WorldWideScience

Sample records for producing significant quantities

  1. Variation in Quantity of Heat Produced from Charcoal of Prosopis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected using the copper calorimeter, a thermometer, an air tight burner and a weight balance. The results showed a gradual decrease in the quantity of heat produced as combustion time increased from 10 40 minutes in all wood species. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the quantity of heat produced both ...

  2. Optimal sharing of quantity risk for a coalition of wind power producers facing nodal prices

    KAUST Repository

    Bitar, E. Y.; Baeyens, E.; Khargonekar, P. P.; Poolla, K.; Varaiya, P.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that aggregation of geographically diverse wind energy resources offers compelling potential to mitigate wind power variability, as wind speed at different geographic locations tends to decorrelate with increasing spatial separation. In this paper, we explore the extent to which a coalition of wind power producers can exploit the statistical benefits of aggregation to mitigate the risk of quantity shortfall with respect to forward contract offerings for energy. We propose a simple augmentation of the existing two-settlement market system with nodal pricing to permit quantity risk sharing among wind power producers by affording the group a recourse opportunity to utilize improved forecasts of their ensuing wind energy production to collectively modify their forward contracted positions so as to utilize the projected surplus in generation at certain buses to balance the projected shortfall in generation at complementary buses. Working within this framework, we show that the problem of optimally sizing a set of forward contracts for a group of wind power producers reduces to convex programming and derive closed form expressions for the set of optimal recourse policies. We also asses the willingness of individual wind power producers to form a coalition to cooperatively offer contracts for energy. We first show that the expected profit derived from coalitional contract offerings with recourse is greater than that achievable through independent contract offerings. And, using tools from coalitional game theory, we show that the core for our game is non-empty.

  3. Optimal sharing of quantity risk for a coalition of wind power producers facing nodal prices

    KAUST Repository

    Bitar, E. Y.

    2012-06-01

    It is widely accepted that aggregation of geographically diverse wind energy resources offers compelling potential to mitigate wind power variability, as wind speed at different geographic locations tends to decorrelate with increasing spatial separation. In this paper, we explore the extent to which a coalition of wind power producers can exploit the statistical benefits of aggregation to mitigate the risk of quantity shortfall with respect to forward contract offerings for energy. We propose a simple augmentation of the existing two-settlement market system with nodal pricing to permit quantity risk sharing among wind power producers by affording the group a recourse opportunity to utilize improved forecasts of their ensuing wind energy production to collectively modify their forward contracted positions so as to utilize the projected surplus in generation at certain buses to balance the projected shortfall in generation at complementary buses. Working within this framework, we show that the problem of optimally sizing a set of forward contracts for a group of wind power producers reduces to convex programming and derive closed form expressions for the set of optimal recourse policies. We also asses the willingness of individual wind power producers to form a coalition to cooperatively offer contracts for energy. We first show that the expected profit derived from coalitional contract offerings with recourse is greater than that achievable through independent contract offerings. And, using tools from coalitional game theory, we show that the core for our game is non-empty.

  4. Definition, significance and measurement of quantities pertaining to the oxygen carrying properties of human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, WG; Maas, AHJ; Moran, RF

    1996-01-01

    A consistent set of definitions is given of the principal quantities pertaining to the oxygen transport by the blood, and of their mutual relationships, in relation to the methods used in their measurement. At the core is the correct definition of oxygen saturation, the deviation of which has

  5. Quantity and quality of solid wastes produced in dental offices of babol city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoliman Amouei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental wastes due to having bacterial disease-causing agents and toxic chemicals are categorized in hazardous wastes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantity and composition of dental waste produced by general and specialized dental offices in babol city. Materials &Methods: From all dental offices (170 and 40 dental offices were related to general and specialized respectively in Babol city, 20 general and 5 specialized offices were randomly selected. Waste samples were collected three times a week (Sunday, Monday and Tuesday, 50 sub-groups were separated and weighted by a digital scale with accuracy of 0.01 gram. The data were presented by excel and word software in figures and tables. Results: The total wastes of general and specialized offices were 11829 and 2831.5 kg/year, respectively. The percentages of domestic-type, infectious, pharmaceutical and toxic wastes in general dental offices were 52.5%, 42.5%, 4.7% and 0.3%; and in specialized offices were 42.5%, 50%, 7% and 0.5%, respectively. Most components in a variety of dental waste included plastic, paper, plaster molds, glass and metal. Conclusion: Due to the large contents of plastic, paper, plaster molds, glass and metals in domestic- type and infectious wastes produced in the general and specialized dental offices, it is necessary to manage the wastes and their separation and recycling in source place.

  6. MATERNAL ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION PRODUCING FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS (FASD): QUANTITY, FREQUENCY, AND TIMING OF DRINKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A.; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J. Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Barnard, Ronel; De Vries, Marlene; Hasken, Julie; Robinson, Luther K.; Adnams, Colleen M.; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Parry, Charles; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Tabachnick, Barbara; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Background Concise, accurate measures of maternal prenatal alcohol use are needed to better understand fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Methods Measures of drinking by mothers of children with specific FASD diagnoses and mothers of randomly-selected controls are compared and also correlated with physical and cognitive/behavioral outcomes. Results Measures of maternal alcohol use can differentiate maternal drinking associated with FASD from that of controls and some from mothers of alcohol-exposed normals. Six variables that combine quantity and frequency concepts distinguish mothers of FASD children from normal controls. Alcohol use variables, when applied to each trimester and three months prior to pregnancy, provide insight on critical timing of exposure as well. Measures of drinking, especially bingeing, correlate significantly with increased child dysmorphology and negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes in children, especially low non-verbal IQ, poor attention, and behavioral problems. Logistic regression links (palcohol consumption both within and between diagnostic groupings of mothers bearing children diagnosed within the FASD continuum. Drinking measures are empirically identified and correlated with specific child outcomes. Alcohol use, especially heavy use, should be avoided throughout pregnancy. PMID:23932841

  7. Maternal alcohol consumption producing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD): quantity, frequency, and timing of drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Barnard, Ronel; De Vries, Marlene; Hasken, Julie; Robinson, Luther K; Adnams, Colleen M; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene; Tabachnick, Barbara; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-12-01

    Concise, accurate measures of maternal prenatal alcohol use are needed to better understand fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Measures of drinking by mothers of children with specific FASD diagnoses and mothers of randomly-selected controls are compared and also correlated with physical and cognitive/behavioral outcomes. Measures of maternal alcohol use can differentiate maternal drinking associated with FASD from that of controls and some from mothers of alcohol-exposed normals. Six variables that combine quantity and frequency concepts distinguish mothers of FASD children from normal controls. Alcohol use variables, when applied to each trimester and three months prior to pregnancy, provide insight on critical timing of exposure as well. Measures of drinking, especially bingeing, correlate significantly with increased child dysmorphology and negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes in children, especially low non-verbal IQ, poor attention, and behavioral problems. Logistic regression links (p<.001) first trimester drinking (vs. no drinking) with FASD, elevating FASD likelihood 12 times; first and second trimester drinking increases FASD outcomes 61 times; and drinking in all trimesters 65 times. Conversely, a similar regression (p=.008) indicates that drinking only in the first trimester makes the birth of a child with an FASD 5 times less likely than drinking in all trimesters. There is significant variation in alcohol consumption both within and between diagnostic groupings of mothers bearing children diagnosed within the FASD continuum. Drinking measures are empirically identified and correlated with specific child outcomes. Alcohol use, especially heavy use, should be avoided throughout pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of the characteristic and installation site of wind generator on quantity of produced energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palge, V.; Lepa, J.; Tamm, T.

    2002-01-01

    In Estonia, especially in inland the wind speed is rather low. According to the Master thesis of Tonis Tamm the opportunities of use of several types of wind generators are analysed. It is found out, that the wind generator, beginning to produce energy at wind speed 2 m/s can in such conditions produce about four times more electricity energy than such having 'cut-in' wind speed 4 m/s. (author)

  9. Quality and quantity of latex which can be produced from natural vegetation in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaris, N.S.; Vokou, D.; Diamantopoulos, J.

    1985-01-01

    Euphorbiaceae is one of the major latex producing families very promising in terms of exploitation as energy sources. Research in the Greek areas proved that Euphorbia species are very numerous with high contribution in biomass terms in many of them. Provided are data concerning growth characteristics of E. dendroides and E. acanthothamnos to answer the question of the feasibility of harvesting. E. helioscopia is proved to be a very promising species with many ecotypes. Its occurrence and extremely increased growth in olive, almonds, and pear plantations makes it a very important species needing further research to evaluate the possibility of combined cultivation with the above mentioned trees. It is estimated the oil production that such plantations may yield.

  10. The Effect of Fe Concentration on the Quality and Quantity of Biogas Produced From Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irvan Matseh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of Fe concentration as a trace metal on the quality and quantity of biogas produced from the fermentation of palm oil mill effluent (POME. Raw POME as feed was obtained from one of the palm oil mills belong to PTPN IV, other materials used were hydrochloric acid, sodium bicarbonate, and trace metals. Observed variables were volume of biogas, concentration of Fe in raw POME and biodigester, degradation rate of total solid (TS and volatile solid (VS, M-Alkalinity, pH, H2S and CO2 concentration in biogas at hydraulic retention time (HRT 6 days. Before HRT of 6 days reached, initial trace metal compositions were 25.2 mg/L of Fe, 0.42 mg/L of Co, and 0.49 mg/L of Ni. After that, composition of trace metal were consisted only Co and Ni. The results showed that Fe as a trace metal did not affect the production or quantity of biogas. When Fe concentration reached over to 330 mg/L then concentration of CH4, total solid (TS and volatile solid (VS decreased. Moreover, the higher the Fe contents the smaller of H2S production. Fe content in POME from the same mill had different concentration, as the consequence biogas with different H2S concentrations were produced as well. Thus, Fe in the trace metals is no longer required if high concentration of Fe already existed in POME because it can reduce the formation of H2S. In addition, too high concentration of Fe in POME can be toxic for microorganism in the fermentation of biogas.

  11. Quantity Surveying Undergraduates’ Awareness on Cost Significant of High-Rise Condominium Projects in Malaysia: The Case of a Private University in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Lee Wah; Seng Ng See; Choon Toh Tien; Sim Lim Cheng; Khian Yong Ching; Chen Goh Kai

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in quantity surveying (QS) emphasised the importance of identifying cost significant elements (CSE). The knowledge on CSE of high-rise condominium projects (HRCP) is essential as high-rise residential multi-unit projects are the next option in building construction due to limited land areas in urban areas. This study aims to determine the levels of awareness among QS undergraduates of a private university in Malaysia on CSE of HRCP in Malaysia. The respondents’ knowledge o...

  12. Quantity Surveying Undergraduates’ Awareness on Cost Significant of High-Rise Condominium Projects in Malaysia: The Case of a Private University in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lee Wah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in quantity surveying (QS emphasised the importance of identifying cost significant elements (CSE. The knowledge on CSE of high-rise condominium projects (HRCP is essential as high-rise residential multi-unit projects are the next option in building construction due to limited land areas in urban areas. This study aims to determine the levels of awareness among QS undergraduates of a private university in Malaysia on CSE of HRCP in Malaysia. The respondents’ knowledge on CSE has not achieved a satisfactory level. Both male and female respondents have the same levels of awareness on CSE. Remedial strategies to improve this situation are recommended.

  13. Prevalence, characterization and clinical significance of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    : Sarita Nayak, Suman Singh, Soeb Jankhwala, Riddhi Pradhan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella peumoniae, a capsulated gram negative bacillus is responsible for causing life threatening infections in humans. Carbapenems are the drug of choice for serious infection caused by multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. The emergence of carbapenem resistance has made it extremely difficult to treat such infections resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Aims: To study the prevalence of carbapenem resistance using ertapenem as a marker and to detect Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC producing Klebsiella pneumoniae as a mechanism of resistance. Material and Methods: The study included 102 patients from which Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated. Identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed on miniAPI (Analytical Profile Index, Semiautomated bacterial identification system according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines of 2011. The modified Hodge test was performed for detection of Carbapenemase production. Patient’s clinical and demographic details along with risk factors and co-morbid conditions, type of response to antimicrobial therapy and mortality were collected. Results: The prevalence of carbapenem resistance was found to be 30.41% with 16.6% KPC producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. The co-morbid conditions like immunocompromised state (p =0.042, prior antibiotics therapy (p=0.047, previous hospitalization (p =0.021, intensive care unit stay (p=0.047 and use of indwelling devices (p =0.013 were found to be significantly associated with carbapenem resistance. Adverse clinical outcomes (death or worsening among patients infected with ertapenem resistant patients was found to be statistically significant than ertapenem sensitive strains (p =0.008. Conclusions: A high degree of carbapenem resistance in present study is alarming and poses therapeutic dilemmas for clinicians. Initiating timely and appropriate infection control measures along with a

  14. Soil fungal communities in a Castanea sativa (chestnut) forest producing large quantities of Boletus edulis sensu lato (porcini): where is the mycelium of porcini?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peintner, Ursula; Iotti, Mirco; Klotz, Petra; Bonuso, Enrico; Zambonelli, Alessandra

    2007-04-01

    A study was conducted in a Castanea sativa forest that produces large quantities of the edible mushroom porcini (Boletus edulis sensu lato). The primary aim was to study porcini mycelia in the soil, and to determine if there were any possible ecological and functional interactions with other dominant soil fungi. Three different approaches were used: collection and morphological identification of fruiting bodies, morphological and molecular identification of ectomycorrhizae by rDNA-ITS sequence analyses and molecular identification of the soil mycelia by ITS clone libraries. Soil samples were taken directly under basidiomes of Boletus edulis, Boletus aestivalis, Boletus aereus and Boletus pinophilus. Thirty-nine ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified on root tips whereas 40 fungal species were found in the soil using the cloning technique. The overlap between above- and below-ground fungal communities was very low. Boletus mycelia, compared with other soil fungi, were rare and with scattered distribution, whereas their fruiting bodies dominated the above-ground fungal community. Only B. aestivalis ectomycorrhizae were relatively abundant and detected as mycelia in the soil. No specific fungus-fungus association was found. Factors triggering formation of mycorrhizae and fructification of porcini appear to be too complex to be simply explained on the basis of the amount of fungal mycelia in the soil.

  15. Emission sources and quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinen, B.

    1991-01-01

    The paper examines emission sources and quantities for SO 2 and NO x . Natural SO 2 is released from volcanic sources and to a much lower extent from marsh gases. In nature NO x is mainly produced in the course of the chemical and bacterial denitrification processes going on in the soil. Manmade pollutants are produced in combustion processes. The paper concentrates on manmade pollution. Aspects discussed include: mechanism of pollution development; manmade emission sources (e.g. industry, traffic, power plants and domestic sources); and emission quantities and forecasts. 11 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Use of Dried Stoned Olive Pomace in the Feeding of Lactating Buffaloes: Effect on the Quantity and Quality of the Milk Produced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Terramoccia

    2013-07-01

    significantly lower in the milk fat of the experimental group (12.09 vs 15.05 μg MDA/g, p<0.01. The acid content of the milk fat of the experimental group had a significantly higher content (p<0.05 of C18:0 and of C18:3ω6. LC-MS/MS analysis showed the presence of 3,4-DHPEA (36.0 μg/L in the milk of the DSOP-fed buffaloes, while other phenols were not found. DSOP, in the quantity utilized, can be used in the feeding of the lactating buffalo; the dietetic-nutritional characteristics of the milk are improved due to a greater contribution of tocopherols, retinol and the presence of hydroxytyrosol.

  17. The significance of cellulolytic enzymes produced by Trichoderma in opportunistic lifestyle of this fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakowska, Judyta; Błaszczyk, Lidia; Chełkowski, Jerzy

    2014-07-01

    The degradation of native cellulose to glucose monomers is a complex process, which requires the synergistic action of the extracellular enzymes produced by cellulolytic microorganisms. Among fungi, the enzymatic systems that can degrade native cellulose have been extensively studied for species belonging to the genera of Trichoderma. The majority of the cellulolytic enzymes described so far have been examples of Trichoderma reesei, extremely specialized in the efficient degradation of plant cell wall cellulose. Other Trichoderma species, such as T. harzianum, T. koningii, T. longibrachiatum, and T. viride, known for their capacity to produce cellulolytic enzymes, have been isolated from various ecological niches, where they have proved successful in various heterotrophic interactions. As saprotrophs, these species are considered to make a contribution to the degradation of lignocellulosic plant material. Their cellulolytic potential is also used in interactions with plants, especially in plant root colonization. However, the role of cellulolytic enzymes in species forming endophytic associations with plants or in those existing in the substratum for mushroom cultivation remains unknown. The present review discusses the current state of knowledge about cellulolytic enzymes production by Trichoderma species and the encoding genes, as well as the involvement of these proteins in the lifestyle of Trichoderma. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Neonatal infection produces significant changes in immune function with no associated learning deficits in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Brittany F; Caulfield, Jasmine I; Solomotis, Samantha A; Schwarz, Jaclyn M

    2017-10-01

    The current experiments examined the impact of early-life immune activation and a subsequent mild immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 25µg/kg) on hippocampal-dependent learning, proinflammatory cytokine expression in the brain, and peripheral immune function in juvenile male and female rats at P24, an age when hippocampal-dependent learning and memory first emerges. Our results indicate that neonatal infection did not produce learning deficits in the hippocampal-dependent context pre-exposure facilitation effect paradigm in juvenile males and females, contrary to what has been observed in adults. Neonatal infection produced an increase in baseline IL-1β expression in the hippocampus (HP) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of juvenile rats. Furthermore, neonatally infected rats showed exaggerated IL-1β expression in the HP following LPS treatment as juveniles; and juvenile females, but not males, showed exaggerated IL-1β expression in the mPFC following LPS treatment. Neonatal infection attenuated the production of IL-6 expression following LPS treatment in both the brain and the spleen, and neonatal infection decreased the numbers of circulating white blood cells in juvenile males and females, an effect that was further exacerbated by subsequent LPS treatment. Together, our data indicate that the consequences of neonatal infection are detectable even early in juvenile development, though we found no concomitant hippocampal-dependent learning deficits at this young age. These findings underscore the need to consider age and associated on-going neurodevelopmental processes as important factors contributing to the emergence of cognitive and behavioral disorders linked to early-life immune activation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1221-1236, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Serious fighting-related injuries produce a significant reduction in intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M

    2013-10-01

    Fighting-related injuries are common among adolescents within the United States, but how such injuries relate to subsequent cognitive functioning remains unclear. In particular, the long-term effect of fighting-related injuries suffered during important developmental periods, such as adolescence, on subsequent cognitive functioning has been overlooked by previous studies. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between sustaining serious fighting-related injuries and changes in verbal intelligence (IQ) over a 5- to 6-year time period. Longitudinal multivariate statistical models were used to analyze data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health collected between 1994 and 2002 and analyzed in 2013. Even a single fighting-related injury resulted in a significant reduction in IQ over time even after controlling for age, race, sex, and changes in socioeconomic status (SES) over the study period. Additionally, females experienced a significantly greater reduction in IQ from each fighting-related injury than males. Fighting-related injuries have a significant impact on subsequent cognitive functioning and intelligence. The implications for future policies and research are discussed in more detail. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Irrigation Is Significantly Associated with an Increased Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Produce Production Environments in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2015-06-01

    Environmental (i.e., meteorological and landscape) factors and management practices can affect the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in produce production environments. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria species (including L. monocytogenes), Salmonella, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in produce production environments and to identify environmental factors and management practices associated with their isolation. Ten produce farms in New York State were sampled during a 6-week period in 2010, and 124 georeferenced samples (80 terrestrial, 33 water, and 11 fecal) were collected. L. monocytogenes, Listeria spp., Salmonella, and STEC were detected in 16, 44, 4, and 5% of terrestrial samples, 30, 58, 12, and 3% of water samples, and 45, 45, 27, and 9% of fecal samples, respectively. Environmental factors and management practices were evaluated for their association with terrestrial samples positive for L. monocytogenes or other Listeria species by univariate logistic regression; analysis was not conducted for Salmonella or STEC because the number of samples positive for these pathogens was low. Although univariate analysis identified associations between isolation of L. monocytogenes or Listeria spp. from terrestrial samples and various water-related factors (e.g., proximity to wetlands and precipitation), multivariate analysis revealed that only irrigation within 3 days of sample collection was significantly associated with isolation of L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 39) and Listeria spp. (odds ratio = 5) from terrestrial samples. These findings suggest that intervention at the irrigation level may reduce the risk of produce contamination.

  1. Radiation quantities and units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This fifth chapter presents the conceptual evolution, the definition procedures, the radiological quantities themselves, the relation between them, the new operational quantities and the new quantities defined in the ICRP 60 that replaced ICRP 26 and was included in the CNEN-NN-3.01 standard of 2011

  2. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  3. Relativity of Electric Quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Zhong-wen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The demonstration foundation,which is used to demonstrate that observed values from the interaction force between two charges,which are not at the same point would be different in different reference frames,is that the transmission of the interaction between charges needs time. Firstly,this paper analyzes the foundation of hypothetical process that the electric field and the magnetic field are built by one charge,and then the electromagnetic field would be transferred to another charge in vacuo by the speed of light,and produces force. It points out that from the simultaneity of relativity,the force applied to charge would occur in different time in the different reference frames,the force would be neither in the same size nor in the opposite direction,and Newton’s Third Law is not valid longer, the deeper cause of these conclusions would be known. On this basis,this paper gives the basis that force would keep invariant in different reference frames,and according to this condition,with the situation of the charge that under the Coulombian force and electromagnetism,the relative form of expression and demonstration methods of electric quantity in different reference frames are given. On the basis of the hypothesis that force would keep invariant in different reference frames,with the similar derivation process,the mass relativity equation of Einstein would be obtained.

  4. Water Exchange Produces Significantly Higher Adenoma Detection Rate Than Water Immersion: Pooled Data From 2 Multisite Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Felix W; Koo, Malcolm; Cadoni, Sergio; Falt, Premysl; Hsieh, Yu-Hsi; Amato, Arnaldo; Erriu, Matteo; Fojtik, Petr; Gallittu, Paolo; Hu, Chi-Tan; Leung, Joseph W; Liggi, Mauro; Paggi, Silvia; Radaelli, Franco; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Smajstrla, Vit; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Urban, Ondrej

    2018-03-02

    To test the hypothesis that water exchange (WE) significantly increases adenoma detection rates (ADR) compared with water immersion (WI). Low ADR was linked to increased risk for interval colorectal cancers and related deaths. Two recent randomized controlled trials of head-to-head comparison of WE, WI, and traditional air insufflation (AI) each showed that WE achieved significantly higher ADR than AI, but not WI. The data were pooled from these 2 studies to test the above hypothesis. Two trials (5 sites, 14 colonoscopists) that randomized 1875 patients 1:1:1 to AI, WI, or WE were pooled and analyzed with ADR as the primary outcome. The ADR of AI (39.5%) and WI (42.4%) were comparable, significantly lower than that of WE (49.6%) (vs. AI P=0.001; vs. WI P=0.033). WE insertion time was 3 minutes longer than that of AI (Prate (vs. AI) of the >10 mm advanced adenomas. Right colon combined advanced and sessile serrated ADR of AI (3.4%) and WI (5%) were comparable and were significantly lower than that of WE (8.5%) (vs. AI P<0.001; vs. WI P=0.039). Compared with AI and WI, the superior ADR of WE offsets the drawback of a significantly longer insertion time. For quality improvement focused on increasing adenoma detection, WE is preferred over WI. The hypothesis that WE could lower the risk of interval colorectal cancers and related deaths should be tested.

  5. Quantities for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    It is recommended that if measurements are made with the objective of monitor radiation levels in the environment to elucidate long-term changes in these levels, then air kerma should be used. If the objective is to give an indication that levels from man-made sources are acceptable within specified limits for the exposure of people, then ambient dose equivalent should be used. It should be noted that radiation risks to individuals are best expressed by the quantity effective dose equivalent. If this latter quantity is to be accurately assessed, it may be necessary to obtain details of the quality of the environmental radiation that cannot be described adequately by simple measurements of either air kerma or ambient dose equivalent. If the above objectives pertain, the measurements should record both air kerma and ambient dose equivalent. If neutrons are measured in the environment then ambient dose equivalent is the appropriate quantity for both the above objectives. (author)

  6. Foreign materials in the repository - update of estimated quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagros, A.

    2007-03-01

    In a repository for spent nuclear fuel, a variety of materials are used during the construction process and during the operation of the repository. In addition to materials necessary for the construction and operation, some materials may be transported into the repository through the ventilation air, as emissions from vehicles, as waste produced by the staff etc. Both of these two types of materials are considered here and their quantities - both the introduced quantities and the quantities that remain after closure - in the repository constructed at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, Finland are estimated here based on new information. This work is intended to update the estimations that have been made previously, and it takes advantage of the experience collected during the construction of the underground rock characterisation facility ONKALO at Olkiluoto. During this construction process, the quantities of the different construction materials introduced into the underground openings have been monitored and they form a basis for estimating the quantities to be used in the future. The estimations made in this report are specific to a KBS-3V type repository and to the Olkiluoto site, although in some cases more generic information has been used, particularly when the relevant quantities have not been monitored in the ONKALO. The estimations are based on the new repository layout produced in 2006 and consider the latest plans for grouting and rock support. As these plans are generally not final yet, several different alternative plans are assumed when necessary. Also two different strategies for the backfilling of the tunnels are considered. The most significant differences with respect to the results of an earlier estimation are related to the materials used in grouting, shotcreting and in support bolts. In the cases where a mixture of bentonite and crushed rock is the used backfill alternative, gypsum and cement are the materials with the largest quantities remaining in the

  7. Radiation quantities and units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This report supersedes ICRU Report 19. Since ICRU Report 19 was published, a number of discussions have taken place between members of the Report Committee on Fundamental Quantities and Units and other workers in the field. Some of these discussions have resulted in the acceptance of certain modifications in the material set out in Report 19 and these modifications are incorporated in the current report. In addition, there has been some expansion and rearrangement of the material in the earlier report. In line, with providing more didactic material and useful source material for other ICRU reports, the general considerations in subsection 1.A of Report 19 have been expanded and placed in a separate subsection. The additional material includes discussions of four terms that are used in this document - quantity, unit, stochastic, and non-stochastic - along with a brief discussion of the mathematical formalism used in ICRU reports. As in ICRU Report 19, the definitions of quantities and units specifically designed for radiation protection (Part B) are separated from those of the general quantities (Part A). The inclusion of the index concept outlined in ICRU Report 25[4] required an extension of Part B

  8. Adaptive responses to cefotaxime treatment in ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and the possible use of significantly regulated pathways as novel secondary targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea S. B.; Rau, Martin Holm; Bonde, Charlotte S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine how ESBL-producing Escherichia coli change the expression of metabolic and biosynthesis genes when adapting to inhibitory concentrations of cefotaxime. Secondly, it was investigated whether significantly regulated pathways constitute putative secondary targets......-fold). Inhibition and/or mutations in other genes that were significantly regulated, belonging to energy synthesis, purine synthesis, proline uptake or potassium uptake, also rendered the resistant bacteria more susceptible to cefotaxime. The results show that ESBL-producing E. coli adapt to treatment...

  9. DOE approach to threshold quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.; Kluk, A.F.; Department of Energy, Washington, DC)

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the concept of threshold quantities for use in determining which waste materials must be handled as radioactive waste and which may be disposed of as nonradioactive waste at its sites. Waste above this concentration level would be managed as radioactive or mixed waste (if hazardous chemicals are present); waste below this level would be handled as sanitary waste. Ideally, the threshold must be set high enough to significantly reduce the amount of waste requiring special handling. It must also be low enough so that waste at the threshold quantity poses a very small health risk and multiple exposures to such waste would still constitute a small health risk. It should also be practical to segregate waste above or below the threshold quantity using available instrumentation. Guidance is being prepared to aid DOE sites in establishing threshold quantity values based on pathways analysis using site-specific parameters (waste stream characteristics, maximum exposed individual, population considerations, and site specific parameters such as rainfall, etc.). A guidance dose of between 0.001 to 1.0 mSv/y (0.1 to 100 mrem/y) was recommended with 0.3 mSv/y (30 mrem/y) selected as the guidance dose upon which to base calculations. Several tasks were identified, beginning with the selection of a suitable pathway model for relating dose to the concentration of radioactivity in the waste. Threshold concentrations corresponding to the guidance dose were determined for waste disposal sites at a selected humid and arid site. Finally, cost-benefit considerations at the example sites were addressed. The results of the various tasks are summarized and the relationship of this effort with related developments at other agencies discussed

  10. Forage quantity and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Janet C.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Felix, Nancy A.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    The Porcupine caribou herd has traditionally used the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, for calving. Availability of nutritious forage has been hypothesized as one of the reasons the Porcupine caribou herd migrates hundreds of kilometers to reach the coastal plain for calving (Kuropat and Bryant 1980, Russell et al. 1993).Forage quantity and quality and the chronology of snowmelt (which determines availability and phenological stages of forage) have been suggested as important habitat attributes that lead calving caribou to select one area over another (Lent 1980, White and Trudell 1980, Eastland et al. 1989). A major question when considering the impact of petroleum development is whether potential displacement of the caribou from the 1002 Area to alternate calving habitat will limit access to high quantity and quality forage.Our study had the following objectives: 1) quantify snowmelt patterns by area; 2) quantify relationships among phenology, biomass, and nutrient content of principal forage species by vegetation type; and 3) determine if traditional concentrated calving areas differ from adjacent areas with lower calving densities in terms of vegetation characteristics.

  11. Prices versus Quantities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank

    illustrate that this result does not generalise to a search fishery, where marginal costs are allowed to depend on harvest. Hansen et al (2008) study a fishery where non-compliance with regulations is a problem. When the regulator is uncertain about non-compliance (compliance uncertainty), then landing fees......Weitzman (2002) studies the regulation of a fishery characterised by constant marginal harvest costs and shows that price regulation performs better than quantity regulation when the regulator is uncertain about the biological reproduction function (ecological uncertainty). Here, we initially...... are the preferred type of regulation, and Hansen et al (2008) find that this result does generalise to a search fishery where marginal costs depend on harvest. In this paper, we simulate a stochastic stock-recruitment model for the Danish cod fishery in the Kategat capturing both ecological and compliance...

  12. Allen's astrophysical quantities

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This new, fourth, edition of Allen's classic Astrophysical Quantities belongs on every astronomer's bookshelf. It has been thoroughly revised and brought up to date by a team of more than ninety internationally renowned astronomers and astrophysicists. While it follows the basic format of the original, this indispensable reference has grown to more than twice the size of the earlier editions to accommodate the great strides made in astronomy and astrophysics. It includes detailed tables of the most recent data on: - General constants and units - Atoms, molecules, and spectra - Observational astronomy at all wavelengths from radio to gamma-rays, and neutrinos - Planetary astronomy: Earth, planets and satellites, and solar system small bodies - The Sun, normal stars, and stars with special characteristics - Stellar populations - Cataclysmic and symbiotic variables, supernovae - Theoretical stellar evolution - Circumstellar and interstellar material - Star clusters, galaxies, quasars, and active galactic nuclei ...

  13. ICU Acquisition Rate, Risk Factors, and Clinical Significance of Digestive Tract Colonization With Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detsis, Marios; Karanika, Styliani; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2017-04-01

    Enterobacteriaceae ranged from 5% to 10%. Previous use of beta-lactam/beta-lactamase or carbapenems and recent hospitalization were independent risk factors for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae colonization, and colonization was associated with significantly higher frequency of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae subsequent infection and increased mortality.

  14. Foreign materials in the repository. Update of estimated quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, T.

    2011-06-01

    A variety of materials are used during the construction process and the operation of the repository for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, Finland. In addition to materials necessary for the construction and operation, some materials may be transported into the repository with the ventilation air, as emissions from vehicles etc. Both of these two types of materials are considered here and both introduced quantities and the quantities that remain after the closure in the repository are estimated here based on the most recent information. This work is intended to update the previous estimations, and it takes advantage of the experience collected during the construction of the underground rock characterisation facility called ONKALO at Olkiluoto. The implemented quantities as well as designs and preliminary designs have been used in calculating the quantities of the foreign materials. The estimations made in this report are specific to a KBS-3V type repository. In some cases more generic information has been used, particularly when the relevant quantities have not been monitored in ONKALO. The estimations are based on the new repository layout produced in 2010 and consider the latest plans for grouting and rock support. As all of these plans are not final some quantities may change in the future. As the repository layout may still go through some changes this report also provides the foreign materials for a hundred meters of different deposition tunnels designed for the OL and LO type canisters1. The results have also been calculated for a space demanded by a deposition tunnel end plug and the tunnel lengths before and after one. The most significant foreign materials are certain accessory minerals of the clay materials followed by organic materials (including the organic carbon from the clay materials), cement, steel and silica. (orig.)

  15. Significance of starch properties and quantity on sponge cake volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the qualitative and quantitative effects of wheat starch on sponge cake (SC) baking quality. Twenty wheat flours, including soft white and club wheat of normal, partial waxy and waxy endosperm, and hard wheat, were tested for amylose content, pasting properties, and SC baking quality. S...

  16. Relationships of chemical composition, quantity of milt to fertility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... determining the right quantity of milt that can be used to fertilize certain quantity of eggs. ... quantity of milt used for artificial reproduction in fish significantly affect water quality used ... is the major organic substance that supplies the spermatozoa with energy.

  17. The In Vitro Mass-Produced Model Mycorrhizal Fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, Significantly Increases Yields of the Globally Important Food Security Crop Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Isabel; Ruiz, Michael; Fernández, Cristhian; Peña, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P). The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future. PMID:23950975

  18. The in vitro mass-produced model mycorrhizal fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, significantly increases yields of the globally important food security crop cassava.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Ceballos

    Full Text Available The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P. The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future.

  19. Quantity Stickiness versus Stackelberg Leadership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, F. A.

    2008-01-01

    We study the endogenous Stackelberg relations in a dynamic market. We analyze a twice-repeated duopoly where, in the beginning, each firm chooses either a quantity-sticky production mode or a quantity-flexible production mode. The size of the market becomes observable after the first period. In the second period, a firm can adjust its quantity if, and only if, it has adopted the flexible mode. Hence, if one firm chooses the sticky mode whilst the other chooses the flexible mode, then they respectively play the roles of a Stackelberg leader and a Stackelberg follower in the second marketing period. We compute the supply quantities at equilibrium and the corresponding expected profits of the firms. We also analyze the effect of the slope parameter of the demand curve on the expected supply quantities and on the profits.

  20. Purification and characterization of enterocin 62-6, a two-peptide bacteriocin produced by a vaginal strain of Enterococcus faecium: Potential significance in bacterial vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezwaan, Diane C.; Mequio, Michael J.; Littell, Julia S.; Allen, Jonathan P.; Rossbach, Silvia; Pybus, Vivien

    2009-01-01

    A bacteriocin produced by a vaginal isolate of Enterococcus faecium strain 62-6, designated enterocin 62-6, was characterized following purification and DNA sequence analysis and compared to previously described bacteriocins. Enterocin 62-6 was isolated from brain heart infusion (BHI) culture supernatants using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by elution from a Sepharose cation exchange column using a continuous salt gradient (0.1–0.7 M NaCl). SDS-PAGE of an active column fraction resulted in an electrophoretically pure protein, which corresponded to the growth inhibition of the sensitive Lactobacillus indicator strain in the gel overlay assay. Purified enterocin 62-6 was shown to be heat- and pH-stable, and sensitive to the proteolytic enzymes α-chymotrypsin and pepsin. Results from mass spectrometry suggested that it comprised two peptides of 5206 and 5219±1 Da, which was confirmed by DNA sequence analysis. The characteristics of enterocin 62-6 as a small, heat- and pH-stable, cationic, hydrophobic, two-peptide, plasmid-borne bacteriocin, with an inhibitory spectrum against a broad range of Gram-positive but not Gram-negative bacteria, were consistent with its classification as a class IIc bacteriocin. Furthermore, its wide spectrum of growth inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria of vaginal origin including lactobacilli, and stability under the acidic conditions of the vagina, are consistent with our hypothesis that it could have potential significance in disrupting the ecology of the vaginal tract and pave the way for the establishment of the abnormal microbiota associated with the vaginal syndrome bacterial vaginosis. This is the first class IIc bacteriocin produced by a strain of E. faecium of vaginal origin to be characterized. PMID:19578555

  1. Thermal quantities of 46Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmatinejad, A.; Razavi, R.; Kakavand, T.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic quantities of 46 Ti have been calculated in the framework of the BCS model with inclusion of modified nuclear pairing gap (MPBCS) that was proposed in our previous publication. Using modified paring gap results in an S-shaped heat capacity curve at critical temperature with a smooth behavior instead of singular behavior of the same curve in the BCS calculations. In addition the thermal quantities have been extracted within the framework of a canonical ensemble according to the new experimental data on nuclear level densities measured by the Oslo group. Comparison shows a good agreement between our calculations in MPBCS and the extracted quantities in the canonical ensemble framework

  2. Assessment of the significance of direct and indirect pollution inputs to a major salmon-producing river using polyethylene membrane devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles, Adam; Holland, Larry; Andersson, Ole

    2006-08-01

    Conventional passive sampling devices for monitoring pollution input often prove to be cost-prohibitive when assessing large spatial and temporal scales. The Kenai River, a major salmon-producing river in Alaska (USA), served as the perfect laboratory to test the utility of polyethylene membrane devices for assessing chronic nonpoint-source inputs to a large riverine watershed. Comparison of the relative levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at a large number of locations over time allowed us to assess the significance and potential source of these compounds in the river. Concentrations of PAH were greatest near urban areas and peaked during the late winter, when streams flows and dilution were low. Vessel activity and PAH levels peaked in July and were heaviest in the lower 16 km of the river, where fishing activity was concentrated. Nearly one-third of the vessels observed on the river were powered by two-stroke engines, which release a higher proportion of unburned fuel into the water than the cleaner burning four-stroke engines. The low concentrations of hydrocarbons upriver of the boat traffic suggest very little remote delivery of these contaminants to the watershed. Polyethylene strips proved to be an excellent, low-cost tool for determining the PAH patterns in a large watershed.

  3. N-glycan engineering of a plant-produced anti-CD20-hIL-2 immunocytokine significantly enhances its effector functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusic, Carla; Pioli, Claudio; Stelter, Szymon; Novelli, Flavia; Lonoce, Chiara; Morrocchi, Elena; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Salzano, Anna Maria; Scaloni, Andrea; Donini, Marcello

    2018-03-01

    Anti-CD20 recombinant antibodies are among the most promising therapeutics for the treatment of B-cell malignancies such as non-Hodgkin lymphomas. We recently demonstrated that an immunocytokine (2B8-Fc-hIL2), obtained by fusing an anti-CD20 scFv-Fc antibody derived from C2B8 mAb (rituximab) to the human interleukin 2 (hIL-2), can be efficiently produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. The purified immunocytokine (IC) bearing a typical plant protein N-glycosylation profile showed a CD20 binding activity comparable to that of rituximab and was efficient in eliciting antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) of human PBMC against Daudi cells, indicating its fuctional integrity. In this work, the immunocytokine devoid of the typical xylose/fucose N-glycosylation plant signature (IC-ΔXF) and the corresponding scFv-Fc-ΔXF antibody not fused to the cytokine, were obtained in a glyco-engineered ΔXylT/FucT N. benthamiana line. Purification yields from agroinfiltrated plants amounted to 20-35 mg/kg of leaf fresh weight. When assayed for interaction with FcγRI and FcγRIIIa, IC-ΔXF exhibited significantly enhanced binding affinities if compared to the counterpart bearing the typical plant protein N-glycosylation profile (IC) and to rituximab. The glyco-engineered recombinant molecules also exhibited a strongly improved ADCC and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). Notably, our results demonstrate a reduced C1q binding of xylose/fucose carrying IC and scFv-Fc compared to versions that lack these sugar moieties. These results demonstrate that specific N-glycosylation alterations in recombinant products can dramatically affect the effector functions of the immunocytokine, resulting in an overall improvement of the biological functions and consequently of the therapeutic potential. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Quantity Estimation Of The Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorana, Agim; Malkaj, Partizan; Muda, Valbona

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present some considerations about quantity estimations, regarding the range of interaction and the conservations laws in various types of interactions. Our estimations are done under classical and quantum point of view and have to do with the interaction's carriers, the radius, the influence range and the intensity of interactions

  5. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…

  6. Definitions of Quantities and Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgin, C. B.

    1983-01-01

    Compares various methods of defining derived quantities, arguing for a definitional formula using base or fundamental units in a word equation, or symbol-equations with the symbols explained. Suggests that fundamental units be defined operationally or left regarded as intuitive as in the case of length and time. (JM)

  7. Strategic Planning in Irish Quantity Surveying Pracitces

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Roisin

    2011-01-01

    The role and usefulness of strategic planning has been well documented over several decades of strategic management research. Despite the significant body of existing knowledge in the field of strategic planning, there remains a paucity of investigation into the construction sector, specifically in Professional Service Firms (PSF’s) operating within it. The aim of this research was to ascertain the type, scope and extent of strategic planning within Irish Quantity Surveying (QS) practices and...

  8. Significance of volatile compounds produced by spoilage bacteria in vacuum-packed cold-smoked salmon ( Salmo salar ) analyzed by GC-MS and multivariate regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lasse Vigel; Huss, Hans Henrik; Dalgaard, Paw

    2001-01-01

    alcohols, which were produced by microbial activity. Partial least- squares regression of volatile compounds and sensory results allowed for a multiple compound quality index to be developed. This index was based on volatile bacterial metabolites, 1- propanol and 2-butanone, and 2-furan......, 1- penten-3-ol, and 1-propanol. The potency and importance of these compounds was confirmed by gas chromatography- olfactometry. The present study provides valuable information on the bacterial reactions responsible for spoilage off-flavors of cold-smoked salmon, which can be used to develop...

  9. Quantities used in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menossi, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The application of ICRP recommendations requires knowledge of a variety of concepts and magnitudes. Many of them are employed in other fields of science and precision in its definition reflects this wide application. In this regard, information on quantities and basic units of radiation, which exists in numerous publications, are subjects of great interest. The characteristics and radiation effects are studied by physicists, biologists and chemists mainly. However, there are basics that must be known and to be recognized by general practitioners and specialists from all branches of medicine. The information on quantities and units are used only in radiation protection, have been obtained from the reports listed on the attached bibliography. Such quantities and units contain weighting factors used to provide for different types of radiation and energies that affect the body and thus take into account the relative radio-sensitivity of different tissues. Additionally, they have added a series of data for a better understanding of the units: for example, multiples and sub-multiples, and some examples of converting the units used in radiation protection. (author) [es

  10. Reply to the ''Comment on 'The significance of the distribution of hot spots on the interpretation of laser-produced plasma experiments' ''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arad, B.; Eliezer, S.

    1979-01-01

    We disagree with the conclusion reached by Goel, Gupta, and Bhatnagar that the effect of hot spots is not significant in analyzing scaling laws using transformed variables. We believe they have overlooked the main points of our analysis

  11. Layer-Mean Quantities, Local Conservation Laws, and Vorticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camassa, R.; Levermore, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    We derive local conservation laws for layer-mean quantities in two general settings. When applied to Euler flows, the first of these settings yields well-known local conservation laws for quantities averaged between material surfaces. The second, however, leads to new local conservation laws for quantities involving the vorticity that are averaged between arbitrary surfaces. These produce the crucial vorticity conservation laws in shallow water models that admit nonhydrostatic and noncolumnar motion. Moreover, they seem to lie outside the Hamiltonian paradigm of fluid dynamics. The formalism generalizes to skew-symmetric matrix fields; applications to electromagnetism are suggested. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. How necessary are the new quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.

    1991-01-01

    The necessity of the ICRU operational quantities is discussed from the point of view of practical, opertional radiation protection, on the basis of ICRU report 43. It is clear that, although the new quantities have some advantages over previous systems of operational quantities, there are some disadvantages as well. The decision to adopt these quantities is, therefore, not clear cut. (orig.)

  13. Opinião de mulheres de uma unidade de saúde da família sobre a quantidade de leite materno produzido Opinión de mujeres de una unidad de salud familiar sobre la cantidad de leche materna producida Opinion of women from a family health unit about the quantity of mothermilk produced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Vilela Borges

    2003-06-01

    más precozmente (p=0,0088.This is a study aimed at knowing the opinion of women about the quantity of mothermilk produced, since insufficient milk is one of the main reasons mentioned by women from different cultures when introducing complementary feeding in children's diet before the fourth month of life. The interviews were made at the homes of 41 women from a family health unit in the Eastern area of São Paulo City in 1998 and 1999. The majority of the mothers (82.9% considered they were producing a sufficient quantity of mothermilk. As evaluation criteria for the produced quantity of mothermilk, they used the size of the breasts, the spontaneous dropping of milk and the mood of the child after breastfeeding. All women introduced artificial milk before the fourth month, but those who mentioned insufficient milk did it earlier (p=0.0088.

  14. The effectiveness of the anti-CD11d treatment is reduced in rat models of spinal cord injury that produce significant levels of intraspinal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremia, N M; Hryciw, T; Bao, F; Streijger, F; Okon, E; Lee, J H T; Weaver, L C; Dekaban, G A; Kwon, B K; Brown, A

    2017-09-01

    We have previously reported that administration of a CD11d monoclonal antibody (mAb) improves recovery in a clip-compression model of SCI. In this model the CD11d mAb reduces the infiltration of activated leukocytes into the injured spinal cord (as indicated by reduced intraspinal MPO). However not all anti-inflammatory strategies have reported beneficial results, suggesting that success of the CD11d mAb treatment may depend on the type or severity of the injury. We therefore tested the CD11d mAb treatment in a rat hemi-contusion model of cervical SCI. In contrast to its effects in the clip-compression model, the CD11d mAb treatment did not improve forelimb function nor did it significantly reduce MPO levels in the hemi-contused cord. To determine if the disparate results using the CD11d mAb were due to the biomechanical nature of the cord injury (compression SCI versus contusion SCI) or to the spinal level of the injury (12th thoracic level versus cervical) we further evaluated the CD11d mAb treatment after a T12 contusion SCI. In contrast to the T12 clip compression SCI, the CD11d mAb treatment did not improve locomotor recovery or significantly reduce MPO levels after T12 contusion SCI. Lesion analyses revealed increased levels of hemorrhage after contusion SCI compared to clip-compression SCI. SCI that is accompanied by increased intraspinal hemorrhage would be predicted to be refractory to the CD11d mAb therapy as this approach targets leukocyte diapedesis through the intact vasculature. These results suggest that the disparate results of the anti-CD11d treatment in contusion and clip-compression models of SCI are due to the different pathophysiological mechanisms that dominate these two types of spinal cord injuries. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The chemical digestion of Ti6Al7Nb scaffolds produced by Selective Laser Melting reduces significantly ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to form biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junka, Adam F; Szymczyk, Patrycja; Secewicz, Anna; Pawlak, Andrzej; Smutnicka, Danuta; Ziółkowski, Grzegorz; Bartoszewicz, Marzenna; Chlebus, Edward

    2016-01-01

    In our previous work we reported the impact of hydrofluoric and nitric acid used for chemical polishing of Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds on decrease of the number of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm forming cells. Herein, we tested impact of the aforementioned substances on biofilm of Gram-negative microorganism, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, dangerous pathogen responsible for plethora of implant-related infections. The Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds were manufactured using Selective Laser Melting method. Scaffolds were subjected to chemical polishing using a mixture of nitric acid and fluoride or left intact (control group). Pseudomonal biofilm was allowed to form on scaffolds for 24 hours and was removed by mechanical vortex shaking. The number of pseudomonal cells was estimated by means of quantitative culture and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The presence of nitric acid and fluoride on scaffold surfaces was assessed by means of IR and rentgen spetorscopy. Quantitative data were analysed using the Mann-Whitney test (P ≤ 0.05). Our results indicate that application of chemical polishing correlates with significant drop of biofilm-forming pseudomonal cells on the manufactured Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds ( p = 0.0133, Mann-Whitney test) compared to the number of biofilm-forming cells on non-polished scaffolds. As X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of fluoride and nitrogen on the surface of scaffold, we speculate that drop of biofilm forming cells may be caused by biofilm-supressing activity of these two elements.

  16. Are necessary unmeasurable quantities in radiation protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, M.G.; Correa, M.F.; Videira, A.A.P.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss in this paper the metrological status of unmeasurable protection quantities and the need to maintain these kind of quantities in the system. The discussion is based on reports from the institutions responsible for the quantities and on scientific publications. In conclusion, we can say that there are alternatives for changing the system in a way that it keep just measurable quantities, nevertheless the present system is well assimilated. Even though a proposal yet to be presented for changing the system, although might simplify and improve it, is not intended to overcome the existence of unmeasurable quantities or the two kinds of quantities. (author)

  17. Memory-Based Quantity Discrimination in Coyotes (Canis latrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salif Mahamane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that the ratio between competing quantities of food significantly mediates coyotes‘ (Canis latrans ability to choose the larger of two food options. These previous findings are consistent with predictions made by Weber‘s Law and indicate that coyotes possess quantity discrimination abilities that are similar to other species. Importantly, coyotes‘ discrimination abilities are similar to domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris, indicating that quantitative discrimination may remain stable throughout certain species‘ evolution. However, while previously shown in two domestic dogs, it is unknown whether coyotes possess the ability to discriminate visual quantities from memory. Here, we address this question by displaying different ratios of food quantities to 14 coyotes before placing the choices out of sight. The coyotes were then allowed to select one of either non-visible food quantities. Coyotes‘ discrimination of quantity from memory does not follow Weber‘s Law in this particular task. These results suggest that working memory in coyotes may not be adapted to maintain information regarding quantity as well as in domestic dogs. The likelihood of a coyote‘s choosing the large option increased when it was presented with difficult ratios of food options first, before it was later presented with trials using more easily discriminable ratios, and when the large option was placed on one particular side. This suggests that learning or motivation increased across trials when coyotes experienced difficult ratios first, and that location of food may have been more salient in working memory than quantity of food.

