WorldWideScience

Sample records for producing solar cells

  1. NREL Scientists Report First Solar Cell Producing More Electrons In

    Science.gov (United States)

    measured in operating quantum dot solar cells at low light intensity; these cells showed significant power Photocurrent Than Solar Photons Entering Cell | News | NREL NREL Scientists Report First Solar Cell Producing More Electrons In Photocurrent Than Solar Photons Entering Cell News Release: NREL

  2. Integrating Wind And Solar With Hydrogen Producing Fuel Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.

    2007-01-01

    The often proposed solution for the fluctuating wind energy supply is the conversion of the surplus of wind energy into hydrogen by means of electrolysis. In this paper a patented alternative is proposed consisting of the integration of wind turbines with internal reforming fuel-cells, capable of

  3. Polymorphous silicon thin films produced in dusty plasmas: application to solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere; Chaabane, N; Kharchenko, A V; Tchakarov, S

    2004-01-01

    We summarize our current understanding of the optimization of PIN solar cells produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition from silane-hydrogen mixtures. To increase the deposition rate, the discharge is operated under plasma conditions close to powder formation, where silicon nanocrystals contribute to the deposition of so-called polymorphous silicon thin films. We show that the increase in deposition rate can be achieved via an accurate control of the plasma parameters. However, this also results in a highly defective interface in the solar cells due to the bombardment of the P-layer by positively charged nanocrystals during the deposition of the I-layer. We show that decreasing the ion energy by increasing the total pressure or by using silane-helium mixtures allows us to increase both the deposition rate and the solar cells efficiency, as required for cost effective thin film photovoltaics

  4. Solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of producing solar cells is described which consists of producing a substantially monocrystalline tubular body of silicon or other suitable semiconductor material, treating this body to form an annular rectifying junction and then cutting it longitudinally to form a number of nearly flat ribbons from which the solar cells are fabricated. The P=N rectifying junction produced by the formation of silicon dioxide on the layers at the inner and outer surfaces of the body can be formed by ion-implantation or diffusion. (U.K.)

  5. [Investigation of emergency capacities for occupational hazard accidents in silicon solar cell producing enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D D; Xu, J N; Zhu, B L

    2016-11-20

    Objective: To investigate and analyze the influential factors of occupational hazard acci-dents, emergency facilities and emergency management in Silicon solar cell producing enterprises, then to pro-vide scientific strategies. Methods: The methods of occupationally healthy field investigating, inspecting of ven-tilation effectiveness, setup of emergency program and wearing chemical suit were used. Results: The mainly occupational hazard accidents factors in the process of Silicon solar cell producing included poisoning chemi-cals, high temperature, onizing radiation and some workplaces. The poisoning chemicals included nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, chlorine, phos-phorus oxychloride, phosphorus pentoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, silane, and so on; the workplaces in-cluded the area of producing battery slides and auxiliary producing area. Among the nine enterprises, gas detec-tors were installed in special gas supplying stations and sites, but the height, location and alarmvalues of gas detectors in six enterprises were not according with standard criteria; emergency shower and eyewash equip-ment were installed in workplaces with strong corrosive chemicals, but the issues of waste water were not solved; ventilation systems were set in the workplaces with ammonia and silane, but not qualified with part lo-cations and parameters in two enterprises; warehouses with materials of acid, alkali, chemical ammonia and phosphorus oxychloride were equipped with positive - pressure air respirator resuscitator and emergency cabi-nets, but with insufficient quantity in seven enterprises and expiration in part of products. The error rate of set-up emergency program and wearing chemical cloth were 30%~100% and 10%~30%, respectively. Among the nine enterprises, there were emergency rescue plans for dangerous chemical accidents, but without profession-al heatstroke and irradiation accident emergency plans

  6. Thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling of silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, R., E-mail: roberto.martini@imec.be [Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark 10, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kepa, J.; Stesmans, A. [Department of Physics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Debucquoy, M.; Depauw, V.; Gonzalez, M.; Gordon, I. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Poortmans, J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark 10, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Universiteit Hasselt, Martelarenlaan 42, B-3500 Hasselt (Belgium)

    2014-10-27

    We report on the drastic improvement of the quality of thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling. In the past, researchers have proposed to fabricate silicon foils by spalling silicon substrates with different stress-inducing materials to manufacture thin silicon solar cells. However, the reported values of effective minority carrier lifetime of the fabricated foils remained always limited to ∼100 μs or below. In this work, we investigate epoxy-induced exfoliated foils by electron spin resonance to analyze the limiting factors of the minority carrier lifetime. These measurements highlight the presence of disordered dangling bonds and dislocation-like defects generated by the exfoliation process. A solution to remove these defects compatible with the process flow to fabricate solar cells is proposed. After etching off less than 1 μm of material, the lifetime of the foil increases by more than a factor of 4.5, reaching a value of 461 μs. This corresponds to a lower limit of the diffusion length of more than 7 times the foil thickness. Regions with different lifetime correlate well with the roughness of the crack surface which suggests that the lifetime is now limited by the quality of the passivation of rough surfaces. The reported values of the minority carrier lifetime show a potential for high efficiency (>22%) thin silicon solar cells.

  7. Thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling of silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, R.; Kepa, J.; Stesmans, A.; Debucquoy, M.; Depauw, V.; Gonzalez, M.; Gordon, I.; Poortmans, J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the drastic improvement of the quality of thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling. In the past, researchers have proposed to fabricate silicon foils by spalling silicon substrates with different stress-inducing materials to manufacture thin silicon solar cells. However, the reported values of effective minority carrier lifetime of the fabricated foils remained always limited to ∼100 μs or below. In this work, we investigate epoxy-induced exfoliated foils by electron spin resonance to analyze the limiting factors of the minority carrier lifetime. These measurements highlight the presence of disordered dangling bonds and dislocation-like defects generated by the exfoliation process. A solution to remove these defects compatible with the process flow to fabricate solar cells is proposed. After etching off less than 1 μm of material, the lifetime of the foil increases by more than a factor of 4.5, reaching a value of 461 μs. This corresponds to a lower limit of the diffusion length of more than 7 times the foil thickness. Regions with different lifetime correlate well with the roughness of the crack surface which suggests that the lifetime is now limited by the quality of the passivation of rough surfaces. The reported values of the minority carrier lifetime show a potential for high efficiency (>22%) thin silicon solar cells.

  8. Lengthening the lifetime of roll-to-roll produced polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Vesterager

    the knowledge of the degradation mechanisms involved in roll-to-roll coated polymer solar cells. While only a part of the experiments have directly involved roll-to-roll coated devices, most of the work is applicable to coated devices. The first part of the dissertation is devoted to the study of in......The field of polymer solar cells is a field with an exponential growth in the number of published papers. It is a field defined by a set of challenges including; efficiency, stability and processability. Before all of these challenges have been addressed; polymer solar cells...... will not be a commercial success. This dissertation is devoted primarily to the study of the stability of polymer solar cells, and more specifically to designing and verifying experimental techniques, procedures, and automated solutions to stability tests and characterization. The goal of the project was to expand...

  9. Metal chloride-treated graphene oxide to produce high-performance polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun-Su; Noh, Yong-Jin; Kwon, Sung-Nam; Na, Seok-In, E-mail: nsi12@jbnu.ac.kr [Professional Graduate School of Flexible and Printable Electronics and Polymer Materials Fusion Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, Deokjin-dong, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Ye-Jin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok-Soon, E-mail: sskim@kunsan.ac.kr [Department of Nano and Chemical Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan, Jeollabuk-do 753-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Wook [Soft Innovative Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101, Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-905 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-13

    We introduce a simple but effective graphene oxide (GO) modification with metal chloride treatments to produce high-performance polymer solar cells (PSCs). The role of various metal chlorides on GO and their effects on device performances of PSCs was investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, and current-voltage measurement studies demonstrated that metal chloride can induce a p-doping effect and increase the GO work-function, thus resulting in an improved built-in potential and interfacial resistance in PSCs. The resultant PSCs with metal chloride exhibited improved device efficiency than those with the neat GO. Furthermore, with the metal chloride-doped GO, we finally achieved an excellent PSC-efficiency of 6.58% and a very desirable device stability, which constitute a highly similar efficiency but much better PSC life-time to conventional device with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). This study could be a valuable way to produce various PEDOT:PSS alternatives and beneficial for producing high-performance and cost-efficient polymeric devices.

  10. Silver-free Metallization Technology for Producing High Efficiency, Industrial Silicon Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelson, Lynne M [Technic Inc; Munoz, Krystal [Technic Inc.; Karas, Joseph [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Bowden, Stuart [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Rand, James A; Gallegos, Anthony [Technic Inc.; Tyson, Tom [Technic Inc.; Buonassisi, Tonio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2018-03-30

    The goal of this project is to provide a commercially viable Ag-free metallization technology that will both reduce cost and increase efficiency of standard silicon solar cells. By removing silver from the front grid metallization and replacing it with lower cost nickel, copper, and tin metal, the front grid direct materials costs will decrease. This reduction in material costs should provide a path to meeting the Sunshot 2020 goal of $1 / WDC. As of today, plated contacts are not widely implemented in large scale manufacturing. For organizations that wish to implement pilot scale manufacturing, only two equipment choices exist. These equipment manufacturers do not supply plating chemistry. The main goal of this project is to provide a chemistry and equipment solution to the industry that enables reliable manufacturing of plated contacts marked by passing reliability results and higher efficiencies than silver paste front grid contacts. To date, there have been several key findings that point to plated contacts performing equal to or better than the current state of the art silver paste contacts. Poor adhesion and reliability concerns are a few of the hurdles for plated contacts, specifically plated nickel directly on silicon. A key finding of the Phase 1 budget period is that the plated contacts have the same adhesion as the silver paste controls. This is a huge win for plated contacts. With very little optimization work, state of the art electrical results for plated contacts on laser ablated lines have been demonstrated with efficiencies up to 19.1% and fill factors ~80% on grid lines 40-50 um wide. The silver paste controls with similar line widths demonstrate similar electrical results. By optimizing the emitter and grid design for the plated contacts, it is expected that the electrical performance will exceed the silver paste controls. In addition, cells plated using Technic chemistry and equipment pass reliability testing; i.e. 1000 hours damp heat and 200

  11. Hybrid TiO2 Solar Cells Produced from Aerosolized Nanoparticles of Water-Soluble Polythiophene Electron Donor Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall L. Sweet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid solar cells (HSCs with water soluble polythiophene sodium poly[2-(3-thienyl-ethyloxy-4-butylsulfonate] (PTEBS thin films produced using electrospray deposition (ESD were fabricated, tested, and modeled and compared to devices produced using conventional spin coating. A single device structure of FTO/TiO2/PTEBS/Au was used to study the effects of ESD of the PTEBS layer on device performance. ESD was found to increase the short circuit current density (Jsc by a factor of 2 while decreasing the open circuit voltage (Voc by half compared to spin coated PTEBS films. Comparable efficiencies of 0.009% were achieved from both device construction types. Current-voltage curves were modeled using the characteristic solar cell equation and showed a similar increase in generated photocurrent with an increase by two orders of magnitude in the saturation current in devices from ESD films. Increases in Jsc are attributed to an increase in the interfacial contact area between the TiO2 and PTEBS layers, while decreases in Voc are attributed to incomplete film formation from ESD.

  12. Industrial Silicon Wafer Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Neuhaus, Dirk-Holger; Münzer, Adolf

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, around 86% of all wafer-based silicon solar cells were produced using screen printing to form the silver front and aluminium rear contacts and chemical vapour deposition to grow silicon nitride as the antireflection coating onto the front surface. This paper reviews this dominant solar cell technology looking into state-of-the-art equipment and corresponding processes for each process step. The main efficiency losses of this type of solar cell are analyzed to demonstrate the future e...

  13. Producer responsibility and recycling solar photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, N.C.; Pearce, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid expansion of the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry is quickly causing solar to play a growing importance in the energy mix of the world. Over the full life cycle, although to a smaller degree than traditional energy sources, PV also creates solid waste. This paper examines the potential need for PV recycling policies by analyzing existing recycling protocols for the five major types of commercialized PV materials. The amount of recoverable semiconductor material and glass in a 1 m 2 area solar module for the five types of cells is quantified both physically and the profit potential of recycling is determined. The cost of landfill disposal of the whole solar module, including the glass and semiconductor was also determined for each type of solar module. It was found that the economic motivation to recycle most PV modules is unfavorable without appropriate policies. Results are discussed on the need to regulate for appropriate energy and environmental policy in the PV manufacturing industry particularly for PV containing hazardous materials. The results demonstrate the need to encourage producer responsibility not only in the PV manufacturing sector but also in the entire energy industry.

  14. Radiation hard solar cell and array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    A power generating solar cell for a spacecraft solar array is hardened against transient response to nuclear radiation while permitting normal operation of the cell in a solar radiation environment by shunting the cell with a second solar cell whose contacts are reversed relative to the power cell to form a cell module, exposing the power cell only to the solar radiation in a solar radiation environment to produce an electrical output at the module terminals, and exposing both cells to the nuclear radiation in a nuclear radiation environment so that the radiation induced currents generated by the cells suppress one another

  15. Introduction to solar cell production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyeong Hae; Lee, Jun Sin

    2009-08-01

    This book introduces solar cell production. It is made up eight chapters, which are summary of solar cell with structure and prospect of the business, special variable of solar cell on light of the sun and factor causing variable of solar cell, production of solar cell with surface texturing, diffusion, metal printing dry and firing and edge isolation, process of solar cell on silicone wafer for solar cell, forming of electrodes, introduction of thin film solar cell on operating of solar cell, process of production and high efficiency of thin film solar cell, sorting of solar cell and production with background of silicone solar cell and thin film solar cell, structure and production of thin film solar cell and compound solar cell, introduction of solar cell module and the Industrial condition and prospect of solar cell.

  16. Nanostructured Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    Recent forecasts for alternative energy generation predict emerging importance of supporting state of art photovoltaic solar cells with their organic equivalents. Despite their significantly lower efficiency, number of application niches are suitable for organic solar cells. This work reveals...... the principles of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells fabrication as well as summarises major differences in physics of their operation....

  17. Solar Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

  18. Solar cell concentrating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, H.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Agarwal, R.K.

    1986-11-01

    This study reviews fabrication techniques and testing facilities for different solar cells under concentration which have been developed and tested. It is also aimed to examine solar energy concentrators which are prospective candidates for photovoltaic concentrator systems. This may provide an impetus to the scientists working in the area of solar cell technology

  19. Design and analysis of a curved cylindrical Fresnel lens that produces high irradiance uniformity on the solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Juan C

    2009-04-10

    A new type of convex Fresnel lens for linear photovoltaic concentration systems is presented. The lens designed with this method reaches 100% of geometrical optical efficiency, and the ratio (Aperture area)/(Receptor area) is up to 75% of the theoretical limit. The main goal of the design is high uniformity of the radiation on the cell surface for each input angle inside the acceptance. The ratio between the maximum and the minimum irradiance on points of the solar cell is less than 2. The lens has been designed with the simultaneous multiple surfaces (SMS) method of nonimaging optics, and ray tracing techniques have been used to characterize its performance for linear symmetry systems.

  20. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-09-08

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  1. Development of Inorganic Solar Cells by Nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yafei Zhang; Huijuan Geng; Zhihua Zhou; Jiang Wu; Zhiming Wang; Yaozhong Zhang; Zhongli Li; Liying Zhang; Zhi Yang; Huey Liang Hwang

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic solar cells, as durable photovoltaic devices for harvesting electric energy from sun light,have received tremendous attention due to the fear of exhausting the earth’s energy resources and damaging the living environment due to greenhouse gases. Some recent developments in nanotechnology have opened up new avenues for more relevant inorganic solar cells produced by new photovoltaic conversion concepts and effective solar energy harvesting nanostructures. In this review, the multiple exciton generation effect solar cells, hot carrier solar cells, one dimensional material constructed asymmetrical schottky barrier arrays, noble nanoparticle induced plasmonic enhancement, and light trapping nanostructured semiconductor solar cells are highlighted.

  2. Surface Modification of Aerosol-Assisted CVD Produced TiO2 Thin Film for Dye Sensitised Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SuPei Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a simple and convenient method for the preparation of Ag/TiO2 thin films supported on indium tin oxide, which was achieved by sonochemical deposition of Ag+ on aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposited TiO2 thin films. Posttreatment was performed on the film by immersion in HCl. The as-prepared composite film was characterised by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The photoelectrochemical measurements and J-V characterisation showed approximately fivefold increase in photocurrent density generation and approximately sevenfold enhancement in dye sensitiser solar cell (DSSC conversion efficiency, which was achieved after modification of the TiO2 film with HCl posttreatment and Ag particle deposition. The improved photocurrent density of 933.30 μA/cm2, as well as DSSC power conversion efficiency of 3.63% with high stability, is an indication that the as-synthesised thin film is a potential candidate for solar energy conversion applications.

  3. High Performance of Manganese Porphyrin Sensitized p-Type CuFe2O4 Photocathode for Solar Water Splitting to Produce Hydrogen in a Tandem Photoelectrochemical Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel composite composed of (5, 10, 15, 20-tetraphenyl porphinato manganese sensitized p-type CuFe2O4 was developed for constructing the photocathode of a tandem photoelectrochemical (PEC cell. The prepared material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS. Light-driven water splitting to produce hydrogen can be achieved through the PEC cell, and the results show that H2 and O2 can be collected separately at low applied bias. This work demonstrates that manganese porphyrin sensitized CuFe2O4 is an effective hybrid material for building the photocathode of a PEC cell for solar water splitting to produce H2.

  4. Dust Removal from Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashpis, David E. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A solar panel cleaning device includes a solar panel having a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged in rows and embedded in the solar panel with space between the rows. A transparent dielectric overlay is affixed to the solar panel. A plurality of electrode pairs each of which includes an upper and a lower electrode are arranged on opposite sides of the transparent dielectric and are affixed thereto. The electrodes may be transparent electrodes which may be arranged without concern for blocking sunlight to the solar panel. The solar panel may be a dielectric and its dielectric properties may be continuously and spatially variable. Alternatively the dielectric used may have dielectric segments which produce different electrical field and which affects the wind "generated."

  5. Low temperature characterization of the photocurrent produced by two-photon transitions in a quantum dot intermediate band solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antolin, E.; Marti, A.; Stanley, C.R.; Farmer, C.D.; Canovas, E.; Lopez, N.; Linares, P.G.; Luque, A.

    2008-01-01

    Conceived to exceed the conversion efficiency of conventional photovoltaic devices, the intermediate band solar cell bases its operation on exploiting, besides the usual band-to-band optical transitions, the absorption of two sub-bandgap photons. For the present, the only technology used to implement an intermediate band in real devices has been the growth of an InAs/GaAs quantum dot superlattice. In practice, the obtained material shows two limitations: the narrow energy gap between conduction and intermediate band and the appearance of growth defects due to the lattice stress. The consequences are the presence of non-radiative recombination mechanisms and the thermal escape of electrons from the intermediate to the conduction band, hindering the splitting of the quasi-Fermi levels associated with the intermediate and conduction bands and the observation of photocurrent associated with the two-photon absorption. By reducing the temperature at which the devices are characterised we have suppressed the parasitic thermal mechanisms and have succeeded in measuring the photocurrent caused by the absorption of two below bandgap photons. In this work, the characterization of this photocurrent at low temperature is presented and discussed

  6. Rectenna solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Moddel, Garret

    2013-01-01

    Rectenna Solar Cells discusses antenna-coupled diode solar cells, an emerging technology that has the potential to provide ultra-high efficiency, low-cost solar energy conversion. This book will provide an overview of solar rectennas, and provide thorough descriptions of the two main components: the diode, and the optical antenna. The editors discuss the science, design, modeling, and manufacturing of the antennas coupled with the diodes. The book will provide concepts to understanding the challenges, fabrication technologies, and materials required to develop rectenna structures. Written by e

  7. Industrial Silicon Wafer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk-Holger Neuhaus

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, around 86% of all wafer-based silicon solar cells were produced using screen printing to form the silver front and aluminium rear contacts and chemical vapour deposition to grow silicon nitride as the antireflection coating onto the front surface. This paper reviews this dominant solar cell technology looking into state-of-the-art equipment and corresponding processes for each process step. The main efficiency losses of this type of solar cell are analyzed to demonstrate the future efficiency potential of this technology. In research and development, more various advanced solar cell concepts have demonstrated higher efficiencies. The question which arises is “why are new solar cell concepts not transferred into industrial production more frequently?”. We look into the requirements a new solar cell technology has to fulfill to have an advantage over the current approach. Finally, we give an overview of high-efficiency concepts which have already been transferred into industrial production.

  8. Photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells with various MWCNT counter electrode structures produced by different coating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munkhbayar, B.; Hwang, Seunghwa; Kim, Junhyo; Bae, Kangyoul; Ji, Myoungkuk; Chung, Hanshik; Jeong, Hyomin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Catalyst on tube surface was removed and the tube caps were opened by purification. ► Highest peak of UV-light absorption was achieved in the purified and ground MWCNTs solution. ► The particles uniformly distributed on glass substrate by spin coating method. ► Highest photoelectric efficiency of DSSCs with MWCNTs counter electrode was achieved 4.94%. - Abstract: We report the successful application of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as electrocatalysts for triiodide reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). To improve the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs, upgrade the quality of MWCNT structure and obtain an optimum deposition approach regarding a counter electrode, the present study was investigated. Three different MWCNT structures, raw, purified and purified and ground, were investigated as platinum (Pt) alternatives for counter electrodes in DSSCs. The counter electrodes were prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates by two different techniques: spin coating from fluid-type MWCNTs and screen printing from paste-type MWCNTs. By utilizing a spin-coating technique, a DSSC that was fabricated with a purified and ground MWCNT counter electrode achieved an overall photovoltaic efficiency of 4.94%. This photovoltaic performance is comparable to that of a DSSC using a conventional “Pt” counter electrode fabricated under the same conditions. We found that the grinding method is powerful for increasing specific surface area and porosity. With this technique, macropores can be transformed into mesopores, thereby reducing the agglomeration of the MWCNTs, and with an additional modification, an increased DSSC photovoltaic efficiency results.

  9. Quantum dot solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    The third generation of solar cells includes those based on semiconductor quantum dots. This sophisticated technology applies nanotechnology and quantum mechanics theory to enhance the performance of ordinary solar cells. Although a practical application of quantum dot solar cells has yet to be achieved, a large number of theoretical calculations and experimental studies have confirmed the potential for meeting the requirement for ultra-high conversion efficiency. In this book, high-profile scientists have contributed tutorial chapters that outline the methods used in and the results of variou

  10. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  11. Solar cell radiation handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.; Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.

  12. Polymer tandem solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilot, J.

    2010-01-01

    Solar cells convert solar energy directly into electricity and are attractive contribute to the increasing energy demand of modern society. Commercial mono-crystalline silicon based devices are infiltrating the energy market but their expensive, time and energy consuming production process

  13. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  14. Conjugated Polymer Solar Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paraschuk, Dmitry Y

    2006-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Moscow State University as follows: Conjugated polymers are promising materials for many photonics applications, in particular, for photovoltaic and solar cell devices...

  15. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gur, Ilan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  16. Trouble in paradise. Did Chinese solar producer Jinko Solar pollute water with toxic effluents?; Aerger im Paradies. Hat der chinesische Solarkonzern Jinko Solar Giftstoffe ins Abwasser geleitet?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemer, Jochen

    2011-10-15

    When neighbours protested against toxic effluents emitted by a Chinese industrial plant, this received international attention, especially as the plant in question is producing solar cells for Jinko Solar at Haining. However, the real facts are impossible to obtain.

  17. Iron sulphide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaoui, A.; Tributsch, H.

    1984-12-01

    The abundant, naturally occurring natural compound pyrite (FeS2) can be used as a semiconducting material for photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic solar cells. Unlike most of the intensively studied photoactive materials, pyrite solar cell production would never be limited by the availability of the elements or by their compatibility with the environment. An energy gap of 0.95 eV has been determined for pyrite, and it is noted that the theoretical efficiency limit for solar energy conversion in this material is of the order of 15-20 percent.

  18. Thermo-stable carbon nanotube-TiO_2 nanocompsite as electron highways in dye-sensitized solar cell produced by bio-nano-process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Ippei; Yasueda, Hisashi; Yamauchi, Hirofumi; Okamoto, Naofumi; Toyoda, Kenichi; Horita, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Yamashita, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    We produced a thermostable TiO_2-(anatase)-coated multi-walled-carbon-nanotube (MWNT) nanocomposite for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using biological supuramolecules as catalysts. We synthesized two different sizes of iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) and arrayed the NPs on a silicon substrate utilizing two kinds of genetically modified cage-shaped proteins with silicon-binding peptide aptamers on their outer surfaces. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with the vapor–liquid-solid phase (VLS) method was applied to the substrate, and thermostable MWNTs with a diameter of 6 ± 1 nm were produced. Using a genetically modified cage-shaped protein with carbon-nanomaterials binding and Ti-mineralizing peptides as a catalyst, we were able to mineralize a titanium compound around the surface of the MWNT. The products were sintered, and thin TiO_2-layer-coated MWNTs nanocomoposites were successfully produced. Addition of a 0.2 wt% TiO_2-coated MWNT nanocomposite to a DSSC photoelectrode improved current density by 11% and decreased electric resistance by 20% compared to MWNT-free reference DSSCs. These results indicate that a nanoscale TiO_2-layer-coated thermostable MWNT structure produced by our mutant proteins works as a superior electron transfer highway within TiO_2 photoelectrodes. (paper)

  19. Rehydrating dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hellert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs are silicon free, simply producible solar cells. Longevity, however, is a longstanding problem for DSSCs. Due to liquid electrolytes being commonly used, evaporation of the electrolyte causes a dramatic drop in electric output as cells continue to be used unmaintained. Stopping evaporation has been tried in different ways in the past, albeit with differing degrees of success. In a recent project, a different route was chosen, exploring ways of revitalizing DSSCs after varying periods of usage. For this, we focused on rehydration of the cells using distilled water as well as the electrolyte contained in the cells. The results show a significant influence of these rehydration procedures on the solar cell efficiency. In possible applications of DSSCs in tents etc., morning dew may thus be used for rehydration of solar cells. Refillable DSSCs can also be used in tropical climates or specific types of farms and greenhouses where high humidity serves the purpose of rehydrating DSSCs.

  20. Four-cell solar tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Forty cm Sun tracker, consisting of optical telescope and four solar cells, stays pointed at Sun throughout day for maximum energy collection. Each solar cell generates voltage proportional to part of solar image it receives; voltages drive servomotors that keep image centered. Mirrored portion of cylinder extends acquisition angle of device by reflecting Sun image back onto solar cells.

  1. Quantum dot solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahamefula, U.C.; Sulaiman, M.Y.; Sopian, K.; Ibarahim, Z.; Ibrahim, N.; Alghoul, M.A.; Haw, L.C.; Yahya, M.; Amin, N.; Mat, S.; Ruslan, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The much awaited desire of replacing fossil fuel with photovoltaic will remain a fairy tale if the myriad of issues facing solar cell development are marginalized. Foremost in the list is the issue of cost. Silicon has reached a stage where its use on large scale can no longer be lavishly depended upon. The demand for high grade silicon from the microelectronics and solar industries has soared leading to scarcity. New approach has to be sought. Notable is the increased attention on thin films such as cadmium telluride, copper indium gallium diselenide, amorphous silicon, and the not so thin non-crystalline family of silicon. While efforts to address the issues of stability, toxicity and efficiency of these systems are ongoing, another novel approach is quietly making its appearance - quantum dots. Quantum dots seem to be promising candidates for solar cells because of the opportunity to manipulate their energy levels allowing absorption of a wider solar spectrum. Utilization of minute quantity of these nano structures is enough to bring the cost of solar cell down and to ascertain sustainable supply of useful material. The paper outlines the progress that has been made on quantum dot solar cells. (author)

  2. Dye-sensitised solar cell (artificial photosynthesis)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel system that harnesses solar energy is the nano-crystalline TiO dye-sensitised solar cell (DSC), in conjunction with several new concepts, such as nanotechnology and molecular devices. An efficient and low-cost cell can be produced by using...

  3. Perovskite Solar Cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic–inorganic halide perovskite, a newcomerin the solar cell industry has proved its potential forincreasing efficiency rapidly from 3.8% in 2009 to 22.1% in2016. High efficiency, flexibility, and cell architecture of theemerging hybrid halide perovskite have caught the attentionof researchers and technologists in the field.

  4. Characterization of multicrystalline solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, A.Q.; Chong Chew Hah; Chan Siang Khwang; Tan Kha Sheng; Lim Chee Ming

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation and assessment of the performance of photovoltaic (PV) cells in terms of measurable parameters requires the measurement of the current as a function of voltage, temperature, intensity, wind speed and spectrum. Most noticeable of all these parameters in the PV conversion efficiency η, defined as the maximum electrical power P max produced by the PV cell divided by the incident photon power P in which is measured with respect to standard test conditions (Sc). These conditions refer to the spectrum (AM 1.5), solar radiation intensity (1000 Wm -2 ), cell temperature (25 ± 2 degree C) and wind speed (2 mph). Tests under STC are carried out in the laboratory at a controlled environment. There have been several studies that analyze uncertainties in the laboratory measurement of solar cell efficiencies using different solar simulators and their transference to operational situations. Our preliminary results demonstrate that the short circuit current (I SC ) of the solar cell decreases when irradiance is less than 1000 Wm -2 irrespective of the working temperature of the cell

  5. Characterisation of multicrystalline solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Malik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation and assessment of the performance of photovoltaic (PV cells in terms of measurable parameters requires the measurement of the current as a function of voltage, temperature, intensity, wind speed and spectrum. Mo st noticeable of all these parameters is the PV conversion efficiency η, defined as the maximum electrical power Pmax produced by the PV cell divided by the incident photon power P in which is measured with respect to standard test conditions (STC. These conditions refer to the spectrum (AM 1.5, solar radiation intensity (1000 Wm-2, cell temperature (25 ±2oC and wind speed (2 mph. Tests under STC are carried out in the laboratory at a controlled environment. There have been several studies that analyze uncertainties in the laboratory measurement of solar cell efficiencies using different solar simulators and their transference to operational situations. Our preliminary results demonstratethat the short circuit current (ISC of the solar cell decreases when irradiance is less than 1000 Wm-2 irrespective of the working temperature of the cell.

  6. Characterization of solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, J.; Tuominen, E.; Nybergh, K.; Ezer, Y.; Yli-Koski, M.; Sinkkonen, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Electrical and Communications Engineering

    1998-10-01

    Photovoltaic research in the Electron Physics Laboratory started in 1993, when laboratory joined the national TEKES/NEMO 2 research program. Since the beginning of the project, characterization as well as experimentally orientated development of the fabrication process of the solar cells were carried out parallery. The process development research started by the initiatives of the Finnish industry. At the moment a large amount of the laboratory personnel works on solar cell research and the financing comes mainly from external projects. The funding for the research has come from TEKES, Ministry of Education, Finnish Academy, GETA graduate school, special equipment grants of the university, and from the laboratory

  7. Flexible Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Solar cell "modules" are plastic strips coated with thin films of photovoltaic silicon that collect solar energy for instant conversion into electricity. Lasers divide the thin film coating into smaller cells to build up voltage. Developed by Iowa Thin Film Technologies under NASA and DOE grants, the modules are used as electrical supply for advertising displays, battery rechargers for recreational vehicles, and to power model airplanes. The company is planning other applications both in consumer goods and as a power source in underdeveloped countries.

  8. Flexible silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakers, A.W.; Armour, T. [Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2009-08-15

    In order to be useful for certain niche applications, crystalline silicon solar cells must be able to sustain either one-time flexure or multiple non-critical flexures without significant loss of strength or efficiency. This paper describes experimental characterisation of the behaviour of thin crystalline silicon solar cells, under either static or repeated flexure, by flexing samples and recording any resulting changes in performance. Thin SLIVER cells were used for the experiment. Mechanical strength was found to be unaffected after 100,000 flexures. Solar conversion efficiency remained at greater than 95% of the initial value after 100,000 flexures. Prolonged one-time flexure close to, but not below, the fracture radius resulted in no significant change of properties. For every sample, fracture occurred either on the first flexure to a given radius of curvature, or not at all when using that radius. In summary, for a given radius of curvature, either the flexed solar cells broke immediately, or they were essentially unaffected by prolonged or multiple flexing. (author)

  9. Flexible Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter discusses roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacturing of organic and perovskite solar cells (PSCs), as these emerging photovoltaic (PV) technologies can be fabricated using well-known R2R printing and coating processes that are widely used in the industry. The manufacturing of PV devices starts

  10. Degradation of CIGS solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Thin film CIGS solar cells and individual layers within these solar cells have been tested in order to assess their long term stability. Alongside with the execution of standard tests, in which elevated temperatures and humidity levels are used, the solar cells have also been exposed to a

  11. World's Most Efficient Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    World's Most Efficient Solar Cell National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Spectrolab Set Record For , 1999 - A solar cell that can convert sunlight to electricity at a record-setting 32 percent efficiency on Earth. Spectrolab of Sylmar, Calif., "grew" the record-setting solar cell. After

  12. Characterization of solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, J.; Tuominen, E.; Nybergh, K.; Ezer, Y.; Yli-Koski, M.; Sinkkonen, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Electrical and Communications Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Photovoltaic research began at the Electron Physics Laboratory of the Helsinki University of Tehnology in 1993, when the laboratory joined the national NEMO 2 research program. During the early stages of the photovoltaic research the main objective was to establish necessary measurement and characterisation routines, as well as to develop the fabrication process. The fabrication process development work has been supported by characterisation and theoretical modelling of the solar cells. Theoretical investigations have been concerned with systematic studies of solar cell parameters, such as diffusion lengths, surface recombination velocities and junction depths. The main result of the modelling and characterisation work is a method which is based on a Laplace transform of the so-called spatial collection efficiency function of the cell. The basic objective of the research has been to develop a fabrication process cheap enough to be suitable for commercial production

  13. Solar cell. Taiyo denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamihara, T; Kondo, S; Mori, K [Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1990-10-23

    This invention provides a solar cell having high resistance to strong incident light and high temperature preservability. Reason of performance degradation of the solar cell in high temperature atmosphere thermally diffuses at the boundary surface of the silicon with metal particles. The method of blocking this thermal diffusion is that the film thickness is of the level that the electrons can pass through the film by a quantum dynamical tunnel effect. In this invention, the construction is that a transparent substrate, a transparent electrode, a P-type amorphous silicon, an I-type amorphous silicon, silica and a collector electrode are sequentially laminated and receives the incident light, thus generating a voltage between the two electrodes. Thickness of silica film is 10-100 microns. Materials of the collector electrode are either single element or alloys of Cs, K, Na, Li, Ba, Mg, Cd, Ta, Al, Mo, Zr, Co, Fe, Cu, Ag, W, Cr, Au and Ni. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Solar cell efficiency measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostoja, P.

    1989-01-01

    Solar cells (and solar modules) have to be tested for their performance by means of sound reliable measurement procedures. The need for such measurements arises at various stages of research, of production, and of photovoltaic systems sizing and dimensioning. In fact, accurate measurements are necessary to the researcher, who studies new materials and new processes, to the manufacturer, who has to control his product and, finally, to the user, who needs sound measurements, in order to be in a position to make effective decisions about what kink of product will be needed and with what critical characteristics. In short, standard measurements that allow cells and modules to be characterized serve as a common language, allowing effective communication about products and requirements. 3 refs

  15. BM Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Firdaus, Yuliar

    2018-05-02

    Fullerene‐based materials are widely used as electron acceptors in organic bulk‐heterojunction solar cells; yet, they have rarely been used as the only photoactive component due to their low absorbance and limited charge generation efficiency. However, blending the wide‐bandgap p‐type material copper (I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) with [6,6]‐phenyl‐C71‐butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) leads to the formation of a unique mesostructured p‐n like heterointerface between CuSCN and PC70BM and solar cells with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of up to 5.4%. Here, we examine in detail the reasons for the surprisingly good device performance and elucidate the charge photogeneration and recombination mechanisms in CuSCN‐based devices with PC70BM as the exclusive light‐absorbing material. Our studies clearly demonstrate that a substantial fraction of the photocurrent in the CuSCN‐based devices results from improved dissociation of fullerene excitons and efficient charge transfer at the CuSCN:PC70BM interface combined with reduced geminate and nongeminate charge recombination losses. Our results have implications beyond the fullerene‐based devices studied here, as they demonstrate that careful selection of a mesostructured p‐type transparent semiconductor paves the path to a new type of efficient single photoactive material solar cells.

  16. BM Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Firdaus, Yuliar; Seitkhan, Akmaral; Eisner, Flurin; Sit, Wai-Yu; Kan, Zhipeng; Wehbe, Nimer; Balawi, Ahmed H.; Yengel, Emre; Karuthedath, Safakath; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2018-01-01

    Fullerene‐based materials are widely used as electron acceptors in organic bulk‐heterojunction solar cells; yet, they have rarely been used as the only photoactive component due to their low absorbance and limited charge generation efficiency. However, blending the wide‐bandgap p‐type material copper (I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) with [6,6]‐phenyl‐C71‐butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) leads to the formation of a unique mesostructured p‐n like heterointerface between CuSCN and PC70BM and solar cells with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of up to 5.4%. Here, we examine in detail the reasons for the surprisingly good device performance and elucidate the charge photogeneration and recombination mechanisms in CuSCN‐based devices with PC70BM as the exclusive light‐absorbing material. Our studies clearly demonstrate that a substantial fraction of the photocurrent in the CuSCN‐based devices results from improved dissociation of fullerene excitons and efficient charge transfer at the CuSCN:PC70BM interface combined with reduced geminate and nongeminate charge recombination losses. Our results have implications beyond the fullerene‐based devices studied here, as they demonstrate that careful selection of a mesostructured p‐type transparent semiconductor paves the path to a new type of efficient single photoactive material solar cells.

  17. Solar cell. Taiyo denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amemiya, S.; Hashimoto, Y. (Canon Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-05-17

    This invention provides a cheap solar cell having a transparent surface protective layer which satisfies both controversial properties such as high electroconductivity and high water repellency and also abated the reduction of photoelectric conversion. In other words, this invention provides a solar cell having a surface-protective layer prepared by lamination of a mixture of a transparent water-repelling resin and a transparent electroconductive oxide powder; said protective layer is grounded at the surface resistance of 1 {times} 10 {sup 10} ohm or less and the contact angle of water on said protective layer is 90 degrees or more. The transparent water-repelling resin used is a fliorine resin such as PTFE and a silicone resin such as organopolysiloxane. The transparent electrodonductive oxide powder used is tin oxide, indium oxide or a complex compound of ton oxide and antimony oxide. The solar cell of this invention can be used for a long time because the adhesion of the dusts and the contamination by dirty water are restricted. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Transparent solar cell window module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Joseph Lik Hang; Chen, Ruei-Tang; Hwang, Gan-Lin; Tsai, Ping-Yuan [Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan County 709 (China); Lin, Chien-Chu [I-Lai Acrylic Corporation, Tainan City (China)

    2010-03-15

    A transparent solar cell window module based on the integration of traditional silicon solar cells and organic-inorganic nanocomposite material was designed and fabricated. The transparent solar cell window module was composed of a nanocomposite light-guide plate and traditional silicon solar cells. The preparation of the nanocomposite light-guide plate is easy without modification of the traditional casting process, the nanoparticles sol can be added directly to the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) monomer syrup during the process. The solar energy collected by this window can be used to power up small household electrical appliances. (author)

  19. Development of high-efficiency solar cells and modules. Optimised production processes and more durable modules can reduce the costs for producing solar power by a third; Hocheffiziente Solarzellen und Module entwickeln. Optimierte Fertigungsablaeufe und langlebigere Module koennen die Erzeugung von Solarstrom um ein Drittel billiger machen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirn, Gerhard

    2013-09-01

    Research institutes, photovoltaic producers, system manufacturers and solar industry suppliers are working together to produce more powerful and durable modules in a more efficient manner. In the SONNE project, companies and researchers are optimising the output and production of modules made of crystalline silicon cells, whereby they are covering the entire production chain and are making the new developments ready for production in a short time. With their developments they want to reduce the costs of solar power by a third.

  20. Silicon heterojunction solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrner, W R; Neitzert, H C

    2006-01-01

    The world of today must face up to two contradictory energy problems: on the one hand, there is the sharply growing consumer demand in countries such as China and India. On the other hand, natural resources are dwindling. Moreover, many of those countries which still possess substantial gas and oil supplies are politically unstable. As a result, renewable natural energy sources have received great attention. Among these, solar-cell technology is one of the most promising candidates. However, there still remains the problem of the manufacturing costs of such cells. Many attempts have been made

  1. Silicon Solar Cell Turns 50

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, J.

    2004-08-01

    This short brochure describes a milestone in solar (or photovoltaic, PV) research-namely, the 50th anniversary of the invention of the first viable silicon solar cell by three researchers at Bell Laboratories.

  2. Development of Inorganic Solar Cells by Nano-technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yafei Zhang; HueyLiang Hwang; Huijuan Geng; Zhihua Zhou; Jiang Wu; Zhiming Wang; Yaozhong Zhang; Zhongli Li; Liying Zhang; Zhi Yang

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic solar cells, as durable photovoltaic devices for harvesting electric energy from sun light, have received tremendous attention due to the fear of exhausting the earth’s energy resources and damaging the living environment due to greenhouse gases. Some recent developments in nanotechnology have opened up new avenues for more relevant inorganic solar cells produced by new photovoltaic conversion concepts and effective solar energy harvesting nanostructures. In this review, the multiple exciton generation effect solar cells, hot carrier solar cells, one dimensional material constructed asymmetrical schottky barrier arrays, noble nanoparticle induced plasmonic enhancement, and light trapping nanostructured semiconductor solar cells are highlighted.

  3. Cascade Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Schlenker, Cody W.

    2011-09-27

    We demonstrate planar organic solar cells consisting of a series of complementary donor materials with cascading exciton energies, incorporated in the following structure: glass/indium-tin-oxide/donor cascade/C 60/bathocuproine/Al. Using a tetracene layer grown in a descending energy cascade on 5,6-diphenyl-tetracene and capped with 5,6,11,12-tetraphenyl- tetracene, where the accessibility of the π-system in each material is expected to influence the rate of parasitic carrier leakage and charge recombination at the donor/acceptor interface, we observe an increase in open circuit voltage (Voc) of approximately 40% (corresponding to a change of +200 mV) compared to that of a single tetracene donor. Little change is observed in other parameters such as fill factor and short circuit current density (FF = 0.50 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.55 ± 0.23 mA/cm2) compared to those of the control tetracene-C60 solar cells (FF = 0.54 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.86 ± 0.23 mA/cm2). We demonstrate that this cascade architecture is effective in reducing losses due to polaron pair recombination at donor-acceptor interfaces, while enhancing spectral coverage, resulting in a substantial increase in the power conversion efficiency for cascade organic photovoltaic cells compared to tetracene and pentacene based devices with a single donor layer. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  4. Cascade Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Schlenker, Cody W.; Barlier, Vincent S.; Chin, Stephanie W.; Whited, Matthew T.; McAnally, R. Eric; Forrest, Stephen R.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate planar organic solar cells consisting of a series of complementary donor materials with cascading exciton energies, incorporated in the following structure: glass/indium-tin-oxide/donor cascade/C 60/bathocuproine/Al. Using a tetracene layer grown in a descending energy cascade on 5,6-diphenyl-tetracene and capped with 5,6,11,12-tetraphenyl- tetracene, where the accessibility of the π-system in each material is expected to influence the rate of parasitic carrier leakage and charge recombination at the donor/acceptor interface, we observe an increase in open circuit voltage (Voc) of approximately 40% (corresponding to a change of +200 mV) compared to that of a single tetracene donor. Little change is observed in other parameters such as fill factor and short circuit current density (FF = 0.50 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.55 ± 0.23 mA/cm2) compared to those of the control tetracene-C60 solar cells (FF = 0.54 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.86 ± 0.23 mA/cm2). We demonstrate that this cascade architecture is effective in reducing losses due to polaron pair recombination at donor-acceptor interfaces, while enhancing spectral coverage, resulting in a substantial increase in the power conversion efficiency for cascade organic photovoltaic cells compared to tetracene and pentacene based devices with a single donor layer. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  5. Solar cell materials developing technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Conibeer, Gavin J

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comparison of solar cell materials, including both new materials based on organics, nanostructures and novel inorganics and developments in more traditional photovoltaic materials. It surveys the materials and materials trends in the field including third generation solar cells (multiple energy level cells, thermal approaches and the modification of the solar spectrum) with an eye firmly on low costs, energy efficiency and the use of abundant non-toxic materials.

  6. Dye solar cell research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research P.O. Box 395 Pretoria 0001, South Africa 27 November 2009 CONTENT head2rightBackground head2rightCSIR Dye Solar Cell Research head2... rightCollaborations and Links © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za head2rightAcknowledgements BACKGROUND head2rightSA is dry: Annual rainfall average of 450 mm compared with a world average of 860 mm head2rightOn upside, we have some...

  7. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell, DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsatorn Amornpitoksuk

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A dye sensitized solar cell is a new type of solar cell. The operating system of this solar cell type is similar to plant’s photosynthesis process. The sensitizer is available for absorption light and transfer electrons to nanocrystalline metal oxide semiconductor. The ruthenium(II complexes with polypyridyl ligands are usually used as the sensitizers in solar cell. At the present time, the complex of [Ru(2,2',2'’-(COOH3- terpy(NCS3] is the most efficient sensitizer. The total photon to current conversion efficiency was approximately 10% at AM = 1.5.

  8. Space Solar Cell Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Measures, characterizes, and analyzes photovoltaic materials and devices. The primary focus is the measurement and characterization of solar cell response...

  9. Dye-sensitised solar cell (artificial photosynthesis)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available is the nano- crystalline TiO2dye- sensitised solar cell (DSC), in conjunction with several new concepts, such as nanotechnology and molecular devices. An efficient and low-cost cell can be produced by using simple materials. The production process generates...

  10. Quantum Junction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Jiang

    2012-09-12

    Colloidal quantum dot solids combine convenient solution-processing with quantum size effect tuning, offering avenues to high-efficiency multijunction cells based on a single materials synthesis and processing platform. The highest-performing colloidal quantum dot rectifying devices reported to date have relied on a junction between a quantum-tuned absorber and a bulk material (e.g., TiO 2); however, quantum tuning of the absorber then requires complete redesign of the bulk acceptor, compromising the benefits of facile quantum tuning. Here we report rectifying junctions constructed entirely using inherently band-aligned quantum-tuned materials. Realizing these quantum junction diodes relied upon the creation of an n-type quantum dot solid having a clean bandgap. We combine stable, chemically compatible, high-performance n-type and p-type materials to create the first quantum junction solar cells. We present a family of photovoltaic devices having widely tuned bandgaps of 0.6-1.6 eV that excel where conventional quantum-to-bulk devices fail to perform. Devices having optimal single-junction bandgaps exhibit certified AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies of 5.4%. Control over doping in quantum solids, and the successful integration of these materials to form stable quantum junctions, offers a powerful new degree of freedom to colloidal quantum dot optoelectronics. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Emerging Solar Technologies: Perovskite Solar Cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    energy technologies and ... cost-effective and feasible non-silicon solar cell technologies. ..... storing in the air for long periods, and the stability reached up to .... [12] Y Liu, L A Renna, M Bag, Z A Page, P Kim, J Choi, T Emrick, D Venkatara-.

