-15

    Pyraclostrobin is one of the most heavily used fungicides, and has been detected on a variety of produce, suggesting human exposure occurs regularly. Recently, pyraclostrobin exposure has been linked to a variety of toxic effects, including neurodegeneration and triglyceride (TG) accumulation. As pyraclostrobin inhibits electron transport chain complex III, and as mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with metabolic syndrome (cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, obesity), we designed experiments to test the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction underlies its adipogenic activity. 3T3-L1 cells were differentiated according to standard protocols in the presence of pyraclostrobin, resulting in TG accumulation. However, TG accumulation occurred without activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated nuclear receptor gamma (PPARγ), the canonical pathway mediating adipogenesis. Furthermore, cells failed to express many markers of adipogenesis (PPARγ, lpl, CEBPα), while co-exposure to pyraclostrobin and two different PPARγ antagonists (GW9662, T0070907) failed to mitigate TG accumulation, suggesting TG accumulation occurred through a PPARγ-independent mechanism. Instead, pyraclostrobin reduced steady-state ATP, mitochondrial membrane potential, basal mitochondrial respiration, ATP-linked respiration, and spare respiratory capacity, demonstrating mitochondrial dysfunction, while reduced expression of genes involved in glucose transport (Glut-4), glycolysis (Pkm, Pfkl, Pfkm), fatty acid oxidation (Cpt-1b), and lipogenesis (Fasn, Acacα, Acacβ) further suggested a disruption of metabolism. Finally, inhibition of cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB), a PPARγ coactivator, partially mitigated pyraclostrobin-induced TG accumulation, suggesting TG accumulation is occurring through a CREB-driven mechanism. In contrast, rosiglitazone, a known PPARγ agonist, induced TG accumulation in a PPARγ-dependent manner and enhanced mitochondrial function

  7. Curve Digitizer – A software for multiple curves digitizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin ŞPERLEA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Curve Digitizer is software that extracts data from an image file representing a graphicand returns them as pairs of numbers which can then be used for further analysis and applications.Numbers can be read on a computer screen stored in files or copied on paper. The final result is adata set that can be used with other tools such as MSEXCEL. Curve Digitizer provides a useful toolfor any researcher or engineer interested in quantifying the data displayed graphically. The image filecan be obtained by scanning a document

  8. Calibration Curves for Biological Dosimetry by Fluorescence In situ Hybridisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonati, L.; Durante, M.; Gensabella, G.; Gialanella, G.; Grossi, G.F.; Pugliese, M.; Scampoli, P.; Sgura, A.; Testa, A.; Tanzarella, C.

    2001-01-01

    Dose-response curves were measured for the induction of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes after acute exposure in vitro to 60 Co γ rays. Blood was obtained from four different healthy donors, and chromosomes were either observed at metaphase, following colcemid accumulation, or prematurely condensed by calyculin A. Cells were analysed in three different Italian laboratories. Chromosomes 1, 2, and 4 were painted, and simple-type interchanges between painted and non-painted chromosomes were scored in cells exposed in the dose range 0.1-3.0 Gy. The chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation method was also used combined with chromosome painting (chromosome 4 only) to determine calibration curves for high dose exposures (up to 20 Gy X rays). Calibration curves described in this paper will be used in our laboratories for biological dosimetry by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. (author)

  9. Doses de nitrogênio no acúmulo de nitrato e na produção da alface em hidroponia Nitrogen rates on nitrate accumulation and lettuce production in hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica LA Pôrto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A produção da alface em hidroponia apresenta crescente expansão no Brasil, mas ainda ocorrem problemas de qualidade e risco de acúmulo de nitrato. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a produção da alface (cv. Elba e acúmulo de nitrato em hidroponia em função de níveis crescentes de N na solução nutritiva. Plantas de alface foram cultivadas em estufa telada da UFPB em Areia (PB, em solução nutritiva que continha níveis crescentes de N (11, 13, 15, 17, 19 e 21 mmol L-1 por 25 dias. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. Foram avaliadas a produção total (PTT, produção comercial (PCM e os teores de nitrato na matéria fresca da raiz, caule e folhas da alface. Não foram verificados efeitos significativos do incremento dos níveis de N na solução sobre a PTT e PCM, sendo obtidos valores médios de 357,3 e 352,5 g/planta, respectivamente. A elevação dos níveis de N em solução resultou em incrementos nos teores de nitrato em todas as partes da alface, obtendo-se na dose máxima teores de 659, 623 e 615 mg kg-1 de matéria fresca, para raiz, caule e folhas, respectivamente. Os máximos teores foliares de nitrato obtidos se encontraram abaixo do limite de risco para saúde humana.Lettuce production in hydroponic system presents growing expansion in Brazil, but still there are problems of quality and risk of nitrate accumulation. This work was carried out to evaluate the lettuce production and nitrate accumulation in hydroponic system depending on the increasing levels of nitrogen in the nutrient solution. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse of the Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Brazil. The lettuce plants were grown in nutrient solution containing increasing levels of N (11, 13, 15, 17, 19 and 21 mmol L-1 during a 25-day period. An entirely randomized design with four replications was used. Plant total yield (PTT, plant commercial yield (PCM and nitrate contents in the fresh

  10. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A section of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A large vacuum-tank, a quadrupole (QDN09*), a bending magnet (BST08), another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and (in the background) a further bending magnet (BST08). The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of QDN09 contained the kickers for stochastic pre-cooling (see 790621, 8002234, 8002637X), the other one served mainly as vacuum chamber in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on QFW08. * see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984) See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  11. Batteries and accumulators in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The present report gives an overview of the batteries and accumulators market in France in 2011 based on the data reported through ADEME's Register of Batteries and accumulators. In 2001, the French Environmental Agency, known as ADEME, implemented a follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market, creating the Observatory of batteries and accumulators (B and A). In 2010, ADEME created the National Register of producers of Batteries and Accumulators in the context of the implementation of the order issued on November 18, 2009. This is one of the four enforcement orders for the decree 2009-1139 issued on September 22, 2009, concerning batteries and accumulators put on the market and the disposal of waste batteries and accumulators, and which transposes the EU-Directive 2006/66/CE into French law. This Register follows the former Observatory for batteries and accumulators. This Register aims to record the producers on French territory and to collect the B and A producers and recycling companies' annual reporting: the regulation indeed requires that all B and A producers and recycling companies report annually on the Register the quantities of batteries and accumulators they put on the market, collect and treat. Based on this data analysis, ADEME issues an annual report allowing both the follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market in France and communication regarding the achievement of the collection and recovery objectives set by EU regulation. This booklet presents the situation in France in 2011

  12. Parameter Deduction and Accuracy Analysis of Track Beam Curves in Straddle-type Monorail Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of the bottom curve of a PC track beam is strongly related to the production quality of the entire beam. Many factors may affect the parameters of the bottom curve, such as the superelevation of the curve and the deformation of a PC track beam. At present, no effective method has been developed to determine the bottom curve of a PC track beam; therefore, a new technique is presented in this paper to deduce the parameters of such a curve and to control the accuracy of the computation results. First, the domain of the bottom curve of a PC track beam is assumed to be a spindle plane. Then, the corresponding supposed top curve domain is determined based on a geometrical relationship that is the opposite of that identified by the conventional method. Second, several optimal points are selected from the supposed top curve domain according to the dichotomy algorithm; the supposed top curve is thus generated by connecting these points. Finally, one rigorous criterion is established in the fractal dimension to assess the accuracy of the assumed top curve deduced in the previous step. If this supposed curve coincides completely with the known top curve, then the assumed bottom curve corresponding to the assumed top curve is considered to be the real bottom curve. This technique of determining the bottom curve of a PC track beam is thus proven to be efficient and accurate.

  13. Calibration curves for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M. . E-mail cgc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-01-01

    The generated information by the investigations in different laboratories of the world, included the ININ, in which settles down that certain class of chromosomal leisure it increases in function of the dose and radiation type, has given by result the obtaining of calibrated curves that are applied in the well-known technique as biological dosimetry. In this work is presented a summary of the work made in the laboratory that includes the calibrated curves for gamma radiation of 60 Cobalt and X rays of 250 k Vp, examples of presumed exposure to ionizing radiation, resolved by means of aberration analysis and the corresponding dose estimate through the equations of the respective curves and finally a comparison among the dose calculations in those people affected by the accident of Ciudad Juarez, carried out by the group of Oak Ridge, USA and those obtained in this laboratory. (Author)

  14. Curve collection, extension of databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillemot, F.

    1992-01-01

    Full text: Databases: generally calculated data only. The original measurements: diagrams. Information loss between them Expensive research eg. irradiation, aging, creep etc. Original curves should be stored for reanalysing. The format of the stored curves: a. Data in ASCII files, only numbers b. Other information in strings in a second file Same name, but different extension. Extensions shows the type of the test and the type of the file. EXAMPLES. TEN is tensile information, TED is tensile data, CHN is Charpy informations, CHD is Charpy data. Storing techniques: digitalised measurements, digitalising old curves stored on paper. Use: making catalogues, reanalysing, comparison with new data. Tools: mathematical software packages like quattro, genplot, exel, mathcad, qbasic, pascal, fortran, mathlab, grapher etc. (author)

  15. Rational points on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  16. Theoretical melting curve of caesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simozar, S.; Girifalco, L.A.; Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    A statistical-mechanical model is developed to account for the complex melting curve of caesium. The model assumes the existence of three different species of caesium defined by three different electronic states. On the basis of this model, the free energy of melting and the melting curve are computed up to 60 kbar, using the solid-state data and the initial slope of the fusion curve as input parameters. The calculated phase diagram agrees with experiment to within the experimental error. Other thermodynamic properties including the entropy and volume of melting were also computed, and they agree with experiment. Since the theory requires only one adjustable constant, this is taken as strong evidence that the three-species model is satisfactory for caesium. (author)

  17. Migration and the Wage Curve:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke J.

    in a general equilibrium framework. For the empirical analysis we employ the IABS, a two percent sample of the German labor force. We find that the elasticity of the wage curve is particularly high for young workers and workers with a university degree, while it is low for older workers and workers......  Based on a wage curve approach we examine the labor market effects of migration in Germany. The wage curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a change in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously...... with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase in the German labor force through immigration increases the aggregate unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage points and reduces average wages by less 0.1 percent. While native workers benefit from...

  18. The new courses of ethanol production in Brazil: an analysis from learning curves; Os novos rumos da producao de alcool combustivel no Brasil: uma analise a partir de curvas de aprendizagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Junior, Amaro Olimpio [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Pereira, Andre Santos [Centre de Recherche sur Environement et Developement (CIRED), Paris (France); Mendonca, Marco Aurelio [Instituto de Pesquisa Economica Aplicada (IPEA), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Costa, Ricardo Cunha da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao do Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    PROALCOOL is known internationally as the most successful biofuel promotion program. Prior analysis of the effectiveness of such a program is fundamental to formulation of public policy, not only in the area of energy, but in all sectors of the economy. The article applies learning curve methodology to evaluate the ethanol market in Brazil in order to give an idea about the effort, in terms of investments, required for its advancement. (author)

  19. The role of experience curves for setting MEPS for appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) are an important policy instrument to raise the efficiency of products. In most schemes the concept of life cycle costs (LCC) is used to guide setting the MEPS levels. Although a large body of literature shows that product cost is decreasing with increasing cumulative production, the experience curve, this is currently not used for setting MEPS. This article shows how to integrate the concept of the experience curve into LCC calculations for setting MEPS in the European Union and applies this to household laundry driers, refrigerator-freezers and televisions. The results indicate that for driers and refrigerator-freezers at least twice the energy savings compared to the current approach can be achieved. These products also show that energy label classes can successfully be used for setting MEPS. For televisions an experience curve is provided, showing a learning rate of 29%. However, television prices do not show a relation with energy efficiency but are to a large extent determined by the time the product is placed on the market. This suggests to policy makers that for televisions and other products with a short (re)design and market cycle timing is more important than the MEPS levels itself. - Highlights: • We integrate experience curves into life cycle cost calculations for MEPS. • For driers and refrigerators this results in at least twice the energy savings. • For flat panel televisions an experience curve is provided

  20. Optimization on Spaces of Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Andersen, Jakob

    in Rd, and methods to solve the initial and boundary value problem for geodesics allowing us to compute the Karcher mean and principal components analysis of data of curves. We apply the methods to study shape variation in synthetic data in the Kimia shape database, in HeLa cell nuclei and cycles...... of cardiac deformations. Finally we investigate a new application of Riemannian shape analysis in shape optimization. We setup a simple elliptic model problem, and describe how to apply shape calculus to obtain directional derivatives in the manifold of planar curves. We present an implementation based...

  1. Tracing a planar algebraic curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Falai; Kozak, J.

    1994-09-01

    In this paper, an algorithm that determines a real algebraic curve is outlined. Its basic step is to divide the plane into subdomains that include only simple branches of the algebraic curve without singular points. Each of the branches is then stably and efficiently traced in the particular subdomain. Except for the tracing, the algorithm requires only a couple of simple operations on polynomials that can be carried out exactly if the coefficients are rational, and the determination of zeros of several polynomials of one variable. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  2. The New Keynesian Phillips Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi

    This paper provides a survey on the recent literature on the new Keynesian Phillips curve: the controversies surrounding its microfoundation and estimation, the approaches that have been tried to improve its empirical fit and the challenges it faces adapting to the open-economy framework. The new......, learning or state-dependant pricing. The introduction of openeconomy factors into the new Keynesian Phillips curve complicate matters further as it must capture the nexus between price setting, inflation and the exchange rate. This is nevertheless a crucial feature for any model to be used for inflation...... forecasting in a small open economy like Iceland....

  3. Oxygen accumulation in photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonseca e Sousa, da C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Phototropic microalgae are regarded as a promising feedstock for sustainable biodiesel production, as microalgae can use natural sunlight as light source and are able to utilize CO2from flue gases and nutrients (P, N) from waste streams. To make large-scale outdoor microalgae

  4. Prospects for PV: a learning curve analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, Bob van der; Rabi, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the current state-of-the-art of photovoltaic electricity technology, and addresses its potential for cost reductions over the first few decades of the 21st century. Current PV production cost ranges are presented, both in terms of capacity installation and electricity generation, of single crystalline silicon, multi-crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon and other thin film technologies. Possible decreases of these costs are assessed, as expected according to the learning-curve methodology. We also estimate how much PV could gain if external costs (due to environmental and health damage) of energy were internalised, for example by an energy tax. Our conclusions are that, (1) mainly due its high costs, PV electricity is unlikely to play a major role in global energy supply and carbon emissions abatement before 2020, (2) extrapolating learning curves observed in the past, one can expect its costs to decrease significantly over the coming years, so that a considerable PV electricity share world-wide could materialise after 2020, (3) niche-market applications, e.g. using stand-alone systems in remote areas, are crucial for continuing 'the ride along the learning curve', (4) damage costs of conventional (fossil) power sources are considerable, and their internalisation would improve the competitiveness of PV, although probably not enough to close the current cost gap. (author)

  5. Statistical and biophysical aspects of survival curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Statistic fluctuation in a series of consequently taken survival curves of asynchronous cells of a hamster of the V79 line during X-ray irradiation, are considered. In each of the experiments fluctuations are close to those expected on the basis of the Poisson distribution. The fluctuation of cell sensitivity in different experiments of one series can reach 10%. The normalization of each experiment in mean values permits to obtain the ''idealized'' survival curve. The survival logarithm in this curve is proportional to the absorbed dose and its square only at low radiation doses. Such proportionality in V lab 79 cells in the late S-phase is observed at all doses. Using the microdosimetric approach, the distance where the interaction of radiolysis products or subinjury takes place to make the dependence of injury on the dose non-linear, is determined. In the case of interaction distances of 10-100 nm, the linear component is shown to become comparable in value with the linear injury component at doses of the order of several hundred rad only in the case, when the interaction distance is close to micrometre [ru

  6. Influence of land use on phytomass accumulation in Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of indigenous vegetation for production purposes impacts negatively on biodiversity but does this necessarily equate with a decrease in phytomass accumulation, which may influence carbon sequestration? Phytomass accumulation was studied for common land covers of beef ranching or dairy farming ...