  18. Asymptotic conditions and conserved quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Two problems have been investigated in this dissertation. The first one deals with the relationship between stationary space-times which are flat at null infinity and stationary space-times which are asymptotic flat at space-like infinity. It is shown that the stationary space-times which are asymptotically flat, in the Penrose sense, at null infinity, are asymptotically flat at space-like infinity in the Geroch sense and metric at space like infinity is at least C 1 . In the converse it is shown that the stationary space-times which are asymptotically flat at space like infinity, in the Beig sense, are asymptotically flat at null infinity in the Penrose sense. The second problem addressed deals with the theories of arbitrary dimensions. The theories treated are the ones which have fiber bundle structure, outside some compact region. For these theories the criterion for the choice of the background metric is specified, and the boundary condition for the initial data set (q ab , P ab ) is given in terms of the background metric. Having these boundary conditions it is shown that the symplectic structure and the constraint functionals are well defined. The conserved quantities associated with internal Killing vector fields are specified. Lastly the energy relative to a fixed background and the total energy of the theory have been given. It is also shown that the total energy of the theory is independent of the choice of the background

  19. Impact of the Velo 2 half misalignment on physical quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Roguljic, Matej; Borghi, Silvia; Grillo, Lucia; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the misalignment of the Vertex Locator of the LHCb experiment on the physical quantities of the decay "$D^{*+} \\rightarrow (D^{0}\\rightarrow K^{-}\\pi^{+}) \\pi^{+} $" is studied in this note. Different misalignments of the 2 halves are applied to Monte Carlo data and the variations of the physical quantities with respect to the case without misalignment are evaluated. The results show the importance of the VELO 2 half alignment which can significantly affect the physics performance in the large misalignment case. A misalignment equal to the precision of the real-time alignment of the Vertex Locator is found to have a negligible effect on the studied physical quantities.

  20. A colorimeter for measurement of picomole quantities of urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurek, G G; Knepper, M A

    1982-04-01

    We described a new colorimeter for the measurement of picomole quantities of urea in nanoliter volume fluid samples. The diacetyl monoxime reaction was used to produce a colored product from urea. The method is capable of resolving differences of 10 pmoles between samples containing 0 to 225 pmoles.

  1. A geochemical module for "AMDTreat" to compute caustic quantity, effluent quantity, and sludge volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.; Parkhurst, David L.; Means, Brent P; McKenzie, Bob; Morris, Harry; Arthur, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Treatment with caustic chemicals typically is used to increase pH and decrease concentrations of dissolved aluminum, iron, and/or manganese in largevolume, metal-laden discharges from active coal mines. Generally, aluminum and iron can be removed effectively at near-neutral pH (6 to 8), whereas active manganese removal requires treatment to alkaline pH (~10). The treatment cost depends on the specific chemical used (NaOH, CaO, Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3, or NH3) and increases with the quantities of chemical added and sludge produced. The pH and metals concentrations do not change linearly with the amount of chemical added. Consequently, the amount of caustic chemical needed to achieve a target pH and the corresponding effluent composition and sludge volume can not be accurately determined without empirical titration data or the application of geochemical models to simulate the titration of the discharge water with caustic chemical(s). The AMDTreat computer program (http://amd.osmre.gov/ ) is widely used to compute costs for treatment of coal-mine drainage. Although AMDTreat can use results of empirical titration with industrial grade caustic chemicals to compute chemical costs for treatment of net-acidic or net-alkaline mine drainage, such data are rarely available. To improve the capability of AMDTreat to estimate (1) the quantity and cost of caustic chemicals to attain a target pH, (2) the concentrations of dissolved metals in treated effluent, and (3) the volume of sludge produced by the treatment, a titration simulation is being developed using the geochemical program PHREEQC (wwwbrr.cr.usgs.gov/projects/GWC_coupled/phreeqc/) that will be coupled as a module to AMDTreat. The simulated titration results can be compared with or used in place of empirical titration data to estimate chemical quantities and costs. This paper describes the development, evaluation, and potential utilization of the PHREEQC titration module for AMDTreat.

  2. Studies on quantity and composition of dairy cow excreta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschke, H.

    1982-01-01

    After feeding a lactating dairy cow a day ration completely enriched with 15 N, the quantities of feces and urine were registered over a period of ten days and put into proportion to the animal mass. The fecal dry matter was put into proportion to the dry matter of the fodder by means of 15 N analysis the N excretion with the excreta was determined concerning quantity and time. Selected feces and urine charges were used to produce a slurry model. The content of nutritive elements of the initial components and of the organic fertilizer are discussed. (author)

  3. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  4. Dose rate constants for new dose quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschurlovits, M.; Daverda, G.; Leitner, A.

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual changes and new quantities made is necessary to reassess dose rate quantities. Calculations of the dose rate constant were done for air kerma, ambient dose equivalent and directional dose equivalent. The number of radionuclides is more than 200. The threshold energy is selected as 20 keV for the dose equivalent constants. The dose rate constant for the photon equivalent dose as used mainly in German speaking countries as a temporary quantity is also included. (Author)

  5. The new operational quantities for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Philosophies and quantities for radiation protection have often been subjected to changes, and some of the developments are traced which ultimately led to recent proposals by ICRU. Development in the past has largely been towards clarification and generalisation of definitions. The present changes, however, reflect a more fundamental issue, the transition from the limitation system to the assessment system in radiation protection. The index quantities were suitable tools to ascertain compliance with the limitation system of radiation protection. The new quantities proposed by ICRU are suitable estimators for effective dose equivalent, which is an essential quantity in the assessment system of radiation protection. A synopsis of the definitions is given. (author)

  6. Dosimetric radiation protection quantities. Impact of the forthcoming ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.; Lee, J.I.; Kim, J.L.; Kim, B.H.

    2008-01-01

    The physical quantities namely fluence, kerma and absorbed dose provide the base for the operational and the protection quantities. The absorbed dose continues to be the fundamental physical quantity for the radiological protection. The most striking feature relating the quantities in the forthcoming recommendations is the updating of the radiation and tissue weighting factors based on the latest available scientific information on radiobiology and the physics of radiation exposure. This is bound to make a significant impact in arriving at the equivalent doses and effective dose. For external exposures of neutrons, the forthcoming recommendations are going to improve the relationship between the operational and protection quantities. The changes in the tissue weighting factors of some tissues/organs, the inclusion of several new tissues/organs for the consideration of tissue weighting factors and the use of the proposed Reference Male and Reference Female voxel phantoms would require new conversion coefficients and dose coefficients for external and internal exposures. The other striking feature appears to be the details of the concepts to ensure that the protections quantities are used for the appropriate and intended purposes only and the misuse is avoided. (author)

  7. Continuing Professional Development in the quantity surveying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research study was conducted in order to investigate Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the South African quantity surveying profession. The study further aimed to establish the reasons why some quantity surveyors do not acquire the required CPD hours and face losing their professional registration with ...

  8. Continuing Professional Development in the quantity surveying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-01-01

    Jan 1, 1991 ... The research established that quantity surveyors regarded handing in their CPD ... Surveying, Walter Sisulu University, PO Box 1421, East London, 5200, South Africa. ... Keywords: Continuing professional development, quantity surveying, perception .... In spite of this opportunity enshrined in the Act, the.

  9. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products § 223.220 Quantity determination...

  10. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the exposure of miners. (i) A ventilating air quantity that is less than what is required by paragraph... results of sampling that demonstrate that the lesser air quantity will maintain continuous compliance with applicable TLV ®'s. (j) If during sampling required by § 70.1900(c) of this subchapter the ventilating air is...

  11. Method and means for determining heat quantities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waasdorp, G G; de Jong, J J; Bijl, A

    1965-08-24

    To determine the quantity of potential heat W that has flowed past a certain point in a certain time, the velocity of the combustible Q, the temperature T, and the specific gravity YDTU are measured, and these values are transmitted to a computer which automatically calculates the quantity: ..pi..EQUATION/sup -/ in which delta T is the difference between the combustible temperature T and a reference temperature, and in which the relation f(YDTU, delta T) represents the heat of combustion as a function of the quantities YDTU and delta T and possibly other properties of the combustible. Alternatively the quantity: ..pi..EQUATION/sup -/ may be measured; here the quantities have the same meaning as above.

  12. A Viewpoint on the Quantity "Plane Angle"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Properties of the quantity "plane angle" are explored under the hypothesis that it is a dimensional quantity. The exploration proceeds especially with respect to the physical concept, its mathematical treatment, vector concepts, measurement theory, units of related quantities, engineering pragmatism, and SI. An attempt is made to bring these different relations into a rational, logical and consistent framework, and thus to justify the hypothesis. Various types of vectorial quantities are recognized, and their properties described with an outline of the necessary algebraic manipulations. The concept of plane angle is amplified, and its interdependence with the circular arc is explored. The resulting units of plane angle form a class of similar scales of measurement. Consequences of the confirmed hypothesis are developed for mathematical expressions involving trigonometric functions, rotational volumes and areas, mathematical limits, differentiation and series expansion. Consequences for mechanical rotational quantities are developed, with proposals for revisions to a number of expressions for derived units within SI. A revised definition for the quantity "plane angle" is stated to take account of the developed insights. There is a clear need to reconsider the status of plane angle and some other quantities within the international framework of SI.

  13. Quantity-split strategy under two-contractor competitive procurement environment

    OpenAIRE

    Boger, Dan C.; Liao, Shu S.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the various market scenarios that provide bid price manipulation opportunities under the dual source competition environment. Two different quantity-split strategies were developed one for the case when one of the suppliers does not have the capacity to produce the majority of the annual quantity requirement and the other for the case when neither contractor is interested in using low prices to capture the larger share of annual quantity. Keywords: Dual sourcing, Quantit...

  14. The influence of using anticoagulants (EDTA and citrate acid 3.8% toward the quantity of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilies Anggarwati Astuti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP is a blood concentrate that has a thrombocytes concentration several time higher than normal concentration of thrombocytes in normal human blood. PRP is a promising alternative to surgery with a safe and natural healing. The standard protocol for PRP preparation must be determined to get the right quantity and quality of the matrix of fibrin, leukocytes, platelets and growth factors. It could not be separated from the number of PRP produced. The use of PRP in the success of periodontal treatment would not be separated from methods to obtain it. To detect the influence of using anticoagulants (EDTA and citrate acid 3.8% toward the quantity of PRP. There are 41 subjects studied by taking 21 ml of venous blood in each of the seven tubes. Centrifugation performed twice with different speed, duration, use of anticoagulants then analyzed. This quantity between the two groups differed significantly between the PRP in EDTA group is higher 322.2 ml rather than citrate acid 3.8% group, then control group is higher 329.5 ml rather than citrate acid 3.8% group, while there is no difference between EDTA and control group. There is effect of the use of anticoagulants EDTA compared with citrate acid 3.8% in the quantity of PRP, and there was no effect using citrate acid 3.8% as anticoagulants in quantity of PRP.

  15. Workplace stress experienced by quantity surveyors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paul (P.A.) Bowen, Department of Construction Economics and Management,. University of Cape Town, Private ..... Explore workplace stress levels among quantity surveyors in the developing nation of ...... London: Free. Association Books.

  16. The Radiometric Measurement Quantity for SAR Images

    OpenAIRE

    Döring, Björn J.; Schwerdt, Marco

    2013-01-01

    A Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system measures among other quantities the terrain radar reflectivity. After image calibration, the pixel intensities are commonly expressed in terms of radar cross sections (for point targets) or as backscatter coefficients (for distributed targets), which are directly related. This paper argues that pixel intensities are not generally proportional to radar cross section or derived physical quantities. The paper further proposes to replace the inaccurate term...

  17. Average Transverse Momentum Quantities Approaching the Lightfront

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of su...

  18. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, J. A.; Pendar, H.

    2016-02-01

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant.

  19. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1 in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available, 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition, and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available. The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2, the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research.

  20. A small quantity of sodium arsenite will kill large cull hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis M. Rushmore

    1956-01-01

    Although it is well known that sodium arsenite is an effective silvicide, forestry literature contains little information about the minimum quantities of this chemical that are required to kill large cull trees. Such information would be of value because if small quantities of a chemical will produce satisfactory results, small holes or frills in the tree will hold it...

  1. Development of blueberry liquor: influence of distillate, sweetener and fruit quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Ilda; Lopes, Daniel; Delgado, Teresa; Canas, Sara; Anjos, Ofélia

    2018-02-01

    In this work different formulations of blueberry liquor were tested and characterised based on their physico-chemical and sensory characteristics. Three factors were evaluated: the distillate used to produce the liquor (wine spirit or grape marc spirit); the sweetener (white sugar or honey) and the fruit quantity (two doses). For each liquor, pH, total acidity, dry soluble solids content, dry extract, alcoholic strength, reducing sugars, colour intensity, methanol content, acetaldehyde and fusel alcohols were determined. Sensory tests were carried out with a trained panel. The three factors studied significantly influenced the physico-chemical features of the liquors, being the quantity of fruit the most discriminating factor, except for the volatile compounds which were mainly influenced by the distillate. As regards the sensory analysis, it was found that the most appreciated liquor was that prepared with wine spirit, sugar and a lower dose of blueberry, and the less appreciated formulation was the one made with grape marc spirit, honey and a lower quantity of blueberry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Critical review of the current radiation protection quantities and units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, J.

    1998-01-01

    Examples exist in dosimetry and radiation protection where primary attention was focused on the unit rather than the corresponding quantity. Another difficulty arises from the fact that quantities in this field cannot be considered as pure physical quantities, they are rather biophysical quantities. There are too many quantities (e. g. 17 quantities based on the dose equivalent), with differences in numerical values of 'similar' quantities, not always satisfactory approximations of virtually unmeasurable quantities by measurable quantities, inconsistency in definitions and interpretations of quantities of some international expert bodies, and problems of weighting and conversion factors. (M.D.)

  3. A shared system of representation governing quantity discrimination in canids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Baker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris, for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (C. latrans. Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical less/more discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber’s Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously presented quantities of food become more similar, choice of the large or small option becomes random in both dogs and coyotes. It remains unknown, however, whether these closely related species within the same family—one domesticated, and one wild—make such quantitative comparisons with comparable accuracy. Has domestication honed or diminished this quantitative ability? Might different selective and ecological pressures facing coyotes drive them to be more or less able to accurately represent and discriminate food quantity than domesticated dogs? This study is an effort to elucidate this question concerning the evolution of non-verbal quantitative cognition.Here, we tested the quantitative discrimination ability of 16 domesticated dogs. Each animal was given 9 trials in which two different quantities of food were simultaneously displayed to them. The domesticated dogs’ performance on this task was then compared directly to the data from 16 coyotes’ performance on this same task reported by Baker and colleagues (2011.The quantitative discrimination abilities between the two species were strikingly similar. Domesticated dogs demonstrated similar quantitative sensitivity as coyotes, suggesting that domestication may not have significantly altered the psychophysical discrimination abilities of canids. Instead, this study provides further evidence for similar nonverbal quantitative abilities across

  4. Management of small quantities of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance primarily to developing Member States on the predisposal management of small quantities of radioactive waste arising from hospitals, laboratories, industries, institutions, research reactors and research centres.The publication covers the management of liquid, solid and gaseous radioactive wastes at the users' premises and gives general guidance on procedures at a centralized waste management facility. Predisposal management of radioactive waste includes handling, treatment, conditioning, storage and transportation. This publication provides information and guidance on the following topics: national waste management framework; origin and characteristics of radioactive waste arising from users generating small quantities of waste; radioactive waste management concepts appropriate for small quantities; local waste management; the documentation and approval necessary for the consignment of waste to a centralized waste management facility; centralized waste management; exemption of radionuclides from the regulatory body; transportation; environmental monitoring; quality assurance for the whole predisposal process; regional co-operation aspects

  5. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, J.A.; Pendar, H.

    2016-01-01

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant. - Highlights: • A conserved quantity relevant to the dynamical equilibria of thin structures. • A mixed Lagrangian–Eulerian non-material action principle for fixed windows of axially moving systems. • Analytical solutions for rotating, flowing strings (yarn balloons). • Noether meets Bernoulli in a textile factory.

  6. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, J.A., E-mail: hannaj@vt.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Department of Physics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Pendar, H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant. - Highlights: • A conserved quantity relevant to the dynamical equilibria of thin structures. • A mixed Lagrangian–Eulerian non-material action principle for fixed windows of axially moving systems. • Analytical solutions for rotating, flowing strings (yarn balloons). • Noether meets Bernoulli in a textile factory.

  7. Does quantity generate quality? Testing the fundamental principle of brainstorming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Adánez, Alfredo

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to test the chief principle of brainstorming, formulated as "quantity generates quality." The study is included within a broad program whose goal is to detect the strong and weak points of creative techniques. In a sample of 69 groups, containing between 3 and 8 members, the concurrence of two commonly accepted criteria was established as a quality rule: originality and utility or value. The results fully support the quantity-quality relation (r = .893): the more ideas produced to solve a problem, the better quality of the ideas. The importance of this finding, which supports Osborn's theory, is discussed, and the use of brainstorming is recommended to solve the many open problems faced by our society.

  8. Relevance of protection quantities in medical exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) continues to classify the exposures to radiation in three categories; namely 1- occupational exposure, 2- public exposure, and 3- medical exposure. Protection quantities are primarily meant for the regulatory purpose in radiological protection for controlling and limiting stochastic risks in occupational and public exposures. These are based on two basic assumptions of 1- linear no-threshold dose-effect relationship (LNT) at low doses and 2- long-term additivity of low doses. Medical exposure are predominantly delivered to individuals (patients) undergoing diagnostic examinations, interventional procedures and radiation therapy but also include individual caring for or comforting patients incurring exposure and the volunteers of biomedical medical research programmes. Radiation protection is as relevant to occupational and public exposure as to medical exposures except that the dose limits set for the formers are not applicable to medical exposure but reference levels and dose constrains are recommended for diagnostic and interventional medical procedures. In medical institutions, both the occupational and medical exposure takes place. Since the doses in diagnostic examinations are low, it has been observed that not only the protection quantities are often used in such cases but these are extended to estimate the number of cancer deaths due to such practices. One of the striking features of the new ICRP recommendations has been to elaborate the concepts of the dosimetric quantities. The limitation of protection quantities ((Effective dose, E=Σ RT D TR .W T .W R and Equivalent Dose H T =Σ RT D TR .W R ) have been brought out and this has raised a great concern and initiated debates on the use of these quantities in medical exposures. Consequently, ICRP has set a task group to provide more details and the recommendations. It has, therefore, became important to draw the attention of medical physics community

  9. Editorial: New operational dose equivalent quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The ICRU Report 39 entitled ''Determination of Dose Equivalents Resulting from External Radiation Sources'' is briefly discussed. Four new operational dose equivalent quantities have been recommended in ICRU 39. The 'ambient dose equivalent' and the 'directional dose equivalent' are applicable to environmental monitoring and the 'individual dose equivalent, penetrating' and the 'individual dose equivalent, superficial' are applicable to individual monitoring. The quantities should meet the needs of day-to-day operational practice, while being acceptable to those concerned with metrological precision, and at the same time be used to give effective control consistent with current perceptions of the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiations. (U.K.)

  10. Calibration of personal dosimeters: Quantities and terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleinikov, V.E.

    1999-01-01

    The numerical results obtained in the interpretation of individual monitoring of external radiation depend not only on the accurate calibration of the radiation measurement instruments involved, but also on the definition of the quantities in term of which these instruments are calibrated The absence of uniformity in terminology not only makes it difficult to understand properly the scientific and technical literature but can also lead to incorrect interpretation of particular concepts and recommendations. In this paper, brief consideration is given to definition of radiation quantities and terminology used in calibration procedures. (author)

  11. Quantity and/or Quality? The Importance of Publishing Many Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Besselaar, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Do highly productive researchers have significantly higher probability to produce top cited papers? Or do high productive researchers mainly produce a sea of irrelevant papers—in other words do we find a diminishing marginal result from productivity? The answer on these questions is important, as it may help to answer the question of whether the increased competition and increased use of indicators for research evaluation and accountability focus has perverse effects or not. We use a Swedish author disambiguated dataset consisting of 48.000 researchers and their WoS-publications during the period of 2008–2011 with citations until 2014 to investigate the relation between productivity and production of highly cited papers. As the analysis shows, quantity does make a difference. PMID:27870854

  12. On the Output-Inflation Relationship When Price and Quantity Adjustments are Costly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danziger, Leif; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    A vast literature analyzes the real effects of price-adjustment costs assuming that quantity adjustments are costless. In this paper, we analyze whether the presence of quantity-adjustments costs, which presumably are significant, change the traditional results on the impact of inflation....... In particular, recent findings suggest that quantity-adjustment costs may remove the linkage between output and inflation. We show that this is not the case when inflation is anticipated. On the contrary, quantity-adjustment costs may significantly amplify the consequences of price-adjustment costs...

  13. [Relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; Teng, Jianbei; Cai, Yi; Liang, Jie; Zhu, Yilin; Wei, Tao

    2011-12-01

    To find out the relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii. Microscopy-counting process was applied to starch quantity statistics, sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetry was used to assay polysaccharides content and bromocresol green colorimetry was used to assay alkaloid content. Pearson product moment correlation analysis, Kendall's rank correlation analysis and Spearman's concordance coefficient analysis were applied to study their relativity. Extremely significant positive correlation was found between starch quantity and polysaccharides content, and significant negative correlation between alkaloid content and starch quantity was discovered, as well was between alkaloid content and polysaccharides content.

  14. 7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantity. 35.13 Section 35.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination, a shipment of 25 packages or...

  15. Varieties of Quantity Estimation in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In the number-to-position task, with increasing age and numerical expertise, children's pattern of estimates shifts from a biased (nonlinear) to a formal (linear) mapping. This widely replicated finding concerns symbolic numbers, whereas less is known about other types of quantity estimation. In Experiment 1, Preschool, Grade 1, and Grade 3…

  16. Symmetries and conserved quantities in geodesic motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojman, S.; Nunez, L.; Patino, A.; Rago, H.

    1986-01-01

    Recently obtained results linking several constants of motion to one (non-Noetherian) symmetry to the problem of geodesic motion in Riemannian space-times are applied. The construction of conserved quantities in geodesic motion as well as the deduction of geometrical statements about Riemannian space-times are achieved

  17. Hypergraph topological quantities for tagged social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatić, Vinko; Ghoshal, Gourab; Caldarelli, Guido

    2009-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emergence of a new class of social networks, which require us to move beyond previously employed representations of complex graph structures. A notable example is that of the folksonomy, an online process where users collaboratively employ tags to resources to impart structure to an otherwise undifferentiated database. In a recent paper, we proposed a mathematical model that represents these structures as tripartite hypergraphs and defined basic topological quantities of interest. In this paper, we extend our model by defining additional quantities such as edge distributions, vertex similarity and correlations as well as clustering. We then empirically measure these quantities on two real life folksonomies, the popular online photo sharing site Flickr and the bookmarking site CiteULike. We find that these systems share similar qualitative features with the majority of complex networks that have been previously studied. We propose that the quantities and methodology described here can be used as a standard tool in measuring the structure of tagged networks.

  18. 16 CFR 500.25 - Net quantity, average quantity, permitted variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... good distribution practice and which unavoidably result in change of weight or mass or measure. (c... good packaging practice: Provided, that such variations shall not be permitted to such extent that the... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net quantity, average quantity, permitted...

  19. Synthesis of pure iron magnetic nanoparticles in large quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwary, C S; Kashyap, S; Chattopadhyay, K; Biswas, K

    2013-01-01

    Free nanoparticles of iron (Fe) and their colloids with high saturation magnetization are in demand for medical and microfluidic applications. However, the oxide layer that forms during processing has made such synthesis a formidable challenge. Lowering the synthesis temperature decreases rate of oxidation and hence provides a new way of producing pure metallic nanoparticles prone to oxidation in bulk amount (large quantity). In this paper we have proposed a methodology that is designed with the knowledge of thermodynamic imperatives of oxidation to obtain almost oxygen-free iron nanoparticles, with or without any organic capping by controlled milling at low temperatures in a specially designed high-energy ball mill with the possibility of bulk production. The particles can be ultrasonicated to produce colloids and can be bio-capped to produce transparent solution. The magnetic properties of these nanoparticles confirm their superiority for possible biomedical and other applications. (paper)

  20. Parents face quantity-quality trade-offs between reproduction and investment in offspring in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Robert Francis

    2016-05-01

    How to optimally allocate time, energy and investment in an effort to maximize one's reproductive success is a fundamental problem faced by all organisms. This effort is complicated when the production of each additional offspring dilutes the total resources available for parental investment. Although a quantity-quality trade-off between producing and investing in offspring has long been assumed in evolutionary biology, testing it directly in humans is difficult, partly owing to the long generation time of our species. Using data from an Icelandic genealogy (Íslendingabók) over two centuries, I address this issue and analyse the quantity-quality trade-off in humans. I demonstrate that the primary impact of parents on the fitness of their children is the result of resources and or investment, but not genes. This effect changes significantly across time, in response to environmental conditions. Overall, increasing reproduction has negative fitness consequences on offspring, such that each additional sibling reduces an individual's average lifespan and lifetime reproductive success. This analysis provides insights into the evolutionary conflict between producing and investing in children while also shedding light on some of the causes of the demographic transition.

  1. [Dynamics of change of ureaplasma laboratory strain titers and quantity of their DNA in transport medium at varying temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamova, N A; Ivanova, T A

    2013-01-01

    Study of preservation dynamics of ureaplasma laboratory strain live cultures and their DNA in transport medium at varying temperature. The study was carried out in laboratory strains Ureaplasma urealyticum serotype 8 and Ureaplasma parvum serotype 1. The quantity of live ureaplasmas was determined by method of tenfold dilutions in liquid medium. The growth of ureaplasmas was registered by changes in the color of the cultivation medium due to its alkalization by metabolism products and expressed in CCU/ml. DNA quantity in samples was determined by real time PCR performed by using Florocenosis-micoplasmas-FL test system produced by ILS. Live ureaplasmas wer shown to be preserved in transport medium at 4 degrees C for 12 - 29 days, at 18 - 22 degrees C--for 9 - 20 days and at 37 degrees C--for only 2 days. In samples incubated at 37 degrees C the quantity of live ureaplasmas increased and then sharply decreased to 0, at lower temperature titers of the cells decreased smoothly. The quantity of ureaplasma DNA in the process of their incubation did not change significantly. Fundamental differences in the duration of survival of U. urealyticum strain and U. parvum strain in transport medium at varying temperature were not detected. Based on the studies performed a practical conclusion can be drawn that in cases of emergency when clinical material transportation is necessary its storage in transport medium for several days is acceptable.

  2. Radiation quantities and units. ICRU report 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    This report supersedes ICRU Report 19. Since ICRU Report 19 was published, a number of discussions have taken place between members of the Report Committee on Fundamental Quantities and Units and other workers in the field. Some of these discussions have resulted in the acceptance of certain modifications in the material set out in Report 19 and these modifications are incorporated in the current report. In addition, there has been some expansion and rearrangement of the material in the earlier report. It is recommended that energy state be inserted into the definition of activity and that the word transformation be replaced by transition. These modifications have now been incorporated into the current definition. Helpful comments on the previous quantities and units report have resulted in clarification of several points in the present Report. In line with providing more didactic material and useful source material for other ICRU reports, the general considerations in subsection I.A of Report 19 have been expanded and placed in a separate subsection. The additional material includes discussions of four terms that are used in this document - quantity, unit, stochastic, and non-stochastic - along with a brief discussion of the mathematical formalism used in ICRU reports. 11 refs., 4 tabs

  3. Quantity discrimination in wolves (Canis lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina eUtrata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested eleven hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris and coyotes (Canis latrans, our wolves’ performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber’s law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current setup are still needed to determine whether and when wolves’ quantity discrimination conforms to Weber’s law.

  4. ANALYZER OF QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF THE ELECTRIC POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Semilyak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the activities of the research center for “Energy Saving Technologies and Smart Metering in Electrical Power Engineering" is research work on the use of electronic devices and systems of intelligent power distribution, produced by Analog Devices and equipped with the accurate energy consumption measurement feature. The article focuses on the development of the analyzer of quantity and quality of electric energy.The main part of the analyzer is a metering IC by Analog Devices ADE7878, designed for use in commercial and industrial smart electricity meters. Such counters measure the amount of consumed or produced electric energy with high accuracy and have the means of remote meter reading.

  5. The Acquisition of Quantity Contrasts in Guina-ang Bontok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Katsura; Reid, Lawrence A.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the acquisition of quantity contrasts in Guina-ang Bontok, an indigenous language spoken in the Philippines. Four-year-old and 5-year-old children's perception and production of quantity contrasts were examined using a pair of names that contrast in the quantity of the medial nasal. Frequencies of the quantity contrast were…

  6. Economic production quantity concerning learning and the reworking of imperfect items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Deng-Maw

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical economic production quantity (EPQ model assumes that items produced are of perfect quality and the production rate is constant. However, production quality depends on the condition of the process. Due to process deterioration or other factors, the production process may shift and produce imperfect quality items. These imperfect quality items sometimes can be reworked and repaired; hence, overall production-inventory costs can be reduced significantly. In addition, it can be found in practice that the time or cost required to repetitively produce a unit of a product decreases when the number of units produced by a worker or a group of workers increases. Under this circumstance, the unit production cost cannot be regarded as constant and, therefore, cannot be ignored when taking account of the total cost. This paper incorporates the effects of learning and the reworking of defective items on the EPQ model since they were not considered in existing models. An optimal operation policy that minimizes the expected total cost per unit time is derived. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed model. In addition, sensitivity analysis is performed and discussed.

  7. Quality and Quantity of Sorghum Hydroponic Fodder from Different Varieties and Harvest Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisdiana, R.

    2018-02-01

    This experiment was designed to compare different varieties and harvest time of sorghum hydroponic fodder based on nutrient content and biomass production. Experimental design for fodder productivity was completely randomized design with 2 x 3 factorial, i.e., sorghum varieties (KD 4 and Super-1) and time of harvesting the sorghum hydroponic fodder (8,12 and 16 d). Total biomass and DM production, were affected significantly (p<0.05) on harvest time. Total biomass and nutrient content were increased in longer harvest time. The nutrient content were increased with decreasing total value of DM. Super-1 varieties produce larger biomass and nutrient content higher than KD4 (p<0.05). Based on sorghum hidroponic fodder quality and quantity, sorghum hidroponic fodder with Super-1 varieties harvested at 12 d had a good quality of fodder and it can be alternative of technology providing quality forage and land saving with a short time planting period and continous production.

  8. Produção animal e o meio ambiente: uma comparação entre potencial de emissão de metano dos dejetos e a quantidade de alimento produzido Animal production and environment: a comparison between potential of methane emission from waste and quantity of produced food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. P. Orrico Júnior

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi efetuar a comparação das principais espécies de interesse agropecuário, em relação à eficiência de conversão das dietas em produtos de origem animal (carne ou ovo, produção de resíduo e potencial de emissão de metano, a partir da fermentação dos resíduos. Para isso, foram selecionadas cinco espécies de animais durante a fase de produção: 1 suínos, do nascimento ao abate (peso vivo (PV final de 90 kg ; 2 bovinos, do desmame ao abate (PV: 520 kg; 3 caprinos, do desmame ao abate (PV: 30 kg; 4 aves, durante toda a fase de postura (14,7 kg de ovos; 5 frango de corte, do nascimento ao abate (PV: 3,1 kg. Para a estimativa dos parâmetros propostos, foram medidos os dados do desempenho e efetuou-se a biodigestão anaeróbia dos dejetos produzidos pelos animais. De maneira geral, os dejetos dos ruminantes apresentaram altas concentrações de fibra e baixos potenciais de produção de biogás; no entanto, o menor desempenho destes animais na conversão do alimento em produto e a maior produção de dejetos fizeram com que eles apresentassem maiores produções de metano por kg de alimento produzido.The aim of this study was to compare the main species of husbandry interest, in relation to the efficiency of food conversion into animal origin products (meat and egg, residue production and potential of methane emission from residue fermentation. This way, five species of animal during production phase were selected: 1 pigs, from birth to slaughter (final live weight (LW of 90 kg; 2 cattle, from weaning to slaughter (LW: 520 kg; 3 goat, from weaning to slaughter (LW: 30 kg; 4 poultry, during the complete phase of laying (14.7 kg of eggs; 5 broiler, from birth to slaughter (LW: 3.1 Kg. For estimating proposed parameters, data of performance were measured and anaerobic digestion of produced waste by animals was done. In a general way, ruminant waste showed height concentration of fiber and low potential of biogas

  9. Method of Converting Wheat Flour Quantity into Rice Flour Quantity in Cookies (Part-1)

    OpenAIRE

    村田,美穂子; 髙橋,由加

    2016-01-01

    A method of converting the wheat flour quantity of a recipe of wheat-flour cookies into the rice flour quantity of a recipe of rice-flour cookies used domestically for wheat-allergic children was studied. The proportion of the water content with respect to the flour content (the wheat or rice flour content) in cut cookies prepared according to a commercially available recipe was obtained. Next, four types of rice-flour cookies were prepared according to a recipe for wheat-flour cookies using ...

  10. Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of th...

  11. Inventory simulation tools: Separating nuclide contributions to radiological quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark R.; Fleming, Michael; Sublet, Jean-Christophe

    2017-09-01

    The activation response of a material is a primary factor considered when evaluating its suitability for a nuclear application. Various radiological quantities, such as total (becquerel) activity, decay heat, and γ dose, can be readily predicted via inventory simulations, which numerically evolve in time the composition of a material under exposure to neutron irradiation. However, the resulting data sets can be very complex, often necessarily resulting in an over-simplification of the results - most commonly by just considering total response metrics. A number of different techniques for disseminating more completely the vast amount of data output from, in particular, the FISPACT-II inventory code system, including importance diagrams, nuclide maps, and primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectra, have been developed and used in scoping studies to produce database reports for the periodic table of elements. This paper introduces the latest addition to this arsenal - standardised and automated plotting of the time evolution in a radiological quantity for a given material separated by contributions from dominant radionuclides. Examples for relevant materials under predicted fusion reactor conditions, and for bench-marking studies against decay-heat measurements, demonstrate the usefulness and power of these radionuclide-separated activation plots. Note to the reader: the pdf file has been changed on September 22, 2017.

  12. Inventory simulation tools: Separating nuclide contributions to radiological quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation response of a material is a primary factor considered when evaluating its suitability for a nuclear application. Various radiological quantities, such as total (becquerel activity, decay heat, and γ dose, can be readily predicted via inventory simulations, which numerically evolve in time the composition of a material under exposure to neutron irradiation. However, the resulting data sets can be very complex, often necessarily resulting in an over-simplification of the results – most commonly by just considering total response metrics. A number of different techniques for disseminating more completely the vast amount of data output from, in particular, the FISPACT-II inventory code system, including importance diagrams, nuclide maps, and primary knock-on atom (PKA spectra, have been developed and used in scoping studies to produce database reports for the periodic table of elements. This paper introduces the latest addition to this arsenal – standardised and automated plotting of the time evolution in a radiological quantity for a given material separated by contributions from dominant radionuclides. Examples for relevant materials under predicted fusion reactor conditions, and for bench-marking studies against decay-heat measurements, demonstrate the usefulness and power of these radionuclide-separated activation plots.

  13. Estimation of Waste Quantities Using DeCAT-Pro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Taesik; Jung, Hyejin; Oh, Jaeyoung; Kim, Younggook [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The D and D (Dismantling and Decontamination) is scheduled to get started in June 2022 elapsing five years of cooling spent fuels down. The final site status is postulated as Brown Field and tentative DCGL of less than 0.1 mSv per year to evaluate waste quantities in a conservative manner. The decommissioning strategy was determined the immediate decommissioning whose whole period would be taken for approximately 15 years; pre-decommissioning for two years, spent fuel cool-down for five years, D and D for six years, site remediation for two years. The assumption to dismantle the underground facilities including SSCs is to one meter beneath the ground level and the other facilities remain intact. In addition, non-radioactive concrete wastes would be used to landfill gaps of the remaining facilities. Although there are many assumptions we applied, the methodologies developed and the data produced by this research will play a meaningful role as a good starting point for the Kori-1 decommissioning after its shutdown to logically and reasonably estimate the waste quantity. However it is clear that tenacious efforts should be taken to successfully perform the decommissioning project.

  14. The Effect of Quantity, Quality and Timing of Headquarters-Initiated Knowledge Flows on Subsidiary Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Yen; Mahnke, Volker; Ambos, Björn

    2010-01-01

    quality/performance relationship and a curvilinear quantity/performance relationship, indicating that too much knowledge sharing can be detrimental to the receiving subsidiary. Most importantly, we show that the timing of a knowledge flow significantly affects subsidiary sales performance....

  15. Evaluating the uncertainty of input quantities in measurement models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possolo, Antonio; Elster, Clemens

    2014-06-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) gives guidance about how values and uncertainties should be assigned to the input quantities that appear in measurement models. This contribution offers a concrete proposal for how that guidance may be updated in light of the advances in the evaluation and expression of measurement uncertainty that were made in the course of the twenty years that have elapsed since the publication of the GUM, and also considering situations that the GUM does not yet contemplate. Our motivation is the ongoing conversation about a new edition of the GUM. While generally we favour a Bayesian approach to uncertainty evaluation, we also recognize the value that other approaches may bring to the problems considered here, and focus on methods for uncertainty evaluation and propagation that are widely applicable, including to cases that the GUM has not yet addressed. In addition to Bayesian methods, we discuss maximum-likelihood estimation, robust statistical methods, and measurement models where values of nominal properties play the same role that input quantities play in traditional models. We illustrate these general-purpose techniques in concrete examples, employing data sets that are realistic but that also are of conveniently small sizes. The supplementary material available online lists the R computer code that we have used to produce these examples (stacks.iop.org/Met/51/3/339/mmedia). Although we strive to stay close to clause 4 of the GUM, which addresses the evaluation of uncertainty for input quantities, we depart from it as we review the classes of measurement models that we believe are generally useful in contemporary measurement science. We also considerably expand and update the treatment that the GUM gives to Type B evaluations of uncertainty: reviewing the state-of-the-art, disciplined approach to the elicitation of expert knowledge, and its encapsulation in probability distributions that are usable in

  16. The quantity time relation in the ionizing radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordão, B. O.; Quaresma, D. S.; Peixoto, J. G. P.

    2018-03-01

    The metrology area has taken a step forward with regard to the uncertainty calculation. This mathematical tool used in laboratories is essential to ensure that the values resulting from a measurement are reliable. For this to be possible, all equipment used in a measurement process must be reliable and, above all, traceable to the international metrology system. We propose to present in this work: (i) the development and calibration of a microcontrolled time device with a resolution of 1x10-4 s, in order to characterize the time greatness and make it re-producible; (ii) the calibration of the quartz clock present in a computer present in the dosimetry laboratories; (iii) a more in-depth study of the influence of time quantity on calibrations of instruments used in the area of radiological protection, diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, with measurements performed on the Kerma magnitude in air or its rate.

  17. Evaluation of minimum quantity lubrication grinding with nano-particles and recent related patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changhe; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Qiang; Jia, Dongzhou

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, a large number of patents have been devoted to developing minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) grinding techniques that can significantly improve both environmentally conscious and energy saving and costeffective sustainable grinding fluid alternatives. Among them, one patent is about a supply system for the grinding fluid in nano-particle jet MQL, which produced MQL lubricant by adding solid nano-particles in degradable grinding fluid. The MQL supply device turns the lubricant to the pulse drops with fixed pressure, unchanged pulse frequency and the same drop diameter. The drops will be produced and injected in the grinding zone in the form of jet flow under high pressure gas and air seal. As people become increasingly demanding on our environment, minimum quantity lubrication has been widely used in the grinding and processing. Yet, it presents the defect of insufficient cooling performance, which confines its development. To improve the heat transfer efficiency of MQL, nano-particles of a certain mass fraction can be added in the minimum quantity of lubricant oil, which concomitantly will improve the lubrication effects in the processing. In this study, the grinding experiment corroborated the effect of nano-particles in surface grinding. In addition, compared with other forms of lubrication, the results presented that the grinding force, the friction coefficient and specific grinding energy of MQL grinding have been significantly weakened, while G ratio greatly rose. These are attributed to the friction oil-film with excellent anti-friction and anti-wear performance, which is generated nano-particles at the wheel/workpiece interface. In this research, the cooling performance of nano-particle jet MQL was analyzed. Based on tests and experiments, the surface temperature was assayed from different methods, including flood lubricating oil, dry grinding, MQL grinding and nano-particle jet MQL grinding. Because of the outstanding heat transfer

  18. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandigo, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  19. Discounting of quantity surveying fees in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by clients have forced Quantity Surveying firms into competition with ... Furthermore, 43% of consulting engineering firms were discounting their fees at a rate of .... Quantity. Surveying services are also offered in the fields of dispute resolution,.

  20. Rainwater in Egypt: quantity, distribution and harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. ABDEL-SHAFY

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has limited water resources, and it will be under water stress within the year 2030. Therefore, Egypt should consider the natural and non-conventional water resources to overcome such problem. Rain harvesting is one solution; but not all; particularly on the north coast by the Mediterranean Sea and the Red sea. In this paper, the rainwater issue is reviewed and discussed in terms of the quantities and distribution at different selected areas in Egypt. The amount of rain falls at different location in Egypt was collected for a period of 16 months. The data indicated that rainfall in Egypt is very scarce, with an annual average of 12 mm and ranges from 0 mm/year in the desert to 200 mm/year in the north coastal region. The maximum total amount of rain does not exceed 1.8 billion m3per year. However, the average annual amount of rainfall water that is effectively utilized for agriculture purposes is estimated to be 1 billion m3. Harvesting pilot plant was constructed and implemented in Alexandria directly on the Mediterranean Sea. The harvested rain was used for irrigation and treated for drinking. It was, therefore, recommended to develop sustainable catchments at appropriate locations in the rain-fed areas at the north coast as well as cost effective grafting of the indigenous technologies with the innovative techniques.

  1. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the EOQ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Economic order quantity...

  2. Six categories of ionizing radiation quantities practical in various fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Junzheng; Zhuo Weihai

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the part of review on the evolvement of the systems for ionizing radiation quantities and units. In the paper, for better understanding and correct use of the relevant quantities of ionizing radiation, the major ionizing radiation quantities in various fields are divided into six categories. (authors)

  3. 7 CFR 61.102 - Determination of quantity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the quantity index shall equal four times percentage of oil plus six times percentage of ammonia, plus 5. (b) For American Pima cottonseed the quantity index shall equal four times percentage of oil... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of quantity index. 61.102 Section 61.102...

  4. EFFECT OF SALES PROMOTION SCHEMES ON PURCHASE QUANTITY: A STUDY OF MALAYSIAN CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa JALLOW

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to study the effect of sales promotion on the purchase quantity and recommend sales promotional means and methods that could improve sales for retail sector in Malaysia. The impact of coupons, bonus packages, premiums, free samples and price discount is measured on purchase quantity of Malaysian retail consumers. Empirical data is gathered from 150 respondents using self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using correlation and regression analysis to examine the relationship between variables. The findings of the study reveal that all independent variables influences purchase quantity positively and significantly while free samples and price discounts are most influential factors for Malaysian market.

  5. The covariance matrix of derived quantities and their combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Z.; Perey, F.G.

    1992-06-01

    The covariance matrix of quantities derived from measured data via nonlinear relations are only approximate since they are functions of the measured data taken as estimates for the true values of the measured quantities. The evaluation of such derived quantities entails new estimates for the true values of the measured quantities and consequently implies a modification of the covariance matrix of the derived quantities that was used in the evaluation process. Failure to recognize such an implication can lead to inconsistencies between the results of different evaluation strategies. In this report we show that an iterative procedure can eliminate such inconsistencies

  6. Origin, quantities produced and ways of conditioning of special wastes in regional collection points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neider, R.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive substances to be collected at regional collecting points are mostly related to the radionuclides H-3, Ra-226 and Th-232. These special wastes form a particular group of wastes including such solid wastes which do not contain volatile radionuclides yet cannot, for other reasons, be conditioned in accordance with the old Asse qualifications. (orig./DG) [de

  7. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostipo por Imagem; Silva, Teogenes Augusto da, E-mail: silvata@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods: the study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results: No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (C{sub W}), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (C{sub VOL}), air kerma-length product (P{sub KL,CT}) and effective dose. Conclusion: Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, P{sub KL,CT} and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. (author)

  8. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva; da Silva, Teógenes Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods The study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (CW), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (CVOL), air kerma-length product (PKL,CT) and effective dose. Conclusion Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, PKL,CT and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. PMID:25741103

  9. Cross-language similarity and difference in quantity categorization of Finnish and Japanese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Kenji; J de Jong, Kenneth; Kruschke, John K

    2015-01-01

    quantity categorization was conducted with 22 Finnish and 20 Japanese listeners, using natural speech stimuli with systematically manipulated closure durations. Stimuli were created from Finnish and Japanese productions of both long and short plosives. In the naturally produced stimuli, the duration...... to be language specific, and such durational differences may interfere with categorization in an unfamiliar language....

  10. On The Relationship Between Idea-Quantity and Idea-Quality During Ideation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinig, B.A.; Briggs, R.O.

    2008-01-01

    A great deal of research has been conducted to develop methods and techniques to improve group ideation. Most of this research focuses on techniques for increasing the quantity of ideas generated during ideation; less attention has been given to the quality of the ideas produced. This focus stems

  11. Unified Symmetry and Conserved Quantities of Mechanical System in Phase Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jianhui; Ding Ning; Wang Peng

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new symmetry and its conserved quantities of a mechanical system in phase space are studied. The definition of this new symmetry, i.e., a unified one is presented, and the criterion of this symmetry is also given. The Noether, the generalized Hojman and the Mei conserved quantities of the unified symmetry of the system are obtained. The unified symmetry contains the Noether, the Lie and the Mei symmetries, and has more generalized significance.

  12. Biologically Weighted Quantities in Radiotherapy: an EMRP Joint Research Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabus Hans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Funded within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP [1], the joint research project “Biologically weighted quantities in radiotherapy” (BioQuaRT [2] aims to develop measurement and simulation techniques for determining the physical properties of ionising particle tracks on different length scales (about 2 nm to 10 μm, and to investigate the correlation of these track structure characteristics with the biological effects of radiation at the cellular level. Work package 1 develops micro-calorimeter prototypes for the direct measurement of lineal energy and will characterise their response for different ion beams by experiment and modelling. Work package 2 develops techniques to measure particle track structure on different length scales in the nanometre range as well as a measurement device integrating a silicon microdosimeter and a nanodosimeter. Work package 3 investigates the indirect effects of radiation based on probes for quantifying particular radical and reactive oxygen species (ROS. Work package 4 focuses on the biological aspects of radiation damage and will produce data on initial DNA damage and late effects for radiotherapy beams of different qualities. Work package 5 provides evaluated data sets of DNA cross-sections and develops a multi-scale model to address microscopic and nanometric track structure properties. The project consortium includes three linked researchers holding so-called Researcher Excellence Grants, who carry out ancillary investigations such as developing and benchmarking a new biophysical model for induction of early radiation damage and developing methods for the translation of quantities derived from particle track structure to clinical applications in ion beam therapy.

  13. Is the dose equivalent index a quantity to be measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    ICRP introduced the concept of Effective Dose Equivalent H(sub)E and fixed the basic limits of radiation exposure in terms of H(sub)I. As H(sub)E cannot be measured, ICRP stated that with external exposure to penetrating radiation the limitation of the Dose Equivalent Index H(sub)I would afford at least as good a level of protection. However, difficulties arise in measuring H(sub)I and in calibrating instruments in terms of H(sub)I, since the height and location of the dose equivalent maximum in the sphere which is the phantom used in the definition of H(sub)I, depend on the energy and the angular distribution of the incident radiation. That is, H(sub)I is not an additive quantity relative to the partial H(sub)I(sub)i-values of the different energy and angular components. Hence, 1) the distribution of dose equivalent in the sphere must be measured in full for a determination of H(sub)I, and 2) it is not possible to calibrate an instrument which does not exhibit the scattering and absorption properties of the sphere, consistently for arbitrary radiation fields in terms of H(sub)I. Thus the calibration in an unidirectional beam would infer an uncertainty which may amount to a factor of up to 4. This would hardly be tolerable as a base for radiation protection provisions. An alternative is to introduce operational quantities which are additive, e.g. 1) the sum of maxima of the dose equivalent distributions in the sphere produced by different radiation components, and 2) the mean dose equivalent in the sphere. Their relation to H(sub)E for different types of radiation and consequences on secondary limits are discussed. (H.K.)

  14. The importance of food quantity and quality for reproductive performance in alpine water pipits (Anthus spinoletta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann, Paul A; Reyer, H-U; Bollmann, Kurt; Schläpfer, Alex R; Rauter, Claudia

    1997-01-01

    Studies relating reproduction to food availability are usually restricted to food quantity, but ignore food quality and the effects of habitat structure on obtaining the food. This is particularly true for insectivorous birds. In this study we relate measures of reproductive success, time of reproduction and nestling size of water pipits (Anthus spinoletta) to biomass, taxonomic composition and nutritional content of available food, and to vegetation structure and distance to feeding sites. Clutch size was positively correlated with the proportion of grass at the feeding sites, which facilitates foraging. This suggests that water pipits adapt their clutch size to environmental conditions. Also, pipits started breeding earlier and produced more fledglings when abundant food and a large proportion of grass were available, probably because these conditions allow the birds to gain more energy in less time. The number of fledglings was positively correlated with the energy content of available food. No significant relationships were found between feeding conditions and nestling size or the time that nestlings took to fledge. This suggests that water pipits do not invest more in individual nestlings when food conditions are favourable but rather start breeding earlier and produce more young. Taxonomic composition and nutritional content of prey were not correlated with any of the reproductive parameters, indicating that profitability rather than quality of food affects reproductive success.