  12. Thin-film solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with

  13. Microstructured extremely thin absorber solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biancardo, Matteo; Krebs, Frederik C

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the realization of extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells employing conductive glass substrates functionalized with TiO2 microstructures produced by embossing. Nanocrystalline or compact TiO2 films on Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates were embossed by press......In this paper we present the realization of extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells employing conductive glass substrates functionalized with TiO2 microstructures produced by embossing. Nanocrystalline or compact TiO2 films on Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates were embossed...

  14. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF A SOLAR CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    ; and estimating variations in the solar cell, thereby electrically characterizing the solar cell. The disclosure further relates to a solar cell characterization apparatus for characterization of a solar cell, comprising: a light source for generating an optical probe light; a modulation unit, configured...... to produce modulated probe light by modulating the optical probe light with a modulation frequency of between 100 kHz and 0 MHz; a light scanning unit for scanning the modulated probe light such that said modulated probe light is incident on at least a part of the surface of the solar cell; and a 1 signal...

  15. Solar cell reloaded; Solarzelle reloaded

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iken, Joern

    2013-06-06

    Who comes up with something special, he may also compete with Chinese. The German-Scandinavian company Innotech Solar extends its solar module production capacity even in the midst of the crisis. Innotech Solar restores damaged cells. For this, the damaged areas are isolated and inactivated. [German] Wer sich etwas Besonderes einfallen laesst, kann auch mit chinesischer Konkurrenz bestehen. Das deutsch-skandinavische Unternehmen Innotech Solar erweitert seine Kapazitaet zur Modulherstellung sogar mitten in der Krise. Das Geschaeftsmodell der Innotech Solar sieht vor, vorgeschaedigte Solarzellen wiederherzustellen. Dafuer werden die schadhaften Stellen isoliert und stillgelegt.

  16. Upconversion in solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The possibility to tune chemical and physical properties in nanosized materials has a strong impact on a variety of technologies, including photovoltaics. One of the prominent research areas of nanomaterials for photovoltaics involves spectral conversion. Modification of the spectrum requires down- and/or upconversion or downshifting of the spectrum, meaning that the energy of photons is modified to either lower (down) or higher (up) energy. Nanostructures such as quantum dots, luminescent dye molecules, and lanthanide-doped glasses are capable of absorbing photons at a certain wavelength and emitting photons at a different (shorter or longer) wavelength. We will discuss upconversion by lanthanide compounds in various host materials and will further demonstrate upconversion to work for thin-film silicon solar cells. PMID:23413889

  17. Back wall solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar cell is disclosed which comprises a first semiconductor material of one conductivity type with one face having the same conductivity type but more heavily doped to form a field region arranged to receive the radiant energy to be converted to electrical energy, and a layer of a second semiconductor material, preferably highly doped, of opposite conductivity type on the first semiconductor material adjacent the first semiconductor material at an interface remote from the heavily doped field region. Instead of the opposite conductivity layer, a metallic Schottky diode layer may be used, in which case no additional back contact is needed. A contact such as a gridded contact, previous to the radiant energy may be applied to the heavily doped field region of the more heavily doped, same conductivity material for its contact.

  18. Optimization of dye extraction from Cordyline fruticosa via response surface methodology to produce a natural sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A.M. Al-Alwani

    Full Text Available In the present work, the application of response surface methodology (RSM for the optimization of process parameters in the chlorophyll extraction from Cordyline fruticosa leaves was performed. The absorbance of the extract obtained from the extraction process under different conditions was estimated using the D-optimal design in RSM. Three different process parameters such as the nature of organic solvent based on their boiling point (ethanol, methanol, and acetonitrile, pH (4–8 and extraction temperature (50–90 °C were optimized for chlorophyll extraction. The effects of these parameters on the absorbance or concentration of the extract were evaluated using ANOVA results of quadratic polynomial regression. The results showed a high R2 and adjusted R2 correlation coefficients of 0.9963 and 0.9921 respectively. Moreover, the analysis of the final quadric model based on the design experiments indicated an optimal extraction condition of pH of 7.99, extraction temperature of 78.33 °C, and a solvent boiling point, 78 °C. The predicted absorbance was 1.006, which is in good agreement with the experimentally obtained result of 1.04 at 665 nm wavelength. The application of pigment obtained under the optimal condition was further evaluated as a sensitizer for the dye sensitized solar cells. Maximum solar conversion efficiency (η of 0.5% was achieved for the C. fruticosa leaf extract obtained under the optimum extraction conditions. Furthermore, the exposure of the leaf pigment to 100 mW/cm2 simulated sunlight yielded a short circuit photocurrent density (Isc of 1.3 mA, open circuit voltage (Voc of 616 mV, and a fill factor (ff of 60.16%. Keywords: Optimization, Cordyline fruticosa, Chlorophyll, Process variables, D-optimal design, Solar cells

  19. Solar Cell Production in Nigeria: Prospects, Options and Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasasi, A. Y.; Siyanbola, W.O.; Ibitoye, F. I.; Pelemo, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    The prospects and problems facing solar cell production in Nigeria are discussed. The paper reviews many proven solar cell materials in terms of their current efficiencies and production costs. Silicon solar cell production appears to be the best technology option for Nigeria because of the abundant quartz sand and waste products from our phosphate fertiliser company that can be employed as starting materials to produce solar grade silicon. Factors affecting solar cell efficiency, choice of solar cell as well as financial and material problems limiting the progress on silicon solar cell production are also discussed. Finally, the paper recommends the simultaneous production of solar grade silicon and coordinated development of the balance of system components as first steps towards actualizing this objective

  20. Photon management in solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Rau, Uwe; Gombert, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Written by renowned experts in the field of photon management in solar cells, this one-stop reference gives an introduction to the physics of light management in solar cells, and discusses the different concepts and methods of applying photon management. The authors cover the physics, principles, concepts, technologies, and methods used, explaining how to increase the efficiency of solar cells by splitting or modifying the solar spectrum before they absorb the sunlight. In so doing, they present novel concepts and materials allowing for the cheaper, more flexible manufacture of solar cells and systems. For educational purposes, the authors have split the reasons for photon management into spatial and spectral light management. Bridging the gap between the photonics and the photovoltaics communities, this is an invaluable reference for materials scientists, physicists in industry, experimental physicists, lecturers in physics, Ph.D. students in physics and material sciences, engineers in power technology, appl...

  1. Nanostructuring of Solar Cell Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    Solar energy is by far the most abundant renewable energy source available, but the levelized cost of solar energy is still not competitive with that of fossil fuels. Therefore there is a need to improve the power conversion effciency of solar cells without adding to the production cost. The main...... objective of this PhD thesis is to develop nanostructured silicon (Si) solar cells with higher power conversion efficiency using only scalable and cost-efficient production methods. The nanostructures, known as 'black silicon', are fabricated by single-step, maskless reactive ion etching and used as front...... texturing of different Si solar cells. Theoretically the nanostructure topology may be described as a graded refractive index in a mean-field approximation between air and Si. The optical properties of the developed black Si were simulated and experimentally measured. Total AM1.5G-weighted average...

  2. Solar cells for space applications (part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This lecture focusses on qualification and verification tests and procedures on solar cells designed for space applications. The series of tests should produce orbital performance under determined illumination, temperature and irradiance. Tests are divided in outdoor and laboratory experiments. Environmental tests include durability, qualification (mechanical and electrical), I-V curves, Spectral response

  3. Solar cell with back side contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

    2013-12-24

    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  4. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, 5050 Anthony Wayne Dr., Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing, E-mail: hanqing.jiang@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Yu, Hongyu, E-mail: hongyu.yu@asu.edu [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

  5. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing; Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong; Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing; Yu, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics

  6. Monocrystalline silicon solar cells applied in photovoltaic system

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; A. Drygała; M. Giedroć; M. Macek

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to fabricate the monocrystalline silicon solar cells using the conventional technology by means of screen printing process and to make of them photovoltaic system.Design/methodology/approach: The investigation of current – voltage characteristic to determinate basic electrical properties of monocrystalline silicon solar cells were investigated under Standard Test Condition. Photovoltaic module was produced from solar cells with the largest short-circuit curren...

  7. Solar electron source and thermionic solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parham Yaghoobi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Common solar technologies are either photovoltaic/thermophotovoltaic, or use indirect methods of electricity generation such as boiling water for a steam turbine. Thermionic energy conversion based on the emission of electrons from a hot cathode into vacuum and their collection by an anode is also a promising route. However, thermionic solar conversion is extremely challenging as the sunlight intensity is too low for heating a conventional cathode to thermionic emission temperatures in a practical manner. Therefore, compared to other technologies, little has been done in this area, and the devices have been mainly limited to large experimental apparatus investigated for space power applications. Based on a recently observed “Heat Trap” effect in carbon nanotube arrays, allowing their efficient heating with low-power light, we report the first compact thermionic solar cell. Even using a simple off-the-shelf focusing lens, the device delivered over 1 V across a load. The device also shows intrinsic storage capacity.

  8. Method for producing solar energy panels by automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar cell panel was fabricated by photoetching a pattern of collector grid systems with appropriate interconnections and bus bar tabs into a glass or plastic sheet. These regions were then filled with a first, thin conductive metal film followed by a layer of a mixed metal oxide, such as InAsO or InSnO. The multiplicity of solar cells were bonded between the protective sheet at the sites of the collector grid systems and a back electrode substrate by conductive metal filled epoxy to complete the fabrication of an integrated solar panel.

  9. Concentrator-solar-cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, L.

    1982-07-01

    A program is described which is a continuation of earlier programs for the development of high-efficiency, low-cost, silicon concentrator solar cells. The base-line process steps and process sequences identified in these earlier contracts were evaluated and specific processes reviewed. In particular, emphasis on the use of Czochralski-grown silicon wafers rather than float-zone wafers were examined. Additionally, a study of the trade-offs between textured and nontextured cells was initiated, and the limits within which the low-cost plated nickel copper metallization can be used in concentrator solar cell applications was identified.

  10. Thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, Armin G.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid progress that is being made with inorganic thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies, both in the laboratory and in industry, is reviewed. While amorphous silicon based PV modules have been around for more than 20 years, recent industrial developments include the first polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass and the first tandem solar cells based on stacks of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films ('micromorph cells'). Significant thin-film PV production levels are also being set up for cadmium telluride and copper indium diselenide.

  11. Topology optimization of front metallization patterns for solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, D.K.; Langelaar, M.; Barink, M.; Keulen, F. van

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the application of topology optimization (TO) for designing the front electrode patterns for solar cells. Improving the front electrode design is one of the approaches to improve the performance of the solar cells. It serves to produce the voltage distribution for the front

  12. Low-cost production of solar-cell panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D.; Sanchez, L. E.

    1980-01-01

    Large-scale production model combines most modern manufacturing techniques to produce silicon-solar-cell panels of low costs by 1982. Model proposes facility capable of operating around the clock with annual production capacity of 20 W of solar cell panels.

  13. Solar cell power source system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yoichi; Toma, Kunio; Fukuwa, Shinji

    1988-05-14

    This invention aims to supply a power source system with stable power output by reducing the power loss due to switching in the voltage stabilization even when the power source is a solar cell with frequent voltage variation. For this purpose, in a solar cell power source system consisting of a solar cell, a storage battery, a switching regulator placed between the storage cell and the load, and a load, arrangement was made that, by judging the input voltage from the storage battery, switch-acting the transistor of the switching regulator, if the input voltage is higher than the specified voltage; is the input voltage is lower than the specified voltage, the transistor is put in a full-on state. By this, the supply voltage can be stabilized even when the voltage fluctuates, and system gets more efficient as the switching loss decreases in the voltage stabilizing means. (1 fig)

  14. Neutrino fluxes produced by high energy solar flare particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomeets, E.V.; Shmonin, V.L.

    1975-01-01

    In this work the calculated differential energy spectra of neutrinos poduced by high energy protons accelerated during 'small' solar flares are presented. The muon flux produced by neutrino interactions with the matter at large depths under the ground is calculated. The obtained flux of muons for the total number of solar flare accelerated protons of 10 28 - 10 32 is within 10 9 - 10 13 particles/cm 2 X s x ster. (orig.) [de

  15. Solar energy utilization by solar cells and superblack absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, D; Selders, M

    1975-10-31

    A review is presented of the physical principles responsible for the characteristics of solar cells, with particular reference to Si homojunction and CdS--Cu/sub 2/S thin film devices. Electric power generation from solar cells still appears uncompetitive economically except in special circumstances, but heating from solar energy using selective absorbers with low reemission is more promising.

  16. Advanced laser processing for industrial solar cell manufacturing (ALPINISM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, N.B.; Fieret, J. [Exitech Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-04

    The study was aimed at improving methods for the manufacture of high efficiency solar cells and thereby increase production rates. The project focused on the laser grooved buried contact solar cell (LGBC) which is produced by high-speed laser machining. The specific objectives were (i) to optimise the laser technology for high speed processing; (ii) to optimise the solar cell process conditions for high speed processing; (iii) to produce a prototype tool and demonstrate high throughput; and (iv) to demonstrate increased cell efficiency using laser processing of rear contact. Essentially, all the objectives were met and Exitech have already sold six production tools and one research tool developed in this study. In addition, it was found that laser processing at the rear cell surface offers the prospect of LGBC solar cells with an efficiency of 20 per cent. BP Solar Limited carried out this work under contract to the DTI.

  17. Well-To-Wheel Analysis of Solar Produced Hydrogen for Future Transportation Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remo Felder; Anton Meier

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen production, transport, and usage in future passenger car transportation systems is compared for selected solar and conventional hydrogen production technologies using a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Solar scenarios show distinctly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than fossil-based scenarios. For example, using solar produced hydrogen in fuel cell cars reduces life cycle GHG emissions by 75% compared to advanced gasoline vehicles and by more than 90% if car and road infrastructure are not considered. Utilization of solar produced hydrogen has the potential of reducing fossil energy requirements by a factor of up to 10 compared to conventional technologies. Environmental impacts are associated with the construction of the steel-intensive infrastructure for concentrating solar power plants due to mineral and fossil resource consumption as well as discharge of pollutants related to today's non-sustainable steel production technology. (authors)

  18. Well-To-Wheel Analysis of Solar Produced Hydrogen for Future Transportation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remo Felder; Anton Meier [Solar Technology Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    Hydrogen production, transport, and usage in future passenger car transportation systems is compared for selected solar and conventional hydrogen production technologies using a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Solar scenarios show distinctly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than fossil-based scenarios. For example, using solar produced hydrogen in fuel cell cars reduces life cycle GHG emissions by 75% compared to advanced gasoline vehicles and by more than 90% if car and road infrastructure are not considered. Utilization of solar produced hydrogen has the potential of reducing fossil energy requirements by a factor of up to 10 compared to conventional technologies. Environmental impacts are associated with the construction of the steel-intensive infrastructure for concentrating solar power plants due to mineral and fossil resource consumption as well as discharge of pollutants related to today's non-sustainable steel production technology. (authors)

  19. Solar heating of the produced water of petroleum; Aquecimento solar da agua produzida de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rogerio Pitanga; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Bezerra, Magna A. Santos; Melo, Josette Lourdes Sousa de; Oliveira, Jackson Araujo de; Ramos, Rafael E. Moura [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Schuhli, Juliana Bregenski; Andrade, Vivian Tavares de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    In this work, experimental data of solar heating for common water and saline solution were measured. The solar heater is formed by a flat-plane collector and a thermal reservoir ('boiler'). The objective is to quantify the variation of fluids' temperature, and correlate it to environment variables, especially solar irradiation. Thereby, it is possible to estimate the solar heating of produced water of petroleum. The solar heater is part of a system of treatment of produced water, and its function is to pre-heat the fluid that enters into the solar distiller, increasing the productivity of distilled water. A saline solution that represents produced water was used in the experiments, using sodium chloride (1000 ppm). The experimental data demonstrates that the solar heater is capable to heat the fluid to temperatures close to 70 deg C, reaching temperatures close to 50 deg C even during cloudy days with low solar radiation. Furthermore, the solar collector energy system provides a higher rate of heating and trough of the thermal reservoir the temperature can remain longer. These are important aspects to the integration with solar distillation. (author)

  20. Solar heating of the produced water of petroleum; Aquecimento solar da agua produzida de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rogerio Pitanga; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Bezerra, Magna A. Santos; Melo, Josette Lourdes Sousa de; Oliveira, Jackson Araujo de; Ramos, Rafael E. Moura [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Schuhli, Juliana Bregenski; Andrade, Vivian Tavares de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    In this work, experimental data of solar heating for common water and saline solution were measured. The solar heater is formed by a flat-plane collector and a thermal reservoir ('boiler'). The objective is to quantify the variation of fluids' temperature, and correlate it to environment variables, especially solar irradiation. Thereby, it is possible to estimate the solar heating of produced water of petroleum. The solar heater is part of a system of treatment of produced water, and its function is to pre-heat the fluid that enters into the solar distiller, increasing the productivity of distilled water. A saline solution that represents produced water was used in the experiments, using sodium chloride (1000 ppm). The experimental data demonstrates that the solar heater is capable to heat the fluid to temperatures close to 70 deg C, reaching temperatures close to 50 deg C even during cloudy days with low solar radiation. Furthermore, the solar collector energy system provides a higher rate of heating and trough of the thermal reservoir the temperature can remain longer. These are important aspects to the integration with solar distillation. (author)

  1. Electron Acceptor Materials Engineering in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Huan

    2011-07-15

    Lead sulfide colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells with a solar power conversion efficiency of 5.6% are reported. The result is achieved through careful optimization of the titanium dioxide electrode that serves as the electron acceptor. Metal-ion-doped sol-gel-derived titanium dioxide electrodes produce a tunable-bandedge, well-passivated materials platform for CQD solar cell optimization. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Plastic solar cells : understanding the special additive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Franeker, H.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Solar cells use freely available sunlight to make electricity. At the present time, solar electricity does not come cheap, because solar panels are rather expensive. Now imagine that we could reduce costs by printing solar panels like we print newspapers! We can do just that with plastic solar

  3. Application of porous silicon in solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniya, Nalin H.; Ashokan, Jibinlal; Srivastava, Divesh N.

    2018-05-01

    Silicon is widely used in solar cell applications with over 95% of all solar cells produced worldwide composed of silicon. Nanostructured thin porous silicon (PSi) layer acting as anti-reflecting coating is used in photovoltaic solar cells due to its advantages including simple and low cost fabrication, highly textured surfaces enabling lowering of reflectance, controllability of thickness and porosity of layer, and high surface area. PSi layers have previously been reported to reduce the reflection of light and replaced the conventional anti-reflective coating layers on solar cells. This can essentially improve the efficiency and decrease the cost of silicon solar cells. Here, we investigate the reflectance of different PSi layers formed by varying current density and etching time. PSi layers were formed by a combination of current density including 60 and 80 mA/cm2 and time for fabrication as 2, 4, 6, and 8 seconds. The fabricated PSi layers were characterized using reflectance spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Thickness and pore size of PSi layer were increased with increase in etching time and current density, respectively. The reflectance of PSi layers was decreased with increase in etching time until 6 seconds and increased again after 6 seconds, which was observed across both the current density. Reduction in reflectance indicates the increase of absorption of light by silicon due to the thin PSi layer. In comparison with the reflectance of silicon wafer, PSi layer fabricated at 80 mA/cm2 for 6 seconds gave the best result with reduction in reflectance up to 57%. Thus, the application of PSi layer as an effective anti-reflecting coating for the fabrication of solar cell has been demonstrated.

  4. Heteroepitaxially grown InP solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C.K.; Brinker, D.J.; Wilt, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Although they are significantly more radiation resistant than either Si or GaAs solar cells, their high wafer cost presents a barrier to the widespread use of InP solar cells in space. For this reason, the authors have initiated a program aimed at producing high efficiency, radiation resistant solar cells processed from InP heteroepitaxially grown on cheaper substrates. The authors' objective is to present the most recent results emanating from this program together with the results of their initial proton irradiations on these cells. This paper reports that InP cells were processed from a 4 micron layer of InP, grown by OMCVD on a silicon substrate, with a 0.5 micron buffer layer between the InP directly grown on a GaAs substrate. Initial feasibility studies, in a Lewis sponsored program at the Spire corporation, resulted in air mass zero efficiencies of 7.1% for the former cells and 9.1% for the latter. These initial low efficiencies are attributed to the high dislocation densities caused by lattice mismatch. The authors' preirradiation analysis indicates extremely low minority carrier diffusion lengths, in both cell base and emitter, and high values of both the diffusion and recombination components of the diode reverse saturation currents. Irradiation by 10 MeV protons, to a fluence of 10 13 cm -2 , resulted in relatively low degradation in cell efficiency, short circuit current and open circuit voltage

  5. New mounting improves solar-cell efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Method boosts output by about 20 percent by trapping and redirecting solar radiation without increasing module depth. Mounted solar-cell array is covered with internally reflecting plate. Plate is attached to each cell by transparent adhesive, and space between cells is covered with layer of diffusely reflecting material. Solar energy falling on space between cells is diffused and reflected internally by plate until it is reflected onto solar cell.

  6. Electron Acceptor Materials Engineering in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Huan; Tang, Jiang; Kramer, Illan J.; Debnath, Ratan; Koleilat, Ghada I.; Wang, Xihua; Fisher, Armin; Li, Rui; Brzozowski, Lukasz; Levina, Larissa; Sargent, Edward H.

    2011-01-01

    -ion-doped sol-gel-derived titanium dioxide electrodes produce a tunable-bandedge, well-passivated materials platform for CQD solar cell optimization. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Neutral Color Semitransparent Microstructured Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Eperon, Giles E.; Burlakov, Victor M.; Goriely, Alain; Snaith, Henry J.

    2014-01-01

    Neutral-colored semitransparent solar cells are commercially desired to integrate solar cells into the windows and cladding of buildings and automotive applications. Here, we report the use of morphological control of perovskite thin films to form

  8. Semi-transparent solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J; Jasieniak, J J

    2017-01-01

    Semi-transparent solar cells are a type of technology that combines the benefits of visible light transparency and light-to-electricity conversion. One of the biggest opportunities for such technologies is in their integration as windows and skylights within energy-sustainable buildings. Currently, such building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are dominated by crystalline silicon based modules; however, the opaque nature of silicon creates a unique opportunity for the adoption of emerging photovoltaic candidates that can be made truly semi-transparent. These include: amorphous silicon-, kesterite-, chalcopyrite-, CdTe-, dye-sensitized-, organic- and perovskite- based systems. For the most part, amorphous silicon has been the workhorse in the semi-transparent solar cell field owing to its established, low-temperature fabrication processes. Excitement around alternative classes, particularly perovskites and the inorganic candidates, has recently arisen because of the major efficiency gains exhibited by these technologies. Importantly, each of these presents unique opportunities and challenges within the context of BIPV. This topic review provides an overview into the broader benefits of semi-transparent solar cells as building-integrated features, as well as providing the current development status into all of the major types of semi-transparent solar cells technologies. (topical review)

  9. Organic and hybrid solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This book delivers a comprehensive evaluation of organic and hybrid solar cells and identifies their fundamental principles and numerous applications. Great attention is given to the charge transport mechanism, donor and acceptor materials, interfacial materials, alternative electrodes, device engineering and physics, and device stability. The authors provide an industrial perspective on the future of photovoltaic technologies.

  10. Semi-transparent solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J.; Jasieniak, J. J.

    2017-03-01

    Semi-transparent solar cells are a type of technology that combines the benefits of visible light transparency and light-to-electricity conversion. One of the biggest opportunities for such technologies is in their integration as windows and skylights within energy-sustainable buildings. Currently, such building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are dominated by crystalline silicon based modules; however, the opaque nature of silicon creates a unique opportunity for the adoption of emerging photovoltaic candidates that can be made truly semi-transparent. These include: amorphous silicon-, kesterite-, chalcopyrite-, CdTe-, dye-sensitized-, organic- and perovskite- based systems. For the most part, amorphous silicon has been the workhorse in the semi-transparent solar cell field owing to its established, low-temperature fabrication processes. Excitement around alternative classes, particularly perovskites and the inorganic candidates, has recently arisen because of the major efficiency gains exhibited by these technologies. Importantly, each of these presents unique opportunities and challenges within the context of BIPV. This topic review provides an overview into the broader benefits of semi-transparent solar cells as building-integrated features, as well as providing the current development status into all of the major types of semi-transparent solar cells technologies.

  11. Investigation of back surface fields effect on bifacial solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepeai, Suhaila; Sulaiman, M. Y.; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Zaidi, Saleem H.

    2012-11-01

    A bifacial solar cell, in contrast with a conventional monofacial solar cell, produces photo-generated current from both front and back sides. Bifacial solar cell is an attractive candidate for enhancing photovoltaic (PV) market competitiveness as well as supporting the current efforts to increase efficiency and lower material costs. This paper reports on the fabrication of bifacial solar cells using phosphorus-oxytrichloride (POCl3) emitter formation on p-type, nanotextured silicon (Si) wafer. Backside surface field was formed through Al-diffusion using conventional screen-printing process. Bifacial solar cells with a structure of n+pp+ with and without back surface field (BSF) were fabricated in which silicon nitride (SiN) anti reflection and passivation films were coated on both sides, followed by screen printing of Argentum (Ag) and Argentum/Aluminum (Ag/Al) on front and back contacts, respectively. Bifacial solar cells without BSF exhibited open circuit voltage (VOC) of 535 mV for front and 480 mV for back surface. With Al-alloyed BSF bifacial solar cells, the VOC improved to 580 mV for the front surface and 560 mV for the back surface. Simulation of bifacial solar cells using PC1D and AFORS software demonstrated good agreement with experimental results. Simulations showed that best bifacial solar cells are achieved through a combination of high lifetime wafer, low recombination back surface field, reduced contact resistance, and superior surface passivation.

  12. Plastic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabec, C.J.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Hummelen, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in conjugated-polymer-based photovoltaic elements are reviewed. The photophysics of such photoactive devices is based on the photo-induced charge transfer from donor-type semiconducting conjugated polymers to acceptor-type conjugated polymers or acceptor molecules such as Buckminsterfullerene, C 60 . This photo-induced charge transfer is reversible, ultrafast (within 100 fs) with a quantum efficiency approaching unity, and the charge-separated state is metastable (up to milliseconds at 80 K). Being similar to the first steps in natural photosynthesis, this photo-induced electron transfer leads to a number of potentially interesting applications, which include sensitization of the photoconductivity and photovoltaic phenomena. Examples of photovoltaic architectures are presented and their potential in terrestrial solar energy conversion discussed. Recent progress in the realization of improved photovoltaic elements with 3% power conversion efficiency is reported. (orig.)

  13. Surface Passivation for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deligiannis, D.

    2017-01-01

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells (SHJ) are currently one of the most promising solar cell technologies in the world. The SHJ solar cell is based on a crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer, passivated on both sides with a thin intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layer. Subsequently, p-type

  14. Challenges in amorphous silicon solar cell technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaaij, van R.A.C.M.M.; Zeman, M.; Korevaar, B.A.; Smit, C.; Metselaar, J.W.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon is nowadays extensively used for a range of devices, amongst others solar cells, Solar cell technology has matured over the last two decades and resulted in conversion efficiencies in excess of 15%. In this paper the operation of amorphous silicon solar cells is

  15. Formation of photovoltaic modules based on polycrystalline solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Dobrzański; A. Drygała; A. Januszka

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of the paper is formation of photovoltaic modules and analysis of their main electric parameters.Design/methodology/approach: Photovoltaic modules were produced from four polycrystalline silicon solar cells, that were cut and next joined in series. Soft soldering technique and copper-tin strip were used for joining cells.Findings: In order to provide useful power for any application, the individual solar cells must be connected together to give the appropriate current an...

  16. Low cost thin film poly-silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the results of a project to design and develop a high density plasma based thin-film poly-silicon (TFPS) deposition system based on PQL proprietary advanced plasma technology to produce semiconductor quality TFPS for fabricating a TFPS solar cell. Details are given of the TFPS deposition system, the material development programme, solar cell structure, and cell efficiencies. The reproducibility of the deposition process and prospects for commercial exploitation are discussed.

  17. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  18. Simple processing of high efficiency silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamammu, I.M.; Ibrahim, K.

    2006-01-01

    Cost effective photovoltaic devices have been an area research since the development of the first solar cells, as cost is the major factor in their usage. Silicon solar cells have the biggest share in the photovoltaic market, though silicon os not the optimal material for solar cells. This work introduces a simplified approach for high efficiency silicon solar cell processing, by minimizing the processing steps and thereby reducing cost. The suggested procedure might also allow for the usage of lower quality materials compared to the one used today. The main features of the present work fall into: simplifying the diffusion process, edge shunt isolation and using acidic texturing instead of the standard alkaline processing. Solar cells of 17% efficiency have been produced using this procedure. Investigations on the possibility of improving the efficiency and using less quality material are still underway

  19. Three-Terminal Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hung Tai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many defects exist within amorphous silicon since it is not crystalline. This provides recombination centers, thus reducing the efficiency of a typical a-Si solar cell. A new structure is presented in this paper: a three-terminal a-Si solar cell. The new back-to-back p-i-n/n-i-p structure increased the average electric field in a solar cell. A typical a-Si p-i-n solar cell was also simulated for comparison using the same thickness and material parameters. The 0.28 μm-thick three-terminal a-Si solar cell achieved an efficiency of 11.4%, while the efficiency of a typical a-Si p-i-n solar cell was 9.0%. Furthermore, an efficiency of 11.7% was achieved by thickness optimization of the three-terminal solar cell.

  20. Assessment of the dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, R. D. [Center for Basic Sciences, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, MIS 3211, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The field of solar electricity, or photovoltaics (PV), is rich in that there are many materials and concepts for converting sunlight into electricity. The technologies accepted as conventional are those well along in the process of commercialization. The dye-sensitized solar cell, developed in the 1990s, is a nonconventional solar electric technology that has attracted much attention, perhaps a result of its record cell efficiency above 10%. This paper reviews the technology, discusses new research results and approaches presented at a recent symposium of many of the world's important dye solar cell researchers, and presents an assessment of the dye-sensitized solar cell in a comparison with current conventional solar electric technologies. It concludes the dye solar cell has potential for becoming a cost-effective means for producing electricity, capable of competing with available solar electric technologies and, eventually, with today's conventional power technologies. But it is a relatively new technology and faces many hurdles on the path to commercialization. Because of its potential, this assessment recommends further funding for research and development (RandD) of the dye-sensitized solar cell technology on the basis of the promising technical characteristics of the technology, a strong US and worldwide research base, positive industry interest, and today's relatively small funding allocation for its RandD. (Author)

  1. Producing Newborn Synchronous Mammalian Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Helmstetter, Charles E.; Thornton, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    A method and bioreactor for the continuous production of synchronous (same age) population of mammalian cells have been invented. The invention involves the attachment and growth of cells on an adhesive-coated porous membrane immersed in a perfused liquid culture medium in a microgravity analog bioreactor. When cells attach to the surface divide, newborn cells are released into the flowing culture medium. The released cells, consisting of a uniform population of synchronous cells are then collected from the effluent culture medium. This invention could be of interest to researchers investigating the effects of the geneotoxic effects of the space environment (microgravity, radiation, chemicals, gases) and to pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies involved in research on aging and cancer, and in new drug development and testing.

  2. Work Station For Inverting Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, H.; Frasch, W.

    1982-01-01

    Final work station along walking-beam conveyor of solar-array assembly line turns each pretabbed solar cell over, depositing it back-side-up onto landing pad, which centers cell without engaging collector surface. Solar cell arrives at inverting work station collector-side-up with two interconnect tabs attached to collector side. Cells are inverted so that second soldering operation takes place in plain view of operator. Inversion protects collector from damage when handled at later stages of assembly.

  3. Extended Temperature Solar Cell Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, David; Rafaelle, Ryne

    2004-01-01

    Future NASA missions will require solar cells to operate both in regimes closer to the sun, and farther from the sun, where the operating temperatures will be higher and lower than standard operational conditions. NASA Glenn is engaged in testing solar cells under extended temperature ranges, developing theoretical models of cell operation as a function of temperature, and in developing technology for improving the performance of solar cells for both high and low temperature operation.

  4. Recent advances in sensitized mesoscopic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grätzel, Michael

    2009-11-17

    Perhaps the largest challenge for our global society is to find ways to replace the slowly but inevitably vanishing fossil fuel supplies by renewable resources and, at the same time, avoid negative effects from the current energy system on climate, environment, and health. The quality of human life to a large degree depends upon the availability of clean energy sources. The worldwide power consumption is expected to double in the next 3 decades because of the increase in world population and the rising demand of energy in the developing countries. This implies enhanced depletion of fossil fuel reserves, leading to further aggravation of the environmental pollution. As a consequence of dwindling resources, a huge power supply gap of 14 terawatts is expected to open up by year 2050 equaling today's entire consumption, thus threatening to create a planetary emergency of gigantic dimensions. Solar energy is expected to play a crucial role as a future energy source. The sun provides about 120,000 terawatts to the earth's surface, which amounts to 6000 times the present rate of the world's energy consumption. However, capturing solar energy and converting it to electricity or chemical fuels, such as hydrogen, at low cost and using abundantly available raw materials remains a huge challenge. Chemistry is expected to make pivotal contributions to identify environmentally friendly solutions to this energy problem. One area of great promise is that of solar converters generally referred to as "organic photovoltaic cells" (OPV) that employ organic constituents for light harvesting or charge carrier transport. While this field is still in its infancy, it is receiving enormous research attention, with the number of publications growing exponentially over the past decade. The advantage of this new generation of solar cells is that they can be produced at low cost, i.e., potentially less than 1 U.S. $/peak watt. Some but not all OPV embodiments can avoid the expensive and energy

  5. Hybrid Perovskites: Prospects for Concentrator Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qianqian; Wang, Zhiping; Snaith, Henry J; Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M

    2018-04-01

    Perovskite solar cells have shown a meteoric rise of power conversion efficiency and a steady pace of improvements in their stability of operation. Such rapid progress has triggered research into approaches that can boost efficiencies beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit stipulated for a single-junction cell under normal solar illumination conditions. The tandem solar cell architecture is one concept here that has recently been successfully implemented. However, the approach of solar concentration has not been sufficiently explored so far for perovskite photovoltaics, despite its frequent use in the area of inorganic semiconductor solar cells. Here, the prospects of hybrid perovskites are assessed for use in concentrator solar cells. Solar cell performance parameters are theoretically predicted as a function of solar concentration levels, based on representative assumptions of charge-carrier recombination and extraction rates in the device. It is demonstrated that perovskite solar cells can fundamentally exhibit appreciably higher energy-conversion efficiencies under solar concentration, where they are able to exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit and exhibit strongly elevated open-circuit voltages. It is therefore concluded that sufficient material and device stability under increased illumination levels will be the only significant challenge to perovskite concentrator solar cell applications.

  6. A verified technique for calibrating space solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Solar cells have been flown on high-altitude balloons for over 24 years, to produce solar cell standards that can be used to set the intensity of solar simulators. The events of a typical balloon calibration flight are reported. These are: the preflight events, including the preflight cell measurements and the assembly of the flight cells onto the solar tracker; the activities at the National Scientific Balloon Facility in Palestine, Texas, including the preflight calibrations, the mating of the tracker and cells onto the balloon, preparations for launch, and the launch; the payload recovery, which includes tracking the balloon by aircraft, terminating the flight, and retrieving the payload. In 1985, the cells flow on the balloon were also flown on a shuttle flight and measured independently. The two measurement methods are compared and shown to agree within 1 percent.

  7. Thermochromic halide perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia; Lai, Minliang; Dou, Letian; Kley, Christopher S.; Chen, Hong; Peng, Fei; Sun, Junliang; Lu, Dylan; Hawks, Steven A.; Xie, Chenlu; Cui, Fan; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Limmer, David T.; Yang, Peidong

    2018-03-01

    Smart photovoltaic windows represent a promising green technology featuring tunable transparency and electrical power generation under external stimuli to control the light transmission and manage the solar energy. Here, we demonstrate a thermochromic solar cell for smart photovoltaic window applications utilizing the structural phase transitions in inorganic halide perovskite caesium lead iodide/bromide. The solar cells undergo thermally-driven, moisture-mediated reversible transitions between a transparent non-perovskite phase (81.7% visible transparency) with low power output and a deeply coloured perovskite phase (35.4% visible transparency) with high power output. The inorganic perovskites exhibit tunable colours and transparencies, a peak device efficiency above 7%, and a phase transition temperature as low as 105 °C. We demonstrate excellent device stability over repeated phase transition cycles without colour fade or performance degradation. The photovoltaic windows showing both photoactivity and thermochromic features represent key stepping-stones for integration with buildings, automobiles, information displays, and potentially many other technologies.

  8. Thermochromic halide perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia; Lai, Minliang; Dou, Letian; Kley, Christopher S; Chen, Hong; Peng, Fei; Sun, Junliang; Lu, Dylan; Hawks, Steven A; Xie, Chenlu; Cui, Fan; Alivisatos, A Paul; Limmer, David T; Yang, Peidong

    2018-03-01

    Smart photovoltaic windows represent a promising green technology featuring tunable transparency and electrical power generation under external stimuli to control the light transmission and manage the solar energy. Here, we demonstrate a thermochromic solar cell for smart photovoltaic window applications utilizing the structural phase transitions in inorganic halide perovskite caesium lead iodide/bromide. The solar cells undergo thermally-driven, moisture-mediated reversible transitions between a transparent non-perovskite phase (81.7% visible transparency) with low power output and a deeply coloured perovskite phase (35.4% visible transparency) with high power output. The inorganic perovskites exhibit tunable colours and transparencies, a peak device efficiency above 7%, and a phase transition temperature as low as 105 °C. We demonstrate excellent device stability over repeated phase transition cycles without colour fade or performance degradation. The photovoltaic windows showing both photoactivity and thermochromic features represent key stepping-stones for integration with buildings, automobiles, information displays, and potentially many other technologies.

  9. Semiconductor materials for solar photovoltaic cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wong-Ng, Winnie; Bhattacharya, Raghu

    2016-01-01

    This book reviews the current status of semiconductor materials for conversion of sunlight to electricity, and highlights advances in both basic science and manufacturing.  Photovoltaic (PV) solar electric technology will be a significant contributor to world energy supplies when reliable, efficient PV power products are manufactured in large volumes at low cost.  Expert chapters cover the full range of semiconductor materials for solar-to-electricity conversion, from crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon to cadmium telluride, copper indium gallium sulfide selenides, dye sensitized solar cells, organic solar cells, and environmentally friendly copper zinc tin sulfide selenides. The latest methods for synthesis and characterization of solar cell materials are described, together with techniques for measuring solar cell efficiency. Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells presents the current state of the art as well as key details about future strategies to increase the efficiency and reduce ...

  10. Low cost silicon-on-ceramic photovoltaic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, B. G.; Heaps, J. D.; Grung, B. L.; Zook, J. D.; Sibold, J. D.; Leipold, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A technique has been developed for coating low-cost mullite-based refractory substrates with thin layers of solar cell quality silicon. The technique involves first carbonizing one surface of the ceramic and then contacting it with molten silicon. The silicon wets the carbonized surface and, under the proper thermal conditions, solidifies as a large-grained sheet. Solar cells produced from this composite silicon-on-ceramic material have exhibited total area conversion efficiencies of ten percent.

  11. Nanostructures for Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The experimental work in this thesis is focused on the fabrication of nanostructures that can be implemented in organic solar cell (OSC) architecture for enhancement of the device performance. Solar devices made from organic material are gaining increased attention, compared to their inorganic...... counterparts, due to the promising advantages, such as transparency, flexibility, ease of processing etc. But their efficiencies cannot be compared to the inorganic ones. Boosting the efficiency of OSCs by nanopatterning has thus been puzzling many researchers within the past years. Therefore various methods...... have been proposed to be used for developing efficient nanostructures for OSC devices such as, plasmonic structures, nanowires (NWs), gratings, nanorods etc. The nanostructuring methods applied though, do not offer the possibility of a cheap, rapid, reproducible and scalable fabrication. It is the aim...

  12. Modification of circuit module of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) for solar windows applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, S. D.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.

    2016-11-01

    This research has been conducted to obtain a modification of circuit producing the best efficiency of solar window modules as an alternative energy for daily usage. Solar window module was constructed by DSSC cells. In the previous research, solar window was created by a single cell of DSSC. Because it had small size, it could not be applied in the manufacture of solar window. Fabrication of solar window required a larger size of DSSC cell. Therefore, in the next research, a module of solar window was fabricated by connecting few cells of DSSC. It was done by using external electrical circuit method which was modified in the formation of series circuit and parallel circuit. Its fabrication used six cells of DSSC with the size of each cell was 1 cm × 9 cm. DSSC cells were sandwich structures constructed by an active layer of TiO2 as the working electrode, electrolyte solution, dye, and carbon layer. Characterization of module was started one by one, from one cell, two cells, three cells, until six cells of a module. It was conducted to recognize the increasing efficiency value as the larger surface area given. The efficiency of solar window module with series circuit was 0.06%, while using parallel circuit was 0.006%. Module with series circuit generated the higher voltage as the larger surface area. Meanwhile, module through parallel circuit tended to produce the constant voltage as the larger surface area. It was caused by the influence of resistance within the cable in each module. Module with circuit parallel used a longer cable than module with series circuit, so that its resistance increased. Therefore, module with parallel circuit generated voltage that tended to be constant and resulted small efficiency compared to the module with series circuit. It could be concluded that series external circuit was the best modification which could produce the higher efficiency.

  13. Hybrid perovskite solar cells: In situ investigation of solution-processed PbI2 reveals metastable precursors and a pathway to producing porous thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Barrit, Dounya

    2017-04-17

    The successful and widely used two-step process of producing the hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite CH3NH3PbI3, consists of converting a solution deposited PbI2 film by reacting it with CH3NH3I. Here, we investigate the solidification of PbI2 films from a DMF solution by performing in situ grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) measurements. The measurements reveal an elaborate sol–gel process involving three PbI2⋅DMF solvate complexes—including disordered and ordered ones—prior to PbI2 formation. The ordered solvates appear to be metastable as they transform into the PbI2 phase in air within minutes without annealing. Morphological analysis of air-dried and annealed films reveals that the air-dried PbI2 is substantially more porous when the coating process produces one of the intermediate solvates, making this more suitable for subsequent conversion into the perovskite phase. The observation of metastable solvates on the pathway to PbI2 formation open up new opportunities for influencing the two-step conversion of metal halides into efficient light harvesting or emitting perovskite semiconductors.

  14. Increasing the efficiency of polymer solar cells by silicon nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhawer, B; Sivakov, V; Pietsch, M; Andrae, G; Falk, F [Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07743 Jena (Germany); Sensfuss, S, E-mail: bjoern.eisenhawer@ipht-jena.de [Thuringian Institute for Textile and Plastics Research, Breitscheidstrasse 97, 07407 Rudolstadt (Germany)

    2011-08-05

    Silicon nanowires have been introduced into P3HT:[60]PCBM solar cells, resulting in hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. A cell efficiency of 4.2% has been achieved, which is a relative improvement of 10% compared to a reference cell produced without nanowires. This increase in cell performance is possibly due to an enhancement of the electron transport properties imposed by the silicon nanowires. In this paper, we present a novel approach for introducing the nanowires by mixing them into the polymer blend and subsequently coating the polymer/nanowire blend onto a substrate. This new onset may represent a viable pathway to producing nanowire-enhanced polymer solar cells in a reel to reel process.

  15. Increasing the efficiency of polymer solar cells by silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhawer, B; Sivakov, V; Pietsch, M; Andrae, G; Falk, F; Sensfuss, S

    2011-01-01

    Silicon nanowires have been introduced into P3HT:[60]PCBM solar cells, resulting in hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. A cell efficiency of 4.2% has been achieved, which is a relative improvement of 10% compared to a reference cell produced without nanowires. This increase in cell performance is possibly due to an enhancement of the electron transport properties imposed by the silicon nanowires. In this paper, we present a novel approach for introducing the nanowires by mixing them into the polymer blend and subsequently coating the polymer/nanowire blend onto a substrate. This new onset may represent a viable pathway to producing nanowire-enhanced polymer solar cells in a reel to reel process.

  16. Solar Reforming of Carbon Dioxide to Produce Diesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Schuetzle; Robert Schuetzle

    2010-12-31

    Measurement Methods for Assessing Contaminant Levels in Captured CO2 Streams; (3) An Assessment of Current Commercial Scale Fisher-Tropsch (F-T) Technologies for the Conversion of Syngas to Fuels; (4) An Overview of CO2 Capture Technologies from Various Industrial Sources; and (5) Lifecycle Analysis for the Capture and Conversion of CO2 to Synthetic Diesel Fuel. Commercial scale Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer plant designs, proposed in this report, should be able to utilize waste CO2 from a wide variety of industrial sources to produce a directly usable synthetic diesel fuel that replaces petroleum derived fuel, thus improving the United States energy security while also sequestering CO2. Our material balance model shows that every 5.0 lbs of CO2 is transformed using solar energy into 6.26 lbs (1.0 U.S. gallon) of diesel fuel and into by-products, which includes water. Details are provided in the mass and energy model in this report.

  17. Dye solar cells: a different approach to solar energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An attractive and cheaper alternative to siliconbased photovoltaic (PV) cells for the conversion of solar light into electrical energy is to utilise dyeadsorbed, large-band-gap metal oxide materials such as TiO2 to absorb the solar light...

  18. Quantum Dots for Solar Cell Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Uma

    Solar energy has been anticipated as the most important and reliable source of renewable energy to address the ever-increasing energy demand. To harvest solar energy efficiently, diverse kinds of solar cells have been studied. Among these, quantum dot sensitized solar cells have been an interesting group of solar cells mainly due to tunable, size-dependent electronic and optical properties of quantum dots. Moreover, doping these quantum dots with transition metal elements such as Mn opens avenue for improved performance of solar cells as well as for spin based technologies. In this dissertation, Mn-doped CdSe QDs (Mn-CdSe) have been synthesized by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. They are used in solar cells to study the effect of Mn doping in the performance of solar cells. Incident photon to current-conversion efficiency (IPCE) is used to record the effect of Mn-doping. Intensity modulated photovoltage and photocurrent spectroscopy (IMVS/PS) has been used to study the carrier dynamics in these solar cells. Additionally, the magnetic properties of Mn-CdSe QDs is studied and its possible origin is discussed. Moreover, CdS/CdSe QDs have been used to study the effect of liquid, gel and solid electrolyte in the performance and stability of the solar cells. Using IPCE spectra, the time decay measurements are presented and the possible reactions between the QD and the electrolytes are explained.