  7. Signature Curves Statistics of DNA Supercoils

    OpenAIRE

    Shakiban, Cheri; Lloyd, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe the Euclidean signature curves for two dimensional closed curves in the plane and their generalization to closed space curves. The focus will be on discrete numerical methods for approximating such curves. Further we will apply these numerical methods to plot the signature curves related to three-dimensional simulated DNA supercoils. Our primary focus will be on statistical analysis of the data generated for the signature curves of the supercoils. We will try to esta...

  8. Dual Smarandache Curves of a Timelike Curve lying on Unit dual Lorentzian Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Tanju; Hüseyin Ugurlu, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we give Darboux approximation for dual Smarandache curves of time like curve on unit dual Lorentzian sphere. Firstly, we define the four types of dual Smarandache curves of a timelike curve lying on dual Lorentzian sphere.

  9. Electro-Mechanical Resonance Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    Recently I have been investigating the frequency response of galvanometers. These are direct-current devices used to measure small currents. By using a low-frequency function generator to supply the alternating-current signal and a stopwatch smartphone app to measure the period, I was able to take data to allow a resonance curve to be drawn. This…

  10. Texas curve margin of safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This software can be used to assist with the assessment of margin of safety for a horizontal curve. It is intended for use by engineers and technicians responsible for safety analysis or management of rural highway pavement or traffic control devices...

  11. Principal Curves on Riemannian Manifolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauberg, Soren

    2016-09-01

    Euclidean statistics are often generalized to Riemannian manifolds by replacing straight-line interpolations with geodesic ones. While these Riemannian models are familiar-looking, they are restricted by the inflexibility of geodesics, and they rely on constructions which are optimal only in Euclidean domains. We consider extensions of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Riemannian manifolds. Classic Riemannian approaches seek a geodesic curve passing through the mean that optimizes a criteria of interest. The requirements that the solution both is geodesic and must pass through the mean tend to imply that the methods only work well when the manifold is mostly flat within the support of the generating distribution. We argue that instead of generalizing linear Euclidean models, it is more fruitful to generalize non-linear Euclidean models. Specifically, we extend the classic Principal Curves from Hastie & Stuetzle to data residing on a complete Riemannian manifold. We show that for elliptical distributions in the tangent of spaces of constant curvature, the standard principal geodesic is a principal curve. The proposed model is simple to compute and avoids many of the pitfalls of traditional geodesic approaches. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of the Riemannian principal curves on several manifolds and datasets.

  12. Elliptic curves and primality proving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, A. O. L.; Morain, F.

    1993-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the theory and implementation of the Elliptic Curve Primality Proving algorithm. Problema, numeros primos a compositis dignoscendi, hosque in factores suos primos resolvendi, ad gravissima ac utilissima totius arithmeticae pertinere, et geometrarum tum veterum tum recentiorum industriam ac sagacitatem occupavisse, tam notum est, ut de hac re copiose loqui superfluum foret.

  13. A Curve for all Reasons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from biology, feel that every pattern in the living world, ranging from the folding of ... curves band c have the same rate of increase but reach different asymptotes. If these .... not at x = 0, but at xo' which is the minimum size at birth that will permit ...

  14. Survival curves for irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of the lecture is the probability of survival of biological cells which have been subjected to ionising radiation. The basic mathematical theories of cell survival as a function of radiation dose are developed. A brief comparison with observed survival curves is made. (author)

  15. Mentorship, learning curves, and balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Meryl S; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Quintessenza, James A; Chai, Paul J; Lindberg, Harald L; Dickey, Jamie; Ungerleider, Ross M

    2007-09-01

    Professionals working in the arena of health care face a variety of challenges as their careers evolve and develop. In this review, we analyze the role of mentorship, learning curves, and balance in overcoming challenges that all such professionals are likely to encounter. These challenges can exist both in professional and personal life. As any professional involved in health care matures, complex professional skills must be mastered, and new professional skills must be acquired. These skills are both technical and judgmental. In most circumstances, these skills must be learned. In 2007, despite the continued need for obtaining new knowledge and learning new skills, the professional and public tolerance for a "learning curve" is much less than in previous decades. Mentorship is the key to success in these endeavours. The success of mentorship is two-sided, with responsibilities for both the mentor and the mentee. The benefits of this relationship must be bidirectional. It is the responsibility of both the student and the mentor to assure this bidirectional exchange of benefit. This relationship requires time, patience, dedication, and to some degree selflessness. This mentorship will ultimately be the best tool for mastering complex professional skills and maturing through various learning curves. Professional mentorship also requires that mentors identify and explicitly teach their mentees the relational skills and abilities inherent in learning the management of the triad of self, relationships with others, and professional responsibilities.Up to two decades ago, a learning curve was tolerated, and even expected, while professionals involved in healthcare developed the techniques that allowed for the treatment of previously untreatable diseases. Outcomes have now improved to the point that this type of learning curve is no longer acceptable to the public. Still, professionals must learn to perform and develop independence and confidence. The responsibility to

  16. On kinetics of paramagnetic radiation defects accumulation in beryllium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, A.I.; Ryabikin, Yu.A.; Zashkvara, O.V.; Bitenbaev, M.I.; Petykhov, Yu.V.

    1999-01-01

    Results of paramagnetic radiation defects concentration dependence study in beryllium ceramics from gamma-irradiation dose ( 60 Co) within interval 0-100 Mrem are cited. Obtained dose dependence has form of accumulation curve with saturation typical of for majority of solids (crystals, different polymers, organic substances and others) , in which under irradiation occur not only formation of paramagnetic radiation defects, but its destruction due to recombination and interaction with radiation fields. Analysis of accumulation curve by the method of distant asymptotics allows to determine that observed in gamma-irradiated beryllium ceramics double line of electron spin resonance is forming of two types of paramagnetic radiation defects. It was defined, that sum paramagnetic characteristics of beryllium ceramics within 1-100 Mrad gamma- irradiation dose field change insignificantly and define from first type of paramagnetic radiation defects

  17. Bladder-type hydropneumatic accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anigas, F.

    1985-01-01

    Hydropneumatic pressure accumulators allow liquids to be stored under pressure, their operating principle being based on the inherent compressibility of elements in a liquid and gaseous state. A wide range of fluids can be covered by means of the appropriate choice of the material for the body and bladder. Their main applications are: energy accumulation, safety reserve, suspension. (author)

  18. Maturation curves of sweet sorghum genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Silva e Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] stands out as a complementary crop to sugarcane Saccharum spp. for the production of ethanol, since it has juicy stems with directly fermentable sugars. Due to this fact, there is a need for the analysis of sweet sorghum properties in order to meet the agro-industry demand. This work aimed to develop and study the maturation curves of seven sweet sorghum cultivars in ten harvest dates. The results showed a significant difference between cultivars and harvest dates for all parameters analysed (p≤0.01. Regarding the sugar content, the cultivars BRS508, XBWS80147 and CMSX629 showed the highest means for the total reducing sugars (TRS and recoverable sugar (RS. In the production of ethanol per tonne of biomass (EP, the cultivars BRS508 and CMSX629 presented the best results.

  19. Oil exploitation and the environmental Kuznets curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim; Abdollahzadeh, Negar

    2009-01-01

    This study refers to a panel estimation of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for oil to determine the factors most affecting oil exploitation in 38 oil-producing countries during 1990-2000. Control variables such as oil reserves, oil price, population, political rights, and the Gini index were used to determine its contribution to the main EKC model. The empirical results fully support the existence of an EKC for oil exploitation. Furthermore, the result indicates that the proved oil reserves has a significant and positive role in oil production, but oil price and population do not significantly affect crude oil production. Also, increased freedoms and a better income distribution will reduce the rate of oil exploitation. Thus, policies aiming at enhancing democratic society and better income distribution would be more compatible with sustainability. (author)

  20. Oil exploitation and the environmental Kuznets curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim; Abdollahzadeh, Negar [Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Fars (Iran)

    2009-01-15

    This study refers to a panel estimation of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for oil to determine the factors most affecting oil exploitation in 38 oil-producing countries during 1990-2000. Control variables such as oil reserves, oil price, population, political rights, and the Gini index were used to determine its contribution to the main EKC model. The empirical results fully support the existence of an EKC for oil exploitation. Furthermore, the result indicates that the proved oil reserves has a significant and positive role in oil production, but oil price and population do not significantly affect crude oil production. Also, increased freedoms and a better income distribution will reduce the rate of oil exploitation. Thus, policies aiming at enhancing democratic society and better income distribution would be more compatible with sustainability. (author)

  1. A catalog of special plane curves

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, J Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Among the largest, finest collections available-illustrated not only once for each curve, but also for various values of any parameters present. Covers general properties of curves and types of derived curves. Curves illustrated by a CalComp digital incremental plotter. 12 illustrations.

  2. Computation of undulator tuning curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejus, Roger J.

    1997-01-01

    Computer codes for fast computation of on-axis brilliance tuning curves and flux tuning curves have been developed. They are valid for an ideal device (regular planar device or a helical device) using the Bessel function formalism. The effects of the particle beam emittance and the beam energy spread on the spectrum are taken into account. The applicability of the codes and the importance of magnetic field errors of real insertion devices are addressed. The validity of the codes has been experimentally verified at the APS and observed discrepancies are in agreement with predicted reduction of intensities due to magnetic field errors. The codes are distributed as part of the graphical user interface XOP (X-ray OPtics utilities), which simplifies execution and viewing of the results

  3. Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nidhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an insight into different techniques of cleaning and shaping of curved root canals with hand instruments. Although a plethora of root canal instruments like ProFile, ProTaper, LightSpeed ® etc dominate the current scenario, the inexpensive conventional root canal hand files such as K-files and flexible files can be used to get optimum results when handled meticulously. Special emphasis has been put on the modifications in biomechanical canal preparation in a variety of curved canal cases. This article compiles a series of clinical cases of root canals with curvatures in the middle and apical third and with S-shaped curvatures that were successfully completed by employing only conventional root canal hand instruments.

  4. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de

    2012-08-01

    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  6. Carbon accumulation in pristine and drained mires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekilae, M.

    2011-07-01

    The carbon accumulation of 73 peat columns from 48 pristine and drained mires was investigated using a total of 367 dates and age-depth models derived from bulk density measurements. Peat columns were collected from mires of varying depth, age, degree of natural state and nutrient conditions in aapa mire and raised bog regions and coastal mires from southern and central Finland and Russian Karelia. Particular attention was paid to the accumulation of carbon over the last 300 years, as this period encompasses the best estimates of the oxic layer (acrotelm) age across the range of sites investigated. In general, drained mires are initially more nutrient-rich than pristine mires. Organic matter decomposes more rapidly at drained sites than at pristine sites, resulting in thinner peat layers and carbon accumulation but a higher dry bulk density and carbon content. The average carbon accumulation was calculated as 24.0 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine sites and 19.4 g m-2 yr-1 at drained sites, while for peat layers younger than 300 years the respective figures were 45.3 and 34.5 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine and drained sites. For the <300-year-old peat layers studied here, the average thickness was 19 cm less and the carbon accumulation rate 10.8 g m-2 yr-1 lower in drained areas than in pristine areas. The amount carbon accumulation of surface peat layers depends upon the mire site type, vegetation and natural state; variations reflect differences in plant communities as well as factors that affect biomass production and decay rates. The highest accumulation rates and thus carbon binding for layers younger than 300 years were measured in the ombrotrophic mire site types (Sphagnum fuscum bog and Sphagnum fuscum pine bog), and the second highest rates in wet, treeless oligotrophic and minerotrophic mire site types. The lowest values of carbon accumulation over the last 300 years were obtained for the most transformed, sparsely forested and forested mire site types, where the water

  7. Learning curves for solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera-Tinoco, Rodrigo; Schoots, Koen; Zwaan, Bob van der

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present learning curves for fuel cells based on empirical data. ► We disentangle different cost reduction mechanisms for SOFCs. ► We distinguish between learning-by-doing, R and D, economies-of-scale and automation. - Abstract: In this article we present learning curves for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). With data from fuel cell manufacturers we derive a detailed breakdown of their production costs. We develop a bottom-up model that allows for determining overall SOFC manufacturing costs with their respective cost components, among which material, energy, labor and capital charges. The results obtained from our model prove to deviate by at most 13% from total cost figures quoted in the literature. For the R and D stage of development and diffusion, we find local learning rates between 13% and 17% and we demonstrate that the corresponding cost reductions result essentially from learning-by-searching effects. When considering periods in time that focus on the pilot and early commercial production stages, we find regional learning rates of 27% and 1%, respectively, which we assume derive mainly from genuine learning phenomena. These figures turnout significantly higher, approximately 44% and 12% respectively, if also effects of economies-of-scale and automation are included. When combining all production stages we obtain lr = 35%, which represents a mix of cost reduction phenomena. This high learning rate value and the potential to scale up production suggest that continued efforts in the development of SOFC manufacturing processes, as well as deployment and use of SOFCs, may lead to substantial further cost reductions.

  8. Curved Folded Plate Timber Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich; Stotz, Ivo; Weinand, Yves

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the development of a Curved Origami Prototype made with timber panels. In the last fifteen years the timber industry has developed new, large size, timber panels. Composition and dimensions of these panels and the possibility of milling them with Computer Numerical Controlled machines shows great potential for folded plate structures. To generate the form of these structures we were inspired by Origami, the Japanese art of paper folding. Common paper tessellations are c...

  9. Marine phytoplankton diversity : new insights from sampling-standardized data and species-accumulation curves

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Ramos, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    La principal hipótesis de esta Tesis es que los métodos de muestreo convencionales dan lugar a sesgos sustanciales en la estimación de la riqueza de especies del fitoplancton marino, que han sido ignorados en el pasado dando lugar a importantes alteraciones en nuestra percepción de los patrones de diversidad del fitoplancton marino. Nuestro objetivo fundamental es el de revisar los patrones de diversidad del fitoplancton marino en el océano superficial después de corregir las estimas de rique...