  15. Method of producing grouting mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelomov, I K; Alchina, S I; Dizer, E I; Gruzdeva, G A; Nikitinskii, V I; Sabirzyanov, A K

    1980-10-07

    A method of producing grouting mortar by mixing the cement with an aqueous salt solution is proposed. So as to increase the quality of the mortar through an acceleration of the time for hardening, the mixture is prepared in two stages, in the first of which 20-30% of the entire cement batch hardens, and in the second of which the remainder of the cement hardens; 1-3-% of an aqueous salt solution is used in quantities of 0.5/1 wt.-% of weight of the cement. The use of this method of producing grouting mortar helps to increase the flexural strength of the cement brick up to 50% after two days ageing by comparison with the strength of cement brick produced from grouting mortar by ordinary methods utilizing identical quantities of the initial components (cement, water, chloride).

  16. A New type of conserved quantity deduced from Mei symmetry of nonholonomic systems in terms of quasi-coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, Pang; Jian-Hui, Fang; Ming-Jiang, Zhang; Peng, Lin; Kai, Lu

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the new type of conserved quantity which is directly induced by Mei symmetry of nonholonomic systems in terms of quasi-coordinates. A coordination function is introduced, and the conditions for the existence of the new conserved quantities as well as their forms are proposed. Some special cases are given to illustrate the generalized significance of the new type conserved quantity. Finally, an illustrated example is given to show the application of the nonholonomic system's results. (general)

  17. Bulky waste quantities and treatment methods in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2012-01-01

    were identified of which ten were recyclable and constituted 50–60% of the total quantity. The others were combustible waste for incineration (30–40%) and non-combustible waste for landfilling (10%). The largest fractions by mass were combustible waste, bricks and tile, concrete, non-combustible waste....... In addition a sorting analysis was conducted on combustible waste, which is a major fraction of bulky waste in Denmark. The generation of bulky waste was found to be 150–250 kg capita−1 year−1, and 90% of the waste was collected at recycling centres; the rest through kerbside collection. Twelve main fractions......, wood, and metal scrap, which together made up more than 90% of the total waste amounts. The amount of combustible waste could be significantly reduced through better sorting. Many of the waste fractions consisted of composite products that underwent thorough separation before being recycled...

  18. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  19. Estimated quantities of residual materials in a KBS-3H repository at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagros, Annika

    2008-12-01

    The quantities of residual materials in a KBS-3H type repository have been estimated in this report. The repository is assumed to be constructed at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, Western Finland. Both the total quantities of the materials introduced into the repository and the quantities of materials that remain in the repository after closure have been calculated. The calculations are largely based on a similar work regarding the material quantities in the Finnish KBS-3V repository and the main goal has been to identify the differences between the KBS-3H and KBS-3V repositories with respect to the type and quantities of residual materials. As the design of the KBS-3H repository is not final yet, the results are only preliminary. Several alternative designs were assumed in the calculations, resulting in different total quantities of materials. The design alternatives that had the greatest effect on the total material quantities were the two different tunnel backfill options, bentonite-crushed rock and Friedland clay. If Friedland clay is used instead of a bentonite-crushed rock mixture, the total quantity of pyrite remaining in the repository is 20 times larger and the quantities of organic materials and gypsum are also increased significantly. The other design alternatives did not have a substantial effect on the total material quantities. The remaining quantity of cement can be reduced by some 20% by selecting the silica grouting alternative in the sealing of the rock mass and low-pH cement in the shotcreting of the repository, instead of using the ordinary cement alternatives. If the total quantity of steel should be minimised, the use of the DAWE design alternative would be better than the Basic Design, although the total reduction would be less than 10%. The main difference between the different drift end plug alternatives is related to the total remaining quantity of silica, which is some 80% smaller if the rock plug is used instead of the LHHP (Low Heat High

  20. Estimated quantities of residual materials in a KBS-3H repository at Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagros, Annika (Sannio and Riekkola OY (Finland))

    2008-12-15

    The quantities of residual materials in a KBS-3H type repository have been estimated in this report. The repository is assumed to be constructed at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, Western Finland. Both the total quantities of the materials introduced into the repository and the quantities of materials that remain in the repository after closure have been calculated. The calculations are largely based on a similar work regarding the material quantities in the Finnish KBS-3V repository and the main goal has been to identify the differences between the KBS-3H and KBS-3V repositories with respect to the type and quantities of residual materials. As the design of the KBS-3H repository is not final yet, the results are only preliminary. Several alternative designs were assumed in the calculations, resulting in different total quantities of materials. The design alternatives that had the greatest effect on the total material quantities were the two different tunnel backfill options, bentonite-crushed rock and Friedland clay. If Friedland clay is used instead of a bentonite-crushed rock mixture, the total quantity of pyrite remaining in the repository is 20 times larger and the quantities of organic materials and gypsum are also increased significantly. The other design alternatives did not have a substantial effect on the total material quantities. The remaining quantity of cement can be reduced by some 20% by selecting the silica grouting alternative in the sealing of the rock mass and low-pH cement in the shotcreting of the repository, instead of using the ordinary cement alternatives. If the total quantity of steel should be minimised, the use of the DAWE design alternative would be better than the Basic Design, although the total reduction would be less than 10%. The main difference between the different drift end plug alternatives is related to the total remaining quantity of silica, which is some 80% smaller if the rock plug is used instead of the LHHP (Low Heat High

  1. Metabolic evolution of Escherichia coli strains that produce organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabar, Tammy; Gong, Wei; Yocum, R Rogers

    2014-10-28

    This invention relates to the metabolic evolution of a microbial organism previously optimized for producing an organic acid in commercially significant quantities under fermentative conditions using a hexose sugar as sole source of carbon in a minimal mineral medium. As a result of this metabolic evolution, the microbial organism acquires the ability to use pentose sugars derived from cellulosic materials for its growth while retaining the original growth kinetics, the rate of organic acid production and the ability to use hexose sugars as a source of carbon. This invention also discloses the genetic change in the microorganism that confers the ability to use both the hexose and pentose sugars simultaneously in the production of commercially significant quantities of organic acids.

  2. Denervation-Induced Activation of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Reduces Skeletal Muscle Quantity Not Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Cory W; Liu, Haiming M; Thompson, LaDora V

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is activated in response to skeletal muscle wasting and functions to degrade contractile proteins. The loss of these proteins inevitably reduces skeletal muscle size (i.e., quantity). However, it is currently unknown whether activation of this pathway also affects function by impairing the muscle's intrinsic ability to produce force (i.e., quality). Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold, (1) document how the ubiquitin-proteasome system responds to denervation and (2) identify the physiological consequences of these changes. To induce soleus muscle atrophy, C57BL6 mice underwent tibial nerve transection of the left hindlimb for 7 or 14 days (n = 6-8 per group). At these time points, content of several proteins within the ubiquitin-proteasome system were determined via Western blot, while ex vivo whole muscle contractility was specifically analyzed at day 14. Denervation temporarily increased several key proteins within the ubiquitin-proteasome system, including the E3 ligase MuRF1 and the proteasome subunits 19S, α7 and β5. These changes were accompanied by reductions in absolute peak force and power, which were offset when expressed relative to physiological cross-sectional area. Contrary to peak force, absolute and relative forces at submaximal stimulation frequencies were significantly greater following 14 days of denervation. Taken together, these data represent two keys findings. First, activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is associated with reductions in skeletal muscle quantity rather than quality. Second, shortly after denervation, it appears the muscle remodels to compensate for the loss of neural activity via changes in Ca2+ handling.

  3. Physical quantities, their role and treatment in gasflow measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narjes, L.

    1977-06-01

    We begin by taking a closer look at the concepts physical quantity, dimension and unit of measurement. Then a survey is given of the physical quantities applied in gasflow measurement techniques. Here the volume-, as well as the mass-flow rate, as derived quantities are of particular interest. The application of these quantities in relation to the legal units of measurement is specifically described. In addition the quantity equation and further the quantity equation adapted to the use of suitable units and their modes of application are compared. In the appendix four examples clarify these modes. Special attention is paid to the quantity equation adapted to practically oriented units. The applications of this type of equation in VDI regulations, standards and other technical guidelines for measurement of flow are mentioned. Moreover, the meaning of the standard state for the comparison of flows of gaseous fluids is illustrated. The difficulties concerning an international agreement on uniform standard temperature are explained. Starting from there, the advantages of the fundamental quantity 'amount of substance' applied to the measurement of flow are described. The use of this quantity for the thermodynamic state of ideal and real gases, respectively gas mixtures, is demonstrated in the appendix by an example. (orig.) [de

  4. Effect of difference between group constants processed by codes TIMS and ETOX on integral quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Hideki; Ishiguro, Yukio; Matsui, Yasushi.

    1978-06-01

    Group constants of 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Pu have been produced with the processing code TIMS using the evaluated nuclear data of JENDL-1. The temperature and composition dependent self-shielding factors have been calculated for the two cases with and without considering mutual interference resonant nuclei. By using the group constants set produced by the TIMS code, the integral quantities, i.e. multiplication factor, Na-void reactivity effect and Doppler reactivity effect, are calculated and compared with those calculated with the use of the cross sections set produced by the ETOX code to evaluate accuracy of the approximate calculation method in ETOX. There is much difference in self-shielding factor in each energy group between the two codes. For the fast reactor assemblies under study, however, the integral quantities calculated with these two sets are in good agreement with each other, because of eventual cancelation of errors. (auth.)

  5. By Default: The Effect of Prepopulated Prescription Quantities on Opioid Prescribing in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santistevan, Jamie R; Sharp, Brian R; Hamedani, Azita G; Fruhan, Scott; Lee, Andrew W; Patterson, Brian W

    2018-03-01

    Opioid prescribing patterns have come under increasing scrutiny with the recent rise in opioid prescriptions, opioid misuse and abuse, and opioid-related adverse events. To date, there have been limited studies on the effect of default tablet quantities as part of emergency department (ED) electronic order entry. Our goal was to evaluate opioid prescribing patterns before and after the removal of a default quantity of 20 tablets from ED electronic order entry. We performed a retrospective observational study at a single academic, urban ED with 58,000 annual visits. We identified all adult patients (18 years or older) seen in the ED and discharged home with prescriptions for tablet forms of hydrocodone and oxycodone (including mixed formulations with acetaminophen). We compared the quantity of tablets prescribed per opioid prescription 12 months before and 10 months after the electronic order-entry prescription default quantity of 20 tablets was removed and replaced with no default quantity. No specific messaging was given to providers, to avoid influencing prescribing patterns. We used two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test, two-sample test of proportions, and Pearson's chi-squared tests where appropriate for statistical analysis. A total of 4,104 adult patients received discharge prescriptions for opioids in the pre-intervention period (151.6 prescriptions per 1,000 discharged adult patients), and 2,464 post-intervention (106.69 prescriptions per 1,000 discharged adult patients). The median quantity of opioid tablets prescribed decreased from 20 (interquartile ration [IQR] 10-20) to 15 (IQR 10-20) (pdefault quantity. While the most frequent quantity of tablets received in both groups was 20 tablets, the proportion of patients who received prescriptions on discharge that contained 20 tablets decreased from 0.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] [0.48-0.52]) to 0.23 (95% CI [0.21-0.24]) (pdefault quantity removal. Although the median number of tablets differed significantly

  6. Multiparameter Investigation of Significant Lightning Producing Storms in Northeastern Colorado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gauthier, Michael

    1999-01-01

    We present a regional, summer season, climatology of cloud to ground (CG) lightning immediately east of the central Rocky mountains from 1996-98 using data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN...

  7. Skin dose estimation due to a contamination by a radionuclide β emitter: are doses equivalent good estimator of protection quantities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgois, L.

    2011-01-01

    When handling radioactive β emitters, measurements in terms of personal dose equivalents H p (0.07) are used to estimate the equivalent dose limit to skin or extremities given by regulations. First of all, analytical expressions for individual dose equivalents H p (0.07) and equivalent doses to the extremities H skin are given for a point source and for contamination with a radionuclide β emitter. Second of all, operational quantities and protection quantities are compared. It is shown that in this case the operational quantities significantly overstate the protection quantities. For a skin contamination the ratio between operational quantities and protection quantities is 2 for a maximum β energy of 3 MeV and 90 for a maximum β energy of 150 keV. (author)

  8. Quantities of actinides in nuclear reactor fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, K.P.

    1975-01-01

    The quantities of plutonium and other fuel actinides have been calculated for equilibrium fuel cycles for 1000 MW reactors of the following types: water reactors fueled with slightly enriched uranium, water reactors fueled with plutonium and natural uranium, fast-breeder reactors, gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium and highly enriched uranium, and gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium, plutonium, and recycled uranium. The radioactivity levels of plutonium, americium, and curium processed yearly in these fuel cycles are greatest for the water reactors fueled with natural uranium and recycled plutonium. The total amount of actinides processed is calculated for the predicted future growth of the United States nuclear power industry. For the same total installed nuclear power capacity, the introduction of the plutonium breeder has little effect upon the total amount of plutonium processed in this century. The estimated amount of plutonium in the low-level process wastes in the plutonium fuel cycles is comparable to the amount of plutonium in the high-level fission product wastes. The amount of plutonium processed in the nuclear fuel cycles can be considerably reduced by using gas-cooled reactors to consume plutonium produced in uranium-fueled water reactors. These, and other reactors dedicated for plutonium utilization, could be co-located with facilities for fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication to eliminate the off-site transport of separated plutonium. (U.S.)

  9. Do human parents face a quantity-quality tradeoff?: evidence from a Shuar community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Edward H; Barrett, H Clark; Price, Michael E

    2006-07-01

    A number of evolutionary theories of human life history assume a quantity-quality tradeoff for offspring production: parents with fewer offspring can have higher biological fitness than those with more. Direct evidence for such a tradeoff, however, is mixed. We tested this assumption in a community of Ecuadorian Shuar hunter-horticulturalists, using child anthropometry as a proxy for fitness. We measured the impact of household consumer/producer (CP) ratio on height, weight, skinfold thicknesses, and arm and calf circumferences of 85 children and young adults. To control for possible "phenotypic" correlates that might mask the effect of CP ratio on anthropometry, we also measured household garden productivity, wealth, and social status. Regression models of the age-standardized variables indicated a significant negative impact of CP ratio on child growth and nutrition. The age-standardized height and weight of children in households with the largest CP ratio (10) were 1.38 and 1.44 standard deviations, respectively, below those of children in households with the smallest CP ratio (2). Surprisingly, garden productivity, wealth, and status had little to no effect on the fitness proxies. There was, however, an interesting and unexpected interaction between status and sex: for females, but not males, higher father status correlated significantly with higher values on the proxies.

  10. Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie-Jeanne Richard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI. We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone. The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the

  11. The effects of quantity and depth of processing on children's time perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlin, M

    1986-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of quantity and depth of processing on children's time perception. These experiments tested the appropriateness of two adult time-perception models (attentional and storage size) for younger ages. Children were given stimulus sets of equal time which varied by level of processing (deep/shallow) and quantity (list length). In the first experiment, 28 children in Grade 6 reproduced presentation times of various quantities of pictures under deep (living/nonliving categorization) or shallow (repeating label) conditions. Students also compared pairs of durations. In the second experiment, 128 children in Grades K, 2, 4, and 6 reproduced presentation times under similar conditions with three or six pictures and with deep or shallow processing requirements. Deep processing led to decreased estimation of time. Higher quantity led to increased estimation of time. Comparative judgments were influenced by quantity. The interaction between age and depth of processing was significant. Older children were more affected by depth differences than were younger children. Results were interpreted as supporting different aspects of each adult model as explanations of children's time perception. The processing effect supported the attentional model and the quantity effect supported the storage size model.

  12. 48 CFR 52.217-6 - Option for Increased Quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Option for Increased....217-6 Option for Increased Quantity. As prescribed in 17.208(d), insert a clause substantially the same as the following: Option for Increased Quantity (MAR 1989) The Government may increase the...

  13. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  14. 48 CFR 916.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... indefinite-quantity, multiple award contracts to ensure that adequate consideration exists to contractually... contracts. 916.504 Section 916.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 916.504 Indefinite-quantity...

  15. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322... quantities of noxious gases. Concentrations of noxious or poisonous gases, other than carbon dioxide, shall... Governmental Industrial Hygienists in “Threshold Limit Values for Substance in Workroom Air” (1972). Detectors...

  16. Symbols and definitions of quantities and units in isotope stoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junghans, P.; Krumbiegel, P.; Faust, H.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of the International System of Units and recent recommendations of the IUPAC on 'Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units' a system is proposed of uniform and unambiguous symbols and definitions of quantities and units used in the isotope dilution technique. The close relationship between isotope stoichiometry and common stoichiometry is demonstrated. (author)

  17. 19 CFR 144.33 - Minimum quantities to be withdrawn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum quantities to be withdrawn. 144.33 Section 144.33 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Warehouse § 144.33 Minimum quantities to be withdrawn. Unless by special authority of the Commissioner of...

  18. 21 CFR 1314.20 - Restrictions on sales quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions on sales quantity. 1314.20 Section 1314.20 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.20 Restrictions on sales quantity. (a) Without...

  19. Quantifying cannabis: A field study of marijuana quantity estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Mark A; Conner, Bradley T; Pearson, Matthew R

    2018-05-17

    The assessment of marijuana use quantity poses unique challenges. These challenges have limited research efforts on quantity assessments. However, quantity estimates are critical to detecting associations between marijuana use and outcomes. We examined accuracy of marijuana users' estimations of quantities of marijuana they prepared to ingest and predictors of both how much was prepared for a single dose and the degree of (in)accuracy of participants' estimates. We recruited a sample of 128 regular-to-heavy marijuana users for a field study wherein they prepared and estimated quantities of marijuana flower in a joint or a bowl as well as marijuana concentrate using a dab tool. The vast majority of participants overestimated the quantity of marijuana that they used in their preparations. We failed to find robust predictors of estimation accuracy. Self-reported quantity estimates are inaccurate, which has implications for studying the link between quantity and marijuana use outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Organizational citizenship behavior and the quantity and quality of work group performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, P M; Ahearne, M; MacKenzie, S B

    1997-04-01

    Despite the widespread interest in the topic of organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), little empirical research has tested the fundamental assumption that these forms of behavior improve the effectiveness of work groups or organizations in which they are exhibited. In the present study, the effects of OCBs on the quantity and quality of the performance of 218 people working in 40 machine crews in a paper mill located in the Northeastern United States were examined. The results indicate that helping behavior and sportsmanship had significant effects on performance quantity and that helping behavior had a significant impact on performance quality. However, civic virtue had no effect on either performance measure.

  1. Inter- and Intrapopulation Variation of the Pheromone, Ipsdienol Produced by Male Pine Engravers Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.R. Miller; J.H. Borden; K.N. Slessor

    1989-01-01

    We determined the chirality of ipsdienol in individual male pine engravers, Ips pini (Say), from New York, California, and two localities in British Columbia (BC). Both quantity and chirality of ipsdienol varied significantly between and within populations of I. pini . Beetles from California and southeastern BC produced...

  2. Association Between Work–Family Conflict and Smoking Quantity Among Daily Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Recent work demonstrated a direct relation between work–family conflict and likelihood of smoking. This study furthered this area of research by (a) testing the association between work–family conflict and smoking quantity and (b) testing demographic, workplace, and home factors as moderators of this relation. Methods: Participants (N = 423) were daily smokers from a Midwestern community-based sample. Ordinal regression analysis tested work-to-home and home-to-work conflict as predictors (after controlling for demographic characteristics, home factors, and workplace factors) of smoking quantity. Additionally, we tested whether the demographic, home, and workplace factors moderated the effects of work-to-home conflict and home-to-work conflict on smoking quantity. Results: Males (OR = 8.81, p = .005), older participants (OR = 1.09, p = .012), those with less educational attainment (OR = 1.87, p = .001), those who reported lower levels of workplace smoking restrictions (OR = 0.87, p = .019), and those who reported higher levels of work-to-home conflict (OR = 1.39, p = .026) smoked more cigarettes per day. There was no significant main effect of home-to-work conflict on smoking quantity (OR = 1.46, p = .099). A significant interaction (OR = 0.55, p = .043) revealed that home-to-work conflict was associated with smoking quantity for females but not for males. Conclusions: After controlling for demographic characteristics and potential confounders, work-to-home conflict had a negative impact on smoking quantity for all participants, and home-to-work conflict was associated with smoking quantity for women. Workplace wellness programs to reduce smoking among employees should take into account the direction of conflict and how the effect of the conflict on smoking behavior may vary based on other factors. PMID:23709611

  3. Association between work-family conflict and smoking quantity among daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C

    2013-11-01

    Recent work demonstrated a direct relation between work-family conflict and likelihood of smoking. This study furthered this area of research by (a) testing the association between work-family conflict and smoking quantity and (b) testing demographic, workplace, and home factors as moderators of this relation. Participants (N = 423) were daily smokers from a Midwestern community-based sample. Ordinal regression analysis tested work-to-home and home-to-work conflict as predictors (after controlling for demographic characteristics, home factors, and workplace factors) of smoking quantity. Additionally, we tested whether the demographic, home, and workplace factors moderated the effects of work-to-home conflict and home-to-work conflict on smoking quantity. Males (OR = 8.81, p = .005), older participants (OR = 1.09, p = .012), those with less educational attainment (OR = 1.87, p = .001), those who reported lower levels of workplace smoking restrictions (OR = 0.87, p = .019), and those who reported higher levels of work-to-home conflict (OR = 1.39, p = .026) smoked more cigarettes per day. There was no significant main effect of home-to-work conflict on smoking quantity (OR = 1.46, p = .099). A significant interaction (OR = 0.55, p = .043) revealed that home-to-work conflict was associated with smoking quantity for females but not for males. After controlling for demographic characteristics and potential confounders, work-to-home conflict had a negative impact on smoking quantity for all participants, and home-to-work conflict was associated with smoking quantity for women. Workplace wellness programs to reduce smoking among employees should take into account the direction of conflict and how the effect of the conflict on smoking behavior may vary based on other factors.

  4. Concept of ICRU's operational quantity and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Hiroyuki

    1995-01-01

    The operational quantity which was introduced in the ICRU report 39 published in 1985 was shocking rather than fresh for the author. The report was translated into Japanese, but at the beginning, the contents were not able to be understood. Thereafter, the measurement of ICRU sphere dose equivalent was introduced in a national law. But it is feared that the understanding of this operational quantity is limited to specialist level, and is not by men of practical works. The meaning of ''operational'' must be that workers measure and obtain dose on the spot for the radiation protection for themselves. The principles used when ICRU considered the new practical measured quantity are shown. In the definition of operational quantity in area monitoring, two concepts of expanded and aligned connect real measurement with the operational quantity. The problems of measuring individual dose equivalent are discussed. As to the reality of applying the operational quantity, the fundamentals of the calibration of measuring instruments, the investigation of the operational quantity in relation to measuring instruments and measurement mode, and the relation of area monitoring and individual monitoring are described. (K.I.)

  5. Influence of Cattle Trails on Runoff Quantity and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jim J; Curtis, Tony; Chanasyk, David S; Willms, Walter D

    2017-03-01

    Cattle trails in grazed pastures close to rivers may adversely affect surface water quality of the adjacent river by directing runoff to it. The objective of this 3-yr study (2013-2015) in southern Alberta, Canada, was to determine if cattle trails significantly increased the risk of runoff and contaminants (sediment, nutrients) compared with the adjacent grazed pasture (control). A portable rainfall simulator was used to generate artificial rainfall (140 mm h) and runoff. The runoff properties measured were time to runoff and initial abstraction (infiltration), total runoff depth and average runoff rates, as well as concentrations and mass loads of sediment, N, and P fractions. Cattle trails significantly ( ≤ 0.10) decreased time to runoff and initial abstraction (26-32%) in the 2 yr measured and increased total runoff depth, runoff coefficients, and average runoff rates (21-51%) in 2 of 3 yr. Concentrations of sediment, N, and P fractions in runoff were not significantly greater for cattle trails than for control areas. However, mass loads of total suspended solids (57-85% increase), NH-N (31-90%), and dissolved reactive P (DRP) (30-92%) were significantly greater because of increased runoff volumes. Overall, runoff quantity and loads of sediment, NH-N, and DRP were greater for cattle trails compared with the adjacent grazed pasture, and hydrologic connection with cattle-access sites on the riverbank suggests that this could adversely affect water quality in the adjacent river. Extrapolation of the study results should be tempered by the specific conditions represented by this rainfall simulation study. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Conceptual Model of Quantities, Units, Dimensions, and Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquette, Nicolas F.; DeKoenig, Hans-Peter; Burkhart, Roger; Espinoza, Huascar

    2011-01-01

    JPL collaborated with experts from industry and other organizations to develop a conceptual model of quantities, units, dimensions, and values based on the current work of the ISO 80000 committee revising the International System of Units & Quantities based on the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM). By providing support for ISO 80000 in SysML via the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM), this conceptual model provides, for the first time, a standard-based approach for addressing issues of unit coherence and dimensional analysis into the practice of systems engineering with SysML-based tools. This conceptual model provides support for two kinds of analyses specified in the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM): coherence of units as well as of systems of units, and dimension analysis of systems of quantities. To provide a solid and stable foundation, the model for defining quantities, units, dimensions, and values in SysML is explicitly based on the concepts defined in VIM. At the same time, the model library is designed in such a way that extensions to the ISQ (International System of Quantities) and SI Units (Systeme International d Unites) can be represented, as well as any alternative systems of quantities and units. The model library can be used to support SysML user models in various ways. A simple approach is to define and document libraries of reusable systems of units and quantities for reuse across multiple projects, and to link units and quantity kinds from these libraries to Unit and QuantityKind stereotypes defined in SysML user models.

  7. New quantities in radiation protection and conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Four new quantities have been proposed by the ICRP for use in radiation protection from external sources, i.e. the ambient dose equivalent, the directional dose equivalent, the individual dose equivalent (penetrating), and the individual dose equivalent (superficial). These quantities are briefly described together with two new concepts of expanded and aligned fields. The BCRU recommends that these quantities should be adopted for use in the UK together with conversion coefficients when re-calibrating existing instruments, reporting the results of measurements and designing instruments. (UK)

  8. Economic production quantity models for imperfect product and service with rework

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Allen H.

    2012-01-01

    When imperfect quality products are produced in a production process, rework may be performed to make them become serviceable. In an inventory system, items may deteriorate. Selling deteriorated items to customers will create negative impact on corporate image. In this paper, two economic production quantity (EPQ) models are proposed for deteriorating items with rework process. A single production-rework plant system and a system consists of $n$ production plants and one rework plant are cons...

  9. Uncertainties of exposure-related quantities in mammographic x-ray unit quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Kent J.; Pattison, John E.; Bibbo, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Breast screening programs operate in many countries with mammographic x-ray units subject to stringent quality control tests. These tests include the evaluation of quantities based on exposure measurements, such as half value layer, automatic exposure control reproducibility, average glandular dose, and radiation output rate. There are numerous error sources that contribute to the uncertainty of these exposure-related quantities, some of which are unique to the low energy x-ray spectrum produced by mammographic x-ray units. For each of these exposure-related quantities, the applicable error sources and their magnitudes vary, depending on the test equipment used to make the measurement, and whether or not relevant corrections have been applied. This study has identified and quantified a range of error sources that may be used to estimate the combined uncertainty of these exposure-related quantities, given the test equipment used and corrections applied. The uncertainty analysis uses methods described by the International Standards Organization's Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. Examples of how these error sources combine to give the uncertainty of the exposure-related quantities are presented. Using the best test equipment evaluated in this study, uncertainties of the four exposure-related quantities at the 95% confidence interval were found to be ±1.6% (half value layer), ±0.0008 (automatic exposure control reproducibility), ±2.3% (average glandular dose), and ±2.1% (radiation output rate). In some cases, using less precise test equipment or failing to apply corrections, resulted in uncertainties more than double in magnitude

  10. A modular method to handle multiple time-dependent quantities in Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J; Faddegon, B A; Perl, J; Schümann, J; Paganetti, H

    2012-01-01

    A general method for handling time-dependent quantities in Monte Carlo simulations was developed to make such simulations more accessible to the medical community for a wide range of applications in radiotherapy, including fluence and dose calculation. To describe time-dependent changes in the most general way, we developed a grammar of functions that we call ‘Time Features’. When a simulation quantity, such as the position of a geometrical object, an angle, a magnetic field, a current, etc, takes its value from a Time Feature, that quantity varies over time. The operation of time-dependent simulation was separated into distinct parts: the Sequence samples time values either sequentially at equal increments or randomly from a uniform distribution (allowing quantities to vary continuously in time), and then each time-dependent quantity is calculated according to its Time Feature. Due to this modular structure, time-dependent simulations, even in the presence of multiple time-dependent quantities, can be efficiently performed in a single simulation with any given time resolution. This approach has been implemented in TOPAS (TOol for PArticle Simulation), designed to make Monte Carlo simulations with Geant4 more accessible to both clinical and research physicists. To demonstrate the method, three clinical situations were simulated: a variable water column used to verify constancy of the Bragg peak of the Crocker Lab eye treatment facility of the University of California, the double-scattering treatment mode of the passive beam scattering system at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), where a spinning range modulator wheel accompanied by beam current modulation produces a spread-out Bragg peak, and the scanning mode at MGH, where time-dependent pulse shape, energy distribution and magnetic fields control Bragg peak positions. Results confirm the clinical applicability of the method. (paper)

  11. WEB TECHNOLOGIES USED TO FORECAST FUTURE WASTE QUANTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu LUPU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors propose a modality of prognosis of the quantities of waste generated in a certain period. The proposition was finalized by achieving a model of prognosis present on a site hosted by a Web server. The software solve the problem for the general case, depending on the input data after analysis. After analyzing input data sets are used with one, two or three components (trend, seasonality and residual variable. According to the input data the adjustment model regarding the description of the analyzed phenomenon (additive and multiplying is chosen. If the chronogram of the analyzed phenomenon indicates an oscillating evolution, of sinusoidal nature, the additive model (+ is chosen, otherwise the multiplying model (  is chosen. The seasonal component is estimated and the deseasonalized chronological series is determined. The seasonality is determined by: the procedure of arithmetical means, the procedure of moving averages and the procedure of analytical tendency. The adjustment function is specified regarding the tendency of the phenomenon and its parameters are estimated. The significance of the adjustment function is verified specifying the significance threshold with which it may be accepted as significant. The estimation of the parameters of the adjustment function is made on the basis of the application of the method of least squares. The values of the phenomenon on two or three trimesters/ months are estimated for the processed data (by using time series with two or three steps ahead. Several types of waste specified by the value of the meter for waste from the database may be accepted. The model proposed makes decisions and justifies if the data prognosticated is accepted or not. All information from the input data to the final data is stored in a MySQL database.

  12. Quality and quantity of construction and demolition waste in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Alireza; Ghorbanian, Tahereh; Yousefi, Nader; Dadashzadeh, Dariush; Khalili, Fatemeh; Bagheri, Amin; Raei, Mehdi; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2017-01-01

    In recent years the generation rate of construction and demolition waste (C&D) has significantly augmented. The aim of this study was to assessed the quality and quantity of construction and demolition waste in Tehran (capital of Iran). Questionnaire methods were used for estimating the amount of generated C&D wastes national statistical data and typical waste generation data. In order to defining the composition of C&D waste, trucks were randomly selected and their wastes were separated and weighted. According to obtained results, about 82,646,051 m 3 of C&D waste (average 16,529,210 m 3 per year) were generated during 2011 to 2016 which only about 26% of them has been recycled. Mixing sand and cement, concrete, broken bricks and soil have the highest amount of the composition of C&D waste in Tehran that was 30, 19, 18 and 11%, respectively. Based on the results, about 2,784,158 t of the waste will generate in 2025 and this is approximately 122% higher than wastes generate in 2016. Based on MAPSA's data, 360 teams of personnel cruise and control the illegal disposals, but due to the expansion of Tehran this number of teams is inadequate and can't be effective in controlling the situation. In general, the overall condition of C&D waste management in Tehran seems undesirable and needs to be updated based on the experience of successful countries in this field.

  13. A note on the expectation and deviation of physical quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Masao

    2009-01-01

    By using the function representation of self-adjoint operators, the expectation and variance of physical quantities (self-adjoint operators) are defined, and it is shown that the so-called uncertainty principle does not hold.

  14. The ICRU dose equivalence quantities in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimbergen, T.W.M.

    1990-09-01

    The definitions and application of the new ICRU radiation protection quantities have been reviewed and studied in literature. Special emphasis was laid on the consequences of the use of the new quantities by personnel dosimetry services, and on the consequences of the use of the new quantities during an intercomparison programme for dosimetry services. The study shows that the recommendations of the ICRU are not yet complete and not fully realizable. This means that the dosimetry services always have to make certain approximations, when they use the new quantities. In literature, several approaches have been proposed. The feasibility of an approach depends on the characteristics of the dosimeters used. The use of different approaches by the dosimetry services is thought to be of possible influence on the results of an intercomparison programme. (author). 42 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  15. Safeguards Implementation Guide for States with Small Quantities Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) works to enhance the contribution of nuclear energy for peace and prosperity around the world, while helping to ensure that nuclear material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. In implementing safeguards, the IAEA plays an instrumental independent verification role, providing credible assurances that States' safeguards commitments are being respected. Most of the world's non-nuclear-weapon States (NNWSs) have concluded comprehensive safeguards agreements (CSAs) with the IAEA, pursuant to the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The IAEA and States are required to cooperate in the implementation of such agreements. Effective cooperation demonstrates a State's commitment to the peaceful use of nuclear energy and furthers the State's national interests by reducing the risk of unauthorized use of nuclear material. Over 100 NNWSs party to the NPT have very limited quantities of nuclear material and have concluded protocols to their CSAs which hold in abeyance many procedures in Part II of a CSA. These protocols are referred to as 'small quantities protocols' or 'SQPs' and remain in effect as long as the State meets certain eligibility criteria. The purpose of an SQP is to reduce the burden of safeguards implementation for States with little or no nuclear activities, while retaining the integrity of the safeguards system. States with SQPs have very important obligations they must fulfil under their CSAs. In 1997, as part of the IAEA's efforts to strengthen its safeguards system, the Model Additional Protocol to the Agreement(s) between State(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards was developed to provide the IAEA with broader access to information and locations, thus significantly increasing the IAEA's ability to provide assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities in States. Many States with SQPs have

  16. Producing cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E G

    1923-09-12

    A process and apparatus are described for producing Portland cement in which pulverized shale is successively heated in a series of inclined rotary retorts having internal stirrers and oil gas outlets, which are connected to condensers. The partially treated shale is removed from the lowermost retort by a conveyor, then fed separately or conjointly into pipes and thence into a number of vertically disposed retorts. Each of these retorts may be fitted interiorly with vertical arranged conveyors which elevate the shale and discharge it over a lip, from whence it falls to the bottom of the retorts. The lower end of each casing is furnished with an adjustable discharge door through which the spent shale is fed to a hopper, thence into separate trucks. The oil gases generated in the retorts are exhausted through pipes to condensers. The spent shale is conveyed to a bin and mixed while hot with ground limestone. The admixed materials are then ground and fed to a rotary kiln which is fired by the incondensible gases derived from the oil gases obtained in the previous retorting of the shale. The calcined materials are then delivered from the rotary kiln to rotary coolers. The waste gases from the kiln are utilized for heating the retorts in which the ground shale is heated for the purpose of extracting therefrom the contained hydrocarbon oils and gases.

  17. Quantity versus Quality: A New Approach to Examine the Relationship between Technology Use and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jing

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that to examine the relationship between technology use and student outcomes, the quality of technology use--how, and what, technology is used--is a more significant factor than the quantity of technology use--how much technology is used. This argument was exemplified by an empirical study that used both angles to examine the…

  18. Import and export of small quantities of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.

    1986-06-01

    Administrative procedures for import export of nuclear materials are specific for each country. In France regulations are reviewed for small quantities, lower threshold, in some cases, allows a simplified procedure, however thresholds are not the same in the different texts (and for one of them, concerning proliferation, is zero). It is obvious that regulations are necessary even for small quantities but national and international threshold should be harmonized [fr

  19. Complexity in an Unexpected Place: Quantities in Selected Acquisition Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    by the Army Acquisition Executive contains the following language . As a recently delegated Acquisition Category IC program, the AH-64E Apache...Complexity in an Unexpected Place: Quantities in Selected Acquisition Reports Gregory A. Davis, Project Leader Margaret L. Giles David M. Tate I...F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Paper P-8490 Complexity in an Unexpected Place: Quantities in Selected Acquisition Reports Gregory A. Davis

  20. Charaterisation of function spaces via mollification; fractal quantities for distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Triebel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is twofold. First we characterise elements f belonging to the Besov spaces Bpqs(ℝn with s∈ℝ,  0quantities for distributions generalising well-known corresponding quantities for Radon measures.

  1. Information quantity in a pixel of digital image

    OpenAIRE

    Kharinov, M.

    2014-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the problem of integer-valued estimating of information quantity in a pixel of digital image. The definition of an integer estimation of information quantity based on constructing of the certain binary hierarchy of pixel clusters is proposed. The methods for constructing hierarchies of clusters and generating of hierarchical sequences of image approximations that minimally differ from the image by a standard deviation are developed. Experimental results on integer-valu...

  2. Uncertainty analysis of thermal quantities measurement in a centrifugal compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurda, Lukáš; Matas, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Compressor performance characteristics evaluation process based on the measurement of pressure, temperature and other quantities is examined to find uncertainties for directly measured and derived quantities. CFD is used as a tool to quantify the influences of different sources of uncertainty of measurements for single- and multi-thermocouple total temperature probes. The heat conduction through the body of the thermocouple probe and the heat-up of the air in the intake piping are the main phenomena of interest.

  3. Testing quantity theory of money for the Turkish economy

    OpenAIRE

    Levent, Korap

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, it is tried to test the main assumptions of the Quantity Theory of Money for the Turkish economy. Using some contemporaneous estimation techniques to examine the long-run stationary economic relationships on which the quantity theory is constructed, it is found that stationary characteristics of the velocitities of narrowly and broadly defined monetary aggregates cannot be rejected. However, monetary aggregates seem to be endogenous for the long-run evoluation of prices and rea...

  4. Characterization of Soluble Organics in Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, D.T.

    2002-01-16

    -selective electrodes and inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-atomic emission spectrometry (AES). The WSO found in produced water samples was primarily polar in nature and distributed between the low and midrange carbon ranges. Typical levels of total extractable material (TEM) was about 20 mg/L; that associated with the aromatic fraction was present at 0.2 mg/L and that in the saturated hydrocarbon fraction was present at less than 0.02 mg/L. Formic, acetic, and propionic acids were also found in the produced water, occurring at a total concentration of 30 mg/L. It was estimated that the presence of 30 mg/L organic acids would artificially overstate TEM content by 2 mg/L. Of the five tested parameters, the factor that most controlled the total WSO in produced water was that of aqueous phase pH. Beyond a value of pH7 significant quantities of C{sub 10}-C{sub 20} range material become markedly soluble as they deprotonate in a basic aqueous phase. Both the absolute and relative volumes of GOM brine and crude additionally affected total WSO. Produced water appeared to reach a saturation level of WSO at a.50% water/oil ratio. Pressure slightly enhanced WSO by increasing the relative quantity of C{sub 6}-C{sub 10} range material. Temperature primarily altered the relative ratio of carbon ranges within the WSO without significantly elevating the total WSO in the GOM brine. Salinity had the least affect on the chemical character or the carbon size of WSO in produced water.

  5. Energy Drinks and Binge Drinking Predict College Students' Sleep Quantity, Quality, and Tiredness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Griffin, Jamie; Huntley, Edward D; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    This study examines whether energy drink use and binge drinking predict sleep quantity, sleep quality, and next-day tiredness among college students. Web-based daily data on substance use and sleep were collected across four semesters in 2009 and 2010 from 667 individuals for up to 56 days each, yielding information on 25,616 person-days. Controlling for average levels of energy drink use and binge drinking (i.e., 4+ drinks for women, 5+ drinks for men), on days when students consumed energy drinks, they reported lower sleep quantity and quality that night, and greater next-day tiredness, compared to days they did not use energy drinks. Similarly, on days when students binge drank, they reported lower sleep quantity and quality that night, and greater next-day tiredness, compared to days they did not binge drink. There was no significant interaction effect between binge drinking and energy drink use on the outcomes.

  6. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  7. Natural products phytotoxicity A bioassay suitable for small quantities of slightly water-soluble compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbos, D L; Spencer, G F

    1990-02-01

    A large variety of secondary metabolites that can inhibit germination and/or seedling growth are produced by plants in low quantities. The objective of this study was to develop a bioassay capable of reliably assessing reductions in germination percentage and seedling length of small-seeded plant species caused by exposure to minute quantities of these compounds. The germination and growth of alfalfa (Medicago saliva), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) were evaluated against six known phytotoxins from five chemical classes; cinmethylin (a herbicidal cineole derivative) was selected as a comparison standard. Each phytotoxin, dissolved in a suitable organic solvent, was placed on water-agar in small tissue culture wells. After the solvent evaporated, imbibed seeds were placed on the agar; after three days, germination percentages and seedling lengths were measured. Compared to a commonly used filter paper procedure, this modified agar bioassay required smaller quantities of compound per seed for comparable bioassay results. This bioassay also readily permitted the measurement of seedling length, a more sensitive indicator of phytotoxicity than germination. Seedling length decreased sigmoidally as the toxin concentration increased logarithmically. Phytotoxicity was a function of both compound and plant species. Cinmethylin, a grass herbicide, reduced the length of annual ryegrass seedlings by 90-100%, whereas that of alfalfa and velvetleaf was inhibited slightly. The agar bioassay facilitated the rapid and reliable testing of slightly water-soluble compounds, requiring only minute quantities of each compound to give reproducible results.

  8. Processing ordinality and quantity: the case of developmental dyscalculia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly Rubinsten

    Full Text Available In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1 the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2 core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD. Participants made "ordered" or "non-ordered" judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1 and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2. In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks, DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

  9. Processing ordinality and quantity: the case of developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Sury, Dana

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1) the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2) core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD). Participants made "ordered" or "non-ordered" judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1) and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2). In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks), DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

  10. Analysis of the Supply Response of Maize Producers in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research work analyzed the supply response of maize producers in Nigeria and its implication for agricultural trade. The period covered was 1987-2007 (20 years) and data were collected on import quantity and value, export quantity and value, price of maize, price of its substitute, output and hectarage within the time ...

  11. Analysis on Domestic Law and Management Trend Related to Small-Quantity Nuclear Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyong Woo; Shim, Hye Won; Min, Gyung Sik [National Nuclear Management and Control Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has requested Korea to establish and manage the law ruling all nuclear materials through the INFCIRC/153. Now, it has been 30 years since Korea made the agreement, INFCIRC/153, with IAEA. Korea has tried their best to accomplish the international standard in nuclear control field and it is a fact that Korea finally produced some results in the nuclear control field. Related to nuclear material control, Korea is above the common level appropriately ranked 6th in the world in terms of nuclear power. Before 2000, Korea was making the foundation secure in the nuclear control. IAEA did not urge to establish the law supervising the small-quantity nuclear material and depleted uranium (DU). In a turnaround from early IAEA moderate line to Korea, the situation was changed. Since IAEA brought up the agenda to 2000 Joint Review Meeting between Korea-IAEA, IAEA has asked Korea to establish the control system for smallquantity nuclear material and DU. In 2003, the Korean government set up a project establishing the control system about all nuclear material including small-quantity nuclear material and DU. National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA), delegating the business relating to international controlling materials from government, developed some modules in nuclear material control system and operated it. The system includes a controlling system for small-quantity nuclear material. NNCA on behalf of government has collected the information and Korea Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has reported the information to the IAEA. This paper introduces you the background of controlling the small-quantity nuclear material and the system of controlling nuclear material in Korea. And it will suggest the improvement of the management method in the system for small-quantity nuclear material.

  12. Analysis on Domestic Law and Management Trend Related to Small-Quantity Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyong Woo; Shim, Hye Won; Min, Gyung Sik

    2005-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has requested Korea to establish and manage the law ruling all nuclear materials through the INFCIRC/153. Now, it has been 30 years since Korea made the agreement, INFCIRC/153, with IAEA. Korea has tried their best to accomplish the international standard in nuclear control field and it is a fact that Korea finally produced some results in the nuclear control field. Related to nuclear material control, Korea is above the common level appropriately ranked 6th in the world in terms of nuclear power. Before 2000, Korea was making the foundation secure in the nuclear control. IAEA did not urge to establish the law supervising the small-quantity nuclear material and depleted uranium (DU). In a turnaround from early IAEA moderate line to Korea, the situation was changed. Since IAEA brought up the agenda to 2000 Joint Review Meeting between Korea-IAEA, IAEA has asked Korea to establish the control system for smallquantity nuclear material and DU. In 2003, the Korean government set up a project establishing the control system about all nuclear material including small-quantity nuclear material and DU. National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA), delegating the business relating to international controlling materials from government, developed some modules in nuclear material control system and operated it. The system includes a controlling system for small-quantity nuclear material. NNCA on behalf of government has collected the information and Korea Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has reported the information to the IAEA. This paper introduces you the background of controlling the small-quantity nuclear material and the system of controlling nuclear material in Korea. And it will suggest the improvement of the management method in the system for small-quantity nuclear material

  13. Quantities of natural gas transported in January-December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents the monthly key figures of GRTgaz activity in 2009: Total quantities transmitted by GRTgaz (Inputs to the GRTgaz network/Outputs from the GRTgaz network); Maximum and minimum daily flow (Daily quantities transported, Daily consumption, Daily inputs excluding storage); Quantities exchanged on the wholesale market; Consumption on the GRTgaz Network (gross monthly consumption and Average monthly temperatures)

  14. Quantities of natural gas transported in August-December 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents the available monthly key figures of GRTgaz activity from August to December 2007: Total quantities transmitted by GRTgaz (Inputs to the GRTgaz network/Outputs from the GRTgaz network); Maximum and minimum daily flow (Daily quantities transported, Daily consumption, Daily inputs excluding storage); Quantities exchanged on the wholesale market; Consumption on the GRTgaz Network (gross monthly consumption and Average monthly temperatures)

  15. BIRTHDAY CAKE ACTIVITY STRUCTURED ARRANGEMENT FOR HELPING CHILDREN DETERMINING QUANTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Few researches have been concerned about relation between children’s spatialthinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused onone component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and onecomponent of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. Thisstudy focused on a design research that was conducted in Indonesia in which weinvestigated pre-school children’s (between 2 and 3.5 years old ability inmaking structured arrangement and their ability to determine the quantities bylooking at the arrangements. The result shows us that some of the children wereable to make such arrangement. However, the children found difficulties eitherto determine quantities from those arrangements or to compare some structuresto easily recognize number of objects.Keywords: structures, structured arrangement, cardinality DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.1.1.790.53-70

  16. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Few researches have been concerned about relation between children’s spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was conducted in Indonesia in which we investigated pre-school children’s (between 2 and 3.5 years old ability in making structured arrangement and their ability to determine the quantities by looking at the arrangements. The result shows us that some of the children were able to make such arrangement. However, the children found difficulties either to determine quantities from those arrangements or to compare some structures to easily recognize number of objects.

  17. Multimodal semantic quantity representations: further evidence from Korean Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eDomahs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Korean deaf signers performed a number comparison task on pairs of Arabic digits. In their RT profiles, the expected magnitude effect was systematically modified by properties of number signs in Korean Sign Language in a culture-specific way (not observed in hearing and deaf Germans or hearing Chinese. We conclude that finger-based quantity representations are automatically activated even in simple tasks with symbolic input although this may be irrelevant and even detrimental for task performance. These finger-based numerical representations are accessed in addition to another, more basic quantity system which is evidenced by the magnitude effect. In sum, these results are inconsistent with models assuming only one single amodal representation of numerical quantity.

  18. How tobacco companies have used package quantity for consumer targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoskie, Alexander; Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Ryant, Chase

    2018-05-31

    Package quantity refers to the number of cigarettes or amount of other tobacco product in a package. Many countries restrict minimum cigarette package quantities to avoid low-cost packs that may lower barriers to youth smoking. We reviewed Truth Tobacco Industry Documents to understand tobacco companies' rationales for introducing new package quantities, including companies' expectations and research regarding how package quantity may influence consumer behaviour. A snowball sampling method (phase 1), a static search string (phase 2) and a follow-up snowball search (phase 3) identified 216 documents, mostly from the 1980s and 1990s, concerning cigarettes (200), roll-your-own tobacco (9), smokeless tobacco (6) and 'smokeless cigarettes' (1). Companies introduced small and large packages to motivate brand-switching and continued use among current users when faced with low market share or threats such as tax-induced price increases or competitors' use of price promotions. Companies developed and evaluated package quantities for specific brands and consumer segments. Large packages offered value-for-money and matched long-term, heavy users' consumption rates. Small packages were cheaper, matched consumption rates of newer and lighter users, and increased products' novelty, ease of carrying and perceived freshness. Some users also preferred small packages as a way to try to limit consumption or quit. Industry documents speculated about many potential effects of package quantity on appeal and use, depending on brand and consumer segment. The search was non-exhaustive, and we could not assess the quality of much of the research or other information on which the documents relied. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Quality or Quantity: A Statement for Teacher Training in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AZAR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Developed countries are initiating and implementing effective and appropriate technics in the field of teacher training. In Turkey, much research has been done in order to determine the qualification of teachers and, by this way, to train qualified teachers. Ministry of Education, Turkish Council of Higher Education, Faculties of Education and Faculties of Sciences have cooperated some certification systems, however, the research which is not supported by preliminary studies but exposured to political coercions lowered the quality of education. Besides, quantity is increased by pedagogical formation programs. In this study, Turkish teacher training system is analyzed with respect to quantity and quality.