  19. Intermediate Bandgap Solar Cells From Nanostructured Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Marcie [Bandgap Engineering, Lincoln, MA (United States)

    2014-10-30

    This project aimed to demonstrate increased electronic coupling in silicon nanostructures relative to bulk silicon for the purpose of making high efficiency intermediate bandgap solar cells using silicon. To this end, we formed nanowires with controlled crystallographic orientation, small diameter, <111> sidewall faceting, and passivated surfaces to modify the electronic band structure in silicon by breaking down the symmetry of the crystal lattice. We grew and tested these silicon nanowires with <110>-growth axes, which is an orientation that should produce the coupling enhancement.

  20. Unconventional device concepts for polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veenstra, S.C.; Slooff, L.H.; Verhees, W.J.H.; Cobussen-Pool, E.M.; Lenzmann, F.O.; Kroon, J.M. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Sessolo, M.; Bolink, H.J. [Instituto de Ciencia Molecular, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    The inclusion of metal-oxide layers in polymer solar cells enables the fabrication of a series of unconventional device architectures. These devices include: semi-transparent polymer solar cells, devices with inverted polarity, as well as devices with air stable electrodes. A proof-of-principle of these devices is presented. The anticipated benefits of these novel device structures over conventional polymer solar cells are discussed.

  1. Device operation of organic tandem solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadipour, A.; de Boer, B.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2008-01-01

    A generalized methodology is developed to obtain the current-voltage characteristic of polymer tandem solar cells by knowing the electrical performance of both sub cells. We demonstrate that the electrical characteristics of polymer tandem solar cells are correctly predicted for both the series and

  2. Solar Cells Using Quantum Funnels

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.

    2011-09-14

    Colloidal quantum dots offer broad tuning of semiconductor bandstructure via the quantum size effect. Devices involving a sequence of layers comprised of quantum dots selected to have different diameters, and therefore bandgaps, offer the possibility of funneling energy toward an acceptor. Here we report a quantum funnel that efficiently conveys photoelectrons from their point of generation toward an intended electron acceptor. Using this concept we build a solar cell that benefits from enhanced fill factor as a result of this quantum funnel. This concept addresses limitations on transport in soft condensed matter systems and leverages their advantages in large-area optoelectronic devices and systems. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  3. Integration of Solar Cells on Top of CMOS Chips - Part II: CIGS Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Liu, Wei; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Sun, Yun; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of deepsubmicrometer complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) microchips with copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) solar cells. Solar cells are manufactured directly on unpackaged CMOS chips. The microchips maintain comparable electronic performance,

  4. Machine for welding solar cell connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorans, D.Y.

    1977-08-09

    A machine for welding a connection wire over a solar cell electrode is described which comprises a base, a welding mount for the solar cell which is supported on the base, means for holding the solar cell on the welding mount, welding electrodes, means to lower the welding electrodes over the solar cell and the connection wire superimposed thereon, means for applying electric current pulses to said welding electrodes. It is characterized by the fact that it further comprises means for imparting to said mount an alternating transverse movement in relation to said base before and during the welding operation.

  5. Theoretical investigation on heterojunction solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prema, K.; Geetha, K.

    1986-11-01

    The study of thin film solar cells has proved that the surface is rough. A two-dimensional method based on the integral equation technique to analyse thin film solar cells has been developed by DeMey et al. In this paper we present our analysis of a thin film solar cell using the above techniques. Variation of the minority carrier concentration, the saturation current and the junction current of the solar cell with surface roughness is presented. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs

  6. Integration of Solar Cells on Top of CMOS Chips Part I: a-Si Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; van der Werf, Karine H.M.; Schropp, Ruud E.I.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of deepsubmicrometer complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) microchips with a-Si:H solar cells. Solar cells are manufactured directly on the CMOS chips. The microchips maintain comparable electronic performance, and the solar cells show efficiency values

  7. Thin film solar cell configuration and fabrication method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Shalini

    2009-07-14

    A new photovoltaic device configuration based on an n-copper indium selenide absorber and a p-type window is disclosed. A fabrication method to produce this device on flexible or rigid substrates is described that reduces the number of cell components, avoids hazardous materials, simplifies the process steps and hence the costs for high volume solar cell manufacturing.

  8. Characterisation of multicrystalline solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    A.Q. Malik; Chong Chew Hah; Chan Siang Khwang; Lim Chee Ming; Tan Kha Sheng

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation and assessment of the performance of photovoltaic (PV) cells in terms of measurable parameters requires the measurement of the current as a function of voltage, temperature, intensity, wind speed and spectrum. Mo st noticeable of all these parameters is the PV conversion efficiency η, defined as the maximum electrical power Pmax produced by the PV cell divided by the incident photon power P in which is measured with respect to standard test conditions (STC). These conditions re...

  9. Progress in InP solar cell research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, I.; Brinker, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Progress, in the past year, in InP solar cell research is reviewed. Small area cells with AMO, total area efficiencies of 18.8 percent were produced by OMCVD and Ion Implantation. Larger area cells (2 and 4 sq cm) were processed on a production basis. One thousand of the 2 sq cm cells will be used to supply power to a small piggyback lunar orbiter scheduled for launch in February 1990. Laboratory tests of ITO/InP cells, under 10 MeV proton irradiation, indicate radiation resistance comparable to InP n/p homojunction cells. Computer modeling studies indicate that, for identical geometries and dopant concentrations, InP solar cells are significantly more radiation resistant than GaAs under 1 MeV electron irradiation. Additional computer modeling calculations were used to produce rectangular and circular InP concentrator cell designs for both the low concentration SLATS and higher concentration Cassegrainian Concentrators

  10. Performance analysis of solar cell arrays in concentrating light intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yongfeng; Li Ming; Lin Wenxian; Wang Liuling; Xiang Ming; Zhang Xinghua; Wang Yunfeng; Wei Shengxian

    2009-01-01

    Performance of concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system is researched by experiment and simulation calculation. The results show that the I-V curve of the GaAs cell array is better than that of crystal silicon solar cell arrays and the exergy produced by 9.51% electrical efficiency of the GaAs solar cell array can reach 68.93% of the photovoltaic/thermal system. So improving the efficiency of solar cell arrays can introduce more exergy and the system value can be upgraded. At the same time, affecting factors of solar cell arrays such as series resistance, temperature and solar irradiance also have been analyzed. The output performance of a solar cell array with lower series resistance is better and the working temperature has a negative impact on the voltage in concentrating light intensity. The output power has a -20 W/V coefficient and so cooling fluid must be used. Both heat energy and electrical power are then obtained with a solar trough concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system. (semiconductor devices)

  11. Producing propellants from water in lunar soil using solar lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    , collect soil and retract itself to put the material on the top of the spacecraft inside a hole which will be opened; 3) an infrared laser based on solar electrical energy -a "solar laser" -when the soil be inside the chamber inside the spacecraft, the solar laser will be turned on and it will strike against the soil, heating it up, and release all oxygen and hydrogen from it. The oxygen and hydrogen molecules will be separated from the rest of the material by a mass spectrometer and they will be liquefied by thermal and pressure internal control sub-systems of the spacecraft, and pumped to vessels in a way similar to a micro-industrial line production process; the vessels with the propellants will be then ready to be taken by astronauts, from a small door outside the LPM. The shape of this spacecraft must be conical in order to not unbalance it during the landing and roving maneuvers and soil cargoes, and it will be shielded externally from heat and radiation from the Sun, and micrometeoroids, to prevent the internal thermal conduction and electronic operations from damaging. A solar array externally deployed can produce 44 KW of electric soil energy for the production process. This miniature chemical-processing plant can possibly have an output of 100 Kg of liquid oxygen and 200 Kg of liquid hydrogen per day. Telecommunications with Earth will provide the onboard computer courses for roving to new mapped areas with richer propellants content in the soil. The spacecraft can weight approximately 6,000 Kg (at launch time from Earth). It will be necessary two LPMs for providing all the liquid oxygen and hydrogen needed to supply spacecrafts next to a semi-permanent small manned lunar base. With the Lunar Propellant Manufacturer it will solve the problem of not-expensively producing great quantities of propellants for a manned spacecraft to explore Mars and beyond In the Solar System.

  12. Industrialization of polymer solar cells - phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, H.; Krebs, F.C. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark); Andersen, Rasmus B. [Mekoprint A/S, Stoevrimg (Denmark); Bork, J.; Bentzen, B.

    2012-03-15

    . The line was at the same time adjusted and updated to handle the new production. The very first solar cells produced on this line appeared in July 2010. The line has subsequently been upgraded on a running basis, and Mekoprint's operators have been trained. The technology transfer is continued in the project's phase 2, where the goal is that Mekoprint fully masters both the production process and the production line. During the course of the project several applications for polymer solar cells have been investigated from a technical -, a design , and a market point of view. Faktor 3 has sketched and visualized a range of ideas. The ideas are communicated to a broader audience by means of a brochure. An on-line version of the brochure and a computer tool developed for guiding the designer through the process of dimensioning the electronic system comprising a polymer solar cell, a battery and the electronic function to be powered, are available on Faktor 3's homepage, www.faktor-3.dk. Small LED torches have served as a case for gaining experiences with development and production of solar powered products. A range of conceptual lamps have been evaluated, and two lamps have been produced in large series and demonstrated in public. Some hundred lamps targeted at school children in non-electrified areas in 3rd world countries were produced and distributed to target users in Asia, Africa and South America in collaboration with the Stroemme Foundation (NO). The feedback received was highly positive and proves the necessity for low-cost, off-grid lightening to replace the presently used kerosene lamps. A small credit-card sized lamp was produced in a series of 10.000 units in order to test the production setup's ability to handle large series. Several thousands of the lamps were handed out at an international conference for printed electronics, (LOPE-C, 2011). The response from this audience, who is well qualified to judge the news value of lamp's, has also been highly

  13. Candidate solar cell materials for photovoltaic conversion in a solar power satellite /SPS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.; Almgren, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    In recognition of the obstacles to solar-generated baseload power on earth, proposals have been made to locate solar power satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), where solar energy would be available 24 hours a day during most of the time of the year. In an SPS, the electricity produced by solar energy conversion will be fed to microwave generators forming part of a planar phase-array transmitting antenna. The antenna is designed to precisely direct a microwave beam of very low intensity to one or more receiving antennas at desired locations on earth. At the receiving antenna, the microwave energy will be safely and efficiently reconverted to electricity and then be transmitted to consumers. An SPS system will include a number of satellites in GEO. Attention is given to the photovoltaic option for solar energy conversion in GEO, solar cell requirements, the availability of materials, the implication of large production volumes, requirements for high-volume manufacture of solar cell arrays, and the effects of concentration ratio on solar cell array area.

  14. Scaling up ITO-Free solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.O.; Coenen, E.W.C.; Zimmermann, B.; Slooff, L.H.; Verhees, W.J.H.; Veenstra, S.C.; Kroon, J.M.; Jørgensen, M.; Krebs, F.C.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide-free (ITO-free) polymer solar cells with composite electrodes containing current-collecting grids and a semitransparent poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conductor are demonstrated. The up-scaling of the length of the solar cell from 1 to 6 cm and

  15. Potential high efficiency solar cells: Applications from space photovoltaic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA involvement in photovoltaic energy conversion research development and applications spans over two decades of continuous progress. Solar cell research and development programs conducted by the Lewis Research Center's Photovoltaic Branch have produced a sound technology base not only for the space program, but for terrestrial applications as well. The fundamental goals which have guided the NASA photovoltaic program are to improve the efficiency and lifetime, and to reduce the mass and cost of photovoltaic energy conversion devices and arrays for use in space. The major efforts in the current Lewis program are on high efficiency, single crystal GaAs planar and concentrator cells, radiation hard InP cells, and superlattice solar cells. A brief historical perspective of accomplishments in high efficiency space solar cells will be given, and current work in all of the above categories will be described. The applicability of space cell research and technology to terrestrial photovoltaics will be discussed.

  16. Predicted solar cell edge radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Solar Cell Orbital Test (ASCOT) will test six types of solar cells in a high energy proton environment. During the design of the experiment a question was raised about the effects of proton radiation incident on the edge of the solar cells and whether edge radiation shielding was required. Historical geosynchronous data indicated that edge radiation damage is not detectable over the normal end of life solar cell degradation; however because the ASCOT radiation environment has a much higher and more energetic fluence of protons, considerably more edge damage is expected. A computer analysis of the problem was made by modeling the expected radiation damage at the cell edge and using a network model of small interconnected solar cells to predict degradation in the cell's electrical output. The model indicated that the deepest penetration of edge radiation was at the top of the cell near the junction where the protons have access to the cell through the low density cell/cover adhesive layer. The network model indicated that the cells could tolerate high fluences at their edge as long as there was high electrical resistance between the edge radiated region and the contact system on top of the cell. The predicted edge radiation related loss was less than 2% of maximum power for GaAs/Ge solar cells. As a result, no edge radiation protection was used for ASCOT

  17. Fullerene surfactants and their use in polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Kwan-Yue; Yip, Hin-Lap; Li, Chang-Zhi

    2015-12-15

    Fullerene surfactant compounds useful as interfacial layer in polymer solar cells to enhance solar cell efficiency. Polymer solar cell including a fullerene surfactant-containing interfacial layer intermediate cathode and active layer.

  18. High Radiation Resistance IMM Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Noren

    2015-01-01

    Due to high launch costs, weight reduction is a key driver for the development of new solar cell technologies suitable for space applications. This project is developing a unique triple-junction inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) technology that enables the manufacture of very lightweight, low-cost InGaAsP-based multijunction solar cells. This IMM technology consists of indium (In) and phosphorous (P) solar cell active materials, which are designed to improve the radiation-resistant properties of the triple-junction solar cell while maintaining high efficiency. The intrinsic radiation hardness of InP materials makes them of great interest for building solar cells suitable for deployment in harsh radiation environments, such as medium Earth orbit and missions to the outer planets. NASA Glenn's recently developed epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process also will be applied to this new structure, which will enable the fabrication of the IMM structure without the substrate.

  19. Organic Based Solar Cells with Morphology Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Rieks

    The field of organic solar cells has in the last years gone through an impressive development with efficiencies reported up to 12 %. For organic solar cells to take the leap from primarily being a laboratory scale technology to being utilized as renewable energy source, several issues need...... Microscopy and as solar cells in a blend with PCBM. It was concluded that these particles did not show a potential large enough for continuous work due to a high material loss and low efficiency when applied in solar cells. The second method to achieve was preparation of pre-arranged morphology organic...... nanoparticles consisting of a blend of donor and acceptor in an aqueous dispersion, thereby addressing two of the issues remaining in the field of organic solar cells. This approach was used on six different polymers, which all had the ability to prepare aqueous nanoparticle inks. The morphology...

  20. Bonder for Solar-Cell Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, G.; Frasch, W.

    1982-01-01

    String bonder for solar-cell arrays eliminates tedious manual assembly procedure that could damage cell face. Vacuum arm picks up face-down cell from cell-inverting work station and transfers it to string conveyor without changing cell orientation. Arm is activated by signal from microprocessor.

  1. Efficiency Enhancement of Silicon Solar Cells by Porous Silicon Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenijus SHATKOVSKIS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Silicon solar cells produced by a usual technology in p-type, crystalline silicon wafer were investigated. The manufactured solar cells were of total thickness 450 mm, the junction depth was of 0.5 mm – 0.7 mm. Porous silicon technologies were adapted to enhance cell efficiency. The production of porous silicon layer was carried out in HF: ethanol = 1 : 2 volume ratio electrolytes, illuminating by 50 W halogen lamps at the time of processing. The etching current was computer-controlled in the limits of (6 ÷ 14 mA/cm2, etching time was set in the interval of (10 ÷ 20 s. The characteristics and performance of the solar cells samples was carried out illuminating by Xenon 5000 K lamp light. Current-voltage characteristic studies have shown that porous silicon structures produced affect the extent of dark and lighting parameters of the samples. Exactly it affects current-voltage characteristic and serial resistance of the cells. It has shown, the formation of porous silicon structure causes an increase in the electric power created of solar cell. Conversion efficiency increases also respectively to the initial efficiency of cell. Increase of solar cell maximum power in 15 or even more percent is found. The highest increase in power have been observed in the spectral range of Dl @ (450 ÷ 850 nm, where ~ 60 % of the A1.5 spectra solar energy is located. It has been demonstrated that porous silicon technology is effective tool to improve the silicon solar cells performance.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.3.2428

  2. Atmospheric nitrous oxide produced by solar protons and relativistic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.S.; Zipf, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    An alternative means of nitric oxide production in the stratosphere to that of direct formation in the upper atmosphere by solar proton (SP) events and by relativistic electron precipitation (REP) events from the Earth's radiation belt, is described. It is suggested that nitrous oxide is produced in the mesosphere and then migrates downward and is converted in the stratosphere to NO by the reaction N 2 O + O( 1 D) → 2 NO. Such a process could amplify the direct NO production by >10%. Mesospheric nitrous oxide mixing ratios increase to values as high as 6 x 10 -7 due to REP- and SP- related production. Lateral transport will reduce these high values but mesospheric mixing ratios of N 2 O in the high latitudes would approach 10 -7 , considerably greater than those expected on the basis of theories which neglect REP- and SP-related production of this species. (U.K.)

  3. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  4. Effects of Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S alloy composition and post-deposition air anneal on ultra-thin CdTe solar cells produced by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, A.J., E-mail: Andrew.J.Clayton@Swansea.ac.uk [Centre for Solar Energy Research, College of Engineering, Swansea University, OpTIC, St. Asaph, LL17 0JD (United Kingdom); Baker, M.A.; Babar, S.; Grilli, R. [The Surface Analysis Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Gibson, P.N. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, 21027, Ispra, VA (Italy); Kartopu, G.; Lamb, D.A. [Centre for Solar Energy Research, College of Engineering, Swansea University, OpTIC, St. Asaph, LL17 0JD (United Kingdom); Barrioz, V. [Engineering and Environment, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Northumbria University, Newcastle, NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Irvine, S.J.C. [Centre for Solar Energy Research, College of Engineering, Swansea University, OpTIC, St. Asaph, LL17 0JD (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-01

    Ultra-thin CdTe:As/Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S photovoltaic solar cells with an absorber thickness of 0.5 μm were deposited by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition on indium tin oxide coated boro-aluminosilicate substrates. The Zn precursor concentration was varied to compensate for Zn leaching effects after CdCl{sub 2} activation treatment. Analysis of the solar cell composition and structure by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling and X-ray diffraction showed that higher concentrations of Zn in the Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S window layer resulted in suppression of S diffusion across the CdTe/Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S interface after CdCl{sub 2} activation treatment. Excessive Zn content in the Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S alloy preserved the spectral response in the blue region of the solar spectrum, but increased series resistance for the solar cells. A modest increase in the Zn content of the Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S alloy together with a post-deposition air anneal resulted in an improved blue response and an enhanced open circuit voltage and fill factor. This device yielded a mean efficiency of 8.3% over 8 cells (0.25 cm{sup 2} cell area) and best cell efficiency of 8.8%. - Highlights: • CdCl{sub 2} anneal treatment resulted in S diffusing to the back contact. • High Zn levels created mixed cubic/hexagonal structure at the p-n junction. • Increased Zn in Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S supressed S diffusion into CdTe. • Device V{sub oc} was enhanced overall with an additional back surface air anneal.

  5. Solar Cell Panel and the Method for Manufacturing the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Sarver, Charles F. (Inventor); Naidenkova, Maria (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    According to an aspect of an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a solar cell panel and a method for manufacturing the same. The solar cell panel comprises: a solar cell for generating electric power from sunlight; a coverglass for covering the solar cell; transparent shims, which are disposed between the solar cell and the coverglass at the points where the distance between the solar cell and the coverglass needs to be controlled, and form a space between the solar cell and the coverglass; and adhesive layer, which fills the space between the solar cell and the coverglass and has the thickness the same as that of the transparent shims.

  6. Industrial n-type solar cells with >20% cell efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romijn, I.G.; Anker, J.; Burgers, A.R.; Gutjahr, A.; Koppes, M.; Kossen, E.J.; Lamers, M.W.P.E.; Heurtault, Benoit; Saynova-Oosterling, D.S.; Tool, C.J.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-03-15

    To realize high efficiencies at low costs, ECN has developed the n-Pasha solar cell concept. The n-Pasha cell concept is a bifacial solar cell concept on n-Cz base material, with which average efficiencies of above 20% have been demonstrated. In this paper recent developments at ECN to improve the cost of ownership (lower Euro/Wp) of the n-Pasha cell concept are discussed. Two main drivers for the manufacturing costs of n-type solar cells are addressed: the n-type Cz silicon material and the silver consumption. We show that a large resistivity range between 2 and 8 cm can be tolerated for high cell efficiency, and that the costs due to the silver metallization can be significantly reduced while increasing the solar cell efficiency. Combining the improved efficiency and cost reduction makes the n-Pasha cell concept a very cost effective solution to manufacture high efficient solar cells and modules.

  7. Recent Advances in Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kietzke

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar cells based on organic semiconductors have attracted much attention. The thickness of the active layer of organic solar cells is typically only 100 nm thin, which is about 1000 times thinner than for crystalline silicon solar cells and still 10 times thinner than for current inorganic thin film cells. The low material consumption per area and the easy processing of organic semiconductors offer a huge potential for low cost large area solar cells. However, to compete with inorganic solar cells the efficiency of organic solar cells has to be improved by a factor of 2-3. Several organic semiconducting materials have been investigated so far, but the optimum material still has to be designed. Similar as for organic light emitting devices (OLED small molecules are competing with polymers to become the material of choice. After a general introduction into the device structures and operational principles of organic solar cells the three different basic types (all polymer based, all small molecules based and small molecules mixed with polymers are described in detail in this review. For each kind the current state of research is described and the best of class reported efficiencies are listed.

  8. Semiconductor quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jianjun; Cao, Guozhong

    2013-10-31

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been drawing great attention recently as a material for solar energy conversion due to their versatile optical and electrical properties. The QD-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) is one of the burgeoning semiconductor QD solar cells that shows promising developments for the next generation of solar cells. This article focuses on recent developments in QDSCs, including 1) the effect of quantum confinement on QDSCs, 2) the multiple exciton generation (MEG) of QDs, 3) fabrication methods of QDs, and 4) nanocrystalline photoelectrodes for solar cells. We also make suggestions for future research on QDSCs. Although the efficiency of QDSCs is still low, we think there will be major breakthroughs in developing QDSCs in the future.

  9. A MODULAR PHOTOSYNTHETIC MICROBIAL FUEL CELL WITH INTERCHANGEABLE ALGAE SOLAR COMPARTMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Fleury, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This project trial provides a novel small-scale solar harnessing technology which increases environmental effectiveness while maintaining optimal energy efficiency. Although modern solar panels are purposed in producing clean energy, the materials and byproducts of solar cell manufacturing are not eco-friendly. Thus, considering an organic, renewable and energy efficient solar cell model is necessary. Investigations explored multiple highly-photosynthetic algal species which were later integr...

  10. Development and Prospect of Nanoarchitectured Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bo; Xie, Wenxu; Xiang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the development and prospect of nanotechnologies utilized in the solar cell applications. Even though it is not clearly pointed out, nanostructures indeed have been used in the fabrication of conventional solar cells for a long time. However, in those circumstances, only very limited benefits of nanostructures have been used to improve cell performance. During the last decade, the development of the photovoltaic device theory and nanofabrication technology enab...

  11. Assessment of market possibilities for solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, S. [Advanced School of Business Novi Sad (Czechoslovakia)

    2004-07-01

    Global heating increases profitability of solar energy application in the Balkans. The most important market segments for wider solar cells utilization in Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) are solar pumps for irrigation in agriculture, traffic lights, lighting of weekend houses, air-conditioning, telecommunications, electric vehicles, solar hydro-electric power plants, sports centers and schools and orthodox monasteries. In addition to these applications of solar modules of relatively high capacity, a wide scope of applications of mini solar modules in consumer goods is given serious consideration (flashlights, bicycle lights, fan caps, beach hats, solar parasols, toys for children, solar watches, minicomputers, walkmans and alike). In this paper is projected gradually increase of solar cells applications in Yugoslavia, from 772 kW in 2006., to 3,901 kW installed photovoltaic power in 2010. year. The largest parts of this projected 3.9 MW in 2010., ought to be solar pumps (498 kW), telecommunications (470 kW) and traffic lights (468 kW). (orig.)

  12. Scaling Up ITO-free solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galagan, Yulia; Coenen, Erica W. C.; Zimmermann, Birger

    2014-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide-free (ITO-free) polymer solar cells with composite electrodes containing current-collecting grids and a semitransparent poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conductor are demonstrated. The up-scaling of the length of the solar cell from 1 to 6 cm...... resistances. The performance of ITO-free organic solar cells with different dimensions and different electrode resistances are evaluated for different light intensities. The current generation and electric potential distribution are found to not be uniformly distributed in large-area devices at simulated 1...

  13. Cheap electricity with autonomous solar cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouwens, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison has been made between the costs of an autonomous solar cell system and a centralized electricity supply system. In both cases investment costs are the main issue. It is shown that for households in densely populated sunny areas, the use of autonomous solar cell systems is - even with today's market prices - only as expensive or even cheaper than a grid connection, as long as efficient electric appliances are used. The modular nature of solar cell systems makes it possible to start with any number of appliances, depending on the amount of money available to be spent. (author)

  14. Silicon nanowire-based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelzner, Th; Pietsch, M; Andrae, G; Falk, F; Ose, E; Christiansen, S [Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, D-07745 Jena (Germany)], E-mail: thomas.stelzner@ipht-jena.de

    2008-07-23

    The fabrication of silicon nanowire-based solar cells on silicon wafers and on multicrystalline silicon thin films on glass is described. The nanowires show a strong broadband optical absorption, which makes them an interesting candidate to serve as an absorber in solar cells. The operation of a solar cell is demonstrated with n-doped nanowires grown on a p-doped silicon wafer. From a partially illuminated area of 0.6 cm{sup 2} open-circuit voltages in the range of 230-280 mV and a short-circuit current density of 2 mA cm{sup -2} were obtained.

  15. Silicon nanowire-based solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelzner, Th; Pietsch, M; Andrae, G; Falk, F; Ose, E; Christiansen, S

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication of silicon nanowire-based solar cells on silicon wafers and on multicrystalline silicon thin films on glass is described. The nanowires show a strong broadband optical absorption, which makes them an interesting candidate to serve as an absorber in solar cells. The operation of a solar cell is demonstrated with n-doped nanowires grown on a p-doped silicon wafer. From a partially illuminated area of 0.6 cm 2 open-circuit voltages in the range of 230-280 mV and a short-circuit current density of 2 mA cm -2 were obtained

  16. Coupling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators to Plasmonic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Yi

    To make inexpensive solar cells is a continuous goal for solar photovoltaic (PV) energy industry. Thin film solar cells of various materials have been developed and continue to emerge in order to replace bulk silicon solar cells. A thin film solar cell not only uses less material but also requires a less expensive refinery process. In addition, other advantages coming along with small thickness are higher open circuit voltage and higher conversion efficiency. However, thin film solar cells, especially those made of silicon, have significant optical losses. In order to address this problem, this thesis investigates the spectral coupling of thin films PV to luminescent solar concentrators (LSC). LSC are passive devices, consisting of plastic sheets embedded with fluorescent dyes which absorb part of the incoming radiation spectrum and emit at specific wavelength. The emitted light is concentrated by total internal reflection to the edge of the sheet, where the PVs are placed. Since the light emitted from the LSC edge is usually in a narrow spectral range, it is possible to employ diverse strategies to enhance PV absorption at the peak of the emission wavelength. Employing plasmonic nanostructures has been shown to enhance absorption of thin films via forward scattering, diffraction and localized surface plasmon. These two strategies are theoretically investigated here for improving the absorption and elevating the output power of a thin film solar cell. First, the idea of spectral coupling of luminescent solar concentrators to plasmonic solar cells is introduced to assess its potential for increasing the power output. This study is carried out employing P3HT/PC60BM organic solar cells and LSC with Lumogen Red dyes. A simplified spectral coupling analysis is employed to predict the power density, considering the output spectrum of the LSC equivalent to the emission spectrum of the dye and neglecting any angular dependence. Plasmonic tuning is conducted to enhance

  17. Cultivating Insect Cells To Produce Recombinant Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Glenn; Goodwin, Thomas; Prewett, Tacey; Andrews, Angela; Francis, Karen; O'Connor, Kim

    1996-01-01

    Method of producing recombinant proteins involves growth of insect cells in nutrient solution in cylindrical bioreactor rotating about cylindrical axis, oriented horizontally and infecting cells with viruses into which genes of selected type cloned. Genes in question those encoding production of desired proteins. Horizontal rotating bioreactor preferred for use in method, denoted by acronym "HARV", described in "High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating Cell-Culture Vessel" (MSC-21662).

  18. Development and Prospect of Nanoarchitectured Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the development and prospect of nanotechnologies utilized in the solar cell applications. Even though it is not clearly pointed out, nanostructures indeed have been used in the fabrication of conventional solar cells for a long time. However, in those circumstances, only very limited benefits of nanostructures have been used to improve cell performance. During the last decade, the development of the photovoltaic device theory and nanofabrication technology enables studies of more complex nanostructured solar cells with higher conversion efficiency and lower production cost. The fundamental principles and important features of these advanced solar cell designs are systematically reviewed and summarized in this paper, with a focus on the function and role of nanostructures and the key factors affecting device performance. Among various nanostructures, special attention is given to those relying on quantum effect.

  19. Recent Advances in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Mehmood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is an abundant and accessible source of renewable energy available on earth, and many types of photovoltaic (PV devices like organic, inorganic, and hybrid cells have been developed to harness the energy. PV cells directly convert solar radiation into electricity without affecting the environment. Although silicon based solar cells (inorganic cells are widely used because of their high efficiency, they are rigid and manufacturing costs are high. Researchers have focused on organic solar cells to overcome these disadvantages. DSSCs comprise a sensitized semiconductor (photoelectrode and a catalytic electrode (counter electrode with an electrolyte sandwiched between them and their efficiency depends on many factors. The maximum electrical conversion efficiency of DSSCs attained so far is 11.1%, which is still low for commercial applications. This review examines the working principle, factors affecting the efficiency, and key challenges facing DSSCs.

  20. Colloidal quantum dot solar cells on curved and flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Illan J.; Moreno-Bautista, Gabriel; Minor, James C.; Kopilovic, Damir; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals synthesized with, processed in, and deposited from the solution phase, potentially enabling low-cost, facile manufacture of solar cells. Unfortunately, CQD solar cell reports, until now, have only explored batch-processing methods—such as spin-coating—that offer limited capacity for scaling. Spray-coating could offer a means of producing uniform colloidal quantum dot films that yield high-quality devices. Here, we explore the versatility of the spray-coating method by producing CQD solar cells in a variety of previously unexplored substrate arrangements. The potential transferability of the spray-coating method to a roll-to-roll manufacturing process was tested by spray-coating the CQD active layer onto six substrates mounted on a rapidly rotating drum, yielding devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 6.7%. We further tested the manufacturability of the process by endeavoring to spray onto flexible substrates, only to find that spraying while the substrate was flexed was crucial to achieving champion performance of 7.2% without compromise to open-circuit voltage. Having deposited onto a substrate with one axis of curvature, we then built our CQD solar cells onto a spherical lens substrate having two axes of curvature resulting in a 5% efficient device. These results show that CQDs deposited using our spraying method can be integrated to large-area manufacturing processes and can be used to make solar cells on unconventional shapes.

  1. Colloidal quantum dot solar cells on curved and flexible substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.; Moreno-Bautista, Gabriel; Minor, James C.; Kopilovic, Damir; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals synthesized with, processed in, and deposited from the solution phase, potentially enabling low-cost, facile manufacture of solar cells. Unfortunately, CQD solar cell reports, until now, have only explored batch-processing methods - such as spin-coating - that offer limited capacity for scaling. Spray-coating could offer a means of producing uniform colloidal quantum dot films that yield high-quality devices. Here, we explore the versatility of the spray-coating method by producing CQD solar cells in a variety of previously unexplored substrate arrangements. The potential transferability of the spray-coating method to a roll-to-roll manufacturing process was tested by spray-coating the CQD active layer onto six substrates mounted on a rapidly rotating drum, yielding devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 6.7%. We further tested the manufacturability of the process by endeavoring to spray onto flexible substrates, only to find that spraying while the substrate was flexed was crucial to achieving champion performance of 7.2% without compromise to open-circuit voltage. Having deposited onto a substrate with one axis of curvature, we then built our CQD solar cells onto a spherical lens substrate having two axes of curvature resulting in a 5% efficient device. These results show that CQDs deposited using our spraying method can be integrated to large-area manufacturing processes and can be used to make solar cells on unconventional shapes.

  2. Colloidal quantum dot solar cells on curved and flexible substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.

    2014-10-20

    © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals synthesized with, processed in, and deposited from the solution phase, potentially enabling low-cost, facile manufacture of solar cells. Unfortunately, CQD solar cell reports, until now, have only explored batch-processing methods - such as spin-coating - that offer limited capacity for scaling. Spray-coating could offer a means of producing uniform colloidal quantum dot films that yield high-quality devices. Here, we explore the versatility of the spray-coating method by producing CQD solar cells in a variety of previously unexplored substrate arrangements. The potential transferability of the spray-coating method to a roll-to-roll manufacturing process was tested by spray-coating the CQD active layer onto six substrates mounted on a rapidly rotating drum, yielding devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 6.7%. We further tested the manufacturability of the process by endeavoring to spray onto flexible substrates, only to find that spraying while the substrate was flexed was crucial to achieving champion performance of 7.2% without compromise to open-circuit voltage. Having deposited onto a substrate with one axis of curvature, we then built our CQD solar cells onto a spherical lens substrate having two axes of curvature resulting in a 5% efficient device. These results show that CQDs deposited using our spraying method can be integrated to large-area manufacturing processes and can be used to make solar cells on unconventional shapes.

  3. Indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1982-12-28

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  4. Patterns of efficiency and degradation of composite polymer solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeranko, T; Tributsch, H; Sariciftci, NS; Hummelen, JC

    2004-01-01

    Bulk-heterojunction plastic solar cells (PSC) produced from a conjugated polymer, poly(2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyl-oxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MDMO-PPV), and a methanofullerene [6,6]-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were investigated using photocurrent imaging techniques to

  5. PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.; Lim, Yee-Fun; Santiago-Berrios, Mitk’ El B.; Oh, Matthew; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Sun, Liangfeng; Bartnik, Adam C.; Goedhart, Augusta; Malliaras, George G.; Abruña, Héctor D.; Wise, Frank W.; Hanrath, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    that Is distinct from previously reported Schottky devices and consistent with signatures of excitonic solar cells. Remarkably, despite the limitation of planar junction structure, and without film thickness optimization, the best performing device shows a 1-sun

  6. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  7. Diketopyrrolopyrrole polymers for organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Wei Wei; Hendriks, K.H.; Wienk, M.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus Conjugated polymers have been extensively studied for application in organic solar cells. In designing new polymers, particular attention has been given to tuning the absorption spectrum, molecular energy levels, crystallinity, and charge carrier mobility to enhance performance. As a

  8. Silicon Germanium Quantum Well Solar Cell

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A single crystal SiGe has enormous potentials for high performance chips and solar cells. This project seeks to fabricate a rudimentary but 1st cut quantum-well...

  9. A Bicontinuous Double Gyroid Hybrid Solar Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Crossland, Edward J. W.; Kamperman, Marleen; Nedelcu, Mihaela; Ducati, Caterina; Wiesner, Ulrich; Smilgies, Detlef -M.; Toombes, Gilman E. S.; Hillmyer, Marc A.; Ludwigs, Sabine; Steiner, Ullrich; Snaith, Henry J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first successful application of an ordered bicontinuous gyroid semiconducting network in a hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cell. The freestanding gyroid network is fabricated by electrochemical deposition into the 10 nm wide voided

  10. Cells and methods for producing fatty alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F.; Youngquist, Tyler J.

    2017-07-18

    Recombinant cells and methods for improved yield of fatty alcohols. The recombinant cells harbor a recombinant thioesterase gene, a recombinant acyl-CoA synthetase gene, and a recombinant acyl-CoA reductase gene. In addition, a gene product from one or more of an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene, an enoyl-CoA hydratase gene, a 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene, and a 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase gene in the recombinant cells is functionally deleted. Culturing the recombinant cells produces fatty alcohols at high yields.

  11. Method for manufacturing a solar cell with a surface-passivating dielectric double layer, and corresponding solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    We will describe a solar cell with a Dielektrikumdoppelschicht and a method for their preparation. It comprises a first dielectric layer (3) containing aluminum oxide or consisting of alumina, and a second, hydrogen-containing dielectric layer (5) is produced by sequential vapor deposition, whereby

  12. Effect of solar-terrestrial phenomena on solar cell's efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahee, K. B.; Ansari, W.A.; Raza, S.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    It is assumed that the solar cell efficiency of PV device is closely related to the solar irradiance, consider the solar parameter Global Solar Irradiance (G) and the meteorological parameters like daily data of Earth Skin Temperature (E), Average Temperature (T), Relative Humidity (H) and Dew Frost Point (D), for the coastal city Karachi and a non-coastal city Jacobabad, K and J is used as a subscripts for parameters of Karachi and Jacobabad respectively. All variables used here are dependent on the location (latitude and longitude) of our stations except G. To employ ARIMA modeling, the first eighteen years data is used for modeling and forecast is done for the last five years data. In most cases results show good correlation among monthly actual and monthly forecasted values of all the predictors. Next, multiple linear regression is employed to the data obtained by ARIMA modeling and models for mean monthly observed G values are constructed. For each station, two equations are constructed, the R values are above 93% for each model, showing adequacy of the fit. Our computations show that solar cell efficiency can be increased if better modeling for meteorological predictors governs the process. (author)

  13. Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strik, David P B T B; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2010-01-01

    The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel cells is the pH membrane gradient which reduces cell voltage and power output. This problem is caused by acid production at the anode, alkaline production at the cathode, and the nonspecific proton exchange through the membrane. Here we report a solution for a new kind of solar energy powered microbial fuel cell via development of a reversible bioelectrode responsible for both biocatalyzed anodic and cathodic electron transfer. Anodic produced protons were used for the cathodic reduction reaction which held the formation of a pH membrane gradient. The microbial fuel cell continuously generated electricity and repeatedly reversed polarity dependent on aeration or solar energy exposure. Identified organisms within biocatalyzing biofilm of the reversible bioelectrode were algae, (cyano)bacteria and protozoa. These results encourage application of solar energy powered microbial fuel cells.

  14. Perovskite Solar Cells: Progress and Advancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar Elumalai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs have emerged as a new class of optoelectronic semiconductors that revolutionized the photovoltaic research in the recent years. The perovskite solar cells present numerous advantages include unique electronic structure, bandgap tunability, superior charge transport properties, facile processing, and low cost. Perovskite solar cells have demonstrated unprecedented progress in efficiency and its architecture evolved over the period of the last 5–6 years, achieving a high power conversion efficiency of about 22% in 2016, serving as a promising candidate with the potential to replace the existing commercial PV technologies. This review discusses the progress of perovskite solar cells focusing on aspects such as superior electronic properties and unique features of halide perovskite materials compared to that of conventional light absorbing semiconductors. The review also presents a brief overview of device architectures, fabrication methods, and interface engineering of perovskite solar cells. The last part of the review elaborates on the major challenges such as hysteresis and stability issues in perovskite solar cells that serve as a bottleneck for successful commercialization of this promising PV technology.

  15. Concentrated sunlight for organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    . A high solar intensity study of inverted P3HT:PCBM solar cells is presented. Performance peak positions were found to be in the range of 1-5 suns, with smaller cells peaking at higher solar concentrations. Additionally, concentrated sunlight is demonstrated as a practical tool for accelerated stability...... were degraded resulting in acceleration factors in the range of 19-55. This shows that concentrated sunlight can be used as qualitatively to determine the lifetime of polymers under highly accelerated conditions....

  16. Recyclable organic solar cells on substrates comprising cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippelen, Bernard; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Zhou, Yinhua; Moon, Robert; Youngblood, Jeffrey P

    2015-12-01

    Recyclable organic solar cells are disclosed herein. Systems and methods are further disclosed for producing, improving performance, and for recycling the solar cells. In certain example embodiments, the recyclable organic solar cells disclosed herein include: a first electrode; a second electrode; a photoactive layer disposed between the first electrode and the second electrode; an interlayer comprising a Lewis basic oligomer or polymer disposed between the photoactive layer and at least a portion of the first electrode or the second electrode; and a substrate disposed adjacent to the first electrode or the second electrode. The interlayer reduces the work function associated with the first or second electrode. In certain example embodiments, the substrate comprises cellulose nanocrystals that can be recycled. In certain example embodiments, one or more of the first electrode, the photoactive layer, and the second electrode may be applied by a film transfer lamination method.

  17. Superthin Solar Cells Based on AIIIBV/Ge Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhanov, N. A.; Pchelyakov, O. P.; Vladimirov, V. M.

    2017-11-01

    A comparative analysis of the prospects of creating superthin, light-weight, and highly efficient solar cells based on AIIIBV/InGaAs and AIIIBV/Ge heterostructures is performed. Technological problems and prospects of each variant are discussed. A method of thinning of AIIIBV/Ge heterostructures with the use of an effective temporary carrier is proposed. The method allows the process to be performed almost with no risk of heterostructure fracture, thinning of the Ge junction down to several tens of micrometers (or even several micrometers), significant enhancement of the yield of good structures, and also convenient and reliable transfer of thinned solar cells to an arbitrary light and flexible substrate. Such a technology offers a possibility of creating high-efficiency thin and light solar cells for space vehicles on the basis of mass-produced AIIIBV/Ge heterostructures.

  18. Graphene-based transparent electrodes for hybrid solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei eLi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The graphene-based transparent and conductive films were demonstrated to be cost-effective electrodes working in organic-inorganic hybrid Schottky solar cells. Large area graphene films were produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD on copper foils and transferred onto glass as transparent electrodes. The hybrid solar cell devices consist of solution processed poly (3, 4-ethlenedioxythiophene: poly (styrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS which is sandwiched between silicon wafer and graphene electrode. The solar cells based on graphene electrodes, especially those doped with HNO3, has comparable performance to the reference devices using commercial indium tin oxide (ITO. Our work suggests that graphene-based transparent electrode is a promising candidate to replace ITO.

  19. Peeled film GaAs solar cell development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilt, D.M.; Thomas, R.D.; Bailey, S.G.; Brinker, D.J.; DeAngelo, F.L.

    1990-01-01

    Thin film, single crystal gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells could exhibit a specific power approaching 700 W/Kg including coverglass. A simple process has been described whereby epitaxial GaAs layers are peeled from a reusable substrate. This process takes advantage of the extreme selectivity (>10 6 ) of the etching rate of aluminum arsenide (AlAs) over GaAs in dilute hydrofloric acid (HF). The intent of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using the peeled film technique to fabricate high efficiency, low mass GaAs solar cells. We have successfully produced a peeled film GaAs solar cell. The device, although fractured and missing the aluminum gallium arsenide (Al x Ga 1 - x As) window and antireflective (AR) coating, had a Voc of 874 mV and a fill factor of 68% under AMO illumination

  20. Development of a thin film solar cell interconnect for the PowerSphere concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simburger, Edward J.; Matsumoto, James H.; Giants, Thomas W.; Garcia, Alexander; Liu, Simon; Rawal, Suraj P.; Perry, Alan R.; Marshall, Craig H.; Lin, John K.; Scarborough, Stephen E.; Curtis, Henry B.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Peterson, Todd T.

    2005-01-01

    Progressive development of microsatellite technologies has resulted in increased demand for lightweight electrical power subsystems including solar arrays. The use of thin film photovoltaics has been recognized as a key solution to meet the power needs. The lightweight cells can generate sufficient power and still meet critical mass requirements. Commercially available solar cells produced on lightweight substrates are being studied as an option to fulfill the power needs. The commercially available solar cells are relatively inexpensive and have a high payoff potential. Commercially available thin film solar cells are primarily being produced for terrestrial applications. The need to convert the solar cell from a terrestrial to a space compatible application is the primary challenge. Solar cell contacts, grids and interconnects need to be designed to be atomic oxygen resistant and withstand rapid thermal cycling environments. A mechanically robust solar cell interconnect is also required in order to withstand handling during fabrication and survive during launch. The need to produce the solar cell interconnects has been identified as a primary goal of the PowerSphere program and is the topic of this paper. Details of the trade study leading to the final design involving the solar cell wrap around contact, flex blanket, welding process, and frame will be presented at the conference

  1. Method to manufacture solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanschmann, H.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt has been made to outwit physics and to improve the solar energy utilization in households and space ships by means of power storers, gravitational drive and other futuristic means. (DG) [de

  2. Nanoparticle Solar Cell Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeze, Alison, J; Sahoo, Yudhisthira; Reddy, Damoder; Sholin, Veronica; Carter, Sue

    2008-06-17

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells with photovoltaic performance extending into the near-IR region of the solar spectrum as a pathway towards improving power conversion efficiencies. The field of all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells is very new, with only one literature publication in the prior to our project. Very little is understood regarding how these devices function. Inorganic solar cells with IR performance have previously been fabricated using traditional methods such as physical vapor deposition and sputtering, and solution-processed devices utilizing IR-absorbing organic polymers have been investigated. The solution-based deposition of nanoparticles offers the potential of a low-cost manufacturing process combined with the ability to tune the chemical synthesis and material properties to control the device properties. This work, in collaboration with the Sue Carter research group at the University of California, Santa Cruz, has greatly expanded the knowledge base in this field, exploring multiple material systems and several key areas of device physics including temperature, bandgap and electrode device behavior dependence, material morphological behavior, and the role of buffer layers. One publication has been accepted to Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells pending minor revision and another two papers are being written now. While device performance in the near-IR did not reach the level anticipated at the beginning of this grant, we did observe one of the highest near-IR efficiencies for a nanoparticle-based solar cell device to date. We also identified several key parameters of importance for improving both near-IR performance and nanoparticle solar cells in general, and demonstrated multiple pathways which showed promise for future commercialization with further research.

  3. Advanced Solar Cells for Satellite Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Dennis J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1994-01-01

    The multiple natures of today's space missions with regard to operational lifetime, orbital environment, cost and size of spacecraft, to name just a few, present such a broad range of performance requirements to be met by the solar array that no single design can suffice to meet them all. The result is a demand for development of specialized solar cell types that help to optimize overall satellite performance within a specified cost range for any given space mission. Historically, space solar array performance has been optimized for a given mission by tailoring the features of silicon solar cells to account for the orbital environment and average operating conditions expected during the mission. It has become necessary to turn to entirely new photovoltaic materials and device designs to meet the requirements of future missions, both in the near and far term. This paper will outline some of the mission drivers and resulting performance requirements that must be met by advanced solar cells, and provide an overview of some of the advanced cell technologies under development to meet them. The discussion will include high efficiency, radiation hard single junction cells; monolithic and mechanically stacked multiple bandgap cells; and thin film cells.