  10. Projection-based curve clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auder, Benjamin; Fischer, Aurelie

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on unsupervised curve classification in the context of nuclear industry. At the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache (France), the thermal-hydraulic computer code CATHARE is used to study the reliability of reactor vessels. The code inputs are physical parameters and the outputs are time evolution curves of a few other physical quantities. As the CATHARE code is quite complex and CPU time-consuming, it has to be approximated by a regression model. This regression process involves a clustering step. In the present paper, the CATHARE output curves are clustered using a k-means scheme, with a projection onto a lower dimensional space. We study the properties of the empirically optimal cluster centres found by the clustering method based on projections, compared with the 'true' ones. The choice of the projection basis is discussed, and an algorithm is implemented to select the best projection basis among a library of orthonormal bases. The approach is illustrated on a simulated example and then applied to the industrial problem. (authors)

  11. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-01-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls completed their growth between the age of 16-19 years to a final mean (SD) height of 119 (8.5) cm whereas the boys continued growing beyond the age of 20 years, achieving a final height of 124 (8.5) cm. At all ages the upper to lower body segment ratio was more than 2 SD above the normal mean. These growth curves constitute a model not only for primary, hereditary insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency (Laron syndrome) but also for untreated secondary IGF-I deficiencies such as growth hormone gene deletion and idiopathic congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency. They should also be useful in the follow up of children with Laron syndrome treated with biosynthetic recombinant IGF-I. PMID:8333769

  12. Elementary particles in curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazanu, I.

    2004-01-01

    The theories in particle physics are developed currently, in Minkowski space-time starting from the Poincare group. A physical theory in flat space can be seen as the limit of a more general physical theory in a curved space. At the present time, a theory of particles in curved space does not exist, and thus the only possibility is to extend the existent theories in these spaces. A formidable obstacle to the extension of physical models is the absence of groups of motion in more general Riemann spaces. A space of constant curvature has a group of motion that, although differs from that of a flat space, has the same number of parameters and could permit some generalisations. In this contribution we try to investigate some physical implications of the presumable existence of elementary particles in curved space. In de Sitter space (dS) the invariant rest mass is a combination of the Poincare rest mass and the generalised angular momentum of a particle and it permits to establish a correlation with the vacuum energy and with the cosmological constant. The consequences are significant because in an experiment the local structure of space-time departs from the Minkowski space and becomes a dS or AdS space-time. Discrete symmetry characteristics of the dS/AdS group suggest some arguments for the possible existence of the 'mirror matter'. (author)

  13. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SOYBEAN SEED CULTIVARS AND ADJUSTED MODELS OF LEAKAGE CURVES ALONG THE TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA RITA SALINAS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the behavior of ten soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] cultivars using the electrical conductivity (EC test by the comparison of curves of the accumulative electrolyte leakage along the time and to establish the statistical model that allow the best adjust of the curves. Ten soybean cultivars were used and they were mechanically harvested in 2004 in the EEA Oliveros, Santa Fe, Argentina. Measurements of EC were made for 100 individual seeds of each cultivar during 20 hours of immersion at intervals of 1 hour using an equipment that permit an individual seed analysis (Seed Automatic Analyzer SAD 9000S. There were proposed two statistical models to study the EC along the time of the 10 cultivars studied using SAS Statistics Program, to select the model that better allow us to understand the EC behavior along the time. Model 1 allowed to make comparisons of EC along the time between cultivars and to study the influence of the production environment on the physiological quality of soybean seeds. The time to reach the stabilization of the EC must not be lower than 19 hours for the different cultivars.

  14. Scintiscanning of arthritis and analysis of build-up curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Tsuneo; Omori, Shigeo; Miyawaki, Haruo; Maniwa, Masato; Yoshizaki, Kenichi

    1975-01-01

    In the present study 40 knee joints with rheumatoid arthritis, 23 knee joints with osteoarthrosis deformans, 3 knee joints with non-synovitis, one knee joint with pyogenic arthritis and 4 normal knee joints were scanned. By analysis of build-up curves obtained immediately after the intravenous injection of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, the rate of accumulation of radioactivity (t 1/2) in the affected joints was simultaneously estimated in order to compare them with clinical findings. 1. Scintiscanning of arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthrosis deformans of the knee joint, non-specific synovitis, and pyogenic arthritis of the knee joint, yielded a positive scan for all of the joint diseases. 2. In the scintigram of healthy knee joints, there are no areas of RI accumulation or right to left difference. 3. In some instances abnormal uptake of RI was seen on scintigrams of arthritis even after normal clinical and laboratory findings had been achieved with therapy. 4. sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, a radionuclide with a short half-life, allows repeated scans and provides a useful radiologic means of evaluating therapeutic course and effectiveness. 5. Analysis of build-up curves revealed that the rate of accumulation of RI was faster in rheumatoid arthritis than in osteoarthrosis deformans. (auth.)

  15. Modelling of creep curves of Ni3Ge single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starenchenko, V. A.; Starenchenko, S. V.; Pantyukhova, O. D.; Solov'eva, Yu V.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the creep model of alloys with L12 superstructure is presented. The creep model is based on the idea of the mechanisms superposition connected with the different elementary deformation processes. Some of them are incident to the ordered structure L12 (anomalous mechanisms), others are typical to pure metals with the fcc structure (normal mechanisms): the accumulation of thermal APBs by means of the intersection of moving dislocations; the formation of APB tubes; the multiplication of superdislocations; the movement of single dislocations; the accumulation of point defects, such as vacancies and interstitial atoms; the accumulation APBs at the climb of edge dislocations. This model takes into account the experimental facts of the wetting antiphase boundaries and emergence of the disordered phase within the ordered phase. The calculations of the creep curves are performed under different conditions. This model describes different kinds of the creep curves and demonstrates the important meaning of the deformation superlocalisation leading to the inverse creep. The experimental and theoretical results coincide rather well.

  16. Dual Smarandache Curves and Smarandache Ruled Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tanju KAHRAMAN; Mehmet ÖNDER; H. Hüseyin UGURLU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, by considering dual geodesic trihedron (dual Darboux frame) we define dual Smarandache curves lying fully on dual unit sphere S^2 and corresponding to ruled surfaces. We obtain the relationships between the elements of curvature of dual spherical curve (ruled surface) x(s) and its dual Smarandache curve (Smarandache ruled surface) x1(s) and we give an example for dual Smarandache curves of a dual spherical curve.

  17. Strain accumulation in quasicrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, F.; Ronchetti, M.; Elser, V.

    1988-01-01

    We study the relaxation of 2D quasicrystalline elastic networks when their constituent bonds are perturbed homogeneously. Whereas ideal, quasiperiodic networks are stable against such perturbations, we find significant accumulations of strain in a class of disordered networks generated by a growth process. The grown networks are characterized by root mean square phason fluctuations which grow linearly with system size. The strain accumulation we observe in these networks also grows linearly with system size. Finally, we find a dependence of strain accumulation on cooling rate

  18. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  19. Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alternative approach to household behavior. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among physical accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. Because of its refined economic structure, our study enables some interactions among economic variables which are not found in the existing literature on economic growth with renewable resources. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. Our comparative dynamic analysis shows, for instance, that a rise in the propensity to consume the renewable resource increases the interest rate and reduces the national and production sector’s capital stocks, wage rate and level of the consumption good. Moreover, it initially reduces and then increases the capital stocks of the resource sector and the consumption and price of the renewable resource. The stock of the renewable resource is initially increased and then reduced. Finally, labor is redistributed from the production to the resource sector.

  20. Accumulation of carbon in northern mire ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, K.; Turunen, J.; Alm, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Korhola, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Physical Geography; Jungner, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dating Lab.; Vasander, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The basic feature in the functional ecology of any mire ecosystem is retardation of the effective decay of organic material resulting in a conspicuous accumulation of plant debris as peat overtime. The carbon accumulation process is slow, and climatic change may have an impact on the carbon cycle of peatlands, therefore, it has been of interest to study the rate of carbon accumulation by geological methods from dated peat strata. The approach is hampered by several facts. First, the mires vary enormously as to their vegetation and hydrology and hence their production and decay properties. It follows that a great number of study sites are needed. Second, the peat in mires expands both vertically and laterally, and this requires a spatial reconstruction of carbon accumulation within a mire basin. Third, simple geological methods cannot account for the actual rate of carbon accumulation in peat, and finally, an additional carbon sink in the mire ecosystems can be the mineral subsoil beneath peat. The proposed warming will perhaps shift northwards the existing climatic mire regimes and, thus, the northern aapa fens will change to Sphagnum bogs that are more effective in sequestering carbon, but distinctly less effective in their CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emanation. The role of mire fires in more remote northern areas may then become another important factor. The answer to the important question of future total sequestration of carbon to peatlands depends on the precipitation and its seasonal distribution pattern. Most climatic scenarios predict a decrease in the evaporation surplus during the summer at northern regions. Presumably, the consequent lowering of the water table would improve growth of forest on mires and simultaneously decrease the methane fluxes from peat. The combined net effect could be a clear restraining of the radiative forcing

  1. Accumulation of carbon in northern mire ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, K; Turunen, J; Alm, J [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Korhola, A [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Physical Geography; Jungner, H [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dating Lab.; Vasander, H [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1997-12-31

    The basic feature in the functional ecology of any mire ecosystem is retardation of the effective decay of organic material resulting in a conspicuous accumulation of plant debris as peat overtime. The carbon accumulation process is slow, and climatic change may have an impact on the carbon cycle of peatlands, therefore, it has been of interest to study the rate of carbon accumulation by geological methods from dated peat strata. The approach is hampered by several facts. First, the mires vary enormously as to their vegetation and hydrology and hence their production and decay properties. It follows that a great number of study sites are needed. Second, the peat in mires expands both vertically and laterally, and this requires a spatial reconstruction of carbon accumulation within a mire basin. Third, simple geological methods cannot account for the actual rate of carbon accumulation in peat, and finally, an additional carbon sink in the mire ecosystems can be the mineral subsoil beneath peat. The proposed warming will perhaps shift northwards the existing climatic mire regimes and, thus, the northern aapa fens will change to Sphagnum bogs that are more effective in sequestering carbon, but distinctly less effective in their CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emanation. The role of mire fires in more remote northern areas may then become another important factor. The answer to the important question of future total sequestration of carbon to peatlands depends on the precipitation and its seasonal distribution pattern. Most climatic scenarios predict a decrease in the evaporation surplus during the summer at northern regions. Presumably, the consequent lowering of the water table would improve growth of forest on mires and simultaneously decrease the methane fluxes from peat. The combined net effect could be a clear restraining of the radiative forcing

  2. Choice Rules and Accumulator Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a preference accumulation model that can be used to implement a number of different multi-attribute heuristic choice rules, including the lexicographic rule, the majority of confirming dimensions (tallying) rule and the equal weights rule. The proposed model differs from existing accumulators in terms of attribute representation: Leakage and competition, typically applied only to preference accumulation, are also assumed to be involved in processing attribute values. This allows the model to perform a range of sophisticated attribute-wise comparisons, including comparisons that compute relative rank. The ability of a preference accumulation model composed of leaky competitive networks to mimic symbolic models of heuristic choice suggests that these 2 approaches are not incompatible, and that a unitary cognitive model of preferential choice, based on insights from both these approaches, may be feasible. PMID:28670592

  3. A note on families of fragility curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, S.; Bier, V.M.; Bley, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the quantitative assessment of seismic risk, uncertainty in the fragility of a structural component is usually expressed by putting forth a family of fragility curves, with probability serving as the parameter of the family. Commonly, a lognormal shape is used both for the individual curves and for the expression of uncertainty over the family. A so-called composite single curve can also be drawn and used for purposes of approximation. This composite curve is often regarded as equivalent to the mean curve of the family. The equality seems intuitively reasonable, but according to the authors has never been proven. The paper presented proves this equivalence hypothesis mathematically. Moreover, the authors show that this equivalence hypothesis between fragility curves is itself equivalent to an identity property of the standard normal probability curve. Thus, in the course of proving the fragility curve hypothesis, the authors have also proved a rather obscure, but interesting and perhaps previously unrecognized, property of the standard normal curve

  4. Observable Zitterbewegung in curved spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobakhidze, Archil; Manning, Adrian; Tureanu, Anca

    2016-06-01

    Zitterbewegung, as it was originally described by Schrödinger, is an unphysical, non-observable effect. We verify whether the effect can be observed in non-inertial reference frames/curved spacetimes, where the ambiguity in defining particle states results in a mixing of positive and negative frequency modes. We explicitly demonstrate that such a mixing is in fact necessary to obtain the correct classical value for a particle's velocity in a uniformly accelerated reference frame, whereas in cosmological spacetime a particle does indeed exhibit Zitterbewegung.

  5. Observable Zitterbewegung in curved spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobakhidze, Archil, E-mail: archilk@physics.usyd.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Manning, Adrian, E-mail: a.manning@physics.usyd.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Tureanu, Anca, E-mail: anca.tureanu@helsinki.fi [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-06-10

    Zitterbewegung, as it was originally described by Schrödinger, is an unphysical, non-observable effect. We verify whether the effect can be observed in non-inertial reference frames/curved spacetimes, where the ambiguity in defining particle states results in a mixing of positive and negative frequency modes. We explicitly demonstrate that such a mixing is in fact necessary to obtain the correct classical value for a particle's velocity in a uniformly accelerated reference frame, whereas in cosmological spacetime a particle does indeed exhibit Zitterbewegung.

  6. Differential geometry curves, surfaces, manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kohnel, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    This carefully written book is an introduction to the beautiful ideas and results of differential geometry. The first half covers the geometry of curves and surfaces, which provide much of the motivation and intuition for the general theory. Special topics that are explored include Frenet frames, ruled surfaces, minimal surfaces and the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. The second part is an introduction to the geometry of general manifolds, with particular emphasis on connections and curvature. The final two chapters are insightful examinations of the special cases of spaces of constant curvature and Einstein manifolds. The text is illustrated with many figures and examples. The prerequisites are undergraduate analysis and linear algebra.

  7. LINS Curve in Romanian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Dobrescu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents theoretical considerations and empirical evidence to test the validity of the Laffer in Narrower Sense (LINS curve as a parabola with a maximum. Attention is focused on the so-called legal-effective tax gap (letg. The econometric application is based on statistical data (1990-2013 for Romania as an emerging European economy. Three cointegrating regressions (fully modified least squares, canonical cointegrating regression and dynamic least squares and three algorithms, which are based on instrumental variables (two-stage least squares, generalized method of moments, and limited information maximum likelihood, are involved.

  8. Simulation of peat accumulation: an aid in carbon cycling research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierendonck, M.C. van (Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Hugo de Vries Laboratory)

    1992-01-01

    Some preliminary results of a technique used to compare primary production and peat accumulation data mainly from published sources and the results of a peat accumulation simulation model are presented. Emphasis is on differences among micro-sites (hummock, lawn, hollow and pool) and among various Sphagnum species (S. fuscum, S. magellanicum, S. cuspidatum and S. balticum) associated with raised bogs. The primary production of lawns and pools were significantly greater than those of hummocks and hollows. Sphagnum balticum had the highest primary production (mean=339 g/m[sup -]2a[sup -1]) Over 90 % of the primary production of Sphagnum fuscum is accumulated while for the other Sphagnum species, the value is <50 %. The data are used in a simulation model to show the influence of doubling of rainfall on primary production over a 50 year period

  9. Simulation of peat accumulation: an aid in carbon cycling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierendonck, M.C. van

    1992-01-01

    Some preliminary results of a technique used to compare primary production and peat accumulation data mainly from published sources and the results of a peat accumulation simulation model are presented. Emphasis is on differences among micro-sites (hummock, lawn, hollow and pool) and among various Sphagnum species (S. fuscum, S. magellanicum, S. cuspidatum and S. balticum) associated with raised bogs. The primary production of lawns and pools were significantly greater than those of hummocks and hollows. Sphagnum balticum had the highest primary production (mean=339 g/m - 2a -1 ) Over 90 % of the primary production of Sphagnum fuscum is accumulated while for the other Sphagnum species, the value is <50 %. The data are used in a simulation model to show the influence of doubling of rainfall on primary production over a 50 year period

  10. A theoretical description of complex thermoluminescence curves: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantorovich, L.N.; Fogel, G.M.; Gotlib, V.I.

    1988-01-01

    Thermoluminescence kinetics has been discussed within the framework of a band model assuming an extensive retrapping of charge carriers in comparison with their recombination. Assuming that a luminophor has one type of recombination centre and an arbitrary number of trapping centres we succeeded in analysing complex thermoluminescence curves with an arbitrary number of peaks. It has been shown for an elementary peak that its form almost coincides with the Randall-Wilkins curve, and its intensity is proportional to the square of the absorbed dose. The effect of both the processes of localised charge carriers accumulation (irradiation and isothermal decay) and their redistribution on trapping centres during the thermoluminescence process have been dealt with taking into account the form and intensity of the thermoluminescence peaks. (author)

  11. Aspherical Supernovae: Effects on Early Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsariardchi, Niloufar; Matzner, Christopher D.