  20. Manual of symbols and terminology for physicochemical quantities and units

    CERN Document Server

    Whiffen, D H

    2013-01-01

    Manual of Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units, 1979 Edition contains physical quantity tabulations of products. The Commission on Symbols, Terminology, and Units is a part of the Division of Physical Chemistry of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Its general responsibilities are to secure clarity and precision, and wider agreement in the use of symbols, by chemists in different countries, among physicists, chemists, and engineers, and by editors of scientific journals. This book is composed of 13 chapters, and begins with the determination o

  1. Units for physical quantities used in dosimetry and radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubert, R; Wagner, S

    1976-04-01

    The 15th General Conference on Weights and Measures (1975) decided to introduce the name Becquerel for the SI unit of the quantity activity (1 Bq = 1 s/sup -1/) and the name Gray for the SI unit of ionizing radiations (1 Gy = 1 J/kg). The consequences of this latter decision are discussed. The Bundesanstalt is of the opinion that no further names for this unit should be introduced, but that the Gray should be used also for other quantities of the same dimension, especially for the dose equivalent.

  2. Photosynthesis-related quantities for education and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Taras K; Kovalenko, Ilya B; Rubin, Andrew B; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2013-11-01

    A quantitative understanding of the photosynthetic machinery depends largely on quantities, such as concentrations, sizes, absorption wavelengths, redox potentials, and rate constants. The present contribution is a collection of numbers and quantities related mainly to photosynthesis in higher plants. All numbers are taken directly from a literature or database source and the corresponding reference is provided. The numerical values, presented in this paper, provide ranges of values, obtained in specific experiments for specific organisms. However, the presented numbers can be useful for understanding the principles of structure and function of photosynthetic machinery and for guidance of future research.

  3. Mining Waste Classification and Quantity of Non-Metal Minesin Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Burger

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mining is an important human activity that creates wealth and supplies materials for maintaining standard of living and further human development. However, mining has also negative impacts on the environment and society. One of them is the production of mining waste throughout the entire mining cycle, in particular in the mine development and operation /production stage.Due to the EU Directive 2006/21/EC on the management of waste from the extractive industries and its implementation in Member state, estimation on quality and quantity of mining waste from active non-metal mines in Slovenia was carried out. In the selected mines mining and processing was closely examined. With material flow analysis quantity and characteristics of mining waste were defined for several mines of different commodities.Data on mining waste were afterwards generalized in order to get an overall country evaluation on mining waste “production” of non-metal mines.Mining waste as a result of mining and beneficiation processes in non-metal mines of Slovenia is either inert or non-hazardous. Most of the mining waste is used for mine reclamation running simultaneously with the production phase. The largest amounts of mining waste per unit produced are created in dimension stone industry. Since the dimensionstone production is small, the waste amount is negligible. Large quantities of mining waste are produced in crushed stone and, sand and gravel operations, because aggregate production is pretty large with regard to other non-metals production in Slovenia. We can therefore conclude that large quantities of mining waste from non-metal mines, which are mostly used in reclamation and for side products, do not represent danger to the environment.

  4. Quantities of natural gas transmitted in January-December 2012. Quantities of natural gas transported in January-December 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents the monthly key figures of GRTgaz activity in 2012: Total quantities transmitted by GRTgaz (Inputs to the GRTgaz network/Outputs from the GRTgaz network); Maximum and minimum daily flow (Daily quantities transported, Daily consumption, Daily inputs excluding storage); Quantities exchanged on the wholesale market; Consumption on the GRTgaz Network (gross monthly consumption and Average monthly temperatures)

  5. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk), including nonfat... market; (2) The quantity of milk diverted by a handler described in § 1000.9(c) may not exceed 90 percent... a milk classification and pricing program imposed under the authority of a State government...

  6. Preliminary evaluation of fuel oil produced from pyrolysis of low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    The wax content decreases as temperature increases .The highest quantity ... polyethylene are generated . The producers of ... increase in the volume of waste generated daily by its usage in .... aviation industry and other domestic fuel users.

  7. Produced water treatment for beneficial use : emulsified oil removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waisi, Basma

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel carbon material, high accessible surface area, interconnected porosity, and stable nanofiber nonwoven media for emulsified oil droplets separation from oily wastewater, in particular for oilfields produced water treatment, is discussed in this thesis. Firstly, the quantity

  8. Teacher quality and quantity as correlates of secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the twin variables of quality and quantity of teachers as correlates of secondary school academic performance in Ogun State of Nigeria between 1997/98 and 2000/2001 academic sessions. The study was conducted ex-post facto under a descriptive survey research design using the proportional to ...

  9. 16 CFR 1.23 - Quantity limit rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quantity limit rules. 1.23 Section 1.23 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL... Robinson-Patman Act. These rules have the force and effect of law. [32 FR 8444, June 13, 1967. Redesignated...

  10. Food quantity affects the sensitivity of Daphnia to road salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Arran H; Yan, Norman D

    2015-04-07

    Road deicing operations have raised chloride (Cl) levels in many temperate lakes in Europe and North America. These lakes vary widely in trophic status, but to date, no one has quantified the interaction between food quantity and road salt toxicity. We examined the effects of food quantity (particulate algal C concentration (C)) on the chronic toxicity of Cl to Daphnia in soft-water bioassays. There was a strong positive linear relationship (r(2) = 0.92 for NaCl and r(2) = 0.96 for CaCl2) between food quantity and Cl LC50. As food quantity increased from 0.2 to 1.0 mg C/L (levels characteristic of oligotrophic to eutrophic lakes, respectively), the chronic Cl LC50 increased from 55.7 to 284.8 mg Cl/L. Salt type (NaCl or CaCl2) did not affect the Cl LC50, Daphnia life history parameters, or the intrinsic rate of population increase (r). The life history parameter most sensitive to Cl was neonate production. Cl did not inhibit egg production, nor was the maternal lipid investment in eggs changed, but egg viability and the subsequent release of live neonates decreased as Cl levels increased and food decreased. Our results suggest the trophic status of lakes should be considered when assessing ecological threat from Cl.

  11. Quantity, Quality, and Satisfaction with Mentoring: What Matters Most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohong; Payne, Stephanie C.

    2014-01-01

    According to Kram's mentor role theory, satisfaction with mentoring and mentorship quality are key indicators of effective and successful mentoring. We contribute to mentoring research by demonstrating the relative importance of mentorship quantity, mentorship quality, and satisfaction with mentoring to the prediction of job satisfaction,…

  12. 19 CFR 351.409 - Differences in quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.409... comparing export price or constructed export price with normal value, the Secretary will make a reasonable... section 773(a)(6)(C)(i) of the Act.) (b) Sales with quantity discounts in calculating normal value. The...

  13. Color Coding of Circuit Quantities in Introductory Circuit Analysis Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisslein, Jana; Johnson, Amy M.; Reisslein, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Learning the analysis of electrical circuits represented by circuit diagrams is often challenging for novice students. An open research question in electrical circuit analysis instruction is whether color coding of the mathematical symbols (variables) that denote electrical quantities can improve circuit analysis learning. The present study…

  14. Thermodynamic quantities for the Klein–Gordon equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study some thermodynamic quantities for the Klein–Gordon equation with a linear plus inverselinear, scalar potential. We obtain the energy eigenvalues with the help of the quantization rule from the biconfluent Heun's equation.We use a method based on the Euler–MacLaurin formula to analytically compute thethermal ...

  15. Thermodynamic quantities for the Klein–Gordon equation with a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-02-01

    Feb 1, 2017 ... Abstract. We study some thermodynamic quantities for the Klein–Gordon equation with a linear plus inverse- linear, scalar potential. We obtain the energy eigenvalues with the help of the quantization rule from the biconfluent Heun's equation. We use a method based on the Euler–MacLaurin formula to ...

  16. Conserved quantities for stationary Einstein-Maxwell space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, F.P.; Witten, L.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that every stationary Einstein-Maxwell space-time has eight divergence-free vector fields and these are isolated in general form. The vector fields and associated conserved quantities are calculated for several families of space-times. (Auth.)

  17. Photographs in Dutch History Textbooks: Quantity, type and educational use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kleppe (Martijn)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis article demonstrates a media scientific approach by studying the use of photographs in Dutch History textbooks for High School pupils in the period 1970 – 2000. The quantity of photos has been determined as well as the types of pictures and its use as educational tool. Results show

  18. Estimating waste disposal quantities from raw waste samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negin, C.A.; Urland, C.S.; Hitz, C.G.; GPU Nuclear Corp., Middletown, PA)

    1985-01-01

    Estimating the disposal quantity of waste resulting from stabilization of radioactive sludge is complex because of the many factors relating to sample analysis results, radioactive decay, allowable disposal concentrations, and options for disposal containers. To facilitate this estimation, a microcomputer spread sheet template was created. The spread sheet has saved considerable engineering hours. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  19. Do Speakers and Listeners Observe the Gricean Maxim of Quantity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Bailey, Karl G. D.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2006-01-01

    The Gricean Maxim of Quantity is believed to govern linguistic performance. Speakers are assumed to provide as much information as required for referent identification and no more, and listeners are believed to expect unambiguous but concise descriptions. In three experiments we examined the extent to which naive participants are sensitive to the…

  20. Whither the Nigerian Quantity Surveyors in the Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paucity of information on the computing status of the quantity surveyors in Nigeria have been scanty and without empirical substantiation. The basic platform for entry to the information technology gateway is the acquisition, adoption and utilization of the computer. Baseline information is therefore indispensable for the ...

  1. Water quantity and quality at the urban-rural interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; B. Graeme Lockaby

    2012-01-01

    Population growth and urban development dramatically alter natural watershed ecosystem structure and functions and stress water resources. We review studies on the impacts of urbanization on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes underlying stream water quantity and water quality issues, as well as water supply challenges in an urban environment. We conclude that...

  2. Hazardous Waste Management for the Small Quantity Generator. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructional package for teaching about the regulations imposed on small quantity generators by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act is organized around ll program objectives: students will be able to (l) determine a hazardous waste from lists or by identifying characteristics; (2) identify…

  3. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, Neni

    2010-01-01

    Few researches have been concerned about relation between children's spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was…

  4. 7 CFR 1427.170 - Quantity for loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the preservation or safety of the loan collateral. Loans may be made on a lower percentage basis... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quantity for loan. 1427.170 Section 1427.170... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.170...

  5. Quantity and quality of written feedback, action plans, and student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) assessment forms that have been modified with the addition of specific spaces on separate sheets are expected to improve the quantity and quality of written feedback and the action plan for further learning which is agreed upon, and to encourage written reflection.

  6. Is the dose equivalent index a quantity to be measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    The following modifying factors are briefly considered in relation to the ambiguities and limitations of the Dose Equivalent Index: 1) Variations with time or of the movement of the exposed person 2) Irradiation geometry 3) Effect of radiation energy 4) Instrument performance and calibration, and other operational quantities. (U.K.)

  7. Threshold quantities for infectious diseases in periodic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Roberts, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    In this short note we give threshold quantities that determine the stability of the infection-free steady state for periodic deterministic systems that describe the spread of infectious diseases in populations whose individuals can be divided into a finite number of distinct groups. We concentrate

  8. An Adaptive Information Quantity-Based Broadcast Protocol for Safety Services in VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle-to-vehicle communication plays a significantly important role in implementing safe and efficient road traffic. When disseminating safety messages in the network, the information quantity on safety packets changes over time and space. However, most of existing protocols view each packet the same to disseminate, preventing vehicles from collecting more recent and precise safety information. Hence, an information quantity-based broadcast protocol is proposed in this paper to ensure the efficiency of safety messages dissemination. In particular, we propose the concept of emergency-degree to evaluate packets’ information quantity. Then we present EDCast, an emergency-degree-based broadcast protocol. EDCast differentiates each packet’s priority for accessing the channel based on its emergency-degree so as to provide vehicles with more safety information timely and accurately. In addition, an adaptive scheme is presented to ensure fast dissemination of messages in different network condition. We compare the performance of EDCast with those of three other representative protocols in a typical highway scenario. Simulation results indicate that EDCast achieves higher broadcast efficiency and less redundancy with less delivery delay. What we found demonstrates that it is feasible and necessary for incorporating information quantity of messages in designing an efficient safety message broadcast protocol.

  9. Comparative Assessment of Physical and Social Determinants of Water Quantity and Water Quality Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    Concerns over water resources have evolved over time, from physical availability to economic access and recently, to a more comprehensive study of "water security," which is inherently interdisciplinary because a secure water system is influenced by and affects both physical and social components. The concept of water security carries connotations of both an adequate supply of water as well as water that meets certain quality standards. Although the term "water security" has many interpretations in the literature, the research field has not yet developed a synthetic analysis of water security as both a quantity (availability) and quality (contamination) issue. Using qualitative comparative and multi-regression analyses, we evaluate the primary physical and social factors influencing U.S. states' water security from a quantity perspective and from a quality perspective. Water system characteristics are collated from academic and government sources and include access/use, governance, and sociodemographic, and ecosystem metrics. Our analysis indicates differences in variables driving availability and contamination concerns; for example, climate is a more significant determinant in water quantity-based security analyses than in water quality-based security analyses. We will also discuss coevolution of system traits and the merits of constructing a robust water security index based on the relative importance of metrics from our analyses. These insights will improve understanding of the complex interactions between quantity and quality aspects and thus, overall security of water systems.

  10. Large quantity production of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes by mechano-thermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Fitzgerald, J.D.; Chadderton, L.; Williams, J.S.; Campbell, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nanotube materials including carbon and boron nitride have excellent properties compared with bulk materials. The seamless graphene cylinders with a high length to diameter ratio make them as superstrong fibers. A high amount of hydrogen can be stored into nanotubes as future clean fuel source. Theses applications require large quantity of nanotubes materials. However, nanotube production in large quantity, fully controlled quality and low costs remains challenges for most popular synthesis methods such as arc discharge, laser heating and catalytic chemical decomposition. Discovery of new synthesis methods is still crucial for future industrial application. The new low-temperature mechano-thermal process discovered by the current author provides an opportunity to develop a commercial method for bulk production. This mechano-thermal process consists of a mechanical ball milling and a thermal annealing processes. Using this method, both carbon and boron nitride nanotubes were produced. I will present the mechano-thermal method as the new bulk production technique in the conference. The lecture will summarise main results obtained. In the case of carbon nanotubes, different nanosized structures including multi-walled nanotubes, nanocells, and nanoparticles have been produced in a graphite sample using a mechano-thermal process, consisting of I mechanical milling at room temperature for up to 150 hours and subsequent thermal annealing at 1400 deg C. Metal particles have played an important catalytic effect on the formation of different tubular structures. While defect structure of the milled graphite appears to be responsible for the formation of small tubes. It is found that the mechanical treatment of graphite powder produces a disordered and microporous structure, which provides nucleation sites for nanotubes as well as free carbon atoms. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes appear to grow via growth of the (002) layers during thermal annealing. In the case of BN

  11. Multi products single machine economic production quantity model with multiple batch size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Allah Taleizadeh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multi products single machine economic order quantity model with discrete delivery is developed. A unique cycle length is considered for all produced items with an assumption that all products are manufactured on a single machine with a limited capacity. The proposed model considers different items such as production, setup, holding, and transportation costs. The resulted model is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming model. Harmony search algorithm, extended cutting plane and particle swarm optimization methods are used to solve the proposed model. Two numerical examples are used to analyze and to evaluate the performance of the proposed model.

  12. Method for estimating effects of unknown correlations in spectral irradiance data on uncertainties of spectrally integrated colorimetric quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärhä, Petri; Vaskuri, Anna; Mäntynen, Henrik; Mikkonen, Nikke; Ikonen, Erkki

    2017-08-01

    Spectral irradiance data are often used to calculate colorimetric properties, such as color coordinates and color temperatures of light sources by integration. The spectral data may contain unknown correlations that should be accounted for in the uncertainty estimation. We propose a new method for estimating uncertainties in such cases. The method goes through all possible scenarios of deviations using Monte Carlo analysis. Varying spectral error functions are produced by combining spectral base functions, and the distorted spectra are used to calculate the colorimetric quantities. Standard deviations of the colorimetric quantities at different scenarios give uncertainties assuming no correlations, uncertainties assuming full correlation, and uncertainties for an unfavorable case of unknown correlations, which turn out to be a significant source of uncertainty. With 1% standard uncertainty in spectral irradiance, the expanded uncertainty of the correlated color temperature of a source corresponding to the CIE Standard Illuminant A may reach as high as 37.2 K in unfavorable conditions, when calculations assuming full correlation give zero uncertainty, and calculations assuming no correlations yield the expanded uncertainties of 5.6 K and 12.1 K, with wavelength steps of 1 nm and 5 nm used in spectral integrations, respectively. We also show that there is an absolute limit of 60.2 K in the error of the correlated color temperature for Standard Illuminant A when assuming 1% standard uncertainty in the spectral irradiance. A comparison of our uncorrelated uncertainties with those obtained using analytical methods by other research groups shows good agreement. We re-estimated the uncertainties for the colorimetric properties of our 1 kW photometric standard lamps using the new method. The revised uncertainty of color temperature is a factor of 2.5 higher than the uncertainty assuming no correlations.

  13. Role of Leadership in Transforming the Profession of Quantity Surveying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Ofori

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is facing a period of change. The roles ofthe professions involved in the industry in general, and of quantitysurveyors in particular, are also changing. There are opportunitiesfor surveyors to seize the initiative to broaden their involvement inprojects, and attain strategic positions within the industry. However,they will have to improve upon their skill sets and their knowledgebases. Senior quantity surveyors interviewed in Singapore sharedtheir views on the challenges facing the construction industry,and their profession. They suggested that the quantity surveyingprofession would only be able to address the pressing issues itfaces if it pays more attention to innovation and the development ofits people. It should be able to attract and retain talent. Knowledgemanagement will be of critical importance. This will be enabled andfacilitated by knowledge leadership.

  14. On the operational quantity Hp(3) for eye lens dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R

    2012-01-01

    In the past the operational quantity H p (3) has been defined for calibration purposes in a slab phantom. Recently, an additional phantom in the form of a cylinder was suggested for eye lens dosimetry as a cylinder much better approximates the shape of a head than a slab. Therefore, this work investigates whether the quantity H p (3), when defined in the respective calibration phantom, adequately estimates the eye lens dose (or is at least conservative) depending on the phantom: it turns out that in most cases both calibration phantoms are similarly well suited. Finally, the definition of the eye lens dose is discussed together with possible consequences on the definition of H p (3): the consideration of only the radiation sensitive volume of the lens causes H p (3) not to be conservative in beta radiation fields. (paper)

  15. Dimensions of Organisational Culture in Quantity Surveying Firms in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle Olubunmi Olanipekun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The functionalist paradigm of organisational culture (OC views culture as a variable subject to conscious manipulation and control in order to solve organisational challenges. Therefore, this paper provides information on how OC is a solution to the challenges in Quantity Surveying firms (QSFs.  This was achieved by eliciting the dimensions of OC in forty two QSFs in Lagos, Nigeria, which are the business, people and external environment dimensions. The paper concludes that OC is a relevant solution to the identity and management related challenges in QSFs. Specifically, the paper informs on the implications of business and people dimensions of OC as a solution to the identity challenges, as well as on the implication of the external environment dimension of OC to the management challenges. Based on the findings, practical implications and recommendations were directed at the management and employees QSs in QSFs and Quantity Surveying researchers.

  16. Conserved quantities for generalized KdV equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calogero, F.; Rome Univ.; Degasperis, A.; Rome Univ.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that the nonlinear evolution equation usub(t) = α(t)usub(xxx) - 6ν(t) usub(x)u, u is identical to u(x,t), possesses three (and, in some cases, four) conserved quantities, that are explicitly displayed. These results are of course relevant only to the cases in which this evolution equation is not known to possess an infinite number of conserved quantities. Purpose and scope of this paper is to report three or four simple conservation laws possessed by the evolution equation usub(t) = α(t)usub(xxx) - 6ν(t)usub(x)u, u is identical to u(x,t). (author)

  17. Significant accomplishments, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    BTS data is vital to improve transportation decision making, as well as evaluations of performance and what works in the nations transportation systems. As BTS continues its course of producing relevant, accurate, and timely transportation d...

  18. Securing water quality and quantity: Research and development perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pienaar, H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available : ? economic growth & development ? human & environmental needs ? meeting international obligations ? energy needs (strategic water users) ? ensuring availability and allocation (all other users) ? CSIR 2012 Slide 3 Background ? SA 30th driest country... and quantity: Research and development perspective 4th Biennial Conference Harrison Pienaar 10 October 2012 Presentation outline ? Introduction and background to water in South Africa ? Transboundary water resource aspects ? Water related challenges...

  19. Surface tension and related thermodynamic quantities of aqueous electrolyte solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Matubayasi, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Surface tension provides a thermodynamic avenue for analyzing systems in equilibrium and formulating phenomenological explanations for the behavior of constituent molecules in the surface region. While there are extensive experimental observations and established ideas regarding desorption of ions from the surfaces of aqueous salt solutions, a more successful discussion of the theory has recently emerged, which allows the quantitative calculation of the distribution of ions in the surface region. Surface Tension and Related Thermodynamic Quantities of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions provides a d

  20. Synthesis of bulk quantity BN nanotubes with uniform morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, G.; Zhang, T.; Huang, X.X.; Zhong, B.; Zhang, X.D.; Yu, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Bulk quantity hexagonal BN nanotubes (h-BNNTs) with uniform morphology were synthesized via an improved ball-milling and annealing method. The sample was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM. The results show that the fabricated BNNTs have a uniform diameter ranging from 80 to 100 nm and a length of about 50-60 μm.

  1. Monitoring the eye lens: which dose quantity is adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R; Dietze, G

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. The question of which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens arises from this situation. While in many countries dosemeters calibrated in terms of the dose equivalent quantity H p (0.07) have been seen as being adequate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens, this might be questionable in the case of reduced dose limits and, thus, it may become necessary to use the dose equivalent quantity H p (3) for this purpose. To discuss this question, the dose conversion coefficients for the equivalent dose of the eye lens (in the following eye lens dose) were determined for realistic photon and beta radiation fields and compared with the values of the corresponding conversion coefficients for the different operational quantities. The values obtained lead to the following conclusions: in radiation fields where most of the dose comes from photons, especially x-rays, it is appropriate to use dosemeters calibrated in terms of H p (0.07) on a slab phantom, while in other radiation fields (dominated by beta radiation or unknown contributions of photon and beta radiation) dosemeters calibrated in terms of H p (3) on a slab phantom should be used. As an alternative, dosemeters calibrated in terms of H p (0.07) on a slab phantom could also be used; however, in radiation fields containing beta radiation with the end point energy near 1 MeV, an overestimation of the eye lens dose by up to a factor of 550 is possible.

  2. Mass spectrometry of submicrogram quantities of lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Noemia M.P. de; Kakazu, M.H.; Iyer, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    Isotope analyses of submicrogram quantities of lead and cadmium are carried out by single filament solid source mass spectrometry. Thermionic emission of Pb and Cd is enhanced using silica gel as an emitter. Details of the chemical and mass spectrometric techniques are described. The low blank levels are maintained by extra purification of the reagents. The applications of isotope ratios of Pb and Cd in environmental sciences and geochemistry are discussed. (Author) [pt

  3. Effects of nonindigenous invasive species on water quality and quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. McCormick; Glen C. Contreras; Sherri L. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Physical and biological disruptions of aquatic systems caused by invasive species alter water quantity and water quality. Recent evidence suggests that water is a vector for the spread of Sudden Oak Death disease and Port-Orfordcedar root disease. Since the 1990s, the public has become increasingly aware of the presence of invasive species in the Nation’s waters. Media...

  4. A Cross-Sectional Snapshot of Sleep Quality and Quantity Among US Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Erin E; Berry, Rani; Winseman, Jeffrey S; Mason, Hyacinth Rc

    2017-10-01

    Fatigue is a well-known risk factor for mood disturbances, decreased cognitive acuity, and impaired judgment. Sleep research in medical students typically focuses on sleep quantity, but less is known about the quality of a student's sleep. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the subjective sleep quality and quantity of US medical students and to identify differences in sleep characteristics across demographic groups. Medical students (N = 860) representing 49 medical colleges completed the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale and a demographic questionnaire between December 2015 and March 2016. Although participants reported obtaining nearly 7 h of sleep per night, the majority of students reported indicators of poor sleep quality. First and third year students reported higher rates of sleep-related problems compared to second and fourth year students. First and second year students reported the highest levels of sleep somnolence. Ethnic minority students reported significantly lower levels of sleep adequacy and sleep quantity and significantly higher levels of sleep somnolence than Caucasian students. Impaired sleep quality may contribute to fatigue in medical students even when sleep quantity seems adequate. Students appear to begin medical school with disrupted sleep patterns that may not improve until their final year of study. Education regarding proper sleep habits and the significant role of sleep quality in sustaining healthy sleep is especially important in the early stages of medical education. Minority, first year, and third year students may benefit the most from learning new behaviors that promote sufficient sleep quality during periods of sustained stress.

  5. Multidemand Multisource Order Quantity Allocation with Multiple Transportation Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Gang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a multidemand multisource order quantity allocation problem with multiple transportation alternatives. To solve this problem, a bilevel multiobjective programming model under a mixed uncertain environment is proposed. Two levels of decision makers are considered in the model. On the upper level, the purchaser aims to allocate order quantity to multiple suppliers for each demand node with the consideration of three objectives: total purchase cost minimization, total delay risk minimization, and total defect risk minimization. On the lower level, each supplier attempts to optimize the transportation alternatives with total transportation and penalty costs minimization as the objective. In contrast to prior studies, considering the information asymmetry in the bilevel decision, random and fuzzy random variables are used to model uncertain parameters of the construction company and the suppliers. To solve the bilevel model, a solution method based on Kuhn-Tucker conditions, sectional genetic algorithm, and fuzzy random simulation is proposed. Finally, the applicability of the proposed model and algorithm is evaluated through a practical case from a large scale construction project. The results show that the proposed model and algorithm are efficient in dealing with practical order quantity allocation problems.

  6. Entropy and Its Correlations with Other Related Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to find more correlations between entropy and other related quantities, an analogical analysis is conducted between thermal science and other branches of physics. Potential energy in various forms is the product of a conserved extensive quantity (for example, mass or electric charge and an intensive quantity which is its potential (for example, gravitational potential or electrical voltage, while energy in specific form is a dissipative quantity during irreversible transfer process (for example mechanical or electrical energy will be dissipated as thermal energy. However, it has been shown that heat or thermal energy, like mass or electric charge, is conserved during heat transfer processes. When a heat transfer process is for object heating or cooling, the potential of internal energy U is the temperature T and its potential “energy” is UT/2 (called entransy and it is the simplified expression of thermomass potential energy; when a heat transfer process is for heat-work conversion, the potential of internal energy U is (1 − T0/T, and the available potential energy of a system in reversible heat interaction with the environment is U − U0 − T0(S − S0, then T0/T and T0(S − S0 are the unavailable potential and the unavailable potential energy of a system respectively. Hence, entropy is related to the unavailable potential energy per unit environmental temperature for heat-work conversion during reversible heat interaction between the system and its environment. Entropy transfer, like other forms of potential energy transfer, is the product of the heat and its potential, the reciprocal of temperature, although it is in form of the quotient of the heat and the temperature. Thus, the physical essence of entropy transfer is the unavailable potential energy transfer per unit environmental temperature. Entropy is a non-conserved, extensive, state quantity of a system, and entropy generation in an irreversible heat transfer process

  7. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Gerald P.

    2012-11-13

    A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

  8. Quantities of arsenic-treated wood in demolition debris generated by Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Brajesh; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Townsendt, Timothy G

    2007-03-01

    The disaster debris from Hurricane Katrina is one of the largest in terms of volume and economic loss in American history. One of the major components of the demolition debris is wood waste of which a significant proportion is treated with preservatives, including preservatives containing arsenic. As a result of the large scale destruction of treated wood structures such as electrical poles, fences, decks, and homes a considerable amount of treated wood and consequently arsenic will be disposed as disaster debris. In this study an effort was made to estimate the quantity of arsenic disposed through demolition debris generated in the Louisiana and Mississippi area through Hurricane Katrina. Of the 72 million cubic meters of disaster debris generated, roughly 12 million cubic meters were in the form of construction and demolition wood resulting in an estimated 1740 metric tons of arsenic disposed. Management of disaster debris should consider the relatively large quantities of arsenic associated with pressure-treated wood.

  9. Groundwater Quantity and Quality Issues in a Water-Rich Region: Examples from Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Luczaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The State of Wisconsin is located in an unusually water-rich portion of the world in the western part of the Great Lakes region of North America. This article presents an overview of the major groundwater quantity and quality concerns for this region in a geologic context. The water quantity concerns are most prominent in the central sand plain region and portions of a Paleozoic confined sandstone aquifer in eastern Wisconsin. Water quality concerns are more varied, with significant impacts from both naturally occurring inorganic contaminants and anthropogenic sources. Naturally occurring contaminants include radium, arsenic and associated heavy metals, fluoride, strontium, and others. Anthropogenic contaminants include nitrate, bacteria, viruses, as well as endocrine disrupting compounds. Groundwater quality in the region is highly dependent upon local geology and land use, but water bearing geologic units of all ages, Precambrian through Quaternary, are impacted by at least one kind of contaminant.

  10. Remarks and suggestions concerned with formulation of the definition of quantity ''committed dose'' and quantity ''radiation burden'' useful in estimates of population exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cwik, T.

    1990-01-01

    The paper contains remarks to the definitions of the quantity ''commited dose'' given in the publications of the ICRP. The suggestions are presented on the mode of formulating the definition of the quantity ''commited dose'' and the definition of the quantity denoted hitherto by the symbol H 50 . The other suggestions deal with introduction of the quantity ''radiation burden'', assigned for use in assessments of irradiation expressed ''per caput'' of population. 9 refs. (author)

  11. Methods for producing and using densified biomass products containing pretreated biomass fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E.; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2015-05-26

    A process is provided comprising subjecting a quantity of plant biomass fibers to a pretreatment to cause at least a portion of lignin contained within each fiber to move to an outer surface of said fiber, wherein a quantity of pretreated tacky plant biomass fibers is produced; and densifying the quantity of pretreated tacky plant biomass fibers to produce one or more densified biomass particulates, wherein said biomass fibers are densified without using added binder.

  12. The log-linear response function of the bounded number-line task is unrelated to the psychological representation of quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dale J; Quinlan, Philip T

    2018-02-01

    The bounded number-line task has been used extensively to assess the numerical competence of both children and adults. One consistent finding has been that young children display a logarithmic response function, whereas older children and adults display a more linear response function. Traditionally, these log-linear functions have been interpreted as providing a transparent window onto the nature of the participants' psychological representations of quantity (termed here a direct response strategy). Here we show that the direct response strategy produces the log-linear response function regardless of whether the psychological representation of quantity is compressive or expansive. Simply put, the log-linear response function results from task constraints rather than from the psychological representation of quantities. We also demonstrate that a proportion/subtraction response strategy produces response patterns that almost perfectly correlate with the psychological representation of quantity. We therefore urge researchers not to interpret the log-linear response pattern in terms of numerical representation.

  13. US producers in a competitive market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, M.

    1987-01-01

    The current (1986) situation in the world-wide uranium market is explained and the competitiveness of United States producers is considered in this context. Historical export contracts by US producers are examined to evaluate how sales quantities by region have changed. The influence of inflation and exchange rates on production costs are considered. The threat of US protectionism is discussed. Despite the contraction of the US uranium industry in recent years a number of US producers have remained competitive. Factors which could increase US competitiveness are listed. (U.K.)

  14. Dangerous quantities of radioactive material (D-values)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive material is widely used in industry, medicine, education and agriculture. In addition, it occurs naturally. The health risk posed by these materials vary widely depending on many factors, the most important of which are the amount of the material involved and its physical and chemical form. Therefore, there is a need to identify the quantity and type of radioactive material for which emergency preparedness and other arrangements (e.g. security) are warrant due to the health risk they pose. The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for Member States on that quantity of radioactive material that may be considered dangerous. A dangerous quantity is that, which if uncontrolled, could be involved in a reasonable scenario resulting in the death of an exposed individual or a permanent injury, which decreases that person's quality of life. This publication is published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series. It supports several publications including: the IAEA Safety Requirements 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2. IAEA, Vienna (2002). IAEA Safety Guide 'Categorization of Radioactive Sources', IAEA Safety Standards Series No RS-G-1.9, IAEA, Vienna (2005) and IAEA Safety Guide 'Arrangements for Preparedness for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency' IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-2.1, IAEA, Vienna (2006). The procedures and data in this publication have been prepared with due attention to accuracy. However, as part of the review process, they undergo ongoing quality assurance checks. Comments are welcome and, following a period that will allow for a more extensive review, the IAEA may revise this publication as part of the process of continuous improvement. The publication uses a number of exposure scenarios, risk models and dosimetric data, which could be used during the response to nuclear or radiological emergency or other purposes

  15. Solvation quantities from a COSMO-RS equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayiotou, C.; Tsivintzelis, I.; Aslanidou, D.; Hatzimanikatis, V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Extension of the successful COSMO-RS model to an equation-of-state model. • Two scaling constants, obtained from atom-specific contributions. • Overall estimation of the solvation quantities and contributions. - Abstract: This work focuses on the extension of the successful COSMO-RS model of mixtures into an equation-of-state model of fluids and its application for the estimation of solvation/hydration quantities of a variety of chemical substances. These quantities include free-energies, enthalpies and entropies of hydration as well as the separate contributions to each of them. Emphasis is given on the estimation of contributions from the conformational changes of solutes upon solvation and the associated restructuring of solvent in its immediate neighborhood. COSMO-RS is a quantum-mechanics based group/segment contribution model in which the Quasi-Chemical (QC) approach is used for the description of the non-random distribution of interacting segments in the system. Thus, the equation-of-state development is done through such a QC framework. The new model will not need any adjustable parameters for the strong specific interactions, such as hydrogen bonds, since they will be provided by the quantum-mechanics based cosmo-files – a key feature of COSMO-RS model. It will need, however, one volumetric and one energy parameter per fluid, which are scaling constants or molecular descriptors of the fluid and are obtained from rather easily available data such as densities, boiling points, vapor pressures, heats of vaporization or second virial coefficients. The performance and the potential of the new equation-of-state model to become a fully predictive model are critically discussed

  16. Radiation quantities, units and measurements. Final report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambersie, A.; Allisy, A.; Caswell, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    The determination of human exposure to radiation and radioactivity, whether arising from environmental exposures, medical practice or industrial activities, requires a fundamental set of quantities and units with which exposures can be specified and the means and ability to make measurements which yield results in terms of these quantities and units. Radiation protection then, as well as effective use of radiation in medical applications, requires the capability to accurately quantify the characteristics and extent of radiation exposure, so that appropriate and useful assessments of the potential health consequences and risks, whether for protection of the public and workers or for diagnosis and treatment of disease, can be formulated. The work carried out via this concerted action on ''Radiation quantities, units and measurements'' has addressed these needs. Measurement of radiation is a complex subject and is a science in itself. Yet many users of radiation who need to make radiation measurements cannot be expected to become experts in this particular field. They need authoritative guidance on how to deal with the measurement problems connected with their particular use of radiation. The work carried out pursuant to this concerted action has resulted in publications that meet this need. Important achievements include the publication of seven new ICRU reports, the completion of all but the printing of three other ICRU reports, completion of the drafting work on two other reports, the development of many others reports and the initiation of seven new activities that will result in ICRU reports representing important future contribution to the needs identified in this project. (orig.)

  17. Comparison of simulated and measured quantities of a duplex reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskela, M.; Kajava, M. [ABB Marine, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate the use of an analog simulator as a design tool when designing new power electric equipment. The purpose of simulation is to predict the functionality of electrical equipment to be constructed. Duplex reactor is an electromagnetic device designed to reduce voltage harmonics and short circuit currents in the ship electrical network. In this report a comparison between simulated and measured electrical quantities of a duplex reactor has been made. The purpose of the measurements was to show the correct functioning of the reactor. The simulation results and the measured waveforms corresponds well to each other. (orig.) 4 refs.

  18. Sustainable economic production quantity models for inventory systems with shortage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taleizadeh, Ata Allah; Soleymanfar, Vahid Reza; Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    optimal values of inventory system variables, we solve four independent profit maximization problems for four different situations. These proposed models include a basic model in which shortages are not allowed, and when shortages are allowed, the lost sale, full backordering and partial backordering...... (EPQ). The theoretical sustainable EOQ and EPQ models are basic models that ignore many real-life conditions such as the possibility of stock-out in inventory systems. In this paper, we develop four new sustainable economic production quantity models that consider different shortage situations. To find...

  19. Net present value analysis of the economic production quantity

    OpenAIRE

    Disney, Stephen Michael; Warburton, R. D. H.; Zhong, Q. C.

    2013-01-01

    Using Laplace transforms we extend the economic production quantity (EPQ) model by analysing cash flows from a net present value (NPV) viewpoint. We obtain an exact expression for the present value of the cash flows in the EPQ problem. From this, we are able to derive the optimal batch size. We obtain insights into the monotonicity and convexity of the present value of each of the cash flows, and show that there is a unique minimum in the present value of the sum of the cash flows in the exte...

  20. Ultracold atoms for precision measurement of fundamental physical quantities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Cooling and trapping of neutral atoms has been one of the most active fields of research in physics in recent years. Several methods were demonstrated to reach temperatures as low as a few nanokelvin allowing, for example, the investigation of quantum degenerate gases. The ability to control the quantum degrees of freedom of atoms opens the way to applications for precision measurement of fundamental physical quantities. Experiments in progress, planned or being considered using new quantum devices based on ultracold atoms, namely atom interferometers and atomic clocks, will be discussed.

  1. Physical quantities related to measurement campaigns for cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegel, W.

    1975-12-01

    The nomenclature in reports on the measurement campaigns for cooling towers will be adapted as far as possible to the already existing VDI report on this subject. On the other hand, the appropriate standards will also be accounted for. In order to facilitate a decision in individual cases in a first table the meteorologically or generally interesting quantities of the VDI reports are compared with the German, international, and WMO standards and - if necessary - also commented. A second table contains the air humidity parameters standardized by WMO including brief definitions. (orig/HP) [de

  2. MICROMICETES QUANTITY AND BIOMASS IN TECHNOGENIC AND NATURAL SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Korinovskaya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that in edaphotopes around of freight checkpoint of CJSC «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod», ore-enrichment factory and fresh-inwashed pool of tailings dam of PJSC «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» there is an increase of heavy metals mobile forms (which are the most dangerous for microorganisms, plants, animals and human: for iron in 310; for zinc - in 4,3-6,5; for lead - in 3.2-5.7; for cadmium - in 5,6-9,8; for copper – 6,8-66,5 and for nickel - in 9 times as compared to zonal soil. Whereas in soils of CJSC «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» sanitary protection zone number of copper, nickel, lead, cadmium and zinc mobile forms exceeded the control values in 2,4-6,6 times. For the first time the features of soil microscopic fungi seasonal dynamics of quantity in industrial disturbed soils of Kryvorizhzhya compared to zonal soil (chernozem usual were registered. Changes in fungal mycelium length and biomass, its spore’s amount and biomass in edaphotopes of ore-enrichment and chemical enterprises and of common chernozem are also presented. It is shown that in edaphotopes of heavy contamination areas of «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» and of «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» in spring, summer, and autumn there was decrease of microscopic fungi quantity in 4-10 times, moreover in tehnozems of «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» fresh-inwashed pool of tailings dam their amount reduces in more than 100 times, compared with common chernozem. In low contamination area of «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» their quantity decreases in 2 times. Also in heavy contamination areas of chemical and ore-enrichment enterprises there is strong decrease in the length of fungal mycelium in 2.7-4.2 times, its biomass in 2,6-4,5 times, the spores amount - in 4,5-7,7 times and their biomass - in 10,5-21 times compared to the natural soil, which could be explained by high contents of toxicants. While in the sanitary protection zone of the

  3. Documentation and analysis for packaging limited quantity ice chests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Documentation and Analysis for Packaging (DAP) is to document that ice chests meet the intent of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Code of Federal Regulations as strong, tight containers for the packaging of limited quantities for transport. This DAP also outlines the packaging method used to protect the sample bottles from breakage. Because the ice chests meet the DOT requirements, they can be used to ship LTD QTY on the Hanford Site

  4. Investigation on Capability of Reaming Process using Minimal Quantity Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Tosello, Guido; Piska, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    An investigation on reaming using minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) was carried out with the scope of documenting process capability using a metrological approach. Reaming tests were carried out on austenitic stainless steel, using HSS reamers with different cutting data and lubrication conditions...... depth of cut was employed. The suitability of MQL for reaming was proven under the investigated process conditions, concerning both the quality of the machined holes, in terms of geometrical characteristics and surface finishing, and the process quality, with respect to reaming torque and thrust, along...

  5. A statistical law in the perception of risks and physical quantities in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests that a universal psychophysical law influences the perception of risks and physical quantities in traffic. This law states that there will be a tendency to overestimate low probabilities or small quantities, while high probabilities or large quantities may be underestimated....... Studies of the perception of risk and physical quantities in traffic have found a highly consistent pattern....

  6. Water quantity and quality optimization modeling of dams operation based on SWAT in Wenyu River Catchment, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Xia, Jun; Chen, Junfeng; Zhang, Minghua

    2011-02-01

    Water quantity and quality joint operation is a new mode in the present dams' operation research. It has become a hot topic in governmental efforts toward integrated basin improvement. This paper coupled a water quantity and quality joint operation model (QCmode) and genetic algorithm with Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Together, these tools were used to explore a reasonable operation of dams and floodgates at the basin scale. Wenyu River Catchment, a key area in Beijing, was selected as the case study. Results showed that the coupled water quantity and quality model of Wenyu River Catchment more realistically simulates the process of water quantity and quality control by dams and floodgates. This integrated model provides the foundation for research of water quantity and quality optimization on dam operation in Wenyu River Catchment. The results of this modeling also suggest that current water quality of Wenyu River will improve following the implementation of the optimized operation of the main dams and floodgates. By pollution control and water quantity and quality joint operation of dams and floodgates, water quality of Wenyu river will change significantly, and the available water resources will increase by 134%, 32%, 17%, and 82% at the downstream sites of Sha River Reservoir, Lutong Floodgate, Xinpu Floodgate, and Weigou Floodgate, respectively. The water quantity and quality joint operation of dams will play an active role in improving water quality and water use efficiency in Wenyu River Basin. The research will provide the technical support for water pollution control and ecological restoration in Wenyu River Catchment and could be applied to other basins with large number of dams. Its application to the Wenyu River Catchment has a great significance for the sustainable economic development of Beijing City.

  7. Loneliness in Early Adolescence: Friendship Quantity, Friendship Quality, and Dyadic Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodder, Gerine M A; Scholte, Ron H J; Goossens, Luc; Verhagen, Maaike

    2017-01-01

    Friendship quantity and quality are related to adolescent loneliness, but the exact link between these constructs is not well understood. The present study aimed to examine whether adolescents' perception of friendship quantity and quality, and the perceptions of their peers, were related to loneliness. We examined the relation between loneliness and the number of unilateral and reciprocal friendships and compared the views of best friendship quality. Overall, 1,172 Dutch adolescents (49.1% male, M age = 12.81, SD = .43) nominated their friends and rated their friendship quality. Friendship quantity was measured using sociometrics to distinguish reciprocated and unilateral (i.e., one-sided) friendships. The analyses indicated that loneliness was related to fewer reciprocal and unilateral-received friendships (i.e., the adolescent received a friendship nomination but did not reciprocate that nomination) and a lower quality of best friendship. Actor-partner interdependence analyses revealed that adolescents' loneliness was related to a less positive evaluation of their friendship, as reported by adolescents themselves (i.e., a significant actor effect) but not by their friends (i.e., nonsignificant partner effect). These findings (a) indicate that loneliness is negatively related to the number of friends adolescents have, as perceived by themselves and their peers and (b) suggest that, once a friendship is established, lonely adolescents may interpret the friendship quality less positively compared to their friends. Implications of these findings for our current understanding of adolescent loneliness are discussed, and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  8. Quantity and quality benefits of in-service invasive cleaning of trunk mains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Iftekhar; Husband, Stewart; Drake, Nick; Mckenzie, Kevan; Boxall, Joby

    2017-07-01

    Trunk mains are high risk critical infrastructure where poor performance can impact on large numbers of customers. Both quantity (e.g. hydraulic capacity) and quality (e.g. discolouration) of trunk main performance are affected by asset deterioration in the form of particle accumulation at the pipe wall. Trunk main cleaning techniques are therefore desirable to remove such material. However, little is quantified regarding the efficacy of different maintenance interventions or longer-term changes following such cleaning. This paper presents an assessment of quantity and quality performance of a trunk main system pre, post and for 12 months following cleaning using pigging with ice slurry. Hydraulic calibration showed a 7 times roughness height reduction after ice slurry pigging, evidencing substantially improved hydraulic capacity and reduced headloss. Turbidity response due to carefully imposed shear stress increase remained significant after the cleaning intervention, showing that relatively loose material had not been fully removed from the pipe wall. Overall the results demonstrate that cleaning by pigging with ice slurry can be beneficial for quantity performance, but care and further assessment may be necessary to realise the full quality benefits.

  9. Quantity and quality benefits of in-service invasive cleaning of trunk mains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sunny

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Trunk mains are high risk critical infrastructure where poor performance can impact on large numbers of customers. Both quantity (e.g. hydraulic capacity and quality (e.g. discolouration of trunk main performance are affected by asset deterioration in the form of particle accumulation at the pipe wall. Trunk main cleaning techniques are therefore desirable to remove such material. However, little is quantified regarding the efficacy of different maintenance interventions or longer-term changes following such cleaning. This paper presents an assessment of quantity and quality performance of a trunk main system pre, post and for 12 months following cleaning using pigging with ice slurry. Hydraulic calibration showed a 7 times roughness height reduction after ice slurry pigging, evidencing substantially improved hydraulic capacity and reduced headloss. Turbidity response due to carefully imposed shear stress increase remained significant after the cleaning intervention, showing that relatively loose material had not been fully removed from the pipe wall. Overall the results demonstrate that cleaning by pigging with ice slurry can be beneficial for quantity performance, but care and further assessment may be necessary to realise the full quality benefits.

  10. The economics of water reuse and implications for joint water quality-quantity management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Traditionally, economists have treated the management of water quality and water quantity as separate problems. However, there are some water management issues for which economic analysis requires the simultaneous consideration of water quality and quantity policies and outcomes. Water reuse, which has expanded significantly over the last several decades, is one of these issues. Analyzing the cost effectiveness and social welfare outcomes of adopting water reuse requires a joint water quality-quantity optimization framework because, at its most basic level, water reuse requires decision makers to consider (a) its potential for alleviating water scarcity, (b) the quality to which the water should be treated prior to reuse, and (c) the benefits of discharging less wastewater into the environment. In this project, we develop a theoretical model of water reuse management to illustrate how the availability of water reuse technologies and practices can lead to a departure from established rules in the water resource economics literature for the optimal allocation of freshwater and water pollution abatement. We also conduct an econometric analysis of a unique dataset of county-level water reuse from the state of Florida over the seventeen-year period between 1996 and 2012 in order to determine whether water quality or scarcity concerns drive greater adoption of water reuse practices.

  11. Discussion on concepts for radiological dosimetric quantities in the Japan Health Physics Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Oda, Keiji

    2007-01-01

    Many dosimetric quantities have been used for radiation protection purpose. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended protection quantities and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) has introduced operational quantities to provide a reasonable estimate of the protection quantities. Enthusiastic discussions are continuously made on the issues of the dosimetric quantities, such as basic biological data for the definition of these quantities and applicability of the quantities to actual radiation protection practice. At the moment, some changes are being proposed concerning dosimetric quantities in the draft recommendations of ICRP, opened for consultation in recent years. Thus, the Japan Health Physics Society (JHPS) established the Expert Committee on concepts of Dosimetric Quantities used in radiological protection (ECDQ) in April 2005 to reviewed and discuss issues in the dosimetric quantities. (author)

  12. Effects of Different Production Systems on Quality, Quantity of Milk and Postpartum Oestrus of Friesian Dairy Cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoka, A.I.; Muhuyi, B.W.; Mugo, B.; Ondabu, N.; Ondabu, F.; Inditie, W.D.; Ndagire, H.; Syomiti, M.

    2014-01-01

    Onset and establishment of lactation and estrus cycles are concomitant energy – competing processes.This is because metabolic events essential to milk secretion compete for available nutrients that support processes leading to the first postpartum estrus and subsequent fertility. Net energy deficits greater than 20 Mcal / day have been reported in high yielding dairy cows. The raw material from which milk constituent is derived and the energy for their synthesis in the mammary gland is supplied by the food intake. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the effect of production system on quality, quantity of milk, postpartum estrus and conception. Friesian cows that were seven months in – calf were enrolled for this study from three production systems: Zero grazing, roadside grazed Friesian milking dairy cows were enrolled for this study using random digits. Samples of the feeds were collected at the point of feeding and taken for analysis in a nutrition laboratory. Twenty milliliters of fresh milk was collected from each cow twice a day (Evening and Morning). Milk for progesterone was also collected and progesterone determined using radioimmunoassy to determine reproductive status postpartum. The samples were analyzed to determine milk component using ecomilk machine every morning. Production and reproduction detail of each cow was recorded. The data collected was subjected to GLM of SAS and the means were separated using studentised range test. Time of parturition , production system, age , season and sex of the calf affected the shape of the lactation curve. Cow that calved during drought took too long to cycle unlike the once that calved during the wet season for all the three production systems, the calves born during rainy season were more susceptible to diseases. There was significant variation (P<0.05) in milk production and Protein content within and across production systems. The zero grazed cows had produced most milk whereas the

  13. Peer Assessment for Construction Management and Quantity Surveying Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia McLaughlin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Students undertaking the Bachelor of ConstructionManagement degree course at RMIT University, Melbourne,qualify for registration with the Australian Institute ofQuantity Surveyors (AIQS and the Australian Institute ofBuilding (AIB upon graduation. Over the past decade thedegree course has been constantly upgraded and altered inline with recommendations from professional bodies such asthese and other industry partners. In 1994 the Departmentof Building and Construction Economics re-assesseda range of subjects including the first year technologysubjects. Out of the review a problem-based integratedlearning unit was developed and tested. This unit has nowbeen in place for ten years.Quantity surveying and construction management likemost other professions in the construction industryrequire teamwork and advanced consultation skills. Theseskills may be learnt through experience but there isconsiderable evidence that these skills can be taught in theundergraduate years. Therefore in line with team-basedapproaches used in industry and professional constructionsettings, this year a new assessment model - peerassessment - will be applied to the problem-based learningunit. This paper describes the procedures and processesused to introduce the change and examines the theoreticalbase upon which the model was developed.