  4. 24% efficient PERL structure silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J.; Wang, A.; Green, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the performance of silicon solar cells have been significantly improved using an improved PERL (passivated emitter, rear locally-diffused) cell structure. This structure overcomes deficiencies in an earlier PERC (passivated emitter and rear cell) cell structure by locally diffusing boron into contact areas at the rear of the cells. Terrestrial energy conversion efficiencies up to 24% are reported for silicon cells for the first time. Air Mass O efficiencies approach 21%. The first batches of concentrator cells using the new structure have demonstrated significant improvement with 29% efficient concentrator silicon cells expected in the near future

  5. Berkeley Lab Sheds Light on Improving Solar Cell Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2007-01-01

    Typical manufacturing methods produce solar cells with an efficiency of 12-15%; and 14% efficiency is the bare minimum for achieving a profit. In work performed at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley, CA, 5 10-486-577 1)--a US Department of Energy national laboratory that conducts unclassified scientific research and is managed by the University of California--scientist Scott McHugo has obtained keen insights into the impaired performance of solar cells manufactured from polycrystalline silicon. The solar cell market is potentially vast, according to Berkeley Lab. Lightweight solar panels are highly beneficial for providing electrical power to remote locations in developing nations, since there is no need to build transmission lines or truck-in generator fuel. Moreover, industrial nations confronted with diminishing resources have active programs aimed at producing improved, less expensive solar cells. 'In a solar cell, there is a junction between p-type silicon and an n-type layer, such as diffused-in phosphorous', explained McHugo, who is now with Berkeley Lab's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. 'When sunlight is absorbed, it frees electrons, which start migrating in a random-walk fashion toward that junction. If the electrons make it to the junction; they contribute to the cell's output of electric current. Often, however, before they reach the junction, they recombine at specific sites in the crystal' (and, therefore, cannot contribute to current output). McHugo scrutinized a map of a silicon wafer in which sites of high recombination appeared as dark regions. Previously, researchers had shown that such phenomena occurred not primarily at grain boundaries in the polycrystalline material, as might be expected, but more often at dislocations in the crystal. However, the dislocations themselves were not the problem. Using a unique heat treatment technique, McHugo performed electrical measurements to investigate the material

  6. Turning Perspective in Photoelectrocatalytic Cells for Solar Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele; Su, Dangsheng

    2016-02-19

    The development of new devices for the use and storage of solar energy is a key step to enable a new sustainable energy scenario. The route for direct solar-to-chemical energy transformation, especially to produce liquid fuels, represents a necessary element to realize transition from the actual energy infrastructure. Photoelectrocatalytic (PECa) devices for the production of solar fuels are a key element to enable this sustainable scenario. The development of PECa devices and related materials is of increasing scientific and applied interest. This concept paper introduces the need to turn the viewpoint of research in terms of PECa cell design and related materials with respect to mainstream activities in the field of artificial photosynthesis and leaves. As an example of a new possible direction, the concept of electrolyte-less cell design for PECa cells to produce solar fuels by reduction of CO2 is presented. The fundamental and applied development of new materials and electrodes for these cells should proceed fully integrated with PECa cell design and systematic analysis. A new possible approach to develop semiconductors with improved performances by using visible light is also shortly presented. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Morphology control and device optimization for efficient organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevaerts, Veronique

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy is paramount for a sustainable global future. Solar cells convert solar light directly into electricity and are therefore of great interest in meeting the world’s energy demand. Currently crystalline silicon solar cells dominate the market. Solution processed organic solar cells can

  8. Investigation of solar cell radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.; Reulet, R.; Arndt, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    Development of communications satellites has led to the requirement for a greater and longer lived solar cell power source. Accordingly, studies have been undertaken with the aim of determining which solar cell array provides the greatest power at end of life and the amount of degradation. Investigation of the damage done to thin silicon and thin film CdS solar cells is being carried out in two steps. First, irradiations were performed singly with 0.15, 1.0 and 2.0MeV electrons and 0.7, 2.5 and 22MeV proton. Solar cells and their cover materials were irradiated separately in order to locate the sites of the damage. Diffusion length and I.V. characteristics of the cells and transmission properties of the cover materials were measured. All neasurements were made in vacuum immediately after irradiation. In the second part it is intended to study the effect of various combinations of proton, electron and photon irradiation both with and without an electrical load. The results of this part show whether synergism is involved in solar cell damage and the relative importance of each of three radiation sources if synergism is found [fr

  9. Novel semiconductor solar cell structures: The quantum dot intermediate band solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, A.; Lopez, N.; Antolin, E.; Canovas, E.; Stanley, C.; Farmer, C.; Cuadra, L.; Luque, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Quantum Dot Intermediate Band Solar Cell (QD-IBSC) has been proposed for studying experimentally the operating principles of a generic class of photovoltaic devices, the intermediate band solar cells (IBSC). The performance of an IBSC is based on the properties of a semiconductor-like material which is characterised by the existence of an intermediate band (IB) located within what would otherwise be its conventional bandgap. The improvement in efficiency of the cell arises from its potential (i) to absorb below bandgap energy photons and thus produce additional photocurrent, and (ii) to inject this enhanced photocurrent without degrading its output photo-voltage. The implementation of the IBSC using quantum dots (QDs) takes advantage of the discrete nature of the carrier density of states in a 0-dimensional nano-structure, an essential property for realising the IB concept. In the QD-IBSC, the IB arises from the confined electron states in an array of quantum dots. This paper reviews the operation of the first prototype QD-IBSCs and discusses some of the lessons learnt from their characterisation

  10. Novel semiconductor solar cell structures: The quantum dot intermediate band solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti, A. [Instituto de Energia Solar-UPM, ETSIT de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria sn, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: amarti@etsit.upm.es; Lopez, N. [Instituto de Energia Solar-UPM, ETSIT de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria sn, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Antolin, E. [Instituto de Energia Solar-UPM, ETSIT de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria sn, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Canovas, E. [Instituto de Energia Solar-UPM, ETSIT de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria sn, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Stanley, C. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Farmer, C. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Cuadra, L. [Departamento de Teoria de la Senal y Comunicaciones- Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona, km. 33600, 28805-Alcala de Henares (Madrid) (Spain); Luque, A. [Instituto de Energia Solar-UPM, ETSIT de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria sn, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-26

    The Quantum Dot Intermediate Band Solar Cell (QD-IBSC) has been proposed for studying experimentally the operating principles of a generic class of photovoltaic devices, the intermediate band solar cells (IBSC). The performance of an IBSC is based on the properties of a semiconductor-like material which is characterised by the existence of an intermediate band (IB) located within what would otherwise be its conventional bandgap. The improvement in efficiency of the cell arises from its potential (i) to absorb below bandgap energy photons and thus produce additional photocurrent, and (ii) to inject this enhanced photocurrent without degrading its output photo-voltage. The implementation of the IBSC using quantum dots (QDs) takes advantage of the discrete nature of the carrier density of states in a 0-dimensional nano-structure, an essential property for realising the IB concept. In the QD-IBSC, the IB arises from the confined electron states in an array of quantum dots. This paper reviews the operation of the first prototype QD-IBSCs and discusses some of the lessons learnt from their characterisation.

  11. Microscopic optoelectronic defectoscopy of solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallaeva D.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Scanning probe microscopes are powerful tool for micro- or nanoscale diagnostics of defects in crystalline silicon solar cells. Solar cell is a large p-n junction semiconductor device. Its quality is strongly damaged by the presence of defects. If the cell works under low reverse-biased voltage, defects emit a light in visible range. The suggested method combines three different measurements: electric noise measurement, local topography and near-field optical beam induced current and thus provides more complex information. To prove its feasibility, we have selected one defect (truncated pyramid in the sample, which emitted light under low reverse-biased voltage.

  12. Organic solar cells fundamentals, devices, and upscaling

    CERN Document Server

    Rand, Barry P

    2014-01-01

    Solution-Processed DonorsB. Burkhart, B. C. ThompsonSmall-Molecule and Vapor-Deposited Organic Photovoltaics R. R. Lunt, R. J. HolmesAcceptor Materials for Solution-Processed Solar Cells Y. HeInterfacial Layers R. Po, C. Carbonera, A. BernardiElectrodes in Organic Photovoltaic Cells S. Yoo, J.-Y. Lee, H. Kim, J. LeeTandem and Multi-Junction Organic Solar Cells J. Gilot, R. A. J. JanssenBulk Heterojunction Morphology Control and Characterization T. Wang, D. G. LidzeyOptical Modeling and Light Management

  13. Amorphous silicon crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrner, Wolfgang Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous Silicon/Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells deals with some typical properties of heterojunction solar cells, such as their history, the properties and the challenges of the cells, some important measurement tools, some simulation programs and a brief survey of the state of the art, aiming to provide an initial framework in this field and serve as a ready reference for all those interested in the subject. This book helps to "fill in the blanks" on heterojunction solar cells. Readers will receive a comprehensive overview of the principles, structures, processing techniques and the current developmental states of the devices. Prof. Dr. Wolfgang R. Fahrner is a professor at the University of Hagen, Germany and Nanchang University, China.

  14. Solar Cell Calibration and Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila; Brinker, Dave; Curtis, Henry; Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, Dave

    2004-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space solar cells and the increasing international markets for both cells and arrays has resulted in workshops jointly sponsored by NASDA, ESA and NASA. These workshops are designed to obtain international agreement on standardized values for the AMO spectrum and constant, recommend laboratory measurement practices and establish a set of protocols for international comparison of laboratory measurements. A working draft of an ISO standard, WD15387, "Requirements for Measurement and Calibration Procedures for Space Solar Cells" was discussed with a focus on the scope of the document, a definition of primary standard cell, and required error analysis for all measurement techniques. Working groups addressed the issues of Air Mass Zero (AMO) solar constant and spectrum, laboratory measurement techniques, and te international round robin methodology. A summary is presented of the current state of each area and the formulation of the ISO document.

  15. Walking-Beam Solar-Cell Conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, H.; Frasch, W.

    1982-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled walking-beam conveyor moves cells between work stations in automated assembly line. Conveyor has arm at each work station. In unison arms pick up all solar cells and advance them one station; then beam retracks to be in position for next step. Microprocessor sets beam stroke, speed, and position.

  16. Polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, RAJ; Hummelen, JC; Saricifti, NS

    Nanostructured phase-separated blends, or bulk heterojunctions, of conjugated Polymers and fullerene derivatives form a very attractive approach to large-area, solid-state organic solar cells.The key feature of these cells is that they combine easy, processing from solution on a variety of

  17. High-efficiency concentrator silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, R.A.; Cuevas, A.; King, R.R.; Swanson, R.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Solid-State Electronics Lab.)

    1990-11-01

    This report presents results from extensive process development in high-efficiency Si solar cells. An advanced design for a 1.56-cm{sup 2} cell with front grids achieved 26% efficiency at 90 suns. This is especially significant since this cell does not require a prismatic cover glass. New designs for simplified backside-contact solar cells were advanced from a status of near-nonfunctionality to demonstrated 21--22% for one-sun cells in sizes up to 37.5 cm{sup 2}. An efficiency of 26% was achieved for similar 0.64-cm{sup 2} concentrator cells at 150 suns. More fundamental work on dopant-diffused regions is also presented here. The recombination vs. various process and physical parameters was studied in detail for boron and phosphorous diffusions. Emitter-design studies based solidly upon these new data indicate the performance vs design parameters for a variety of the cases of most interest to solar cell designers. Extractions of p-type bandgap narrowing and the surface recombination for p- and n-type regions from these studies have a generality that extends beyond solar cells into basic device modeling. 68 refs., 50 figs.

  18. Radiation resistant passivation of silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, R.M.; Gan, J.Y.; Gruenbaum, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a silicon solar cell having improved stability when exposed to concentrated solar radiation. It comprises a body of silicon material having a major surface for receiving radiation, a plurality of p and n conductivity regions in the body for collecting electrons and holes created by impinging radiation, and a passivation layer on the major surface including a first layer of silicon oxide in contact with the body and a polycrystalline silicon layer on the first layer of silicon oxide

  19. Development of large area, high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, K.S.; Kim, S.; Kim, D.W. [Yu Kong Taedok Institute of Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    The objective of the research is to develop the mass-production technologies of high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells in order to reduce the costs of solar cells and dissemination of solar cells. Amorphous silicon solar cell is the most promising option of thin film solar cells which are relatively easy to reduce the costs. The final goal of the research is to develop amorphous silicon solar cells having the efficiency of 10%, the ratio of light-induced degradation 15% in the area of 1200 cm{sup 2} and test the cells in the form of 2 Kw grid-connected photovoltaic system. (author) 35 refs., 8 tabs., 67 figs.

  20. Solar heating of GaAs nanowire solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2015-11-30

    We use a coupled thermal-optical approach to model the operating temperature rise in GaAs nanowire solar cells. We find that despite more highly concentrated light absorption and lower thermal conductivity, the overall temperature rise in a nanowire structure is no higher than in a planar structure. Moreover, coating the nanowires with a transparent polymer can increase the radiative cooling power by 2.2 times, lowering the operating temperature by nearly 7 K.

  1. Neutral Color Semitransparent Microstructured Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Eperon, Giles E.

    2014-01-28

    Neutral-colored semitransparent solar cells are commercially desired to integrate solar cells into the windows and cladding of buildings and automotive applications. Here, we report the use of morphological control of perovskite thin films to form semitransparent planar heterojunction solar cells with neutral color and comparatively high efficiencies. We take advantage of spontaneous dewetting to create microstructured arrays of perovskite "islands", on a length-scale small enough to appear continuous to the eye yet large enough to enable unattenuated transmission of light between the islands. The islands are thick enough to absorb most visible light, and the combination of completely absorbing and completely transparent regions results in neutral transmission of light. Using these films, we fabricate thin-film solar cells with respectable power conversion efficiencies. Remarkably, we find that such discontinuous films still have good rectification behavior and relatively high open-circuit voltages due to the inherent rectification between the n- and p-type charge collection layers. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ease of "color-tinting" such microstructured perovksite solar cells with no reduction in performance, by incorporation of a dye within the hole transport medium. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. Light-trapping in perovskite solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Guo Du

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We numerically demonstrate enhanced light harvesting efficiency in both CH3NH3PbI3 and CH(NH22PbI3-based perovskite solar cells using inverted vertical-cone photonic-crystal nanostructures. For CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells, the maximum achievable photocurrent density (MAPD reaches 25.1 mA/cm2, corresponding to 92% of the total available photocurrent in the absorption range of 300 nm to 800 nm. Our cell shows 6% absorption enhancement compared to the Lambertian limit (23.7 mA/cm2 and has a projected power conversion efficiency of 12.9%. Excellent solar absorption is numerically demonstrated over a broad angular range from 0 to 60 degree for both S- and P- polarizations. For the corresponding CH(NH22PbI3 based perovskite solar cell, with absorption range of 300 nm to 850 nm, we find a MAPD of 29.1 mA/cm2, corresponding to 95.4% of the total available photocurrent. The projected power conversion efficiency of the CH(NH22PbI3 based photonic crystal solar cell is 23.4%, well above the current world record efficiency of 20.1%.

  3. Light-trapping in perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Qing Guo, E-mail: duqi0001@e.ntu.edu.sg [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 ST. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Institute of High Performance Computing, A* STAR, Singapore, 138632 (Singapore); Shen, Guansheng [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 ST. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 (Canada); School of Information and Communication Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); John, Sajeev [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 ST. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Department of Physics, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2016-06-15

    We numerically demonstrate enhanced light harvesting efficiency in both CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} and CH(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}PbI{sub 3}-based perovskite solar cells using inverted vertical-cone photonic-crystal nanostructures. For CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite solar cells, the maximum achievable photocurrent density (MAPD) reaches 25.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, corresponding to 92% of the total available photocurrent in the absorption range of 300 nm to 800 nm. Our cell shows 6% absorption enhancement compared to the Lambertian limit (23.7 mA/cm{sup 2}) and has a projected power conversion efficiency of 12.9%. Excellent solar absorption is numerically demonstrated over a broad angular range from 0 to 60 degree for both S- and P- polarizations. For the corresponding CH(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}PbI{sub 3} based perovskite solar cell, with absorption range of 300 nm to 850 nm, we find a MAPD of 29.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, corresponding to 95.4% of the total available photocurrent. The projected power conversion efficiency of the CH(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}PbI{sub 3} based photonic crystal solar cell is 23.4%, well above the current world record efficiency of 20.1%.

  4. Enhanced light absorption in an ultrathin silicon solar cell utilizing plasmonic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels A.

    2012-10-01

    Nowadays, bringing photovoltaics to the market is mainly limited by high cost of electricity produced by the photovoltaic solar cell. Thin-film photovoltaics offers the potential for a significant cost reduction compared to traditional photovoltaics. However, the performance of thin-film solar cells is generally limited by poor light absorption. We propose an ultrathin-film silicon solar cell configuration based on SOI structure, where the light absorption is enhanced by use of plasmonic nanostructures. By placing a one-dimensional plasmonic nanograting on the bottom of the solar cell, the generated photocurrent for a 200 nm-thickness crystalline silicon solar cell can be enhanced by 90% in the considered wavelength range. These results are paving a promising way for the realization of high-efficiency thin-film solar cells.

  5. Quantum-Tuned Multijunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleilat, Ghada I.

    Multijunction solar cells made from a combination of CQDs of differing sizes and thus bandgaps are a promising means by which to increase the energy harvested from the Sun's broad spectrum. In this dissertation, we first report the systematic engineering of 1.6 eV PbS CQD solar cells, optimal as the front cell responsible for visible wavelength harvesting in tandem photovoltaics. We rationally optimize each of the device's collecting electrodes---the heterointerface with electron accepting TiO2 and the deep-work-function hole-collecting MoO3 for ohmic contact---for maximum efficiency. Room-temperature processing enables flexible substrates, and permits tandem solar cells that integrate a small-bandgap back cell atop a low thermal-budget larger-bandgap front cell. We report an electrode strategy that enables a depleted heterojunction CQD PV device to be fabricated entirely at room temperature. We develop a two-layer donor-supply electrode (DSE) in which a highly doped, shallow work function layer supplies a high density of free electrons to an ultrathin TiO2 layer via charge-transfer doping. Using the DSE we build all-room-temperature-processed small-bandgap (1 eV) colloidal quantum dot solar cells suitable for use as the back junction in tandem solar cells. We further report in this work the first efficient CQD tandem solar cells. We use a graded recombination layer (GRL) to provide a progression of work functions from the hole-accepting electrode in the bottom cell to the electron-accepting electrode in the top cell. The recombination layers must allow the hole current from one cell to recombine, with high efficiency and low voltage loss, with the electron current from the next cell. We conclude our dissertation by presenting the generalized conditions for design of efficient graded recombination layer solar devices. We demonstrate a family of new GRL designs experimentally and highlight the benefits of the progression of dopings and work functions in the

  6. Morphology of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böttiger, Arvid P.L.

    as a function of polymer, type of ink, annealing etc. Ptychography is a new state of the art X-ray imaging technique based on coherent scattering. Together with Scanning X-ray Transmission Microscopy (STXM) it has been used in this study to inspect the morphology of the active layer taken from working solar...

  7. Fabrication and Characterization of Copper System Compound Semiconductor Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Motoyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper system compound semiconductor solar cells were produced by a spin-coating method, and their cell performance and structures were investigated. Copper indium disulfide- (CIS- based solar cells with titanium dioxide (TiO2 were produced on F-doped SnO2 (FTO. A device based on an FTO/CIS/TiO2 structure provided better cell performance compared to that based on FTO/TiO2/CIS structure. Cupric oxide- (CuO- and cuprous oxide- (Cu2O- based solar cells with fullerene (C60 were also fabricated on FTO and indium tin oxide (ITO. The microstructure and cell performance of the CuO/C60 heterojunction and the Cu2O:C60 bulk heterojunction structure were investigated. The photovoltaic devices based on FTO/CuO/C60 and ITO/Cu2O:C60 structures provided short-circuit current density of 0.015 mAcm−2 and 0.11 mAcm−2, and open-circuit voltage of 0.045 V and 0.17 V under an Air Mass 1.5 illumination, respectively. The microstructures of the active layers were examined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy.

  8. Stability Issues on Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organo lead halide perovskite materials like methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3 and formamidinium lead iodide (HC(NH22PbI3 show superb opto-electronic properties. Based on these perovskite light absorbers, power conversion efficiencies of the perovskite solar cells employing hole transporting layers have increased from 9.7% to 20.1% within just three years. Thus, it is apparent that perovskite solar cell is a promising next generation photovoltaic technology. However, the unstable nature of perovskite was observed when exposing it to continuous illumination, moisture and high temperature, impeding the commercial development in the long run and thus becoming the main issue that needs to be solved urgently. Here, we discuss the factors affecting instability of perovskite and give some perspectives about further enhancement of stability of perovskite solar cell.

  9. Fabricating solar cells with silicon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Molesa, Steve; Kim, Taeseok

    2014-09-02

    A laser contact process is employed to form contact holes to emitters of a solar cell. Doped silicon nanoparticles are formed over a substrate of the solar cell. The surface of individual or clusters of silicon nanoparticles is coated with a nanoparticle passivation film. Contact holes to emitters of the solar cell are formed by impinging a laser beam on the passivated silicon nanoparticles. For example, the laser contact process may be a laser ablation process. In that case, the emitters may be formed by diffusing dopants from the silicon nanoparticles prior to forming the contact holes to the emitters. As another example, the laser contact process may be a laser melting process whereby portions of the silicon nanoparticles are melted to form the emitters and contact holes to the emitters.

  10. A special issue on solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Bing CHENG

    2011-01-01

    @@ The increasing demand for renewable energy has made the solar cell technology as one of the most significantresearch and development areas of today.Silicon based solar cells are the dominant photovoltaic products at the present time, but the relatively high costs are barriers for their broad applications.Research has been active worldwide in developing other photovoltaic technologies that use cheap materials and can be easily manufactured.Organic solar cells have attracted a lot of interests recently due to their potential to be low cost photovoltaic technologies.This special issue of the Frontiers of Optoelectronics in China has collected research articles by a number of Chinese and international experts.It is aimed to broaden the readers' view about some of the recent developments and challenges in this important R&D field.Thirteen excellent papers are in this special issue including 4 review articles and 9 research articles.

  11. Doctor Blade-Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul

    2016-10-25

    In this work, we report polymer solar cells based on blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM and PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM bulk heterojunction photoactive layers. Enhanced power conversion efficiency of 2.75 (conventional structure) and 3.03% (inverted structure) with improved reproducibility was obtained from blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM solar cells, compared to spin-coated ones. Furthermore, by demonstrating 3.10% efficiency flexible solar cells using blade-coated PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM films on the plastic substrates, we suggest the potential applicability of blade coating technique to the high throughput roll-to-roll fabrication systems.

  12. Perovskite Solar Cells: Potentials, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heralded as a major scientific breakthrough of 2013, organic/inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells have ushered in a new era of renewed efforts at increasing the efficiency and lowering the cost of solar energy. As a potential game changer in the mix of technologies for alternate energy, it has emerged from a modest beginning in 2012 to efficiencies being claimed at 20.1% in a span of just two years. This remarkable progress, encouraging at one end, also points to the possibility that the potential may still be far from being fully realized. With greater insight into the photophysics involved and optimization of materials and methods, this technology stands to match or even exceed the efficiencies for single crystal silicon solar cells. With thin film solution processability, applicability to flexible substrates, and being free of liquid electrolyte, this technology combines the benefits of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs, Organic Photovoltaics (OPVs, and thin film solar cells. In this review we present a brief historic perspective to this development, take a cognizance of the current state of the art, and highlight challenges and the opportunities.

  13. Questionable effects of antireflective coatings on inefficiently cooled solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Galster, Georg; Larsen, Esben

    1998-01-01

    of the output power and efficiency curves throughout the day the coherence between technical parameters of the solar cells and the climate in the operation region is observed and examined. It is shown how the drop in output power around noon can be avoided by fitting technical parameters of the solar cells......A model for temperature effects in p-n junction solar cells is introduced. The temperature of solar cells and the losses in the solar cell junction region caused by elevating temperature are discussed. The model developed is examined for low-cost silicon solar cells. In order to improve the shape...

  14. High throughput solar cell ablation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

    2012-09-11

    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  15. Design issues for optimum solar cell configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atul; Thakur, Ajay D.

    2018-05-01

    A computer based simulation of solar cell structure is performed to study the optimization of pn junction configuration for photovoltaic action. The fundamental aspects of photovoltaic action viz, absorption, separation collection, and their dependence on material properties and deatails of device structures is discussed. Using SCAPS 1D we have simulated the ideal pn junction and shown the effect of band offset and carrier densities on solar cell performance. The optimum configuration can be achieved by optimizing transport of carriers in pn junction under effect of field dependent recombination (tunneling) and density dependent recombination (SRH, Auger) mechanisms.

  16. High efficiency double sided solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddik, M.M.

    1990-06-01

    Silicon technology state of the art for single crystalline was given to be limited to less than 20% efficiency. A proposed new form of photovoltaic solar cell of high current high efficiency with double sided structures has been given. The new forms could be n ++ pn ++ or p ++ np ++ double side junctions. The idea of double sided devices could be understood as two solar cells connected back-to-back in parallel electrical connection, in which the current is doubled if the cell is illuminated from both sides by a V-shaped reflector. The cell is mounted to the reflector such that each face is inclined at an angle of 45 deg. C to each side of the reflector. The advantages of the new structure are: a) High power devices. b) Easy to fabricate. c) The cells are used vertically instead of horizontal use of regular solar cell which require large area to install. This is very important in power stations and especially for satellite installation. If the proposal is made real and proved to be experimentally feasible, it would be a new era for photovoltaic solar cells since the proposal has already been extended to even higher currents. The suggested structures could be stated as: n ++ pn ++ Vp ++ np ++ ;n ++ pn ++ Vn ++ pn ++ ORp ++ np ++ Vp ++ np ++ . These types of structures are formed in wedged shape to employ indirect illumination by either parabolic; conic or V-shaped reflectors. The advantages of these new forms are low cost; high power; less in size and space; self concentrating; ... etc. These proposals if it happens to find their ways to be achieved experimentally, I think they will offer a short path to commercial market and would have an incredible impact on solar cell technology and applications. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs

  17. Advances in solar cell welding technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, L.G.; Lott, D.R.

    1982-09-01

    In addition to developing the rigid substrate welded conventional cell panels for an earlier U.S. flight program, LMSC recently demonstrated a welded lightweight array system using both 2 x 4 and 5.9 x 5.9 cm wraparound solar cells. This weld system uses infrared sensing of weld joint temperature at the cell contact metalization interface to precisely control weld energy on each joint. Modules fabricated using this weld control system survived lowearth-orbit simulated 5-year tests (over 30,000 cycles) without joint failure. The data from these specifically configured modules, printed circuit substrate with copper interconnect and dielectric wraparound solar cells, can be used as a basis for developing weld schedules for additional cell array panel types.

  18. Thin film solar cell technology in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, W.; Sittinger, V.; Szyszka, B.

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of limited nonrenewable energy resources and the limited capacity of the ecosystem for greenhouse gases and nuclear waste, sustainability is one important target in the future. Different energy scenarios showed the huge potential for photovoltaics (PV) to solve this energy problem. Nevertheless, in the last decade, PV had an average growth rate of over 20% per year. In 2002, the solar industry delivered more than 500 MWp/year of photovoltaic generators [A. Jaeger-Waldau, A European Roadmap for PV R and D, E-MRS Spring Meeting, (2003)]. More than 85% of the current production involves crystalline silicon technologies. These technologies still have a high cost reduction potential, but this will be limited by the silicon feedstock. On the other hand the so-called second generation thin film solar cells based on a-Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S 2 (CIGS) or CdTe have material thicknesses of a few microns as a result of their direct band gap. Also, the possibility of circuit integration offers an additional cost reduction potential. Especially in Germany, there are a few companies who focus on thin film solar cells. Today, there are two manufacturers with production lines: the Phototronics (PST) division of RWE-Schott Solar with a-Si thin film technology and the former Antec Solar GmbH (now Antec Solar Energy GmbH) featuring the CdTe technology. A pilot line based on CIGS technology is run by Wuerth Solar GmbH. There is also a variety of research activity at other companies, namely, at Shell Solar, Sulfurcell Solartechnik GmbH, Solarion GmbH and the CIS-Solartechnik GmbH. We will give an overview on research activity on various thin film technologies, as well as different manufacturing and production processes in the companies mentioned above. (Author)

  19. Full space device optimization for solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Ahmer A B; Aly, Shahzada P; Hossain, Mohammad I; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Tabet, Nouar; Alharbi, Fahhad H

    2017-09-20

    Advances in computational materials have paved a way to design efficient solar cells by identifying the optimal properties of the device layers. Conventionally, the device optimization has been governed by single or double descriptors for an individual layer; mostly the absorbing layer. However, the performance of the device depends collectively on all the properties of the material and the geometry of each layer in the cell. To address this issue of multi-property optimization and to avoid the paradigm of reoccurring materials in the solar cell field, a full space material-independent optimization approach is developed and presented in this paper. The method is employed to obtain an optimized material data set for maximum efficiency and for targeted functionality for each layer. To ensure the robustness of the method, two cases are studied; namely perovskite solar cells device optimization and cadmium-free CIGS solar cell. The implementation determines the desirable optoelectronic properties of transport mediums and contacts that can maximize the efficiency for both cases. The resulted data sets of material properties can be matched with those in materials databases or by further microscopic material design. Moreover, the presented multi-property optimization framework can be extended to design any solid-state device.

  20. A Study on a Solar Simulator for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Jun Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC are emerging low-cost, simple alternatives to conventional solar cells. While there has been considerable study on improving the efficiency of DSSCs, there has not been sufficient research on a photovoltaic power conditioning system adaptable to DSSCs or on a solar simulator for DSSCs. When DSSCs are commercialized in the near future, the DSSC modules must be connected to an adaptable power conditioning system in order to manage the energy produced and provide a suitable interface to the load. In the process of developing a power conditioning system, a solar simulator with the characteristics of DSSCs is essential to show the performance of the maximum power point tracking. In this paper, a virtual DSSC is designed and simulated in PSIM. Irradiation factors, temperature and shadow effects are considered in dynamic link library block in PSIM which is linked to the external C routine. A 100 W converter is built to show the performance of a DSSC as the solar simulator controlled by a digital signal processor.

  1. Photonic crystal geometry for organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Doo-Hyun; Tumbleston, John R; Zhang, Lei; Williams, Stuart; DeSimone, Joseph M; Lopez, Rene; Samulski, Edward T

    2009-07-01

    We report organic solar cells with a photonic crystal nanostructure embossed in the photoactive bulk heterojunction layer, a topography that exhibits a 3-fold enhancement of the absorption in specific regions of the solar spectrum in part through multiple excitation resonances. The photonic crystal geometry is fabricated using a materials-agnostic process called PRINT wherein highly ordered arrays of nanoscale features are readily made in a single processing step over wide areas (approximately 4 cm(2)) that is scalable. We show efficiency improvements of approximately 70% that result not only from greater absorption, but also from electrical enhancements. The methodology is generally applicable to organic solar cells and the experimental findings reported in our manuscript corroborate theoretical expectations.

  2. Colloidal quantum dot solar cells exploiting hierarchical structuring

    KAUST Repository

    Labelle, André J.; Thon, Susanna; Masala, Silvia; Adachi, Michael M.; Dong, Haopeng; Farahani, Maryam; Ip, Alexander H.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Sargent, E. H.

    2015-01-01

    Extremely thin-absorber solar cells offer low materials utilization and simplified manufacture but require improved means to enhance photon absorption in the active layer. Here, we report enhanced-absorption colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells

  3. Effect of Silicon Nanowire on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ostadmahmoodi Do

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs are recently used in several sensor or actuator devices to improve their ordered characteristics. Silicon nanowire (Si NW is one of the most attractive one-dimensional nanostructures semiconductors because of its unique electrical and optical properties. In this paper, silicon nanowire (Si NW, is synthesized and characterized for application in photovoltaic device. Si NWs are prepared using wet chemical etching method which is commonly used as a simple and low cost method for producing nanowires of the same substrate material. The process conditions are adjusted to find the best quality of Si NWs. Morphology of Si NWs is studied using a field emission scanning electron microscopic technique. An energy dispersive X-Ray analyzer is also used to provide elemental identification and quantitative compositional information. Subsequently, Schottky type solar cell samples are fabricated on Si and Si NWs using ITO and Ag contacts. The junction properties are calculated using I-V curves in dark condition and the solar cell I-V characteristics are obtained under incident of the standardized light of AM1.5. The results for the two mentioned Schottky solar cell samples are compared and discussed. An improvement in short circuit current and efficiency of Schottky solar cell is found when Si nanowires are employed.

  4. Generalized detailed balance theory of solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchartz, Thomas

    2009-12-12

    The principle of detailed balance is the requirement that every microscopic process in a system must be in equilibrium with its inverse process, when the system itself is in thermodynamic equilibrium. This detailed balance principle has been of special importance for photovoltaics, since it allows the calculation of the limiting efficiency of a given solar cell by defining the only fundamental loss process as the radiative recombination of electron/hole pairs followed by the emission of a photon. In equilibrium, i.e. in the dark and without applied voltage, the absorbed and emitted photon flux must be equal due to detailed balance. This equality determines the radiative recombination from absorption and vice versa. While the classical theory of photovoltaic efficiency limits by Shockley and Queisser considers only one detailed balance pair, namely photogeneration and radiative recombination, the present work extends the detailed balance principle to any given process in the solar cell. Applying the detailed balance principle to the whole device leads to two major results, namely (i) a model that is compatible with the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit for efficient particle transport, while still being able to describe non-ideal and non-linear solar cells, and (ii) an analytical relation between electroluminescent emission and photovoltaic action of a diode that is applied to a variety of different solar cells. This thesis presents several variations of a detailed balance model that are applicable to different types of solar cells. Any typical inorganic solar cell is a mainly bipolar device, meaning that the current is carried by electrons and holes. The detailed balance model for pn-type and pin-type bipolar solar cells is therefore the most basic incorporation of a detailed balance model. The only addition compared to the classical diode theory or compared to standard one-dimensional device simulators is the incorporation of photon recycling, making the model

  5. Doctor Blade-Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul; Kim, Jong H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report polymer solar cells based on blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM and PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM bulk heterojunction photoactive layers. Enhanced power conversion efficiency of 2.75 (conventional structure) and 3.03% (inverted structure

  6. Baselines for Lifetime of Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Ciammaruchi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The process of accurately gauging lifetime improvements in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) or other similar emerging technologies, such as perovskites solar cells is still a major challenge. The presented work is part of a larger effort of developing a worldwide database of lifetimes that can help...

  7. Film adhesion in amorphous silicon solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Film adhesion in amorphous silicon solar cells. A R M YUSOFF*, M N SYAHRUL and K HENKEL. Malaysia Energy Centre, 8th Floor, North Wing, Sapura @ Mines, 7, Jalan Tasik, The Mines Resort City,. 43300 Seri Kembangan, Selangor Darul Ehsan. MS received 11 April 2007. Abstract. A major issue encountered ...

  8. Electrical Characterization of HIT type solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rath, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    The silicon heterojunction solar cell (SHJ) has made rapid progress in reaching high efficiency and it is already developed as an industrially viable product. However, much of its progress has come through process development while there is scarce knowledge on the microscopic nature of the

  9. Characterization of HIT type solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rath, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    The silicon heterojunction solar cell (SHJ) has made rapid progress in reaching high efficiency and it is already developed as an industrially viable product. However, much of its progress has come through process development while there is scarce knowledge on the microscopic nature of the

  10. Fullerenes and nanostructured plastic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, Joop; Hummelen, Jan C.; Kuzmany, H; Fink, J; Mehring, M; Roth, S

    1998-01-01

    We report on the present on the present status of the plastic solar cell and on the design of fullerene derivatives and pi-conjugated donor molecules that can function as acceptor-donor pairs and (supra-) molecular building blocks in organized, nanostructured interpenetrating networks, forming a

  11. Photochromic dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah M. Johnson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication and characterization of photochromic dye sensitized solar cells that possess the ability to change color depending on external lighting conditions. This device can be used as a “smart” window shade that tints, collects the sun's energy, and blocks sunlight when the sun shines, and is completely transparent at night.

  12. Hybrid Silicon Nanocone–Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Sangmoo

    2012-06-13

    Recently, hybrid Si/organic solar cells have been studied for low-cost Si photovoltaic devices because the Schottky junction between the Si and organic material can be formed by solution processes at a low temperature. In this study, we demonstrate a hybrid solar cell composed of Si nanocones and conductive polymer. The optimal nanocone structure with an aspect ratio (height/diameter of a nanocone) less than two allowed for conformal polymer surface coverage via spin-coating while also providing both excellent antireflection and light trapping properties. The uniform heterojunction over the nanocones with enhanced light absorption resulted in a power conversion efficiency above 11%. Based on our simulation study, the optimal nanocone structures for a 10 μm thick Si solar cell can achieve a short-circuit current density, up to 39.1 mA/cm 2, which is very close to the theoretical limit. With very thin material and inexpensive processing, hybrid Si nanocone/polymer solar cells are promising as an economically viable alternative energy solution. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  13. Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (Version 51)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, Dean H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Green, Martin A. [University of New South Wales; Hishikawa, Yoshihiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST); Dunlop, Ewan D. [European Commission-Joint Research Centre; Hohl-Ebinger, Jochen [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems; Ho-Baillie, Anita W. Y. [University of New South Wales

    2017-12-14

    Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined and new entries since July 2017 are reviewed, together with progress over the last 25 years. Appendices are included documenting area definitions and also listing recognised test centres.

  14. Distributed series resistance effects in solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Drud

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical treatment is presented of the effects of one-dimensional distributed series resistance in solar cells. A general perturbation theory is developed, including consistently the induced spatial variation of diode current density and leading to a first-order equivalent lumped resistance...

  15. Hybrid solar cells : Perovskites under the Sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loi, Maria Antonietta; Hummelen, Jan C.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed-halide organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites are reported to display electron–hole diffusion lengths over 1 μm. This observation provides important insight into the charge-carrier dynamics of this class of semiconductors and increases the expectations for highly efficient and cheap solar cells.

  16. Energy. From firewood to solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijnders, L.

    2006-01-01

    An outline is given of the development of energy and the options to secure the energy supply for the future. Much information is given about energy efficiency, the exploitation of tar sands, reopening of the coal mines in the Netherlands, nuclear fusion and fission, wave energy and solar cells, etc [nl

  17. Fuel Cell / electrolyser, Solar Photovoltaic Powered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioncel Cristian Paul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental obtained results in the operation ofelectrolyzer powered by solar photovoltaic modules, for the waterelectrolysis and with the obtained hydrogen and oxygen proceeds tothe operation in fuel cell mode, type PEM. The main operatingparameters and conditions to optimize the energy conversion on thesolar-hydrogen-electricity cycle are highlighted, so that those arecomparable or superior to conventional cycles.

  18. Numerical simulation model of multijunction solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babar, M.; Al-Ammar, E.A.; Malik, N.H.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-junction solar cells play an important and significant role in the Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) Systems. Recent developments in Concentrated Photovoltaic concerning high power production and cost effective- ness along with better efficiency are due to the advancements in multi-junction

  19. Hybrid Silicon Nanocone–Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Sangmoo; Garnett, Erik C.; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Zongfu; Fan, Shanhui; Brongersma, Mark L.; McGehee, Michael D.; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Recently, hybrid Si/organic solar cells have been studied for low-cost Si photovoltaic devices because the Schottky junction between the Si and organic material can be formed by solution processes at a low temperature. In this study, we demonstrate a hybrid solar cell composed of Si nanocones and conductive polymer. The optimal nanocone structure with an aspect ratio (height/diameter of a nanocone) less than two allowed for conformal polymer surface coverage via spin-coating while also providing both excellent antireflection and light trapping properties. The uniform heterojunction over the nanocones with enhanced light absorption resulted in a power conversion efficiency above 11%. Based on our simulation study, the optimal nanocone structures for a 10 μm thick Si solar cell can achieve a short-circuit current density, up to 39.1 mA/cm 2, which is very close to the theoretical limit. With very thin material and inexpensive processing, hybrid Si nanocone/polymer solar cells are promising as an economically viable alternative energy solution. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. Passivated emitters in silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.R.; Gruenbaum, P.E.; Sinton, R.A.; Swanson, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    In high-efficiency silicon solar cells with low metal contact coverage fractions and high bulk lifetimes, cell performance is often dominated by recombination in the oxide-passivated diffusions on the cell surface. Measurements of the emitter saturation current density, J o , of oxide-passivated, boron and phosphorus diffusions are presented, and from these measurements, the dependence of surface recombination velocity on dopant concentration was extracted. The lowest observed values of J o which are stable under UV light are given for both boron- and phosphorus-doped, oxide-passivated diffusions, for both textured and untextured surfaces. Contour plots which incorporate the above data have been applied to two types of backside-contact solar cells with large area (37.5 cm 2 ) and one-sun efficiencies up to 22.7%

  1. Diketopyrrolopyrrole Polymers for Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Hendriks, Koen H; Wienk, Martijn M; Janssen, René A J

    2016-01-19

    Conjugated polymers have been extensively studied for application in organic solar cells. In designing new polymers, particular attention has been given to tuning the absorption spectrum, molecular energy levels, crystallinity, and charge carrier mobility to enhance performance. As a result, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of solar cells based on conjugated polymers as electron donor and fullerene derivatives as electron acceptor have exceeded 10% in single-junction and 11% in multijunction devices. Despite these efforts, it is notoriously difficult to establish thorough structure-property relationships that will be required to further optimize existing high-performance polymers to their intrinsic limits. In this Account, we highlight progress on the development and our understanding of diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) based conjugated polymers for polymer solar cells. The DPP moiety is strongly electron withdrawing and its polar nature enhances the tendency of DPP-based polymers to crystallize. As a result, DPP-based conjugated polymers often exhibit an advantageously broad and tunable optical absorption, up to 1000 nm, and high mobilities for holes and electrons, which can result in high photocurrents and good fill factors in solar cells. Here we focus on the structural modifications applied to DPP polymers and rationalize and explain the relationships between chemical structure and organic photovoltaic performance. The DPP polymers can be tuned via their aromatic substituents, their alkyl side chains, and the nature of the π-conjugated segment linking the units along the polymer chain. We show that these building blocks work together in determining the molecular conformation, the optical properties, the charge carrier mobility, and the solubility of the polymer. We identify the latter as a decisive parameter for DPP-based organic solar cells because it regulates the diameter of the semicrystalline DPP polymer fibers that form in the photovoltaic blends with

  2. How the relative permittivity of solar cell materials influences solar cell performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Huss-Hansen, Mathias K.; Hansen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    of the materials permittivity on the physics and performance of the solar cell by means of numerical simulation supported by analytical relations. We demonstrate that, depending on the specific solar cell configuration and materials properties, there are scenarios where the relative permittivity has a major......The relative permittivity of the materials constituting heterojunction solar cells is usually not considered as a design parameter when searching for novel combinations of heterojunction materials. In this work, we investigate the validity of such an approach. Specifically, we show the effect...... the heterojunction partner has a high permittivity, solar cells are consistently more robust against several non-idealities that are especially likely to occur in early-stage development, when the device is not yet optimized....

  3. Industrialisation of polymer solar cells. Phase 2: Consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, H.; Gevorgyan, S.; Frausig, J.; Andersen, Rasmus B.; Krebs, F. C.

    2013-03-15

    The key results from the project are: a firmly anchoring of DTU's basic polymer solar cell technology, ProcessOne, at Mekoprint, improved documented operational lifetime for polymer solar modules, and optimized processing of such modules. Mekoprint has worked determinedly to stabilize their production of ProcessOne devices, to prepare for full scale production and to build a marked for polymer solar cells. Work has been invested in improvement of process tolerances, documentation of the production process, training of process operators and roll-to-roll characterization of the produced solar cells. The planned and conducted actions have been summed up in a SIPOC diagram. Mekoprint's communication with potential customers reveals that lowering the cost, increasing the efficiency and operational life time is important for reaching the commercial market. Activities aimed at penetrating the market for lighting products in 3{sup rd} world countries are intensified. A new solar cell laser pointer is developed and a series of 2000 has been produced for the purpose of creating a commercial focus on polymer solar cells. DTU has established a characterization laboratory for organic photovoltaics (CLOP). The laboratory allows for real-time - and accelerated lifetime testing of solar cells both indoor and outdoor, and thus for the development of reliable methods for predicting life-time from accelerated testing. An operational lifetime of 2 years has, by means of the method, been documented for polymer solar modules encapsulated in a food-packaging barrier. Preliminary accelerated measurements on an equivalent device encapsulated in the same barrier, but in two layers, show a five times improvement of the solar cell stability. On basis of this it is considered that five years operational lifetime is within reach. DTU has improved of their OPV production technology by replacing the purchased vacuum-processed indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode by a roll-to-roll processed electrode

  4. Industrialisation of polymer solar cells. Phase 2: Consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, H.; Gevorgyan, S.; Frausig, J.; Andersen, Rasmus B.; Krebs, F.C.

    2013-03-15

    The key results from the project are: a firmly anchoring of DTU's basic polymer solar cell technology, ProcessOne, at Mekoprint, improved documented operational lifetime for polymer solar modules, and optimized processing of such modules. Mekoprint has worked determinedly to stabilize their production of ProcessOne devices, to prepare for full scale production and to build a marked for polymer solar cells. Work has been invested in improvement of process tolerances, documentation of the production process, training of process operators and roll-to-roll characterization of the produced solar cells. The planned and conducted actions have been summed up in a SIPOC diagram. Mekoprint's communication with potential customers reveals that lowering the cost, increasing the efficiency and operational life time is important for reaching the commercial market. Activities aimed at penetrating the market for lighting products in 3{sup rd} world countries are intensified. A new solar cell laser pointer is developed and a series of 2000 has been produced for the purpose of creating a commercial focus on polymer solar cells. DTU has established a characterization laboratory for organic photovoltaics (CLOP). The laboratory allows for real-time - and accelerated lifetime testing of solar cells both indoor and outdoor, and thus for the development of reliable methods for predicting life-time from accelerated testing. An operational lifetime of 2 years has, by means of the method, been documented for polymer solar modules encapsulated in a food-packaging barrier. Preliminary accelerated measurements on an equivalent device encapsulated in the same barrier, but in two layers, show a five times improvement of the solar cell stability. On basis of this it is considered that five years operational lifetime is within reach. DTU has improved of their OPV production technology by replacing the purchased vacuum-processed indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode by a roll-to-roll processed

  5. Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Raman, Aaswath

    2011-09-15

    Organic bulk heterojunction solar cells are a promising candidate for low-cost next-generation photovoltaic systems. However, carrier extraction limitations necessitate thin active layers that sacrifice absorption for internal quantum efficiency or vice versa. Motivated by recent theoretical developments, we show that dielectric wavelength-scale grating structures can produce significant absorption resonances in a realistic organic cell architecture. We numerically demonstrate that 1D, 2D and multi-level ITO-air gratings lying on top of the organic solar cell stack produce a 8-15% increase in photocurrent for a model organic solar cell where PCDTBT:PC71BM is the organic semiconductor. Specific to this approach, the active layer itself remains untouched yet receives the benefit of light trapping by nanostructuring the top surface below which it lies. The techniques developed here are broadly applicable to organic semiconductors in general, and enable partial decoupling between active layer thickness and photocurrent generation. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

  6. Key Success Factors and Future Perspective of Silicon-Based Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Binetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, after more than 70 years of continued progress on silicon technology, about 85% of cumulative installed photovolatic (PV modules are based on crystalline silicon (c-Si. PV devices based on silicon are the most common solar cells currently being produced, and it is mainly due to silicon technology that the PV has grown by 40% per year over the last decade. An additional step in the silicon solar cell development is ongoing, and it is related to a further efficiency improvement through defect control, device optimization, surface modification, and nanotechnology approaches. This paper attempts to briefly review the most important advances and current technologies used to produce crystalline silicon solar devices and in the meantime the most challenging and promising strategies acting to increase the efficiency to cost/ratio of silicon solar cells. Eventually, the impact and the potentiality of using a nanotechnology approach in a silicon-based solar cell are also described.