    2018-04-01

    Early light from core-collapse supernovae, now detectable in high-cadence surveys, holds clues to a star and its environment just before it explodes. However, effects that alter the early light have not been fully explored. We highlight the possibility of nonradial flows at the time of shock breakout. These develop in sufficiently nonspherical explosions if the progenitor is not too diffuse. When they do develop, nonradial flows limit ejecta speeds and cause ejecta–ejecta collisions. We explore these phenomena and their observational implications using global, axisymmetric, nonrelativistic FLASH simulations of simplified polytropic progenitors, which we scale to representative stars. We develop a method to track photon production within the ejecta, enabling us to estimate band-dependent light curves from adiabatic simulations. Immediate breakout emission becomes hidden as an oblique flow develops. Nonspherical effects lead the shock-heated ejecta to release a more constant luminosity at a higher, evolving color temperature at early times, effectively mixing breakout light with the early light curve. Collisions between nonradial ejecta thermalize a small fraction of the explosion energy; we will address emission from these collisions in a subsequent paper.

  12. Differential geometry and topology of curves

    CERN Document Server

    Animov, Yu

    2001-01-01

    Differential geometry is an actively developing area of modern mathematics. This volume presents a classical approach to the general topics of the geometry of curves, including the theory of curves in n-dimensional Euclidean space. The author investigates problems for special classes of curves and gives the working method used to obtain the conditions for closed polygonal curves. The proof of the Bakel-Werner theorem in conditions of boundedness for curves with periodic curvature and torsion is also presented. This volume also highlights the contributions made by great geometers. past and present, to differential geometry and the topology of curves.

  13. Mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation to thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishida, Toshihiro

    1987-01-01

    In this study 91 patients with goiter were scintigraphed for the duration of 84 minutes after intravenous administration of thallium-201 by digital γ camera lined to computer data system. Regions of interest (ROIs) were assigned for thyroid tumor, normal thyroid and back ground, and time-activity curves (TACs) were generated from these ROIs. Na + , K + -ATPase activity of microsome fraction from thyroid tumor and the normal thyroid glands was determined. The first 15 minutes accumulation of each ROI was determined as the early accumulation of thallium-201 for tumor and the normal thyroid glands. Papillary and follicular carcinomas, showing the high accumulation of thallium-201, had high activity of Na + , K + -ATPase. Microfollicular adenomas had high activity of Na + , K + -ATPase and demonstrated intense accumulation of thallium-201. However, colloid adenoma had a similar level of Na + , K + -ATPase activity to that of the normal thyroid glands and did not demonstrate radionuclide accumulation. Consequently, radionuclide accumulation in thallium-201 thyroid scintigraphy was closely correlated to Na + , K + -ATPase activity of thyroid tumor. Thyroid blood flow was measured by hydrogen gas clearance method. Thyroid blood flow of papillary carcinoma was smaller, as compared with normal thyroid blood flow. TAC of papillary carcinoma showed flattening. Thallium-201 accumulation in early image was also found to correspond to thyroid blood flow. From this study we can conclude that mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation in a thyroid tumor depends on Na + , K + -ATPase activity and thyroid blood flow. Washout of TAC in thallium-201 scintigraphy appears dependent on blood flow of a thyroid nodule. (author)

  14. FPGA curved track fitter with very low resource usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jin-Yuan; Wang, M.; Gottschalk, E.; Shi, Z.; /Fermilab

    2006-11-01

    Standard least-squares curved track fitting process is tailored for FPGA implementation. The coefficients in the fitting matrices are carefully chosen so that only shift and accumulation operations are used in the process. The divisions and full multiplications are eliminated. Comparison in an application example shows that the fitting errors of the low resource usage implementation are less than 4% bigger than the fitting errors of the exact least-squares algorithm. The implementation is suitable for low-cost, low-power applications such as high energy physics detector trigger systems.

  15. Improved capacitive melting curve measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebedash, Alexander; Tuoriniemi, Juha; Pentti, Elias; Salmela, Anssi

    2009-01-01

    Sensitivity of the capacitive method for determining the melting pressure of helium can be enhanced by loading the empty side of the capacitor with helium at a pressure nearly equal to that desired to be measured and by using a relatively thin and flexible membrane in between. This way one can achieve a nanobar resolution at the level of 30 bar, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the best gauges with vacuum reference. This extends the applicability of melting curve thermometry to lower temperatures and would allow detecting tiny anomalies in the melting pressure, which must be associated with any phenomena contributing to the entropy of the liquid or solid phases. We demonstrated this principle in measurements of the crystallization pressure of isotopic helium mixtures at millikelvin temperatures by using partly solid pure 4 He as the reference substance providing the best possible universal reference pressure. The achieved sensitivity was good enough for melting curve thermometry on mixtures down to 100 μK. Similar system can be used on pure isotopes by virtue of a blocked capillary giving a stable reference condition with liquid slightly below the melting pressure in the reference volume. This was tested with pure 4 He at temperatures 0.08-0.3 K. To avoid spurious heating effects, one must carefully choose and arrange any dielectric materials close to the active capacitor. We observed some 100 pW loading at moderate excitation voltages.

  16. Classical optics and curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailyn, M.; Ragusa, S.

    1976-01-01

    In the eikonal approximation of classical optics, the unit polarization 3-vector of light satisfies an equation that depends only on the index, n, of refraction. It is known that if the original 3-space line element is d sigma 2 , then this polarization direction propagates parallely in the fictitious space n 2 d sigma 2 . Since the equation depends only on n, it is possible to invent a fictitious curved 4-space in which the light performs a null geodesic, and the polarization 3-vector behaves as the 'shadow' of a parallely propagated 4-vector. The inverse, namely, the reduction of Maxwell's equation, on a curve 'dielectric free) space, to a classical space with dielectric constant n=(-g 00 ) -1 / 2 is well known, but in the latter the dielectric constant epsilon and permeability μ must also equal (-g 00 ) -1 / 2 . The rotation of polarization as light bends around the sun by utilizing the reduction to the classical space, is calculated. This (non-) rotation may then be interpreted as parallel transport in the 3-space n 2 d sigma 2 [pt

  17. Analysis of power curves of Danish and foreign wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, H.

    1995-12-01

    This report describes an analysis of power curves for a number of wind turbines, 30 Danish and 17 foreign - European - wind turbines. The investigation is limited to wind turbines of 150 kW capacity and greater, and to wind turbines for which a power curve is available. The power curves are transformed into a common, uniform presentation in order to facilitate the succeeding treatment, which primarily is the calculation of the production of electrical energy yielded per year. From the known data of the wind turbine, equipped generator power and rotor area and the area swept by the blades, the specific electrical production is calculated in three terms: yield per square meter of rotor area, yield per kW generator power and yield per square meter and per kilowatt generator power. Based on these findings a number of comparisons are established, such as comparisons of conceptual designs and technical- economical evaluations. (au)

  18. Standing crop dry matter accumulation and quality patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine-week production curves and quality values of eight subtropical pasture species were studied under supplemental spray irrigation to characterize their productive capacity, periodicity and quality.All species exhibited a slow dry matter regrowth rate for two to three weeks after defoliation to 7,5 or 10 cm height. Thereafter ...

  19. Modelling critical NDVI curves in perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, R; Boelt, B

    2010-01-01

      The use of optical sensors to measure canopy reflectance and calculate crop index as e.g. normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is widely used in agricultural crops, but has so far not been implemented in herbage seed production. The present study has the purpose to develop a critical...... NDVI curve where the critical NDVI, defined as the minimum NDVI obtained to achieve a high seed yield, will be modelled during the growing season. NDVI measurements were made at different growing degree days (GDD) in a three year field experiment where different N application rates were applied....... There was a clear maximum in the correlation coefficient between seed yield and NDVI in the period from approximately 700 to 900 GDD. At this time there was an exponential relationship between NDVI and seed yield where highest seed yield were at NDVI ~0.9. Theoretically the farmers should aim for an NDVI of 0...

  20. Quantum electrodynamics in curved space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchbinder, I.L.; Gitman, D.M.; Fradkin, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    The lagrangian of quantum electrodynamics in curved space-time is constructed and the interaction picture taking into account the external gravitational field exactly is introduced. The transform from the Heisenberg picture to the interaction picture is carried out in a manifestly covariant way. The properties of free spinor and electromagnetic quantum fields are discussed and conditions under which initial and final creation and annihilation operators are connected by unitarity transformation are indicated. The derivation of Feynman's rules for quantum processes are calculated on the base of generalized normal product of operators. The way of reduction formula derivations is indicated and the suitable Green's functions are introduced. A generating functional for this Green's function is defined and the system of functional equations for them is obtained. The representation of different generating funcationals by means of functional integrals is introduced. Some consequences of S-matrix unitary condition are considered which leads to the generalization of the optic theorem

  1. Theoretical foundations for environmental Kuznets curve analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Van

    This thesis provides a dynamic theory for analyzing the paths of aggregate output and pollution in a country over time. An infinite horizon, competitive growth-pollution model is explored in order to determine the role that economic scale, production techniques, and pollution regulations play in explaining the inverted U-shaped relationship between output and some forms of pollution (otherwise known as the Environmental Kuznets Curve, or EKC). Results indicate that the output-pollution relationship may follow a strictly increasing, strictly decreasing (but bounded), inverted U-shaped, or some combination of curves. While the 'scale' effect may cause output and pollution to exhibit a monotonic relationship, 'technique' and 'regulation' effects may ultimately cause a de-linking of these two variables. Pollution-minimizing energy regulation policies are also investigated within this framework. It is found that the EKC may be 'flattened' or even eliminated moving from a poorly-regulated economy to one that minimizes pollution. The model is calibrated to the US economy for output (gross national product, GNP) and two pollutants (sulfur dioxide, SO2, and carbon dioxide, CO2) over the period 1900 to 1990. Results indicate that the model replicates the observations quite well. The predominance of 'scale' effects cause aggregate SO2 and CO2 levels to increase with GNP in the early stages of development. Then, in the case of SO 2, 'technique' and 'regulation' effects may be the cause of falling SO2 levels with continued economic growth (establishing the EKC). CO2 continues to monotonically increase as output levels increase over time. The positive relationship may be due to the lack of regulations on this pollutant. If stricter regulation policies were instituted in the two case studies, an improved allocation of resources may result. While GNP may be 2.596 to 20% lower than what has been realized in the US economy (depending on the pollution variable analyzed), individual

  2. Atlas of stress-strain curves

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves, Second Edition is substantially bigger in page dimensions, number of pages, and total number of curves than the previous edition. It contains over 1,400 curves, almost three times as many as in the 1987 edition. The curves are normalized in appearance to aid making comparisons among materials. All diagrams include metric (SI) units, and many also include U.S. customary units. All curves are captioned in a consistent format with valuable information including (as available) standard designation, the primary source of the curve, mechanical properties (including hardening exponent and strength coefficient), condition of sample, strain rate, test temperature, and alloy composition. Curve types include monotonic and cyclic stress-strain, isochronous stress-strain, and tangent modulus. Curves are logically arranged and indexed for fast retrieval of information. The book also includes an introduction that provides background information on methods of stress-strain determination, on...

  3. Transition curves for highway geometric design

    CERN Document Server

    Kobryń, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    This book provides concise descriptions of the various solutions of transition curves, which can be used in geometric design of roads and highways. It presents mathematical methods and curvature functions for defining transition curves. .

  4. Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    A mathematical model of the lactation curve provides summary information about culling and milking strategies ..... Table 2 Statistics of the edited data for first lactation Holstein cows ..... Application of different models to the lactation curves of.

  5. EVEREST: Pixel Level Decorrelation of K2 Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, Rodrigo; Agol, Eric; Kruse, Ethan; Barnes, Rory; Becker, Andrew; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Deming, Drake

    2016-10-01

    We present EPIC Variability Extraction and Removal for Exoplanet Science Targets (EVEREST), an open-source pipeline for removing instrumental noise from K2 light curves. EVEREST employs a variant of pixel level decorrelation to remove systematics introduced by the spacecraft’s pointing error and a Gaussian process to capture astrophysical variability. We apply EVEREST to all K2 targets in campaigns 0-7, yielding light curves with precision comparable to that of the original Kepler mission for stars brighter than {K}p≈ 13, and within a factor of two of the Kepler precision for fainter targets. We perform cross-validation and transit injection and recovery tests to validate the pipeline, and compare our light curves to the other de-trended light curves available for download at the MAST High Level Science Products archive. We find that EVEREST achieves the highest average precision of any of these pipelines for unsaturated K2 stars. The improved precision of these light curves will aid in exoplanet detection and characterization, investigations of stellar variability, asteroseismology, and other photometric studies. The EVEREST pipeline can also easily be applied to future surveys, such as the TESS mission, to correct for instrumental systematics and enable the detection of low signal-to-noise transiting exoplanets. The EVEREST light curves and the source code used to generate them are freely available online.

  6. Induced Plant Accumulation of Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Kavanagh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lithium’s (Li value has grown exponentially since the development of Li-ion batteries. It is usually accessed in one of two ways: hard rock mineral mining or extraction from mineral-rich brines. Both methods are expensive and require a rich source of Li. This paper examines the potential of agro-mining as an environmentally friendly, economically viable process for extracting Li from low grade ore. Agro-mining exploits an ability found in few plant species, to accumulate substantial amounts of metals in the above ground parts of the plant. Phyto-mined metals are then retrieved from the incinerated plants. Although the actual amount of metal collected from a crop may be low, the process has been shown to be profitable. We have investigated the suitability of several plant species including: Brassica napus and Helianthus annuus, as Li-accumulators under controlled conditions. Large plant trials were carried out with/without chelating agents to encourage Li accumulation. The question we sought to answer was, can any of the plant species investigated accumulate Li at levels high enough to justify using them to agro-mine Li. Results show maximum accumulated levels of >4000 mg/kg Li in some species. Our data suggests that agro-mining of Li is a potentially viable process.

  7. Computer calculations of activation energy for pyrolysis from thermogravimetric curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.

    1994-01-01

    A BASIC programme to determine energy of activation for the degradation of polymers has been described. The calculations are based on the results of thermogravimetric curves. This method is applicable for those polymers which produce volatile products upon thermal degradation. (author)

  8. Gelfond–Bézier curves

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid; Sakane, Yusuke; Nomura, Taishin

    2013-01-01

    We show that the generalized Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces defined by Hirschman and Widder (1949) and extended by Gelfond (1950) can be obtained as pointwise limits of the Chebyshev–Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces with respect to an interval [a,1][a,1] as the positive real number a converges to zero. Such a realization allows for concepts of curve design such as de Casteljau algorithm, blossom, dimension elevation to be transferred from the general theory of Chebyshev blossoms in Müntz spaces to these generalized Bernstein bases that we termed here as Gelfond–Bernstein bases. The advantage of working with Gelfond–Bernstein bases lies in the simplicity of the obtained concepts and algorithms as compared to their Chebyshev–Bernstein bases counterparts.