  14. Determinants of procurement strategy for construction works: quantity surveyors’ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju AbdulLateef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of the ‘appropriate’ procurement strategy is a prerequisite to the success or failure of a construction project. This paper investigates the factors determining the selection of appropriate procurement strategy for construction works in Nigeria. Data for the study was collected through an online survey questionnaire. The survey administration involves only quantity surveyors. Quantity surveyors were targeted because they advise clients and other stakeholders on procurement and contractual issues on construction works. A total of 33 usable responses were received and analysed for this study. On the basis of the results, it is concluded that the selection of procurement strategies for construction depend on complex interrelated factors. The study could not detect a particular factor or few factors responsible for a procurement strategy selection. The findings of this study is useful because it argues that the construction sector needs to broaden its considerations on the procurement strategy’s determinants rather than focusing solely on the client’s type and nature of projects as is often cited. Future research could segment these factors in terms of class of construction works or increase the sample size, which might lead to different findings.

  15. The orientation distribution of tunneling-related quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, W. M.; Refaie, A. I.; Botros, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    In the nuclear tunneling processes involving deformed nuclei, most of the tunneling-related quantities depend on the relative orientations of the participating nuclei. In the presence of different multipole deformations, we study the variation of a few relevant quantities for the α-decay and the sub-barrier fusion processes, in an orientation degree of freedom. The knocking frequency and the penetration probability are evaluated within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. The interaction potential is calculated with Skyrme-type nucleon-nucleon interaction. We found that the width of the potential pocket, the Coulomb barrier radius, the penetration probability, the α-decay width, and the fusion cross-section follow consistently the orientation-angle variation of the radius of the deformed nucleus. The orientation distribution patterns of the pocket width, the barrier radius, the logarithms of the penetrability, the decay width, and the fusion cross-section are found to be highly analogous to pattern of the deformed-nucleus radius. The curve patterns of the orientation angle distributions of the internal pocket depth, the Coulomb barrier height and width, as well as the knocking frequency simulate inversely the variation of the deformed nucleus radius. The predicted orientation behaviors will be of a special interest in predicting the optimum orientations for the tunneling processes.

  16. Highway route controlled quantity shipment routing reports - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Welles, B.W.; Welch, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations require a postnotification report from the shipper for all shipments of radioactive materials categorized as a Highway Route Controlled Quantity. These postnotification reports, filed in compliance with 49 CFR 172.203(d), have been compiled by the DOT in a database known as the Radioactive Materials Routing Report (RAMRT) since 1982. The data were sorted by each of its elements to establish historical records and trends of Highway Route Controlled Quantity shipments from 1982 through 1987. Approximately 1520 records in the RAMRT database were compiled for this analysis. Approximately half of the shipments reported for the study period were from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, with the others being commercial movements. Two DOE installations, EG and G Idaho and Oak Ridge, accounted for nearly half of the DOE activities. Similarly, almost half of the commercial movements were reported by two vendors, Nuclear Assurance Corporation and Transnuclear, Incorporated. Spent fuel from power and research reactors accounted for approximately half of all shipments

  17. Improvement of job satisfaction and organisational commitment through work group identification: an examination of the quantity surveyors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Yee Betty Chiu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Though extant literatures in other sectors indicatethat job satisfaction and organizational commitment are important fordetermining individual and organisational outcomes, limited related researchhas been conducted amongst quantity surveyors in Hong Kong. Given cooperativeworking arrangement in the quantity surveying profession, work groupidentification is regarded as an important antecedent for determining jobsatisfaction and organisational commitment. The aim of this study is to examinewhether work group identification improves job satisfaction and organisationalcommitment. A questionnaire survey is conducted to collect data from quantitysurveyors working in private sector. A total of 71 valid responses are obtainedfrom 509 contacted quantity surveyors in Hong Kong. Bivariate correlation andmultiple regression analyses are performed to find the significance ofrelationships among the variables. Data analysis results support mosthypotheses. Work group identification is found to have significant positiveeffect on job satisfaction, affective and normative commitment. The finding isa bold step for quantity surveying companies to improve their quantity surveyors’job satisfaction and commitment level. The role of other contextual and organisationalfactors on job satisfaction and organisational commitment needs to becomplemented for future research.

  18. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  19. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  20. Influence of minimum quantity of lubricant (MQL on tool life of carbide cutting tools during milling process of steel AISI 1018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Núñez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, high productivity of machining is an important issue to obtain economic benefits in the industry. This purpose could be reached with high cutting velocity and feed rate. However, the inherently behavior produce high temperatures in the interface of couple cutting tool/workpiece. Many cutting fluids have been developed to control temperature in process and increase tool life. The objective of this paper is to compare the carbide milling tool wear using different systems cutting fluids: flood and minimum quantity of lubrication (MQL. The values of carbide milling cutting tool wear was evaluate according with the standard ISO 8688-1 1989. The experimental results showed that using MQL reduces significantly (about 40% tool wear in milling AISI 1018 steel at industrial cutting conditions.

  1. USA coal producer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porco, J. [Alpha Natural Resources, Latrobe, PA (US). Alpha Energy Global Marketing

    2004-07-01

    The focus is on the Central Appalachian coal industry. Alpha Natural Resources was formed in 2002 from Pittston Coal's Virginia and Coastal operations. AMCI's U.S. operations and Mears Enterprises in Pennsylvania were acquired later. The company produces 20-21 million tonnes per year and sells 20 million tonnes of steam coal and 10 million tonnes of exports, including some coal that is brokered. Foundry coke is a major product. Capital investment has resulted in increased productivity. Central Appalachia is expected to continue as a significant coal-producing region for supplying metallurgical coke. Production is expected to stabilize, but not increase; so the mines will have a longer life. 31 slides/overheads are included.

  2. Joint Optimization of Economic Production Quantity and Preventive Maintenance with Considering Multi-Products and Reserve Time

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xuejuan; Wang, Binrong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We deal with the problem of the joint determination of optimal economic production quantity (EPQ) and optimal preventive maintenance (PM) for a system that can produce multiple products alternately. The objective is to find the optimal number of production cycles and the PM policy simultaneously by minimizing the cost model. Design/methodology/approach: Considering the products go through the system in a sequence and a complete run of all products forms a production cy...

  3. Hyper-saline produced water treatment for beneficial use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Furaiji, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Producing oil and gas is always accompanied with large amounts of effluent water, called “produced water” (PW). These huge quantities of water can be used (if treated efficiently and economically) for many useful purposes like industrial applications, irrigation, cattle and animal consumption, and

  4. MICROMICETES QUANTITY AND BIOMASS IN TECHNOGENIC AND NATURAL SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korinovskaya Olga Nikolaevna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that in edaphotopes around of freight checkpoint of CJSC «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod», ore-enrichment factory and fresh-inwashed pool of tailings dam of PJSC «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» there is an increase of heavy metals mobile forms (which are the most dangerous for microorganisms, plants, animals and human: for iron in 310; for zinc - in 4,3-6,5; for lead - in 3.2-5.7; for cadmium - in 5,6-9,8; for copper – 6,8-66,5 and for nickel - in 9 times as compared to zonal soil. Whereas in soils of CJSC «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» sanitary protection zone number of copper, nickel, lead, cadmium and zinc mobile forms exceeded the control values in 2,4-6,6 times. For the first time the features of soil microscopic fungi seasonal dynamics of quantity in industrial disturbed soils of Kryvorizhzhya compared to zonal soil (chernozem usual were registered. Changes in fungal mycelium length and biomass, its spore’s amount and biomass in edaphotopes of ore-enrichment and chemical enterprises and of common chernozem are also presented. It is shown that in edaphotopes of heavy contamination areas of «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» and of «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» in spring, summer, and autumn there was decrease of microscopic fungi quantity in 4-10 times, moreover in tehnozems of «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» fresh-inwashed pool of tailings dam their amount reduces in more than 100 times, compared with common chernozem. In low contamination area of «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» their quantity decreases in 2 times. Also in heavy contamination areas of chemical and ore-enrichment enterprises there is strong decrease in the length of fungal mycelium in 2.7-4.2 times, its biomass in 2,6-4,5 times, the spores amount - in 4,5-7,7 times and their biomass - in 10,5-21 times compared to the natural soil, which could be explained by high contents of toxicants. While in the sanitary protection zone of the

  5. Quantity and structure of word knowledge across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salthouse, Timothy A

    2014-09-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from moderately large samples of healthy adults confirmed prior findings of age-related declines in measures of the quantity of word knowledge beginning around age 65. Additional analyses were carried out to investigate the interrelations of different types of vocabulary knowledge at various periods in adulthood. Although the organizational structures were similar in adults of different ages, scores on tests with different formats had weaker relations to a higher-order vocabulary construct beginning when adults were in their 60's. The within-person dispersion among different vocabulary test scores was also greater after about 65 years of age. The discovery of quantitative decreases in amount of knowledge occurring at about the same age as qualitative shifts in the structure of knowledge raises the possibility that the two types of changes may be causally linked.

  6. Protection of groundwater resources quality and quantity in mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grmela, A.

    1997-01-01

    This contribution is devoted to the problems of the impact of land subsidence from coal and other mining systems on underground and surface waters, particularly in relation to the possible influence on quality and quantity of pumped waters for public or individual supply. It determines features of permanent and time-limited changes of hydrogeological structure and effectiveness of measures for their minimization (classification of sources from the point of view of protection, delineation of protection zones for water resources, monitoring of effectiveness of measures). Case studies are presented for examples from the Czech part of Upper Silesian Basin - catchment area Doubrava-Spluchov, Karvina-Stare Mesto, Ostrava-Nove Ves, and Dubi, Darkov Spa. Attention is focused on problems of delimitation of protection zones in undermined areas in respect to the new proposal of the Appendix to Water Law. 8 refs., 2 figs

  7. Symbol addition by monkeys provides evidence for normalized quantity coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Margaret S.; Pettine, Warren W.; Srihasam, Krishna; Moore, Brandon; Morocz, Istvan A.; Lee, Daeyeol

    2014-01-01

    Weber’s law can be explained either by a compressive scaling of sensory response with stimulus magnitude or by a proportional scaling of response variability. These two mechanisms can be distinguished by asking how quantities are added or subtracted. We trained Rhesus monkeys to associate 26 distinct symbols with 0–25 drops of reward, and then tested how they combine, or add, symbolically represented reward magnitude. We found that they could combine symbolically represented magnitudes, and they transferred this ability to a novel symbol set, indicating that they were performing a calculation, not just memorizing the value of each combination. The way they combined pairs of symbols indicated neither a linear nor a compressed scale, but rather a dynamically shifting, relative scaling. PMID:24753600

  8. The quantity time relation in the ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordão, Bruno; Quaresma, Daniel, E-mail: bjordan@on.br [Observatorio Nacional (LPTF/ON), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratório Primário de Tempo e Frequência; Peixoto, José Guilherme P. [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes

    2017-07-01

    The area of metrology has taken a step forward with regard to the calculation of uncertainty. This mathematical tool used in laboratories is essential to ensure that the values resulting from a measurement are reliable. For this to be possible, all equipment used in a measurement process must be reliable and, above all, traceable to the international metrology system. We propose to present in this work: (1) the development and calibration of a microcontrolled time device with a resolution of 1 x 10{sup -4} s, in order to characterize the time greatness and make it reproducible; (2) the calibration of the quartz clock present in a computer present in the dosimetry laboratories; (3) a more in-depth study of the influence of time quantity on calibrations of instruments used in the area of radiological protection, diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, with measurements performed on the Kerma magnitude in air or its rate. (author)

  9. The quantity time relation in the ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordão, Bruno; Quaresma, Daniel; Peixoto, José Guilherme P.

    2017-01-01

    The area of metrology has taken a step forward with regard to the calculation of uncertainty. This mathematical tool used in laboratories is essential to ensure that the values resulting from a measurement are reliable. For this to be possible, all equipment used in a measurement process must be reliable and, above all, traceable to the international metrology system. We propose to present in this work: (1) the development and calibration of a microcontrolled time device with a resolution of 1 x 10 -4 s, in order to characterize the time greatness and make it reproducible; (2) the calibration of the quartz clock present in a computer present in the dosimetry laboratories; (3) a more in-depth study of the influence of time quantity on calibrations of instruments used in the area of radiological protection, diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, with measurements performed on the Kerma magnitude in air or its rate. (author)

  10. Measuring Radionuclides in the environment: radiological quantities and sampling designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.

    1998-10-01

    One aim of the workshop was to support and provide an ICRU report committee (International Union of Radiation Units) with actual information on techniques, data and knowledge of modern radioecology when radionuclides are to be measured in the environment. It has been increasingly recognised that some studies in radioecology, especially those involving both field sampling and laboratory measurements, have not paid adequate attention to the problem of obtaining representative, unbiased samples. This can greatly affect the quality of scientific interpretation, and the ability to manage the environment. Further, as the discipline of radioecology has developed, it has seen a growth in the numbers of quantities and units used, some of which are ill-defined and which are non-standardised. (orig.)

  11. [Application of target restoration space quantity and quantitative relation in precise esthetic prosthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiyang, Yu; Tian, Luo

    2016-06-01

    Target restoration space (TRS) is the most precise space required for designing optimal prosthesis. TRS consists of an internal or external tooth space to confirm the esthetics and function of the final restoration. Therefore, assisted with quantitive analysis transfer, TRS quantitative analysis is a significant improvement for minimum tooth preparation. This article presents TRS quantity-related measurement, analysis, transfer, and internal relevance of three TR. classifications. Results reveal the close bond between precision and minimally invasive treatment. This study can be used to improve the comprehension and execution of precise esthetic prosthodontics.

  12. Procurement-distribution model for perishable items with quantity discounts incorporating freight policies under fuzzy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makkar Sandhya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant issue of the supply chain problem is how to integrate different entities. Managing supply chain is a difficult task because of complex integrations, especially when the products are perishable in nature. Little attention has been paid on ordering specific perishable products jointly in uncertain environment with multiple sources and multiple destinations. In this article, we propose a supply chain coordination model through quantity and freight discount policy for perishable products under uncertain cost and demand information. A case is provided to validate the procedure.

  13. Manufacturing on the radiopharmaceuticals produced by cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Nobuo

    1994-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical (RP) produced by cyclotrons are widely used for the in vivo diagnosis of various diseases such as cancer, cerebral vascular disorders and cardiac diseases. The nuclides used as RPs and their nuclear reactions, and the quantity of RPs supplied in Japan in the last five years are shown. These RPs are delivered to about 1,100 hospitals in Japan. Thallium-201 and iodine-123 showed very high growth rate. Recently, two new I-123 RPs, BMIPP and MIBG which are heart-imaging agents, have been supplied. It suggests that the quantity of I-123 will increase much more in future. The image diagnostic method using RPs is called in vivo nuclear medicine, and has become the indispensable means for medical institutions together with X-ray CT, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonic diagnosis. The RPs for in vivo diagnosis generally used at present are classified into those labeled with the RIs produced with cyclotrons and those labeled with Tc-99m formed by the decay of Mo-99. The quantity being used is overwhelmingly more in the latter, but the former shows the tendency of growth. The commercial production of cyclotron RIs for medical use, the chemical forms and the diagnostic purposes of the RPs using cyclotron RIs, and the state of use of the cyclotron-produced RPs are reported. (K.I.)

  14. The Implementation Internet of Things(IoT) Technology in Real Time Monitoring of Electrical Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despa, D.; Nama, G. F.; Muhammad, M. A.; Anwar, K.

    2018-04-01

    Electrical quantities such as Voltage, Current, Power, Power Factor, Energy, and Frequency in electrical power system tends to fluctuate, as a result of load changes, disturbances, or other abnormal states. The change-state in electrical quantities should be identify immediately, otherwise it can lead to serious problem for whole system. Therefore a necessity is required to determine the condition of electricity change-state quickly and appropriately in order to make effective decisions. Online monitoring of power distribution system based on Internet of Things (IoT) technology was deploy and implemented on Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Lampung (Unila), especially at three-phase main distribution panel H-building. The measurement system involve multiple sensors such current sensors and voltage sensors, while data processing conducted by Arduino, the measurement data stored in to the database server and shown in a real-time through a web-based application. This measurement system has several important features especially for realtime monitoring, robust data acquisition and logging, system reporting, so it will produce an important information that can be used for various purposes of future power analysis such estimation and planning. The result of this research shown that the condition of electrical power system at H-building performed unbalanced load, which often leads to drop-voltage condition

  15. Research document no. 25. Prices versus quantities: environmental policies for promoting the development of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menanteau, Ph.; Finon, D.; Lamy, M.L.

    2001-05-01

    Now that the risks of climate change have been confirmed and the European States have declared their willingness to pursue ambitious objectives for producing electricity from renewable energy sources, it becomes crucial to take a look at the relative efficiency of the different incentive schemes used. Such schemes may focus on quantities, or on prices. Whatever the system chosen, the role of the public authorities is quite specific: to stimulate technical progress and speed up the technological learning processes so that ultimately renewable energy technologies will be able to compete with conventional technologies, once the environmental costs have been internalized. The authors examine the efficiency of the different incentive schemes for the development of renewable energy sources, both from a theoretical point of view by comparing price-based approaches with quantity-based approaches, and from a practical point of view by looking at concrete examples of how these different instruments have been implemented. The paper concludes that a system of fixed feed-in tariffs is more efficient than a bidding system, but highlights the theoretical interest of green certificate trading which must be confirmed through practice, given the influence of market structures and rules on the performance of this type of approach. (A.L.B.)

  16. Study of dosimetric quantities and image quality in pediatric examinations of chest and abdomen computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva

    2013-01-01

    This work had the objective to achieve the knowledge of the dosimetric quantities related to chest and abdomen computed tomography (CT) examinations of pediatric patients, in Belo Horizonte city. The reason of this work is based on the fact that the probability of health detriment in children, which it may be caused by radiation, is higher than in adults. Besides, although in many countries the knowledge and control of patient doses is a normal procedure, this safety culture does not exist in Brazil. Another objective of this work was to compare the dosimetric quantity values with the Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs); when it was needed, an optimization process was applied and the quality of the diagnostic image obtained with the optimized technical parameters was analyzed. This study was carried out in five hospitals, where the weighted air kerma index (Cw), the volumetric air kerma index (Cvol), the air kerma - length product (PKL,CT), the Effective Dose (E) and the Normalized Effective Dose (En) were determined; three methods were adopted for measurements: the ionization chamber inside a chest pediatric phantom, radiochromic films and the CT-EXPO software. The optimization process was applied to a single hospital through variations in the current (mA) and voltage (kV) of the x-ray tube for the protocols used for abdomen CT examinations. The analysis of the quality of the diagnostic image was done by Normal Distribution and ROC analysis; spatial resolution analysis was used through MTF determination and the noise level was judged in terms quantitative and qualitative. Results of the dosimetric quantities showed that they significantly differed between single-slice and multi-slice tomography units, but their values were always below the recommended DRLs. The optimized values of the dosimetric quantities obtained after the optimization process showed that it was possible to reduce the radiation exposure of pediatric patient without losing the image quality

  17. Industrial production quantities and uses of ten engineered nanomaterials in Europe and the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccinno, Fabiano; Gottschalk, Fadri; Seeger, Stefan; Nowack, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Not much is known so far about the amounts of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) that are produced but this information is crucial for environmental exposure assessment. This paper provides worldwide and Europe-wide estimates for the production and use of ten different ENM (TiO 2 , ZnO, FeO x , AlO x , SiO 2 , CeO 2 , Ag, quantum dots, CNT, and fullerenes) based on a survey sent to companies producing and using ENM. The companies were asked about their estimate of the worldwide or regional market and not about their company-specific production, information that they would be less likely to communicate. The study focused on the actual production quantities and not the production capacities. The survey also addressed information on distribution of the produced ENM to different product categories. The results reveal that some ENM are produced in Europe in small amounts (less than 10 t/year for Ag, QDs and fullerenes). The most produced ENM is TiO 2 with up to 10,000 t of worldwide production. CeO 2 , FeO x , AlO x , ZnO, and CNT are produced between 100 and 1000 t/year. The data for SiO 2 cover the whole range from less than 10 to more than 10,000 t/year, which is indicative of problems related to the definition of this material (is pyrogenic silica considered an ENM or not?). For seven ENM we have obtained the first estimates for their distribution to different product categories, information that also forms the base for life-cycle based exposure analysis.

  18. Industrial production quantities and uses of ten engineered nanomaterials in Europe and the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinno, Fabiano; Gottschalk, Fadri; Seeger, Stefan; Nowack, Bernd

    2012-09-01

    Not much is known so far about the amounts of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) that are produced but this information is crucial for environmental exposure assessment. This paper provides worldwide and Europe-wide estimates for the production and use of ten different ENM (TiO2, ZnO, FeO x , AlO x , SiO2, CeO2, Ag, quantum dots, CNT, and fullerenes) based on a survey sent to companies producing and using ENM. The companies were asked about their estimate of the worldwide or regional market and not about their company-specific production, information that they would be less likely to communicate. The study focused on the actual production quantities and not the production capacities. The survey also addressed information on distribution of the produced ENM to different product categories. The results reveal that some ENM are produced in Europe in small amounts (less than 10 t/year for Ag, QDs and fullerenes). The most produced ENM is TiO2 with up to 10,000 t of worldwide production. CeO2, FeO x , AlO x , ZnO, and CNT are produced between 100 and 1000 t/year. The data for SiO2 cover the whole range from less than 10 to more than 10,000 t/year, which is indicative of problems related to the definition of this material (is pyrogenic silica considered an ENM or not?). For seven ENM we have obtained the first estimates for their distribution to different product categories, information that also forms the base for life-cycle based exposure analysis.

  19. Applying nonlinear MODM model to supply chain management with quantity discount policy under complex fuzzy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to deal with the supply chain management (SCM with quantity discount policy under the complex fuzzy environment, which is characterized as the bi-fuzzy variables. By taking into account the strategy and the process of decision making, a bi-fuzzy nonlinear multiple objective decision making (MODM model is presented to solve the proposed problem.Design/methodology/approach: The bi-fuzzy variables in the MODM model are transformed into the trapezoidal fuzzy variables by the DMs's degree of optimism ?1 and ?2, which are de-fuzzified by the expected value index subsequently. For solving the complex nonlinear model, a multi-objective adaptive particle swarm optimization algorithm (MO-APSO is designed as the solution method.Findings: The proposed model and algorithm are applied to a typical example of SCM problem to illustrate the effectiveness. Based on the sensitivity analysis of the results, the bi-fuzzy nonlinear MODM SCM model is proved to be sensitive to the possibility level ?1.Practical implications: The study focuses on the SCM under complex fuzzy environment in SCM, which has a great practical significance. Therefore, the bi-fuzzy MODM model and MO-APSO can be further applied in SCM problem with quantity discount policy.Originality/value: The bi-fuzzy variable is employed in the nonlinear MODM model of SCM to characterize the hybrid uncertain environment, and this work is original. In addition, the hybrid crisp approach is proposed to transferred to model to an equivalent crisp one by the DMs's degree of optimism and the expected value index. Since the MODM model consider the bi-fuzzy environment and quantity discount policy, so this paper has a great practical significance.

  20. Radiation Protection Concepts and Quantities for the Occupational Exposure to Cosmic Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, D.T.

    1999-01-01

    For the purposes of dose limitation and dose control, the harm, or detriment, of exposure to radiation is assessed by the quantity effective dose. Effective dose is evaluated by the application of factors to the averaged absorbed dose in the organs and tissues of the body. Radiation monitoring instruments are generally calibrated in terms of the quantity ambient dose equivalent which is defined in a simple spherical phantom. The relationship of these quantities is described. Requirements for the radiation protection of aircraft crew are given in the European Union Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM. There are requirements to assess the exposure of aircraft crew, to inform them of health risks, to reduce higher doses, and to control the dose to the foetus. There are no explicit dose limits, other than a dose objective to be applied to the exposure of the foetus, and no requirements for designation of areas or classification of workers. There are significant differences between the exposure condition of aircraft crew and workers in most other industries where there is occupational exposure to radiation. There are greater ranges of radiation types and energy, and there are different dose distributions and characteristics of the working populations. However, the field intensity is predictable and, with the exception of rare solar events, there is no risk of significant unexpected exposures. Dose assessment is anticipated to be by folding staff roster information with estimates of route doses, since there is little variability of dose rate within an aircraft. Route doses, which may be either an agreed average value for a given airport pairing and aircraft type, or be flight specific, will be closely linked to measured values. Requirements as to the accuracy of dose assessment should be applied which are broadly similar to those used in individual monitoring generally. (author)

  1. The Effects of Type and Quantity of Input on Iranian EFL Learners’ Oral Language Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hassanzadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the written texts on foreign language learning, a group of studies has stressed the function of learning context and learning chances for learners’ language input. The present thesis had two main goals: on the one hand, different types of input to which Iranian grade four high school EFL learners’ are exposed were looked at; on the other hand, the possible relationship between types and quantity of input and Iranian EFL learners’ oral proficiency was investigated. It was supposed that EFL learners who have access to more input will show better oral proficiency than those who do not have. Instruments used in the present study for the purpose of data collation included  PET test, researcher- made questionnaire, oral language proficiency test and face- to -face interview. Data were gathered from 50 Iranian female grade four high school foreign language learners who were selected from among 120 students whose score on PET test were +1SD from the mean score. The results of the Spearman rank –order correlation test for the types of input and oral language proficiency scores, showed that the participants’ oral proficiency score significantly correlated with the intended four sources of input including spoken (rho= 0.416, sig=0.003, written (rho= 0.364, sig=0.009, aural (rho= 0.343, sig=0.015 and visual or audio-visual types of input (rho= 0.47, sig=0.00. The findings of Spearman rank –order correlation test for the quantity of input and oral language proficiency scores also showed a significant relationship between quantity of input and oral language proficiency (rho= 0.543, sig= 0.00. The findings showed that EFL learners’ oral proficiency is significantly correlated with efficient and effective input. The findings may also suggest  answers to the question why most Iranian English learners fail to speak English fluently, which might be due to  lack of effective input. This may emphasize the importance of the types and quantity of

  2. A Control Variate Method for Probabilistic Performance Assessment. Improved Estimates for Mean Performance Quantities of Interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKinnon, Robert J.; Kuhlman, Kristopher L

    2016-05-01

    We present a method of control variates for calculating improved estimates for mean performance quantities of interest, E(PQI) , computed from Monte Carlo probabilistic simulations. An example of a PQI is the concentration of a contaminant at a particular location in a problem domain computed from simulations of transport in porous media. To simplify the presentation, the method is described in the setting of a one- dimensional elliptical model problem involving a single uncertain parameter represented by a probability distribution. The approach can be easily implemented for more complex problems involving multiple uncertain parameters and in particular for application to probabilistic performance assessment of deep geologic nuclear waste repository systems. Numerical results indicate the method can produce estimates of E(PQI)having superior accuracy on coarser meshes and reduce the required number of simulations needed to achieve an acceptable estimate.

  3. Evaluation of the behavior of Brazilian bentonite clays with different quantity of quaternary ammonium salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Renata; Souza, Dayanne Diniz; Araujo, Edcleide Maria; Nobrega, Karine Castro; Melo, Tomas Jeferson Alves

    2009-01-01

    Paraiba is the main natural bentonite producing state of Brazil. Besides the advantage of abundance of bentonite clays, its transformation in organoclay is a simple method and there is only little study about the commercialization of Brazilian organoclays. In this work, Brazilian bentonite clay was organophilized with different quantity of a quaternary ammonium salt, such as 100, 125 and 150 wt.% in relation to Cationic Exchange Capacity (CEC) of the clay. The clays were characterized by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetry (TG) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). It was observed that with increasing amount of salt the degree of dispersion of the clay increased, leading in some cases to the delamination of the clay layers and its loss of thermal stability. (author)

  4. Susceptibilities of conserved quantities in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Nayak, T.K.; Chatterjee, S.; Sahoo, N.R.

    2016-01-01

    The major motivations of heavy-ion collisions at ultra-relativistic energies is to study the formation of new form of matter, called quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and study its basic properties. Susceptibilities of conserved quantities, such as electric charge, baryon number and strangeness are sensitive to the onset of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) phase transition, and provide information on the mater produce in heavy ion collisions. In this work, we have used the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) and the hadron resonance gas (HRG) models to analyzes the 2"n"d order susceptibilities of conserved charges. In experiments, one needs to understand and correct for detector acceptance, efficiency and limited particle identification in order to interpret the results and compare with theoretical calculations. The transverse momentum cutoff dependence of suitably normalized susceptibilities are proposed as useful observables to probe the properties of the medium at freezout

  5. Reduction of trace quantities of chromium(VI by strong acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezzin Sérgio H

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical behavior of Cr(VI at low concentrations (10-4 to 10-7 mol L-1 in several strong acids was studied using high specific activity 51Cr(VI as a tracer. The speciation of the products from these systems was carried out by ion exchange chromatography with stepwise elution. The results show that trace quantities of Cr(VI, monitored by means of radiochromium (51Cr, are reduced in the presence of mineral acids such as perchloric, hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, sulfuric, nitric and trifluoromethanesulfonic acids, even in the absence of conventional reducing agents, producing different measureable Cr(III species, depending on the acid anion. Detailed studies of the reduction of low concentrations of Cr(VI with nitric acid have shown that the relative rate of reduction increases as the concentration of the acid increases or as the concentration of the Cr(VI decreases.

  6. Characterization of toxic waste produced in PYMES manufacturing detergents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campuzano, Silvia; Camacho, Judith Elena; Alvarez, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    From the protection of the environment, the problem of the residuals squatter a main place in the environmental administration; presently study a test pilot was standardized, to characterize the toxic waste generated in the production of detergents, to standardize methods of chemical valuation and microbiological of polluted waters that allow later on to apply methods of biological purification and processes of bio-treatment of residuals, the project macro of handling of toxic waste it was addressed this way in small and medium companies producers of detergents. The presence settled down of toxic in the studied waste, represented in surfactants significant amounts, phenols, hydrocarbons, fat and phosphates and the decrease of its quantity in front of the action of bacteria, situation that allowed concluding that the approach to the biotransformation process could be carried out

  7. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  8. Quantity of Candida Colonies in Saliva: 
A Diagnostic Evaluation for Oral Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pei Ru; Hua, Hong; Liu, Xiao Song

    To investigate the relationship between the quantity of Candida colonies in saliva and oral candidiasis (OC), as well as to identify the threshold for distinguishing oral candidiasis from healthy carriage. A diagnostic test was conducted in 197 patients with different oral problems. The diagnosis of OC was established based on clinical features. Whole saliva samples from the subjects were cultured for Candida species. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used in this study. OC patients had significantly more Candida colony-forming units per millilitre saliva (795 cfu/ml) than asymptomatic carriers (40 cfu/ml; P candidiasis, the quantity of Candida colonies differed. The number of Candida colonies in pseudomembranous type was significantly higher than that in the erythematous type (P < 0.05). Candida albicans was the predominant species of Candida. The cut-off point with the best fit for OC diagnosis was calculated to be 266 cfu/ml. The sensitivity and specificity were 0.720 and 0.825, respectively. Analysis of the ROC curve indicated that Candida colonies had a high diagnostic value for OC, as demonstrated by the area under the curve (AUC = 0.873). Based on this study, the value of 270 cfu/ml was considered a threshold for distinguishing OC from carriage.

  9. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on semen quantity and quality of Local Kampong roosters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Asrol, K

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing dietary levels of vitamin E on semen quantity and quality characteristics of local kampong roosters. Forty-five roosters were randomly distributed equally to 3 treatment groups with each group consisting of 5 replicates of 3 roosters per replicate. The 3 treatment groups were no vitamin E (T0, 200 IU vitamin E (T1 and 400 IU vitamin E (T2 supplementations. DL a-tocopherol acetate was used as the source of vitamin E. Commercial broiler feed, crushed corn and water were given ad libitum. Semen quantity and quality were evaluated at week 2, 3 and 4 after the initial vitamin E supplementation. Improvement in semen production characteristics was only noticeable after 4 wk of vitamin E supplementation. Semen characteristics (sperm gross motility score, percentage of live sperm and colour score at week 4 after supplementation were significantly higher (6.20 � 1.10, 81.68 � 5.39% and 2.80 � 0.30, respectively in T2 group (P < 0.05 compared to control group. Percentages of abnormal tail spermatozoa were significantly (P < 0.05 lower (3.84 � 2.55 T2 group compared to control group. From this study, it can be concluded that higher supplementation of dietary vitamin E is beneficial in improving the semen characteristics of local kampong chicken after 4 wk of supplementation.

  10. Serum-free culture alters the quantity and protein composition of neuroblastoma-derived extracellular vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghuan Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs play a significant role in cell–cell communication in numerous physiological processes and pathological conditions, and offer promise as novel biomarkers and therapeutic agents for genetic diseases. Many recent studies have described different molecular mechanisms that contribute to EV biogenesis and release from cells. However, little is known about how external stimuli such as cell culture conditions can affect the quantity and content of EVs. While N2a neuroblastoma cells cultured in serum-free (OptiMEM conditions did not result in EVs with significant biophysical or size differences compared with cells cultured in serum-containing (pre-spun conditions, the quantity of isolated EVs was greatly increased. Moreover, the expression levels of certain vesicular proteins (e.g. small GTPases, G-protein complexes, mRNA processing proteins and splicing factors, some of which were previously reported to be involved in EV biogenesis, were found to be differentially expressed in EVs under different culture conditions. These data, therefore, contribute to the understanding of how extracellular factors and intracellular molecular pathways affect the composition and release of EVs.

  11. Process of quantity determination of uranium by chromatography in liquid zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, J.P.; Cojean, J.; Daubizit, M.

    1993-01-01

    The invention concerns a process of quantity determination of uranium by chromatography in liquid zone, usable to determine the quantity of uranium traces. Solutions to be treated can be aqueous or organic

  12. Friendship quantity and quality as predictors of rejection sensitivity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Šeboková

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines friendship quality and quantity as unique predictors of rejection sensitivity in adolescents. The purpose of the study was to analyze whether the unique contributions of friendship quality and quantity differ in adolescent boys and girls. Rejection sensitivity is conceptualized as the disposition to anxiously expect, readily perceive and intensively react to social rejection. That is why rejection sensitivity is considered to be a cognitive-affective mechanism which leads to increase of internalizing problems in children and adolescents (loneliness, social anxiety, depression.... Friendship variables have been found to predict the level of internalizing problems in adolescents. Little to no research, however, has examined friendship quality and quantity as predictors of level of rejection sensitivity. Participants in this study were 184 students (98 girls and 86 boys, aged from 13 to 16 (M=13.83, SD=1. Adolescents completed measures assessing number of their friends, quality of best friendship (self-report questionnaire Friendship qualities scale, Bukowski, Hoza, Boivin, 1994 and rejection sensitivity (self-report questionnaire Rejection sensitivity scale, Downey, Feldman, 1996. Regression analysis indicated that friendship features (companionship, balance, help, security, closeness, friendship quantity and overall friendship quality are significant unique predictors of sensitivity rejection in adolescents with. Results suggest that adolescents with higher number of and higher quality friendships have lower concerns about the possibility and expectation of rejection, which can lead to minimizing the risk of development of internalizing problems. However, only a small proportion of variance was accounted for in rejection sensitivity by the friendship variables (small to medium effect size. This suggests that different kind of peer relationships (peer acceptance, popularity, peer victimization make unique, differential

  13. Order Quantity Distributions: Estimating an Adequate Aggregation Horizon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksen Poul Svante

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an investigation into the demand, faced by a company in the form of customer orders, is performed both from an explorative numerical and analytical perspective. The aim of the research is to establish the behavior of customer orders in first-come-first-serve (FCFS systems and the impact of order quantity variation on the planning environment. A discussion of assumptions regarding demand from various planning and control perspectives underlines that most planning methods are based on the assumption that demand in the form of customer orders are independently identically distributed and stem from symmetrical distributions. To investigate and illustrate the need to aggregate demand to live up to these assumptions, a simple methodological framework to investigate the validity of the assumptions and for analyzing the behavior of orders is developed. The paper also presents an analytical approach to identify the aggregation horizon needed to achieve a stable demand. Furthermore, a case study application of the presented framework is presented and concluded on.

  14. Deep groundwater quantity and quality in the southwestern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M.; Ayars, J. E.; Jackson, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater demands are growing in many arid regions and adaptation through the use of non-traditional resources during extreme droughts is increasingly common. One such resource is deep groundwater, which we define as deeper than 300 m and up to several kilometer-depths. Although deep groundwater has been studied in the context of oil and gas, geothermal, waste disposal, and other uses, it remains poorly characterized, especially for the purposes of human consumption and irrigation uses. Therefore, we evaluate deep groundwater quantity and quality within these contexts. We compile and analyze data from water management agencies and oil and gas-based sources for the southwestern US, with a detailed look at California's Central Valley. We also use crop tolerance thresholds to evaluate deep groundwater quality for irrigation purposes. We find fresh and usable groundwater volume estimates in California's Central Valley to increase by three- and four-fold respectively when depths of up to 3 km are considered. Of the ten basins in the southwestern US with the most data, we find that the Great Basin has the greatest proportions of fresh and usable deep groundwater. Given the potentially large deep groundwater volumes, it is important to characterize the resource, guard against subsidence where extracted, and protect it for use in decades and centuries to come.

  15. Ship waste quantities prediction model for the port of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADANKA PRESBURGER ULNIKOVIĆ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the issues related to the waste management in river ports in general and especially in the port of Belgrade. Data on solid waste, waste oils, oily waters, gray water and black water have been collected for a period of five years. The methodology of data collection is presented. Trends of data were analyzed and the regression model was used to predict the waste quantities in the Belgrade port. This data could be utilized as a basis for the calculation of the equipment capacity for waste selective collection, treatment and storage. The results presented in this study establish the need for an orga¬nized management system for this type of waste which can be achieved either by constructing and providing new specialized terminal or by providing mobile floating facilities and other plants in the Port of Belgrade for these kinds of ser¬vices. In addition to the above, the legislative and organizational strategy of waste management has been explored to complete the study because the im¬pact of good waste management on environment and prevention of environ¬mental accidents would be highly beneficial. This study demonstrated that ad¬dressing these issues should be considered at international as well as national level.

  16. A pilot study to evaluate runoff quantity from green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Young; Lee, Min Jung; Han, Mooyoung

    2015-04-01

    The use of green roofs is gaining increased recognition in many countries as a solution that can be used to improve environmental quality and reduce runoff quantity. To achieve these goals, pilot-scale green roof assemblies have been constructed and operated in an urban setting. From a stormwater management perspective, green roofs are 42.8-60.8% effective in reducing runoff for 200 mm soil depth and 13.8-34.4% effective in reducing runoff for 150 mm soil depth. By using Spearman rank correlation analysis, high rainfall intensity was shown to have a negative relationship with delayed occurrence time, demonstrating that the soil media in green roofs do not efficiently retain rainwater. Increasing the number of antecedent dry days can help to improve water retention capacity and delay occurrence time. From the viewpoint of runoff water quality, green roofs are regarded as the best management practice by filtration and adsorption through growth media (soil). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantity and Quality of Inhaled Dose Predicts Immunopathology in Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Patrick Fennelly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animal models of tuberculosis (TB have convincingly demonstrated that inhaled dose predicts immunopathology and survival. In contrast, the importance of inhaled dose has generally not been appreciated in TB epidemiology, clinical science, or the practice of TB control. Infectiousness of TB patients has traditionally been assessed using microscopy for acid-fast bacilli in the sputum, which should be considered only a risk factor. We have recently demonstrated that cough aerosol cultures from index cases with pulmonary TB are the best predictors of new infection among household contacts. We suggest that cough aerosols of M. tuberculosis are the best surrogates of inhaled dose, and we hypothesize that the quantity of cough aerosols is associated with TB infection versus disease. Although several factors affect the quality of infectious aerosols, we propose that the particle size distribution of cough aerosols is an important predictor of primary upper airway disease and cervical lymphadenitis and of immune responses in exposed hosts. We hypothesize that large droplet aerosols (> 5 microns containing M. tuberculosis deposit in the upper airway and can induce immune responses without establishing infection. We suggest that this may partially explain the large proportion of humans who never develop TB disease in spite of having immunological evidence of M. tuberculosis infection (e.g. positive TST or IGRA. If these hypotheses are proven true, they would alter the current paradigm of latent TB infection and reactivation, further demonstrating the need for better biomarkers or methods of assessing TB infection and the risk of developing disease.

  18. BIM IMPLEMENTATION IN A NEW ZEALAND CONSULTING QUANTITY SURVEYING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Harrison

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available 5D BIM – generating cost data via the building information modelling (BIM process- has the potential to be used by quantity surveyors (QSs to streamline their workflows and increase their provision of quality service. Consultant QSs experienced in the use 5D BIM, from the New Zealand office of one large global practice, were interviewed on their perceptions of the benefits of, and barriers to, 5D BIM implementation within their firm. Findings suggest that 5D BIM has numerous benefits over traditional methods, chiefly through the increased efficiency and visualization that BIM provides, along with the rapid identification of design changes. However, realization of these perceived benefits limited to date, due to several barriers hindering 5D BIM implementation: incomplete design and insufficient model object data in the BIM model; a lack of standards to facilitate electronic measurement; legal issues, and a lack of government support. However, participants perceived that 5D BIM implementation will achieve these benefits to a far greater extent in the future. Further research is recommended to identify the BIM skills which QSs will need in the future to reach the full potential of 5D BIM

  19. Dynamic Coding of Signed Quantities in Cortical Feedback Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana eBallard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the early sensory and motor areas of the cortex, individual neurons transmit information about specific sensory features via a peaked response. This concept has been crystallized as `labeled lines,' to denote that axons communicate the specific properties of their sensory or motor parent cell. Such cells also can be characterized as being polarized, that is, as representing a signed quantity that is either positive or negative. We show in a model simulation that there are two important consequences when learning receptive fields using such signed codings in circuits that subtract different inputs. The first is that, in feedback circuits using labeled lines, such arithmetic operations need to be distributed across multiple distinct pathways. The second consequence is that such pathways must be necessarily dynamic, i.e. that synapses can grow and retract when forming receptive fields. The model monitors the breaking and growing of new circuit connections when their synapses need to change polarities and predicts that the rate of such changes should be inversely correlated with the progress of receptive field formation.

  20. Sound radiation quantities arising from a resilient circular radiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Ronald M; Janssen, Augustus J E M

    2009-10-01

    Power series expansions in ka are derived for the pressure at the edge of a radiator, the reaction force on the radiator, and the total radiated power arising from a harmonically excited, resilient, flat, circular radiator of radius a in an infinite baffle. The velocity profiles on the radiator are either Stenzel functions (1-(sigma/a)2)n, with sigma the radial coordinate on the radiator, or linear combinations of Zernike functions Pn(2(sigma/a)2-1), with Pn the Legendre polynomial of degree n. Both sets of functions give rise, via King's integral for the pressure, to integrals for the quantities of interest involving the product of two Bessel functions. These integrals have a power series expansion and allow an expression in terms of Bessel functions of the first kind and Struve functions. Consequently, many of the results in [M. Greenspan, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 65, 608-621 (1979)] are generalized and treated in a unified manner. A foreseen application is for loudspeakers. The relation between the radiated power in the near-field on one hand and in the far field on the other is highlighted.

  1. Energy taxes, resource taxes and quantity rationing for climate protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenack, Klaus [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Kalkuhl, Matthias [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Economic sectors react strategically to climate policy, aiming at a re-distribution of rents. Established analysis suggests a Pigouvian emission tax as efficient instrument, but also recommends factor input or output taxes under specific conditions. However, existing studies leave it open whether output taxes, input taxes or input rationing perform better, and at best only touch their distributional consequences. When emissions correspond to extracted ressources, it is questionable whether taxes are effective at all. We determine the effectiveness, efficiency and functional income distribution for these instruments in the energy and resource sector, based on a game theoretic growth model with explicit factor markets and policy instruments. Market equilibrium depends on a government that acts as a Stackelberg leader with a climate protection goal. We find that resource taxes and cumulative resource quantity rationing achieve this objective efficiently. Energy taxation is only second best. Mitigation generates a substantial ''climate rent'' in the resource sector that can be converted to transfer incomes by taxes. (orig.)

  2. Symbolic Estrangement: Evidence against a Strong Association between Numerical Symbols and the Quantities They Represent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M.; Ansari, Daniel; Beilock, Sian L.

    2012-01-01

    Are numerals estranged from a sense of the actual quantities they represent? We demonstrate that, irrespective of numerical size or distance, direct comparison of the relative quantities represented by symbolic and nonsymbolic formats leads to performance markedly worse than when comparing 2 nonsymbolic quantities (Experiment 1). Experiment 2…

  3. 48 CFR 245.7309-8 - Variations in quantity or weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Inventory 245.7309-8 Variations in quantity or weight. When property is sold on a “unit price” basis, the Contractor reserves the right to vary by up to 15 percent the quantity or weight listed in the Invitation and... price shall be adjusted in accordance with the unit price and on the basis of the quantity or weight...

  4. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes that...

  5. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  6. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  7. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  8. Influence of diet quantity on learning and memory ability and immunological function in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    evaluate learning ability and the memory ability was retested at 24 hours later.Times of autonomic activity within 5 minutes were used to evaluate ability of autonomic activity.In addition,blood was collected from eyeball to measure plasma immune globulin and complement by using immunoturbidimetry.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:① Effect of different diet quantity on learning and memory ability;②effect of different diet quantity on times of autonomic activity and survival time under hypoxia and normal pressure;③ effect of different diet quantity on content of immune globulin and complement.RESULTS:All 80 mice were involved in the final analysis.① Effect of different diet quantity on learning and memory ability:There was no significant difference in learning ability during step down test (P>0.05).While,memory ability in the over-diet group and the quantitative-diet group was better than that in the over-limit diet group (t=2.235 - 2.423,P<0.05).During shuttle box test,learning and memory ability in the over-diet group was superior to that in the over-limit diet group (t =2.237 - 2.431,P<0.05).While,memory ability in the quantitative-diet group and quantitative-limit diet group was superior to that in the over-limit group (t =2.704 - 2.813,P<0.05).② Effect of different diet quantity on times of autonomic activity and survival time under hypoxia and normal pressure:There were significant differences in the times of autonomic activity among quantitative-diet group,quantitative-limit diet group and over-limit diet group (t=2.725 - 2.98,P<0.05).Survival time in the quantitative-diet group and the quantitative-limit diet group was longer than that in the over-diet group (7=2.365,2.719,P<0.05),but shorter than that in the over-limit diet group (t =2.427,2.538,P<0.05).While,survival time in the over-limit diet group was longer than that in the over-diet group (t =2.765,P<0.01).③Effect of different diet quantity on content of immune globulin and complement

  9. JOINT DETERMINATION OF PRICE, WAR RANTY LENGTH AND PRODUCTION QUANTITY FOR NEW PRODUCTS UNDER FREE RENEWAL WARRANTY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jeyakumar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An optimal business strategy which integrates the decisions, such as pricing, production quantity, and custom er service, in or der to maximize profit is vital for any manufacturing industry. Post sale factors like warranty, spare parts availability, maintenance, service and cost play an important role in the sale of a product. As better warranty signals higher product quality which provides greater assurance to customers, warranty is an important factor in marketing new products. In this paper, a decision model with the price, warranty length and production quantity of a product as decision variables to maximize profit based on the pre-determined product life cycle is presented. The study considers free renewal warranty policy for producers in the static sales market. The expected number of renewals based on the warranty length is derived for lognormally distributed products. The effect of model parameters on the profit is studied.

  10. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  11. Forest Biomass Energy Resources in China: Quantity and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important renewable and sustainable energy sources, the forest biomass energy resource has always been the focus of attention of scholars and policy makers. However, its potential is still uncertain in China, especially with respect to its spatial distribution. In this paper, the quantity and distribution of Chinese forest biomass energy resources are explored based mainly on forestry statistics data rather than forest resource inventory data used by most previous studies. The results show that the forest biomass energy resource in China was 169 million tons in 2010, of which wood felling and bucking residue (WFBR,wood processing residue (WPR, bamboo processing residue, fuel wood and firewood used by farmers accounted for 38%, 37%, 6%, 4% and 15%, respectively. The highest resource was located in East China, accounting for nearly 39.0% of the national amount, followed by the Southwest and South China regions, which accounted for 17.4% and 16.3%, respectively. At the provincial scale, Shandong has the highest distribution, accounting for 11.9% of total resources, followed by Guangxi and Fujian accounting for 10.3% and 10.2%, respectively. The actual wood-processing residue (AWPR estimated from the actual production of different wood products (considering the wood transferred between regions showed apparent differences from the local wood processing residue (LWPR, which assumes that no wood has been transferredbetween regions. Due to the large contribution of WPR to total forestry bioenergy resources, the estimation of AWPR will provide a more accurate evaluation of the total amount and the spatial distribution of forest biomass energy resources in China.

  12. On Complex Networks Representation and Computation of Hydrologycal Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, F.; Bancheri, M.; David, O.; Rigon, R.