  7. Nanocluster production for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Dosari, Haila M.; Ayesh, Ahmad I.

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the fabrication and characterization of silver (Ag) and silicon (Si) nanoclusters that might be used for solar cell applications. Silver and silicon nanoclusters have been synthesized by means of dc magnetron sputtering and inert gas condensation inside an ultra-high vacuum compatible system. We have found that nanocluster size distributions can be tuned by various source parameters, such as the sputtering discharge power, flow rate of argon inert gas, and aggregation length. Quadrupole mass filter and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the size distribution of Ag and Si nanoclusters. Ag nanoclusters with average size in the range of 3.6–8.3 nm were synthesized (herein size refers to the nanocluster diameter), whereas Si nanoclusters' average size was controlled to range between 2.9 and 7.4 nm by controlling the source parameters. This work illustrates the ability of controlling the Si and Ag nanoclusters' sizes by proper optimization of the operation conditions. By controlling nanoclusters' sizes, one can alter their surface properties to suit the need to enhance solar cell efficiency. Herein, Ag nanoclusters were deposited on commercial polycrystalline solar cells. Short circuit current (I SC ), open circuit voltage (V OC ), fill factor, and efficiency (η) were obtained under light source with an intensity of 30 mW/cm 2 . A 22.7% enhancement in solar cell efficiency could be measured after deposition of Ag nanoclusters, which demonstrates that Ag nanoclusters generated in this work are useful to enhance solar cell efficiency

  8. Solar cell radiation handbook. Addendum 1: 1982-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, B.E.

    1989-02-01

    The Solar Cell Radiation Handbook (JPL Publication 82-69) is updated. In order to maintain currency of solar cell radiation data, recent solar cell designs have been acquired, irradiated with 1 MeV electrons, and measured. The results of these radiation experiments are reported

  9. NREL Solar Cell Wins Federal Technology Transfer Prize | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Cell Wins Federal Technology Transfer Prize News Release: NREL Solar Cell Wins Federal Technology Transfer Prize May 7, 2009 A new class of ultra-light, high-efficiency solar cells developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory has been awarded a national prize

  10. Flexible thermal cycle test equipment for concentrator solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Peter H [Glendale, CA; Brandt, Randolph J [Palmdale, CA

    2012-06-19

    A system and method for performing thermal stress testing of photovoltaic solar cells is presented. The system and method allows rapid testing of photovoltaic solar cells under controllable thermal conditions. The system and method presents a means of rapidly applying thermal stresses to one or more photovoltaic solar cells in a consistent and repeatable manner.

  11. A cost roadmap for silicon heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, A.; van Sark, W.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Faaij, A.

    2016-01-01

    Research and development of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells has seen a marked increase since the recent expiry of core patents describing SHJ technology. SHJ solar cells are expected to offer various cost benefits compared to conventional crystalline silicon solar cells. This paper analyses

  12. A Cost Roadmap for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, A.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Schropp, Ruud; Faaij, A.

    Research and development of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells has seen a marked increase since the recent expiry of core patents describing SHJ technology. SHJ solar cells are expected to offer various cost benefits compared to conventional crystalline silicon solar cells. This paper analyses

  13. High-efficient solar cells with porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migunova, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown that the porous silicon is multifunctional high-efficient coating on silicon solar cells, modifies its surface and combines in it self antireflection and passivation properties., The different optoelectronic effects in solar cells with porous silicon were considered. The comparative parameters of uncovered photodetectors also solar cells with porous silicon and other coatings were resulted. (author)

  14. Solar cell element, solar cell system, and illuminating system; Taiyo denchi soshi, taiyo denchi sochi oyobi shomei system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Y. [Toshiba Laytech Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-12

    This invention relates to provision of a photocatalytic film on the light intercepting surface for the solar cell substrate of the solar cell element, which transmits the lights in the wavelength region longer than ultraviolet, i.e. 410nm and longer wavelength lights, and intercepts the lights in ultraviolet wavelength region. This photocatalytic film retards the decrease in the light interception by the solar cell element, and simplifies the maintenance because it oxidizes and decomposes organic matters by the less than 410nm ultraviolet ray contained in the sunlight to prevent adhesion of organic substance on the light intercepting surface of the solar cell element. In addition, decomposed dirt composition is washed away to accelerate dirt removing performance by rain waterdrop adhesion on the intercepting surface when it is used outdoors. As to this photocatalytic film, the thickness from 0.01 to 0.5{mu}m is desirable, effective phtocatalytic activity can not be expected if the thickness is less than 0.01{mu}m, and transmission factor becomes smaller if the thickness exceeds 0.5{mu}m, producing no electromotive force. TiO2, ZnO, and FeTiO3 are used as such photocatalyst. 6 figs.

  15. C-Si solar cell modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    In order to meet the rapidly growing demand for solar power photovoltaic systems which is based on public consciousness of global environmental issues, SHARP has increased the production of solar cells and modules over 10-fold in the last 5 years. Silicon-based technologies are expected to be dominant in the coming decade. In the course of an increase of the annual production scale to 1000 MW, the efficiency of modules will be improved and the thickness of wafers will be decreased and all this will lead to a drastic price reduction of PV systems. (Author)

  16. Not a bad result. German solar producers were able to retain their world market share in 2010; Nicht schlecht geschlagen. Deutsche Solarfirmen konnten im Jahr 2010 ihren Weltmarktanteil in etwa halten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Matthias B.; Podewils, Christoph

    2011-01-15

    The German solar industry was quite successful in 2010. More silicon, solar wafers, solar cells, solar modules, and current inverters were produced and sold than in the year before. Expectations for 2011 are good, and many producers intend to enhance their production capacities as this is the only way to keep up. Fast growth, cost reduction, and the development of interesting markets abroad are key elements of success.

  17. Hydrogen peroxide as sustainable fuel: electrocatalysts for production with a solar cell and decomposition with a fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yusuke; Fukunishi, Yurie; Yamazaki, Shin-ichi; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2010-10-21

    Hydrogen peroxide was electrochemically produced by reducing oxygen in an aqueous solution with [Co(TCPP)] as a catalyst and photovoltaic solar cell operating at 0.5 V. Hydrogen peroxide thus produced is utilized as a fuel for a one-compartment fuel cell with Ag-Pb alloy nanoparticles as the cathode.

  18. Laser scanning of experimental solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, B. C.; Lasswell, P. G.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a laser scanning instrument which makes it possible to display and measure the spatial response of a solar cell. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of generated micrographs in the isolation of flaws and features of the cell. The laser scanner system uses a 4 mW, CW helium-neon laser, operating a wavelength of 0.633 micrometers. The beam is deflected by two mirror galvanometers arranged to scan in orthogonal directions. After being focused on the solar cell by the beam focusing lens, the moving light spot raster scans the specimen. The current output of the photovoltaic device under test, as a function of the scan dot position, can be displayed in several modes. The laser scanner has proved to be a very useful diagnostic tool in optimizing the process design of transparent metal film photovoltaic devices on Zn3P2, a relatively new photovoltaic material.

  19. TRANSPARENT COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatkowski, P. J.; Landis, D. A.

    2013-04-16

    Todays solar cells are fabricated using metal oxide based transparent conductive coatings (TCC) or metal wires with optoelectronic performance exceeding that currently possible with Carbon Nanotube (CNT) based TCCs. The motivation for replacing current TCC is their inherent brittleness, high deposition cost, and high deposition temperatures; leading to reduced performance on thin substrates. With improved processing, application and characterization techniques Nanofiber and/or CNT based TCCs can overcome these shortcomings while offering the ability to be applied in atmospheric conditions using low cost coating processes At todays level of development, CNT based TCC are nearing commercial use in touch screens, some types of information displays (i.e. electronic paper), and certain military applications. However, the resistivity and transparency requirements for use in current commercial solar cells are more stringent than in many of these applications. Therefore, significant research on fundamental nanotube composition, dispersion and deposition are required to reach the required performance commanded by photovoltaic devices. The objective of this project was to research and develop transparent conductive coatings based on novel nanomaterial composite coatings, which comprise nanotubes, nanofibers, and other nanostructured materials along with binder materials. One objective was to show that these new nanomaterials perform at an electrical resistivity and optical transparency suitable for use in solar cells and other energy-related applications. A second objective was to generate new structures and chemistries with improved resistivity and transparency performance. The materials also included the binders and surface treatments that facilitate the utility of the electrically conductive portion of these composites in solar photovoltaic devices. Performance enhancement venues included: CNT purification and metallic tube separation techniques, chemical doping, CNT

  20. Solar Airplanes and Regenerative Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.

    2007-01-01

    A solar electric aircraft with the potential to "fly forever" has captured NASA's interest, and the concept for such an aircraft was pursued under Aeronautics Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Feasibility of this aircraft happens to depend on the successful development of solar power technologies critical to NASA's Exploration Initiatives; hence, there was widespread interest throughout NASA to bring these technologies to a flight demonstration. The most critical is an energy storage system to sustain mission power during night periods. For the solar airplane, whose flight capability is already limited by the diffuse nature of solar flux and subject to latitude and time of year constraints, the feasibility of long endurance flight depends on a storage density figure of merit better than 400-600 watt-hr per kilogram. This figure of merit is beyond the capability of present day storage technologies (other than nuclear) but may be achievable in the hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell (RFC). This potential has led NASA to undertake the practical development of a hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell, initially as solar energy storage for a high altitude UAV science platform but eventually to serve as the primary power source for NASAs lunar base and other planet surface installations. Potentially the highest storage capacity and lowest weight of any non-nuclear device, a flight-weight RFC aboard a solar-electric aircraft that is flown continuously through several successive day-night cycles will provide the most convincing demonstration that this technology's widespread potential has been realized. In 1998 NASA began development of a closed cycle hydrogen oxygen PEM RFC under the Aeronautics Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project and continued its development, originally for a solar electric airplane flight, through FY2005 under the Low Emissions Alternative Power (LEAP) project. Construction of

  1. Industrialization of Polymer Solar Cells – phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Hanne; Bork, Jakob; Andersen, Rasmus B.

    into more refined products. Such refined products might be self-powered electronic devices designed for easy integration in the customer’s production or solar-powered products for the end-user. A three-phased project with the objective to industrialize DTU’s basic polymer solar cell technology was started...... in the summer of 2009. The technology comprises a specific design of the polymer solar cell and a corresponding roll-to-roll manufacturing process. This basic technology is referred to as ProcessOne in the open literature. The present report relates to the project’s phase 1.The key tasks in phase 1...... to a slot-die printing head manufactured in DTU’s workshop. The line was at the same time adjusted and updated to handle the new production. The very first solar cells produced on this line appeared in July 2010. The line has subse-quently been upgraded on a running basis, and Mekoprint’s operators have...

  2. Enhanced light absorption in an ultrathin silicon solar cell utilizing plasmonic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, bringing photovoltaics to the market is mainly limited by high cost of electricity produced by the photovoltaic solar cell. Thin-film photovoltaics offers the potential for a significant cost reduction compared to traditional photovoltaics. However, the performance of thin-film solar...

  3. BODIPYs for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klfout, Hafsah; Stewart, Adam; Elkhalifa, Mahmoud; He, Hongshan

    2017-11-22

    BODIPY, abbreviation of boron-dipyrromethene, is one class of robust organic molecules that has been used widely in bioimaging, sensing, and logic gate design. Recently, BODIPY dyes have been explored for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Studies demonstrate their potential as light absorbers for the conversion of solar energy to electricity. However, their photovoltaic performance is inferior to many other dyes, including porphyrin dyes. In this review, several synthetic strategies of BODIPY dyes for DSCs and their further functionalization are described. The photophysical properties of dye molecules and their photovoltaic performances in DSCs are summarized. We aim to provide readers a clear picture of the field and expect to shed light on the next generation of BODIPY dyes for their applications in solar energy conversion.

  4. Proton irradiation effects of amorphous silicon solar cell for solar power satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Yousuke; Oshima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Sasaki, Susumu; Kuroda, Hideo; Ushirokawa, Akio

    1997-03-01

    Flexible amorphous silicon(fa-Si) solar cell module, a thin film type, is regarded as a realistic power generator for solar power satellite. The radiation resistance of fa-Si cells was investigated by the irradiations of 3,4 and 10 MeV protons. The hydrogen gas treatment of the irradiated fa-Si cells was also studied. The fa-Si cell shows high radiation resistance for proton irradiations, compared with a crystalline silicon solar cell. (author)

  5. Effects of impurities on silicon solar-cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Model analyses indicate that sophisticated solar cell designs (back surface fields, optical reflectors, surface passivation, and double layer antireflective coatings) can produce devices with conversion efficiencies above 20%. To realize this potential, the quality of the silicon from which the cells are made must be improved; and these excellent electrical properties must be maintained during device processing. As the cell efficiency rises, the sensitivity to trace contaminants also increases. For example, the threshold Ti impurity concentraion at which cell performance degrades is more than an order of magnitude lower for an 18% cell than for a 16% cell. Similar behavior occurs for numerous other metal species which introduce deep level traps that stimulate the recombination of photogenerated carriers in silicon. Purification via crystal growth in conjunction with gettering steps to preserve the large diffusion length of the as grown material can lead to the production of devices with efficiencies above 18%, as verified experimentally.

  6. Production status of GaAs/Ge solar cells and panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.; Gillanders, M.; Vijayakumar, P.; Lillington, D.; Yang, H.; Rolph, R.

    1991-01-01

    GaAs/Ge solar cells with lot average efficiencies in excess of 18 percent were produced by MOCVD growth techniques. A description of the cell, its performance and the production facility are discussed. Production GaAs/Ge cells of this type were recently assembled into circuits and bonded to aluminum honeycomb panels to be used as the solar array for the British UOSAT-F program.

  7. Semiconductor Nanocrystals as Light Harvesters in Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioz Etgar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic cells use semiconductors to convert sunlight into electrical current and are regarded as a key technology for a sustainable energy supply. Quantum dot-based solar cells have shown great potential as next generation, high performance, low-cost photovoltaics due to the outstanding optoelectronic properties of quantum dots and their multiple exciton generation (MEG capability. This review focuses on QDs as light harvesters in solar cells, including different structures of QD-based solar cells, such as QD heterojunction solar cells, QD-Schottky solar cells, QD-sensitized solar cells and the recent development in organic-inorganic perovskite heterojunction solar cells. Mechanisms, procedures, advantages, disadvantages and the latest results obtained in the field are described. To summarize, a future perspective is offered.

  8. Semiconductor Nanocrystals as Light Harvesters in Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etgar, Lioz

    2013-02-04

    Photovoltaic cells use semiconductors to convert sunlight into electrical current and are regarded as a key technology for a sustainable energy supply. Quantum dot-based solar cells have shown great potential as next generation, high performance, low-cost photovoltaics due to the outstanding optoelectronic properties of quantum dots and their multiple exciton generation (MEG) capability. This review focuses on QDs as light harvesters in solar cells, including different structures of QD-based solar cells, such as QD heterojunction solar cells, QD-Schottky solar cells, QD-sensitized solar cells and the recent development in organic-inorganic perovskite heterojunction solar cells. Mechanisms, procedures, advantages, disadvantages and the latest results obtained in the field are described. To summarize, a future perspective is offered.

  9. Semiconductor Nanocrystals as Light Harvesters in Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etgar, Lioz

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells use semiconductors to convert sunlight into electrical current and are regarded as a key technology for a sustainable energy supply. Quantum dot-based solar cells have shown great potential as next generation, high performance, low-cost photovoltaics due to the outstanding optoelectronic properties of quantum dots and their multiple exciton generation (MEG) capability. This review focuses on QDs as light harvesters in solar cells, including different structures of QD-based solar cells, such as QD heterojunction solar cells, QD-Schottky solar cells, QD-sensitized solar cells and the recent development in organic-inorganic perovskite heterojunction solar cells. Mechanisms, procedures, advantages, disadvantages and the latest results obtained in the field are described. To summarize, a future perspective is offered. PMID:28809318

  10. Digital Printing of Titanium Dioxide for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrington, Ruth; Wood, Benjamin Michael; Salaoru, Iulia; Goodship, Vannessa

    2016-05-04

    Silicon solar cell manufacturing is an expensive and high energy consuming process. In contrast, dye sensitized solar cell production is less environmentally damaging with lower processing temperatures presenting a viable and low cost alternative to conventional production. This paper further enhances these environmental credentials by evaluating the digital printing and therefore additive production route for these cells. This is achieved here by investigating the formation and performance of a metal oxide photoelectrode using nanoparticle sized titanium dioxide. An ink-jettable material was formulated, characterized and printed with a piezoelectric inkjet head to produce a 2.6 µm thick layer. The resultant printed layer was fabricated into a functioning cell with an active area of 0.25 cm(2) and a power conversion efficiency of 3.5%. The binder-free formulation resulted in a reduced processing temperature of 250 °C, compatible with flexible polyamide substrates which are stable up to temperatures of 350 ˚C. The authors are continuing to develop this process route by investigating inkjet printing of other layers within dye sensitized solar cells.

  11. Modeling Radiation Effects on a Triple Junction Solar Cell using Silvaco ATLAS

    OpenAIRE

    Schiavo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In this research, Silvaco ATLAS, an advanced virtual wafer fabrication tool, was used to model the effects of radiation on a triple junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar cell. A Silvaco ATLAS model of a triple junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge cell was created by first creating individual models for solar cells composed of each material. Realistic doping levels were used and thicknesses were varied to produce the design parameters and create reasonably efficient solar cell models for testing. After the individua...

  12. Rational Strategies for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jangwon; Noh, Jun Hong; Seok, Sang Il

    2016-03-15

    A long-standing dream in the large scale application of solar energy conversion is the fabrication of solar cells with high-efficiency and long-term stability at low cost. The realization of such practical goals depends on the architecture, process and key materials because solar cells are typically constructed from multilayer heterostructures of light harvesters, with electron and hole transporting layers as a major component. Recently, inorganic-organic hybrid lead halide perovskites have attracted significant attention as light absorbers for the fabrication of low-cost and high-efficiency solar cells via a solution process. This mainly stems from long-range ambipolar charge transport properties, low exciton binding energies, and suitable band gap tuning by managing the chemical composition. In our pioneering work, a new photovoltaic platform for efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs) was proposed, which yielded a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12%. The platform consisted of a pillared architecture of a three-dimensional nanocomposite of perovskites fully infiltrating mesoporous TiO2, resulting in the formation of continuous phases and perovskite domains overlaid with a polymeric hole conductor. Since then, the PCE of our PSCs has been rapidly increased from 3% to over 20% certified efficiency. The unprecedented increase in the PCE can be attributed to the effective integration of the advantageous attributes of the refined bicontinuous architecture, deposition process, and composition of perovskite materials. Specifically, the bicontinuous architectures used in the high efficiency comprise a layer of perovskite sandwiched between mesoporous metal-oxide layer, which is a very thinner than that of used in conventional dye-sensitized solar cells, and hole-conducting contact materials with a metal back contact. The mesoporous scaffold can affect the hysteresis under different scan direction in measurements of PSCs. The hysteresis also greatly depends on

  13. Fabrication and Characterization of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed FATHALLAH; Ahmed TORCHANI; Rached GHARBI

    2014-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) constitutes a real revolution in the conversion of solar energy into electricity after 40 years of the invention of silicon solar cells. The working mechanism is based on a photoelectrochemical system, similar to the photosynthesis in plant leaves. The efficiencies of the DSSC are high as those obtained from amorphous silicon solar cells (10-11 %) and intensive efforts are done in different directions to improve this efficiency.

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed FATHALLAH

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC constitutes a real revolution in the conversion of solar energy into electricity after 40 years of the invention of silicon solar cells. The working mechanism is based on a photoelectrochemical system, similar to the photosynthesis in plant leaves. The efficiencies of the DSSC are high as those obtained from amorphous silicon solar cells (10-11 % and intensive efforts are done in different directions to improve this efficiency.

  15. Distributed solar radiation fast dynamic measurement for PV cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xuefen; Yang, Yi; Cui, Jian; Du, Xingjing; Zheng, Tao; Sardar, Muhammad Sohail

    2017-10-01

    need of complex local installations, configuring of our SRMA system is very easy. Lora also provides SRMA a means to overcome the short communication distance and weather signal propagation decline such as in ZigBee and WiFi. The host computer in SRMA system uses the low power single-board PC EMB-3870 which was produced by NORCO. Wind direction sensor SM5386B and wind-force sensor SM5387B are installed to host computer through RS-485 bus for wind reference data collection. And Davis 6450 solar radiation sensor, which is a precision instrument that detects radiation at wavelengths of 300 to 1100 nanometers, allow host computer to follow real-time solar radiation. A LoRa polling scheme is adopt for the communication between host computer and terminal nodes in SRMA. An experimental SRMA has been established. This system was tested in Ganyu, Jiangshu province from May to August, 2016. In the test, the distances between the nodes and the host computer were between 100m and 1900m. At work, SRMA system showed higher reliability. Terminal nodes could follow the instructions from host computer and collect solar radiation data of distributed PV cells effectively. And the host computer managed the SRAM and achieves reference parameters well. Communications between the host computer and terminal nodes were almost unaffected by the weather. In conclusion, the testing results show that SRMA could be a capable method for fast dynamic measuring about solar radiation and related PV cell operating characteristics.

  16. Ink jet assisted metallization for low cost flat plate solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, K. F.; Vest, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Computer-controlled ink-jet-assisted metallization of the front surface of solar cells with metalorganic silver inks offers a maskless alternative method to conventional photolithography and screen printing. This method can provide low cost, fine resolution, reduced process complexity, avoidance of degradation of the p-n junction by firing at lower temperature, and uniform line film on rough surface of solar cells. The metallization process involves belt furnace firing and thermal spiking. With multilayer ink jet printing and firing, solar cells of about 5-6 percent efficiency without antireflection (AR) coating can be produced. With a titanium thin-film underlayer as an adhesion promoter, solar cells of average efficiency 8.08 percent without AR coating can be obtained. This efficiency value is approximately equal to that of thin-film solar cells of the same lot. Problems with regard to lower inorganic content of the inks and contact resistance are noted.

  17. Highly efficient light management for perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Lin; Cui, Hui-Juan; Hou, Guo-Jiao; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Yan, Qing-Bo; Su, Gang

    2016-01-06

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have enormous potential to impact the existing photovoltaic industry. As realizing a higher conversion efficiency of the solar cell is still the most crucial task, a great number of schemes were proposed to minimize the carrier loss by optimizing the electrical properties of the perovskite solar cells. Here, we focus on another significant aspect that is to minimize the light loss by optimizing the light management to gain a high efficiency for perovskite solar cells. In our scheme, the slotted and inverted prism structured SiO2 layers are adopted to trap more light into the solar cells, and a better transparent conducting oxide layer is employed to reduce the parasitic absorption. For such an implementation, the efficiency and the serviceable angle of the perovskite solar cell can be promoted impressively. This proposal would shed new light on developing the high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  18. Recent progress in Si thin film technology for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwano, Yukinori; Nakano, Shoichi; Tsuda, Shinya

    1991-11-01

    Progress in Si thin film technology 'specifically amorphous Si (a-Si) and polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) thin film' for solar cells is summarized here from fabrication method, material, and structural viewpoints. In addition to a-Si, primary results on poly-Si thin film research are discussed. Various applications for a-Si solar cells are mentioned, and consumer applications and a-Si solar cell photovoltaic systems are introduced. New product developments include see-through solar cells, solar cell roofing tiles, and ultra-light flexible solar cells. As for new systems, air conditioning equipment powered by solar cells is described. Looking to the future, the proposed GENESIS project is discussed.

  19. Has India's Solar Mission increased the deployment of domestically produced solar modules?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimali, Gireesh; Sahoo, Anshuman

    2014-01-01

    The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM), India's flagship policy for solar energy deployment, includes an increasingly strict Domestic Content Requirement (DCR) intended to promote the domestic crystalline photovoltaic solar industry. We examine the impact of the JNNSM DCR on the utilization of domestic and domestic crystalline silicon modules. Using a plant-level database of approximately 250 plants, we show that the first, and weaker, version of the policy accomplished its intention of promoting domestic crystalline silicon modules. However, the second, and stricter, version of the policy has not been as effective: it appears to have promoted the use of foreign thin film modules instead. This analysis shows that the tightening of the DCR was associated with leakage to foreign thin film modules. This suggests that DCR policies need to be comprehensive in scope to ensure that they achieve a goal of using only domestic content; however, policymakers should appropriately assess the welfare impacts of such restrictions. - Highlights: • Effectiveness of India's Solar Mission in promoting domestic content is assessed. • The Solar Mission promoted domestic crystalline silicon modules overall. • This effect was not as prominent as the DCR was tightened over time. • Ultimately, the Solar Mission allowed for leakage to foreign thin-film modules. • To be effective, the DCR would need to be comprehensive across module types

  20. Dry texturing of solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1994-01-01

    A textured backside of a semiconductor device for increasing light scattering and absorption in a semiconductor substrate is accomplished by applying infrared radiation to the front side of a semiconductor substrate that has a metal layer deposited on its backside in a time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface and then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity, epitaxial alloy layer over the entire area of the interface between the semiconductor substrate and a metal contact layer. The time-energy profile includes ramping up to a first energy level and holding for a period of time to create the desired pit size and density and then rapidly increasing the energy to a second level in which the entire interface area is melted and alloyed quickly. After holding the second energy level for a sufficient time to develop the thin alloy layer over the entire interface area, the energy is ramped down to allow epitaxial crystal growth in the alloy layer. The result is a textured backside an optically reflective, low resistivity alloy interface between the semiconductor substrate and the metal electrical contact layer.

  1. Perovskite Materials: Solar Cell and Optoelectronic Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bin [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Xiao, Kai [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid organometallic trihalide perovskites are promising candidates in the applications for next-generation, high-performance, low-cost optoelectronic devices, including photovoltaics, light emitting diodes, and photodetectors. Particularly, the solar cells based on this type of materials have reached 22% lab scale power conversion efficiency in only about seven years, comparable to the other thin film photovoltaic technologies. Hybrid perovskite materials not only exhibit superior optoelectronic properties, but also show many interesting physical properties such as ion migration and defect physics, which may allow the exploration of more device functionalities. In this article, the fundamental understanding of the interrelationships between crystal structure, electronic structure, and material properties is discussed. Various chemical synthesis and processing methods for superior device performance in solar cells and optoelectronic devices are reviewed.

  2. Thin-film polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funghnan, B. W.; Blanc, J.; Phillips, W.; Redfield, D.

    1980-08-01

    Thirty-four new solar cells were fabricated on Wacker Sislo substrates and the AM-1 parameters were measured. A detailed comparison was made between the measurement of minority carrier diffusion length by the OE method and the penetrating light laser scan grain boundary photoresponse linewidth method. The laser scan method has more experimental uncertainty and agrees within 10 to 50% with the QE method. It allows determination of L over a large area. Atomic hydrogen passivation studies continued on Wacker material by three techniques. A method of determining surface recombination velocity, s, from laser scan data was developed. No change in s in completed solar cells after H-plasma treatment was observed within experimental error. H-passivation of bare silicon cars as measured by the new laser scan photoconductivity technique showed very large effects.

  3. High efficiency thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Hans-Werner [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany). Solar Energy

    2012-11-01

    Production of photovoltaics is growing worldwide on a gigawatt scale. Among the thin film technologies, Cu(In,Ga)S,Se{sub 2} (CIS or CIGS) based solar cells have been the focus of more and more attention. This paper aims to analyze the success of CIGS based solar cells and the potential of this technology for future photovoltaics large-scale production. Specific material properties make CIS unique and allow the preparation of the material with a wide range of processing options. The huge potential lies in the possibility to take advantage of modern thin film processing equipment and combine it with very high efficiencies beyond 20% already achieved on the laboratory scale. A sustainable development of this technology could be realized by modifying the materials and replacing indium by abundant elements. (orig.)

  4. A Bicontinuous Double Gyroid Hybrid Solar Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Crossland, Edward J. W.

    2009-08-12

    We report the first successful application of an ordered bicontinuous gyroid semiconducting network in a hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cell. The freestanding gyroid network is fabricated by electrochemical deposition into the 10 nm wide voided channels of a self-assembled, selectively degradable block copolymer film. The highly ordered pore structure is ideal for uniform infiltration of an organic hole transporting material, and solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells only 400 nm thick exhibit up to 1.7% power conversion efficiency. This patterning technique can be readily extended to other promising heterojunction systems and is a major step toward realizing the full potential of self-assembly in the next generation of device technologies. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  5. Simulation design of P–I–N-type all-perovskite solar cells with high efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Hui-Jing; Wang Wei-Chao; Gu Yi-Fan

    2017-01-01

    According to the good charge transporting property of perovskite, we design and simulate a p–i–n-type all-perovskite solar cell by using one-dimensional device simulator. The perovskite charge transporting layers and the perovskite absorber constitute the all-perovskite cell. By modulating the cell parameters, such as layer thickness values, doping concentrations and energy bands of n-, i-, and p-type perovskite layers, the all-perovskite solar cell obtains a high power conversion efficiency of 25.84%. The band matched cell shows appreciably improved performance with widen absorption spectrum and lowered recombination rate, so weobtain a high J sc of 32.47 mA/cm 2 . The small series resistance of the all-perovskite solar cell also benefits the high J sc . The simulation provides a novel thought of designing perovskite solar cells with simple producing process, low production cost and high efficient structure to solve the energy problem. (paper)

  6. Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang

    2010-12-14

    This image presents a scanning electron microscopy image of solid state dye-sensitized solar cell with a plasmonic back reflector, overlaid with simulated field intensity plots when monochromatic light is incident on the device. Plasmonic back reflectors, which consist of 2D arrays of silver nanodomes, can enhance absorption through excitation of plasmonic modes and increased light scattering, as reported by Michael D. McGehee, Yi Cui, and co-workers.

  7. Milestones Toward 50% Efficient Solar Cell Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    efficiency, both at solar cells and module level. The optical system consists of a tiled nonimaging concentrating system, coupled with a spectral...which combines a nonimaging optical concentrator (which does not require tracking and is called a static concentrator) with spectral splitting...DESIGN AND RESULTS The optical design is based on non-symmetric, nonimaging optics, tiled into an array. The central issues in the optical system

  8. Nanostructured dye-sensitized solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, Giuseppina

    2014-01-01

    2012/2013 Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) represent a promising alternative to silicon-based technology. From the first publications about DSSCs in the 90s, they are considered an important breakthrough for achieving high efficiency by using relatively inexpensive and abundant materials. Stability and efficiency are two crucial points in the development of this new class of hybrid photovoltaic devices. Most of the DSSC studies carried out over the past twenty years are based on the o...

  9. Impurity effects in silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. H.; Rohatgi, A.

    1986-01-01

    Model analyses indicate that sophisticated solar cell designs including, e.g., back surface fields, optical reflectors, surface passivation, and double layer antireflective coatings can produce devices with conversion efficiencies above 20 percent (AM1). To realize this potential, the quality of the silicon from which the cells are made must be improved; and these excellent electrical properties must be maintained during device processing. As the cell efficiency rises, the sensitivity to trace contaminants also increases. For example, the threshold Ti impurity concentration at which cell performance degrades is more than an order of magnitude lower for an 18-percent cell. Similar behavior occurs for numerous other metal species which introduce deep level traps that stimulate the recombination of photogenerated carriers in silicon. Purification via crystal growth in conjunction with gettering steps to preserve the large diffusion length of the as-grown material can lead to the production of devices with efficiencies aboved 18 percent, as has been verified experimentally.

  10. Thermal Field Analysis and Simulation of an Infrared Belt Furnace Used for Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During solar cell firing, volatile organic compounds (VOC and a small number of metal particles were removed using the gas flow. When the gas flow was disturbed by the thermal field of infrared belt furnace and structure, the metal particles in the discharging gas flow randomly adhered to the surface of solar cell, possibly causing contamination. Meanwhile, the gas flow also affected the thermal uniformity of the solar cell. In this paper, the heating mechanism of the solar cell caused by radiation, convection, and conduction during firing was analyzed. Afterward, four 2-dimensional (2D models of the furnace were proposed. The transient thermal fields with different gas inlets, outlets, and internal structures were simulated. The thermal fields and the temperature of the solar cell could remain stable and uniform when the gas outlets were installed at the ends and in the middle of the furnace, with the gas inlets being distributed evenly. To verify the results, we produced four types of furnaces according to the four simulated results. The experimental results indicated that the thermal distribution of the furnace and the characteristics of the solar cells were consistent with the simulation. These experiments improved the efficiency of the solar cells while optimizing the solar cell manufacturing equipment.

  11. Accelerated stress testing of terrestrial solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.; Hawkins, D. C.; Prince, J. L.; Walker, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    The development of an accelerated test schedule for terrestrial solar cells is described. This schedule, based on anticipated failure modes deduced from a consideration of IC failure mechanisms, involves bias-temperature testing, humidity testing (including both 85-85 and pressure cooker stress), and thermal-cycle thermal-shock testing. Results are described for 12 different unencapsulated cell types. Both gradual electrical degradation and sudden catastrophic mechanical change were observed. These effects can be used to discriminate between cell types and technologies relative to their reliability attributes. Consideration is given to identifying laboratory failure modes which might lead to severe degradation in the field through second quadrant operation. Test results indicate that the ability of most cell types to withstand accelerated stress testing depends more on the manufacturer's design, processing, and worksmanship than on the particular metallization system. Preliminary tests comparing accelerated test results on encapsulated and unencapsulated cells are described.

  12. PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2009-11-11

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of colloidal PbSe nanocrystal (NC)-based photovoltaic test structures that exhibit an excitonic solar cell mechanism. Charge extraction from the NC active layer is driven by a photoinduced chemical potential energy gradient at the nanostructured heterojunction. By minimizing perturbation to PbSe NC energy levels and thereby gaining insight into the "intrinsic" photovoltaic properties and charge transfer mechanism of PbSe NC, we show a direct correlation between interfacial energy level offsets and photovoltaic device performance. Size dependent PbSe NC energy levels were determined by cyclic voltammetry and optical spectroscopy and correlated to photovoltaic measurements. Photovoltaic test structures were fabricated from PbSe NC films sandwiched between layers of ZnO nanoparticles and PEDOT:PSS as electron and hole transporting elements, respectively. The device current-voltage characteristics suggest a charge separation mechanism that Is distinct from previously reported Schottky devices and consistent with signatures of excitonic solar cells. Remarkably, despite the limitation of planar junction structure, and without film thickness optimization, the best performing device shows a 1-sun power conversion efficiency of 3.4%, ranking among the highest performing NC-based solar cells reported to date. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  13. Crossed BiOI flake array solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kewei; Jia, Falong; Zhang, Lizhi [Key Laboratory of Pesticide and Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Zheng, Zhi [Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University (China)

    2010-12-15

    We report a new kind of solar cell based on crossed flake-like BiOI arrays for the first time. The BiOI flake arrays were fabricated on an FTO glass with a TiO{sub 2} block layer at room temperature by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The resulting BiOI flake array solar cell exhibited enhanced photovoltaic performance under solar illumination. This work provides an attractive and new solar cell system and a facile route to fabricate low cost and non-toxic solar cell. (author)

  14. Design of cascaded low cost solar cell with CuO substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, Mil' shtein; Anup, Pillai; Shiv, Sharma; Garo, Yessayan [Advanced Electronic Technology Center, ECE Dept., University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA-01851 (United States)

    2013-12-04

    For many years the main focus of R and D in solar cells was the development of high-efficiency solar convertors. However with solar technology beginning to be a part of national grids and stand-alone power supplies for variety of individual customers, the emphasis has changed, namely, the cost per kilowatt- hour (kW-hr) started to be an important figure of merit. Although Si does dominate the market of solar convertors, this material has total cost of kilowatt-hour much higher than what the power grid is providing presently to customers. It is well known that the cost of raw semiconductor material is a major factor in formulation of the final cost of a solar cell. That motivated us to search and design a novel solar cell using cheap materials. The new p-i-n solar cell consists of hetero-structure cascade of materials with step by step decreasing energy gap. Since the lattice constant of these three materials do differ not more than 2%, the more expensive epitaxial fabrication methods can be used as well. It should be emphasized that designed solar cell is not a cascade of three solar cells connected in series. Our market study shows that Si solar panel which costs $250–400 / m{sup 2} leads to a cost of $0.12–0.30 / kW-hr. To the contrary, CuO based solar cells with Cadmium compounds on top, would cost $100 / m{sup 2}. This will allow the novel solar cell to produce electricity at a cost of $0.06–0.08 / kW-hr.

  15. Alloyed Aluminum Contacts for Silicon Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin Tin Aye

    2010-12-01

    Aluminium is usually deposited and alloyed at the back of p-p silicon solar cell for making a good ohmic contact and establishing a back electric field which avoids carrier recombination of the back surface. It was the deposition of aluminum on multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) substrate at various annealing temperature. Physical and elemental analysis was carried out by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-rays diffraction (XRD). The electrical (I-V) characteristic of the photovoltaic cell was also measured.

  16. Recent Advances in High Efficiency Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshio; Ohshita; Hidetoshi; Suzuki; Kenichi; Nishimura; Masafumi; Yamaguchi

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The conversion efficiency of sunlight to electricity is limited around 25%,when we use single junction solar cells. In the single junction cells,the major energy losses arise from the spectrum mismatching. When the photons excite carriers with energy well in excess of the bandgap,these excess energies were converted to heat by the rapid thermalization. On the other hand,the light with lower energy than that of the bandgap cannot be absorbed by the semiconductor,resulting in the losses. One way...

  17. Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel

  18. Interactive Visual Analysis for Organic Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Abouelhassan, Amal A.

    2017-01-01

    Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells provide a promising alternative for harnessing solar energy. However, the efficient design of OPV materials that achieve better performance requires support by better-tailored visualization tools than

  19. Inverted amorphous silicon solar cell utilizing cermet layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1979-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell incorporating a transparent high work function metal cermet incident to solar radiation and a thick film cermet contacting the amorphous silicon opposite to said incident surface.

  20. High Temperature InGaN-based Solar Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An efficient generation of solar power in a space environment is an enduring challenging for all NASA missions. The current available solar cells, however, suffer...

  1. Wire Array Solar Cells: Fabrication and Photoelectrochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Joshua Michael

    Despite demand for clean energy to reduce our addiction to fossil fuels, the price of these technologies relative to oil and coal has prevented their widespread implementation. Solar energy has enormous potential as a carbon-free resource but is several times the cost of coal-produced electricity, largely because photovoltaics of practical efficiency require high-quality, pure semiconductor materials. To produce current in a planar junction solar cell, an electron or hole generated deep within the material must travel all the way to the junction without recombining. Radial junction, wire array solar cells, however, have the potential to decouple the directions of light absorption and charge-carrier collection so that a semiconductor with a minority-carrier diffusion length shorter than its absorption depth (i.e., a lower quality, potentially cheaper material) can effectively produce current. The axial dimension of the wires is long enough for sufficient optical absorption while the charge-carriers are collected along the shorter radial dimension in a massively parallel array. This thesis explores the wire array solar cell design by developing potentially low-cost fabrication methods and investigating the energy-conversion properties of the arrays in photoelectrochemical cells. The concept was initially investigated with Cd(Se, Te) rod arrays; however, Si was the primary focus of wire array research because its semiconductor properties make low-quality Si an ideal candidate for improvement in a radial geometry. Fabrication routes for Si wire arrays were explored, including the vapor-liquid-solid growth of wires using SiCl4. Uniform, vertically aligned Si wires were demonstrated in a process that permits control of the wire radius, length, and spacing. A technique was developed to transfer these wire arrays into a low-cost, flexible polymer film, and grow multiple subsequent arrays using a single Si(111) substrate. Photoelectrochemical measurements on Si wire array

  2. Displacement Damage Effects in Solar Cells: Mining Damage From the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed Space Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardage, Donna (Technical Monitor); Walters, R. J.; Morton, T. L.; Messenger, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    The objective is to develop an improved space solar cell radiation response analysis capability and to produce a computer modeling tool which implements the analysis. This was accomplished through analysis of solar cell flight data taken on the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed experiment. This effort specifically addresses issues related to rapid technological change in the area of solar cells for space applications in order to enhance system performance, decrease risk, and reduce cost for future missions.

  3. Modeling Three-Terminal III-V/Si Tandem Solar Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Emily L.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Stradins, Paul; Tamboli, Adele C.

    2017-06-27

    Three-terminal (3T) tandem cells fabricated by combining an interdigitated back contact (IBC) Si device with a wider bandgap top cell have the potential to provide a robust operating mechanism to efficiently capture the solar spectrum without the need to current match sub-cells or fabricate complicated metal interconnects between cells. Here we develop a two dimensional device physics model to study the behavior of IBC Si solar cells operated in a 3T configuration. We investigate how different cell designs impact device performance and discuss the analysis protocol used to understand and optimize power produced from a single junction, 3T device.

  4. Temperature dependence of organic solar cell parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Matthias; Mueller, Klaus; Philip, Shine; Paloumpa, Ioanna; Henkel, Karsten; Schmeisser, Dieter [Brandenburgische Technische Universitaet Cottbus (Germany). Angewandte Physik - Sensorik

    2009-07-01

    The influence of an annealing step on the parameters of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells is investigated. In order to fabricate the solar cells we use glass coated with ITO (indium-tin oxide) as a substrate on which the active layer consisting of P3HT and PCBM is spincoated. Al-electrodes are evaporated on top of the active layer. We use PEDOT:PSS as buffer layer. Each sample is annealed at different temperatures for a short time. Between every temperature step the I-V characteristic of the cell is measured. The following parameters are derived afterwards: FF, I{sub sc} (density), V{sub oc}. Also the efficiency is estimated. The results show a maximum cell efficiency for drying at 100 C for 20sec. A further important step for preparation is the drying procedure of the PEDOT:PSS layer. Here an improvement of about 50% in cell efficiency is measured after drying at 50 C for 5 days under inert gas atmosphere.

  5. The German Market for photovoltaic (solar-produced electricity)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    In preparation for reducing the CO2 emission and in so living up to the Kyoto-protocol with the succeeding changes, renewable energy has - including photovoltaic - got an increasing importance in the world over - especially in Germany. If the technical potentials in Germany are utilized optimally, then 75% of the total German electricity production with photovoltaic are covered. At the moment it is only about 1 per thousand. There is a political will to promote photovoltaic in Germany, which results in high account prices and different plant supporting programmes. In the coming 6 years the official aim is that a minimum of 100.000 photovoltaic power plants are installed with an average capacitate for 3 kWp. The competition for the market is hard. There are many national and international suppliers, so the co-operations between the large German producers seem to be obvious. (EHS)

  6. Materials That Enhance Efficiency and Radiation Resistance of Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiadong; Wang, Haorong

    2012-01-01

    A thin layer (approximately 10 microns) of a novel "transparent" fluorescent material is applied to existing solar cells or modules to effectively block and convert UV light, or other lower solar response waveband of solar radiation, to visible or IR light that can be more efficiently used by solar cells for additional photocurrent. Meanwhile, the layer of fluorescent coating material remains fully "transparent" to the visible and IR waveband of solar radiation, resulting in a net gain of solar cell efficiency. This innovation alters the effective solar spectral power distribution to which an existing cell gets exposed, and matches the maximum photovoltaic (PV) response of existing cells. By shifting a low PV response waveband (e.g., UV) of solar radiation to a high PV response waveband (e.g. Vis-Near IR) with novel fluorescent materials that are transparent to other solar-cell sensitive wavebands, electrical output from solar cells will be enhanced. This approach enhances the efficiency of solar cells by converting UV and high-energy particles in space that would otherwise be wasted to visible/IR light. This innovation is a generic technique that can be readily implemented to significantly increase efficiencies of both space and terrestrial solar cells, without incurring much cost, thus bringing a broad base of economical, social, and environmental benefits. The key to this approach is that the "fluorescent" material must be very efficient, and cannot block or attenuate the "desirable" and unconverted" waveband of solar radiation (e.g. Vis-NIR) from reaching the cells. Some nano-phosphors and novel organometallic complex materials have been identified that enhance the energy efficiency on some state-of-the-art commercial silicon and thin-film-based solar cells by over 6%.

  7. Low-cost photovoltaics: Luminescent solar concentrators and colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Shin Woei

    /emission spectra of an organic luminescent dye (LR305), the transmission coefficient and refractive index of acrylic as parameters that describe the system. Simulations suggest that for LR305, 8-10cm of luminescent material surrounding the PV cell yields the highest increase in power gain per unit area of LSC added, thereby determining the ideal spacing between PV cells in the panel. The model also predicts that for different PV cell dimensions, there exists an optimum waveguide thickness which efficiently transports photon collected by the waveguide to the PV cell with minimal loss, and maintains an even distribution of photons across the cell surface. For the case of the 12.5 by 1cm rectangular cells used in this work, the calculated waveguide thickness is 3mm. For larger cells, every 1cm increment in PV cell width should be accompanied by a 0.75mm increase in waveguide thickness to preserve peak performance. In line with the goal of pushing for cost competitive photovoltaics, the last part of this work shifts to the study of colloidal quantum dot solar cells. A combination of low temperature, highly scalable fabrication process and reduced material usage for thin films offers us a means to produce flexible and cheap solar cells. Tagging on to existing work already performed on germanium quantum dot solar cells, additional work was carried out to further characterize the material. The effect of film thickness, nano-particle surface conditions and thermal anneal were investigated. There is evidence to suggest that the quantum dot devices contain high levels of parasitic resistances. Short circuit current densities increase by up to two times with two spin-cast layers compared to four, leading to the conjecture that charge carrier life time is low with high levels of recombination. Annealing to improve carrier mobility produces devices with current densities up to 301microA, a fourfold increase, but output voltages saw a sharp decrease from 0.12V to 0.015V. In tandem with the work

  8. Enhancing Solar Cell Efficiency Using Photon Upconversion Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yunfei; Hao, Shuwei; Yang, Chunhui; Chen, Guanying

    2015-10-27

    Photovoltaic cells are able to convert sunlight into electricity, providing enough of the most abundant and cleanest energy to cover our energy needs. However, the efficiency of current photovoltaics is significantly impeded by the transmission loss of sub-band-gap photons. Photon upconversion is a promising route to circumvent this problem by converting these transmitted sub-band-gap photons into above-band-gap light, where solar cells typically have high quantum efficiency. Here, we summarize recent progress on varying types of efficient upconversion materials as well as their outstanding uses in a series of solar cells, including silicon solar cells (crystalline and amorphous), gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, and other types of solar cells. The challenge and prospect of upconversion materials for photovoltaic applications are also discussed.