  9. Bubble Collision in Curved Spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Dong-il; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; Yeom, Dong-han

    2014-01-01

    We study vacuum bubble collisions in curved spacetime, in which vacuum bubbles were nucleated in the initial metastable vacuum state by quantum tunneling. The bubbles materialize randomly at different times and then start to grow. It is known that the percolation by true vacuum bubbles is not possible due to the exponential expansion of the space among the bubbles. In this paper, we consider two bubbles of the same size with a preferred axis and assume that two bubbles form very near each other to collide. The two bubbles have the same field value. When the bubbles collide, the collided region oscillates back-and-forth and then the collided region eventually decays and disappears. We discuss radiation and gravitational wave resulting from the collision of two bubbles

  10. Bacterial streamers in curved microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard

    2009-11-01

    Biofilms, generally identified as microbial communities embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, are involved in a wide variety of health-related problems ranging from implant-associated infections to disease transmissions and dental plaque. The usual picture of these bacterial films is that they grow and develop on surfaces. However, suspended biofilm structures, or streamers, have been found in natural environments (e.g., rivers, acid mines, hydrothermal hot springs) and are always suggested to stem from a turbulent flow. We report the formation of bacterial streamers in curved microfluidic channels. By using confocal laser microscopy we are able to directly image and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of these filamentous structures. Such streamers, which always connect the inner corners of opposite sides of the channel, are always located in the middle plane. Numerical simulations of the flow provide evidences for an underlying hydrodynamic mechanism behind the formation of the streamers.

  11. Gelfond–Bézier curves

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2013-02-01

    We show that the generalized Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces defined by Hirschman and Widder (1949) and extended by Gelfond (1950) can be obtained as pointwise limits of the Chebyshev–Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces with respect to an interval [a,1][a,1] as the positive real number a converges to zero. Such a realization allows for concepts of curve design such as de Casteljau algorithm, blossom, dimension elevation to be transferred from the general theory of Chebyshev blossoms in Müntz spaces to these generalized Bernstein bases that we termed here as Gelfond–Bernstein bases. The advantage of working with Gelfond–Bernstein bases lies in the simplicity of the obtained concepts and algorithms as compared to their Chebyshev–Bernstein bases counterparts.

  12. Study and program implementation of transient curves' piecewise linearization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yang; Zu Hongbiao

    2014-01-01

    Background: Transient curves are essential for the stress analysis of related equipment in nuclear power plant (NPP). The actually operating data or the design transient data of a NPP usually consist of a large number of data points with very short time intervals. To simplify the analysis, transient curves are generally piecewise linearized in advance. Up to now, the piecewise linearization of transient curves is accomplished manually, Purpose: The aim is to develop a method for the piecewise linearization of transient curves, and to implement it by programming. Methods: First of all, the fitting line of a number of data points was obtained by the least square method. The segment of the fitting line is set while the accumulation error of linearization exceeds the preset limit with the increasing number of points. Then the linearization of subsequent data points was begun from the last point of the preceding curve segment to get the next segment in the same way, and continue until the final data point involved. Finally, averaging of junction points is taken for the segment connection. Results: A computer program named PLTC (Piecewise Linearization for Transient Curves) was implemented and verified by the linearization of the standard sine curve and typical transient curves of a NPP. Conclusion: The method and the PLTC program can be well used to the piecewise linearization of transient curves, with improving efficiency and precision. (authors)

  13. Sibling curves of quadratic polynomials | Wiggins | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sibling curves were demonstrated in [1, 2] as a novel way to visualize the zeroes of real valued functions. In [3] it was shown that a polynomial of degree n has n sibling curves. This paper focuses on the algebraic and geometric properites of the sibling curves of real and complex quadratic polynomials. Key words: Quadratic ...

  14. GLOBAL AND STRICT CURVE FITTING METHOD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakajima, Y.; Mori, S.

    2004-01-01

    To find a global and smooth curve fitting, cubic B­Spline method and gathering­ line methods are investigated. When segmenting and recognizing a contour curve of character shape, some global method is required. If we want to connect contour curves around a singular point like crossing points,

  15. Trigonometric Characterization of Some Plane Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    (Figure 1). A relation between tan θ and tanψ gives the trigonometric equation of the family of curves. In this article, trigonometric equations of some known plane curves are deduced and it is shown that these equations reveal some geometric characteristics of the families of the curves under consideration. In Section 2,.

  16. Holomorphic curves in exploded manifolds: Kuranishi structure

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Brett

    2013-01-01

    This paper constructs a Kuranishi structure for the moduli stack of holomorphic curves in exploded manifolds. To avoid some technicalities of abstract Kuranishi structures, we embed our Kuranishi structure inside a moduli stack of curves. The construction also works for the moduli stack of holomorphic curves in any compact symplectic manifold.

  17. Automated Blazar Light Curves Using Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Spencer James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-27

    This presentation describes a problem and methodology pertaining to automated blazar light curves. Namely, optical variability patterns for blazars require the construction of light curves and in order to generate the light curves, data must be filtered before processing to ensure quality.

  18. Flavonoid accumulation patterns of transparent testa mutants of arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, W. A.; Brown, D. E.; Tague, B. W.; Muday, G. K.; Taiz, L.; Murphy, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Flavonoids have been implicated in the regulation of auxin movements in Arabidopsis. To understand when and where flavonoids may be acting to control auxin movement, the flavonoid accumulation pattern was examined in young seedlings and mature tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis. Using a variety of biochemical and visualization techniques, flavonoid accumulation in mature plants was localized in cauline leaves, pollen, stigmata, and floral primordia, and in the stems of young, actively growing inflorescences. In young Landsberg erecta seedlings, aglycone flavonols accumulated developmentally in three regions, the cotyledonary node, the hypocotyl-root transition zone, and the root tip. Aglycone flavonols accumulated at the hypocotyl-root transition zone in a developmental and tissue-specific manner with kaempferol in the epidermis and quercetin in the cortex. Quercetin localized subcellularly in the nuclear region, plasma membrane, and endomembrane system, whereas kaempferol localized in the nuclear region and plasma membrane. The flavonoid accumulation pattern was also examined in transparent testa mutants blocked at different steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transparent testa mutants were shown to have precursor accumulation patterns similar to those of end product flavonoids in wild-type Landsberg erecta, suggesting that synthesis and end product accumulation occur in the same cells.

  19. The accumulation of metals in lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Mâșu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to accumulate metal in the lichen communities has been used to identify the level of air pollution due road traffic. Several analyses have been conducted in the study, on tissue from lichens collected from six areas: the park of a town, various sites on the town’s freeway and on a county road segment with moderate traffic. The analyzed lichens were from the Parmelia spp. species which grow naturally on trees found in borderline lanes of motorways. Based on the degree of heavy metal accumulation such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe Mn, Pb, Ni and Zn in the Parmelia spp. lichens, a correlation has been made, with the road traffic. According to the metal bioaccumulation degree in lichens tissue, it has been established that the sources such as traffic from the outskirts of cities, from the perimeter of gas stations and of county roads continuously spread products which contain these elements, into the atmosphere. The fast information regarding the quality of the air in the environment allows the use of lichens as organism which can indicate environmental conditions and their modification by accumulating substances.

  20. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, F; Castillo, S; Laberty- Robert, C; Pellizon-Birelli, M [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France); and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  1. The accumulation and elimination of radiocesium by naturally contaminated wood ducks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fendley, T.T.; Manlove, M.N.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The accumulation of radiocesium was studied in hand-reared wood ducks which were released into a South Carolina swamp habitat which had been contaminated with production reactor effluents. The uptake of radiocesium by the ducks was described as: ln pCi radiocesium/g live body weight = 0.36 + 0.18 (days). There was no effect of sex on uptake rate. The average estimated time required to attain practical equilibrium (0.90 Qsub(e)) was 17.3 days, with a range from 10.2 to 26.8 days. Ducks which were recaptured after attaining equilibrium concentrations in the field (averaging 16.6 pCi radiocesium/g live body weight) showed single-component elimination-rate curves when confined in a semi-natural pen for elimination studies. Radiocesium elimination under penned conditions was described as: ln % initial body burden = 4.60-0.13 (days). Elimination-rate and body weight showed a negative linear correlation for the penned birds although there was no effect of sex on loss-rate. Radiocesium biological half-times for the penned ducks averaged 5.6 days with a range from 3.2 to 9.3 days. Calculations based on biological half-times determined from studies with the penned birds, were successful in accurately predicting both the levels and rates of radiocesium accumulation by free-living birds in the field. (author)

  2. Thermodynamic Activity-Based Progress Curve Analysis in Enzyme Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleiss, Jürgen

    2018-03-01

    Macrokinetic Michaelis-Menten models based on thermodynamic activity provide insights into enzyme kinetics because they separate substrate-enzyme from substrate-solvent interactions. Kinetic parameters are estimated from experimental progress curves of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Three pitfalls are discussed: deviations between thermodynamic and concentration-based models, product effects on the substrate activity coefficient, and product inhibition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Method of construction spatial transition curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Didanov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The movement of rail transport (speed rolling stock, traffic safety, etc. is largely dependent on the quality of the track. In this case, a special role is the transition curve, which ensures smooth insertion of the transition from linear to circular section of road. The article deals with modeling of spatial transition curve based on the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion. This is a continuation of research conducted by the authors regarding the spatial modeling of curved contours. Methodology. Construction of the spatial transition curve is numerical methods for solving nonlinear integral equations, where the initial data are taken coordinate the starting and ending points of the curve of the future, and the inclination of the tangent and the deviation of the curve from the tangent plane at these points. System solutions for the numerical method are the partial derivatives of the equations of the unknown parameters of the law of change of torsion and length of the transition curve. Findings. The parametric equations of the spatial transition curve are calculated by finding the unknown coefficients of the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion, as well as the spatial length of the transition curve. Originality. A method for constructing the spatial transition curve is devised, and based on this software geometric modeling spatial transition curves of railway track with specified deviations of the curve from the tangent plane. Practical value. The resulting curve can be applied in any sector of the economy, where it is necessary to ensure a smooth transition from linear to circular section of the curved space bypass. An example is the transition curve in the construction of the railway line, road, pipe, profile, flat section of the working blades of the turbine and compressor, the ship, plane, car, etc.

  4. Theory of titration curves-VII The properties of derivative titration curves for strong acid-strong base and other isovalent ion-combination titrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meites, T; Meites, L

    1970-06-01

    This paper deals with isovalent ion-combination titrations based on reactions that can be represented by the equation M(n+) + X(n-) --> MX, where the activity of the product MX is invariant throughout a titration, and with the derivative titration curves obtained by plotting d[M(+)]/dfversus f for such titrations. It describes some of the ways in which such curves can be obtained; it compares and contrasts them both with potentiometric titration curves, which resemble them in shape, and with segmented titration curves, from which they are derived; and it discusses their properties in detail.

  5. Retrograde curves of solidus and solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, M.V.

    1979-01-01

    The investigation was concerned with the constitutional diagrams of the eutectic type with ''retrograde solidus'' and ''retrograde solubility curve'' which must be considered as diagrams with degenerate monotectic transformation. The solidus and the solubility curves form a retrograde curve with a common retrograde point representing the solubility maximum. The two branches of the Aetrograde curve can be described with the aid of two similar equations. Presented are corresponding equations for the Cd-Zn system and shown is the possibility of predicting the run of the solubility curve

  6. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  7. The writhe of open and closed curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Mitchell A; Prior, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Twist and writhe measure basic geometric properties of a ribbon or tube. While these measures have applications in molecular biology, materials science, fluid mechanics and astrophysics, they are under-utilized because they are often considered difficult to compute. In addition, many applications involve curves with endpoints (open curves); but for these curves the definition of writhe can be ambiguous. This paper provides simple expressions for the writhe of closed curves, and provides a new definition of writhe for open curves. The open curve definition is especially appropriate when the curve is anchored at endpoints on a plane or stretches between two parallel planes. This definition can be especially useful for magnetic flux tubes in the solar atmosphere, and for isotropic rods with ends fixed to a plane

  8. Modular forms and special cycles on Shimura curves (AM-161)

    CERN Document Server

    Kudla, Stephen S; Yang, Tonghai

    2006-01-01

    Modular Forms and Special Cycles on Shimura Curves is a thorough study of the generating functions constructed from special cycles, both divisors and zero-cycles, on the arithmetic surface ""M"" attached to a Shimura curve ""M"" over the field of rational numbers. These generating functions are shown to be the q-expansions of modular forms and Siegel modular forms of genus two respectively, valued in the Gillet-Soulé arithmetic Chow groups of ""M"". The two types of generating functions are related via an arithmetic inner product formula. In addition, an analogue of the classical Siegel-Weil

  9. Definition and measurement of statistical gloss parameters from curved objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuivalainen, Kalle; Oksman, Antti; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2010-09-20

    Gloss standards are commonly defined for gloss measurement from flat surfaces, and, accordingly, glossmeters are typically developed for flat objects. However, gloss inspection of convex, concave, and small products is also important. In this paper, we define statistical gloss parameters for curved objects and measure gloss data on convex and concave surfaces using two different diffractive-optical-element-based glossmeters. Examples of measurements with the two diffractive-optical-element-based glossmeters are given for convex and concave aluminum pipe samples with and without paint. The defined gloss parameters for curved objects are useful in the characterization of the surface quality of metal pipes and other objects.

  10. Definition and measurement of statistical gloss parameters from curved objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuivalainen, Kalle; Oksman, Antti; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2010-01-01

    Gloss standards are commonly defined for gloss measurement from flat surfaces, and, accordingly, glossmeters are typically developed for flat objects. However, gloss inspection of convex, concave, and small products is also important. In this paper, we define statistical gloss parameters for curved objects and measure gloss data on convex and concave surfaces using two different diffractive-optical-element-based glossmeters. Examples of measurements with the two diffractive-optical-element-based glossmeters are given for convex and concave aluminum pipe samples with and without paint. The defined gloss parameters for curved objects are useful in the characterization of the surface quality of metal pipes and other objects.

  11. The thermal curve of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.G.; Peter, J.; Siwek, A.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genouin-Duhamel, E.; Gulminelli, F.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefort, T.; Le Neindre, N.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Nguyen, A.D.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.

    1997-01-01

    Earlier measurements of nuclear matter thermal curve of liquid to gas phase transition presented two limitation: only one temperature measuring method was available and the mass number of the formed nuclei decreased from 190 to 50 when the excitation energy increased. To avoid these limitations experiments with the multidetector INDRA at GANIL were carried-out. Among the quasi-projectiles issued from the 36 Ar collisions at 52, 74, 95 A.MeV on the 58 Ni, nuclei of close masses were selected. The excitation energy was determined by the calorimetry of the charged products emitted by quasi-projectiles while the temperature was measured by three different methods. Very different apparent temperatures were obtained for the same excitation energy/nucleon. Only one curve displays a slope variation but no indication of plateau. With the quasi-projectiles obtained from the collisions of 129 Xe at 50 MeV/u on a 119 Sn target behaviors similar to those of 36 Ar were observed in the covered domain of excitation energy. To solve this puzzle and recover the initial temperatures of interest the only mean was to do a theoretical simulation in which one follows the de-excitation of the nuclei formed at different excitation energies and look for the thermal curve able to reproduce the observed temperatures. Two extreme possibilities were taken into account concerning the de-excitation process: either a sequential process established at E * /A≤ 3 MeV/u or a sudden multifragmentation in several hot fragments, most probably at E * /A≥ 10 MeV/u. In both cases it was possible to reproduce the whole set of experimental results concerning the 36 Ar projectile. The initial temperature increases steadily as a function of excitation energy showing no plateau or singular points. The results indicate that, being a system without external pressure, in its passage from the liquid phase to the gas phase the nucleus does not display necessarily a temperature plateau. Discussions on

  12. Path integrals on curved manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche, C.; Steiner, F.

    1987-01-01

    A general framework for treating path integrals on curved manifolds is presented. We also show how to perform general coordinate and space-time transformations in path integrals. The main result is that one has to subtract a quantum correction ΔV ∝ ℎ 2 from the classical Lagrangian L, i.e. the correct effective Lagrangian to be used in the path integral is L eff = L-ΔV. A general prescription for calculating the quantum correction ΔV is given. It is based on a canonical approach using Weyl-ordering and the Hamiltonian path integral defined by the midpoint prescription. The general framework is illustrated by several examples: The d-dimensional rotator, i.e. the motion on the sphere S d-1 , the path integral in d-dimensional polar coordinates, the exact treatment of the hydrogen atom in R 2 and R 3 by performing a Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation, the Langer transformation and the path integral for the Morse potential. (orig.)