    2017-12-01

    Water is our blue gold. Despite results of discovery-based science keep warning public opinion about the looming worldwide water crisis, water is still treated as a not worth taking resource. Could a different multi-scale perspective affect environmental decision-making more deeply? Can also a further pairing to a new graphical representation of processes interaction sway decision-making more effectively and public opinion consequently?This abstract introduces a complex networks driven way to represent catchments eco-hydrology and related flexible informatics to manage it. The representation is built upon mathematical category. A category is an algebraic structure that comprises "objects" linked by "arrows". It is an evolution of Petri Nets said Time Continuous Petri Nets (TCPN). It aims to display (water) budgets processes and catchment interactions using explicative and self-contained symbolism. The result improves readability of physical processes compared to current descriptions. The IT perspective hinges on the Object Modeling System (OMS) v3. The latter is a non-invasive flexible environmental modeling framework designed to support component-based model development. The implementation of a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) data structure, named Net3, has recently enhanced its flexibility. Net3 represents interacting systems as complex networks: vertices match up with any sort of time evolving quantity; edges correspond to their data (fluxes) interchange. It currently hosts JGrass-NewAge components, and those implementing travel time analysis of fluxes. Further bio-physical or management oriented components can be easily added.This talk introduces both graphical representation and related informatics exercising actual applications and examples.

  13. Technology development for evaluation of operational quantities in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Si Young; Lee, T. Y.; Kim, B. H.

    2003-03-01

    Korean government recently published a national regulation on the internal exposure monitoring and dose evaluation (internal dosimetry) based on the most recent ICRP recommendation 60 and subsequent publications, which supercede the former ICRP recommendation 26 and publication 30, on which the internal dosimetry practice in Korea had been based so far. Consequently, this project, according to the demand from both government and nuclear industry, had been launched to develop a user-friendly computer code on internal dosimetry adopting the most up to date ICRP biokinetic and dosimetric model to resolve the difficulties and problems faced to nuclear industry and to develop related technology. The reliability of this code, named as BiDAS, as a result of several benchmark calculations for self assurance appeared to be excellent comparing with the foreign computer code. This computer code is expected to be successfully utilized in nuclear industry and related fields in complying with the national regulation on internal dosimetry program started from late 2003. Reference low level gamma(γ) radiation field for calibration of environmental radiation(γ) monitor and reference neutron field for calibration of n monitoring equipment have been established and characterized. International cross comparison of these reference radiation fields have been performed and radiation response of various radiation monitoring instrument has been tested by using these reference radiation fields. A technology which can directly measure the radiation quality factor and tissue absorbed dose has been established to evaluate the neutron dose in terms of operational quantity in the unknown mixed n-γ radiation field. Spherical and cylindrical TEPC systems have been designed and manufactured and a portable TEPC system to measure the neutron quality and dose in the real work field has been developed and tested in accelerator laboratory

  14. Influence of adhesive bonding on quantity of emissions VOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Čech

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the influence of urea-formaldehyde glue and veneered bolstering on technological operation veneering on quantity of emission VOCs (volatile organic compounds.The so-called Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC are among the largest pollution sources of both the internal and external environments.VOC is defined as emission of any organic compound or a mixture thereof, with the exception of methane, whereby the compound exerts the pressure of 0.01 kPa or more at the temperature of 20 °C (293.15 K and reaches the corresponding volatility under the specific conditions of its use and can undergo photochemical reactions with nitrogen oxides when exposed to solar radiation.The effects of VOC upon environment can be described by equation:VOC + NOx + UV radiation + heat = tropospheric ozone (O3.In this work there were tested background working environment in various parts of multi-storeyed press, next was judged emissive charge of veneered device and used glue. We used surface material such as chipboard. We used urea-formaldehyde glue KRONOCOL U300 on technological operation veneering.The VOC emissions from the wooden surfaces with or without finishing were tested in the Equipment for VOC Measuring with a small-space chamber. This equipment was installed in and made available by the Institute of Furniture, Design and Habitation. The small-space chamber is suitable for testing small parts of wood products. The device equipped with small-chamber satisfies all conditions mandated in the standard ENV 13 419 DIN -V-ENV 13 419 ”Determination of the emissions of Volatile organic compounds”.The VOC emissions were collected in columns with sorbent Tenax TA. We analyzed the columns with the VOC emissions by: the gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometer and Direct Thermal Desorption.

  15. Calculation of uncertainties in influence quantities in biological essays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Morel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the need of showing the reliability of results from biological essays, such as in health and environmental areas, laboratories have been implementing quality systems, particularly ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025 (ABNT, 2001, which include as one of the requirements, the calculation of uncertainty in essays results. It is of common knowledge that estimating uncertainty in essays using organisms, such as animal and vegetal species, is difficult, preventing from meeting that requirement in the standard. The paper shows the calculation of uncertainties in influences quantities in these essays as a tool to allow validating the measuring process, by using the essays performed by Rhodia Environmental Impact Analysis Laboratory and IPEN Ecotoxicology Laboratory as examples.Devido à necessidade de demonstrar a confiabilidade dos resultados de ensaios biológicos como, por exemplo, nas áreas de saúde e ambiental, laboratórios vêm implementando sistemas da qualidade, em especial a ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025 (ABNT, 2001 que inclui como um dos requisitos o cálculo da incerteza dos resultados dos ensaios. É reconhecidamente difícil de estimar a incerteza de ensaios que utilizam organismos, como com espécies animais e vegetais o que impede, consequentemente, o atendimento deste requisito da norma. O trabalho apresenta o cálculo de incerteza das grandezas de influências nestes ensaios como uma ferramenta que permite validar o processo de medição, utilizando como exemplos aqueles realizados pelos Laboratórios de Análise de Impacto Ambiental da Rhodia e de Ecologia e Ecotoxicologia do IPEN.

  16. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  17. The Effect of Units Lost Due to Deterioration in Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity (FEOQ Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pattnaik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ model and its variations have received much attention from researchers. Recently, there has been an investigation into an EOQ model incorporating effect of units lost due to deterioration in infinite planning horizon with crisp decision environment. Accounting for holding and ordering cost, as has traditionally been the case of modeling inventory systems in fuzzy environment are investigated which are not precisely known and defined on a bounded interval of real numbers. The question is how reliable are the EOQ models when items stocked deteriorate one time. This paper introduces Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity (FEOQ model in which it assumes that units lost due to deterioration is included in the objective function to properly model the problem in finite planning horizon. The numerical analysis shows that an appropriate fuzzy policy can benefit the retailer and that is significant, especially for deteriorating items is shown to be superior to that of crisp decision making. A computational algorithm using LINGO 13.0 and MATLAB (R2009a software are developed to find the optimal solution. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution is also studied and managerial insights are drawn which shows the influence of key model parameters.

  18. Effect of the selected seismic energy dissipation capacity on the materials quantity for reinforced concrete walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Benjumea Royero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Regarding their design of reinforced concrete structural walls, the Colombian seismic design building code allows the engineer to select one of the three seismic energy dissipation capacity (ordinary, moderate, and special depending on the seismic hazard of the site. Despite this, it is a common practice to choose the minor requirement for the site because it is thought that selecting a higher requirement will lead to larger structural materials amounts and, therefore, cost increments.  Method: In this work, an analytical study was performed in order to determine the effect of the selected energy dissipation capacity on the quantity of materials and ductility displacement capacity of R/C walls. The study was done for a region with low seismic hazard, mainly because this permitted to explore and compare the use of the three seismic energy dissipations capacities. The effect of different parameters such as the wall total height and thickness, the tributary loaded area, and the minimum volumetric steel ratio were studied. Results: The total amount of steel required for the walls with moderate and special energy dissipation capacity corresponds, on average, to 77% and 89%, respectively, of the quantity required for walls with minimum capacity. Conclusions: it is possible to achieve reductions in the total steel required weight when adopting either moderated or special seismic energy dissipation instead of the minimum capacity.  Additionally, a significant increment in the seismic ductility displacements capacity of the wall was obtained.

  19. Methods for the preparation of large quantities of complex single-stranded oligonucleotide libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgha, Yusuf E; Rouillard, Jean-Marie; Gulari, Erdogan

    2014-01-01

    Custom-defined oligonucleotide collections have a broad range of applications in fields of synthetic biology, targeted sequencing, and cytogenetics. Also, they are used to encode information for technologies like RNA interference, protein engineering and DNA-encoded libraries. High-throughput parallel DNA synthesis technologies developed for the manufacture of DNA microarrays can produce libraries of large numbers of different oligonucleotides, but in very limited amounts. Here, we compare three approaches to prepare large quantities of single-stranded oligonucleotide libraries derived from microarray synthesized collections. The first approach, alkaline melting of double-stranded PCR amplified libraries with a biotinylated strand captured on streptavidin coated magnetic beads results in little or no non-biotinylated ssDNA. The second method wherein the phosphorylated strand of PCR amplified libraries is nucleolyticaly hydrolyzed is recommended when small amounts of libraries are needed. The third method combining in vitro transcription of PCR amplified libraries to reverse transcription of the RNA product into single-stranded cDNA is our recommended method to produce large amounts of oligonucleotide libraries. Finally, we propose a method to remove any primer binding sequences introduced during library amplification.

  20. Density equation of bio-coal briquettes and quantity of maize cob in Phitsanulok, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patomsok Wilaipon [Naresuan University, Phitsanulok (Thailand). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    One of the most important crops in Phitsanulok, a province in Northern Thailand, is maize. BaseD on the calculation, the quantity of maize cob produced in this region was approximately 220 kton year{sup -1}. The net heating value of maize cob was found to be 14.2 MJ kg{sup -1}. Therefore, the total energy over 874 TJ year-1 can be obtained from this agricultural waste. In the experiments, maize cob was utilized as the major ingredient for producing biomass-coal briquettes. The maize cob was treated with sodium hydroxide solution before mixing with coal fine. The ratios of coal:maize were 1:2 and 1:3, respectively. The range of briquetting pressures was from 4-8 MPa. The result showed that the density was strongly affected by both parameters. Finally, the relationship between biomass ratio, briquetting pressures and briquette density was developed and validated by using regression technique. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Process Design and Techno-economic Analysis for Materials to Treat Produced Waters.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimer, Brandon Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Paap, Scott M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sasan, Koroush [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nenoff, Tina M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Significant quantities of water are produced during enhanced oil recovery making these “produced water” streams attractive candidates for treatment and reuse. However, high concentrations of dissolved silica raise the propensity for fouling. In this paper, we report the design and economic analysis for a new ion exchange process using calcined hydrotalcite (HTC) to remove silica from water. This process improves upon known technologies by minimizing sludge product, reducing process fouling, and lowering energy use. Process modeling outputs included raw material requirements, energy use, and the minimum water treatment price (MWTP). Monte Carlo simulations quantified the impact of uncertainty and variability in process inputs on MWTP. These analyses showed that cost can be significantly reduced if the HTC materials are optimized. Specifically, R&D improving HTC reusability, silica binding capacity, and raw material price can reduce MWTP by 40%, 13%, and 20%, respectively. Optimizing geographic deployment further improves cost competitiveness.

  2. Prices versus quantities: choosing policies for promoting the development of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menanteau, Philippe; Finon, Dominique; Lamy, Marie-Laure

    2003-01-01

    Now that the risks of climate change have been confirmed and the European States have declared their willingness to pursue ambitious objectives for producing electricity from renewable energy sources, it becomes crucial to take a look at the relative efficiency of the different incentive schemes used. Such schemes may focus on quantities-defining national targets and setting up bidding systems, or quota systems providing for green certificate trading, or they may focus on prices-feed-in tariffs. Clearly, these instruments are much the same as those used in environmental policies, with similar discussion involved in their choice. Whatever the system chosen, the role of the public authorities is quite specific: to stimulate technical progress and speed up the technological learning processes so that ultimately renewable energy technologies will be able to compete with conventional technologies, once the environmental costs have been internalised. A comparison of instruments must thus take into account the characteristics of the innovation process and adoption conditions--uncertainties regarding cost curves, learning effects--which means also looking at dynamic efficiency criteria. The authors examine the efficiency of the different incentive schemes for the development of renewable energy sources, both from a theoretical point of view by comparing price-based approaches with quantity-based approaches, and from a practical point of view by looking at concrete examples of how these different instruments have been implemented. The paper concludes that a system of feed-in tariffs is more efficient than a bidding system, but highlights the theoretical interest of green certificate trading which must be confirmed through practice, given the influence of market structures and rules on the performance of this type of approach

  3. Moving beyond quantity of participation in process evaluation of an intervention to prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Keriann H

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle interventions have successfully prevented excessive gestational weight gain. Understanding the program processes through which successful interventions achieve outcomes is important for the design of effective programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the quantity and quality of participation in a healthy lifestyle intervention on risk of excessive gestational weight gain. Findings Pregnant women (N = 179 received five newsletters about weight, nutrition, and exercise plus postcards on which they were asked to set related goals and return to investigators. The quantity of participation (dose was defined as low for returning few or some vs. high for many postcards (N = 89, 49.7%. Quality of participation was low for setting few vs. high for some or many appropriate goals (N = 92, 51.4%. Fisher’s exact tests and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze the effect of participation variables on the proportion with excessive weight gain. Quantity and quality of participation alone were each not significantly associated with excessive gestational weight gain, while quality of participation among those with high-levels of participation approached significance (p = 0.07. The odds of gaining excessively was decreased when women had both a high quantity and quality of participation (OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.005, 0.30. Conclusions Both quantity and quality of participation are important program process measures in evaluations of lifestyle interventions to promote healthy weight gain during pregnancy.

  4. Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)—positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis—produces commercially...

  5. Assessment of Sleep Quantity and Sleep Disturbances During Recovery From Sports-Related Concussion in Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdaugh, Donna L; Ono, Kim E; Reisner, Andrew; Burns, Thomas G

    2018-05-01

    To determine the relation between sleep quantity and sleep disturbances on symptoms and neurocognitive ability during the acute phase (sports-related concussion (SRC; >21d). Prospective inception cohort study. General community setting of regional middle and high schools. A sample (N=971) including youth athletes with SRC (n=528) and controls (n=443) (age, 10-18y). Not applicable. Athletes completed the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing battery. Partial correlation analyses and independent t tests were conducted to assess sleep quantity the night before testing. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to assess sleep disturbances and their interaction with age. Less sleep quantity was correlated with greater report of cognitive (P=.001) and neuropsychological (P=.024) symptoms specific to prolonged recovery from SRC. Sleep disturbances significantly affect each migraine, cognitive, and neuropsychological symptoms (Psleep disturbances and age (P=.04) at >21 days post-SRC. Findings emphasize that the continued presence of low sleep quantity and sleep disturbances in youth athletes with SRC should be a specific indicator to health professionals that these athletes are at an increased risk of protracted recovery. Further research should identify additional factors that may interact with sleep to increase the risk of protracted recovery. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation Exposure Decreases the Quantity and Quality of Cardiac Stem Cells in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lan; Urata, Yoshishige; Yan, Chen; Hasan, Al Shaimaa; Goto, Shinji; Guo, Chang-Ying; Tou, Fang-Fang; Xie, Yucai; Li, Tao-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Radiation exposure may increase cardiovascular disease risks; however, the precise molecular/cellular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that radiation impairs cardiac stem cells (CSCs), thereby contributing to future cardiovascular disease risks. Adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 3 Gy γ-rays, and heart tissues were collected 24 hours later for further experiments. Although c-kit-positive cells were rarely found, radiation exposure significantly induced apoptosis and DNA damage in the cells of the heart. The ex vivo expansion of CSCs from freshly harvested atrial tissues showed a significantly lower production of CSCs in irradiated mice compared with healthy mice. The proliferative activity of CSCs evaluated by Ki-67 expression was not significantly different between the groups. However, compared to the healthy control, CSCs expanded from irradiated mice showed significantly lower telomerase activity, more 53BP1 foci in the nuclei, lower expression of c-kit and higher expression of CD90. Furthermore, CSCs expanded from irradiated mice had significantly poorer potency in the production of insulin-like growth factor-1. Our data suggest that radiation exposure significantly decreases the quantity and quality of CSCs, which may serve as sensitive bio-parameters for predicting future cardiovascular disease risks. PMID:27195709

  7. Radiation Exposure Decreases the Quantity and Quality of Cardiac Stem Cells in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Luo

    Full Text Available Radiation exposure may increase cardiovascular disease risks; however, the precise molecular/cellular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that radiation impairs cardiac stem cells (CSCs, thereby contributing to future cardiovascular disease risks. Adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 3 Gy γ-rays, and heart tissues were collected 24 hours later for further experiments. Although c-kit-positive cells were rarely found, radiation exposure significantly induced apoptosis and DNA damage in the cells of the heart. The ex vivo expansion of CSCs from freshly harvested atrial tissues showed a significantly lower production of CSCs in irradiated mice compared with healthy mice. The proliferative activity of CSCs evaluated by Ki-67 expression was not significantly different between the groups. However, compared to the healthy control, CSCs expanded from irradiated mice showed significantly lower telomerase activity, more 53BP1 foci in the nuclei, lower expression of c-kit and higher expression of CD90. Furthermore, CSCs expanded from irradiated mice had significantly poorer potency in the production of insulin-like growth factor-1. Our data suggest that radiation exposure significantly decreases the quantity and quality of CSCs, which may serve as sensitive bio-parameters for predicting future cardiovascular disease risks.

  8. Effect of Temperature and Process on Quantity and Composition of Laboratory-generated Bitumen Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliet, Christophe; Kriech, Anthony J; Juery, Catherine; Vaissiere, Mathieu; Brinton, Michael A; Osborn, Linda V

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the impact of temperature on emissions as related to various bitumen applications and processes used in commercial products. Bitumen emissions are very complex and can be influenced in quantity and composition by differences in crude source, refining processes, application temperature, and work practices. This study provided a controlled laboratory environment to study five bitumen test materials from three European refineries; three paving grade, one used for primarily roofing and some paving applications, and one oxidized industrial specialty bitumen. Emissions were generated at temperatures between 140°C and 230°C based on typical application temperatures of each product. Emissions were characterized by aerodynamic particle size, total organic matter (TOM), simulated distillation, 40 individual PACs, and fluorescence (FL-PACs) spectroscopy. Results showed that composition of bitumen emissions is influenced by temperature under studied experimental conditions. A distinction between the oxidized bitumen with flux oil (industrial specialty bitumen) and the remaining bitumens was observed. Under typical temperatures used for paving (150°C-170°C), the TOM and PAC concentrations in the emissions were low. However, bitumen with flux oil produced significantly higher emissions at 230°C, laden with high levels of PACs. Flux oil in this bitumen mixture enhanced release of higher boiling-ranged compounds during application conditions. At 200°C and below, concentrations of 4-6 ring PACs were ≤6.51 μg/m(3) for all test materials, even when flux oil was used. Trends learned about emission temperature-process relationships from this study can be used to guide industry decisions to reduce worker exposure during processing and application of hot bitumen.

  9. W, F, and I : Three quantities basic to radiation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokuti, M.

    1998-01-01

    The W value is an index of the mean number of ions produced in a gas subjected to ionizing radiation. Formally, it is defined as the radiation energy absorbed (usually expressed in units of eV) ''per ion pair of either sign produced'', or, in a simpler language, ''per electron liberated''. The basic knowledge up to 1961 is eloquently articulated in a classic essay by Platzman [1], which Professor Doke loves to cite. The theme of Platzman was to explain from the point of view of basic physics the magnitude and characteristics of the ratio W/I, where I is the (first) ionization threshold energy. In summary, major characteristics are as follows. (1) The W value for a given gas depends weakly on the properties of the radiation such as the mass and charge of particles or initial energies (provided they are sufficiently high). This makes the ionization measurement useful as a method of dosimetry, viz., the determination of the absorbed energy. (2) The ratio W/I is always greater than unity because a part of the absorbed energy must be used in nonionizing events such as discrete excitation or molecular dissociation into neutral fragments and also in producing subexcitation electrons, viz., electrons with kinetic energies too low to cause electronic excitation or ionization [2]. (3) The ratio W/I is 1.7-1.8 for rare gases, and 2.1-2.6 for gases of common molecules (depending on the electronic structure, going from ''hard'' to ''soft''). Calculation of the W value is possible from three approaches: (i) the energy balance of Platzman, heuristic for general understanding and appropriate for an estimate; (ii) the Fowler equation [3] for the direct evaluation of the mean number of ions produced; and (iii) the method of Spencer and Fano [4] through the degradation spectra (or the track length distributions) of charged particles, most importantly of electrons, present in the medium. The Fowler method is good for obtaining the mean number of ions or excited states resulting from

  10. Producing charcoal from wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental works to use wood wastes for producing charcoal are examined, which are being conducted in the Sverdlovsk assembly and adjustment administration of Soyuzorglestekhmontazh. A wasteless prototype installation for producing fine charcoal is described, along with its subsequent briqueting, which is made on the basis of units which are series produced by the factories of the country. The installation includes subassemblies for preparing and drying the raw material and for producing the charcoal briquets. In the opinion of specialists, the charcoal produced from the wastes may be effectively used in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and in the production of pipes.

  11. Yield and properties of ethanol biofuel produced from different whole cassava flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademiluyi, F T; Mepba, H D

    2013-01-01

    The yield and properties of ethanol biofuel produced from five different whole cassava flours were investigated. Ethanol was produced from five different whole cassava flours. The effect of quantity of yeast on ethanol yield, effect of whole cassava flour to acid and mineralized media ratio on the yield of ethanol produced, and the physical properties of ethanol produced from different cassava were investigated. Physical properties such as distillation range, density, viscosity, and flash point of ethanol produced differ slightly for different cultivars, while the yield of ethanol and electrical conductivity of ethanol from the different cassava cultivars varies significantly. The variation in mineral composition of the different whole cassava flours could also lead to variation in the electrical conductivity of ethanol produced from the different cassava cultivars. The differences in ethanol yield are attributed to differences in starch content, protein content, and dry matter of cassava cultivars. High yield of ethanol from whole cassava flour is best produced from cultivars with high starch content, low protein content, and low fiber.

  12. Effect of pilot fuel quantity on the performance of a dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Alla, G.H.; Soliman, H.A.; Badr, O.A.; Abd Rabbo, M.F. [Zagazig University, Cairo (Egypt). Shoubra Faculty of Engineering

    2000-04-01

    It is well known that the operation of dual fuel engines at lower loads suffers from lower thermal efficiency and higher unburned percentages of fuel. To rectify this problem, tests have been conducted on a special single cylinder compression ignition research engine (Ricardo E6) to investigate the effect of pilot fuel quantity on the performance of an indirect injection diesel engine fuelled with gaseous fuel. Diesel fuel was used as the pilot fuel and methane or propane was used as the main fuel which was inducted into the intake manifold to mix with the intake air. Through experimental investigations, it is shown that, the low efficiency and excess emissions at light loads can be improved significantly by increasing the amount of pilot fuel, while increasing the amount of pilot fuel at high loads led to early knocking. (author)

  13. Amending greenroof soil with biochar to affect runoff water quantity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Deborah A; Johnson, Gwynn R; Spolek, Graig A

    2011-01-01

    Numbers of greenroofs in urban areas continue to grow internationally; so designing greenroof soil to reduce the amount of nutrients in the stormwater runoff from these roofs is becoming essential. This study evaluated changes in extensive greenroof water discharge quality and quantity after adding biochar, a soil amendment promoted for its ability to retain nutrients in soils and increase soil fertility. Prototype greenroof trays with and without biochar were planted with sedum or ryegrass, with barren soil trays used as controls. The greenroof trays were subjected to two sequential 7.4cm/h rainfall events using a rain simulator. Runoff from the rain events was collected and evaluated. Trays containing 7% biochar showed increased water retention and significant decreases in discharge of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, phosphate, and organic carbon. The addition of biochar to greenroof soil improves both runoff water quality and retention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimal Decision-Making in Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity (EOQ Model under Restricted Space: A Non-Linear Programming Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pattnaik

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the concept of fuzzy Non-Linear Programming Technique is applied to solve an economic order quantity (EOQ model under restricted space. Since various types of uncertainties and imprecision are inherent in real inventory problems they are classically modeled using the approaches from the probability theory. However, there are uncertainties that cannot be appropriately treated by usual probabilistic models. The questions how to define inventory optimization tasks in such environment how to interpret optimal solutions arise. This paper allows the modification of the Single item EOQ model in presence of fuzzy decision making process where demand is related to the unit price and the setup cost varies with the quantity produced/Purchased. This paper considers the modification of objective function and storage area in the presence of imprecisely estimated parameters. The model is developed for the problem by employing different modeling approaches over an infinite planning horizon. It incorporates all concepts of a fuzzy arithmetic approach, the quantity ordered and the demand per unit compares both fuzzy non linear and other models. Investigation of the properties of an optimal solution allows developing an algorithm whose validity is illustrated through an example problem and ugh MATLAB (R2009a version software, the two and three dimensional diagrams are represented to the application. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution is also studied with respect to changes in different parameter values and to draw managerial insights of the decision problem.

  15. Quantity-Quality and the One Child Policy:The Only-Child Disadvantage in School Enrollment in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Qian

    2009-01-01

    Many believe that increasing the quantity of children will lead to a decrease in their quality. This paper exploits plausibly exogenous changes in family size caused by relaxations in China's One Child Policy to estimate the causal effect of family size on school enrollment of the first child. The results show that for one-child families, an additional child significantly increased school enrollment of first-born children by approximately 16 percentage-points. The effect is larger for househo...

  16. The Quantity and Quality of Brahman Cross Cattle Embryo After Injected FSH and PMSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriani Adriani

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty cattles were used in this experiment to determine the quantity and quality of embryo after injected FSH (follicle stimulating hormone and PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin in Brahman Cross Cattle. The experiment was assigned into Completely Randomized Design with 5 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were T1 = 4 mg of FSH twice a day intra-ovary decreased doses, T2 = 8 mg of FSH twice a day intra-ovary decreased doses, T3 = 300 IU of PMSG single dose intra-ovary, T4 = 600 IU of PMSG single dose intra-ovary, T5 = 40 mg of FSH twice a day intramuscular decreased doses. Trial cattle were oestrus synchronized using 15 mg of PGF2α that gave twice at 11-daily intervals. One day after giving FSH and PMSG was detected the cattle’s oestrus. Washing uterus was done at day 7 after AI using mixture of PBS, FCS and streptomicyn. Data observed were cow performances, embryo quantity and embryo quality. Results of experiment showed that 19 cattle (95% responded oestrus synchronized treatment and super ovulation, whereas 1 cattle (5% did not respond oestrus synchronized treatment and super ovulation. Generally, cattle showed oestrus at 2 – 3 days after giving PGF2α. Eleven cattle (57,90% showed oestrus at 2 days after giving PGF2α whereas the others (8 cattle, 42,10% showed oestrus 3 days giving PGF2α. The treatment of giving FSH and PMSG could increase (P<0,05 embryo. T5 was highest compared the others ( T1, T2, T3 and T4, while T2 and T4 were higher than T1 and T3. Produced total embryo was 82 with average 4,3 ± 5,67 using FSH and PMSG. 8 embryo (9,76%, 9 embryos (10,90, 20 embryo (24,40%, 16 embryo (19,50% and 29 embryos (35,40% were grade A, B, C, D and E respectively. It is concluded that giving of 40 mg FSH intramusculer produce the best embryo donor whereas and giving of FSH 8 mg intraovari was the best effeciency. (Animal Production 11(2: 96-102 (2009 Key Words : Brahman Cross Cattle, embryo, PGF2α PMSG, FSH

  17. Changes in sleep quantity and efficiency in professional rugby union players during home based training and match-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, A; Mclellan, C; Hing, W; Carloss, N; Lovell, D

    2014-11-04

    Adequate sleep is paramount to athlete recovery and performance, however little is know about the typical sleep patterns of professional rugby union players during home based training and match-play in the competitive season. The aim of the present study was to monitor changes in sleep quantity and efficiency of elite male rugby union players over a twelve night period, which included training and two competitive matches. A total of ten elite male rugby union players from a selected team, participated in the study. Athletes sleep quantity and efficiency was monitored over a twelve night period using the Bodymedia sensewear units (BSU). There was a significant difference in sleep quantity (pwake over the twelve night period. Sleep efficiency is defined as a percentage score calculated by incorporating movement and physiological measures over the sleep duration as determined by the BSU. Also there was no significant difference between sleep parameters on the game nights. The findings show players have significantly (p<0.05) reduced sleep following a home game, which is of concern considering the established negative influence of sleep deprivation on cognitive and physical performance. This data may assist coaching, medical and performance staff to develop and implement team and individualised sleep monitoring regimes to optimise training and on-field performance.

  18. 7 CFR 1421.109 - Personal liability of the producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Remove or dispose of a quantity of commodity that is collateral for a CCC farm-stored loan without prior... CCC. CCC will demand delivery of any remaining loan collateral if not repaid within the 30 calendar... the loan collateral without the approval of CCC. (m) A producer shall be personally liable for damages...

  19. Memory for multiple cache locations and prey quantities in a food-hoarding songbird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola eArmstrong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most animals can discriminate between pairs of numbers that are each less than four without training. However, North Island robins (Petroica longipes, a food hoarding songbird endemic to New Zealand, can discriminate between quantities of items as high as eight without training. Here we investigate whether robins are capable of other complex quantity discrimination tasks. We test whether their ability to discriminate between small quantities declines with 1. the number of cache sites containing prey rewards and 2. the length of time separating cache creation and retrieval (retention interval. Results showed that subjects generally performed above chance expectations. They were equally able to discriminate between different combinations of prey quantities that were hidden from view in 2, 3 and 4 cache sites from between 1, 10 and 60 seconds. Overall results indicate that North Island robins can process complex quantity information involving more than two discrete quantities of items for up to one minute long retention intervals without training.

  20. Power Producer Production Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kněžek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing developments in the electricity market, in particular the establishment of the Prague Energy Exchange (PXE and the associated transfer from campaign-driven sale to continuous trading, represent a significant change for power companies.  Power producing companies can now optimize the sale of their production capacities with the objective of maximizing profit from wholesale electricity and supporting services. The Trading Departments measure the success rate of trading activities by the gross margin (GM, calculated by subtracting the realized sales prices from the realized purchase prices and the production cost, and indicate the profit & loss (P&L to be subsequently calculated by the Control Department. The risk management process is set up on the basis of a business strategy defining the volumes of electricity that have to be sold one year and one month before the commencement of delivery. At the same time, this process defines the volume of electricity to remain available for spot trading (trading limits. 

  1. Principles and foundation: national standards on quantities and units in nuclear science field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lishu

    1993-11-01

    The main contents of National Standards on Quantities and units of atomic and nuclear physics (GB 3102.9) and Quantities and Units of nuclear reactions and ionizing radiations (GB 310.10) are presented in which most important quantities with their symbols and definitions in the nuclear scientific field are given. The principles and foundation, including the International System of Units (SI) and its application to the nuclear scientific field, in the setting of the National Standards are explained

  2. Measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in metallic lithium and lithium oxide samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The LBM program requires that nanocurie quantities of tritium, bred in both lithium oxide pellets and lithium samples, be measured with an uncertainty not exceeding + or - 6%. Two methods of accurately measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in LBM lithium oxide pellets and one method of accurately measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in lithium samples are described. Potential errors associated with these tritium measurement techniques are also discussed

  3. Lie-Mei symmetry and conserved quantities of the Rosenberg problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiao-Wei; Li Yuan-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The Rosenberg problem is a typical but not too complicated problem of nonholonomic mechanical systems. The Lie—Mei symmetry and the conserved quantities of the Rosenberg problem are studied. For the Rosenberg problem, the Lie and the Mei symmetries for the equation are obtained, the conserved quantities are deduced from them and then the definition and the criterion for the Lie—Mei symmetry of the Rosenberg problem are derived. Finally, the Hojman conserved quantity and the Mei conserved quantity are deduced from the Lie—Mei symmetry. (general)

  4. Lie-Mei symmetry and conserved quantities of the Rosenberg problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Wei; Li, Yuan-Cheng

    2011-07-01

    The Rosenberg problem is a typical but not too complicated problem of nonholonomic mechanical systems. The Lie—Mei symmetry and the conserved quantities of the Rosenberg problem are studied. For the Rosenberg problem, the Lie and the Mei symmetries for the equation are obtained, the conserved quantities are deduced from them and then the definition and the criterion for the Lie—Mei symmetry of the Rosenberg problem are derived. Finally, the Hojman conserved quantity and the Mei conserved quantity are deduced from the Lie—Mei symmetry.

  5. 76 FR 82320 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-288] Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. [[Page 82321

  6. [Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system] / Stefan Werner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Werner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2011. (Dissertationes philologiae estonicae Universitatis Tartuensis ; 29)

  7. Patterns in new dimensionless quantities containing melting temperature, and their dependence on pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. WALZER

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationships existing between melting temperature and other
    macroscopic physical quantities are investigated. A new dimensionless
    quantity Q(1 not containing the Grtineisen parameter proves to be suited for serving in future studies as a tool for the determination of the melting temperature in the outer core of the Earth. The pressure dependence of more general dimensionless quantities Q„ is determined analytically and, for the chemical elements, numerically, too. The patterns of various interesting dimensionless quantities are shown in the Periodic Table and compared.

  8. Quantity assessment of waste in the dismantlement of liquid waste treatment plant and its actual state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Takafumi; Mitsuhashi, Ishi; Matsumoto, Tetsuo; Morishima, Kayoko; Tanzawa, Tomio

    2016-01-01

    From the progress of decommissioning project work of Tokyo City University Atomic Energy Research Institute, this paper reports the comparison between the actual amount of the waste generated during dismantlement work at liquid waste treatment facilities and the assessment quantity before starting the dismantlement. The quantity assessment was made on the basis of the installation license application, design specifications, drawings, records, history of use, site investigation results, etc. Since this quantity assessment did not take into account the dismantling contents of reservoir concrete, the assessed quantity of non-radioactive waste (NR waste) did not match the sum of actual NR waste. However, if an actually generated quantity of concrete of radioactive waste was added to the quantity assessment as NR waste, the quantity of actually generated NR waste and that of assessed NR waste were nearly consistent, which verified the validity of this assessment. This method is considered to be able to be utilized in the future quantity assessment of decommissioning work and the like. On the other hand, it was found that the number of drums that were actually stored tended to increase more than the estimated number of drum conversion. In old buildings, it is necessary to take into account the generation of waste other than radioactive materials in the quantity assessment stage and dismantlement stage. (A.O.)

  9. Biologically produced sulfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are

  10. Consumers and Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Maira (Elisa)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the last few decades, advances in information and communication technology have dramatically changed the way consumers and producers interact in the marketplace. The Internet and social media have torn down the information barrier between producers and consumers, leading to

  11. Producers and oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, W.

    1993-01-01

    This article attempts an assessment of the potential use of futures by the Middle East oil producers. It focuses on Saudi Arabia since the sheer size of Saudi Arabian sales poses problems, but the basic issues discussed are similar for the other Middle East producers. (Author)

  12. The Rise Of BIM in Malaysia And Its Impact Towards Quantity Surveying Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainon Nurshuhada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Building Information Modeling (BIM is a new buzzword that is gaining a momentum within the construction industry in Malaysia, and worldwide. BIM is a way of working that involves the automation of the entire project team using a 4D model that can do many of the traditional fuctions of a Quatity Surveyor (QS. As BIM is removing more of the traditional work of QS, there are rising fears that it could threaten the viability of the QS professions especially for small firms that still rely on producing bills of quantities. This paper aims to review the challenges and opportunities gained from BIM advancement in QS profession, especially in Malaysia. Despite of serious cost and commercial challenges of BIM implementation, BIM will work wonder as a tool that will cut the amount of time QS have to spend on analysis and provides opportunities to direct QS talents towards being more efficient. This is resulting to better project coordination with a lot less conflict, a more sustainable building in the final instance and also throughout the process, as less time is spent on each stage.

  13. Long-term biomass resources for energy aim - quantities, costs and conditions of the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gylling, M.; Abildtrup, J.; Vodder Nielsen, K.; Petersen, S.M.; Varming, S.

    2001-01-01

    This project assesses the agricultural, technical and economic possibilities for producing the planned quantity of energy crops in year 2015. The assessments in this project are based on two essential assumptions: 1) The total demand for straw and energy crops to meet the energy plans is added up, and the available amount of straw is used first and energy crops will be used for the remaining amount. 2) As long as the present economic conditions for set-aside prevails, it will only be the set-aside areas that will be available for energy crop production. Energy crops are not seen as economic competitive with other cash-crops on the reform areas.Three different scenarios for the agricultural crop production up to year 2015 are outlined; a reference scenario where the current development is extrapolated; an environment scenario in which a higher degree of environmental awareness is taken into account and a market scenario in which the economic competitiveness of agricultural production gains more focus. (au)

  14. Quantities of uranium-235 buried in disposal boxes, 1985--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    IWT was asked by J. R. Schornhorst of NPSR to determine the distribution of the quantity of enriched uranium per disposal box (B-25) of the years 1985--1991 to provide input to an uptake of the E Area Safety Analysis. This information was considered important since the issue of criticality is an important concern in safety analyses. Information found in the COBRA data base shows no disposal containers exceeded 100 grams of U-235. The COBRA data base was queried in a two-step process. First a short program in the NATURAL language was used to retrieve all records beginning with January 1983 having a Burial Code of less than 4, indicating low-level waste disposed in trenches. These records were then passed to a temporary storage file and read into a program written in Statistical Analysis System (SAS) language. SAS was used to eliminate waste from the Naval Fuel Facility, which will not operate in the future, and to sort the records in order of increasing amounts of U-235. The SAS procedure FREQ was then used to produce a cumulative frequency distribution of grams of U-235. A total of 53,198 packages were disposed of during this time period, 277 of which contained U-235. The programs used and resulting output are attached as Appendix I

  15. On the technical development to minimize the quantity of solid wastes in a uranium conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otomura, Keiichiro; Ogura, Yoshikazu; Fujisaki, Sakae

    1987-01-01

    We have developed the new process of treating the waste liquor from a uranium conversion at Ningyo Toge Works PNC, Japan. This process consists of neutralizing precipitation, solid liquid separation, distillation and adsorption. At a neutralizing precipitation step a magnesium oxide is added in the waste liquor containing uranium and fluorine. Most of the uranium and fluorine in the waste liquor precipitate as magnesium compounds. A sulfuric acid is added to the precipitate separated by a filter to dissolve. The resulting solution is then distilled to recover a hydrofluoric acid as a distillate. Uranium is recovered from a residue by an anion exchange method. The recoverd fluorine and uranium are recycled to the main process of conversion. The filtrate separated at the precipitation step is then passed through adsorbing columns. The residual fluorine and uranium in the filtrate were adsorbed and removed by the chelating resine which selectively adsorb the uranium and fluorine. After that the treated waste liquor is discharged out of the plant. This process has merits of being able to minimize the quantity of solid waste in comparison with the conventional process and to recover uranium and fluorine. This process can also be applied to uranium reconversion process from uranium hexafluoride to uranium oxide and to uranium metal production process, which produce the same kind of waste liquor. (author)

  16. Water quality and quantity investigation of green roofs in a dry climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecham, S; Razzaghmanesh, M

    2015-03-01

    Low-energy pollutant removal strategies are now being sought for water sensitive urban design. This paper describes investigations into the water quality and quantity of sixteen, low-maintenance and unfertilized intensive and extensive green roof beds. The factors of Slope (1° and 25°), Depth (100 mm and 300 mm), Growing media (type A, type B and type C) and Species (P1, P2 and P3) were randomized according to a split-split plot design. This consisted of twelve vegetated green roof beds and four non-vegetated beds as controls. Stormwater runoff was collected from drainage points that were installed in each area. Samples of run-off were collected for five rainfall events and analysed for water retention capacity and the water quality parameters of NO₂, NO₃, NH₄, PO₄, pH, EC, TDS, Turbidity, Na, Ca, Mg and K. The results indicated significant differences in terms of stormwater water quality and quantity between the outflows of vegetated and non-vegetated systems. The water retention was between 51% and 96% and this range was attributed to the green roof configurations in the experiment. Comparing the quality of rainfall as inflow, and the quality of runoff from the systems showed that green roofs generally acted as a source of pollutants in this study. In the vegetated beds, the intensive green roofs performed better than the extensive beds with regard to outflow quality while in the non-vegetated beds, the extensive beds performed better than intensive systems. This highlights the importance of vegetation in improving water retention capacity as well as the role of vegetation in enhancing pollutant removal in green roof systems. In addition growing media with less organic matter had better water quality performance. Comparison of these results with national and international standards for water reuse confirmed that the green roof outflow was suitable for non-potable uses such as landscape irrigation and toilet flushing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  17. A Little Here, A Little There, A Fairly Big Problem Everywhere: Small Quantity Site Transuranic Waste Disposition Alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, Dale Elden; Parker, Douglas Wayne; Moss, J.; Monk, Thomas Hugh; Fritz, Lori Lee; Daugherty, B.; Hladek, K.; Kosiewicx, S.

    2000-01-01

    Small quantities of transuranic (TRU) waste represent a significant challenge to the waste disposition and facility closure plans of several sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the results of a series of evaluations, using a systems engineering approach, to identify the preferred alternative for dispositioning TRU waste from small quantity sites (SQSs). The TRU waste disposition alternatives evaluation used semi-quantitative data provided by the SQSs, potential receiving sites, and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to select and recommend candidate sites for waste receipt, interim storage, processing, and preparation for final disposition of contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. The evaluations of only four of these SQSs resulted in potential savings to the taxpayer of $33 million to $81 million, depending on whether mobile systems could be used to characterize, package, and certify the waste or whether each site would be required to perform this work. Small quantity shipping sites included in the evaluation included the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL), University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), and Mound. Candidate receiving sites included the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), the Savannah River Site (SRS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge (OR), and Hanford. At least 14 additional DOE sites having TRU waste may be able to save significant money if cost savings are similar to the four evaluated thus far

  18. A little here, a little there, a fairly big problem everywhere: Small-quantity-site transuranic waste disposition alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Luke; D. Parker; J. Moss; T. Monk; L. Fritz; B. Daugherty; K. Hladek; S. Kosiewicx

    2000-01-01

    Small quantities of transuranic (TRU) waste represent a significant challenge to the waste disposition and facility closure plans of several sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the results of a series of evaluations, using a systems engineering approach, to identify the preferred alternative for dispositioning TRU waste from small quantity sites (SQSs). The TRU waste disposition alternatives evaluation used semi-quantitative data provided by the SQSs, potential receiving sites, and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to select and recommend candidate sites for waste receipt, interim storage, processing, and preparation for final disposition of contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. The evaluations of only four of these SQSs resulted in potential savings to the taxpayer of $33 million to $81 million, depending on whether mobile systems could be used to characterize, package, and certify the waste or whether each site would be required to perform this work. Small quantity shipping sites included in the evaluation included the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL), University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), and Mound Laboratory. Candidate receiving sites included the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), the Savannah River Site (SRS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge (OR), and Hanford. At least 14 additional DOE sites having TRU waste may be able to save significant money if cost savings are similar to the four evaluated thus far

  19. Yogurt produced with cajuí (Anacardium othonianum Rizz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Martins Fonseca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yogurt added with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of cajuí pulp (Anacardium othonianum Rizz were characterized. Acidity, pH, protein, dry matter, firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and quantification of lactic acid bacteria were conducted at 0, 10, 20 and 30 days. Identification of volatiles compounds and sensory tests of preference, acceptance and consumption intention were performed on the first day of shelf-life. Preferred formulations are those that contain smaller proportions of pulp (5% which coincide with lower acidity. There was no significant effect (P>0.05 of the amount of pulp added and storage time on dry matter, lactic acid bacteria count, firmness, consistency and cohesiveness. Acidity and pH were significantly influenced (P <0.05 by the amount of pulp added and storage time. Protein levels were significantly lower (P <0.05 with the increase in the quantity of pulp added. Volatiles compounds in cajuí yogurt include ethyl butanoate, methyl butanoate, ethanol, hexanal, benzaldehyde and 3-methyl butanoate. There are technological potential in the production of yoghurt with cajuí with addition of 5% in proportion to the total volume of yogurt produced.

  20. Light interventions: a novel approach for sustaining sleep quality and quantity of elite swimmers under conditions of shifted circadian rhythm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyraki, Aikaterini; Andersen, Jakob Hildebrandt; Johansen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    , efficiency, latency, percentages of light, deep or REM sleep were the variables under investigation. The sleep output was modeled (ANOVA) with subject as a random effect and phase as fixed effect. It was observed that the light program during the intervention phase significantly enabled the conservation...... of sleep quantity and quality of the swimmers, despite the shifted circadian rhythm. The hypothesis of no effect of phase of experiment on sleep duration, efficiency, latency, percentage of light, deep and REM sleep were all accepted with p. values 0.17, 0.53, 0.90, 0.38, 0.57 and 0.52, respectively......For the 2016 Olympics at Rio De Janeiro the Danish swimmers was facing a very important problem, how to maintain a good sleep quality, quantity and high performance potential, while being subject to large shift in circadian rhythm. In the present study we suggest an alternative approach...

  1. AMDTreat 5.0+ with PHREEQC titration module to compute caustic chemical quantity, effluent quality, and sludge volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.; Means, Brent P; Arthur, Willam; McKenzie, Robert M; Parkhurst, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline chemicals are commonly added to discharges from coal mines to increase pH and decrease concentrations of acidity and dissolved aluminum, iron, manganese, and associated metals. The annual cost of chemical treatment depends on the type and quantities of chemicals added and sludge produced. The AMDTreat computer program, initially developed in 2003, is widely used to compute such costs on the basis of the user-specified flow rate and water quality data for the untreated AMD. Although AMDTreat can use results of empirical titration of net-acidic or net-alkaline effluent with caustic chemicals to accurately estimate costs for treatment, such empirical data are rarely available. A titration simulation module using the geochemical program PHREEQC has been incorporated with AMDTreat 5.0+ to improve the capability of AMDTreat to estimate: (1) the quantity and cost of caustic chemicals to attain a target pH, (2) the chemical composition of the treated effluent, and (3) the volume of sludge produced by the treatment. The simulated titration results for selected caustic chemicals (NaOH, CaO, Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3, or NH3) without aeration or with pre-aeration can be compared with or used in place of empirical titration data to estimate chemical quantities, treated effluent composition, sludge volume (precipitated metals plus unreacted chemical), and associated treatment costs. This paper describes the development, evaluation, and potential utilization of the PHREEQC titration module with the new AMDTreat 5.0+ computer program available at http://www.amd.osmre.gov/.

  2. Growth Hormone's Effect on Adipose Tissue: Quality versus Quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Darlene E; List, Edward O

    2017-07-26

    Obesity is an excessive accumulation or expansion of adipose tissue (AT) due to an increase in either the size and/or number of its characteristic cell type, the adipocyte. As one of the most significant public health problems of our time, obesity and its associated metabolic complications have demanded that attention be given to finding effective therapeutic options aimed at reducing adiposity or the metabolic dysfunction associated with its accumulation. Growth hormone (GH) has therapeutic potential due to its potent lipolytic effect and resultant ability to reduce AT mass while preserving lean body mass. However, AT and its resident adipocytes are significantly more dynamic and elaborate than once thought and require one not to use the reduction in absolute mass as a readout of efficacy alone. Paradoxically, therapies that reduce GH action may ultimately prove to be healthier, in part because GH also possesses potent anti-insulin activities along with concerns that GH may promote the growth of certain cancers. This review will briefly summarize some of the newer complexities of AT relevant to GH action and describe the current understanding of how GH influences this tissue using data from both humans and mice. We will conclude by considering the therapeutic use of GH or GH antagonists in obesity, as well as important gaps in knowledge regarding GH and AT.

  3. Survival with breast cancer: the importance of estrogen receptor quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, L L; Godolphin, W

    1989-02-01

    The survival of 1184 British Columbian women whose primary breast cancers were diagnosed and assayed for estrogen receptor (ER) between 1975 and 1981 was studied. Median follow-up was 60 months. ER concentrations yielded greater prognostic information than simple positive and negative categories. When ER data were divided into four strata: less than or equal to 1, 2-9, 10-159 and greater than or equal to 160 fmol/mg cytosol protein, the association of higher ER with prolonged survival was highly significant (P less than 0.0001) and independent of TNM stage, nodal status and menopausal status. ER less than or equal to 1 and ER = 2-9 groups were distinct with respect to overall disease-specific survival. Patient age did not predict survival when controlled for ER. Prolonged recurrence-free survival was associated with higher ER (P = 0.0001) for at least 5 years after diagnosis. This significant trend persisted after adjustments for nodal status, TNM stage, menopausal status and the type of systemic adjuvant therapy.

  4. Bioavailability of isoflavones from soy products in equol producers and non-producers in Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Miura

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: The results in this study suggest that bioavailability of isoflavones are different between equol producers and non-producers, because the 24 h urinary excretion of equol in the equol producers were significantly lower than those in the equol non-producers.

  5. Price effects of changing quantities supplied at the integrated european fish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Smit, Jos; Guillen, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    to be −1.1. This implies that price flexibilities previously estimated for single European countries underestimate price changes at the European level caused by quantity changes. Results indicate that changing quantities can increase revenues from individual species with large own-price flexibilities...

  6. 41 CFR 101-26.507-4 - Quantities in excess of the maximum order limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Quantities in excess of... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.507-4 Quantities in...

  7. On pure-strategy Nash equilibria in price-quantity games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, I.; Vermeulen, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the existence and characteristics of pure-strategy Nash equilibria in oligopoly models in which firms set both prices and quantities. Existence is proved for a broad and natural class of price-quantity games. With differentiated products, the equilibrium outcome is similar to

  8. 48 CFR 852.270-2 - Bread and bakery products-quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bread and bakery products... Bread and bakery products—quantities. As prescribed in 870.111-3, insert the following clause: Bread and Bakery Products—Quantities (JAN 2008) The bidder agrees to furnish up to 25 percent more or 25 percent...

  9. 29 CFR 780.814 - “Grown in commercial quantities.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT... “commercial” quantities, the trade understanding of what are “commercial” quantities of cotton would be...