  9. Enhancing Solar Cell Efficiency Using Photon Upconversion Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Shang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic cells are able to convert sunlight into electricity, providing enough of the most abundant and cleanest energy to cover our energy needs. However, the efficiency of current photovoltaics is significantly impeded by the transmission loss of sub-band-gap photons. Photon upconversion is a promising route to circumvent this problem by converting these transmitted sub-band-gap photons into above-band-gap light, where solar cells typically have high quantum efficiency. Here, we summarize recent progress on varying types of efficient upconversion materials as well as their outstanding uses in a series of solar cells, including silicon solar cells (crystalline and amorphous, gallium arsenide (GaAs solar cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, and other types of solar cells. The challenge and prospect of upconversion materials for photovoltaic applications are also discussed

  10. Low-cost electrodes for stable perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, João P.; Manghooli, Sara; Jaysankar, Manoj; Tait, Jeffrey G.; Qiu, Weiming; Gehlhaar, Robert; De Volder, Michael; Uytterhoeven, Griet; Poortmans, Jef; Paetzold, Ulrich W.

    2017-06-01

    Cost-effective production of perovskite solar cells on an industrial scale requires the utilization of exclusively inexpensive materials. However, to date, highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells rely on expensive gold electrodes since other metal electrodes are known to cause degradation of the devices. Finding a low-cost electrode that can replace gold and ensure both efficiency and long-term stability is essential for the success of the perovskite-based solar cell technology. In this work, we systematically compare three types of electrode materials: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), alternative metals (silver, aluminum, and copper), and transparent oxides [indium tin oxide (ITO)] in terms of efficiency, stability, and cost. We show that multi-walled carbon nanotubes are the only electrode that is both more cost-effective and stable than gold. Devices with multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes present remarkable shelf-life stability, with no decrease in the efficiency even after 180 h of storage in 77% relative humidity (RH). Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential of devices with multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes to achieve high efficiencies. These developments are an important step forward to mass produce perovskite photovoltaics in a commercially viable way.

  11. Development of lithium diffused radiation resistant solar cells, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, P. R.; Somberg, H.

    1971-01-01

    The work performed to investigate the effect of various process parameters on the performance of lithium doped P/N solar cells is described. Effort was concentrated in four main areas: (1) the starting material, (2) the boron diffusion, (3) the lithium diffusion, and (4) the contact system. Investigation of starting material primarily involved comparison of crucible grown silicon (high oxygen content) and Lopex silicon (low oxygen content). In addition, the effect of varying growing parameters of crucible grown silicon on lithium cell output was also examined. The objective of the boron diffusion studies was to obtain a diffusion process which produced high efficiency cells with minimal silicon stressing and could be scaled up to process 100 or more cells per diffusion. Contact studies included investigating sintering of the TiAg contacts and evaluation of the contact integrity.

  12. Genetic algorithm based optimization of advanced solar cell designs modeled in Silvaco AtlasTM

    OpenAIRE

    Utsler, James

    2006-01-01

    A genetic algorithm was used to optimize the power output of multi-junction solar cells. Solar cell operation was modeled using the Silvaco ATLASTM software. The output of the ATLASTM simulation runs served as the input to the genetic algorithm. The genetic algorithm was run as a diffusing computation on a network of eighteen dual processor nodes. Results showed that the genetic algorithm produced better power output optimizations when compared with the results obtained using the hill cli...

  13. Production, characterization and stability of organic solar cell devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgyan, S A

    2010-01-15

    Despite the fact that the field of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is in a rapid progress, organic solar cells continue taking backstage roll in the growing markets of various solar technologies. The main challenge of the field is to develop devices that would possess all the optimal properties required for efficient, stable and cheap solar cells, i.e. devices that can deliver high photoconversion efficiencies and long lifetimes and can be efficiently produced in large scales using roll-to-roll coating technologies. This dissertation is primarily devoted to the issues of photoconversion efficiency and device lifetimes. In particular, descriptions of some practical approaches for different device designs and processing of active layer for typical small scale OPV devices were presented. The emphasis was put on some optimizing techniques for processing of active layer that can significantly improve the device photoconversion efficiency. The techniques were further applied for manufacturing and characterization of solar cell devices based on various materials. In particular, a number of thermocleavable polymers were studied and devices based on such materials were produced and characterized. The applicability of such materials in photovoltaic devices was shown and further challenges were discussed. Another task of this work was to manufacture and study inverted device structures and compare their properties with normal structure based devices. Device based on both structure were successfully produced with same level of performance in terms of photoconversion efficiency, yet with totally different stability performance. As another task, metal oxides, such as MoO{sub 3} or V{sub 2}O{sub 5} were studied in solar cell devices as buffer layers instead of PEDOT:PSS. Although the device efficiencies obtained with metal oxides were inferior to PEDOT based device, it was shown that such materials can possibly improve the device efficiency if the processing of the layers is

  14. Pairing of near-ultraviolet solar cells with electrochromic windows for smart management of the solar spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Nicholas C.; Sezen-Edmonds, Melda; Gao, Jia; Lin, Xin; Liu, Amy; Yao, Nan; Kahn, Antoine; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2017-08-01

    Current smart window technologies offer dynamic control of the optical transmission of the visible and near-infrared portions of the solar spectrum to reduce lighting, heating and cooling needs in buildings and to improve occupant comfort. Solar cells harvesting near-ultraviolet photons could satisfy the unmet need of powering such smart windows over the same spatial footprint without competing for visible or infrared photons, and without the same aesthetic and design constraints. Here, we report organic single-junction solar cells that selectively harvest near-ultraviolet photons, produce open-circuit voltages eclipsing 1.6 V and exhibit scalability in power generation, with active layers (10 cm2) substantially larger than those typical of demonstration organic solar cells (0.04-0.2 cm2). Integration of these solar cells with a low-cost, polymer-based electrochromic window enables intelligent management of the solar spectrum, with near-ultraviolet photons powering the regulation of visible and near-infrared photons for natural lighting and heating purposes.

  15. Si Wire-Array Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Shannon

    2010-03-01

    Micron-scale Si wire arrays are three-dimensional photovoltaic absorbers that enable orthogonalization of light absorption and carrier collection and hence allow for the utilization of relatively impure Si in efficient solar cell designs. The wire arrays are grown by a vapor-liquid-solid-catalyzed process on a crystalline (111) Si wafer lithographically patterned with an array of metal catalyst particles. Following growth, such arrays can be embedded in polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS) and then peeled from the template growth substrate. The result is an unusual photovoltaic material: a flexible, bendable, wafer-thickness crystalline Si absorber. In this paper I will describe: 1. the growth of high-quality Si wires with controllable doping and the evaluation of their photovoltaic energy-conversion performance using a test electrolyte that forms a rectifying conformal semiconductor-liquid contact 2. the observation of enhanced absorption in wire arrays exceeding the conventional light trapping limits for planar Si cells of equivalent material thickness and 3. single-wire and large-area solid-state Si wire-array solar cell results obtained to date with directions for future cell designs based on optical and device physics. In collaboration with Michael Kelzenberg, Morgan Putnam, Joshua Spurgeon, Daniel Turner-Evans, Emily Warren, Nathan Lewis, and Harry Atwater, California Institute of Technology.

  16. Applications of Laser Precisely Processing Technology in Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    According to the design method of laser resonator cavity, we optimized the primary parameters of resonator and utilized LD arrays symmetrically pumping manner to implementing output of the high-brightness laser in our laser cutter, then which was applied to precisely cutting the conductive film of CuInSe2 solar cells, the buried contact silicon solar cells' electrode groove, and perforating in wafer which is used to the emitter wrap through silicon solar cells. Laser processing precision was less than 40μm, the results have met solar cell's fabrication technology, and made finally the buried cells' conversion efficiency be improved from 18% to 21% .

  17. Photovoltaic characteristics of porous silicon /(n+ - p) silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhafarov, T.D.; Aslanov, S.S.; Ragimov, S.H.; Sadigov, M.S.; Nabiyeva, A.F.; Yuksel, Aydin S.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : The purpose of this work is to improve the photovoltaic parameters of the screen-printed silicon solar cells by formation the nano-porous silicon film on the frontal surface of the cell. The photovoltaic characteristics of two type silicon solar cells with and without porous silicon layer were measured and compared. A remarkable increment of short-circuit current density and the efficiency by 48 percent and 20 percent, respectively, have been achieved for PS/(n + - pSi) solar cell comparing to (n + - p)Si solar cell without PS layer

  18. Table-top solar flares produced with laser driven magnetic reconnections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong J.Y.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The American Nuclear Society (ANS has presented the prestigious Edward Teller award to Dr. Bruce A. Remington during the 2011 IFSA conference due to his “pioneering scientific work in the fields of inertial confinement fusion (ICF, and especially developing an international effort in high energy density laboratory astrophysics” [1,2]. This is a great acknowledgement to the subject of high energy density laboratory astrophysics. In this context, we report here one experiment conducted to model solar flares in the laboratory with intense lasers [3]. The mega-gauss –scale magnetic fields produced by laser produced plasmas can be used to make magnetic reconnection topology. We have produced one table-top solar flare in our laboratory experiment with the same geometric setup as associated with solar flares.

  19. Contribution of Nanostructures in High Performance Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Abouelmaaty M.; Ebrahim, Essamudin A.; Sweelem, Emad

    2017-11-01

    Nanotechnology has great contributions in various fields, especially in solar energy conversion through solar cells (SCs). Nanostructured SCs can provide high performance with lower fabrication costs. The transition from fossil fuel energy to renewable sustainable energy represents a major technological challenge for the world. In the last years, the industry of SCs has grown rapidly due to strong attention in renewable energy in order to handle the problem of global climate change that is now believed to occur due to use of the fossil fuels. Cost is an influential factor in the eventual success of any solar technology, since inexpensive SCs are needed to produce electricity, especially for rural areas and for third world countries. Therefore, new developments in nanotechnology may open the door for the production of inexpensive and more efficient SCs by reducing the manufacturing costs of SCs. Utilizing nanotechnology in cheaper SCs will help maintain the environment. This article covers a review of the progress that has been made to-date to enhance efficiencies of various nanostructures used in SCs, including utilizations of all the wavelengths present in of the solar spectrum.

  20. Screen printing technology applied to silicon solar cell fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, J. W.; Sipperly, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    The process for producing space qualified solar cells in both the conventional and wraparound configuration using screen printing techniques was investigated. Process modifications were chosen that could be easily automated or mechanized. Work was accomplished to optimize the tradeoffs associated with gridline spacing, gridline definition and junction depth. An extensive search for possible front contact metallization was completed. The back surface field structures along with the screen printed back contacts were optimized to produce open circuit voltages of at least an average of 600 millivolts. After all intended modifications on the process sequence were accomplished, the cells were exhaustively tested. Electrical tests at AMO and 28 C were made before and after boiling water immersion, thermal shock, and storage under conditions of high temperature and high humidity.

  1. Preface to the SPECIAL ISSUE: Excitonic Solar Cells(II)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Tian; Meicheng Li; Kaibo Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Among all the excitonic solar cells(ESCs)including dyesensitized solar cells(DSSCs),quantum solar cells(QDSCs),perovskites solar cells(PSCs),and organic photovoltaics(OPVs),PSCs attracted enormous research attention in the past 7 years and attained the highest power conversion efficiency(PCE)of over 20%with the biggest progress,from 3.8%to over 22.1%in 7 years.However,one can easily realize the fact that such a rapid progress achieved in PSCs was made possible is largely based on the fundamental knowledge,experimental skills,and characterization facilities obtained and accumulated through the multi-decade long endeavor in the study of other excitonic solar cells.Even though PSCs have attractedmuch research human resource and funding,the study on other excitonic solar cells has never stopped,and such persistent efforts

  2. Solar cells: An environment-benign energy source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsema, E.; Van Engelenburg, B.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is paid to a study on the environmental aspects of solar cell production techniques and the possibility of recycling solar cell materials. In the study the following types of solar cell modules are dealt with: CdTe and CuInSe 2 , amorphous silicon, crystalline silicon, and GaAs. It appears that silicon solar cells have minor environmental effects and are controllable. However, attention should be paid to the energy consumption and the use of etching and purification materials during the production of solar cells, and the emission of heavy metals from f.e. CdTe/CIS solar cells during and after usage. Without effective recycling enough supplies of indium, selenium and tellurium cannot be guaranteed. 3 figs., 1 ill

  3. Applications of Fluorogens with Rotor Structures in Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kok-Haw; Liu, Bin

    2017-05-29

    Solar cells are devices that convert light energy into electricity. To drive greater adoption of solar cell technologies, higher cell efficiencies and reductions in manufacturing cost are necessary. Fluorogens containing rotor structures may be helpful in addressing some of these challenges due to their unique twisted structures and photophysics. In this review, we discuss the applications of rotor-containing molecules as dyes for luminescent down-shifting layers and luminescent solar concentrators, where their aggregation-induced emission properties and large Stokes shifts are highly desirable. We also discuss the applications of molecules containing rotors in third-generation solar cell technologies, namely dye-sensitized solar cells and organic photovoltaics, where the twisted 3-dimensional rotor structures are used primarily for aggregation control. Finally, we discuss perspectives on the future role of molecules containing rotor structures in solar cell technologies.

  4. Solare Cell Roof Tile And Method Of Forming Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanoka, Jack I.; Real, Markus

    1999-11-16

    A solar cell roof tile includes a front support layer, a transparent encapsulant layer, a plurality of interconnected solar cells and a backskin layer. The front support layer is formed of light transmitting material and has first and second surfaces. The transparent encapsulant layer is disposed adjacent the second surface of the front support layer. The interconnected solar cells has a first surface disposed adjacent the transparent encapsulant layer. The backskin layer has a first surface disposed adjacent a second surface of the interconnected solar cells, wherein a portion of the backskin layer wraps around and contacts the first surface of the front support layer to form the border region. A portion of the border region has an extended width. The solar cell roof tile may have stand-offs disposed on the extended width border region for providing vertical spacing with respect to an adjacent solar cell roof tile.

  5. Weavable dye sensitized solar cells exploiting carbon nanotube yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Josef; Kuanyshbekova, Zharkynay; Göktepe, Özer; Göktepe, Fatma; Zakhidov, Anvar

    2013-05-01

    Weavable Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) made with flexible yarns of conductive multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were produced having a power conversion efficiency above 3%. This was achieved with a specific design and careful consideration of the yarn function in the DSSC. Fermat yarns of MWNTs individually coated with mesoporous TiO2 layer were twisted together and coated with more mesoporous TiO2 to create a 3 dimensional photo electrode to overcome electron diffusion length issues. Archimedian yarns of MWNTs coated with a thin layer of platinum worked as a counter electrode to complete the architecture used in this DSSC.

  6. Progress in batteries and solar cells. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimotake, H.

    1984-01-01

    The 89 articles in this book are on research in batteries, solar cells and fuel cells. Topics include uses of batteries in electric powered vehicles, load management in power plants, batteries for miniature electronic devices, electrochemical processes, and various electrode and electrolyte materials, including organic compounds. Types of batteries discussed are lithium, lead-acid, manganese dioxide, Silver cells, Air cells, Nickel cells and solar cells. Problems of recharging and life cycle are also discussed

  7. Development of processing procedures for advanced silicon solar cells. [antireflection coatings and short circuit currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Monck, J. A.; Stella, P. M.; Avery, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    Ten ohm-cm silicon solar cells, 0.2 mm thick, were produced with short circuit current efficiencies up to thirteen percent and using a combination of recent technical advances. The cells were fabricated in conventional and wraparound contact configurations. Improvement in cell collection efficiency from both the short and long wavelengths region of the solar spectrum was obtained by coupling a shallow junction and an optically transparent antireflection coating with back surface field technology. Both boron diffusion and aluminum alloying techniques were evaluated for forming back surface field cells. The latter method is less complicated and is compatible with wraparound cell processing.

  8. Hybrid Solar Cells: Materials, Interfaces, and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Giacomo; Wang, Yue; Kaner, Richard B.; Huffaker, Diana L.

    Photovoltaic technologies could play a pivotal role in tackling future fossil fuel energy shortages, while significantly reducing our carbon dioxide footprint. Crystalline silicon is pervasively used in single junction solar cells, taking up 80 % of the photovoltaic market. Semiconductor-based inorganic solar cells deliver relatively high conversion efficiencies at the price of high material and manufacturing costs. A great amount of research has been conducted to develop low-cost photovoltaic solutions by incorporating organic materials. Organic semiconductors are conjugated hydrocarbon-based materials that are advantageous because of their low material and processing costs and a nearly unlimited supply. Their mechanical flexibility and tunable electronic properties are among other attractions that their inorganic counterparts lack. Recently, collaborations in nanotechnology research have combined inorganic with organic semiconductors in a "hybrid" effort to provide high conversion efficiencies at low cost. Successful integration of these two classes of materials requires a profound understanding of the material properties and an exquisite control of the morphology, surface properties, ligands, and passivation techniques to ensure an optimal charge carrier generation across the hybrid device. In this chapter, we provide background information of this novel, emerging field, detailing the various approaches for obtaining inorganic nanostructures and organic polymers, introducing a multitude of methods for combining the two components to achieve the desired morphologies, and emphasizing the importance of surface manipulation. We highlight several studies that have fueled new directions for hybrid solar cell research, including approaches for maximizing efficiencies by controlling the morphologies of the inorganic component, and in situ molecular engineering via electrochemical polymerization of a polymer directly onto the inorganic nanowire surfaces. In the end, we

  9. Triple junction polymer solar cells for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esiner, S.; Eersel, van H.; Wienk, M.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    A triple junction polymer solar cell in a novel 1 + 2 type configuration provides photoelectrochemical water splitting in its maximum power point at V ˜ 1.70 V with an estimated solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency of 3.1%. The triple junction cell consists of a wide bandgap front cell and

  10. Performance improvement of silicon solar cells by nanoporous silicon coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhafarov T. D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the method is shown to improve the photovoltaic parameters of screen-printed silicon solar cells by nanoporous silicon film formation on the frontal surface of the cell using the electrochemical etching. The possible mechanisms responsible for observed improvement of silicon solar cell performance are discussed.

  11. Optimal Speed Scaling with a Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Barcelo, Neal; Kling, Peter; Nugent, Michael; Pruhs, Kirk

    2016-01-01

    We consider the setting of a sensor that consists of a speed-scalable processor, a battery, and a solar cell that harvests energy from its environment at a time-invariant recharge rate. The processor must process a collection of jobs of various sizes. Jobs arrive at different times and have different deadlines. The objective is to minimize the *recharge rate*, which is the rate at which the device has to harvest energy in order to feasibly schedule all jobs. The main result is a polynomial-ti...

  12. Transmutation doping of silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, R. F.; Westbrook, R. D.; Young, R. T.; Cleland, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Normal isotopic silicon contains 3.05% of Si-30 which transmutes to P-31 after thermal neutron absorption, with a half-life of 2.6 hours. This reaction is used to introduce extremely uniform concentrations of phosphorus into silicon, thus eliminating the areal and spatial inhomogeneities characteristic of chemical doping. Annealing of the lattice damage in the irradiated silicon does not alter the uniformity of dopant distribution. Transmutation doping also makes it possible to introduce phosphorus into polycrystalline silicon without segregation of the dopant at the grain boundaries. The use of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) silicon in solar cell research and development is discussed.

  13. Flexible ITO-Free Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Krebs, Frederik C

    2013-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is the material-of-choice for transparent conductors in any optoelectronic application. However, scarce resources of indium and high market demand of ITO have created large price fluctuations and future supply concerns. In polymer solar cells (PSCs), ITO is the single......-cost alternatives to ITO suitable for use in PSCs. These alternatives belong to four material groups: polymers; metal and polymer composites; metal nanowires and ultra-thin metal films; and carbon nanotubes and graphene. We further present the progress of employing these alternatives in PSCs and identify future...

  14. Hydrogen passivation of silicon sheet solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Milstein, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Significant improvements in the efficiencies of dendritic web and edge-supported-pulling silicon sheet solar cells have been obtained after hydrogen ion beam passivation for a period of ten minutes or less. We have studied the effects of the hydrogen ion beam treatment with respect to silicon material damage, silicon sputter rate, introduction of impurities, and changes in reflectance. The silicon sputter rate for constant ion beam flux of 0.60 +- 0.05 mA/cm 2 exhibits a maximum at approximately 1400-eV ion beam energy

  15. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells Solvent additives for tuning the photovoltaic properties of polymer – fullerene solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sio, Antonietta De; Madena, Thomas; Huber, Ralph; Deschler, Felix; Como, Enrico Da; Esposito, Salvatore; Hauff, Elizabeth Von

    2011-01-01

    We use solvent additives as a simple method to tune the photovoltaic performance of poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk heterojuncton solar cells. 1,2-dichlorobenzene (oDCB) was used as the reference solvent; chlorobenzene (CB) and 1,2,3,4-

  16. Testing of gallium arsenide solar cells on the CRRES vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumble, T.M.

    1985-01-01

    A flight experiment was designed to determine the optimum design for gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cell panels in a radiation environment. Elements of the experiment design include, different coverglass material and thicknesses, welded and soldered interconnects, different solar cell efficiencies, different solar cell types, and measurement of annealing properties. This experiment is scheduled to fly on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). This satellite will simultaneously measure the radiation environment and provide engineering data on solar cell degradation that can be directly related to radiation damage

  17. Flexible PCPDTBT:PCBM solar cells with integrated grating structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de; Liu, Yinghui; Madsen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    We report on development of flexible PCPDTBT:PCBM solar cells with integrated diffraction gratings on the bottom electrodes. The presented results address PCPDTBT:PCBM solar cells in an inverted geometry, which contains implemented grating structures whose pitch is tuned to match the absorption...... spectra of the active layer. This optimized solar cell structure leads to an enhanced absorption in the active layer and thus improved short-circuit currents and power conversion efficiencies in the fabricated devices. Fabrication of the solar cells on thin polyimide substrates which are compatible...

  18. Nanostructured InGaP Solar Cells, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The operating conditions of conventional multijunction solar cells are severely limited by the current matching requirements of serially connected devices. The goal...

  19. Enhanced Photovoltaic Properties of Gradient Doping Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chun-Lei; Du Hui-Jing; Zhu Jian-Zhuo; Xu Tian-Fu; Fang Xiao-Yong

    2012-01-01

    An optimum design of a-Si:H(n)/a-Si:H(i)/c-Si(p) heterojunction solar cell is realized with 24.27% conversion efficiency by gradient doping of the a-Si:H(n) layer. The photovoltaic properties are simulated by the AFORSHET software. Besides the additional electric field caused by the gradient doping, the enhanced and widen spectral response also improves the solar cell performance compared with the uniform-doping mode. The simulation shows that the gradient doping is efficient to improve the photovoltaic performance of the solar cells. The study is valuable for the solar cell design with excellent performances

  20. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of an inclined nanowire array solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2015-11-30

    An innovative solar cell based on inclined p-i-n nanowire array is designed and analyzed. The results show that the inclined geometry can sufficiently increase the conversion efficiency of solar cells by enhancing the absorption of light in the active region. By tuning the nanowire array density, nanowire diameter, nanowire length, as well as the proportion of intrinsic region of the inclined nanowire solar cell, a remarkable efficiency in excess of 16% can be obtained in GaAs. Similar results have been obtained in InP and Si nanowire solar cells, demonstrating the universality of the performance enhancement of inclined nanowire arrays.

  1. Organic solar cells theory, experiment, and device simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Tress, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    This book covers in a textbook-like fashion the basics or organic solar cells, addressing the limits of photovoltaic energy conversion and giving a well-illustrated introduction to molecular electronics with focus on the working principle and characterization of organic solar cells. Further chapters based on the author's dissertation focus on the electrical processes in organic solar cells by presenting a detailed drift-diffusion approach to describe exciton separation and charge-carrier transport and extraction. The results, although elaborated on small-molecule solar cells and with focus on

  2. Selective production of hydrogen peroxide and oxidation of hydrogen sulfide in an unbiased solar photoelectrochemical cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Xu; Chen, Hongjun; Seger, Brian

    2014-01-01

    A solar-to-chemical conversion process is demonstrated using a photoelectrochemical cell without external bias for selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sulfur (S). The process integrates two redox couples anthraquinone/anthrahydroquinone and I−/I3......−, and conceptually illustrates the remediation of a waste product for producing valuable chemicals....

  3. Increasing the solar cell power output by coating with transition metal-oxide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, I.A.; Greenfield, M.J.; Mehta, Y.U.; Merchan-Merchan, W.; Salkar, G.; Saveliev, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Nanoparticles enhance solar cell efficiency. → Solar cell power increase by nanorod coating. → Metal-oxide nanorods are prepared in flames. → Molybdenum oxide nanorods effectively scatter light on solar cell surface. → Scattering efficiency depends on coating density. -- Abstract: Photovoltaic cells produce electric current through interactions among photons from an ambient light source and electrons in the semiconductor layer of the cell. However, much of the light incident on the panel is reflected or absorbed without inducing the photovoltaic effect. Transition metal-oxide nanoparticles, an inexpensive product of a process called flame synthesis, can cause scattering of light. Scattering can redirect photon flux, increasing the fraction of light absorbed in the thin active layer of silicon solar cells. This research aims to demonstrate that the application of transition metal-oxide nanorods to the surface of silicon solar panels can enhance the power output of the panels. Several solar panels were coated with a nanoparticle-methanol suspension, and the power outputs of the panels before and after the treatment were compared. The results demonstrate an increase in power output of up to 5% after the treatment. The presence of metal-oxide nanorods on the surface of the coated solar cells is confirmed by electron microscopy.

  4. Consciousness can reduce the voltage of the output signal of solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dayong

    2010-10-01

    When the sun's light radiate on the solar cell, the solar cell can produce the output signal as the photocurrent. We use the Data Acquisition Modules to record the voltage of the output signals. The v1 is voltage of the output signal of solar cell1; The v2 is the one of solar cell2. And these two solar cells stay side by side. When we record the voltage of the output signal from the morning to the noon, the voltage of the output signals will go up, and the v1 is bigger than the v2 during this time. But when the experimenter use consciousness to reduce the voltage of the output signals. That is to say: not only natural light ratiade on two solar cells, but also consciousness act on two solar cells. Not only I can use consciousness to reduce the growth voltage of the output signals, but also can change the v1 to be littler than the v2. The experiment was conducted on Sep. 2010. There is the physical system of the mass, energy, space and time-MEST; There is the spirited system of the mind, consciousness, emotion and desire-MECD; the information system is the code system. We can use them to develop photoelectric principle, life technology and Nanotech of semiconductor for consciousness effect.

  5. Recyclable organic solar cells on cellulose nanocrystal substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yinhua; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Khan, Talha M; Liu, Jen-Chieh; Hsu, James; Shim, Jae Won; Dindar, Amir; Youngblood, Jeffrey P; Moon, Robert J; Kippelen, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy is potentially the largest source of renewable energy at our disposal, but significant advances are required to make photovoltaic technologies economically viable and, from a life-cycle perspective, environmentally friendly, and consequently scalable. Cellulose nanomaterials are emerging high-value nanoparticles extracted from plants that are abundant, renewable, and sustainable. Here, we report on the first demonstration of efficient polymer solar cells fabricated on optically transparent cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) substrates. The solar cells fabricated on the CNC substrates display good rectification in the dark and reach a power conversion efficiency of 2.7%. In addition, we demonstrate that these solar cells can be easily separated and recycled into their major components using low-energy processes at room temperature, opening the door for a truly recyclable solar cell technology. Efficient and easily recyclable organic solar cells on CNC substrates are expected to be an attractive technology for sustainable, scalable, and environmentally-friendly energy production.

  6. Photosensitizers from Spirulina for Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a kind of blue-green algae with good photosynthetic efficiency and might be used for photovoltaic power generation. So this paper used living spirulina as novel photosensitizer to construct spirulina biosolar cell. The results showed that spirulina had the photoelectric conversion effect, and could let the spirulina biosolar cell have 70 μA photocurrent. Meanwhile, adding glucose sucrose or chitosan in the spirulina anode chamber, they could make the maxima current density of the cell greatly increased by 80 μA, 100 μA, and 84 μA, respectively, and the sucrose could improve the maximum power density of the cell to 63 mW/m−2. Phycobiliprotein played an important role in the photosynthesis of spirulina. So in this paper phycobiliprotein was extracted from spirulina to composite with squaraine dye to sensitize nanocrystalline TiO2 photoanode for building dye sensitized solar cell, and the photoelectric properties of the cell also were investigated.

  7. Cost reduction has priority in solar cell research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zolingen, R.J.C.; Sinke, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    The main topic in the research and development of photovoltaic cells is cost reduction. Although new materials, improved techniques and increasing efficiency are promising aspects of the clean and sustainable option of a photovoltaic conversion of sunlight to produce electricity at a large scale, the high prices form an obstacle. Photovoltaic conversion is at least a factor three too expensive compared to the conventional power generation techniques by means of fossil fuels. Attention is paid to the theoretical maximum efficiency of photovoltaic conversion, the efficiencies realized sofar, the importance of thin film solar cells, the payback period of photovoltaic modules, the environmental impacts of using photovoltaic cells, and finally the costs. 2 figs., 1 ill., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  8. Solar Cell Capacitance Determination Based on an RLC Resonant Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Adrian Cotfas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The capacitance is one of the key dynamic parameters of solar cells, which can provide essential information regarding the quality and health state of the cell. However, the measurement of this parameter is not a trivial task, as it typically requires high accuracy instruments using, e.g., electrical impedance spectroscopy (IS. This paper introduces a simple and effective method to determine the electric capacitance of the solar cells. An RLC (Resistor Inductance Capacitor circuit is formed by using an inductor as a load for the solar cell. The capacitance of the solar cell is found by measuring the frequency of the damped oscillation that occurs at the moment of connecting the inductor to the solar cell. The study is performed through simulation based on National Instruments (NI Multisim application as SPICE simulation software and through experimental capacitance measurements of a monocrystalline silicon commercial solar cell and a photovoltaic panel using the proposed method. The results were validated using impedance spectroscopy. The differences between the capacitance values obtained by the two methods are of 1% for the solar cells and of 9.6% for the PV panel. The irradiance level effect upon the solar cell capacitance was studied obtaining an increase in the capacitance in function of the irradiance. By connecting different inductors to the solar cell, the frequency effect upon the solar cell capacitance was studied noticing a very small decrease in the capacitance with the frequency. Additionally, the temperature effect over the solar cell capacitance was studied achieving an increase in capacitance with temperature.

  9. Chalcopyrite semiconductors for quantum well solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afshar, Maziar; Sadewasser, Sascha; Albert, Juergen; Lehmann, Sebastian; Abou-Ras, Daniel; Lux-Steiner, Martha C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Berlin (Germany); Marron, David Fuertes [Instituto de Energia Solar - ETSIT, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s.n., 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rockett, Angus A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois, 1304 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Raesaenen, Esa [Nanoscience Center, Department of Physics University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2011-11-15

    The possibilities of using highly absorbing chalcopyrite semiconductors of the type Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} in a quantum well solar cell structure are explored. Thin alternating layers of 50 nm CuInSe{sub 2} and CuGaSe{sub 2} were grown epitaxially on a GaAs(100) substrate. The optical properties of a resulting structure of three layers indicate charge carrier confinement in the low band gap CuInSe{sub 2} layer. By compositional analysis interdiffusion of In and Ga at the interfaces was found. The compositional profile was converted into a conduction-band diagram, for which the quantization of energy levels was numerically confirmed using the effective-mass approximation. The results provide a promising basis for the future development of chalcopyrite-type quantum well structures and their application, i.e. in quantum well solar cells. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Nanobump assembly for plasmonic organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyung-Jun; Jung, Kinam; Lee, Gunhee; Ko, Youngjun; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Choi, Mansoo; Lee, Changhee

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate novel plasmonic organic solar cells (OSCs) by embedding an easy processible nanobump assembly (NBA) for harnessing more light. The NBA is consisted of precisely size-controlled Ag nanoparticles (NPs) generated by an aerosol process at atmospheric pressure and thermally deposited molybdenum oxide (MoO3) layer which follows the underlying nano structure of NPs. The active layer, spin-casted polymer blend solution, has an undulated structure conformably covering the NBA structure. To find the optimal condition of the NBA structure for enhancing light harvest as well as carrier transfer, we systematically investigate the effect of the size of Ag NPs and the MoO3 coverage on the device performance. It is observed that the photocurrent of device increases as the size of Ag NP increases owing to enhanced plasmonic and scattering effect. In addition, the increased light absorption is effectively transferred to the photocurrent with small carrier losses, when the Ag NPs are fully covered by the MoO3 layer. As a result, the NBA structure consisted of 40 nm Ag NPs enclosed by 20 nm MoO3 layer leads to 18% improvement in the power conversion efficiency compared to the device without the NBA structure. Therefore, the NBA plasmonic structure provides a reliable and efficient light harvesting in a broad range of wavelength, which consequently enhances the performance of organic solar cells.

  11. Processes for chalcopyrite-based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux-Steiner, M.C.; Ennaoui, A.; Fischer, C.-H.; Jaeger-Waldau, A.; Klaer, J.; Klenk, R.; Koenenkamp, R.; Matthes, T.; Scheer, R.; Siebentritt, S.; Weidinger, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany)

    2000-02-21

    This contribution deals with the investigations of chalcopyrite solar cells. Main attention is paid to absorber materials with band gaps larger than 1.5 eV. Besides the different efforts to modify and optimise stoichiometric CuInS{sub 2} films, novel deposition technologies for CuGaSe{sub 2} films and buffer layers as well as alternative buffer layers were studied and compared. With ZnSe as alternative buffer layer on Cu(InGa)(S,Se){sub 2} absorbers developed by SSI Camarillo and Siemens Solar, Munich, total area efficiencies up to 13.7% and active area efficiencies up to 15.7% could be reached, respectively. For CuInS{sub 2} two important results were achieved. The efficiency of Cu-poor CuInS{sub 2} cells could be increased to 8.3%. Standard Cu-rich prepared devices led to a new record efficiency of 12.5%. (orig.)

  12. Hybrid Perovskite/Perovskite Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinghong; Schlipf, Johannes; Wussler, Michael; Petrus, Michiel L; Jaegermann, Wolfram; Bein, Thomas; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Docampo, Pablo

    2016-06-28

    Recently developed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells combine low-cost fabrication and high power conversion efficiency. Advances in perovskite film optimization have led to an outstanding power conversion efficiency of more than 20%. Looking forward, shifting the focus toward new device architectures holds great potential to induce the next leap in device performance. Here, we demonstrate a perovskite/perovskite heterojunction solar cell. We developed a facile solution-based cation infiltration process to deposit layered perovskite (LPK) structures onto methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) films. Grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments were performed to gain insights into the crystallite orientation and the formation process of the perovskite bilayer. Our results show that the self-assembly of the LPK layer on top of an intact MAPI layer is accompanied by a reorganization of the perovskite interface. This leads to an enhancement of the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency due to reduced recombination losses, as well as improved moisture stability in the resulting photovoltaic devices.

  13. TEMPERATUREEFFECT OFELECTRICALPROPERTIES OF CIGS SOLAR CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Ferouani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are interested in studying the copper–indium–gallium–selenium (CIGS solar cells sandwiched between cadmium sulfide (CdS and ZnO as buffer layers, and Molybdenum (Mo. Thus, we report our simulation results using the capacitance simulator (SCAPS in terms of layer thickness, absorber layer band gap and operating temperature to find out the optimum choice. An efficiency of 20.61% (with Voc of 635.2mV, Jsc of 44.08 mA/cm2 and fill factor of 0.73 has been achieved with CdS used as buffer layer as the reference case. It is also found that the high efficiency CIGS cells with the low temperature were a very high efficiency conversion.

  14. Scalable fabrication of perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhen; Klein, Talysa R.; Kim, Dong Hoe; Yang, Mengjin; Berry, Joseph J.; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.; Zhu, Kai

    2018-03-27

    Perovskite materials use earth-abundant elements, have low formation energies for deposition and are compatible with roll-to-roll and other high-volume manufacturing techniques. These features make perovskite solar cells (PSCs) suitable for terawatt-scale energy production with low production costs and low capital expenditure. Demonstrations of performance comparable to that of other thin-film photovoltaics (PVs) and improvements in laboratory-scale cell stability have recently made scale up of this PV technology an intense area of research focus. Here, we review recent progress and challenges in scaling up PSCs and related efforts to enable the terawatt-scale manufacturing and deployment of this PV technology. We discuss common device and module architectures, scalable deposition methods and progress in the scalable deposition of perovskite and charge-transport layers. We also provide an overview of device and module stability, module-level characterization techniques and techno-economic analyses of perovskite PV modules.

  15. Optimization of concentrator photovoltaic solar cell performance through photonic engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2018-04-04

    The goal of this program was to incorporate two new and innovative design concepts into the design and production of CPV cells that have near zero added cost, yet significantly increase the operational efficiency of CPV modules. The program focused developing luminescent coupling effects and radiative cooling layers to increase efficiency and suppress CPV module power losses due to spectral variations and heating. The major results of the program were: 1) The optics of three commercial refractive (Fresnel) concentrators were characterized and prevent application of radiative cooling concepts due to strong mid-IR absorption (4-12µm) required to effectively radiate blackbody radiation from the cells and provide cooling. Investigation of alternative materials for the concentrator lenses produced only undesirable options—materials with reasonable mid-IR transmission for cooling only had about 30-40 visible transmission, thus reducing incident sunlight by >50%. While our investigation was somewhat limited, our work suggests that the only viable concentrator system that can incorporate radiative cooling utilizes reflective optics. 2) With limited ability to test high concentration CPV cells (requires outdoor testing), we acquired both semi-crystalline and crystalline Si cells and tested them in our outdoor facility and demonstrated 4°C cooling using a simple silica layer coating on the cells. 3) Characterizing Si cells in the IR associated with radiative cooling, we observed very significant near-IR absorption that increases the cell operating temperature by a similar amount, 4-5°C. By appropriate surface layer design, one can produce a layer that is highly reflective in the near-IR (1.5-4µm) and highly emissive in the mid-IR (5-15µm), thus reducing cell operational temperature by 10°C and increasing efficiency by ~1% absolute. The radiative cooling effect in c-Si solar cells might be further improved by providing a higher thermal conductive elastomer for

  16. Metal Matrix Composite Solar Cell Metallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilt David M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced solar cells are moving to ever thinner formats in order to save mass and in some cases improve performance. As cells are thinned, the possibility that they may fracture or cleave due to mechanical stresses is increased. Fractures of the cell can degrade the overall device performance if the fracture propagates through the contact metallization, which frequently occurs. To address this problem, a novel semiconductor metallization system based on multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT reinforcement, termed metal matrix composite (MMC metallization is under investigation. Electro-mechanical characterization of MMC films demonstrate their ability to provide electrical conductivity over >40 micron wide cracks in the underlying semiconductor, with the carbon nanotubes bridging the gap. In addition, these materials show a “self-healing” behaviour, electrically reconnecting at ~30 microns when strained past failure. Triple junction (TJ space cells with MMC metallization demonstrated no loss in Jsc after intentional fracture, whereas TJ cells with conventional metallization suffer up to 50% Jsc loss.

  17. Carbon Nanotubes Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drygała A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the carbon nanotubes counter electrode deposited on the FTO glass substrates on the structure and optoelectrical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells counter electrode (CE was analysed. Carbon materials have been applied in DSSC s in order to produce low-cost solar cells with reasonable efficiency. Platinum is a preferred material for the counter electrode because of its high conductivity and catalytic activity. However, the costs of manufacturing of the platinum counter electrode limit its use to large-scale applications in solar cells. This paper presents the results of examining the structure and properties of the studied layers, defining optical properties of conductive layers and electrical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells manufactured with the use of carbon nanotubes.

  18. Influence of Surface Roughness on Optical Characteristics of Multilayer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomir Scholtz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing efficiency of solar cells is still a discussed problem. Even if it is well-known that specially formed substrates as Asahi U-type for solar cells are produced, there is still a continuing attention given to the applications of surface roughness to achieve better light trapping and absorptance in solar cells. It was found out the even an exact interface morphology can play an important role in light trapping. In this paper we focused on the issue how final absorptance of a solar cell structure could be affected and possibly increased. The goal of this article is to show which of interfaces has the greatest influence on specular absorptance of the whole structure.

  19. Stability of electric characteristics of solar cells for continuous power supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Nebojša M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the output characteristics of photovoltaic solar cells working in hostile working conditions. Examined cells, produced by different innovative procedures, are available in the market. The goal was to investigate stability of electric characteristics of solar cells, which are used today in photovoltaic solar modules for charging rechargeable batteries which, coupled with batteries, supply various electronic systems such as radio repeaters on mountains tops, airplanes, mobile communication stations and other remote facilities. Charging of rechargeable batteries requires up to 25 % higher voltage compared to nominal output voltage of the battery. This paper presents results of research of solar cells, which also apply to cases in which continuous power supply is required. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 171007

  20. Thin film CdTe solar cells by close spaced sublimation: Recent results from pilot line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siepchen, B.; Drost, C.; Späth, B.; Krishnakumar, V.; Richter, H.; Harr, M.; Bossert, S.; Grimm, M.; Häfner, K.; Modes, T.; Zywitzki, O.; Morgner, H.

    2013-01-01

    CdTe is an attractive material to produce high efficient and low cost thin film solar cells. The semiconducting layers of this kind of solar cell can be deposited by the Close Spaced Sublimation (CSS) process. The advantages of this technique are high deposition rates and an excellent utilization of the raw material, leading to low production costs and competitive module prices. CTF Solar GmbH is offering equipment and process knowhow for the production of CdTe solar modules. For further improvement of the technology, research is done at a pilot line, which covers all relevant process steps for manufacture of CdTe solar cells. Herein, we present the latest results from the process development and our research activities on single functional layers as well as for complete solar cell devices. Efficiencies above 13% have already been obtained with Cu-free back contacts. An additional focus is set on different transparent conducting oxide materials for the front contact and a Sb 2 Te 3 based back contact. - Highlights: ► Laboratory established on industrial level for CdTe solar cell research ► 13.0% cell efficiency with our standard front contact and Cu-free back contact ► Research on ZnO-based transparent conducting oxide and Sb 2 Te 3 back contacts ► High resolution scanning electron microscopy analysis of ion polished cross section

  1. Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Xinping [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)], E-mail: zhxpmark@hotmail.com; Yang Jiakuan; Wang Jinbo; Xiao Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2009-03-15

    The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar collector with a mountain hollow is presented and described. Solar energy is collected in the collector and heats the ground, which is used to store heat energy and heat the indoor air. Then, the hot air is forced by the pressure difference between it and the ambient air to move along the tilted segment and up the vertical segment of the 'chimney', driving the turbine generators to generate electricity. The mountain hollow, formed by excavation in a large-elevation mountain, can avoid the safety issues of erecting a gigantic concrete chimney, which is needed for commercial solar chimney thermal power plants. Furthermore, it can also save a great amount of construction materials for constructing a robust chimney structure and reduce the energy cost to a level less than that of a clean coal power plant, providing a good solution to the reclamation and utilization of undeveloped mountains, especially in mountainous countries.

  2. Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xinping [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Yang, Jiakuan; Wang, Jinbo; Xiao, Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2009-03-15

    The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar collector with a mountain hollow is presented and described. Solar energy is collected in the collector and heats the ground, which is used to store heat energy and heat the indoor air. Then, the hot air is forced by the pressure difference between it and the ambient air to move along the tilted segment and up the vertical segment of the 'chimney', driving the turbine generators to generate electricity. The mountain hollow, formed by excavation in a large-elevation mountain, can avoid the safety issues of erecting a gigantic concrete chimney, which is needed for commercial solar chimney thermal power plants. Furthermore, it can also save a great amount of construction materials for constructing a robust chimney structure and reduce the energy cost to a level less than that of a clean coal power plant, providing a good solution to the reclamation and utilization of undeveloped mountains, especially in mountainous countries. (author)

  3. Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xinping; Yang Jiakuan; Wang Jinbo; Xiao Bo

    2009-01-01

    The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar collector with a mountain hollow is presented and described. Solar energy is collected in the collector and heats the ground, which is used to store heat energy and heat the indoor air. Then, the hot air is forced by the pressure difference between it and the ambient air to move along the tilted segment and up the vertical segment of the 'chimney', driving the turbine generators to generate electricity. The mountain hollow, formed by excavation in a large-elevation mountain, can avoid the safety issues of erecting a gigantic concrete chimney, which is needed for commercial solar chimney thermal power plants. Furthermore, it can also save a great amount of construction materials for constructing a robust chimney structure and reduce the energy cost to a level less than that of a clean coal power plant, providing a good solution to the reclamation and utilization of undeveloped mountains, especially in mountainous countries

  4. Numerical modelling of CIGS/CdS solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Nisha; Aziz, Anver; Datta, Shouvik

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we design and analyze the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cell using simulation software "Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator in One Dimension (SCAPS-1D)". The conventional CIGS solar cell uses various layers, like intrinsic ZnO/Aluminium doped ZnO as transparent oxide, antireflection layer MgF2, and electron back reflection (EBR) layer at CIGS/Mo interface for good power conversion efficiency. We replace this conventional model by a simple model which is easy to fabricate and also reduces the cost of this cell because of use of lesser materials. The new designed model of CIGS solar cell is ITO/CIGS/OVC/CdS/Metal contact, where OVC is ordered vacancy compound. From this simple structure, even at very low illumination we are getting good results. We simulate this CIGS solar cell model by varying various physical parameters of CIGS like thickness, carrier density, band gap and temperature.

  5. Composition of Mineral Produced by Dental Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volponi, A A; Gentleman, E; Fatscher, R; Pang, Y W Y; Gentleman, M M; Sharpe, P T

    2015-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from different dental tissues have been described to have osteogenic/odontogenic-like differentiation capacity, but little attention has been paid to the biochemical composition of the material that each produces. Here, we used Raman spectroscopy to analyze the mineralized materials produced in vitro by different dental cell populations, and we compared them with the biochemical composition of native dental tissues. We show that different dental stem cell populations produce materials that differ in their mineral and matrix composition and that these differ from those of native dental tissues. In vitro, BCMP (bone chip mass population), SCAP (stem cells from apical papilla), and SHED (stem cells from human-exfoliated deciduous teeth) cells produce a more highly mineralized matrix when compared with that produced by PDL (periodontal ligament), DPA (dental pulp adult), and GF (gingival fibroblast) cells. Principal component analyses of Raman spectra further demonstrated that the crystallinity and carbonate substitution environments in the material produced by each cell type varied, with DPA cells, for example, producing a more carbonate-substituted mineral and with SCAP, SHED, and GF cells creating a less crystalline material when compared with other dental stem cells and native tissues. These variations in mineral composition reveal intrinsic differences in the various cell populations, which may in turn affect their specific clinical applications. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  6. The high intensity solar cell: Key to low cost photovoltaic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sater, B. L.; Goradia, C.

    1975-01-01

    The design considerations and performance characteristics of the 'high intensity' (HI) solar cell are presented. A high intensity solar system was analyzed to determine its cost effectiveness and to assess the benefits of further improving HI cell efficiency. It is shown that residential sized systems can be produced at less than $1000/kW peak electric power. Due to their superior high intensity performance characteristics compared to the conventional and VMJ cells, HI cells and light concentrators may be the key to low cost photovoltaic power.