  13. Page curves for tripartite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Junha; Lee, Deok Sang; Nho, Dongju; Oh, Jeonghun; Park, Hyosub; Zoe, Heeseung; Yeom, Dong-han

    2017-01-01

    We investigate information flow and Page curves for tripartite systems. We prepare a tripartite system (say, A , B , and C ) of a given number of states and calculate information and entropy contents by assuming random states. Initially, every particle was in A (this means a black hole), and as time goes on, particles move to either B (this means Hawking radiation) or C (this means a broadly defined remnant, including a non-local transport of information, the last burst, an interior large volume, or a bubble universe, etc). If the final number of states of the remnant is smaller than that of Hawking radiation, then information will be stored by both the radiation and the mutual information between the radiation and the remnant, while the remnant itself does not contain information. On the other hand, if the final number of states of the remnant is greater than that of Hawking radiation, then the radiation contains negligible information, while the remnant and the mutual information between the radiation and the remnant contain information. Unless the number of states of the remnant is large enough compared to the entropy of the black hole, Hawking radiation must contain information; and we meet the menace of black hole complementarity again. Therefore, this contrasts the tension between various assumptions and candidates of the resolution of the information loss problem. (paper)

  14. Vacuum polarization in curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A necessary step in the process of understanding the quantum theory of gravity is the calculation of the stress-energy tensor of quantized fields in curved space-times. The determination of the stress tensor, a formally divergent object, is made possible in this dissertation by utilizing the zeta-function method of regularization and renormalization. By employing this scheme's representation of the renormalized effective action functional, an expression of the stress tensor for a massless, conformally invariant scalar field, first given by DeWitt, is derived. The form of the renormalized stress tensor is first tested in various examples of flat space-times. It is shown to vanish in Minkowski space and to yield the accepted value of the energy density in the Casimir effect. Next, the stress tensor is calculated in two space-times of constant curvature, the Einstein universe and the deSitter universe, and the results are shown to agree with those given by an expression of the stress tensor that is valid in conformally flat space-times. This work culminates in the determination of the stress tensor on the horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole. This is accomplished by approximating the radial part of the eigen-functions and the metric in the vicinity of the horizon. The stress tensor at this level approximation is found to be pure trace. The approximated forms of the Schwarzschild metric describes a conformally flat space-time that possesses horizons

  15. Learning curves for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Tinoco, R.; Schoots, K. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (Netherlands). Policy Studies; Zwaan, B.C.C. van der [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (Netherlands). Policy Studies; Columbia Univ., New York City, NY (United States). Lenfest Center for Sustainable Energy

    2010-07-01

    We present learning curves for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and combined heat and power (CHP) SOFC systems with an electric capacity between 1 and 250 kW. On the basis of the cost breakdown of production cost data from fuel cell manufacturers, we developed a bottom-up model that allows for determining overall manufacturing costs from their respective cost components, among which material, energy, labor, and capital charges. The results obtained from our model prove to deviate by at most 13% from total cost figures quoted in the literature. For the early pilot stage of development, we find for SOFC manufacturing a learning rate between 14% and 17%, and for total SOFC system fabrication between 16% and 19%. We argue that the corresponding cost reductions result largely from learning-by-searching effects (R and D) rather than learning-by-doing. When considering a longer time frame that includes the early commercial production stage, we find learning rates between 14% and 39%, which represent a mix of phenomena such as learning-by-doing, learning-by-searching, economies-of-scale and automation. (orig.)

  16. Accumulation of radioactive iron in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateda, Yuzuru

    1985-01-01

    The accumulation and excretion of radioactive iron in some marine organisms was investigated by radio-tracer experiments. The concentration factor, biological half-life, distribution in body, and combining form in some organs, are compared and discussed between mollusks and fishes. The results obtained are: 1) The concentration factor of seaweed was higher than those of worm and fish in uptake from seawater. Abalone showed a higher concentration factor than fish. 2) The first component of excretion curve was small in case of a longer period of uptake from seawater. 3) Abalone and octopus showed a higher radioactivity retention than flounder and black-fish. 4) The fish fed labelled seaweed showed a lower radioactivity retention than fish fed labelled worm. 5) The fish fed radioisotopes with prey showed a higher radioactivity retention than fish fed labelled prey. 6) Biological half-lives were longer in abalone and octopus than in fishes. The biological half-lives of radioactive iron in fishes varied according to the uptake modes. 7) The distribution ratio of radioactive iron in organisms were large in the liver and degestive tract. 8) The GFC profile of 59 Fe in some organs of organisms showed combining form of same molecular weight of proteinous matter. (author)

  17. Defect accumulation under cascade damage conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkaus, H.; Singh, B.N.; Woo, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    in terms of this reaction kinetics taking into account cluster production, dissociation, migration and annihilation at extended sinks. Microstructural features which are characteristic of cascade damage and cannot be explained in terms of the conventional single defect reaction kinetics are emphasized......There is now ample evidence from both experimental and computer simulation studies that in displacement cascades not only intense recombination takes place but also efficient clustering of both self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and vacancies. The size distributions of the two types of defects produced...... reactions kinetics associated with the specific features of cascade damage is described, with emphasis on asymmetries between SIA and vacancy type defects concerning their production, stability, mobility and interactions with other defects. Defect accumulation under cascade damage conditions is discussed...

  18. Consistent Valuation across Curves Using Pricing Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Macrina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The general problem of asset pricing when the discount rate differs from the rate at which an asset’s cash flows accrue is considered. A pricing kernel framework is used to model an economy that is segmented into distinct markets, each identified by a yield curve having its own market, credit and liquidity risk characteristics. The proposed framework precludes arbitrage within each market, while the definition of a curve-conversion factor process links all markets in a consistent arbitrage-free manner. A pricing formula is then derived, referred to as the across-curve pricing formula, which enables consistent valuation and hedging of financial instruments across curves (and markets. As a natural application, a consistent multi-curve framework is formulated for emerging and developed inter-bank swap markets, which highlights an important dual feature of the curve-conversion factor process. Given this multi-curve framework, existing multi-curve approaches based on HJM and rational pricing kernel models are recovered, reviewed and generalised and single-curve models extended. In another application, inflation-linked, currency-based and fixed-income hybrid securities are shown to be consistently valued using the across-curve valuation method.

  19. Exploring Algorithms for Stellar Light Curves With TESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzasi, Derek

    2018-01-01

    The Kepler and K2 missions have produced tens of thousands of stellar light curves, which have been used to measure rotation periods, characterize photometric activity levels, and explore phenomena such as differential rotation. The quasi-periodic nature of rotational light curves, combined with the potential presence of additional periodicities not due to rotation, complicates the analysis of these time series and makes characterization of uncertainties difficult. A variety of algorithms have been used for the extraction of rotational signals, including autocorrelation functions, discrete Fourier transforms, Lomb-Scargle periodograms, wavelet transforms, and the Hilbert-Huang transform. In addition, in the case of K2 a number of different pipelines have been used to produce initial detrended light curves from the raw image frames.In the near future, TESS photometry, particularly that deriving from the full-frame images, will dramatically further expand the number of such light curves, but details of the pipeline to be used to produce photometry from the FFIs remain under development. K2 data offers us an opportunity to explore the utility of different reduction and analysis tool combinations applied to these astrophysically important tasks. In this work, we apply a wide range of algorithms to light curves produced by a number of popular K2 pipeline products to better understand the advantages and limitations of each approach and provide guidance for the most reliable and most efficient analysis of TESS stellar data.

  20. An in-silico investigation on the structure, function and homologous sequences of the enzymes and proteins involved in the production and accumulation of the lipids in biodiesel resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Farmanbar

    2017-06-01

    Discussion and conclusion: Overall, this survey provides a series of motifs and domains in biodiesel process, as well as introducing several organisms with potency in biodiesel production, which could be more examined in an experimental condition.

  1. Construction of calibration curve for accountancy tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takayuki; Goto, Yoshiki; Nidaira, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Tanks are equipped in a reprocessing plant for accounting solution of nuclear material. The careful measurement of volume in tanks is very important to implement rigorous accounting of nuclear material. The calibration curve relating the volume and level of solution needs to be constructed, where the level is determined by differential pressure of dip tubes. Several calibration curves are usually employed, but it's not explicitly decided how many segment are used, where to select segment, or what should be the degree of polynomial curve. These parameters, i.e., segment and degree of polynomial curve are mutually interrelated to give the better performance of calibration curve. Here we present the construction technique of giving optimum calibration curves and their characteristics. (author)

  2. MICA: Multiple interval-based curve alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Martin; Kahle, Hans-Peter; Beck, Matthias; Bender, Bela Johannes; Spiecker, Heinrich; Backofen, Rolf

    2018-01-01

    MICA enables the automatic synchronization of discrete data curves. To this end, characteristic points of the curves' shapes are identified. These landmarks are used within a heuristic curve registration approach to align profile pairs by mapping similar characteristics onto each other. In combination with a progressive alignment scheme, this enables the computation of multiple curve alignments. Multiple curve alignments are needed to derive meaningful representative consensus data of measured time or data series. MICA was already successfully applied to generate representative profiles of tree growth data based on intra-annual wood density profiles or cell formation data. The MICA package provides a command-line and graphical user interface. The R interface enables the direct embedding of multiple curve alignment computation into larger analyses pipelines. Source code, binaries and documentation are freely available at https://github.com/BackofenLab/MICA

  3. Inverse Diffusion Curves Using Shape Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang; Durand, Fredo; Zheng, Changxi

    2018-07-01

    The inverse diffusion curve problem focuses on automatic creation of diffusion curve images that resemble user provided color fields. This problem is challenging since the 1D curves have a nonlinear and global impact on resulting color fields via a partial differential equation (PDE). We introduce a new approach complementary to previous methods by optimizing curve geometry. In particular, we propose a novel iterative algorithm based on the theory of shape derivatives. The resulting diffusion curves are clean and well-shaped, and the final image closely approximates the input. Our method provides a user-controlled parameter to regularize curve complexity, and generalizes to handle input color fields represented in a variety of formats.

  4. Corporate taxation and capital accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Bond; Jing Xing

    2010-01-01

    We present new empirical evidence that aggregate capital accumulation is strongly influenced by the user cost of capital and, in particular, by corporate tax incentives summarised in the tax-adjusted user cost. We use sectoral panel data for the USA, Japan, Australia and ten EU countries over the period 1982-2007. Our panel combines data on capital stocks, value-added and relative prices from the EU KLEMS database with measures of effective corporate tax rates from the Oxford University Centr...

  5. LIPID ACCUMULATION OF CHLORELLA VULGARIS UNDER DIFFERENT PHOSPHATE CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Karolina Rokicka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation and utilization of microalgae is now a intensively developing area of research. Some species of microalgae, under appropriate conditions, accumulate large amounts of lipids in the cells. This lipids have a suitable profile of fatty acids for biodiesel production. The culture of microalgae for lipids accumulation should be performed in certain physicochemical conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of variable ortophophates concentrations in the culture medium for lipids accumulation of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and to determine of parameters of the phosphoric shock in the medium. The study confirmed the possibility of the use of the phosphoric shock in the medium to maximize lipids accumulation by the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. In the study, 45.23% of the oil was obtained from the biomass from the culture with phosphoric shock in the medium and 18% less of the oil was obtained from the biomass from the standard culture.

  6. WEALTH TAXATION AND WEALTH ACCUMULATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Katrine Marie Tofthøj; Jakobsen, Kristian Thor; Kleven, Henrik

    Using administrative wealth records from Denmark, we study the effects of wealth taxes on wealth accumulation. Denmark used to impose one of the world's highest marginal tax rates on wealth, but this tax was drastically reduced and ultimately abolished between 1989 and 1997. Due to the specific d...... on wealth accumulation. Our simulations show that the long-run elasticity of wealth with respect to the net-of-tax return is sizeable at the top of distribution. Our paper provides the type of evidence needed to assess optimal capital taxation.......Using administrative wealth records from Denmark, we study the effects of wealth taxes on wealth accumulation. Denmark used to impose one of the world's highest marginal tax rates on wealth, but this tax was drastically reduced and ultimately abolished between 1989 and 1997. Due to the specific...... design of the wealth tax, these changes provide a compelling quasi-experiment for understanding behavioral responses among the wealthiest segments of the population. We find clear reduced-form effects of wealth taxes in the short and medium run, with larger effects on the very wealthy than...

  7. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  8. Neutral lipid accumulation at elevated temperature in conditional mutants of two microalgae species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Shuo; Brandt, Anders Bøving; Egsgaard, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Triacylglycerols, an energy storage compound in microalgae, are known to be accumulated after nitrogen starvation of microalgae cells. Microalgae could be of importance for future biodiesel production due to their fast growth rate and high oil content. In collections of temperature sensitive...... accumulation in microalgae and suggest possibilities for biodiesel production by specific induction of lipid accumulation in miroalgal cultures by cell-cycle inhibition....

  9. String Sigma Models on Curved Supermanifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Catenacci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We use the techniques of integral forms to analyze the easiest example of two-dimensional sigma models on a supermanifold. We write the action as an integral of a top integral form over a D = 2 supermanifold, and we show how to interpolate between different superspace actions. Then, we consider curved supermanifolds, and we show that the definitions used for flat supermanifolds can also be used for curved supermanifolds. We prove it by first considering the case of a curved rigid supermanifold and then the case of a generic curved supermanifold described by a single superfield E.

  10. Regional Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for NOx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data underlying the figures included in the manuscript "Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and...

  11. Power Curve Measurements, AEP evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    The purpose of this report is to quantify the production increase on a given turbine with respect to another given turbine. The used methodology is the “side by side” comparison method, provided by the client. This method involves the use of two neighboring turbines and it is based on the assumpt...... on the assumption that the wind field in front of the tested turbines is statistically the same (i.e. has in average the same mean wind speed conditions in front of both turbines). The method is only used for the evaluation of a relative change in the AEP, not the AEP itself.......The purpose of this report is to quantify the production increase on a given turbine with respect to another given turbine. The used methodology is the “side by side” comparison method, provided by the client. This method involves the use of two neighboring turbines and it is based...

  12. On the possible ''normalization'' of experimental curves of 230Th vertical distribution in abyssal oceanic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Al'terman, Eh.I.; Lisitsyn, A.P.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Okeanologii)

    1981-01-01

    The possibilities of the method of normalization of experimental ionic curves in reference to dating of abyssal sediments and establishing their accumulation rapidities are studied. The method is based on using correlation between ionic curves extrema and variations of Fe, Mn, C org., and P contents in abyssal oceanic sediments. It has been found that the above method can be successfully applied for correction of 230 Th vertical distribution data obtained by low-background γ-spectrometry. The method leads to most reliable results in those cases when the vertical distribution curves in sediments of elements concentrators of 230 Th are symbasic between themselves. The normalization of experimental ionic curves in many cases gives the possibility to realize the sediment age stratification [ru

  13. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Influence of irradiation parameters on damage accumulation in metals and alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, B.N.; Zinkle, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    , helium production rate and the production rate of transmutant impurities may affect the rate and the magnitude of the damage accumulation. Possible mechanisms by which these parameters may affect the damage accumulation are described. Specific examples are given to illustrate the fact that the recoil...