  10. Non-Noether conserved quantity for differential equations of motion in the phase space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A non-Noether conserved quantity for the differential equations of motion of mechanical systems in the phase space is studied. The differential equations of motion of the systems are established and the determining equations of Lie symmetry are given. An existence theorem of non-Noether conserved quantity is obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  11. Are Quantity Surveyors Competent to Value for Civil Engineering Works? Evaluating QSs' Competencies and Militating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olawumi, Timothy Oluwatosin; Ayegun, Olaleke Amos

    2016-01-01

    The role of the quantity surveyor is one that is often unclear amongst the general public. This study discussed the competencies of the quantity surveyor in measuring and managing civil engineering works and also carrying out the financial management for civil engineering construction projects; also outlined the various competencies and skills…

  12. Optimal trading quantity integration as a basis for optimal portfolio management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Žiković

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The author in this paper points out the reason behind calculating and using optimal trading quantity in conjunction with Markowitz’s Modern portfolio theory. In the opening part the author presents an example of calculating optimal weights using Markowitz’s Mean-Variance approach, followed by an explanation of basic logic behind optimal trading quantity. The use of optimal trading quantity is not limited to systems with Bernoulli outcome, but can also be used when trading shares, futures, options etc. Optimal trading quantity points out two often-overlooked axioms: (1 a system with negative mathematical expectancy can never be transformed in a system with positive mathematical expectancy, (2 by missing the optimal trading quantity an investor can turn a system with positive expectancy into a negative one. Optimal trading quantity is that quantity which maximizes geometric mean (growth function of a particular system. To determine the optimal trading quantity for simpler systems, with a very limited number of outcomes, a set of Kelly’s formulas is appropriate. In the conclusion the summary of the paper is presented.

  13. 40 CFR 355.12 - What quantities of extremely hazardous substances trigger emergency planning requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMERGENCY PLANNING AND NOTIFICATION Emergency Planning Who Must Comply § 355.12 What quantities of extremely... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What quantities of extremely hazardous substances trigger emergency planning requirements? 355.12 Section 355.12 Protection of Environment...

  14. Variations of influence quantities in industrial irradiators and their effect on dosimetry performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, R.D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Many environmental factors, including irradiation temperature, post-irradiation storage temperature, dose rate, relative humidity, oxygen content and the energy spectrum may affect the response of dosimetry systems used in industrial radiation processing. Although the effects of individual influence quantities have been extensively studied, the variations of these influence quantities in production irradiators and the complex relationships between the effects of different influence quantities make it difficult to assess the overall effect on the measurement uncertainty. In the development of new dosimetry systems it is important to know the effect of each influence quantity and developers of new dosimetry systems should perform studies over a wide range of irradiation conditions. Analysis parameters and manufacturing specifications should be chosen to minimize the effect of influence quantities in the environments where the dosimeters will be used. Because of possible relationships between different influence quantities, care must be taken to ensure that the response function determined in the calibration of the dosimetry system is applicable for the conditions in which the dosimeters will be used. Reference standard dosimetry systems which have been thoroughly studied and have known relationships between dose response and influence quantities should be used to verify the calibration of routine dosimetry systems under the actual conditions of use. Better understanding of the variations in influence quantities in industrial irradiators may be obtained by modeling or direct measurements and may provide improvements in the calibration of routine dosimetry system and reduction of the overall measurement uncertainty. (author)

  15. 16 CFR 500.7 - Net quantity of contents, method of expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... expression. The net quantity of contents shall be expressed in terms of weight or mass, measure, numerical... consumers. The net quantity of contents statement shall be in terms of fluid measure if the commodity is liquid, or in terms of weight or mass if the commodity is solid, semi-solid, or viscous, or a mixture of...

  16. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products...

  17. Producing the Spielberg Brand

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter looks at the manufacture of Spielberg’s brand, and the limits of its usage. Spielberg’s directorial work is well known, but Spielberg’s identity has also been established in other ways, and I focus particularly on his work as a producer. At the time of writing, Spielberg had produced (or executive produced) 148 movies and television series across a range of genres that takes in high budget blockbusters and low budget documentaries, with many more to come. In these texts, Spielber...

  18. Calibration of personal dosemeters in terms of the ICRU operational quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.C.; Hertel, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements (ICRU) has defined several new operational quantities for radiation protection purposes. The quantities to be used for personal monitoring are defined at depths in the human body. Because these quantities are impossible to measure directly, the ICRU has recommended that personal dosimeters should be calibrated under simplified conditions on an appropriate phantom, such as the ICRU sphere. The U.S. personal dosimetry accreditation programs make use of a 30 x 30 x 15 cm polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom; therefore it is necessary to relate the response of dosimeters calibrated on this phantom to the ICRU operational quantities. Calculations of the conversion factors to compute dosimeter response in terms of the operational quantities have been performed using the code MCNP. These calculations have also been compared to experimental measurements using thermoluminescent (TLD) detectors. (author)

  19. Calibration of personal dosemeters in terms of the ICRU operational quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.C.; Hertel, N.E.

    1992-05-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements (ICRU) has defined several new operational quantities for radiation protection purposes. The quantities to be used for personal monitoring are defined at depths in the human body. Because these quantities are impossible to measure directly, the ICRU has recommended that personal dosemeters should be calibrated under simplified conditions on an appropriate phantom, such as the ICRU sphere. The US personal dosimetry accreditation programs make use of a 30 x 30 x 15 cm polymethymethacrylate (PMMA) phantom, therefore it is necessary to relate the response of dosemeters calibrated on this phantom to the ICRU operational quantities. Calculations of the conversion factors to compute dosemeter response in terms of the operational quantities have been performed using the code MCNP. These calculations have also been compared to experimental measurements using thermoluminescent (TLD) detectors

  20. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  1. Deposit Mariovo geological characteristics coal quality and quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreevski, Borche

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of the actual situation with energy resources, in a global scale, shows negative trends, which is result from the numerous complex factors influences. Special influence over these trends has increased requirement and consumption of the fossil fuels, driven by the intensive technological development and unplanned long-term exploitation, which causes huge reduction of the available fossil fuels deposits and significant price oscillations. Additional contribution to this tendency has the fact that potential fossil fuels reserves are controlled from limited number of owners, which allows them to have global geo-strategic control over the energy resources, world politics and other types of influences. In such conditions underdevelopment countries will feel the biggest consequences and they will be forced to provide(conditionally, if there is an energy surplus at the market) and to save considerable financial resources for satisfying their needs. Maximal usage of country's own possessed energy raw material bases the only way out from this situation and it is also used by the countries which are at he greatest development level then ours. If we want to incorporate these reserves into the energetic strategy and energy balances they must be exactly defined and determined. According to the presented approach, paper has aim to make synthesis of previous investigations, through argumentation of geological specifics and quantitative-qualitative characteristics of deposit Mariovo coal given in the available documentation, and also has intention to point out its respectable characteristics. (Author)

  2. Deposit Mariovo geological characteristics coal quality and quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreevski, Borche

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation of the actual situation with energy resources, in a global scale, shows negative trends, which is result from the numerous complex factors influences. Special influence over these trends has increased requirement and consumption of the fossil fuels, driven by the intensive technological development and unplanned long-term exploitation, which causes huge reduction of the available fossil fuels deposits and significant price oscillations. Additional contribution to this tendency has the fact that potential fossil fuels reserves are controlled from limited number of owners, which allows them to have global geo-strategic control over the energy resources, world politics and other types of influences. In such conditions underdevelopment countries will feel the biggest consequences and they will be forced to provide(conditionally, if there is an energy surplus at the market) and to save considerable financial resources for satisfying their needs. Maximal usage of country's own possessed energy raw material bases the only way out from this situation and it is also used by the countries which are at he greatest development level then ours. If we want to incorporate these reserves into the energetic strategy and energy balances they must be exactly defined and determined. According to the presented approach, paper has aim to make synthesis of previous investigations, through argumentation of geological specifics and quantitative-qualitative characteristics of deposit Mariovo coal given in the available documentation, and also has intention to point out its respectable characteristics. (Author)

  3. Methods for producing diterpenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention discloses that by combining different di TPS enzymes of class I and class II different diterpenes may be produced including diterpenes not identified in nature. Surprisingly it is revealed that a di TPS enzyme of class I of one species may be combined with a di TPS enzyme...... of class II from a different species, resulting in a high diversity of diterpenes, which can be produced....

  4. Polysaccharide-producing microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braud, J.P.; Chaumont, D.; Gudin, C.; Thepenier, C.; Chassin, P.; Lemaire, C.

    1982-11-01

    The production of extracellular polysaccharides is studied with Nostoc sp (cyanophycus), Porphiridium cruentum, Rhodosorus marinus, Rhodella maculata (rhodophyci) and Chlamydomonas mexicana (chlorophycus). The polysaccharides produced are separated by centrifugation of the culture then precipitation with alcohol. Their chemical structure was studied by infrared spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. By their rheological properties and especially their insensitivity to temperatrure and pH variations the polysaccharides produced by Porphryridium cruentum and Rhodella maculata appear as suitable candidates for industrial applications.

  5. The observation of leptin levels in pregnant women newborn and newborn's weight and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Gengbiao; Xiao Jin; Shi Xin; Chen Xuehong

    2002-01-01

    To study the relationship of leptin quantity of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood, maternal blood and newborn's weight, leptin levels of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood of 59 pregnant women were detected by RIA. Results were: (1) leptin was be detected from placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood; (2) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood (P < 0.01); (3) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood for normal pregnant women and pregnancy induced hypertension (P < 0.01); (4) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of maternal blood and placenta (P < 0.01). It may be of important significance to detect eh leptin quantity of amniotic fluid and maternal blood in pregnant women for predicting the weight and growth of newborns and treat pregnancy induced hypertension

  6. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Terry; Frost, Carol; Hayes, Thomas; Heath, Leo; Johnson, Drew; Lopez, David; Saffer, Demian; Urynowicz, Michael; Wheaton, John; Zoback, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm

  7. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  8. Method for producing dustless graphite spheres from waste graphite fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappano, Peter J [Oak Ridge, TN; Rogers, Michael R [Clinton, TN

    2012-05-08

    A method for producing graphite spheres from graphite fines by charging a quantity of spherical media into a rotatable cylindrical overcoater, charging a quantity of graphite fines into the overcoater thereby forming a first mixture of spherical media and graphite fines, rotating the overcoater at a speed such that the first mixture climbs the wall of the overcoater before rolling back down to the bottom thereby forming a second mixture of spherical media, graphite fines, and graphite spheres, removing the second mixture from the overcoater, sieving the second mixture to separate graphite spheres, charging the first mixture back into the overcoater, charging an additional quantity of graphite fines into the overcoater, adjusting processing parameters like overcoater dimensions, graphite fines charge, overcoater rotation speed, overcoater angle of rotation, and overcoater time of rotation, before repeating the steps until graphite fines are converted to graphite spheres.

  9. Investigation of selection methods im mutation breeding of barley for protein quantity and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulonska, E.; Gaul, H.; Baumer, M.; Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H., Gruenbach

    1975-01-01

    This mutation breeding programme is investigating the qualification of micro-mutations for the selection of improved protein quality and quantity. Normally, improvement of protein content in micro-mutations is rather small. Therefore, it is important to develop methods and conditions of selection being (a) capable of measuring these small deviations in protein content and quality, and (b) simple to use. In two experiments carried out in 1971 and 1972 nitrogen fertilization was found to be the most important factor in the improvement of selection conditions. There is a highly significant negative correlation between crude protein content and the standard deviation; i.e. the higher the content of crude protein, the lower the variation coefficient. This in turn leads to an increase of genetic variation necessary for better selection progress. Nitrogen fertilization, especially during ear emergence, covers environmental influences - e.g., planting space, sowing rate, growing in different plots (6, 3, 2, 1 rows or in half-ear hills) - to a great extent. Thus, by applying high doses of nitrogen dressings comparable results can be achieved. In an overall selection experiment (testing the entire crossing and mutation material available at Weihenstephan in a stepwise selection from 1971 to 1973) and two selection experiments conducted in 1971 to 1973 with micro-mutants - variety Nota, 4 times X-rayed and the naked barley strain 1606 treated once with EMS - significant selection results were found. (author)

  10. Effect of masticatory stimulation on the quantity and quality of saliva and the salivary metabolomic profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Okuma

    Full Text Available This study characterized the changes in quality and quantity of saliva, and changes in the salivary metabolomic profile, to understand the effects of masticatory stimulation.Stimulated and unstimulated saliva samples were collected from 55 subjects and salivary hydrophilic metabolites were comprehensively quantified using capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.In total, 137 metabolites were identified and quantified. The concentrations of 44 metabolites in stimulated saliva were significantly higher than those in unstimulated saliva. Pathway analysis identified the upregulation of the urea cycle and synthesis and degradation pathways of glycine, serine, cysteine and threonine in stimulated saliva. A principal component analysis revealed that the effect of masticatory stimulation on salivary metabolomic profiles was less dependent on sample population sex, age, and smoking. The concentrations of only 1 metabolite in unstimulated saliva, and of 3 metabolites stimulated saliva, showed significant correlation with salivary secretion volume, indicating that the salivary metabolomic profile and salivary secretion volume were independent factors.Masticatory stimulation affected not only salivary secretion volume, but also metabolite concentration patterns. A low correlation between the secretion volume and these patterns supports the conclusion that the salivary metabolomic profile may be a new indicator to characterize masticatory stimulation.

  11. Uncertainties in the measured quantities of water leaving waste Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minteer, D.J.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to estimate the uncertainty in the measured quantity of water which typically leaves Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system each month. Such measurements are essential for heat removal estimation and tank liquid level verification purposes. The uncertainty associated with the current, infrequent, manual method of measurement (involves various psychrometric and pressure measurements) is suspected to be unreasonably high. Thus, the possible reduction of this uncertainty using a continuous, automated method of measurement will also be estimated. There are three major conclusions as a result of this analysis: (1) the uncertainties associated with the current (infrequent, manual) method of measuring the water which typically leaves Tank 241-C-106 per month via the ventilation system are indeed quite high (80% to 120%); (2) given the current psychrometric and pressure measurement methods and any tank which loses considerable moisture through active ventilation, such as Tank 241-C-106, significant quantities of liquid can actually leak from the tank before a leak can be positively identified via liquid level measurement; (3) using improved (continuous, automated) methods of taking the psychrometric and pressure measurements, the uncertainty in the measured quantity of water leaving Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system can be reduced by approximately an order of magnitude.

  12. Uncertainties in the measured quantities of water leaving waste Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minteer, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to estimate the uncertainty in the measured quantity of water which typically leaves Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system each month. Such measurements are essential for heat removal estimation and tank liquid level verification purposes. The uncertainty associated with the current, infrequent, manual method of measurement (involves various psychrometric and pressure measurements) is suspected to be unreasonably high. Thus, the possible reduction of this uncertainty using a continuous, automated method of measurement will also be estimated. There are three major conclusions as a result of this analysis: (1) the uncertainties associated with the current (infrequent, manual) method of measuring the water which typically leaves Tank 241-C-106 per month via the ventilation system are indeed quite high (80% to 120%); (2) given the current psychrometric and pressure measurement methods and any tank which loses considerable moisture through active ventilation, such as Tank 241-C-106, significant quantities of liquid can actually leak from the tank before a leak can be positively identified via liquid level measurement; (3) using improved (continuous, automated) methods of taking the psychrometric and pressure measurements, the uncertainty in the measured quantity of water leaving Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system can be reduced by approximately an order of magnitude

  13. Evaluating the quantity of native H2 in Enceladus' plumes with the Cassini-INMS closed source data: constraints from modeling of ice grains impact in the instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, A.; Brockwell, T.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Chocron, S.; Teolis, B. D.; Perryman, R.; Walker, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    The data from the closed source of the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) at Enceladus' plumes shows a signal of H2 in significant quantities (15% mole fraction for low speed flybys). H2 would be considered a "smoking gun" for the suspected hydrothermal activity in Enceladus' ocean. However the H2 quantity varies with the speed of the flyby, which is attributed to the presence of ice grains in the plumes hitting the walls of the titanium antechamber of INMS and exposing fresh titanium that may react with water to form hydrogen. The large number of small ice grains arriving during a single INMS integration period creates a back-ground signal in addition to large grains causing punctual spikes. We have developed a surface chemistry model of the INMS, taking into account adsorption and chemisorption of species of interest to determine how much H2 is produced from the expected ice grains distribution for each flyby (given by Cassini CAPS data ). CTH simulations have been used to assess the contribution of grains of different size in terms of titanium produced. We show that the spikes in the mass 2 channel can be explained by microns-sized grains, and that smaller grains (below 500 nm) are the major contributors to reactions with titanium, accounting for most of the non-spike signal. We find that the mass 2 background signal due to titanium is strongly driven by the water available, and therefore its shape versus time can't follow the sharp rises in the data (see Figure). This makes the structures seen in flyby E18 either the product of several big grains or the observation of locally high density of H2 (jets). We will analyze the effect of grains on other mass channels and comparison to CDA data to de-termine whether the peaks can be attributed to multiple ice grains or to native H2. The work will be extended to the E17 and E14 flybys to reach a definitive assessment of the native H2 abundance in the Enceladus plume.

  14. Deployable nuclear fleet based on available quantities of uranium and reactor types – the case of fast reactors started up with enriched uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baschwitz Anne

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available International organizations regularly produce global energy demand scenarios. To account for the increasing population and GDP trends, as well as to encompass evolving energy uses while satisfying constraints on greenhouse gas emissions, long-term installed nuclear power capacity scenarios tend to be more ambitious, even after the Fukushima accident. Thus, the amounts of uranium or plutonium needed to deploy such capacities could be limiting factors. This study first considers light-water reactors (LWR, GEN III using enriched uranium, like most of the current reactor technologies. It then examines the contribution of future fast reactors (FR, GEN IV operating with an initial fissile load and then using depleted uranium and recycling their own plutonium. However, as plutonium is only available in limited quantity since it is only produced in nuclear reactors, the possibility of starting up these Generation IV reactors with a fissile load of enriched uranium is also explored. In one of our previous studies, the uranium consumption of a third-generation reactor like an EPR™ was compared with that of a fast reactor started up with enriched uranium (U5-FR. For a reactor lifespan of 60 years, the U5-FR consumes three times less uranium than the EPR and represents a 60% reduction in terms of separative work units (SWU, though its requirements are concentrated over the first few years of operation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relevance of U5-FRs in a nuclear fleet deployment configuration. Considering several power demand scenarios and assuming different finite quantities of available natural uranium, this paper examines what types of reactors must be deployed to meet the demand. The deployment of light-water reactors only is not sustainable in the long run. Generation IV reactors are therefore essential. Yet when started up with plutonium, the number of reactors that can be deployed is also limited. In a fleet deployment

  15. Mycotoxins: significance to global economics and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites produced my micro-fungi (molds and mildews) that have significant impacts on global economics and health. Some of these metabolites are beneficial, but most are harmful and have been associated with well-known epidemics dating back to medieval times. The terms ‘myco...

  16. Bullying in Academe: Prevalent, Significant, and Incessant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Macgorine A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the top-down perspective of bullying and mobbing of professors by analyzing why it is prevalent, significant, and incessant and then proposes a framework to produce a caring, respectful, and safe environment for professors to engage in their teaching, scholarship, and service. The author suggests that the failure of…

  17. Effect of maca supplementation on bovine sperm quantity and quality followed over two spermatogenic cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, C; Kneubühler, J; Urwyler, A; Witschi, U; Kreuzer, M

    2010-07-15

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers), is an Andean crop that grows between 3,800 and 4,500 m a.s.l. The persistent interest in this plant is based on its assumed effects on fertility of male mammals due to the prevalence of certain, partially specific, secondary compounds. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of maca supplementation on quality and quantity of semen, mating behavior, and clinical status of peripubertal breeding bulls. The experiment followed a cross-over design lasting for 23 wk with 3 wk of adaptation and baseline measurements, and 2 x 10 wk of treatment feeding thus covering two times the complete 8-wk spermatogenic cycle. Seventy-eight 55 wk to 84 wk old breeding bulls received either no maca (control) or maca (233 mg dried hypocotyls/kg body weight/day) for 10 wk followed by 10 wk without maca (maca early) or maca only in the last 10 wk (maca late). Measurements were always made in the last 2 wk of each period. Apart from standard analyses, ejaculates were analyzed by flow cytometry. Data was evaluated by analysis of variance considering the repeated measurement structure of the data. Significant treatment by measurement period indicated direct or carry-over effects of maca. Maca supplementation had no direct effect on body weight, testes circumference, rectal temperature, mating behavior, and ejaculate volume. However, supplementing maca in the first 10 wk period increased the number of sperms in the second 10 wk period, i.e., when the animals no longer received maca. The DNA fragmentation index and the visually assessed motility of the sperms of bulls, that initially showed a borderline sperm quality, were significantly improved with early maca supplementation, while no such effect was observed in the two other groups. No effects occurred in the proportion of intact sperm plasma membranes or acrosomes or both. In conclusion, maca supplementation seems to improve sperm quantity and quality of bulls to a certain degree, while mating

  18. Spatial and temporal patterns of dissolved organic matter quantity and quality in the Mississippi River Basin, 1997–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpoole, Sarah M.; Stets, Edward G.; Clow, David W.; Burns, Douglas A.; Aiken, George R.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Creed, Irena F.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Laudon, Hjalmar; Pellerin, Brian; Striegl, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have found insignificant or decreasing trends in time-series dissolved organic carbon (DOC) datasets, questioning the assumption that long-term DOC concentrations in surface waters are increasing in response to anthropogenic forcing, including climate change, land use, and atmospheric acid deposition. We used the weighted regressions on time, discharge, and season (WRTDS) model to estimate annual flow-normalized concentrations and fluxes to determine if changes in DOC quantity and quality signal anthropogenic forcing at 10 locations in the Mississippi River Basin. Despite increases in agriculture and urban development throughout the basin, net increases in DOC concentration and flux were significant at only 3 of 10 sites from 1997 to 2013 and ranged between −3.5% to +18% and −0.1 to 19%, respectively. Positive shifts in DOC quality, characterized by increasing specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm, ranged between +8% and +45%, but only occurred at one of the sites with significant DOC quantity increases. Basinwide reductions in atmospheric sulfate deposition did not result in large increases in DOC either, likely because of the high buffering capacity of the soil. Hydroclimatic factors including annual discharge, precipitation, and temperature did not significantly change during the 17-year timespan of this study, which contrasts with results from previous studies showing significant increases in precipitation and discharge over a century time scale. Our study also contrasts with those from smaller catchments, which have shown stronger DOC responses to climate, land use, and acidic deposition. This temporal and spatial analysis indicated that there was a potential change in DOC sources in the Mississippi River Basin between 1997 and 2013. However, the overall magnitude of DOC trends was not large, and the pattern in quantity and quality increases for the 10 study sites was not consistent throughout the basin.

  19. Quantity and quality limit detritivore growth: mechanisms revealed by ecological stoichiometry and co-limitation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Halvor M; Sperfeld, Erik; Evans-White, Michelle A

    2017-12-01

    Resource quantity and quality are fundamental bottom-up constraints on consumers. Best understood in autotroph-based systems, co-occurrence of these constraints may be common but remains poorly studied in detrital-based systems. Here, we used a laboratory growth experiment to test limitation of the detritivorous caddisfly larvae Pycnopsyche lepida across a concurrent gradient of oak litter quantity (food supply) and quality (phosphorus : carbon [P:C ratios]). Growth increased simultaneously with quantity and quality, indicating co-limitation across the resource gradients. We merged approaches of ecological stoichiometry and co-limitation theory, showing how co-limitation reflected shifts in C and P acquisition throughout homeostatic regulation. Increased growth was best explained by elevated consumption rates and improved P assimilation, which both increased with elevated quantity and quality. Notably, C assimilation efficiencies remained unchanged and achieved maximum 18% at low quantity despite pronounced C limitation. Detrital C recalcitrance and substantive post-assimilatory C losses probably set a minimum quantity threshold to achieve positive C balance. Above this threshold, greater quality enhanced larval growth probably by improving P assimilation toward P-intensive growth. We suggest this interplay of C and P acquisition contributes to detritivore co-limitation, highlighting quantity and quality as potential simultaneous bottom-up controls in detrital-based ecosystems, including under anthropogenic change like nutrient enrichment. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement was implemented by two-color pyrometry under quiescent type diesel engine conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration). Different fuel quantities, which correspond to different injection widths from 0.5 ms to 2 ms under constant injection pressure (1000 bar), were used to simulate different loads in engines. For a given fuel, soot temperature and KL factor show a different trend at initial stage for different fuel quantities, where a higher soot temperature can be found in a small fuel quantity case but a higher KL factor is observed in a large fuel quantity case generally. Another difference occurs at the end of combustion due to the termination of fuel injection. Additionally, BTL flame has a lower soot temperature, especially under a larger fuel quantity (2 ms injection width). Meanwhile, average soot level is lower for BTL flame, especially under a lower fuel quantity (0.5 ms injection width). BTL shows an overall low sooting behavior with low soot temperature compared to diesel, however, trade-off between soot level and soot temperature needs to be carefully selected when different loads are used.

  1. Producing metallurgic coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, T.; Isida, K.; Vada, Y.

    1982-11-18

    A mixture of power producing coals with coal briquets of varying composition is proposed for coking in horizontal chamber furnaces. The briquets are produced from petroleum coke, coal fines or semicoke, which make up less than 27 percent of the mixture to be briquetted and coals with a standard coking output of volatile substances and coals with high maximal Gizeler fluidity. The ratio of these coals in the mixture is 0.6 to 2.1 or 18 to 32 percent, respectively. Noncaking or poorly caking coals are used as the power producing coals. The hardness of the obtained coke is DJ15-30 = 90.5 to 92.7 percent.

  2. Non-Noether Conserved Quantity for Relativistic Nonholonomic System with Variable Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Yongfen; Li Renjie; Ma Yongsheng

    2005-01-01

    Using form invariance under special infinitesimal transformations in which time is not variable, the non-Noether conserved quantity of the relativistic nonholonomic system with variable mass is studied. The differential equations of motion of the system are established. The definition and criterion of the form invariance of the system under infinitesimal transformations are studied. The necessary and sufficient condition under which the form invariance is a Lie symmetry is given. The condition under which the form invariance can be led to a non-Noether conserved quantity and the form of the conserved quantity are obtained. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  3. The estimation of differential counting measurements of possitive quantities with relatively large statistical errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    Bayes' principle is applied to the differential counting measurement of a positive quantity in which the statistical errors are not necessarily small in relation to the true value of the quantity. The methods of estimation derived are found to give consistent results and to avoid the anomalous negative estimates sometimes obtained by conventional methods. One of the methods given provides a simple means of deriving the required estimates from conventionally presented results and appears to have wide potential applications. Both methods provide the actual posterior probability distribution of the quantity to be measured. A particularly important potential application is the correction of counts on low radioacitvity samples for background. (orig.)

  4. Coordinated Lot-sizing and Dynamic Prizing under a Supplier All-units Quantity Discount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Transchel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider an economic order quantity model where the supplier offers an all-units quantity discount and a price sensitive customer demand. We compare a decentralized decision framework where selling price and replenishment policy are determined independently to simultaneous decision making. Constant and dynamic pricing are distinguished. We derive structural properties and develop algorithms that determine the optimal pricing and replenishment policy and show how quantity discounts not only influence the purchasing strategy but also the pricing policy. A sensitivity analysis indicates the impact of the fixed-holding cost ratio, the discount policy, and the customers' price sensitivity on the optimal decisions.

  5. Validity of the concept of absorbed dose as a physical quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Jun-Ichiro; Katoh, Kazuaki.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of the 'absorbed dose' of ionizing radiation is scrutinized from physical point of view. It is shown that the concept and definition of the quantity in the ICRU system is disqualified as a physical quantity and the absorbed dose can not always be a 'measure of cause' in describing causality relation between radiation and effects on matter. The current absorbed dose depends even on the energy that have already been brought out from the matter, contrary to the intention of introducing the quantity. Trials to remove these difficulties are made. However, it is also shown there still exists an essential problem that cannot be solved by improving the formulation. (author)

  6. QUANTITY DISCOUNTS IN SUPPLIER SELECTION PROBLEM BY USE OF FUZZY MULTI-CRITERIA PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunjo Perić

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection in supply chain is a multi-criteria problem that involves a number of quantitative and qualitative factors. This paper deals with a concrete problem of flour purchase by a company that manufactures bakery products and the purchasing price of flour depends on the quantity ordered. The criteria for supplier selection and quantities supplied by individual suppliers are: purchase costs, product quality and reliability of suppliers. The problem is solved using a model that combines revised weighting method and fuzzy multi-criteria linear programming (FMCLP. The paper highlights the efficiency of the proposed methodology in conditions when purchasing prices depend on order quantities.

  7. Effects of artificial disturbance on quantity and biochemical composition of organic matter in sediments of a coastal lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenzi M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The eutrophication of the coastal lagoon of Burano (Tuscany, Italy produces periodic toxic-anoxic events. The possibility of mitigating eutrophication of a lagoon by resuspension of sediment was tested in a three-year field experiment conducted in 2008–2009. An unreplicated before-after control-impact (BACI study design was used to ascertain variations in the quantity and biochemical composition of organic matter in sediment artificially disturbed by a specially equipped boat. In October 2008, before beginning disturbance, January 2009, half way through the disturbance period, and May 2009, at the end of disturbance, sediment was sampled in a disturbed area and an undisturbed control area to determine chlorophyll-a (Chl-a, phaeopigments (PHAE, proteins (PRT, carbohydrates (CHO, lipids (LIP, labile organic matter (LOM, refractory organic matter (ROM, total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN. The disturbed area, measuring 44 ha, was divided into nine subareas, eight of which were subjected to four different frequencies of disturbance (from 2 to 5 in the period October 2008 – April 2009. Sediment was sampled in each sub-area in the three months mentioned above to determine labile and total organic matter. The results were processed by univariate and multivariate analysis using Primer 6.0, Permanova  +  and Prism 5.0 software. The findings were as follows: (1 a large proportion of the biopolymeric carbon consisted of labile matter throughout the lagoon; (2 higher abatement of labile organic matter was recorded in the disturbed area; (3 a lower protein:carbohydrate ratio was found in the disturbed than in the undisturbed area; (4 the C:N ratio of sediment was much lower in the undisturbed area than in the disturbed area at the end of the study period; (5 sediment and macroalgal C:N ratios did not significantly change in response to disturbance; (6 initial accumulation of organic matter from phytoplankton was greater in the disturbed

  8. Sperm competition leads to functional adaptations in avian testes to maximize sperm quantity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüpold, Stefan; Wistuba, Joachim; Damm, Oliver S; Rivers, James W; Birkhead, Tim R

    2011-05-01

    The outcome of sperm competition (i.e. competition for fertilization between ejaculates from different males) is primarily determined by the relative number and quality of rival sperm. Therefore, the testes are under strong selection to maximize both sperm number and quality, which are likely to result in trade-offs in the process of spermatogenesis (e.g. between the rate of spermatogenesis and sperm length or sperm energetics). Comparative studies have shown positive associations between the level of sperm competition and both relative testis size and the proportion of seminiferous (sperm-producing) tissue within the testes. However, it is unknown how the seminiferous tissue itself or the process of spermatogenesis might evolve in response to sperm competition. Therefore, we quantified the different germ cell types and Sertoli cells (SC) in testes to assess the efficiency of sperm production and its associations with sperm length and mating system across 10 species of New World Blackbirds (Icteridae) that show marked variation in sperm length and sperm competition level. We found that species under strong sperm competition generate more round spermatids (RS)/spermatogonium and have SC that support a greater number of germ cells, both of which are likely to increase the maximum sperm output. However, fewer of the RS appeared to elongate to mature spermatozoa in these species, which might be the result of selection for discarding spermatids with undesirable characteristics as they develop. Our results suggest that, in addition to overall size and gross morphology, testes have also evolved functional adaptations to maximize sperm quantity and quality.

  9. Export Margins, Price and Quantity of Belarus’s Export Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otamurodov Shavkat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the sources of Belarus’s export growth and decomposes export growth into extensive and intensive margins. This study also aims to determine export margins for intermediate and final goods and to determine the price and quantity components of the intensive export margin. In order to achieve the desired objectives, we use two methods for decomposing export growth, the count method and the export shares method. We analyse Belarus's export growth using export data at the HS-6 digit level for the 2004-2014 period. Our results show that Belarus's exports grew mainly due to growth in the price margin during the studied period 2004-2014. However, the extensive margin was important in export growth to some extent. Comparing the growth rate across final and intermediate goods reveals that although the share of final products in Belarus’s exports is not very big (18.9% in 2014, the average annual growth in exports of final products is higher than that of intermediate goods. Our investigation also shows that Belarus produces a wide range of commodities, but the share of the most of these commodities is not large; its exports depend on a restricted range of commodities. Moreover, most of the commodities are exported to Russia and Ukraine. Our results give us reason to assume that finding new markets for their new products is one of the main challenges for developing countries wishing to increase their exports by an extensive margin. This has important implications for how policy makers promote the trade and diversification of exports.

  10. Standards and producers' liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmer, F.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses the liability of producers and the diligence required, which has to come up to technical standards and the latest state of technology. The consequences of this requirement with regard to claims for damages are outlined and proposals for reforms are pointed out. (HSCH) [de

  11. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic–inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie–Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol–gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie–Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating. (paper)

  12. The Influence of Season on the Cow Milk Quantity, Quality and Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Toma Cziszter

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of season of collection on the quantity, quality and hygienicproperties of the raw milk delivered from one dairy farm. The studied traits were: bulk tank milk yield, chemicalcomposition (fat, protein, lactose, and total solids, freezing point, density, total bacteria count, coliform bacteriacount and somatic cell count, during years 2010 and 2011. A total of 727 samples were drawn and analysed in twolaboratories, using the standard methods. Average milk production per day per head in the farm was 13.58 kg,obtained from 252 cows. Year of collection had a significant effect on the bulk tank raw milk yield, quality andhygiene, except for freezing point and total bacteria count. The raw milk yield and chemical composition improved(p<0.05 from year 2010 to year 2011, as well as the hygienic quality. Season of collection had a significant (p<0.05influence on the milk yield and chemical composition, the highest milk yield with the lowest concentration beingobtained during summer, while the lowest milk yield with the highest chemical composition was obtained in winter.Physical properties of the raw milk were less affected by the season of collection, with the lowest freezing point inthe winter and the highest density in the autumn. The highest somatic cell count and coliform bacteria count wasobtained during the spring and the lowest total bacteria count was obtained in winter season. There was a significant(p<0.05 interaction between year and season of production for all raw milk traits.

  13. Unexpected seasonality in quantity and composition of Amazon rainforest air reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölscher, A C; Yañez-Serrano, A M; Wolff, S; de Araujo, A Carioca; Lavrič, J V; Kesselmeier, J; Williams, J

    2016-01-22

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) removes most atmospheric pollutants from air. The loss frequency of OH radicals due to the combined effect of all gas-phase OH reactive species is a measureable quantity termed total OH reactivity. Here we present total OH reactivity observations in pristine Amazon rainforest air, as a function of season, time-of-day and height (0-80 m). Total OH reactivity is low during wet (10 s(-1)) and high during dry season (62 s(-1)). Comparison to individually measured trace gases reveals strong variation in unaccounted for OH reactivity, from 5 to 15% missing in wet-season afternoons to mostly unknown (average 79%) during dry season. During dry-season afternoons isoprene, considered the dominant reagent with OH in rainforests, only accounts for ∼20% of the total OH reactivity. Vertical profiles of OH reactivity are shaped by biogenic emissions, photochemistry and turbulent mixing. The rainforest floor was identified as a significant but poorly characterized source of OH reactivity.

  14. Amending greenroof soil with biochar to affect runoff water quantity and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Deborah A.; Johnson, Gwynn R. [Portland State University, Mechanical and Materials Engineering, POB 751, Portland, OR 97207 (United States); Spolek, Graig A., E-mail: graig@cecs.pdx.edu [Portland State University, Mechanical and Materials Engineering, POB 751, Portland, OR 97207 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Numbers of greenroofs in urban areas continue to grow internationally; so designing greenroof soil to reduce the amount of nutrients in the stormwater runoff from these roofs is becoming essential. This study evaluated changes in extensive greenroof water discharge quality and quantity after adding biochar, a soil amendment promoted for its ability to retain nutrients in soils and increase soil fertility. Prototype greenroof trays with and without biochar were planted with sedum or ryegrass, with barren soil trays used as controls. The greenroof trays were subjected to two sequential 7.4 cm/h rainfall events using a rain simulator. Runoff from the rain events was collected and evaluated. Trays containing 7% biochar showed increased water retention and significant decreases in discharge of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, phosphate, and organic carbon. The addition of biochar to greenroof soil improves both runoff water quality and retention. - Highlights: > Biochar in green roof soil reduces nitrogen and phosphorus in the runoff. > Addition of biochar reduces turbidity of runoff. > Addition of biochar reduces total organic carbon content in runoff by 67-72%. > Biochar improves water retention of saturated soil. - In this controlled laboratory experiment, greenroof soil was amended by the addition of biochar, which reduced the water runoff concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon.

  15. The effect of quantity of added eggs on whole meal pasta quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Jelena S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the convenience of different chemical and rheological methods for determining the quality of two spelt cultivars for pasta making and the influence of egg quantity on whole meal pasta quality. Post-hoc Tukey’s HSD test at 95% confidence limit has been calculated to show significant differences between different samples. Score analysis is being useful tool for accessing the effect of eggs to spelt pasta quality, and this analysis proved that though lower scores (0.270 for rheological characteristics experienced with cultivar Eco, the addition of eggs is positively contributing to the spelt pasta quality yielding the best score for pasta (0.75, contrary to the cultivar Austria attributed with superior rheology scores. Whole meal spelt is characterised by lower Ca, but higher Fe and Mn content in comparison to bread wheat. In comparison with common pasta, spelt is a suitable raw material for a new product with improved functional properties at the market.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TRI 46005 i br. TR 31055

  16. Amending greenroof soil with biochar to affect runoff water quantity and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Deborah A.; Johnson, Gwynn R.; Spolek, Graig A.

    2011-01-01

    Numbers of greenroofs in urban areas continue to grow internationally; so designing greenroof soil to reduce the amount of nutrients in the stormwater runoff from these roofs is becoming essential. This study evaluated changes in extensive greenroof water discharge quality and quantity after adding biochar, a soil amendment promoted for its ability to retain nutrients in soils and increase soil fertility. Prototype greenroof trays with and without biochar were planted with sedum or ryegrass, with barren soil trays used as controls. The greenroof trays were subjected to two sequential 7.4 cm/h rainfall events using a rain simulator. Runoff from the rain events was collected and evaluated. Trays containing 7% biochar showed increased water retention and significant decreases in discharge of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, phosphate, and organic carbon. The addition of biochar to greenroof soil improves both runoff water quality and retention. - Highlights: → Biochar in green roof soil reduces nitrogen and phosphorus in the runoff. → Addition of biochar reduces turbidity of runoff. → Addition of biochar reduces total organic carbon content in runoff by 67-72%. → Biochar improves water retention of saturated soil. - In this controlled laboratory experiment, greenroof soil was amended by the addition of biochar, which reduced the water runoff concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon.

  17. Advances and patents about grinding equipments with nano-particle jet minimum quantity lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dongzhou; Li, Changhe; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Qiang; Hou, Yali

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a large number of patents have been devoted to developing minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) grinding techniques that can significantly improve both environmentally conscious and energy saving and costeffective sustainable grinding fluid alternatives. Among them, one patent is about a controllable nano-fluids jet MQL grinding system based on electrostatic atomization. Using the principle of electrostatics, it can achieve the control of droplet transfer by charging the sprayed droplets. This system can improve the uniformity of the droplet spectrum, liquid deposition efficiency and effective utilization of liquid. It can also effectively control the movement patterns of the droplets, thereby reducing the pollution of the environment and providing better health protection for workers. Although researchers accomplished profound and systematic studies on MQL, especially on nano-particles jet MQL. It can solve the shortage of MQL in cooling performance, greatly improve the working environment, save energy and reduce costs to achieve a low-carbon manufacturing. The unique lubricating performance and tribological property of solid nano-particles form nano-particle shearing films at the grinding wheel/workpiece interface, which can enhance the lubricating performance of MQL grinding. Existing studies on MQL grinding equipments, however, cannot meet the needs of the technological development. Therefore, our research provided a general introduction of the latest patients and research progress of nanoparticles jet MQL grinding equipments presented by the research team from Qingdao Technological University.

  18. Bee pollination increases yield quantity and quality of cash crops in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Katharina; Coulibaly, Drissa; Stenchly, Kathrin; Goetze, Dethardt; Porembski, Stefan; Lindner, André; Konaté, Souleymane; Linsenmair, Eduard K

    2017-12-18

    Mutualistic biotic interactions as among flowering plants and their animal pollinators are a key component of biodiversity. Pollination, especially by insects, is a key element in ecosystem functioning, and hence constitutes an ecosystem service of global importance. Not only sexual reproduction of plants is ensured, but also yields are stabilized and genetic variability of crops is maintained, counteracting inbreeding depression and facilitating system resilience. While experiencing rapid environmental change, there is an increased demand for food and income security, especially in sub-Saharan communities, which are highly dependent on small scale agriculture. By combining exclusion experiments, pollinator surveys and field manipulations, this study for the first time quantifies the contribution of bee pollinators to smallholders' production of the major cash crops, cotton and sesame, in Burkina Faso. Pollination by honeybees and wild bees significantly increased yield quantity and quality on average up to 62%, while exclusion of pollinators caused an average yield gap of 37% in cotton and 59% in sesame. Self-pollination revealed inbreeding depression effects on fruit set and low germination rates in the F1-generation. Our results highlight potential negative consequences of any pollinator decline, provoking risks to agriculture and compromising crop yields in sub-Saharan West Africa.

  19. Information Needs Expressed During Patient-Oriented Oncology Consultations: Quantity, Variation, and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, Anesa; Wallner, Paul; Salenius, Sharon; Ross, Rudi; Fernandez, Eduardo

    2018-02-12

    High-quality oncology consultation includes patient-oriented communication tailored to patients' individualized needs. Common methods used in studies to increase question-asking are prompt lists and coaching pre-consultations. However, our patients were encouraged to ask questions by the physician during their visit. We aimed to estimate the quantity, nature, and variation of their questions when they were invited to ask by their oncologist. During radiotherapy consultations from 2012 to 2016, patient's questions were deliberately elicited and physician-transcribed. We derived mean and median number of questions per patient, variance by patient factors, and a taxonomy of subjects using thematic analysis. Three hundred ninety-six patients asked 2386 questions, median asked per patient = 6 (interquartile range = 4). We found significant variance with age (mean = 6.9 questions for  10% of patients and 40 topics were asked by < 10% of patients. With median of 6 questions, it is practicable to routinely elicit and address individualized information needs. Potential barriers may be older and underinsured patients. The wide variety of topics, often pertaining to individuals' case, suggests that cancer clinicians should take time-out during consultation to elicit patients' questions to accomplish best-practice communication.

  20. Study of dimensionless quantities to analyse front and rear wall of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hydrodynamic quantities describe the mechanism behind flow pattern present in .... beam is focused into a small spot adjustable approximately 0.1 to 0.8 mm in ... moves, the liquefied metal around the 'keyhole' flows back in, solidifying and.

  1. The effect of vial type and cocktail quantity on tritium measurement in LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhilin; Xing Shixiong; Wang Heyi; Chang Ruimin; Wu Guanyin; Zhou Yinhang

    2010-01-01

    The effect of sample vial type and cocktail quantity on tritium measurement in liquid scintillation counting is studied in this paper. With both high and low level tritium samples, glass vials allow higher counting rates than plastic vials do. We also present detailed analysis of the way to obtain the optimal counting condition by dispensing different quantity of cocktail into sample vials. Results indicate that the optimal counting condition has little relationship with tritium concentration in the sample. The main factor which influences the counting is the quantity of cocktail added into samples. Figure of merit is employed to access the results, which increases as the quantity of cocktail increasing. But when the ratio of cocktail and sample reaches 2.0, increase of ratio makes little contribution to the counts, and the disintegrations per minute comes nearly to be a constant.

  2. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei; Wu, Zengyang; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2016-01-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement

  3. 3D facial expression recognition based on histograms of surface differential quantities

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin; Morvan, Jean-Marie; Chen, Liming

    2011-01-01

    . To characterize shape information of the local neighborhood of facial landmarks, we calculate the weighted statistical distributions of surface differential quantities, including histogram of mesh gradient (HoG) and histogram of shape index (HoS). Normal cycle

  4. Optimizing basin-scale coupled water quantity and water quality management with stochastic dynamic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    Few studies address water quality in hydro-economic models, which often focus primarily on optimal allocation of water quantities. Water quality and water quantity are closely coupled, and optimal management with focus solely on either quantity or quality may cause large costs in terms of the oth......-er component. In this study, we couple water quality and water quantity in a joint hydro-economic catchment-scale optimization problem. Stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from water allocation, water curtailment and water treatment. The simple water...... quality module can handle conservative pollutants, first order depletion and non-linear reactions. For demonstration purposes, we model pollutant releases as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and use the Streeter-Phelps equation for oxygen deficit to compute the resulting min-imum dissolved oxygen...

  5. Effects of herbivore exclosures on variation in quality and quantity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of herbivore exclosures on variation in quality and quantity of plants among ... commercial and game) and among habitat types (open savanna, rocky and pan) in a semiarid savanna in South Africa. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  6. Property of Fluctuations of Sales Quantities by Product Category in Convenience Stores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaku Fukunaga

    Full Text Available The ability to ascertain the extent of product sale fluctuations for each store and locality is indispensable to inventory management. This study analyzed POS data from 158 convenience stores in Kawasaki City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan and found a power scaling law between the mean and standard deviation of product sales quantities for several product categories. For the statistical domains of low sales quantities, the power index was 1/2; for large sales quantities, the power index was 1, so called Taylor's law holds. The value of sales quantities with changing power indixes differed according to product category. We derived a Poissonian compound distribution model taking into account fluctuations in customer numbers to show that the scaling law could be explained theoretically for most of items. We also examined why the scaling law did not hold in some exceptional cases.

  7. Property of Fluctuations of Sales Quantities by Product Category in Convenience Stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Gaku; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2016-01-01

    The ability to ascertain the extent of product sale fluctuations for each store and locality is indispensable to inventory management. This study analyzed POS data from 158 convenience stores in Kawasaki City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan and found a power scaling law between the mean and standard deviation of product sales quantities for several product categories. For the statistical domains of low sales quantities, the power index was 1/2; for large sales quantities, the power index was 1, so called Taylor's law holds. The value of sales quantities with changing power indixes differed according to product category. We derived a Poissonian compound distribution model taking into account fluctuations in customer numbers to show that the scaling law could be explained theoretically for most of items. We also examined why the scaling law did not hold in some exceptional cases.

  8. Safeguards Implementation Guide for States with Small Quantities Protocols (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) works to enhance the contribution of nuclear energy for peace and prosperity around the world, while helping to ensure that nuclear material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. In implementing safeguards, the IAEA plays an instrumental independent verification role, providing credible assurances that States' safeguards commitments are being respected. Most of the world's non-nuclear-weapon States (NNWSs) have concluded comprehensive safeguards agreements (CSAs) with the IAEA, pursuant to the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The IAEA and States are required to cooperate in the implementation of such agreements. Effective cooperation demonstrates a State's commitment to the peaceful use of nuclear energy and furthers the State's national interests by reducing the risk of unauthorized use of nuclear material. Over 100 NNWSs party to the NPT have very limited quantities of nuclear material and have concluded protocols to their CSAs which hold in abeyance many procedures in Part II of a CSA. These protocols are referred to as 'small quantities protocols' or 'SQPs' and remain in effect as long as the State meets certain eligibility criteria. The purpose of an SQP is to reduce the burden of safeguards implementation for States with little or no nuclear activities, while retaining the integrity of the safeguards system. States with SQPs have very important obligations they must fulfil under their CSAs. In 1997, as part of the IAEA's efforts to strengthen its safeguards system, the Model Additional Protocol to the Agreement(s) between State(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards was developed to provide the IAEA with broader access to information and locations, thus significantly increasing the IAEA's ability to provide assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities in States. Many States with SQPs have

  9. Safeguards Implementation Guide for States with Small Quantities Protocols (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) works to enhance the contribution of nuclear energy for peace and prosperity around the world, while helping to ensure that nuclear material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. In implementing safeguards, the IAEA plays an instrumental independent verification role, providing credible assurances that States' safeguards commitments are being respected. Most of the world's non-nuclear-weapon States (NNWSs) have concluded comprehensive safeguards agreements (CSAs) with the IAEA, pursuant to the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The IAEA and States are required to cooperate in the implementation of such agreements. Effective cooperation demonstrates a State's commitment to the peaceful use of nuclear energy and furthers the State's national interests by reducing the risk of unauthorized use of nuclear material. Over 100 NNWSs party to the NPT have very limited quantities of nuclear material and have concluded protocols to their CSAs which hold in abeyance many procedures in Part II of a CSA. These protocols are referred to as 'small quantities protocols' or 'SQPs' and remain in effect as long as the State meets certain eligibility criteria. The purpose of an SQP is to reduce the burden of safeguards implementation for States with little or no nuclear activities, while retaining the integrity of the safeguards system. States with SQPs have very important obligations they must fulfil under their CSAs. In 1997, as part of the IAEA's efforts to strengthen its safeguards system, the Model Additional Protocol to the Agreement(s) between State(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards was developed to provide the IAEA with broader access to information and locations, thus significantly increasing the IAEA's ability to provide assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities in States. Many States with SQPs have

  10. Quality and quantity: the role of social interactions in individual health

    OpenAIRE

    Damiano, Fiorillo; Fabio, Sabatini

    2011-01-01

    The public health literature focusing on the detrimental effects of social isolation has shown that the quantity of social connections is positively correlated with individual health. Drawing on pooled cross-sectional data, we test this hypothesis on a representative sample of the Italian population. Our findings show that, besides the quantity of interactions, it is their quality – as measured by subjective satisfaction derived from relationships with friends – that works as the best pre...