  7. Review of Polymer, Dye-Sensitized, and Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. F. Mohd-Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of inorganic nanoparticles semiconductor, conjugated polymer, and dye-sensitized in a layer of solar cell is now recognized as potential application in developing flexible, large area, and low cost photovoltaic devices. Several conjugated low bandgap polymers, dyes, and underlayer materials based on the previous studies are quoted in this paper, which can provide guidelines in designing low cost photovoltaic solar cells. All of these materials are designed to help harvest more sunlight in a wider range of the solar spectrum besides enhancing the rate of charge transfer in a device structure. This review focuses on developing solid-state dye-synthesized, polymer, and hybrid solar cells.

  8. Experiment Based Teaching of Solar Cell Operation and Characterization Using the SolarLab Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Kerekes, Tamas

    2014-01-01

    interfaces for exploring different solar cell principles and topics. The exercises presented in the current paper have been adapted from the original exercises developed for the SolarLab platform and are currently included in the Photovoltaic Power Systems courses (MSc and PhD level) taught at the Department...... which is a laboratory teaching tool developed at Transylvania University of Brasov. Using this platform, solar cells can be characterized under various illumination, temperature and angle of light incidence. Additionally, the SolarLab platform includes guided exercises and intuitive graphical user......Experiment based teaching methods are a great way to get students involved and interested in almost any topic. This paper presents such a hands-on approach for teaching solar cell operation principles along with characterization and modelling methods. This is achieved with the SolarLab platform...

  9. Thermodynamics, Entropy, Information and the Efficiency of Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Zeev R.

    -Queisser limit, known as "3rd generation" concepts. After analyzing the standard single-junction cell, other forms of surpassing the detailed-balance limit are presented and discussed, from the viewpoint of entropy and its relation to the amount of information lost or produced in the photovoltaic conversion process. In addition to the well-known 3rd generation methods: up- and down-conversion, carrier multiplication and intermediate band solar cells, other ideas are discussed such as using Feedback to shift the optimal bandgap of the cell, and the use of spectral splitting to completely utilize the solar spectrum. The focus on entropy (and the open-circuit voltage) as the primary variable of interest uncovers new limitations to these processes, and denotes preferences of certain technologies over others. Using this parallel approach provides insights into the field that were either neglected or not realized. This work thus provides a new set of guidelines for searching for and analyzing innovative techniques to maximize the power conversion efficiency from solar cells.

  10. Thermodynamic performance analysis of a fuel cell trigeneration system integrated with solar-assisted methanol reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiangjiang; Wu, Jing; Xu, Zilong; Li, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Propose a fuel cell trigeneration system integrated with solar-assisted methanol reforming. • Optimize the reaction parameters of methanol steam reforming. • Present the energy and exergy analysis under design and off-design work conditions. • Analyze the contributions of solar energy to the trigeneration system. - Abstract: A solar-assisted trigeneration system for producing electricity, cooling, and heating simultaneously is an alternative scheme to improve energy efficiency and boost renewable energy. This paper proposes a phosphoric acid fuel cell trigeneration system integrated with methanol and steam reforming assisted by solar thermal energy. The trigeneration system consists of a solar heat collection subsystem, methanol steam reforming subsystem, fuel cell power generation subsystem, and recovered heat utilization subsystem. Their respective thermodynamic models are constructed to simulate the system input/output characteristics, and energy and exergy efficiencies are employed to evaluate the system thermodynamic performances. The contribution of solar energy to the system is analyzed using solar energy/exergy share. Through the simulation and analysis of methanol and steam reforming reactions, the optimal reaction pressure, temperature, and methanol to water ratio are obtained to improve the flow rate and content of produced hydrogen. The thermodynamic simulations of the trigeneration system show that the system energy efficiencies at the summer and winter design work conditions are 73.7% and 51.7%, while its exergy efficiencies are 18.8% and 26.1%, respectively. When the solar radiation intensity is different from the design work condition, the total energy and exergy efficiencies in winter decrease approximately by 4.7% and 2.2%, respectively, due to the decrease in solar heat collection efficiency. This proposed novel trigeneration system complemented by solar heat energy and methanol chemical energy is favorable for improving the

  11. One kilometer (1 km) electric solar wind sail tether produced automatically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen, Henri; Rauhala, Timo; Kiprich, Sergiy; Ukkonen, Jukka; Simonsson, Martin; Kurppa, Risto; Janhunen, Pekka; Hæggström, Edward

    2013-09-01

    We produced a 1 km continuous piece of multifilament electric solar wind sail tether of μm-diameter aluminum wires using a custom made automatic tether factory. The tether comprising 90,704 bonds between 25 and 50 μm diameter wires is reeled onto a metal reel. The total mass of 1 km tether is 10 g. We reached a production rate of 70 m/24 h and a quality level of 1‰ loose bonds and 2‰ rebonded ones. We thus demonstrated that production of long electric solar wind sail tethers is possible and practical.

  12. Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Beaucarne

    2007-01-01

    with plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. In spite of the fundamental limitation of this material due to its disorder and metastability, the technology is now gaining industrial momentum thanks to the entry of equipment manufacturers with experience with large-area PECVD. Microcrystalline Si (also called nanocrystalline Si is a material with crystallites in the nanometer range in an amorphous matrix, and which contains less defects than amorphous silicon. Its lower bandgap makes it particularly appropriate as active material for the bottom cell in tandem and triple junction devices. The combination of an amorphous silicon top cell and a microcrystalline bottom cell has yielded promising results, but much work is needed to implement it on large-area and to limit light-induced degradation. Finally thin-film polysilicon solar cells, with grain size in the micrometer range, has recently emerged as an alternative photovoltaic technology. The layers have a grain size ranging from 1 μm to several tens of microns, and are formed at a temperature ranging from 600 to more than 1000∘C. Solid Phase Crystallization has yielded the best results so far but there has recently been fast progress with seed layer approaches, particularly those using the aluminum-induced crystallization technique.

  13. Photoelectrode nanostructure dye-sensitized solar cell | Kimpa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study used carica papaya (pawpaw leaf) extracts as natural organic dye for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Pawpaw leaf extract is rich in chlorophyll and was extracted using ethanol as the extracting solvent and serve as the sensitizer for DSSC. The specialty of the DSSC relative to other types of solar cells is the use ...

  14. Microstructure and Mechanical Aspects of Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popovich, V.A.

    2013-01-01

    Due to pressure from the photovoltaic industry to decrease the cost of solar cell production, there is a tendency to reduce the thickness of silicon wafers. Unfortunately, wafers contain defects created by the various processing steps involved in solar cell production, which significantly reduce the

  15. Characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Shoji, E-mail: furukawa@cse.kyutech.ac.j [Graduate School of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka-shi, Fukuoka-ken 820-8502 (Japan); Iino, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Tomohisa; Kukita, Koudai; Yamauchi, Shoji [Graduate School of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka-shi, Fukuoka-ken 820-8502 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are expected to be used for future clean energy. Recently, most of the researchers in this field use Ruthenium complex as dye in the dye-sensitized solar cells. However, Ruthenium is a rare metal, so the cost of the Ruthenium complex is very high. In this paper, various dye-sensitized solar cells have been fabricated using natural dye, such as the dye of red-cabbage, curcumin, and red-perilla. As a result, it was found that the conversion efficiency of the solar cell fabricated using the mixture of red-cabbage and curcumin was about 0.6% (light source: halogen lamp), which was larger than that of the solar cells using one kind of dye. It was also found that the conversion efficiency was about 1.0% for the solar cell with the oxide semiconductor film fabricated using polyethylene glycol (PEG) whose molecular weight was 2,000,000 and red-cabbage dye. This indicates that the cost performance (defined by [conversion efficiency]/[cost of dye]) of the latter solar cell (dye: red-cabbage) is larger by more than 50 times than that of the solar cell using Ruthenium complex, even if the effect of the difference between the halogen lamp and the standard light source is taken into account.

  16. STUDY OF PERFORMANCES OF ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS BY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30 juin 2011 ... results of analysis of performances of organic solar cells by using what one call the datamining materials. ... Keywords: organic solar cells, gap energie, effiency, PCA. Author Correspondence .... oubli est malencontreux car le type de données disponibles influence toujours la direction de la recherche.

  17. Five-Junction Solar Cell Optimization Using Silvaco Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    SOLAR CELL OPTIMIZATION USING SILVACO ATLAS by Raymond J. Kilway II September 2017 Thesis Advisor: Sherif Michael Second Reader: Matthew......12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Multi-junction solar cells have given rise to compact high-efficiency photovoltaic

  18. Phenothiazine-Based Dyes in Solar Cell Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Bejan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenothiazine is a fused heterocyclic ring with strong electron-donating character which makes it an important building block for designing organic materials for solar cells applications. The present paper reviews the most recent achievements of phenothiazine-based compounds as dyes in solar cells, with special emphasis on the structure – performance relationship.

  19. Pathways to a New Efficiency Regime for Organic Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, L. Jan Anton; Shaheen, Sean E.; Hummelen, Jan C.

    2012-01-01

    Three different theoretical approaches are presented to identify pathways to organic solar cells with power conversion efficiencies in excess of 20%. A radiation limit for organic solar cells is introduced that elucidates the role of charge-transfer (CT) state absorption. Provided this CT action is

  20. Transparent conductive oxides for thin-film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löffler, J.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes research on thin-film silicon solar cells with focus on the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) for such devices. In addition to the formation of a transparent and electrically conductive front electrode for the solar cell allowing photocurrent collection with low ohmic losses,

  1. Stability and degradation mechanisms in organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecker, Bernhard

    2012-04-26

    This thesis deals with stability improvements and the investigation of degradation mechanisms in organic solar cells. Organic solar cells have been in the focus of extensive academic research for over almost two decades and are currently entering the market in small scale applications. For successful large scale applications, next to the improvement of the power conversion efficiency, the stability of organic solar cells has to be increased. This thesis is dedicated to the investigation of novel materials and architectures to study stability-related issues and degradation mechanisms in order to contribute to the basic understanding of the working principles of organic solar cells. Here, impedance spectroscopy, a frequency domain technique, is used to gain information about stability and degradation mechanisms in organic solar cells. In combination with systematic variations in the preparation of solar cells, impedance spectroscopy gives the possibility to differentiate between interface and bulk dominated effects. Additionally, impedance spectroscopy gives access to the dielectric properties of the device, such as capacitance. This offers among other things the opportunity to probe the charge carrier concentration and the density of states. Another powerful way of evaluation is the combination of experimentally obtained impedance spectra with equivalent circuit modelling. The thesis presents results on novel materials and solar cell architectures for efficient hole and electron extraction. This indicates the importance of knowledge over interlayers and interfaces for improving both the efficiency and stability of organic solar cells.

  2. Silicon solar cells made by ion implantation and glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponpon, J.P.; Siffert, P.

    1975-01-01

    Three different methods of silicon solar cell preparation are considered and investigated: low energy implantation, glow discharge and prebombarded Schottky barriers. The properties of the contact layers realized by these processes are compared in terms of junction depth and sheet resistance. Preliminary results show the usefulness of these techniques for terrestrial solar cell realization [fr

  3. 3D-Printed external light traps for solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, L.; Paetzold, U.W.; Blab, Gerhard; Marcus, E.A.P.; Oostra, A.J.; van de Groep, J.; Polman, A.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Di Vece, M.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a universally applicable 3D-printed external light trap for solar cells. We placed a macroscopic external light trap made of smoothened, silver coated plastic at the sun-facing surface of different types of solar cells. The trap consists of a reflective parabolic concentrator on top

  4. Electrical equivalent model of intermediate band solar cell using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    presents a structure of IBSC based on ZnTe:O. The proposed model uses irradiance and temperature as ... of solar cells. They are based on different processes and properties such as photon recycling, ... The MATLAB interface was used .... ioral model of an arbitrary solar cell to amend the PSPICE simulation performance.

  5. Principles and operation of crystalline and amorphous silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambouleyron, I.

    1983-01-01

    This paper deals with the fundamental aspects of photovoltaic energy conversion. Crystalline silicon solar cell physics together with design criteria and conversion losses are discussed. The general properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon and the principles of a-Si:H solar cell operation are briefly reviewed. New trends in amorphous materials of photovoltaic interest and novel device structures are finally presented. (Author) [pt

  6. Applications of ``PV Optics`` for solar cell and module design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B.L.; Madjdpour, J.; Chen, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes some applications of a new optics software package, PV Optics, developed for the optical design of solar cells and modules. PV Optics is suitable for the analysis and design of both thick and thin solar cells. It also includes a feature for calculation of metallic losses related to contacts and back reflectors.

  7. Monolithic Perovskite Silicon Tandem Solar Cells with Advanced Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Jan C.; Bett, Alexander J.; Bivour, Martin; Blasi, Benedikt; Eisenlohr, Johannes; Kohlstadt, Markus; Lee, Seunghun; Mastroianni, Simone; Mundt, Laura; Mundus, Markus; Ndione, Paul; Reichel, Christian; Schubert, Martin; Schulze, Patricia S.; Tucher, Nico; Veit, Clemens; Veurman, Welmoed; Wienands, Karl; Winkler, Kristina; Wurfel, Uli; Glunz, Stefan W.; Hermle, Martin

    2016-11-14

    For high efficiency monolithic perovskite silicon tandem solar cells, we develop low-temperature processes for the perovskite top cell, rear-side light trapping, optimized perovskite growth, transparent contacts and adapted characterization methods.

  8. Role of asymmetric meridional circulation in producing north-south asymmetry in a solar cycle dynamo model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belucz, Bernadett; Dikpati, Mausumi

    2013-01-01

    Solar cycles in the north and south hemispheres differ in cycle length, amplitude, profile, polar fields, and coronal structure. To show what role differences in meridional flow could play in producing these differences, we present the results of three sets of numerical simulations from a flux transport dynamo in which one property of meridional circulation has been changed in the south only. The changes are in amplitude and the presence of a second cell in latitude or in depth. An ascending phase speedup causes weakening of polar and toroidal fields; a speed decrease in a late descending phase does not change amplitudes. A long-duration speed increase leads to lower toroidal field peaks but unchanged polar field peaks. A second high-latitude circulation cell in an ascending phase weakens the next polar and toroidal field peaks, and the ascending phase is lengthened. A second cell in a late descending phase speeds up the cycle. A long-duration second cell leads to a poleward branch of the butterfly diagram and weaker polar fields. A second cell in depth reverses the tilt of the butterfly wing, decreasing polar fields when added during an ascending phase and increasing them during a late descending phase. A long-duration presence of a second cell in radius evolves the butterfly diagram far away from the observed one, with different dynamo periods in low and high latitudes. Thus, a second cell in depth is unlikely to persist more than a few years if the solar dynamo is advection-dominated. Our results show the importance of time variation and north-south asymmetry in meridional circulation in producing differing cycles in the north and south.

  9. Role of asymmetric meridional circulation in producing north-south asymmetry in a solar cycle dynamo model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belucz, Bernadett [Eötvös University, Department of Astronomy, 1518 Budapest, Pf. 32 (Hungary); Dikpati, Mausumi [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 3080 Center Green, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    Solar cycles in the north and south hemispheres differ in cycle length, amplitude, profile, polar fields, and coronal structure. To show what role differences in meridional flow could play in producing these differences, we present the results of three sets of numerical simulations from a flux transport dynamo in which one property of meridional circulation has been changed in the south only. The changes are in amplitude and the presence of a second cell in latitude or in depth. An ascending phase speedup causes weakening of polar and toroidal fields; a speed decrease in a late descending phase does not change amplitudes. A long-duration speed increase leads to lower toroidal field peaks but unchanged polar field peaks. A second high-latitude circulation cell in an ascending phase weakens the next polar and toroidal field peaks, and the ascending phase is lengthened. A second cell in a late descending phase speeds up the cycle. A long-duration second cell leads to a poleward branch of the butterfly diagram and weaker polar fields. A second cell in depth reverses the tilt of the butterfly wing, decreasing polar fields when added during an ascending phase and increasing them during a late descending phase. A long-duration presence of a second cell in radius evolves the butterfly diagram far away from the observed one, with different dynamo periods in low and high latitudes. Thus, a second cell in depth is unlikely to persist more than a few years if the solar dynamo is advection-dominated. Our results show the importance of time variation and north-south asymmetry in meridional circulation in producing differing cycles in the north and south.

  10. Photoelectrochemistry of metallo-octacarboxyphthalocyanines for the development of dye solar cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mphahlele, N

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Significant attention is being paid to dye solar cells (DSCs) as the next generation in solar cell technology for their low cost alternative as compared to solid state solar cells....

  11. AlGaAs top solar cell for mechanical attachment in a multi-junction tandem concentrator solar cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinetta, L. C.; Hannon, M. H.; Cummings, J. R.; Mcneeley, J. B.; Barnett, Allen M.

    1990-01-01

    Free-standing, transparent, tunable bandgap AlxGa1-xAs top solar cells have been fabricated for mechanical attachment in a four terminal tandem stack solar cell. Evaluation of the device results has demonstrated 1.80 eV top solar cells with efficiencies of 18 percent (100 X, and AM0) which would yield stack efficiencies of 31 percent (100 X, AM0) with a silicon bottom cell. When fully developed, the AlxGa1-xAs/Si mechanically-stacked two-junction solar cell concentrator system can provide efficiencies of 36 percent (AM0, 100 X). AlxGa1-xAs top solar cells with bandgaps from 1.66 eV to 2.08 eV have been fabricated. Liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) growth techniques have been used and LPE has been found to yield superior AlxGa1-xAs material when compared to molecular beam epitaxy and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. It is projected that stack assembly technology will be readily applicable to any mechanically stacked multijunction (MSMJ) system. Development of a wide bandgap top solar cell is the only feasible method for obtaining stack efficiencies greater than 40 percent at AM0. System efficiencies of greater than 40 percent can be realized when the AlGaAs top solar cell is used in a three solar cell mechanical stack.

  12. Process research of non-cz silicon material. Low cost solar array project, cell and module formation research area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid diffusion masks and liquid applied dopants to replace the CVD Silox masking and gaseous diffusion operations specified for forming junctions in the Westinghouse baseline process sequence for producing solar cells from dendritic web silicon were investigated.

  13. Innovative laser based solar cell scribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Bruno; Schneeberger, Stefan; Witte, Reiner

    2011-03-01

    The solar photovoltaic market is continuously growing utilizing boths crystalline silicon (c-Si) as well as thin film technologies. This growth is directly dependant on the manufacturing costs for solar cells. Factors for cost reduction are innovative ideas for an optimization of precision and throughput. Lasers are excellent tools to provide highly efficient processes with impressive accuracy. They need to be used in combination with fast and precise motion systems for a maximum gain in the manufacturing process, yielding best cost of ownership. In this article such an innovative solution is presented for laser scribing in thin film Si modules. A combination of a new glass substrate holding system combined with a fast and precise motion system is the foundation for a cost effective scribing machine. In addition, the advantages of fiber lasers in beam delivery and beam quality guarantee not only shorter setup and down times but also high resolution and reproducibility for the scribing processes P1, P2 and P3. The precision of the whole system allows to reduce the dead zone to a minimum and therefore to improve the efficiency of the modules.

  14. Environmentally benign silicon solar cell manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuo, Y.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Gee, J.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Menna, P. [National Agency for New Technologies Energy and Environment, Portici (Italy); Strebkov, D.S.; Pinov, A.; Zadde, V. [Intersolarcenter, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-09-01

    The manufacturing of silicon devices--from polysilicon production, crystal growth, ingot slicing, wafer cleaning, device processing, to encapsulation--requires many steps that are energy intensive and use large amounts of water and toxic chemicals. In the past two years, the silicon integrated-circuit (IC) industry has initiated several programs to promote environmentally benign manufacturing, i.e., manufacturing practices that recover, recycle, and reuse materials resources with a minimal consumption of energy. Crystalline-silicon solar photovoltaic (PV) modules, which accounted for 87% of the worldwide module shipments in 1997, are large-area devices with many manufacturing steps similar to those used in the IC industry. Obviously, there are significant opportunities for the PV industry to implement more environmentally benign manufacturing approaches. Such approaches often have the potential for significant cost reduction by reducing energy use and/or the purchase volume of new chemicals and by cutting the amount of used chemicals that must be discarded. This paper will review recent accomplishments of the IC industry initiatives and discuss new processes for environmentally benign silicon solar-cell manufacturing.

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on nanostructured zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conradt, Jonas; Maier-Flaig, Florian; Sartor, Janos; Fallert, Johannes [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Szmytkowski, Jedrzej; Kalt, Heinz [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe (Germany); Reinhard, Manuel; Colsmann, Alexander [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Lichttechnisches Institut, Karlsruhe (Germany); Lemmer, Uli [Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Lichttechnisches Institut, Karlsruhe (Germany); Balaban, Teodor Silviu [Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Hybrid solar cells represent a promising (cost-efficient) alternative to pure inorganic solar cells. We present dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) which are based on a zinc oxide (ZnO) electrode covered with a ruthenium dye. Our work focuses on the morphology of the ZnO electrode and its impact on the photovoltaic performance of the solar cell. Nanocrystalline ZnO powder layers and arrays of nanorods are incorporated into the DSSCs. The ZnO nanorods are grown by vapor transport deposition. The morphology and doping concentration of the rods can be controlled by the choice of substrate material, growth condition and catalytic metal layers. The nanorod arrays are expected to fasten the electron transport towards the anode and thereby improve the solar cell efficiency. In addition, novel self-assembling (porphyrin) dyes are tested as sensitizer within a DSSC.

  16. Design and Photovoltaic Properties of Graphene/Silicon Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dikai; Yu, Xuegong; Yang, Lifei; Yang, Deren

    2018-04-01

    Graphene/silicon (Gr/Si) Schottky junction solar cells have attracted widespread attention for the fabrication of high-efficiency and low-cost solar cells. However, their performance is still limited by the working principles of Schottky junctions. Modulating the working mechanism of the solar cells into a quasi p-n junction has advantages, including higher open-circuit voltage (V OC) and less carrier recombination. In this study, Gr/Si quasi p-n junction solar cells were formed by inserting a tunneling Al2O3 interlayer in-between graphene and silicon, which led to obtain the PCE up to 8.48% without antireflection or chemical doping techniques. Our findings could pave a new way for the development of Gr/Si solar cells.

  17. Emerging Semitransparent Solar Cells: Materials and Device Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Qidong; Yan, Feng

    2017-09-01

    Semitransparent solar cells can provide not only efficient power-generation but also appealing images and show promising applications in building integrated photovoltaics, wearable electronics, photovoltaic vehicles and so forth in the future. Such devices have been successfully realized by incorporating transparent electrodes in new generation low-cost solar cells, including organic solar cells (OSCs), dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) and organometal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs). In this review, the advances in the preparation of semitransparent OSCs, DSCs, and PSCs are summarized, focusing on the top transparent electrode materials and device designs, which are all crucial to the performance of these devices. Techniques for optimizing the efficiency, color and transparency of the devices are addressed in detail. Finally, a summary of the research field and an outlook into the future development in this area are provided. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Business, market and intellectual property analysis of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard Nielsen, Torben; Cruickshank, C.; Foged, S.

    2010-01-01

    and manufacturing cost leaves little room for competition on the thin film photovoltaic market. However, polymer solar cells do enable the competitive manufacture of low cost niche products and is viewed as financially viable in its currently available form in a large volume approximation. Finally, it is found......The business potential of polymer solar cells is reviewed and the market opportunities analyzed on the basis of the currently reported and projected performance and manufacturing cost of polymer solar cells. Possible new market areas are identified and described. An overview of the present patent...... and intellectual property situation is also given and a patent map of polymer solar cells is drawn in a European context. It is found that the business potential of polymer solar cells is large when taking the projections for future performance into account while the currently available performance...

  19. Neutral- and Multi-Colored Semitransparent Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu-Tae; Guo, L Jay; Park, Hui Joon

    2016-04-11

    In this review, we summarize recent works on perovskite solar cells with neutral- and multi-colored semitransparency for building-integrated photovoltaics and tandem solar cells. The perovskite solar cells exploiting microstructured arrays of perovskite "islands" and transparent electrodes-the latter of which include thin metallic films, metal nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphenes, and transparent conductive oxides for achieving optical transparency-are investigated. Moreover, the perovskite solar cells with distinctive color generation, which are enabled by engineering the band gap of the perovskite light-harvesting semiconductors with chemical management and integrating with photonic nanostructures, including microcavity, are discussed. We conclude by providing future research directions toward further performance improvements of the semitransparent perovskite solar cells.

  20. Upscaling of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)-Free Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan

    Polymer solar cells (PSCs) aim to produce clean energy that is cost-competitive to energy produced by fossil fuel-based conventional energy sources. From an environmental perspective, PSCs already compares favorably to other solar cell technologies in terms of fewer emissions of greenhouse gases......, represents majority of the share of cost and energy footprint in terms of materials and processing in a conventional PSC module. Furthermore, the scarcity of indium is feared to create bottleneck in the dawning PSC industry and its brittle nature is an obstacle for fast processing of PSCs on flexible...

  1. Commercial Development Of Ovonic Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R.

    1983-09-01

    One square foot Ovonic amorphous photovoltaic devices are already in commercial production and are manufactured through a continuous web process. The next levels of commercialization required to achieve a large-volume power market will be discussed, and the device specifications correlated with the chemical and electronic properties of the materials that we are developing to achieve even higher efficiencies. It has been long considered a utopian dream to harness the energy of the sun to create electricity that would be competitive in cost to that produced from the conventional sources of energy such as oil, gas, and uranium. The impact on our society of stand-alone power generators without moving parts using the continually available, ubiquitous energy of the sun could certainly lead to a new age with consequences comparable to the first introduction of electricity which greatly accelerated the Industrial Revolution. Low cost, nonpolluting energy not dependent upon or limited by transmission costs could again make DC electricity a realistic option. The relatively young field of photovoltaics suffers from certain dogmas that are just now being questioned. For example, it is thought by many that solar cells utilizing crys-talline materials have inherently higher efficiencies than those using amorphous materials, and that somehow crystalline solar cells, whether fabricated from single crystals or polycrystalline material, in round or rectangular geometries, grown from the melt or by a rib-bon process, can be reduced in cost sufficiently that the economics become attractive enough for large-scale terrestrial generation of power. In this paper, we shall show that amorphous materials can have much higher efficiencies than do crystalline and that the answer to our power generation needs lies not in crystalline but in amorphous technology. At Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. (ECD), we have designed and built a production machine (described by my colleague, Dr. Izu, in a

  2. Gold leaf counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kazuhiro; Toyoda, Takeshi

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a gold leaf 100 nm thin film is used as the counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. The traditional method of hammering gold foil to obtain a thin gold leaf, which requires only small amounts of gold, was employed. The gold leaf was then attached to the substrate using an adhesive to produce the gold electrode. The proposed approach for fabricating counter electrodes is demonstrated to be facile and cost-effective, as opposed to existing techniques. Compared with electrodes prepared with gold foil and sputtered gold, the gold leaf counter electrode demonstrates higher catalytic activity with a cobalt-complex electrolyte and higher cell efficiency. The origin of the improved performance was investigated by surface morphology examination (scanning electron microscopy), various electrochemical analyses (cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy), and crystalline analysis (X-ray diffractometry).

  3. Preparation of conjugated polymer-based composite thin film for application in solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yang-Yen; Chien, Wen-Chen; Ko, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Chih-Ping; Chang, Chao-Ching

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the enhanced cell efficiency of structures and properties of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) hybrid materials. The prepared hybrid materials were characterized using ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Different concentrations of these MWNTs were suspended in polymer solutions and spin-cast onto indium tin oxide (ITO) glass. Solar cells with a device structure of ITO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) /P3HT:MWNTs/aluminum were then produced using evaporated aluminum as the back contact. The results showed that the ratio of P3HT to MWNTs considerably influenced the performance of the fabricated solar cells. The efficiency of the solar cells increased with the ratio of carbon nanotubes. Monochromatic incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency analysis was performed and the results indicated that at the optimal P3HT/MWNTs ratio (= 1/1), the solar cells demonstrated a high-quality conversion of 2.16% with a fill factor of 42.22%, an open circuit voltage of 0.56 V, and a short circuit current of 9.12 mA/cm 2 . - Highlights: • Solar cells ITO/PEDOT:PSS(DMSO)/P3HT:MWNT/Al were fabricated. • Optimal ratio of P3HT to MWNT was investigated. • Solar cell with 2.16% efficiency was obtained

  4. Preparation of conjugated polymer-based composite thin film for application in solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yang-Yen, E-mail: yyyu@mail.mcut.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Battery Research Center of Green Energy, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Center for Thin Film Technologies and Applications, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Chien, Wen-Chen [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Battery Research Center of Green Energy, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Ko, Yu-Hsin [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chih-Ping [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Battery Research Center of Green Energy, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chao-Ching [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tamkang University, 151, Yingzhuan Rd., Tamsui Dist., New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports on the enhanced cell efficiency of structures and properties of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) hybrid materials. The prepared hybrid materials were characterized using ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Different concentrations of these MWNTs were suspended in polymer solutions and spin-cast onto indium tin oxide (ITO) glass. Solar cells with a device structure of ITO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) /P3HT:MWNTs/aluminum were then produced using evaporated aluminum as the back contact. The results showed that the ratio of P3HT to MWNTs considerably influenced the performance of the fabricated solar cells. The efficiency of the solar cells increased with the ratio of carbon nanotubes. Monochromatic incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency analysis was performed and the results indicated that at the optimal P3HT/MWNTs ratio (= 1/1), the solar cells demonstrated a high-quality conversion of 2.16% with a fill factor of 42.22%, an open circuit voltage of 0.56 V, and a short circuit current of 9.12 mA/cm{sup 2}. - Highlights: • Solar cells ITO/PEDOT:PSS(DMSO)/P3HT:MWNT/Al were fabricated. • Optimal ratio of P3HT to MWNT was investigated. • Solar cell with 2.16% efficiency was obtained.

  5. Workshop - Solar cells and daylight. Solar cell house. House building with integrated solar cell systems; Workshop - Solceller og dagslys. Solcellehus. Boligbyggeri med integrerede solcelleanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Mio; Hansen, Ellen Kathrine

    2005-04-15

    The workshop 'Solar cells and daylight' at Aarhus School of Architecture aimed at studying and developing architectural potentials of integrating solar cell systems in building components for future house building. The aim of the process was to stress that technical conditions such as energy technological component design might work as central points of support in the future shaping and organisation of qualitative and functional design of houses. (BA)

  6. The performance of silicon solar cells operated in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yiping; Fang Zhenlei; Zhu Li; Huang Qunwu; Zhang Yan; Zhang Zhiying

    2009-01-01

    Better performance can be achieved when the bare silicon solar cells are immersed into liquids for the enhanced heat removing. In this study, the performance of solar cells immersed in liquids was examined under simulated sunlight. To distinguish the effects of the liquid optic and electric properties on the solar cells, a comparison between immersion of the solar module and the bare solar cells was carried out. It was found that the optic properties of the liquids can cause minor efficiency changes on the solar cells, while the electric properties of the liquids, the molecular polarizable and ions, are responsible for the most of the changes. The bare solar cells immersed in the non-polar silicon oil have the best performance. The accelerated life tests were carried out at 150 deg. C high temperature and under 200 W/m 2 ultraviolet light irradiation, respectively. It was found that the silicon oil has good stability. This study can give support on the cooling of the concentrated photovoltaic systems by immersing the solar cells in the liquids directly

  7. Metal nanoparticles for thin film solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gritti, Claudia

    and intensity depends on the nanoparticle’s size, shape, and local dielectric environment, thus absorption enhancement in a defined wavelength range can be achieved varying these properties (tuning the LSP resonance). Even though scattering enhancement of photons above the gap of the semiconductor is useful...... to increase light trapping and can come along regardless, we aim, as first target, to absorb forbidden (for the semiconductor) photons by the NPs which can excite hot electrons inside the metal NP and emit them directly into the conduction band of the solar cell semiconductor, without going through...... the promotion of electrons from the valence band of the semiconductor. The photoemission would extend the spectral response of the photovoltaic device. Thus, NPs are placed at the metal/semiconductor interface (in order to exploit the localization characteristic of the LSP enhancement) and are used as active...

  8. Stability and Degradation of Polymer Solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Kion

    The current state-of-the-art allows for roll-to-roll manufacture of polymer solar cells in high volume with stability and efficiency sufficient to grant success in low-energy applications. However, further improvement is needed for the successful application of the devices in real life applications....... This is obtained by detailed knowledge of the degradation mechanisms. Methods to compare and standardize device stability are urgently needed. Methodologies to study failure mechanism that are based on physical processes (e.g. morphological changes) are well-established. However, methodologies to study chemical...... degradation mechanisms are currently scarce. An overview of known degradation mechanisms will be presented and discussed in relation to state-of-the-art methodologies to study failure mechanisms with focus on chemical degradation....

  9. Silicon solar cells: Past, present and the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn-Jung; Kim, Byung-Sung; Ifitiquar, S. M.; Park, Cheolmin; Yi, Junsin

    2014-08-01

    There has been a great demand for renewable energy for the last few years. However, the solar cell industry is currently experiencing a temporary plateau due to a sluggish economy and an oversupply of low-quality cells. The current situation can be overcome by reducing the production cost and by improving the cell is conversion efficiency. New materials such as compound semiconductor thin films have been explored to reduce the fabrication cost, and structural changes have been explored to improve the cell's efficiency. Although a record efficiency of 24.7% is held by a PERL — structured silicon solar cell and 13.44% has been realized using a thin silicon film, the mass production of these cells is still too expensive. Crystalline and amorphous silicon — based solar cells have led the solar industry and have occupied more than half of the market so far. They will remain so in the future photovoltaic (PV) market by playing a pivotal role in the solar industry. In this paper, we discuss two primary approaches that may boost the silicon — based solar cell market; one is a high efficiency approach and the other is a low cost approach. We also discuss the future prospects of various solar cells.

  10. Silicon solar cells: past, present and the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. J.; Kim, B. S.; Ifitiquar, S. M.; Park, C. M.; Yi, J. S. [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    There has been a great demand for renewable energy for the last few years. However, the solar cell industry is currently experiencing a temporary plateau due to a sluggish economy and an over supply of low-quality cells. The current situation can be overcome by reducing the production cost and by improving the cell is conversion efficiency. New materials such as compound semiconductor thin films have been explored to reduce the fabrication cost, and structural changes have been explored to improve the cell's efficiency. Although a record efficiency of 24.7% is held by a PERL - structured silicon solar cell and 13.44% has been realized using a thin silicon film, the mass production of these cells is still too expensive. Crystalline and amorphous silicon - based solar cells have led the solar industry and have occupied more than half of the market so far. They will remain so in the future photovoltaic (PV) market by playing a pivotal role in the solar industry. In this paper, we discuss two primary approaches that may boost the silicon - based solar cell market; one is a high efficiency approach and the other is a low cost approach. We also discuss the future prospects of various solar cells.

  11. IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0517 TITLE: IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Simon P. Hogan PhD...IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Yui Hsi Wang, Sunil...threatening anaphylaxis. We have identified a novel multi-functional IL-9-producing mucosal mast cells (MMC9s) that produce large amounts of IL-9, IL

  12. Study of upscaling possibilities for antimony sulfide solid state sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulou, Archontoula; Raptis, Dimitrios; Dracopoulos, Vasilios; Sygellou, Lamprini; Andrikopoulos, Konstantinos S.; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2015-03-01

    Solid state solar cells of inverted structure were constructed by successive deposition of nanoparticulate titania, antimony sulfide sensitizer and P3HT on FTO electrodes with PEDOT:PSS:Ag as counter electrode. Sensitized photoanode electrodes were characterized by XRD, Raman, XPS, FESEM and UV-vis. Small laboratory scale cells were first constructed and optimized. Functional cells were obtained by annealing the antimony sulfide film either in air or in inert atmosphere. High short-circuit currents were recorded in both cases with air-annealed sample producing more current but lower voltage. Small unit cells were combined to form cell modules. Connection of unit cells in parallel increased current but not proportionally to that of the unit cell. Connection in series preserved current and generated voltage multiplication. Cells were constructed and studied under ambient conditions, without encapsulation. The results encourage upscaling of antimony sulfide solar cells.

  13. Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project. [for solar cell power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Deyo, J. N.

    1976-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project was initiated by NASA in June, 1975, to develop economically feasible photovoltaic power systems suitable for a variety of terrestrial applications. Objectives include the determination of operating characteristic and lifetimes of a variety of solar cell systems and components and development of methodology and techniques for accurate measurements of solar cell and array performance and diagnostic measurements for solar power systems. Initial work will be concerned with residential applications, with testing of the first prototype system scheduled for June, 1976. An outdoor 10 kW array for testing solar power systems is under construction.

  14. High-Efficiency, Commercial Ready CdTe Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sites, James R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-11-19

    Colorado State’s F-PACE project explored several ways to increase the efficiency of CdTe solar cells and to better understand the device physics of those cells under study. Increases in voltage, current, and fill factor resulted in efficiencies above 17%. The three project tasks and additional studies are described in detail in the final report. Most cells studied were fabricated at Colorado State using an industry-compatible single-vacuum closed-space-sublimation (CSS) chamber for deposition of the key semiconductor layers. Additionally, some cells were supplied by First Solar for comparison purposes, and a small number of modules were supplied by Abound Solar.

  15. Perovskite-Based Solar Cells: Materials, Methods, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel all-solid-state, hybrid solar cell based on organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbX3 materials has attracted great attention from the researchers all over the world and is considered to be one of the top 10 scientific breakthroughs in 2013. The perovskite materials can be used not only as light-absorbing layer, but also as an electron/hole transport layer due to the advantages of its high extinction coefficient, high charge mobility, long carrier lifetime, and long carrier diffusion distance. The photoelectric power conversion efficiency of the perovskite solar cells has increased from 3.8% in 2009 to 22.1% in 2016, making perovskite solar cells the best potential candidate for the new generation of solar cells to replace traditional silicon solar cells in the future. In this paper, we introduce the development and mechanism of perovskite solar cells, describe the specific function of each layer, and focus on the improvement in the function of such layers and its influence on the cell performance. Next, the synthesis methods of the perovskite light-absorbing layer and the performance characteristics are discussed. Finally, the challenges and prospects for the development of perovskite solar cells are also briefly presented.

  16. Analysis of Operating Temperature of the Polycrystalline Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír GÁLL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the solar cells with orientation on the calculation of operating temperature of the polycrystalline solar cell, which is under actual load. Operating conditions have a significant effect on the efficiency of solar cells. In the summer with increasing temperature, the efficiency decreases. In the winter, efficiency and output voltage are rising. The operating temperature is determined by intensity of solar radiation, the types of materials used by construction and operating condition. The aim of this work was simplify of the calculation of operating temperature of solar cells. The result of this work is a derived equation that allows a more accurate and faster calculation this temperature with using Matlab software.

  17. Silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon carbide for tandem solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnabel, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Tandem solar cells consist of multiple individual solar cells stacked in order of increasing bandgap, with the cell with highest bandgap towards the incident light. This allows photons to be absorbed in the cell that will convert them to electricity with the greatest efficiency, and is the only solar cell concept to surpass the theoretical efficiency limit of a conventional solar cell so far. This work is concerned with the development of silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) embedded in silicon carbide, which are expected to have a higher bandgap than bulk Si due to quantum confinement, for use in the top cell of a two-junction tandem cell. Charge carrier transport and recombination were investigated as a function of various parameters. Distortion of luminescence spectra by optical interference was highlighted and a robust model to describe transport of majority carriers was developed. Furthermore, a range of processing steps required to produce a Si NC-based tandem cell were studied, culminating in the preparation of the first Si NC-based tandem cells. The resulting cells exhibited open-circuit voltages of 900 mV, demonstrating tandem cell functionality.

  18. Comparative modeling of InP solar cell structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, R. K.; Weinberg, I.; Flood, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The comparative modeling of p(+)n and n(+)p indium phosphide solar cell structures is studied using a numerical program PC-1D. The optimal design study has predicted that the p(+)n structure offers improved cell efficiencies as compared to n(+)p structure, due to higher open-circuit voltage. The various cell material and process parameters to achieve the maximum cell efficiencies are reported. The effect of some of the cell parameters on InP cell I-V characteristics was studied. The available radiation resistance data on n(+)p and p(+)p InP solar cells are also critically discussed.

  19. Solar Cell Short Circuit Current Errors and Uncertainties During High Altitude Calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, David D.

    2012-01-01

    High altitude balloon based facilities can make solar cell calibration measurements above 99.5% of the atmosphere to use for adjusting laboratory solar simulators. While close to on-orbit illumination, the small attenuation to the spectra may result in under measurements of solar cell parameters. Variations of stratospheric weather, may produce flight-to-flight measurement variations. To support the NSCAP effort, this work quantifies some of the effects on solar cell short circuit current (Isc) measurements on triple junction sub-cells. This work looks at several types of high altitude methods, direct high altitude meas urements near 120 kft, and lower stratospheric Langley plots from aircraft. It also looks at Langley extrapolation from altitudes above most of the ozone, for potential small balloon payloads. A convolution of the sub-cell spectral response with the standard solar spectrum modified by several absorption processes is used to determine the relative change from AMO, lscllsc(AMO). Rayleigh scattering, molecular scatterin g from uniformly mixed gases, Ozone, and water vapor, are included in this analysis. A range of atmosph eric pressures are examined, from 0. 05 to 0.25 Atm to cover the range of atmospheric altitudes where solar cell calibrations a reperformed. Generally these errors and uncertainties are less than 0.2%

  20. Enhancing dye-sensitized solar cell efficiency by anode surface treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chao-Hsuan; Lin, Hsin-Han; Chen, Chin-Cheng; Hong, Franklin C.-N.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, titanium substrates treated with HF solution and KOH solution sequentially forming micro- and nano-structures were used for the fabrication of flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). After wet etching treatments, the titanium substrates were then exposed to the O 2 plasma treatment and further immersed in titanium tetrachloride (TiCl 4 ) solution. The process conditions for producing a very thin TiO 2 blocking layer were studied, in order to avoid solar cell current leakage for increasing the solar cell efficiency. Subsequently, TiO 2 nanoparticles were spin-coated on Ti substrates with varied thickness. The dye-sensitized solar cells on the titanium substrates were subjected to simulate AM 1.5 G irradiation of 100 mW/cm 2 using backside illumination mode. Surface treatments of Ti substrate and TiO 2 anode were found to play a significant role in improving the efficiency of DSSC. The efficiencies of the backside illumination solar cells were raised from 4.6% to 7.8% by integrating these surface treatments. - Highlights: • The flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) device can be fabricated. • Many effective surface treatment methods to improve DSSC efficiency are elucidated. • The efficiency is dramatically enhanced by integrating surface treatment methods. • The back-illuminated DSSC efficiency was raised from 4.6% to 7.8%

  1. Solar Cell and Array Technology Development for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael; McNatt, Jeremiah; Mercer, Carolyn; Kerslake, Tom; Pappa, Richard

    2012-01-01

    NASA is currently developing advanced solar cell and solar array technologies to support future exploration activities. These advanced photovoltaic technology development efforts are needed to enable very large (multi-hundred kilowatt) power systems that must be compatible with solar electric propulsion (SEP) missions. The technology being developed must address a wide variety of requirements and cover the necessary advances in solar cell, blanket integration, and large solar array structures that are needed for this class of missions. Th is paper will summarize NASA's plans for high power SEP missions, initi al mission studies and power system requirements, plans for advanced photovoltaic technology development, and the status of specific cell and array technology development and testing that have already been conducted.

  2. Targeting development of incretin-producing cells increases insulin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Natalia; Reimann, Frank; van Es, Johan H

    2015-01-01

    the number of intestinal L cells, which produce GLP-1, is an alternative strategy to augment insulin responses and improve glucose tolerance. Blocking the NOTCH signaling pathway with the γ-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine increased the number of L cells in intestinal organoid-based mouse and human culture...... of the development of incretin-producing cells in the intestine has potential as a therapeutic strategy to improve glycemic control....

  3. Dye-sensitized solar cells and solar module using polymer electrolytes: Stability and performance investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilian Nei de Freitas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present recent results on solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell research using a polymer electrolyte based on a poly(ethylene oxide derivative. The stability and performance of the devices have been improved by a modification in the method of assembly of the cells and by the addition of plasticizers in the electrolyte. After 30 days of solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2 no changes in the cell's efficiency were observed using this new method. The effect of the active area size on cell performance and the first results obtained for the first solar module composed of 4.5 cm2 solid-state solar cells are also presented.

  4. Vapor transport deposition of antimony selenide thin film solar cells with 7.6% efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xixing; Chen, Chao; Lu, Shuaicheng; Li, Kanghua; Kondrotas, Rokas; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Wenhao; Gao, Liang; Wang, Chong; Zhang, Jun; Niu, Guangda; Tang, Jiang

    2018-06-05

    Antimony selenide is an emerging promising thin film photovoltaic material thanks to its binary composition, suitable bandgap, high absorption coefficient, inert grain boundaries and earth-abundant constituents. However, current devices produced from rapid thermal evaporation strategy suffer from low-quality film and unsatisfactory performance. Herein, we develop a vapor transport deposition technique to fabricate antimony selenide films, a technique that enables continuous and low-cost manufacturing of cadmium telluride solar cells. We improve the crystallinity of antimony selenide films and then successfully produce superstrate cadmium sulfide/antimony selenide solar cells with a certified power conversion efficiency of 7.6%, a net 2% improvement over previous 5.6% record of the same device configuration. We analyze the deep defects in antimony selenide solar cells, and find that the density of the dominant deep defects is reduced by one order of magnitude using vapor transport deposition process.

  5. Radiation resistance of solar cells for space application, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsui, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Sunaga, Hiromi

    1989-07-01

    A 50-μm thick ultrathin silicon solar cell and a 280-μm thick high performance AlGaAs/GaAs solar cell with high radiation resistance have been recently developed by National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). In order to study the radiation resistance of these cells, a joint research was carried out between Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and NASDA from 1984 through 1987. In this research, the irradiation method of electron beams, the effects of the irradiation conditions on the deterioration of solar cells by electron beams, and the annealing effects of the radiation damage in solar cells were investigated. This paper is the first one of a series of reports of the joint research. In this paper, the space radiation environment which artificial satellites will encounter, the solar cells used, and the experimental methods are described. In addition to these, the results of the study on the irradiation procedure of electron beams are reported. In the study of the irradiation method of electron beams, three methods, that is, the fixed irradiation method, the moving irradiation method, and the spot irradiation method were examined. In the fixed irradiation method and moving one, stationary solar cells and solar cells moving by conveyer were irradiated by scanning electron beams, respectively. On the other hand, in the spot irradiation method, stationary solar cells were irradiated by non-scanning steady electron beams. It was concluded that the fixed irradiation method was the most proper method. In addition to this, in this study, some pieces of information were obtained with respect to the changes in the electrical characteristics of solar cells caused by the irradiation of electron beams. (author) 52 refs

  6. Consciousness can reduce the voltage of the output signal of solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dayong

    2011-03-01

    When the sun's light radiate on the solar cell, it can produce the output signal as the pho- tocurrent. We use the Data Acquisition Modules to record the voltage of the output signals. The v1 is voltage of the photocurrent of solar cell1; The v2 is the one of solar cell2. And these two solar cells stay side by side. When we record the voltages from the morning to the noon, the voltages will go up, and the v1 is bigger than the v2 during this time. But in other experi- menter, not only sun's light ratiade on two solar cells, but also consciousness act on two solar cells. Not only I can use consciousness to reduce the growth voltage of the output signals, but also can change the v1 to be littler than the v2. The experiment was conducted on Sep. 2010. When light of lamp radiate on two solar cells, I can reduce v1, at the same time, can augment v2. These experiments had been finished in Los Angeles, Oct. 26th. And the experiment show that the consciousness active function differ from the passive function of conditioned reflex (of Pavlov). There is the physical system of the mass, energy, space and time-MEST; There is the spirited system of the mind, consciousness, emotion and desire-MECD; the information system is the code system. We can use the consciousness change the electron-structure of solar cell by the interaction of the information.