  15. NEW CONCEPTS AND TEST METHODS OF CURVE PROFILE AREA DENSITY IN SURFACE: ESTIMATION OF AREAL DENSITY ON CURVED SPATIAL SURFACE

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Shen

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of curve profile, curve intercept, curve intercept density, curve profile area density, intersection density in containing intersection (or intersection density relied on intersection reference), curve profile intersection density in surface (or curve intercept intersection density relied on intersection of containing curve), and curve profile area density in surface (AS) were defined. AS expressed the amount of curve profile area of Y phase in the unit containing surface area, S...

  16. Polar representation of centrifugal pump homologous curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, Marcelo Antonio; Mattos, Joao Roberto Loureiro de

    2008-01-01

    Essential for any mathematical model designed to simulate flow transient events caused by pump operations is the pump performance data. The performance of a centrifugal pump is characterized by four basic parameters: the rotational speed, the volumetric flow rate, the dynamic head, and the hydraulic torque. Any one of these quantities can be expressed as a function of any two others. The curves showing the relationships between these four variables are called the pump characteristic curves, also referred to as four-quadrant curves. The characteristic curves are empirically developed by the pump manufacturer and uniquely describe head and torque as functions of volumetric flow rate and rotation speed. Because of comprising a large amount of points, the four-quadrant configuration is not suitable for computational purposes. However, it can be converted to a simpler form by the development of the homologous curves, in which dynamic head and hydraulic torque ratios are expressed as functions of volumetric flow and rotation speed ratios. The numerical use of the complete set of homologous curves requires specification of sixteen partial curves, being eight for the dynamic head and eight for the hydraulic torque. As a consequence, the handling of homologous curves is still somewhat complicated. In solving flow transient problems that require the pump characteristic data for all the operation zones, the polar form appears as the simplest way to represent the homologous curves. In the polar method, the complete characteristics of a pump can be described by only two closed curves, one for the dynamic head and other for the hydraulic torque, both in function of a single angular coordinate defined adequately in terms of the quotient between volumetric flow ratio and rotation speed ratio. The usefulness and advantages of this alternative method are demonstrated through a practical example in which the homologous curves for a pump of the type used in the main coolant loops of a

  17. Power Curve Measurements, AEP evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    The purpose of this report is to quantify the production increase on a given turbine with respect to another given turbine. The used methodology is the “side by side” comparison method, provided by the client. This method involves the use of two neighboring turbines and it is based on the assumpt...... on the assumption that the wind field in front of the tested turbines is statistically the same (i.e. has in average the same mean wind speed conditions in front of both turbines). The method is only used for the evaluation of a relative change in the AEP, not the AEP itself....

  18. Investigating the energy-environmental Kuznets curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzzati, T.; Orsini, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche, Facolta di Economia, Universita di Pisa. Via Ridolfi 10, I-56124 PISA (Italy)

    2009-03-15

    This paper investigates the relationship between absolute energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita for 113 countries over the period 1971-2004. Energy has been scarcely explored in the Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) debate and is taken as the indicator of overall environmental pressure. The following aspects of this work are rather innovative. Firstly, in order to closely adhere to the EKC narratives, the indicator of environmental pressure (energy) is taken in absolute terms rather than per capita. Secondly, we look for consistency both between different econometric techniques (parametric and semi-parametric) and across different analytical levels (world, time series/cross-countries, and single countries). Finally, the dataset is large and not limited to developed countries. In our opinion, the estimates cannot support an energy-EKC hypothesis. For the world as a single unit, the relationship is positive monotone, with a lower (though still positive) elasticity after 1989. A glance at single country level does not reveal evidence of EKC. Cross-country analysis is slightly more open to interpretation; in any case, however, it shows that the potential benefits of GDP growth on natural environment, if any, did not show up in the considered time span. (author)

  19. Production and accumulation of UV-B [ultra violet] absorbing compounds in UV-B irradiated leaves of rice, Oryza SativaL.: effects of varying UV-B doses on leaf damage, phenolic content and HPLC [high performance liquid chromatography] peak I area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caasi-Lit, M.T.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of varying UV-B doses on leaf damage, phenolic content and HPLC peak 1 area were studied using 65-d-old plants of the UV-B tolerant rice cultivar, M202, and the UV-B susceptible rice cultivar, Dular. Results showed that the production and accumulation of UV-B- absorbing compounds in rice leaves were affected by leaf position and levels (dose) of UV-B and time or duration of UV-B irradiation or exposure. The youngest terminal leaves showed the least damage when exposed to medium and high UV-B doses. The production of these absorptive compounds as represented by relative phenolic and HPLC peak 1 were significantly higher in younger leaves and lower in older or senescing leaves. M202 showed significantly higher amounts of peak 1 area and relative phenolic compared to UV-B susceptible rice cultivar, Dular. The results also confirmed the strong relationship of overall damage rating and area of HPLC peak 1. The development of UV-B symptoms in the susceptible cultivar was hastened when a high UV-B treatment was applied. Peak 1 area did not accumulate in the UV-B susceptible Dular at any given UV-B dose

  20. Selenium accumulation and metabolism in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Ertani, Andrea; Parrasia, Sofia; Vecchia, Francesca Dalla

    2017-08-01

    Selenium (Se) is an intriguing element because it is metabolically required by a variety of organisms, but it may induce toxicity at high doses. Algae primarily absorb selenium in the form of selenate or selenite using mechanisms similar to those reported in plants. However, while Se is needed by several species of microalgae, the essentiality of this element for plants has not been established yet. The study of Se uptake and accumulation strategies in micro- and macro-algae is of pivotal importance, as they represent potential vectors for Se movement in aquatic environments and Se at high levels may affect their growth causing a reduction in primary production. Some microalgae exhibit the capacity of efficiently converting Se to less harmful volatile compounds as a strategy to cope with Se toxicity. Therefore, they play a crucial role in Se-cycling through the ecosystem. On the other side, micro- or macro-algae enriched in Se may be used in Se biofortification programs aimed to improve Se content in human diet via supplementation of valuable food. Indeed, some organic forms of selenium (selenomethionine and methylselenocysteine) are known to act as anticarcinogenic compounds and exert a broad spectrum of beneficial effects in humans and other mammals. Here, we want to give an overview of the developments in the current understanding of Se uptake, accumulation and metabolism in algae, discussing potential ecotoxicological implications and nutritional aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Technetium accumulation, fate, and behavior in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Wildung, R.E.; Garland, T.R.

    1978-01-01

    Technetium, a product of the nuclear fuel cycle, is highly soluble in water and mobile in soils as the pertechnetate ion (TcO - 4 ). Soluble ions in soil have the potential for competing with nutrient ions for membrane carrier sites involved in ion uptake by plants. A study was, therefore, undertaken to determine the availability, toxicity, and mechanism of pertechnetate uptake by soybean (Glycine max cv. Williams). Technetium was effectively accumulated by plants at soil concentrations of 0.01 to 0.1 μg/g and in nutrient culture at levels as low as 0.02 pg/ml. Plants grown on soils containing technetium at levels below 0.1 μg/g effectively removed up to 90% of the technetium from soil. Minimal mobilization of technetium from vegetative tissues to the seed occurred during senescence. Chemical analyses indicated that the xylem-mobile form of technetium was TcO 4 - . The uptake rate of technetium by intact plants was multiphasic over the concentration range of 0.01 to 10μM; this suggests active uptake and a specificity for technetium in the root absorption process. Because of the efficiency of technetium accumulation and the probability of its chemical toxicity, competition kinetic studies were undertaken to identify possible nutrient analogs. Nutrients effective in reducing technetium uptake included the Mn 2+ , SO 4 2- , H 2 PO 4 - , and MoO 4 2- ions

  2. [b][/b]Impact of copper (Cu at the dose of 50 mg on haematological and biochemical blood parameters in turkeys, and level of Cu accumulation in the selected tissues as a source of information on product safety for consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Makarski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The current state-of the art points to a positive impact of copper (Cu supplements on the general health status in poultry. Copper induces beneficial changes in the haematological and biochemical blood parameters. It also displays immunostimulating properties and helps maintain a proper microbiological balance in the digestive tract. [b]Objective[/b]. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Cu at the dose of 50 mg/kg BW, administered in organic and inorganic form, on the haematological and biochemical blood parameters and level of Cu bioaccumulation in the liver and pectoral muscle. [b]Materials and method[/b]. The study was carried out on 45 BUT-9 turkeys which had been were reared for 16 weeks. They were divided into 3 experimental groups: I – the control group; II – fed with CuSO[sub]4[/sub] at the dose of 50 mg Cu•dm [sup]-3 [/sup]H[sub]2[/sub]O; III – received a Cu chelate with lysine at the same dose. [b]Results[/b]. The administration of Cu at the dose exceeding the nutritional recommendations did not induce beneficial changes in the examined birds. This indicates that it is not necessary to administer Cu doses higher than the recommended levels. The extent of Cu accumulation in the pectoral muscle increased by 40% compared to the control group, whereas in the liver it was higher by 30–35% than in the birds without Cu administration. The level of Cu in tissues does not pose a risk to consumers. [b]Conclusions[/b]. The supplementation of Cu at the dose of 50 mg has a negative impact on the level of the analyzed parameters. The results of the presented study indicate that the administered Cu dose exceeds birds’ demand for this element.

  3. Migration and the Wage-Settings Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke

    Germany on basis of a wage-setting curve. The wage-setting curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a hange in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously in a general equilibrium framework. Using...

  4. Learning curves in energy planning models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, L; Kypreos, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    This study describes the endogenous representation of investment cost learning curves into the MARKAL energy planning model. A piece-wise representation of the learning curves is implemented using Mixed Integer Programming. The approach is briefly described and some results are presented. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  5. The Koch curve as a smooth manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Marcelo; Sniatycki, Jedrzej

    2008-01-01

    We show that there exists a homeomorphism between the closed interval [0,1] is contained in R and the Koch curve endowed with the subset topology of R 2 . We use this homeomorphism to endow the Koch curve with the structure of a smooth manifold with boundary

  6. Fermionic fields on ZN-curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershadsky, M.; Radul, A.

    1988-01-01

    The line bundles of degree g-1 on Z N -curves corresponding to 1/N nonsingular characteristics are considered. The determinants of Dirac operators defined on these line bundles are evaluated in terms of branch points. The generalization of Thomae's formula for Z N -curves is derived. (orig.)

  7. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  8. A minicourse on moduli of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looijenga, E.

    2000-01-01

    These are notes that accompany a short course given at the School on Algebraic Geometry 1999 at the ICTP, Trieste. A major goal is to outline various approaches to moduli spaces of curves. In the last part I discuss the algebraic classes that naturally live on these spaces; these can be thought of as the characteristic classes for bundles of curves. (author)

  9. Minimal families of curves on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Lubbes, Niels

    2014-01-01

    A minimal family of curves on an embedded surface is defined as a 1-dimensional family of rational curves of minimal degree, which cover the surface. We classify such minimal families using constructive methods. This allows us to compute the minimal

  10. Symmetry Properties of Potentiometric Titration Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macca, Carlo; Bombi, G. Giorgio

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates how the symmetry properties of titration curves can be efficiently and rigorously treated by means of a simple method, assisted by the use of logarithmic diagrams. Discusses the symmetry properties of several typical titration curves, comparing the graphical approach and an explicit mathematical treatment. (Author/JM)

  11. Deep-learnt classification of light curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahabal, Ashish; Gieseke, Fabian; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2017-01-01

    Astronomy light curves are sparse, gappy, and heteroscedastic. As a result standard time series methods regularly used for financial and similar datasets are of little help and astronomers are usually left to their own instruments and techniques to classify light curves. A common approach is to d...

  12. Hyper-and-elliptic-curve cryptography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Lange, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces ‘hyper-and-elliptic-curve cryptography’, in which a single high-security group supports fast genus-2-hyperelliptic-curve formulas for variable-base-point single-scalar multiplication (for example, Diffie–Hellman shared-secret computation) and at the same time supports fast

  13. Curve Matching with Applications in Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Martin; Bruveris, Martins; Harms, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, Riemannian shape analysis of curves and surfaces has found several applications in medical image analysis. In this paper we present a numerical discretization of second order Sobolev metrics on the space of regular curves in Euclidean space. This class of metrics has several...

  14. Towards freeform curved blazed gratings using diamond machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgenot, C.; Robertson, D. J.; Stelter, D.; Eikenberry, S.

    2016-07-01

    Concave blazed gratings greatly simplify the architecture of spectrographs by reducing the number of optical components. The production of these gratings using diamond-machining offers practically no limits in the design of the grating substrate shape, with the possibility of making large sag freeform surfaces unlike the alternative and traditional method of holography and ion etching. In this paper, we report on the technological challenges and progress in the making of these curved blazed gratings using an ultra-high precision 5 axes Moore-Nanotech machine. We describe their implementation in an integral field unit prototype called IGIS (Integrated Grating Imaging Spectrograph) where freeform curved gratings are used as pupil mirrors. The goal is to develop the technologies for the production of the next generation of low-cost, compact, high performance integral field unit spectrometers.

  15. ECONOMIC GROWTH, TRADE AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: TESTING ENVIRONMENTAL KUZNETS CURVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Budiman Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ASEAN experiences a dynamic economic growth due to its liberalised markets. However concerns arise related to environmental issues resulting from the economic activities. It reflects tradeoffs between economic growth driven by trade and foreign direct investment (FDI, and environment. To investigate such a relation the Environmental Kuznets Curve was applied by regressing amount of carbon emission with gross domestic product (GDP, quadratic GDP, trade openness and FDI. The result reveals that amount of carbon emission is linearly and positively correlated with GDP per capita. It is predicted that as ASEAN economies grow, carbon emission increases. Trade openness is also found to contribute to carbon emission. Keywords: Kuznets curve, carbon emission, gross domestic product, trade, foreign direct investment JEL classification number: F15, F18

  16. Accumulation of cobalt by cephalopods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu

    1981-01-01

    Accumulation of cobalt by cephalopod mollusca was investigated by radiotracer experiments and elemental analysis. In the radiotracer experiments, Octopus vulgaris took up cobalt-60 from seawater fairly well and the concentration of the nuclide in whole body attained about 150 times the level of seawater at 25th day at 20 0 C. Among the tissues and organs measured, branchial heart which is the specific organ of cephalopods showed the highest affinity for the nuclide. The organ accumulated about 50% of the radioactivity in whole body in spite of its little mass as 0.2% of total body weight. On the other hand, more than 90% of the radioactivity taken up from food (soft parts of Gomphina melanaegis labelled with cobalt-60 previously in an aquarium) was accumulated in liver at 3rd day after the single administration and then the radioactivity in the liver seemed to be distributed to other organs and tissues. The characteristic elution profiles of cobalt-60 was observed for each of the organs and tissues in Sephadex gel-filtration experiment. It was confirmed by the gel-filtration that most of cobalt-60 in the branchial heart was combined with the constituents of low molecular weights. The average concentration of stable cobalt in muscle of several species of cephalopods was 5.3 +- 3.0 μg/kg wet and it was almost comparable to the fish muscle. On the basis of soft parts, concentration of the nuclide closed association among bivalve, gastropod and cephalopod except squid that gave lower values than the others. (author)

  17. Benefit and cost curves for typical pollination mutualisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, William F; Vázquez, Diego P; Chacoff, Natacha P

    2010-05-01

    Mutualisms provide benefits to interacting species, but they also involve costs. If costs come to exceed benefits as population density or the frequency of encounters between species increases, the interaction will no longer be mutualistic. Thus curves that represent benefits and costs as functions of interaction frequency are important tools for predicting when a mutualism will tip over into antagonism. Currently, most of what we know about benefit and cost curves in pollination mutualisms comes from highly specialized pollinating seed-consumer mutualisms, such as the yucca moth-yucca interaction. There, benefits to female reproduction saturate as the number of visits to a flower increases (because the amount of pollen needed to fertilize all the flower's ovules is finite), but costs continue to increase (because pollinator offspring consume developing seeds), leading to a peak in seed production at an intermediate number of visits. But for most plant-pollinator mutualisms, costs to the plant are more subtle than consumption of seeds, and how such costs scale with interaction frequency remains largely unknown. Here, we present reasonable benefit and cost curves that are appropriate for typical pollinator-plant interactions, and we show how they can result in a wide diversity of relationships between net benefit (benefit minus cost) and interaction frequency. We then use maximum-likelihood methods to fit net-benefit curves to measures of female reproductive success for three typical pollination mutualisms from two continents, and for each system we chose the most parsimonious model using information-criterion statistics. We discuss the implications of the shape of the net-benefit curve for the ecology and evolution of plant-pollinator mutualisms, as well as the challenges that lie ahead for disentangling the underlying benefit and cost curves for typical pollination mutualisms.

  18. Remote sensing used for power curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R; Joergensen, H E; Paulsen, U S; Larsen, T J; Antoniou, I; Thesbjerg, L

    2008-01-01

    Power curve measurement for large wind turbines requires taking into account more parameters than only the wind speed at hub height. Based on results from aerodynamic simulations, an equivalent wind speed taking the wind shear into account was defined and found to reduce the power standard deviation in the power curve significantly. Two LiDARs and a SoDAR are used to measure the wind profile in front of a wind turbine. These profiles are used to calculate the equivalent wind speed. The comparison of the power curves obtained with the three instruments to the traditional power curve, obtained using a cup anemometer measurement, confirms the results obtained from the simulations. Using LiDAR profiles reduces the error in power curve measurement, when these are used as relative instrument together with a cup anemometer. Results from the SoDAR do not show such promising results, probably because of noisy measurements resulting in distorted profiles

  19. Quantum field theory in curved space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, P C.W. [King' s Coll., London (UK)

    1976-09-30

    It is stated that recent theoretical developments indicate that the presence of gravity (curved space-time) can give rise to important new quantum effects, such as cosmological particle production and black-hole evaporation. These processes suggest intriguing new relations between quantum theory, thermodynamics and space-time structure and encourage the hope that a better understanding of a full quantum theory of gravity may emerge from this approach.

  20. Parametric representation of centrifugal pump homologous curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, Marcelo A.; Mattos, Joao R.L. de

    2015-01-01

    Essential for any mathematical model designed to simulate flow transient events caused by pump operations is the pump performance data. The performance of a centrifugal pump is characterized by four basic quantities: the rotational speed, the volumetric flow rate, the dynamic head, and the hydraulic torque. The curves showing the relationships between these four variables are called the pump characteristic curves. The characteristic curves are empirically developed by the pump manufacturer and uniquely describe head and torque as functions of volumetric flow rate and rotation speed. Because of comprising a large amount of points, this configuration is not suitable for computational purposes. However, it can be converted to a simpler form by the development of the homologous curves, in which dynamic head and hydraulic torque ratios are expressed as functions of volumetric flow and rotation speed ratios. The numerical use of the complete set of homologous curves requires specification of sixteen partial curves, being eight for the dynamic head and eight for the hydraulic torque. As a consequence, the handling of homologous curves is still somewhat complicated. In solving flow transient problems that require the pump characteristic data for all the operation zones, the parametric form appears as the simplest way to deal with the homologous curves. In this approach, the complete characteristics of a pump can be described by only two closed curves, one for the dynamic head and other for the hydraulic torque, both in function of a single angular coordinate defined adequately in terms of the quotient between volumetric flow ratio and rotation speed ratio. The usefulness and advantages of this alternative method are demonstrated through a practical example in which the homologous curves for a pump of the type used in the main coolant loops of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) are transformed to the parametric form. (author)

  1. Surveying the nuclear caloric curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.G.; Siwed, A.; Peter, J.; Gulminelli, F.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Laforest, R.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefort, T.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Rosato, E.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Bacri, O.; Borderie, B.; Dore, D.; Lukasik, J.; Ouatizerga, A.; Parlog, M.; Plagnol, E.; Rivet, M.F.; Squalli, M.; Tassan-Got, L.; Eudes, P.; Gourio, D.; Laville, J.L.; Metivier, V.; Rahmani, A.; Reposeur, T.

    1996-01-01

    The 4π array INDRA was used to detect nearly all charged products emitted in Ar + Ni collisions between 52 and 95 MeV/u. The charge, mass and excitation energy E * of the quasi-projectiles have been reconstructed event by event. Excitation energies up to 25 MeV per nucleon are reached. Apparent temperatures obtained from several double isotopic yield ratios Tr 0 show different dependences upon E * . T 0 6 Li 7 Li- 3 Heα yields the highest values, as well as the high energy slopes Ts of the kinetic spectra. Two statistical models, sequential evaporation and gas in complete equilibrium, taking into account side feeding and discrete excited states population, show that the data can be explained by a steady increase of the initial temperature with excitation energy without evidence for a liquid-gas phase transition. (authors)

  2. Students’ understanding and application of the area under the curve concept in physics problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hai Nguyen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how students understand and apply the area under the curve concept and the integral-area relation in solving introductory physics problems. We interviewed 20 students in the first semester and 15 students from the same cohort in the second semester of a calculus-based physics course sequence on several problems involving the area under the curve concept. We found that only a few students could recognize that the concept of area under the curve was applicable in physics problems. Even when students could invoke the area under the curve concept, they did not necessarily understand the relationship between the process of accumulation and the area under a curve, so they failed to apply it to novel situations. We also found that when presented with several graphs, students had difficulty in selecting the graph such that the area under the graph corresponded to a given integral, although all of them could state that “the integral equaled the area under the curve.” The findings in this study are consistent with those in previous mathematics education research and research in physics education on students’ use of the area under the curve.

  3. Computerised curve deconvolution of TL/OSL curves using a popular spreadsheet program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afouxenidis, D; Polymeris, G S; Tsirliganis, N C; Kitis, G

    2012-05-01

    This paper exploits the possibility of using commercial software for thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence curve deconvolution analysis. The widely used software package Microsoft Excel, with the Solver utility has been used to perform deconvolution analysis to both experimental and reference glow curves resulted from the GLOw Curve ANalysis INtercomparison project. The simple interface of this programme combined with the powerful Solver utility, allows the analysis of complex stimulated luminescence curves into their components and the evaluation of the associated luminescence parameters.

  4. Computerised curve deconvolution of TL/OSL curves using a popular spreadsheet program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afouxenidis, D.; Polymeris, G. S.; Tsirliganis, N. C.; Kitis, G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper exploits the possibility of using commercial software for thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence curve deconvolution analysis. The widely used software package Microsoft Excel, with the Solver utility has been used to perform deconvolution analysis to both experimental and reference glow curves resulted from the Glow Curve Analysis Intercomparison project. The simple interface of this programme combined with the powerful Solver utility, allows the analysis of complex stimulated luminescence curves into their components and the evaluation of the associated luminescence parameters. (authors)

  5. Mannheim Partner D-Curves in the Euclidean 3-space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kazaz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the idea of Mannheim partner curves for curves lying on surfaces. By considering the Darboux frames of surface curves, we define Mannheim partner D-curves and give the characterizations for these curves. We also find the relations between geodesic curvatures, normal curvatures and geodesic torsions of these associated curves. Furthermore, we show that definition and characterizations of Mannheim partner D-curves include those of Mannheim partner curves in some special cases.

  6. Letters of Gold: Enabling Primitive Accumulation through Neoliberal Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E. Büscher (Bram)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In Capital I, Marx wrote that the history of the separation of the producers from the means of production “is written in the annals of mankind in letters of blood and fire” (Marx, 1976: 875). This ‘so-called primitive accumulation’, or ‘accumulation by dispossession’ in David

  7. Effect of progressive water deficit stress on proline accumulation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water deficit stress is one of the important factors limiting chickpea production in arid and semi-arid regions of West Asia and North Africa. When water deficit stress is imposed, different molecular and biochemical responses take place. This study was carried out to investigate proline accumulation and protein profiles of ...

  8. A versatile curve-fit model for linear to deeply concave rank abundance curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuteboom, J.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    A new, flexible curve-fit model for linear to concave rank abundance curves was conceptualized and validated using observational data. The model links the geometric-series model and log-series model and can also fit deeply concave rank abundance curves. The model is based ¿ in an unconventional way

  9. MODELING OF TEMPERATURE FIELDS IN A SOLID HEAT ACCUMULLATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Belimenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Currently, one of the priorities of energy conservation is a cost savings for heating in commercial and residential buildings by the stored thermal energy during the night and its return in the daytime. Economic effect is achieved due to the difference in tariffs for the cost of electricity in the daytime and at night. One of the most common types of devices that allow accumulating and giving the resulting heat are solid heat accumulators. The main purpose of the work: 1 software development for the calculation of the temperature field of a flat solid heat accumulator, working due to the heat energy accumulation in the volume of thermal storage material without phase transition; 2 determination the temperature distribution in its volumes at convective heat transfer. Methodology. To achieve the study objectives a heat transfer theory and Laplace integral transform were used. On its base the problems of determining the temperature fields in the channels of heat accumulators, having different cross-sectional shapes were solved. Findings. Authors have developed the method of calculation and obtained solutions for the determination of temperature fields in channels of the solid heat accumulator in conditions of convective heat transfer. Temperature fields over length and thickness of channels were investigated. Experimental studies on physical models and industrial equipment were conducted. Originality. For the first time the technique of calculating the temperature field in the channels of different cross-section for the solid heat accumulator in the charging and discharging modes was proposed. The calculation results are confirmed by experimental research. Practical value. The proposed technique is used in the design of solid heat accumulators of different power as well as full-scale production of them was organized.

  10. Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor contains approximately 20,000 biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) from 20 locations (mostly Superfund sites) for...

  11. Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui

    2017-03-23

    Background: Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results: We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions: Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  12. Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui; Saade, Stephanie; Kurtek, Sebastian; Berger, Bettina; Brien, Chris; Pillen, Klaus; Tester, Mark A.; Sun, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Background: Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results: We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions: Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  13. Comparison of embrittlement trend curves to high fluence surveillance results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaert, A.S.; Gerard, R.; Chaouadi, R.

    2011-01-01

    In the regulatory justification of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessels (RPV) for long term operation, use is made of predictive formulas (also called trend curves) to evaluate the RPV embrittlement (expressed in terms of RTNDT shifts) in function of fluence, chemical composition and in some cases temperature, neutron flux or product form. It has been shown recently that some of the existing or proposed trend curves tend to underpredict high dose embrittlement. Due to the scarcity of representative surveillance data at high dose, some test reactor results were used in these evaluations and raise the issue of representativeness of the accelerated test reactor irradiations (dose rate effects). In Belgium the surveillance capsules withdrawal schedule was modified in the nineties in order to obtain results corresponding to 60 years of operation or more with the initial surveillance program. Some of these results are already available and offer a good opportunity to test the validity of the predictive formulas at high dose. In addition, advanced surveillance methods are used in Belgium like the Master Curve, increased tensile tests, and microstructural investigations. These techniques made it possible to show the conservatism of the regulatory approach and to demonstrate increased margins, especially for the first generation units. In this paper the surveillance results are compared to different predictive formulas, as well as to an engineering hardening model developed at SCK.CEN. Generally accepted property-to-property correlations are critically revisited. Conclusions are made on the reliability and applicability of the embrittlement trend curves. (authors)

  14. Charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen Knøster; McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1999-01-01

    At present, the phenomenon of charge accumulation in solid dielectrics is under intense experimental study. Using a field theoretical approach, we review the basis for charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics. Thereafter, this macroscopic approach is applied to planar geometries such that the mat......At present, the phenomenon of charge accumulation in solid dielectrics is under intense experimental study. Using a field theoretical approach, we review the basis for charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics. Thereafter, this macroscopic approach is applied to planar geometries...

  15. Modelling curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soloninko K.S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors research the issue of functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand. Settlement of the problem, and its connection with important scientific and practical tasks. According to its nature, the market economy is unstable and is in constant movement. Economy has an effective instrument for explanation of changes in economic environment; this tool is called the modelling of economic processes. The modelling of economic processes depends first and foremost on the building of economic model which is the base for the formalization of economic process, that is, the building of mathematical model. The effective means for formalization of economic process is the creation of the model of hypothetic or imaginary economy. The building of demand model is significant for the market of goods and services. The problem includes the receiving (as the result of modelling definite functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand according to which one can determine their mathematical model. Another problem lies in obtaining majorant properties of curves of joint demand on the market of goods and services. Analysis of the latest researches and publications. Many domestic and foreign scientists dedicated their studies to the researches and building of the models of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand. In spite of considerable work of the scientists, such problems as functional properties of the curves and their practical use in modelling. The purpose of the article is to describe functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand on the market of goods and services on the base of modelling of their building. Scientific novelty and practical value. The theoretical regulations (for functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand received as a result of the present research, that is convexity, give extra practical possibilities in a microeconomic

  16. Reflected Light Curves of Extrasolar Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D.; Matthews, J.; Kuschnig, R.; Seager, S.

    The planned launches of ultra-precise photometric satellites such as MOST, COROT and MONS should provide the first opportunity to study the reflected light curves from extrasolar planets. To predict the capabilities of these missions, we have constructed a series of models of such light curves, improving upon the Monte Carlo simulations by Seager et al. (2000). These models include more realistic features such limb darkening of the star and broad band photometry. For specific models, the resulting planet light curves exhibit unique behavior with the variation of radius, inclination and presence or absence of clouds.

  17. Neck curve polynomials in neck rupture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul

    2012-01-01

    The Neck Rupture Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of rupture position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck Rupture Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck Rupture Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of 280 X 90 with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.

  18. Constructing forward price curves in electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleten, S.-E.; Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard

    2003-01-01

    We present and analyze a method for constructing approximated high-resolution forward price curves in electricity markets. Because a limited number of forward or futures contracts are traded in the market, only a limited picture of the theoretical continuous forward price curve is available...... to the analyst. Our method combines the information contained in observed bid and ask prices with information from the forecasts generated by bottom-up models. As an example, we use information concerning the shape of the seasonal variation from a bottom-up model to improve the forward price curve quoted...

  19. Curves of restricted type in euclidean spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Kılıç Bayram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Submanifolds of restricted type were introduced in [7]. In the present study we consider restricted type of curves in Em. We give some special examples. We also show that spherical curve in S2(r C E3 is of restricted type if and only if either ƒ(s is constant or a linear function of s of the form ƒ(s = ±s + b and every closed W - curve of rank k and of length 2(r in E2k is of restricted type.

  20. Constructing forward price curves in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Lemming, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    We present and analyze a method for constructing approximated high-resolution forward price curves in electricity markets. Because a limited number of forward or futures contracts are traded in the market, only a limited picture of the theoretical continuous forward price curve is available to the analyst. Our method combines the information contained in observed bid and ask prices with information from the forecasts generated by bottom-up models. As an example, we use information concerning the shape of the seasonal variation from a bottom-up model to improve the forward price curve quoted on the Nordic power exchange