  7. Plasmonic silicon solar cells: impact of material quality and geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahud, Celine; Isabella, Olindo; Naqavi, Ali; Haug, Franz-Josef; Zeman, Miro; Herzig, Hans Peter; Ballif, Christophe

    2013-09-09

    We study n-i-p amorphous silicon solar cells with light-scattering nanoparticles in the back reflector. In one configuration, the particles are fully embedded in the zinc oxide buffer layer; In a second configuration, the particles are placed between the buffer layer and the flat back electrode. We use stencil lithography to produce the same periodic arrangement of the particles and we use the same solar cell structure on top, thus establishing a fair comparison between a novel plasmonic concept and its more traditional counterpart. Both approaches show strong resonances around 700 nm in the external quantum efficiency the position and intensity of which vary strongly with the nanoparticle shape. Moreover, disagreement between simulations and our experimental results suggests that the dielectric data of bulk silver do not correctly represent the reality. A better fit is obtained by introducing a porous interfacial layer between the silver and zinc oxide. Without the interfacial layer, e.g. by improved processing of the nanoparticles, our simulations show that the nanoparticles concept could outperform traditional back reflectors.

  8. Indacenodithienothiophene-Based Ternary Organic Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparini, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.gasparini@fau.de [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); García-Rodríguez, Amaranda [Macromolecular Chemistry Group (buwmakro), Institute for Polymer Technology, BergischeUniversität Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Prosa, Mario [Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Bologna (Italy); Bayseç, Şebnem; Palma-Cando, Alex [Macromolecular Chemistry Group (buwmakro), Institute for Polymer Technology, BergischeUniversität Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Katsouras, Athanasios; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos [Department of Materials Science Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece); Pagona, Georgia; Gregoriou, Vasilis G. [Advent Technologies SA, Patras Science Park, Patra (Greece); National Hellenic Research Foundation (NHRF), Athens (Greece); Chochos, Christos L. [Department of Materials Science Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece); Advent Technologies SA, Patras Science Park, Patra (Greece); Allard, Sybille; Scherf, Ulrich [Macromolecular Chemistry Group (buwmakro), Institute for Polymer Technology, BergischeUniversität Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Brabec, Christoph J. [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern), Erlangen (Germany); Ameri, Tayebeh, E-mail: nicola.gasparini@fau.de [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-01-13

    One of the key aspects to achieve high efficiency in ternary bulk-hetorojunction solar cells is the physical and chemical compatibility between the donor materials. Here, we report the synthesis of a novel conjugated polymer (P1) containing alternating pyridyl[2,1,3]thiadiazole between two different donor fragments, dithienosilole and indacenodithienothiophene (IDTT), used as a sensitizer in a host system of indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene,2,3-bis(3-(octyloxy)phenyl)quinoxaline (PIDTTQ) and [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 70} butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71}BM). We found that the use of the same IDTT unit in the host and guest materials does not lead to significant changes in the morphology of the ternary blend compared to the host binary. With the complementary use of optoelectronic characterizations, we found that the ternary cells suffer from a lower mobility-lifetime (μτ) product, adversely impacting the fill factor. However, the significant light harvesting in the near infrared region improvement, compensating the transport losses, results in an overall power conversion efficiency enhancement of ~7% for ternary blends as compared to the PIDTTQ:PC{sub 71}BM devices.

  9. Studies of bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossel, Raquel; McIntyre, Max; Tzolov, Marian

    We are studying bulk heterojunction solar cells that were fabricated using a mixture of PCPDTBT and PCBM­C60. The impedance data of the cells in dark responded like a simple RC circuit. The value of the dielectric constant derived from these results is consistent with the values reported in the literature for these materials. We are showing that the parallel resistance in the equivalent circuit of linear lump elements can be interpreted using the DC current­voltage measurements. The impedance spectra under light illumination indicated the existence of additional polarization. This extra feature can be described by a model that includes a series RC circuit in parallel with the equivalent circuit for a device in dark. The physical interpretation of the additional polarization is based on photo­generated charges getting trapped in wells, which have a characteristic relaxation time corresponding to the observed break frequency in the impedance spectra. We have studied the influence of the anode and cathode interface on this phenomena, either by using different interface materials, or by depositing the metal electrode while the substate is heated.

  10. Modelling solar cells with thermal phenomena taken into account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Górecki, K; Górecki, P; Paduch, K

    2014-01-01

    The paper is devoted to modelling properties of solar cells. The authors' electrothermal model of such cells is described. This model takes into account the influence of temperature on its characteristics. Some results of calculations and measurements of selected solar cells are presented and discussed. The good agreement between the results of calculations and measurements was obtained, which proves the correctness of the elaborated model.

  11. Process development for high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, J.M.; Basore, P.A.; Buck, M.E.; Ruby, D.S.; Schubert, W.K.; Silva, B.L.; Tingley, J.W.

    1991-12-31

    Fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells in an industrial environment requires a different optimization than in a laboratory environment. Strategies are presented for process development of high-efficiency silicon solar cells, with a goal of simplifying technology transfer into an industrial setting. The strategies emphasize the use of statistical experimental design for process optimization, and the use of baseline processes and cells for process monitoring and quality control. 8 refs.

  12. Molecular and Nanoscale Engineering of High Efficiency Excitonic Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenekhe, Samson A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ginger, David S. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cao, Guozhong [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We combined the synthesis of new polymers and organic-inorganic hybrid materials with new experimental characterization tools to investigate bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells and hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells during the 2007-2010 period (phase I) of this project. We showed that the bulk morphology of polymer/fullerene blend solar cells could be controlled by using either self-assembled polymer semiconductor nanowires or diblock poly(3-alkylthiophenes) as the light-absorbing and hole transport component. We developed new characterization tools in-house, including photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectroscopy, time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy (TR-EFM) and conductive and photoconductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM and pc-AFM), and used them to investigate charge transfer and recombination dynamics in polymer/fullerene BHJ solar cells, hybrid polymer-nanocrystal (PbSe) devices, and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs); we thus showed in detail how the bulk photovoltaic properties are connected to the nanoscale structure of the BHJ polymer solar cells. We created various oxide semiconductor (ZnO, TiO2) nanostructures by solution processing routes, including hierarchical aggregates and nanorods/nanotubes, and showed that the nanostructured photoanodes resulted in substantially enhanced light-harvesting and charge transport, leading to enhanced power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  13. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Il; Matsuo, Yutaka; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2018-01-22

    Photovoltaics, more generally known as solar cells, are made from semiconducting materials that convert light into electricity. Solar cells have received much attention in recent years due to their promise as clean and efficient light-harvesting devices. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) could play a crucial role in these devices and have been the subject of much research, which continues to this day. SWNTs are known to outperform multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) at low densities, because of the difference in their optical transmittance for the same current density, which is the most important parameter in comparing SWNTs and MWNTs. SWNT films show semiconducting features, which make SWNTs function as active or charge-transporting materials. This chapter, consisting of two sections, focuses on the use of SWNTs in solar cells. In the first section, we discuss SWNTs as a light harvester and charge transporter in the photoactive layer, which are reviewed chronologically to show the history of the research progress. In the second section, we discuss SWNTs as a transparent conductive layer outside of the photoactive layer, which is relatively more actively researched. This section introduces SWNT applications in silicon solar cells, organic solar cells, and perovskite solar cells each, from their prototypes to recent results. As we go along, the science and prospects of the application of solar cells will be discussed.

  14. Thin film solar cells grown by organic vapor phase deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan

    Organic solar cells have the potential to provide low-cost photovoltaic devices as a clean and renewable energy resource. In this thesis, we focus on understanding the energy conversion process in organic solar cells, and improving the power conversion efficiencies via controlled growth of organic nanostructures. First, we explain the unique optical and electrical properties of organic materials used for photovoltaics, and the excitonic energy conversion process in donor-acceptor heterojunction solar cells that place several limiting factors of their power conversion efficiency. Then, strategies for improving exciton diffusion and carrier collection are analyzed using dynamical Monte Carlo models for several nanostructure morphologies. Organic vapor phase deposition is used for controlling materials crystallization and film morphology. We improve the exciton diffusion efficiency while maintaining good carrier conduction in a bulk heterojunction solar cell. Further efficiency improvement is obtained in a novel nanocrystalline network structure with a thick absorbing layer, leading to the demonstration of an organic solar cell with 4.6% efficiency. In addition, solar cells using simultaneously active heterojunctions with broad spectral response are presented. We also analyze the efficiency limits of single and multiple junction organic solar cells, and discuss the challenges facing their practical implementations.

  15. Business, market and intellectual property analysis of polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Torben D.; Krebs, Frederik C.; Cruickshank, Craig; Foged, Soeren; Thorsen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    The business potential of polymer solar cells is reviewed and the market opportunities analyzed on the basis of the currently reported and projected performance and manufacturing cost of polymer solar cells. Possible new market areas are identified and described. An overview of the present patent and intellectual property situation is also given and a patent map of polymer solar cells is drawn in a European context. It is found that the business potential of polymer solar cells is large when taking the projections for future performance into account while the currently available performance and manufacturing cost leaves little room for competition on the thin film photovoltaic market. However, polymer solar cells do enable the competitive manufacture of low cost niche products and is viewed as financially viable in its currently available form in a large volume approximation. Finally, it is found that the polymer solar cell technology is very poorly protected in Europe with the central patents being valid in only France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Several countries with a large potential for PV such as Portugal and Greece are completely open and have apparently no relevant patents. This is viewed as a great advantage for the possible commercialization of polymer solar cells in a European setting as the competition for the market will be based on the manufacturing performance rather than domination by a few patent stakeholders. (author)

  16. Research and development for evaluation system of solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-01

    In order to evaluate the performance and capability of solar cell properly and impartially, the evaluation systems for the performance and reliability have been assured. The results are as follows. 1. Development for performance evaluation method; (1) The international comparisons of standard solar cell calibration methods and our method has been assured to be mostly near to the average value. (2) Experimental solar cell has been made and the indoors and outdoors evaluation of solar cell module have become to be possible with same accuracy. (3) As the spectro-radiometer of high performance have been developed, the measurements of the output of the solar cell module have become possible, monitering spectrum of wide range of natural solar beam. (4) With use of several kinds of standard solar cell, measurement errors have been assured. (5) As for nominal operating cell temperature of module, experimental researches have been done indoors and outdoors and the diffeneces have been assured. 2. Development of reliability evaluation method; (1) In outdoor exposure test, the basic data of the accelerating degradation test have been accumulated and it has been assured that the degradation of crystal type is few. (2) By the acceleration degradation test with use of weathermeter, and temperature and humidity cycling test device, the proceses of degradation have been assured. (3) In the processes of enviromental tests and mechanical strength tests, remarkable degradation has not been recognized.(1 tab)

  17. Fundamental investigations on periodic nano- and microstructured organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niggemann, M.

    2005-03-15

    Using organic semiconducting materials in solar cells is a new approach with promising possibilities. The great potential of low cost production combined with mechanical flexibility gives rise to new applications. Due to the relatively simple fabrication process from solution and the mechanical flexibility, the production of organic solar cells by the cost effective roll-to-roll process appears promising. However, the preconditions for commercialization are not fulfilled as yet. The demands on organic solar cells strongly depend on the type of application. The highest demands on solar cell technologies are set by the energy market. Organic solar cells are only expected to be competitive on the energy market when the requirements on efficiency, lifetime and costs are fulfilled at the same time. Regarding this as a long term goal, a less demanding but still challenging medium term goal would be the application of relatively small organic solar cell modules for i.e. portable electronic devices. The integration of Organic Field Effect Transistors (OFET) and Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED) to all-polymer electronic devices is still under development. Nevertheless, the integration of organic solar cells as one functional component appears promising as the production technologies are expected to be compatible. The innovative contribution of this thesis to the development of organic solar cells is as follows: Motivated by the desire to fabricate efficient and cost effective organic solar cells, the approach of developing novel solar cell architectures based on periodic nano- and microstructures is followed. At present, planar organic solar cells with indium tin oxide (ITO) as a transparent electrode are intensively studied. One decisive cost factor would, however, be the indium price, which is the key component of the ITO electrode. The planar cell architecture can be conceived as a one-dimensional photonic device, however the presented work widens the investigations

  18. Novel Design for a Diffusive Solar Cell Window

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ruei-Tang; Kang, Chih-Chieh; Lin, Jeng-Feng; Chiou, Sheng-Wei; Cheng, Hung-Hsiang; Lai, Chih-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are an important application of future solar energy development. The incorporation of solar cells into windows must not only maintain indoor natural lighting but also generate electrical power at the same time. In our continuing effort to improve the design of diffusion solar window, a more fundamental and efficient three-layer structure—glass/EVA with TiO2 nanoparticles embedded/glass—was proposed. In this work, a well-established ASAP ray-tracing mod...

  19. Radiation hardened high efficiency silicon space solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garboushian, V.; Yoon, S.; Turner, J.

    1993-01-01

    A silicon solar cell with AMO 19% Beginning of Life (BOL) efficiency is reported. The cell has demonstrated equal or better radiation resistance when compared to conventional silicon space solar cells. Conventional silicon space solar cell performance is generally ∼ 14% at BOL. The Radiation Hardened High Efficiency Silicon (RHHES) cell is thinned for high specific power (watts/kilogram). The RHHES space cell provides compatibility with automatic surface mounting technology. The cells can be easily combined to provide desired power levels and voltages. The RHHES space cell is more resistant to mechanical damage due to micrometeorites. Micro-meteorites which impinge upon conventional cells can crack the cell which, in turn, may cause string failure. The RHHES, operating in the same environment, can continue to function with a similar crack. The RHHES cell allows for very efficient thermal management which is essential for space cells generating higher specific power levels. The cell eliminates the need for electrical insulation layers which would otherwise increase the thermal resistance for conventional space panels. The RHHES cell can be applied to a space concentrator panel system without abandoning any of the attributes discussed. The power handling capability of the RHHES cell is approximately five times more than conventional space concentrator solar cells

  20. Application of carbon nanotubes in perovskite solar cells: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, Thet Tin; Debnath, Sujan

    2017-11-01

    Solar power, as alternative renewable energy source, has gained momentum in global energy generation in recent time. Solar photovoltaics (PV) systems now fulfill a significant portion of electricity demand and the capacity of solar PV capacity is growing every year. PV cells efficiency has improved significantly following decades of research, evolving into third generations of PV cells. These third generation PV cells are set out to provide low-cost and efficient PV systems, further improving the commercial competitiveness of solar energy generation. Among these latest generations of PV cells, perovskite solar cells have gained attraction due to the simple manufacturing process and the immense growth in PV efficiency in a short period of research and development. Despite these advantages, perovskite solar cells are known for the weak stability and decomposition in exposure to humidity and high temperature, hindering the possibility of commercialization. This paper will discuss the role of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in improving the efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells, in various components such as perovskite layer and hole transport layer, as well as the application of CNTs in unique aspects. These includes the use of CNTs fiber in making the perovskite solar cells flexible, as well as simplification of perovskite PV production by using CNT flash evaporation printing process. Despite these advances, challenges remain in incorporation CNTs into perovskite such as lower conversion efficiency compared to rare earth metals and improvements need to be made. Thus, the paper will be also highlighting the CNTs materials suggested for further research and improvement of perovskite solar cells.

  1. Polymethylmethacrylate-based luminescent solar concentrators with bottom-mounted solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Song; Kang, Rui; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Ningning; Yan, Wenhao; Xie, Wei; Ding, Jianjun; Bao, Jun; Gao, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrators on dye-doped plates were studied. • The mechanism of transport process was proposed. • The fabricated luminescent solar concentrator achieved a gain of 1.38. • Power conversion efficiency of 5.03% was obtained with cell area coverage of 27%. • The lowest cost per watt of $1.89 was optimized with cell area coverage of 18%. - Abstract: Luminescent solar concentrators offer an attractive approach to concentrate sunlight economically without tracking, but the narrow absorption band of luminescent materials hinders their further development. This paper describes bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrators on dye-doped polymethylmethacrylate plates that absorb not only the waveguided light but also the transmitted sunlight and partial fluorescent light in the escape cone. A series of bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrators with size of 78 mm × 78 mm × 7 mm were fabricated and their gain and power conversion efficiency were investigated. The transport process of the waveguided light and the relationship between the bottom-mounted cells were studied to optimize the performance of the device. The bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrator with cell area coverage of 9% displayed a cell gain of 1.38, to our best knowledge, which is the highest value for dye-doped polymethylmethacrylate plate luminescent solar concentrators. Power conversion efficiency as high as 5.03% was obtained with cell area coverage of 27%. Furthermore, the bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrator was found to have a lowest cost per watt of $1.89 with cell area coverage of 18%. These results suggested that the fabricated bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrator may have a potential in low-cost building integrated photovoltaic application

  2. Modeling Emerging Solar Cell Materials and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongprong, Non

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) and perovskite solar cells are emerging classes of solar cell that are promising for clean energy alternatives to fossil fuels. Understanding fundamental physics of these materials is crucial for improving their energy conversion efficiencies and promoting them to practical applications. Current density-voltage (JV) curves; which are important indicators of OPV efficiency, have direct connections to many fundamental properties of solar cells. They can be described by the Shockley diode equation, resulting in fitting parameters; series and parallel resistance (Rs and Rp), diode saturation current ( J0) and ideality factor (n). However, the Shockley equation was developed specifically for inorganic p-n junction diodes, so it lacks physical meanings when it is applied to OPVs. Hence, the puRposes of this work are to understand the fundamental physics of OPVs and to develop new diode equations in the same form as the Shockley equation that are based on OPV physics. We develop a numerical drift-diffusion simulation model to study bilayer OPVs, which will be called the drift-diffusion for bilayer interface (DD-BI) model. The model solves Poisson, drift-diffusion and current-continuity equations self-consistently for charge densities and potential profiles of a bilayer device with an organic heterojunction interface described by the GWWF model. We also derive new diode equations that have JV curves consistent with the DD-BI model and thus will be called self-consistent diode (SCD) equations. Using the DD-BI and the SCD model allows us to understand working principles of bilayer OPVs and physical definitions of the Shockley parameters. Due to low carrier mobilities in OPVs, space charge accumulation is common especially near the interface and electrodes. Hence, quasi-Fermi levels (i.e. chemical potentials), which depend on charge densities, are modified around the interface, resulting in a splitting of quasi-Fermi levels that works as a driving

  3. Flexible organic solar cells including efficiency enhancing grating structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de; Liu, Yinghui; Madsen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    , such as photolithography and electron-beam lithography, besides the steps required for the bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell fabrication. After the production steps, the solar cells on polyimide are peeled off the silicon support substrates, resulting in flexible devices containing nanostructures for light absorption......In this work, a new method for the fabrication of organic solar cells containing functional light-trapping nanostructures on flexible substrates is presented. Polyimide is spin-coated on silicon support substrates, enabling standard micro- and nanotechnology fabrication techniques...

  4. Hydrogen passivation of multi-crystalline silicon solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志华; 廖显伯; 刘祖明; 夏朝凤; 陈庭金

    2003-01-01

    The effects of hydrogen passivation on multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells are reported in this paper.Hydrogen plasma was generated by means of ac glow discharge in a hydrogen atmosphere. Hydrogen passivation was carried out with three different groups of mc-Si solar cells after finishing contacts. The experimental results demonstrated that the photovoltaic performances of the solar cell samples have been improved after hydrogen plasma treatment, with a relative increase in conversion efficiency up to 10.6%. A calculation modelling has been performed to interpret the experimental results using the model for analysis of microelectronic and photonic structures developed at Pennsylvania State University.

  5. High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells with Long Operating Lifetimes

    KAUST Repository

    Peters, Craig H.; Sachs-Quintana, I. T.; Kastrop, John P.; Beaupré , Serge; Leclerc, Mario; McGehee, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells comprising poly[N-9'-hepta-decanyl- 2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2', 1',3'-benzothiadiazole) (PCDTBT) are systematically aged and demonstrate lifetimes approaching seven years, which is the longest reported lifetime for polymer solar cells. An experimental set-up is described that is capable of testing large numbers of solar cells, holding each device at its maximum power point while controlling and monitoring the temperature and light intensity. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. UV radiation hardness of silicon inversion layer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezel, R.

    1990-01-01

    For full utilization of the high spectral response of inversion layer solar cells in the very-short-wavelength range of the solar spectrum sufficient ultraviolet-radiation hardness is required. In addition to the charge-induced passivation achieved by cesium incorporation into the silicon nitride AR coating, in this paper the following means for further drastic reduction of UV light-induced effects in inversion layer solar cells without encapsulation are introduced and interpretations are given: increasing the nitride deposition temperature, silicon surface oxidation at low temperatures, and texture etching and using higher substrate resistivities. High UV radiation tolerance and improvement of the cell efficiency could be obtained simultaneously

  7. Novel materials for high-efficiency solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Nobuaki; Natori, Masato; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Inagaki, Makoto; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2009-08-01

    Our Toyota Technological Institute group has investigated various novel materials for solar cells from organic to III-V compound materials. In this paper, we report our recent results in conductivity control of C60 thin films by metal-doping for organic solar cells, and mobility improvement of (In)GaAsN compounds for III-V tandem solar cells. The epitaxial growth of Mg-doped C60 films was attempted. It was found that the epitaxial growth of Mg-doped C60 film was enabled by using mica (001) substrate in the low Mg concentration region (Mg/C60 molar ratio defects leads this improvement.

  8. A Novel Robot of Manufacturing Space Solar Cell Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuexin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel robot employed to manufacture space solar cell arrays. First of all including the mechanical configuration and control system, the architecture of the robot is described. Then the flow velocity field of adhesive in the dispensing needles is acquired based on hydrodynamics. The accurate section form model of adhesive dispensed on the solar cells is obtained, which is essential for the robot to control the uniformity of dispensing adhesive. Finally the experiment validates the feasibility and reliability of the robot system. The application of robots instead of manual work in manufacturing space solar cell arrays will enhance the development of space industry.

  9. A Novel Robot of Manufacturing Space Solar Cell Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuexin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel robot employed to manufacture space solar cell arrays. First of all including the mechanical configuration and control system, the architecture of the robot is described. Then the flow velocity field of adhesive in the dispensing needles is acquired based on hydrodynamics. The accurate section form model of adhesive dispensed on the solar cells is obtained, which is essential for the robot to control the uniformity of dispensing adhesive. Finally the experiment validates the feasibility and reliability of the robot system. The application of robots instead of manual work in manufacturing space solar cell arrays will enhance the development of space industry.

  10. Highly doped layer for tunnel junctions in solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzer, Christopher M.

    2017-08-01

    A highly doped layer for interconnecting tunnel junctions in multijunction solar cells is presented. The highly doped layer is a delta doped layer in one or both layers of a tunnel diode junction used to connect two or more p-on-n or n-on-p solar cells in a multijunction solar cell. A delta doped layer is made by interrupting the epitaxial growth of one of the layers of the tunnel diode, depositing a delta dopant at a concentration substantially greater than the concentration used in growing the layer of the tunnel diode, and then continuing to epitaxially grow the remaining tunnel diode.

  11. High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells with Long Operating Lifetimes

    KAUST Repository

    Peters, Craig H.

    2011-04-20

    Organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells comprising poly[N-9\\'-hepta-decanyl- 2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4\\',7\\'-di-2-thienyl-2\\', 1\\',3\\'-benzothiadiazole) (PCDTBT) are systematically aged and demonstrate lifetimes approaching seven years, which is the longest reported lifetime for polymer solar cells. An experimental set-up is described that is capable of testing large numbers of solar cells, holding each device at its maximum power point while controlling and monitoring the temperature and light intensity. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A solution process for inverted tandem solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Bundgaard, Eva; Sylvester-Hvid, Kristian O.

    2011-01-01

    Tandem solar cells with normal and inverted device geometries were prepared by a solution process. Both device types were based on the use of zinc(II)oxide as the electron transporting layer (ETL). The hole transporting layer (HTL) was either PEDOT:PSS for normal geometry tandem solar cells...... or vanadium(V)oxide in the case of inverted tandem cells. It was found that the inverted tandem solar cells performed comparable or better than the normal geometry devices, showing that the connection structure of vanadium(V)oxide, Ag nanoparticles and zinc(II)oxide functions both as a good recombination...... layer, ensuring serial connection, and as a solvent barrier, protecting the first photoactive layer from processing of the second layer. This successfully demonstrates a tandem solar cell fabrication process fully compatible with state-of-the-art solution based automated production procedures....

  13. Solar cell driving device. Taiyo denchi kudo sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, K [Shibaura Engineering Works Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-01-24

    In driving a motor by a solar cell, if the sun light is weak, the motor cannot be started because of the fact that the start-up current of the motor is more than the current needed for driving. In this invention, a current limiting circuit is placed between the solar cell and the load, whereby the current limitation by said limiting circuit is released when the detected voltage of the solar cell reached the value required for starting the load. The current limiting circuit uses a semiconductor element such as a thyrister and a transistor which general limits a current. Such a current limiting circuit is controlled by a voltage detecting circuit and is so constructed that the cell limitation is released when a specific preset volatge of the solar cell is reached. 2 figs.

  14. Optimization of oxidation processes to improve crystalline silicon solar cell emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Control of the oxidation process is one key issue in producing high-quality emitters for crystalline silicon solar cells. In this paper, the oxidation parameters of pre-oxidation time, oxygen concentration during pre-oxidation and pre-deposition and drive-in time were optimized by using orthogonal experiments. By analyzing experimental measurements of short-circuit current, open circuit voltage, series resistance and solar cell efficiency in solar cells with different sheet resistances which were produced by using different diffusion processes, we inferred that an emitter with a sheet resistance of approximately 70 Ω/□ performed best under the existing standard solar cell process. Further investigations were conducted on emitters with sheet resistances of approximately 70 Ω/□ that were obtained from different preparation processes. The results indicate that emitters with surface phosphorus concentrations between 4.96 × 1020 cm−3 and 7.78 × 1020 cm−3 and with junction depths between 0.46 μm and 0.55 μm possessed the best quality. With no extra processing, the final preparation of the crystalline silicon solar cell efficiency can reach 18.41%, which is an increase of 0.4%abs compared to conventional emitters with 50 Ω/□ sheet resistance.

  15. PSA Solar furnace: A facility for testing PV cells under concentrated solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Reche, J.; Canadas, I.; Sanchez, M.; Ballestrin, J.; Yebra, L.; Monterreal, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Garcia, G. [Concentration Solar Technologies, Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT P.O. Box 22, Tabernas, E-04200 (Almeria) (Spain); Alonso, M.; Chenlo, F. [Photovoltaic Components and Systems, Renewable Energies Department-CIEMAT Avda. Complutense, 22, Madrid, E-28040 (Spain)

    2006-09-22

    The Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA), the largest centre for research, development and testing of concentration solar thermal technologies in Europe, has started to apply its knowledge, facilities and resources to development of the Concentration PV technology in an EU-funded project HiConPV. A facility for testing PV cells under solar radiation concentrated up to 2000x has recently been completed. The advantages of this facility are that, since it is illuminated by solar radiation, it is possible to obtain the appropriate cell spectral response directly, and the flash tests can be combined with prolonged PV-cell irradiation on large surfaces (up to 150cm{sup 2}), so the thermal response of the PV cell can be evaluated simultaneously. (author)

  16. Effect of the Phosphorus Gettering on Si Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyomin Park

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells, should be collected the excess carrier as much as possible. Therefore, minimizing the recombination both at the bulk and surface regions is important. Impurities make recombination sites and they are the major reason for recombination. Phosphorus (P gettering was introduced to reduce metal impurities in the bulk region of Si wafers and then to improve the efficiency of Si heterojunction solar cells fabricated on the wafers. Resistivity of wafers was measured by a four-point probe method. Fill factor of solar cells was measured by a solar simulator. Saturation current and ideality factor were calculated from a dark current density-voltage graph. External quantum efficiency was analyzed to assess the effect of P gettering on the performance of solar cells. Minority bulk lifetime measured by microwave photoconductance decay increases from 368.3 to 660.8 μs. Open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current density increase from 577 to 598 mV and 27.8 to 29.8 mA/cm2, respectively. The efficiency of solar cells increases from 11.9 to 13.4%. P gettering will be feasible to improve the efficiency of Si heterojunction solar cells fabricated on P-doped Si wafers.

  17. All-Weather Solar Cells: A Rising Photovoltaic Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunwei

    2017-06-16

    Solar cells have been considered as one of the foremost solutions to energy and environmental problems because of clean, high efficiency, cost-effective, and inexhaustible features. The historical development and state-of-the-art solar cells mainly focus on elevating photoelectric conversion efficiency upon direct sunlight illumination. It is still a challenging problem to realize persistent high-efficiency power generation in rainy, foggy, haze, and dark-light conditions (night). The physical proof-of-concept for all-weather solar cells opens a door for an upcoming photovoltaic revolution. Our group has been exploring constructive routes to build all-weather solar cells so that these advanced photovoltaic technologies can be an indication for global solar industry in bringing down the cost of energy harvesting. How the all-weather solar cells are built without reducing photo performances and why such architectures can realize electricity outputs with no visible-light are discussed. Potential pathways and opportunities to enrich all-weather solar cell families are envisaged. The aspects discussed here may enable researchers to develop undiscovered abilities and to explore wide applications of advanced photovoltaics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Solar cell junction temperature measurement of PV module

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.; Yang, P.E.; Lin, Y.P.; Lin, B.Y.; Chen, H.J.; Lai, R.C.; Cheng, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    The present study develops a simple non-destructive method to measure the solar cell junction temperature of PV module. The PV module was put in the environmental chamber with precise temperature control to keep the solar PV module as well

  19. Impurities in silicon and their impact on solar cell performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coletti, Gianluca

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic conversion of solar energy is a rapidly growing technology. More than 80% of global solar cell production is currently based on silicon. The aim of this thesis is to understand the complex relation between impurity content of silicon starting material (“feedstock”) and the resulting

  20. Panel fabrication utilizing GaAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardesich, N.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the GaAs solar cells for space applications is described. The activities in the fabrication of GaAs solar panels are outlined. Panels were fabricated while introducing improved quality control, soldering laydown and testing procedures. These panels include LIPS II, San Marco Satellite, and a low concentration panel for Rockwells' evaluation. The panels and their present status are discussed.

  1. Indium Gallium Nitride Multijunction Solar Cell Simulation Using Silvaco Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    models is of great interest in space applications. By increasing the efficiency of photovoltaics, the number of solar panels is decreased. Therefore...obtained in single-junction solar cells by using Gallium Arsenide. Monocrystalline Gallium Arsenide has a maximum efficiency of approximately 25.1% [10

  2. Method for forming indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1984-03-13

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  3. Processing of semiconductors and thin film solar cells using electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madugu, Mohammad Lamido

    bandgap solar cells were fabricated. This means that the solar cells investigated in this thesis were not the conventional p-n junction type solar cells. The conventional cadmium chloride (CdCl[2] or CC) treatment was applied to the structures to produce high performance devices; however, by modifying the treatment to include cadmium chloride and cadmium fluoride (CdCl[2]+CdF[2] or CF) device performance could be improved further. The fabricated devices were characterised using I-V and C-V measurement techniques. The highest cell efficiency achieved in this research was -10%, with an open circuit voltage of 640 mV, short-circuit current density of 38.1 mAcm[-2], fill factor of 0.41 and doping concentration of 2.07x1016 cm3. These parameters were obtained for the glass/FTO/n-In[x]Se[y]/n-CdS/n-CdTe/Au solar cell structure.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of contact layers in amorphous silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolter, M.

    1993-04-01

    The production and characterisation of amorphous and microcrystalline n-doped layers (a-Si:H(n) and c-Si:H(n)) for thin film solar cells is described together contact investigations. The layers were produced in a plasma CVD. The electric conductivity was measured

  5. Use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles biosynthesized by Bacillus mycoides in quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordenes-Aenishanslins, Nicolás Alexis; Saona, Luis Alberto; Durán-Toro, Vicente María; Monrás, Juan Pablo; Bravo, Denisse Margarita; Pérez-Donoso, José Manuel

    2014-07-16

    One of the major challenges of nanotechnology during the last decade has been the development of new procedures to synthesize nanoparticles. In this context, biosynthetic methods have taken hold since they are simple, safe and eco-friendly. In this study, we report the biosynthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles by an environmental isolate of Bacillus mycoides, a poorly described Gram-positive bacterium able to form colonies with novel morphologies. This isolate was able to produce TiO2 nanoparticles at 37 ° C in the presence of titanyl hydroxide. Biosynthesized nanoparticles have anatase polymorphic structure, spherical morphology, polydisperse size (40-60 nm) and an organic shell as determined by UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM, DLS and FTIR, respectively. Also, conversely to chemically produced nanoparticles, biosynthesized TiO2 do not display phototoxicity. In order to design less expensive and greener solar cells, biosynthesized nanoparticles were evaluated in Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells (QDSSCs) and compared with chemically produced TiO2 nanoparticles. Solar cell parameters such as short circuit current density (ISC) and open circuit voltage (VOC) revealed that biosynthesized TiO2 nanoparticles can mobilize electrons in QDSSCs similarly than chemically produced TiO2. Our results indicate that bacterial extracellular production of TiO2 nanoparticles at low temperatures represents a novel alternative for the construction of green solar cells.

  6. Silicon Web Process Development. [for solar cell fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Hopkins, R. H.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Heimlich, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Silicon dendritic web, ribbon form of silicon and capable of fabrication into solar cells with greater than 15% AMl conversion efficiency, was produced from the melt without die shaping. Improvements were made both in the width of the web ribbons grown and in the techniques to replenish the liquid silicon as it is transformed to web. Through means of improved thermal shielding stress was reduced sufficiently so that web crystals nearly 4.5 cm wide were grown. The development of two subsystems, a silicon feeder and a melt level sensor, necessary to achieve an operational melt replenishment system, is described. A gas flow management technique is discussed and a laser reflection method to sense and control the melt level as silicon is replenished is examined.

  7. Interfacial Properties of CZTS Thin Film Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Muhunthan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu-deficient CZTS (copper zinc tin sulfide thin films were grown on soda lime as well as molybdenum coated soda lime glass by reactive cosputtering. Polycrystalline CZTS film with kesterite structure was produced by annealing it at 500°C in Ar atmosphere. These films were characterized for compositional, structural, surface morphological, optical, and transport properties using energy dispersive X-ray analysis, glancing incidence X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and Hall effect measurement. A CZTS solar cell device having conversion efficiency of ~0.11% has been made by depositing CdS, ZnO, ITO, and Al layers over the CZTS thin film deposited on Mo coated soda lime glass. The series resistance of the device was very high. The interfacial properties of device were characterized by cross-sectional SEM and cross-sectional HRTEM.

  8. ZnO/TiO{sub 2} particles and their solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerli, S., E-mail: suleymankerli@ksu.edu.tr [Department of EnergySystemsEngineering, Faculty of Elbistan Technology, Kahramanmaras SutcuImamUniversity, Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Akgül, Ö., E-mail: omeraakgul@gmail.com [Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Dept. of Physics, 46100 K.Maras-Turkey (Turkey); Alver, Ü., E-mail: ualver@ktu.edu.tr [Karadeniz Technical University, Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Eng. 61080, Trabzon-Turkey (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    ZnO/TiO{sub 2} particles were investigated for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Nano-structured ZnO particles were produced by the hydrothermal method. TiO{sub 2} (P25) nanoparticles, was bought from the company of Degussa. Crystal structures and morphological properties of particles were examined by XRD and SEM. As an application, dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated from nano-structured produced metal oxide particles. The working electrodes of the DSSCs were obtained by mixture of ZnO and TiO{sub 2} powders. I-V characteristics of the cells were measured by using a solar simulator and the efficiency of the solar cells were obtained by using I-V graphs. ZnO cells sensitized with Ruthenium 535-bisTBA (N719) dyes yield higher efficiencies than corresponding TiO{sub 2} cells. By increasing TiO{sub 2} amount in the mixture of ZnO/TiO{sub 2}, it was observed that efficiencies of cells are getting lower.

  9. Bias-dependent high saturation solar LBIC scanning of solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorster, F.J.; van Dyk, E.E. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2007-06-15

    A light beam-induced current measurement system that uses concentrated solar radiation as a beam probe to map spatially distributed defects on a solar cell has been developed and tested [F.J. Vorster, E.E. van Dyk, Rev. Sci. Instrum., submitted for review]. The induced current response from a flat plate EFG Si solar cell was mapped as a function of surface position and cell bias by using a solar light beam induced current (S-LBIC) mapping system while at the same time dynamically biasing the whole cell with an external voltage. This paper examines the issues relating to transient capacitive effects as well as the electrical behaviour of typical solar cell defect mechanisms under spot illumination. By examining the bias dependence of the S-LBIC maps, various defect mechanisms of photovoltaic (PV) cells under concentrated solar irradiance may be identified. The techniques employed to interpret the spatially distributed IV curves as well as initial results are discussed. (author)

  10. Realization of Quasi-Omnidirectional Solar Cells with Superior Electrical Performance by All-Solution-Processed Si Nanopyramids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Sihua; Wang, Wenjie; Tan, Miao; Zhuang, Yufeng; Shen, Wenzhong

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale (156 mm × 156 mm) quasi-omnidirectional solar cells are successfully realized and featured by keeping high cell performance over broad incident angles (θ), via employing Si nanopyramids (SiNPs) as surface texture. SiNPs are produced by the proposed metal-assisted alkaline etching method, which is an all-solution-processed method and highly simple together with cost-effective. Interestingly, compared to the conventional Si micropyramids (SiMPs)-textured solar cells, the SiNPs-textured solar cells possess lower carrier recombination and thus superior electrical performances, showing notable distinctions from other Si nanostructures-textured solar cells. Furthermore, SiNPs-textured solar cells have very little drop of quantum efficiency with increasing θ, demonstrating the quasi-omnidirectional characteristic. As an overall result, both the SiNPs-textured homojunction and heterojunction solar cells possess higher daily electric energy production with a maximum relative enhancement approaching 2.5%, when compared to their SiMPs-textured counterparts. The quasi-omnidirectional solar cell opens a new opportunity for photovoltaics to produce more electric energy with a low cost.

  11. Decohesion Kinetics in Polymer Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bruner, Christopher; Novoa, Fernando; Dupont, Stephanie; Dauskardt, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. We investigate the role of molecular weight (MW) of the photoactive polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on the temperature-dependent decohesion kinetics of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs). The MW of P3HT has been directly correlated to its carrier field effect mobilities and the ambient temperature also affects OSC in-service performance and P3HT arrangement within the BHJ layer. Under inert conditions, time-dependent decohesion readily occurs within the BHJ layer at loads well below its fracture resistance. We observe that by increasing the MW of P3HT, greater resistance to decohesion is achieved. However, failure consistently occurs within the BHJ layer representing the weakest layer within the device stack. Additionally, it was found that at temperatures below the glass transition temperature (∼41-45 °C), decohesion was characterized by brittle failure via molecular bond rupture. Above the glass transition temperature, decohesion growth occurred by a viscoelastic process in the BHJ layer, leading to a significant degree of viscoelastic deformation. We develop a viscoelastic model based on molecular relaxation to describe the resulting behavior. The study has implications for OSC long-term reliability and device performance, which are important for OSC production and implementation.

  12. Decohesion Kinetics in Polymer Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bruner, Christopher

    2014-12-10

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. We investigate the role of molecular weight (MW) of the photoactive polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on the temperature-dependent decohesion kinetics of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs). The MW of P3HT has been directly correlated to its carrier field effect mobilities and the ambient temperature also affects OSC in-service performance and P3HT arrangement within the BHJ layer. Under inert conditions, time-dependent decohesion readily occurs within the BHJ layer at loads well below its fracture resistance. We observe that by increasing the MW of P3HT, greater resistance to decohesion is achieved. However, failure consistently occurs within the BHJ layer representing the weakest layer within the device stack. Additionally, it was found that at temperatures below the glass transition temperature (∼41-45 °C), decohesion was characterized by brittle failure via molecular bond rupture. Above the glass transition temperature, decohesion growth occurred by a viscoelastic process in the BHJ layer, leading to a significant degree of viscoelastic deformation. We develop a viscoelastic model based on molecular relaxation to describe the resulting behavior. The study has implications for OSC long-term reliability and device performance, which are important for OSC production and implementation.

  13. Decohesion kinetics in polymer organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Christopher; Novoa, Fernando; Dupont, Stephanie; Dauskardt, Reinhold

    2014-12-10

    We investigate the role of molecular weight (MW) of the photoactive polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on the temperature-dependent decohesion kinetics of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs). The MW of P3HT has been directly correlated to its carrier field effect mobilities and the ambient temperature also affects OSC in-service performance and P3HT arrangement within the BHJ layer. Under inert conditions, time-dependent decohesion readily occurs within the BHJ layer at loads well below its fracture resistance. We observe that by increasing the MW of P3HT, greater resistance to decohesion is achieved. However, failure consistently occurs within the BHJ layer representing the weakest layer within the device stack. Additionally, it was found that at temperatures below the glass transition temperature (∼41-45 °C), decohesion was characterized by brittle failure via molecular bond rupture. Above the glass transition temperature, decohesion growth occurred by a viscoelastic process in the BHJ layer, leading to a significant degree of viscoelastic deformation. We develop a viscoelastic model based on molecular relaxation to describe the resulting behavior. The study has implications for OSC long-term reliability and device performance, which are important for OSC production and implementation.

  14. Danish participation in the IEA solar cell activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    In the 12-month period 01.05.93 - 30.04.94 the Danish activities in the IEA 'Solar Cell Agreement' consisted in: participation in the Executive Committee (ExCo) and participation in Task 1 'Exchange and Dissemination of Information on PV Power Systems'. ExCo has meetings every half-year and is a coordinating organ for the Agreement. Work on the Task 1 is organized in 4 subtasks: (1) mapping of solar cell activities in the OECD countries and preparation of an IEA handbook on solar cell technology; (2) publishing of a semiannual newsletter about the agreement; (3) an 'executive conference' on solar cell technology and its uses with participation of the decision-makers in respective power industries; (4) information dissemination whenever required. Demonstration projects, like a photovoltaic roof-integrated system connected to the grid. have been implemented. Three larger solar cell projects, subsidized by the EU means, comprehend 'real time monitoring' by a solar system, WHO project 'Solar Energy Applications for Primary Health Care Clinics for Remote Rural Areas' (SAPHIR) and a grid-connected photovoltaic system in a suburb residential settlement. (EG)

  15. Detailed balance theory of excitonic and bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchartz, Thomas; Mattheis, Julian; Rau, Uwe

    2008-12-01

    A generalized solar cell model for excitonic and classical bipolar solar cells describes the combined transport and interaction of electrons, holes, and excitons in accordance with the principle of detailed balance. Conventional inorganic solar cells, single-phase organic solar cells and bulk heterojunction solar cells, i.e., nanoscale mixtures of two organic materials, are special cases of this model. For high mobilities, the compatibility with the principle of detailed balance ensures that our model reproduces the Shockley-Queisser limit irrespective of how the energy transport is achieved. For less ideal devices distinct differences become visible between devices that are described by linear differential equations and those with nonlinear effects, such as a voltage-dependent collection in bipolar p-i-n -type devices. These differences in current-voltage characteristics are also decisive for the validity of the reciprocity theorem between photovoltaic quantum efficiency and electroluminescent emission. Finally, we discuss the effect of band offset at the heterointerface in a bulk heterojunction cell and the effect of the average distances between these heterointerfaces on the performance of a solar cell in order to show how our detailed balance model includes also these empirically important quantities.

  16. Host cells and methods for producing isoprenyl alkanoates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taek Soon; Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-12-01

    The invention provides for a method of producing an isoprenyl alkanoate in a genetically modified host cell. In one embodiment, the method comprises culturing a genetically modified host cell which expresses an enzyme capable of catalyzing the esterification of an isoprenol and a straight-chain fatty acid, such as an alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT), wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT) or lipase, under a suitable condition so that the isoprenyl alkanoate is produced.

  17. Carrier population control and surface passivation in solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cuevas, Andres; Wan, Yimao; Yan, Di; Samundsett, Christian; Allen, Thomas; Zhang, Xinyu; Cui, Jie; Bullock, James

    2018-01-01

    Controlling the concentration of charge carriers near the surface is essential for solar cells. It permits to form regions with selective conductivity for either electrons or holes and it also helps to reduce the rate at which they recombine

  18. Development of CIGS2 solar cells with lower absorber thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasekar, Parag S.; Dhere, Neelkanth G. [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, 1679 Clearlake Rd., Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States); Moutinho, Helio [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    The availability and cost of materials, especially of indium can be a limiting factor as chalcopyrite based thin-film solar cells advance in their commercialization. The required amounts of metals can be lowered by using thinner films. When the thickness of the film decreases, there is possibility of remaining only in the small grain region because the coalescence of grains does not have an opportunity to enhance the grain size to the maximum. Solar cell performance in smaller grain chalcopyrite absorber deteriorates due to larger fraction of grain boundaries. Efforts are being made to reduce the thickness while maintaining the comparable performance. This work presents a study of preparation, morphology and other material properties of CIGS2 absorber layers with decreasing thicknesses up to 1.2 {mu}m and its correlation with the device performance. Encouraging results were obtained demonstrating that reasonable solar cell efficiencies (>10%) can be achieved even for thinner CIGS2 thin-film solar cells. (author)

  19. Broadband back grating design for thin film solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, design based on tapered circular grating structure was studied, to provide broadband enhancement in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells. In comparison to planar structure an absorption enhancement of ~ 7% was realized.

  20. Graphene interfaced perovskite solar cells: Role of graphene flake size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakorikar, Tushar; Kavitha, M. K.; Tong, Shi Wun; Vayalamkuzhi, Pramitha; Loh, Kian Ping; Jaiswal, Manu

    2018-04-01

    Graphene interfaced inverted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells are fabricated by facile solution method and studied its potential as hole conducting layer. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with small and large flake size and Polyethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) are utilized as hole conducting layers in different devices. For the solar cell employing PEDOT:PSS as hole conducting layer, 3.8 % photoconversion efficiency is achieved. In case of solar cells fabricated with rGO as hole conducting layer, the efficiency of the device is strongly dependent on flake size. With all other fabrication conditions kept constant, the efficiency of graphene-interfaced solar cell improves by a factor of 6, by changing the flake size of graphene oxide. We attribute this effect to uniform coverage of graphene layer and improved electrical percolation network.