  11. Water Quality and Quantity in Intermittent and Continuous Piped Water Supplies in Hubli-Dharwad, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumpel, Emily Katherine

    2013-01-01

    In at least 45 low- and middle-income countries, piped water systems deliver water for limited durations. Few data are available of the impact of intermittent water supply (IWS) on the water quality and quantity delivered to households. This thesis examines the impact of intermittently supplied piped water on the quality and quantity of water delivered to residential taps in Hubli-Dharwad, India, when compared to continuous piped water supply. A framework for understanding the pathways throug...

  12. Potential of producing renewable hydrogen from livestock animal waste. Paper no. IGEC-1-143

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, F.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen economy and fuel cell technology have become increasingly recognized as means for maintaining a sustainable energy supply as well as a sustainable environment. Simultaneously, solutions are being sought to effectively manage the animal wastes from livestock farming of cattle, cow, hog, and poultry to ensure an environmentally sustainable method of food production. This discussion examines the potential of producing hydrogen from livestock waste on a scale that can effectively solve a waste management problem for the livestock industry and provide significant quantities of renewable hydrogen to the clean energy industry. The green energy derived from animal waste is considered to be carbon-neutral because animal feed is largely grown from photosynthesis of carbon dioxide. Electricity and heat thus generated will offset those generated from fossil fuels and can be rewarded with greenhouse gas emission reduction credits. Two groups of well proven technologies: biochemical processes such as anaerobic digestion (AD), and thermochemical processes such as gasification are considered in this paper. A theoretical analysis of the potential of reforming the biogas and syngas from these reactions has been conducted using mathematical models of AD, gasification, steam reforming and water-gas shift reactions, and the results indicate that significant quantities of renewable hydrogen can be generated to fuel clean energy technologies such as the fuel cell. Practical considerations are presented to complement the theoretical analysis and future research directions are also discussed. (author)

  13. Automated Decisional Model for Optimum Economic Order Quantity Determination Using Price Regressive Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roşu, M. M.; Tarbă, C. I.; Neagu, C.

    2016-11-01

    The current models for inventory management are complementary, but together they offer a large pallet of elements for solving complex problems of companies when wanting to establish the optimum economic order quantity for unfinished products, row of materials, goods etc. The main objective of this paper is to elaborate an automated decisional model for the calculus of the economic order quantity taking into account the price regressive rates for the total order quantity. This model has two main objectives: first, to determine the periodicity when to be done the order n or the quantity order q; second, to determine the levels of stock: lighting control, security stock etc. In this way we can provide the answer to two fundamental questions: How much must be ordered? When to Order? In the current practice, the business relationships with its suppliers are based on regressive rates for price. This means that suppliers may grant discounts, from a certain level of quantities ordered. Thus, the unit price of the products is a variable which depends on the order size. So, the most important element for choosing the optimum for the economic order quantity is the total cost for ordering and this cost depends on the following elements: the medium price per units, the stock cost, the ordering cost etc.

  14. Establishment and Evaluation of Decommissioning Plant Inventory DB and Waste Quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae Yong; Moon, Sang-Rae; Yun, Taesik; Kim, Hee-Geun; Sung, Nak-Hoon; Jung, Seung Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) made a decision for permanent shutdown of Kori-1 and has progressed the strategy determination and R and D for the decommissioning of Kori-1. Decommissioning waste, Structure, System and Components (SSCs) is one of the most important elements. Decommissioning waste quantity is calculated based on Plant Inventory Database (PI DB) with activation and contamination data. Due to the largest portion of waste management and disposal in decommissioning, it is necessary to exactly evaluate waste quantity (applying the regulation, guideline and site-specific characterization) for economic feasibility. In this paper, construction of PI DB and evaluation of waste quantity for Optimized Pressurized Reactor (OPR-1000) are mainly described. Decommissioning waste quantities evaluated are going to be applied to calculation of the project cost. In fact, Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) in Korea expected the decommissioning waste quantity in a range of 14,500-18,850 drums, and predicted appropriate liability for decommissioning fund by using waste quantity. The result of this study is also computed by the range of 14,500-18,850 drums. Since there is no site-specific data for the NPP site, this evaluation is the preliminary analysis

  15. Would more social partners leads to enhanced health? The paradox between quantity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Cai; Zhang, Xin; Cheng, Sheung-Tak

    2017-09-01

    In the current investigation, we examined the association between social network composition (SNC) and mental health, as well as whether quantity and quality of social network could influence mental health differently. The social network quantity and quality of 345 middle-aged and older Chinese adults were measured by the Social Convoy Questionnaire. The Chinese version of the Medical Outcome Studies 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess mental health while controlling for physical health. It was found that both quantity and quality of social network were associated with mental health, and more specifically that (1) quantity of peripheral partners (PP) was positively associated with mental health; (2) quality of emotionally close social partners (ECSP) influenced mental health the most; and (3) paradoxically, the effect of ECSP quality on mental health depended on quantity of ECSP, that is, participants with more ECSP showed a stronger association between ECSP quality and mental health. The findings replicated and extended previous studies on SNC and suggested that structure/quantity and quality of SNC were both important for mental health. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Detection Dynamics Of Nitrogen Based Explosive Quantities In Selected Cylindrical Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngusha Tavershima Almighty

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental set up for examining the variation of detection intensity with explosive quantity has been studied. Containers made from ceramic carbon steel wood and HDPE were filled with explosive masses ranging from 10 kg to 500 kg and irradiated by a 14.1 MeV point isotropic neutron source. The resulting gamma photons were analyzed for their C N and O composition and the sum computed to yield a quantity known as the material quotient MQ. Examination of MQ values indicates an initial increase in detection intensity with increasing explosive quantity. Saturation is however reached at an explosive quantity of about 25kg where detection intensity reduces with further increase in explosive quantity. Effects of variation in explosive quantity appeared to be more pronounced for explosives contained in HDPE and wooden containers and least pronounced for those in steel containers. Source-detector configuration was identified as a major factor affecting effective detection of large masses of explosives.

  17. Establishment and Evaluation of Decommissioning Plant Inventory DB and Waste Quantity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Yong; Moon, Sang-Rae; Yun, Taesik; Kim, Hee-Geun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Nak-Hoon; Jung, Seung Hyuk [KONES Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) made a decision for permanent shutdown of Kori-1 and has progressed the strategy determination and R and D for the decommissioning of Kori-1. Decommissioning waste, Structure, System and Components (SSCs) is one of the most important elements. Decommissioning waste quantity is calculated based on Plant Inventory Database (PI DB) with activation and contamination data. Due to the largest portion of waste management and disposal in decommissioning, it is necessary to exactly evaluate waste quantity (applying the regulation, guideline and site-specific characterization) for economic feasibility. In this paper, construction of PI DB and evaluation of waste quantity for Optimized Pressurized Reactor (OPR-1000) are mainly described. Decommissioning waste quantities evaluated are going to be applied to calculation of the project cost. In fact, Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) in Korea expected the decommissioning waste quantity in a range of 14,500-18,850 drums, and predicted appropriate liability for decommissioning fund by using waste quantity. The result of this study is also computed by the range of 14,500-18,850 drums. Since there is no site-specific data for the NPP site, this evaluation is the preliminary analysis.

  18. Dimuons produced by antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenuti, A.; Cline, D.; Ford, W.T.; Imlay, R.; Ling, T.Y.; Mann, A.K.; Orr, R.; Reeder, D.D.; Rubbia, C.; Stefanski, R.; Sulak, L.; Wanderer, P.

    1975-01-01

    In a run with a predominantly phi-bar beam we have observed seven dimuon events which show clearly that dimuons are produced by phi-bar as well as by phi. Using the signature of those events we tentatively identify twelve dimuon events from earlier runs as phi-bar-induced. The characteristics of the total sample support the explanation that dimuons arise from new hadron production

  19. Effects of pre-treatment technologies on quantity and quality of source-sorted municipal organic waste for biogas recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Jansen, J.l.C.; Davidsson, Å.

    2007-01-01

    , collection bag material (plastic or paper) and easily degradable organic matter. Furthermore, the particle size of the biomass was related to the pre-treatment technology. The content of plastic in the biomass depended both on the actual collection bag material used in the system and the pre......Source-sorted municipal organic waste collected from different dwelling types in five Danish cities and pre-treated at three different plants was sampled and characterized several times during one year to investigate the origin of any differences in composition of the pre-treated waste introduced...... by city, pre-treatment technology, dwelling type or annual season. The investigated pre-treatment technologies were screw press, disc screen and shredder + magnet. The average quantity of pre-treated organic waste (biomass) produced from the incoming waste varied between the investigated pre...

  20. A Comparative Study of Face Milling of D2 Steel Using Al2O3 Based Nanofluid Minimum Quantity Lubrication and Minimum Quantity Lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ahsan Ul Haq

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of process parameters feed, depth of cut and flow rate, on the temperature during face milling of the D2 tool steel under two different lubricant conditions, Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL and Nanofluid Minimum Quantity Lubrication (NFMQL. Distilled water with the flow rate range 200-400 ml/hr was used in MQL. 2% by weight concentration of Al2O3 nanoparticles with distilled water as the base fluid used as NFMQL with same flow rate. Response surface methodology RSM central composite design CCD was used to design experiment run, modeling, and analysis. ANOVA was used for the adequacy and validation of the system. The comparison shows that NFMQL condition reduced more temperature during machining.

  1. Relationship between Performance of Quantity Surveying Students in Building Construction and Construction Measurement Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde Nathaniel Ayinde

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholders in the educational sector over the century have devoted substantial resources in seeking ways of improving students’ academic performance, yet, the desired improved academic performance has not been achieved. By appraising the relationship between the performance of Quantity Surveying (QS students in Building Construction and Construction Measurement courses; the study identified a major curriculum drafting deficiency in the QS programmes in Nigeria which if addressed could help achieve the much needed improved students’ academic performance. The specific objectives of the study were to determine the performance of QS students in Building construction and construction Measurement Courses; and to determine whether a relationship exist in the performances of QS students in the two subject areas. Purposive sampling technique was used to select Federal Polytechnic Ede, Osun State for the study. Random sampling technique was used to select 241 students who provide data for the study. Close ended questionnaire was used to collect data for the study and data was analyzed using frequency, percentile and correlation analysis. Finding indicates that 43% of the respondents on the average put up good performances in Building Construction Courses while only 19% of the respondents on the average had good grades in Construction Measurement Courses. Results also showed that a significant relationship exist between the performance of QS students in Building Construction and Construction Measurement courses as 83.3% (five out of six pair courses shows significant positive linear correlation. The study recommends that a quick curriculum re-adjustment should be initiated so as to enhance improved academic performance by QS Students especially in Construction Measurement courses.

  2. Specific grinding energy and surface roughness of nanoparticle jet minimum quantity lubrication in grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dongkun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles with the anti-wear and friction reducing features were applied as cooling lubricant in the grinding fluid. Dry grinding, flood grinding, minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL, and nanoparticle jet MQL were used in the grinding experiments. The specific grinding energy of dry grinding, flood grinding and MQL were 84, 29.8, 45.5 J/mm3, respectively. The specific grinding energy significantly decreased to 32.7 J/mm3 in nanoparticle MQL. Compared with dry grinding, the surface roughness values of flood grinding, MQL, and nanoparticle jet MQL were significantly reduced with the surface topography profile values reduced by 11%, 2.5%, and 10%, respectively, and the ten point height of microcosmic unflatness values reduced by 1.5%, 0.5%, and 1.3%, respectively. These results verified the satisfactory lubrication effects of nanoparticle MQL. MoS2, carbon nanotube (CNT, and ZrO2 nanoparticles were also added in the grinding fluid of nanoparticle jet MQL to analyze their grinding surface lubrication effects. The specific grinding energy of MoS2 nanoparticle was only 32.7 J/mm3, which was 8.22% and 10.39% lower than those of the other two nanoparticles. Moreover, the surface roughness of workpiece was also smaller with MoS2 nanoparticle, which indicated its remarkable lubrication effects. Furthermore, the role of MoS2 particles in the grinding surface lubrication at different nanoparticle volume concentrations was analyzed. MoS2 volume concentrations of 1%, 2%, and 3% were used. Experimental results revealed that the specific grinding energy and the workpiece surface roughness initially increased and then decreased as MoS2 nanoparticle volume concentration increased. Satisfactory grinding surface lubrication effects were obtained with 2% MoS2 nanoparticle volume concentration.

  3. 7 CFR 985.153 - Issuance of additional allotment base to new and existing producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... made available. (c) Issuance—(1) New producers—(i) Regions: For the purpose of issuing additional... quantities of that class of spearmint oil, shall be eligible to receive a share of the additional allotment... immediately notify each producer who is to receive additional allotment base by issuing that producer an...

  4. Uptake of nourseothricin by the producing microorganism, Streptomyces noursei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, B.; Graefe, U.

    1985-01-01

    The uptake of 14 C-(U)-nourseothricin by stationary phase mycelium of Streptomyces noursei JA 3890b-NG 13/14 was demonstrated. An energy-dependent transport system appears to be involved in the transport of the antibiotic. Relatively large quantities of the antibiotic were adsorbed to the surface of mycelium. Degradation of nourseothricin by the producing microorganism was not detectable. (author)

  5. Evaluating the Quantity and Quality of Continuing medical education Programs from the Viewpoint of General Medical Practitioners, Ilam Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Fatahi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the quantity and quality of continuing medical education programs from the viewpoint of general medical practitioners in Ilam province.Methods: The research method was descriptive survey and the statistic sample was a group of 61 general medical practitioners who have been working in Ilam during 2010-2011 and were chosen by simple random sampling method. The data collection tool was a questionnaire with 50 items and reliability coefficient obtained using Cronbach's alpha which was 88%.Results: The findings showed that there is a meaningful/significant relationship between CME (Continuing Medical Education/retraining programs and improving GPs (General Practitioner clinical skills with reliability of 99% and this relationship is direct and positive (r=0.502. It means that increasing the quality and quantity of these programs has positive effect on improving general practitioners’ clinical skills. There was no meaningful/significant relationship between the method of teaching and GPs satisfaction (r=0.160. It means most of these practitioners were not satisfied with using training equipment, teaching methods, teachers' knowledge and manners. Also, there was no meaningful/significant relationship between teaching times and educational materials and GPs satisfaction (r=0.73 .It shows that the rate of GPs satisfaction from teaching times and educational materials is very low and there is little coherence between them. But there was a meaningful/significant relationship between GPs job requirements and educational materials with reliability of 95% (r=0.326. It means presenting suitable teaching materials and content related to GPs jobs requirements led to increase GPs desire to attend educational classes .There was no meaningful/significant relationship between time dedicated to each topic and improving GPs skills (r=0.096. So, findings indicate that there is no coincidence between

  6. Producing quality radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullinan, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book gives an overview of physics, equipment, imaging, and quality assurance in the radiology department. The chapters are laid out with generous use of subheads to allow for quick reference, Points are illustrated with clear, uncluttered line diagrams and well-produced images. The accompanying explanations are miniature lessons by themselves. Inserted at various points throughout the text are important notes that highlight key concepts. The chapter ''Image Evaluation and Application of Radiographic Principles'' present a systematic approach to evaluating radiographs and contains several sample radiographs to illustrate the points made

  7. Precise and efficient evaluation of gravimetric quantities at arbitrarily scattered points in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Kamen G.; Pavlis, Nikolaos K.; Petrushev, Pencho

    2017-12-01

    Gravimetric quantities are commonly represented in terms of high degree surface or solid spherical harmonics. After EGM2008, such expansions routinely extend to spherical harmonic degree 2190, which makes the computation of gravimetric quantities at a large number of arbitrarily scattered points in space using harmonic synthesis, a very computationally demanding process. We present here the development of an algorithm and its associated software for the efficient and precise evaluation of gravimetric quantities, represented in high degree solid spherical harmonics, at arbitrarily scattered points in the space exterior to the surface of the Earth. The new algorithm is based on representation of the quantities of interest in solid ellipsoidal harmonics and application of the tensor product trigonometric needlets. A FORTRAN implementation of this algorithm has been developed and extensively tested. The capabilities of the code are demonstrated using as examples the disturbing potential T, height anomaly ζ , gravity anomaly Δ g , gravity disturbance δ g , north-south deflection of the vertical ξ , east-west deflection of the vertical η , and the second radial derivative T_{rr} of the disturbing potential. After a pre-computational step that takes between 1 and 2 h per quantity, the current version of the software is capable of computing on a standard PC each of these quantities in the range from the surface of the Earth up to 544 km above that surface at speeds between 20,000 and 40,000 point evaluations per second, depending on the gravimetric quantity being evaluated, while the relative error does not exceed 10^{-6} and the memory (RAM) use is 9.3 GB.

  8. Producing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of producing x-rays by directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target is described. Conversion efficiency of at least about 3 percent is obtained by providing the radiant energy in a low-power precursor pulse of approximately uniform effective intensity focused onto the surface of the target for about 1 to 30 nanoseconds so as to generate an expanding unconfined coronal plasma having less than normal solid density throughout and comprising a low-density (underdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is less than the laser radiation frequency and a higher-density (overdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is greater than the laser radiation frequency and, about 1 to 30 nanoseconds after the precursor pulse strikes the target, a higher-power main pulse focused onto the plasma for about 10 -3 to 30 nanoseconds and having such power density and total energy that the radiant energy is absorbed in the underdense region and conducted into the overdense region to heat it and thus to produce x-rays therefrom with the plasma remaining substantially below normal solid density and thus facilitating the substantial emission of x-rays in the form of spectral lines arising from nonequilibrium ionization states

  9. Determination of collected quantities of wild strawbery, bluberry and juniper in Serbia in relation to different scenarios of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Nenad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of some climate elements on the collected quantities of blueberry, wild strawberry and juniper in Serbia. The main objective of the research is to predict the quantity of selected forest fruits depending on the different climate change scenarios (A1Bmin, A1Bmax, A2min and A2max. The general (modeling method, basic (dialectical and specific scientific methods (induction and deduction, analysis and synthesis, abstraction and concretization were used. Regression models were used in data processing, where the focus was on the statistical significance of the correlation coefficient in relation to the statistical significance of the parameters. The research found that, in the coming period, with the increase in temperature and precipitation, an increase in the collected amount of wild strawberries and blueberries could be expected, and the decline of juniper. Longer-term forecasts indicate expected growth with wild strawberries and blueberries with a tendency to slow down after 2040, and expected decline with juniper, with the same slow down tendency after 2040. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 43007Studies of climate changes and their impact on the environment - monitoring impacts, adaptation and mitigation, sub-project No. 43007/16-III: Socio-economic development, mitigation and adaptation to climate change

  10. Geochemical and strontium isotope characterization of produced waters from Marcellus Shale natural gas extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Elizabeth C; Capo, Rosemary C; Stewart, Brian W; Kirby, Carl S; Hammack, Richard W; Schroeder, Karl T; Edenborn, Harry M

    2012-03-20

    Extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, a major gas-bearing unit in the Appalachian Basin, results in significant quantities of produced water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS). We carried out a strontium (Sr) isotope investigation to determine the utility of Sr isotopes in identifying and quantifying the interaction of Marcellus Formation produced waters with other waters in the Appalachian Basin in the event of an accidental release, and to provide information about the source of the dissolved solids. Strontium isotopic ratios of Marcellus produced waters collected over a geographic range of ~375 km from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania define a relatively narrow set of values (ε(Sr)(SW) = +13.8 to +41.6, where ε(Sr) (SW) is the deviation of the (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 10(4)); this isotopic range falls above that of Middle Devonian seawater, and is distinct from most western Pennsylvania acid mine drainage and Upper Devonian Venango Group oil and gas brines. The uniformity of the isotope ratios suggests a basin-wide source of dissolved solids with a component that is more radiogenic than seawater. Mixing models indicate that Sr isotope ratios can be used to sensitively differentiate between Marcellus Formation produced water and other potential sources of TDS into ground or surface waters.

  11. FROM THE SIGNIFICANT ST. JOACHIMSTAL SILVER AND URANIUM PIT, JÁCHYMOV, TO RADON SPA IN SAXON CZECH „RUDNA GORA“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Šebečić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available At he beginning of the 16th century Saxon miners discovered silver ore in the small settlement Konnradsgrűn at south-west slopes of Erzgebirge in the valley Joachimsthal named after the patron saint St. Joachim. The silver coin was named Jochymst(haler. The mine and the settlement became a free royal mining city where, thanks to the mint, one of the richest noble families von Schlick arose. 554,44 tons of silver were produced from 1517 till 1900. Together with silver ore cobalt and lead ore were exploited ( in significant quantities from 18th till 19th century and after that period nickel, bismuth and arsenic ore (19th century. From the listed ores cobalt was produced in largest quantities for enamel production; 1824,23 tons in the period from 1775 till 1851. Next to these ores uranite ore (urani/ni/t was discovered in the mine. The ore was first used to produce uranium colours used for ceramics, glass and paintings and later to obtain uranium; 8500 tons since 1853 till 1964, a part of which was worked up into radium, to obtain 100gr Ra-. Thanks to the discovery of radioactive- radon water the mine is still active because 20 miners are employed to maintain the part of it from which the radon water is exploited. Jachymov and its surroundigs have become a famous radioactive thermal sanatorium in Europe (the paper is published in Croatian.

  12. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  13. Quality Versus Quantity Debate in Swimming: Perceptions and Training Practices of Expert Swimming Coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugent Frank J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The debate over low-volume, high-intensity training versus high-volume, low-intensity training, commonly known as Quality versus Quantity, respectively, is a frequent topic of discussion among swimming coaches and academics. The aim of this study was to explore expert coaches’ perceptions of quality and quantity coaching philosophies in competitive swimming and to investigate their current training practices. A purposeful sample of 11 expert swimming coaches was recruited for this study. The study was a mixed methods design and involved each coach participating in 1 semi-structured interview and completing 1 closed-ended questionnaire. The main findings of this study were that coaches felt quality training programmes would lead to short term results for youth swimmers, but were in many cases more appropriate for senior swimmers. The coaches suggested that quantity training programmes built an aerobic base for youth swimmers, promoted technical development through a focus on slower swimming and helped to enhance recovery from training or competition. However, the coaches continuously suggested that quantity training programmes must be performed with good technique and they felt this was a misunderstood element. This study was a critical step towards gaining a richer and broader understanding on the debate over Quality versus Quantity training from an expert swimming coaches’ perspective which was not currently available in the research literature.

  14. Effects of DME pilot quantity on the performance of a DME PCCI-DI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; He Li; Zhou Longbao; Li Wei

    2010-01-01

    The combination of premixed charge compression ignition and conventional direct-injection compression ignition combustion is studied in a DME engine. This combustion mode is referred to as PCCI-DI combustion. The pilot quantity is found to be one of main variables affecting the PCCI-DI combustion. So, the main objectives of this paper are to examine the effect of different DME pilot quantities on combustion and emission characteristics in a single-cylinder direct-injection DME engine and to determine whether PCCI-DI is a viable in-cylinder NO x emissions reduction technology. In order to evaluate the characteristics of PCCI-DI combustion, the conventional direct-injection compression-ignition engine performance is supplied to make a comparison with their results. Furthermore, special emphasis is put upon the combined combustion process analysis. Results show that DME engine can operate at a wide range of speeds and loads at PCCI-DI mode. In comparison to the conventional DME CI combustion, the brake thermal efficiency slightly increases for DME PCCI-DI operation. PCCI-DI is capable to decrease NO x effectively for all loads. NO x emission shows an obviously descending tendency with an increase in DME pilot quantity at low loads, while it shows a mildly elevating tendency with an increase in DME pilot quantity at high loads. HC and CO emissions increase for DME PCCI-DI operation under various DME pilot quantities.

  15. Management of Water Quantity and Quality Based on Copula for a Tributary to Miyun Reservoir, Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, N.; Wang, X.; Liang, P.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the complex mutual influence between water quantity and water quality of river, it is difficult to reflect the actual characters of the tributaries to reservoir. In this study, the acceptable marginal probability distributions for water quantity and quality of reservoir inflow were calculated. A bivariate Archimedean copula was further applied to establish the joint distribution function of them. Then multiple combination scenarios of water quantity and water quality were designed to analyze their coexistence relationship and reservoir management strategies. Taking Bai river, an important tributary into the Miyun Reservoir, as a study case. The results showed that it is feasible to apply Frank copula function to describe the jointed distribution function of water quality and water quantity for Bai river. Furthermore, the monitoring of TP concentration needs to be strengthen in Bai river. This methodology can be extended to larger dimensions and is transferable to other reservoirs via establishment of models with relevant data for a particular area. Our findings help better analyzing the coexistence relationship and influence degree of the water quantity and quality of the tributary to reservoir for the purpose of water resources protection.

  16. Quality versus Quantity Debate in Swimming: Perceptions and Training Practices of Expert Swimming Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Frank J; Comyns, Thomas M; Warrington, Giles D

    2017-06-01

    The debate over low-volume, high-intensity training versus high-volume, low-intensity training, commonly known as Quality versus Quantity, respectively, is a frequent topic of discussion among swimming coaches and academics. The aim of this study was to explore expert coaches' perceptions of quality and quantity coaching philosophies in competitive swimming and to investigate their current training practices. A purposeful sample of 11 expert swimming coaches was recruited for this study. The study was a mixed methods design and involved each coach participating in 1 semi-structured interview and completing 1 closed-ended questionnaire. The main findings of this study were that coaches felt quality training programmes would lead to short term results for youth swimmers, but were in many cases more appropriate for senior swimmers. The coaches suggested that quantity training programmes built an aerobic base for youth swimmers, promoted technical development through a focus on slower swimming and helped to enhance recovery from training or competition. However, the coaches continuously suggested that quantity training programmes must be performed with good technique and they felt this was a misunderstood element. This study was a critical step towards gaining a richer and broader understanding on the debate over Quality versus Quantity training from an expert swimming coaches' perspective which was not currently available in the research literature.

  17. Information from pharmaceutical companies and the quality, quantity, and cost of physicians' prescribing: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey K Spurling

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pharmaceutical companies spent $57.5 billion on pharmaceutical promotion in the United States in 2004. The industry claims that promotion provides scientific and educational information to physicians. While some evidence indicates that promotion may adversely influence prescribing, physicians hold a wide range of views about pharmaceutical promotion. The objective of this review is to examine the relationship between exposure to information from pharmaceutical companies and the quality, quantity, and cost of physicians' prescribing. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched for studies of physicians with prescribing rights who were exposed to information from pharmaceutical companies (promotional or otherwise. Exposures included pharmaceutical sales representative visits, journal advertisements, attendance at pharmaceutical sponsored meetings, mailed information, prescribing software, and participation in sponsored clinical trials. The outcomes measured were quality, quantity, and cost of physicians' prescribing. We searched Medline (1966 to February 2008, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to February 2008, Embase (1997 to February 2008, Current Contents (2001 to 2008, and Central (The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2007 using the search terms developed with an expert librarian. Additionally, we reviewed reference lists and contacted experts and pharmaceutical companies for information. Randomized and observational studies evaluating information from pharmaceutical companies and measures of physicians' prescribing were independently appraised for methodological quality by two authors. Studies were excluded where insufficient study information precluded appraisal. The full text of 255 articles was retrieved from electronic databases (7,185 studies and other sources (138 studies. Articles were then excluded because they did not fulfil inclusion criteria (179 or quality appraisal criteria (18, leaving 58 included studies with 87 distinct

  18. Prescribed fires effects on physico-chemical properties and quantity of runoff and soil erosion in a Mediterranean forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban Lucas-Borja, Manuel; Plaza Alvaréz, Pedro Antonio; Sagra, Javier; Alfaro Sánchez, Raquel; Moya, Daniel; Ferrandiz Gotor, Pablo; De las Heras Ibañez, Jorge

    2017-04-01

    Wildfires have an important influence in forest ecosystems. Contrary to high severity fire, which may have negative impacts on the ecosystems, low severity induce small changes on soil properties. Thus and in order to reduce fire risk, low-severity prescribed fires have been widely used as a fuel reduction tool and silvicultural treatment in Mediterranean forest ecosystems. However, fire may alter microsite conditions and little is known about the impact of prescribed burning on the physico-chemical properties of runoff. In this study, we compared the effects of prescribed burning on physico-chemical properties and quantity of runoff and soil erosion during twelve months after a low severity prescribed fire applied in twelve 16 m2 plot (6 burned plots and 6 control plots used for comparison) set up in the Lezuza forest (Albacete, central-eastern Spain). Physico-chemical properties and quantity of runoff and soil losses were monitored after each rainfall event (five rainfall events in total). Also, different forest stand characteristics (slope, tree density, basal area and shrub/herbal cover) affecting each plot were measured. Results showed that forest stand characteristics were very similar in all used plots. Also, physico-chemical runoff properties were highly modified after the prescribed fire, increasing water pH, carbonates, bicarbonates, total dissolved solids and organic matter content dissolved in water. Electrical conductivity, calcium, sodium, chloride and magnesium were not affected by prescribed fire. Soil losses were highly related to precipitation intensity and tree interception. Tree intercepted the rainfall and significantly reduced soil losses and also runoff quantity. In conclusion and after the first six-month experiment, the influence of prescribed fires on physico-chemical runoff properties should be taken into account for developing proper prescribed burnings guidelines.

  19. Risk control and the minimum significant risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, F.A.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Risk management implies that the risk manager can, by his actions, exercise at least a modicum of control over the risk in question. In the terminology of control theory, a management action is a control signal imposed as feedback on the system to bring about a desired change in the state of the system. In the terminology of risk management, an action is taken to bring a predicted risk to lower values. Even if it is assumed that the management action taken is 100% effective and that the projected risk reduction is infinitely well known, there is a lower limit to the desired effects that can be achieved. It is based on the fact that all risks, such as the incidence of cancer, exhibit a degree of variability due to a number of extraneous factors such as age at exposure, sex, location, and some lifestyle parameters such as smoking or the consumption of alcohol. If the control signal is much smaller than the variability of the risk, the signal is lost in the noise and control is lost. This defines a minimum controllable risk based on the variability of the risk over the population considered. This quantity is the counterpart of the minimum significant risk which is defined by the uncertainties of the risk model. Both the minimum controllable risk and the minimum significant risk are evaluated for radiation carcinogenesis and are shown to be of the same order of magnitude. For a realistic management action, the assumptions of perfectly effective action and perfect model prediction made above have to be dropped, resulting in an effective minimum controllable risk which is determined by both risk limits. Any action below that effective limit is futile, but it is also unethical due to the ethical requirement of doing more good than harm. Finally, some implications of the effective minimum controllable risk on the use of the ALARA principle and on the evaluation of remedial action goals are presented

  20. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes...... and social cohesion, as well as a provider of welfare services from a welfare state in dire straits. However, such a view upholds a sharp distinction between the three sectors and their distinct logic. This article claims that the separation of spheres is a fundamental part of our ‘social imaginary......’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...

  1. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Sarah M; Lupis, Sarah B; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed toward understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body's capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women's stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e. having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation.

  2. Analysis of Gas Membrane Ultra-High Purification of Small Quantities of Mono-Isotopic Silane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Almeida, Valmor F [ORNL; Hart, Kevin J [ORNL

    2016-09-01

    A small quantity of high-value, crude, mono-isotopic silane is a prospective gas for a small-scale, high-recovery, ultra-high membrane purification process. This is an unusual application of gas membrane separation for which we provide a comprehensive analysis of a simple purification model. The goal is to develop direct analytic expressions for estimating the feasibility and efficiency of the method, and guide process design; this is only possible for binary mixtures of silane in the dilute limit which is a somewhat realistic case. Among the common impurities in crude silane, methane poses a special membrane separation challenge since it is chemically similar to silane. Other potential problematic surprises are: ethylene, diborane and ethane (in this order). Nevertheless, we demonstrate, theoretically, that a carefully designed membrane system may be able to purify mono-isotopic, crude silane to electronics-grade level in a reasonable amount of time and expenses. We advocate a combination of membrane materials that preferentially reject heavy impurities based on mobility selectivity, and light impurities based on solubility selectivity. We provide estimates for the purification of significant contaminants of interest. To improve the separation selectivity, it is advantageous to use a permeate chamber under vacuum, however this also requires greater control of in-leakage of impurities in the system. In this study, we suggest cellulose acetate and polydimethylsiloxane as examples of membrane materials on the basis of limited permeability data found in the open literature. We provide estimates on the membrane area needed and priming volume of the cell enclosure for fabrication purposes when using the suggested membrane materials. These estimates are largely theoretical in view of the absence of reliable experimental data for the permeability of silane. Last but not least, future extension of this work to the non-dilute limit may apply to the recovery of silane from

  3. Impact of Past Land Use Changes on Drinking Water Quantity and Quality in Ljubljana Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracic Zeleznik, Branka; Cencur Curk, Barbara

    2010-05-01

    Most of the practical problems that we face today with the on-site management of drinking water sources and distribution of healthy drinking water, originate from past actions, interventions and political decisions. In Ljubljana, the capital of the Republic of Slovenia, underlying groundwater is the main drinking water source. The main threat to drinking water sources is constant input of pollutant loads from roads, roofs, sewers, industry and agricultural areas. The main problems are directly and indirectly related to the significant decrease of groundwater level and deterioration of groundwater quality observed in the last decades as an effect of land use practices under varying climate conditions. The Vodovod-Kanalizacija Public Utility is responsible for water supply of the city residents as well as for management of the water supply system, its surveillance and maintenance. In the past, the Ljubljana Municipality was responsible for the protection of water resources and the first delineation of groundwater protection areas was issued in Decree in 1955. In 2004 a Decree on the water protection zones for the aquifer of Ljubljansko polje on the state level was issued and passed the competences of proclamation of the water protection zones to the state. Spatial planning is a domain of The Municipality and land use is limited according to water protection legislation. For several observation wells long-time data sets about groundwater levels and quality are available, which enable us to analyse changes in groundwater quantity and quality parameters. From the data it is obvious that climate variations are affecting groundwater recharge. In addition, changing of land use affects groundwater quality. In spite of the Decree on the water protection there is a heavy pressure of investors to change land use plans and regulations on protection zones, which causes every day problems in managing the drinking water source. Groundwater management in Ljubljana demands strong

  4. Shop for quality or quantity? Volumes and costs in clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, Giovanni; Zaninotto, Martina; Faggian, Diego; Plebani, Mario

    2013-02-01

    The increasing need to reduce the costs of providing diagnostic laboratory services has prompted initiatives based on the centralization and consolidation of laboratory facilities. However, the majority of papers and experiences reported in literature focus on "cost per test" thus overlooking the real value of a laboratory service, which requires more complex economic evaluations, such as cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility analysis. It is important to perform cost analysis, which is no mean feat, by taking into consideration all variables affecting the final and true cost per test. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the costs of delivering laboratory services in 20 Italian clinical laboratories using a widely accepted methodology, the so-called "activity-based costing analysis". The finding of a trend towards a decrease in total costs - due to an increase in test volumes - attained statistical significance only for quantities of up to about 1,100,00 tests per year. For 1,800,00 tests and more, the cost per test appeared to range from 1.5 to 2.0 € irrespective of the different volumes. Regarding the relationship between volumes and number of staff, there is an evident linear relationship between the number of senior staff and volumes, whereas this trend is not observed in the case of medical technologists, the degree and type of automation strongly affecting this variable. The findings made in the present study confirm that the relationship between volumes and costs is not linear; since it is complex, numerous variables should be taken into account.

  5. Informal Urban Green-Space: Comparison of Quantity and Characteristics in Brisbane, Australia and Sapporo, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Christoph D. D.; Byrne, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    Informal urban green-space (IGS) such as vacant lots, brownfields and street or railway verges is receiving growing attention from urban scholars. Research has shown IGS can provide recreational space for residents and habitat for flora and fauna, yet we know little about the quantity, spatial distribution, vegetation structure or accessibility of IGS. We also lack a commonly accepted definition of IGS and a method that can be used for its rapid quantitative assessment. This paper advances a definition and typology of IGS that has potential for global application. Based on this definition, IGS land use percentage in central Brisbane, Australia and Sapporo, Japan was systematically surveyed in a 10×10 km grid containing 121 sampling sites of 2,500 m2 per city, drawing on data recorded in the field and aerial photography. Spatial distribution, vegetation structure and accessibility of IGS were also analyzed. We found approximately 6.3% of the surveyed urban area in Brisbane and 4.8% in Sapporo consisted of IGS, a non-significant difference. The street verge IGS type (80.4% of all IGS) dominated in Brisbane, while lots (42.2%) and gaps (19.2%) were the two largest IGS types in Sapporo. IGS was widely distributed throughout both survey areas. Vegetation structure showed higher tree cover in Brisbane, but higher herb cover in Sapporo. In both cities over 80% of IGS was accessible or partly accessible. The amount of IGS we found suggests it could play a more important role than previously assumed for residents' recreation and nature experience as well as for fauna and flora, because it substantially increased the amount of potentially available greenspace in addition to parks and conservation greenspace. We argue that IGS has potential for recreation and conservation, but poses some challenges to urban planning. To address these challenges, we propose some directions for future research. PMID:24941046

  6. A Neural Network Approach to Fluid Quantity Measurement in Dynamic Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Terzic, Edin; Nagarajah, Romesh; Alamgir, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Sloshing causes liquid to fluctuate, making accurate level readings difficult to obtain in dynamic environments. The measurement system described uses a single-tube capacitive sensor to obtain an instantaneous level reading of the fluid surface, thereby accurately determining the fluid quantity in the presence of slosh. A neural network based classification technique has been applied to predict the actual quantity of the fluid contained in a tank under sloshing conditions.   In A neural network approach to fluid quantity measurement in dynamic environments, effects of temperature variations and contamination on the capacitive sensor are discussed, and the authors propose that these effects can also be eliminated with the proposed neural network based classification system. To examine the performance of the classification system, many field trials were carried out on a running vehicle at various tank volume levels that range from 5 L to 50 L. The effectiveness of signal enhancement on the neural network base...

  7. Influence of quantities of brewer yeast on the performance of Anastrepha obliqua wild females (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cresoni-Pereira Carla

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Using artificial solid diets, experiments were performed with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 wild females in order to verify the influence of different quantities of brewer yeast on the performance and compensation behavior to unbalanced diets ingestion. The observed parameters were egg production, ingestion, diet efficiency and survival in the reproductive phase. Results indicated that there was no compensatory ingestion to different quantities of yeast and that the diet with 12.5g of yeast provided the best performance. The absence of compensatory ingestion is discussed based on the yeast phagostimulation and on the costs involved in solid diets ingestion. The relation between the analyzed parameters and the protein quantities in the diet were discussed.

  8. Influence of quantities of brewer yeast on the performance of Anastrepha obliqua wild females (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando Sergio

    2001-01-01

    Using artificial solid diets, experiments were performed with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835) wild females in order to verify the influence of different quantities of brewer yeast on the performance and compensation behavior to unbalanced diets ingestion. The observed parameters were egg production, ingestion, diet efficiency and survival in the reproductive phase. Results indicated that there was no compensatory ingestion to different quantities of yeast and that the diet with 12.5g of yeast provided the best performance. The absence of compensatory ingestion is discussed based on the yeast phagostimulation and on the costs involved in solid diets ingestion. The relation between the analyzed parameters and the protein quantities in the diet were discussed. (author)

  9. Influence of quantities of brewer yeast on the performance of Anastrepha obliqua wild females (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando Sergio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Biologia

    2001-11-15

    Using artificial solid diets, experiments were performed with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835) wild females in order to verify the influence of different quantities of brewer yeast on the performance and compensation behavior to unbalanced diets ingestion. The observed parameters were egg production, ingestion, diet efficiency and survival in the reproductive phase. Results indicated that there was no compensatory ingestion to different quantities of yeast and that the diet with 12.5g of yeast provided the best performance. The absence of compensatory ingestion is discussed based on the yeast phagostimulation and on the costs involved in solid diets ingestion. The relation between the analyzed parameters and the protein quantities in the diet were discussed. (author)

  10. Mechanical properties of cohesive soils in dependence on the water quantity and mineralogical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludvik Trauner

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explains the relationships between the water content, mineralogical properties and mechanical properties of saturated clays. The findings are based on theoretical analysis and were confirmed experimentally on monomineral clay samples. It was foundthat the quantity of intergrain water, which determines the undrained shear strength and compressibility of clays, consists of free pore water, and the firmly adsorbed water on the external surfaces of the clay grains. The free water quantity is the same for differentsaturated clays, at the same undrained shear strength, and same effective stress after consolidation and, likewise, the thickness of the water film around the clay grains. The total quantity of firmly adsorbed water depends on the specific surfaces of the clays. Theresult of this work is a new analytical formulation that gives the relationship between the water content and the mechanical properties of clays, taking into account their mineralogical characteristics.

  11. Arrangement for the measurement of the quantity of asphalt in an asphaltic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noma, I.; Taniguchi, K.

    1978-01-01

    The arrangement for the measurement of the quantity of asphalt in an asphaltic compound in an apparatus for the mixture of asphalt components and an aggregate for the formation of an asphaltic compound characterized by the inclusion of a member for the transmission of a neutron beam which reacts with the hydrogen atoms in the asphaltic compound in such a way that the energy of a neutron beam is adsorbed; a continuous transport device feeds a continuous supply of the asphalt compound past the neutron beam; a member responds to an automatic detector for the quantity of asphaltic components in the asphaltic compound and provides an adjustment so that the quantity [of asphaltic components in asphaltic compound] may be held at a constant value. (G.C.)

  12. Urgency of increasing the quantity and quality of student creativity program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmini; Prasetya, Ketut; Nadiroh, Ulin

    2018-01-01

    Student creativity is very important to improve the quality and quantity. The purpose of this paper is to identify the quality and quantity of the Student Creativity Program. The method in this research is exploratory study. The subjects taken are the leaders of deans and vice deans at the State University of Surabaya. Data collection techniques used are kusioner. The result of this research is creativity program in student is very important. Not only improve the quality and quantity of creativity, but also affect the image of the institution. It is necessary to have written rules on the regulations on the Student Creativity Program and to take a comprehensive and comprehensive approach, and to organize the budget is the main thing.

  13. Buyer-vendor coordination for fixed lifetime product with quantity discount under finite production rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghong; Luo, Jianwen; Duan, Yongrui

    2016-03-01

    Buyer-vendor coordination has been widely addressed; however, the fixed lifetime of the product is seldom considered. In this paper, we study the coordination of an integrated production-inventory system with quantity discount for a fixed lifetime product under finite production rate and deterministic demand. We first derive the buyer's ordering policy and the vendor's production batch size in decentralised and centralised systems. We then compare the two systems and show the non-coordination of the ordering policies and the production batch sizes. To improve the supply chain efficiency, we propose quantity discount contract and prove that the contract can coordinate the buyer-vendor supply chain. Finally, we present analytically tractable solutions and give a numerical example to illustrate the benefits of the proposed quantity discount strategy.

  14. Among-species differences in pollen quality and quantity limitation: implications for endemics in biodiverse hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Conchita; Navarro-Fernández, Carmen M; Arceo-Gómez, Gerardo; Meindl, George A; Parra-Tabla, Víctor; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Insufficient pollination is a function of quantity and quality of pollen receipt, and the relative contribution of each to pollen limitation may vary with intrinsic plant traits and extrinsic ecological properties. Community-level studies are essential to evaluate variation across species in quality limitation under common ecological conditions. This study examined whether endemic species are more limited by pollen quantity or quality than non-endemic co-flowering species in three endemic-rich plant communities located in biodiversity hotspots of different continents (Andalusia, California and Yucatan). Natural variations in pollen receipt and pollen tube formation were analysed for 20 insect-pollinated plants. Endemic and non-endemic species that co-flowered were paired in order to estimate and compare the quantity and quality components of pre-zygotic pollination success, obtained through piecewise regression analysis of the relationship between pollen grains and pollen tubes of naturally pollinated wilted flowers. Pollen tubes did not frequently exceed the number of ovules per flower. Only the combination of abundant and good quality pollen and a low number of ovules per flower conferred relief from pre-zygotic pollen limitation in the three stochastic pollination environments studied. Quality of pollen receipt was found to be as variable as quantity among study species. The relative pollination success of endemic and non-endemic species, and its quantity and quality components, was community dependent. Assessing both quality and quantity of pollen receipt is key to determining the ovule fertilization potential of both endemic and widespread plants in biodiverse hotspot regions. Large natural variation among flowers of the same species in the two components and pollen tube formation deserves further analysis in order to estimate the environmental, phenotypic and intraindividual sources of variation that may affect how plants evolve to overcome this limitation in

  15. Terms and definitions in the field of radiological technique. Dose quantities and units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The standard gives the terms and definitions of concepts, dose quantities and units. The radiation field condition 'secondary electron equilibrium', which forms part of the definition of standard ion dose, is given more precisely. The term 'free in air' is used in its original meaning, i.e. characterization of measuring conditions excluding avoidable stray radiation, which deviates from DIN 6814, part 3/06.72. Dosemeters for measurement of standard ion dose of air kerma are calibrated 'free in air', but this calibration condition is not part of the quantity definition. The quantities standard ion dose or air kerma therefore can also be measured in any other material. The qunatitative relationships between standard ion dose and the quantities 'exposure' and air kerma, as given in the ICRU publication 33 'Quantities and Units' (1980), are explained. The standard introduces the SI units Gray (for energy dose), Sievert (for dose equivalent), and Becquerel (for the activity of a radioactive substance). As the change to the SI units conceals the approximated equality of the numerical values of the standrd ion dose of photon radiation in roentgen, of the energy dose for soft tissue in rad, and of the dose equivalent in rem, new definitions are given in accordance with ICRU 33 for the quantities specified dose rate, dose rate constant, and area exposure product. These definitions use the terms 'energy dose' and 'kerma'. The dose concepts applied in the field of radiation protection, especially ambient dose and individual dose, are defined as dose equivalents in compliance with the Radiation Protection Ordinance. The relevant sections present information on the conversion of standard ion dose values to the corresponding values of kerma, energy dose, or dose equivalent. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Operational quantities for use in external radiation protection measurements. An investigation of concepts and principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Under the terms of the Euratom Treaty the Commission of the European Communities is required to draw up basic standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation. The basic standards lay down reference values for particular quantities; these values are required to be measured, and appropriate steps taken to ensure that they are not exceeded. To ensure that the basic standards are applied uniformly in the Member States, it is necessary to harmonize not only national laws but also measurement and recording techniques. As a practical contribution towards this objective, the Commission has since 1964 been conducting intercomparison programmes on operational radiation protection dosimetry. Effective monitoring against the dangers of ionizing radiation cannot be guaranteed unless the measuring instruments meet the necessary requirements, the quantities measured are those for which limit values have been laid down, and the instruments can be calibrated unequivocally. The differences between the concepts of quantity and unit of measurement in radiation protection were often unclear. In the light of developments at international level, the introduction of the international system of units of measurements (SI units) and the contents of ICRP Publication No 26, the services of the European Community responsible for radiation protection decided to review the whole question of quantities. The introduction of the 'index' quantities (absorbed dose index and dose equivalent index) was greeted with initial enthusiasm, but it soon became clear, on closer critical examination, that these too had major shortcomings. The Commission, in collaboration with experts from the Member States of the European Community, has therefore set out in this publication the various considerations and points of view concerning the use of these quantities in practical dosimetry. It is hoped that this publication will be of use to all

  17. Consensus on items and quantities of clinical equipment required to deal with a mass casualties big bang incident: a national Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Edward A S; Colver, Keith; Dougall, Nadine; Swingler, Kevin; Stephenson, John; Abhyankar, Purva

    2014-02-22

    Major short-notice or sudden impact incidents, which result in a large number of casualties, are rare events. However health services must be prepared to respond to such events appropriately. In the United Kingdom (UK), a mass casualties incident is when the normal response of several National Health Service organizations to a major incident, has to be supported with extraordinary measures. Having the right type and quantity of clinical equipment is essential, but planning for such emergencies is challenging. To date, the equipment stored for such events has been selected on the basis of local clinical judgment and has evolved without an explicit evidence-base. This has resulted in considerable variations in the types and quantities of clinical equipment being stored in different locations. This study aimed to develop an expert consensus opinion of the essential items and minimum quantities of clinical equipment that is required to treat 100 people at the scene of a big bang mass casualties event. A three round modified Delphi study was conducted with 32 experts using a specifically developed web-based platform. Individuals were invited to participate if they had personal clinical experience of providing a pre-hospital emergency medical response to a mass casualties incident, or had responsibility in health emergency planning for mass casualties incidents and were in a position of authority within the sphere of emergency health planning. Each item's importance was measured on a 5-point Likert scale. The quantity of items required was measured numerically. Data were analyzed using nonparametric statistics. Experts achieved consensus on a total of 134 items (54%) on completion of the study. Experts did not reach consensus on 114 (46%) items. Median quantities and interquartile ranges of the items, and their recommended quantities were identified and are presented. This study is the first to produce an expert consensus on the items and quantities of clinical equipment

  18. Effect of Shoot Pruning and Flower Thinning on Quality and Quantity of Semi-Determinate Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolali HESAMI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many constraints of space, light and availability of fruits to harvest in tomatoes greenhouse. Therefore, two experiments were carried out to determine the effect of shoot pruning and flower thinning on quality and quantity of fruits of semi-determinate tomato in a greenhouse of the Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Persian Gulf University of Bushehr. Experimental design was randomized complete block designs in which the effect of shoot pruning (single branch pruning, double branch pruning, pyramidal pruning and control or flower thinning (Cluster with 4 and 5 remained flowers and control were studied separately. Results showed that, leaf area and plants yield were higher in treatments which were pruned than control. Yields from pyramidal pruning and cluster thinning with 5 remaining flowers were significantly higher than other treatments. On the other hand, qualitative study identified that pyramidal pruning increases vitamin C in fruits, but had no significant effect on total soluble solids.

  19. DYNAMIC INVESTIGATION OF THE PURCHASE PRICE AND QUANTITY OF MAIZE AND PIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit POÓR

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our examination was to show the cyclic character in the case of agricultural prices. Beside the investigation of prices the analysis of the purchased quantity is of importance too. We examined the way the prices and quantity exercise mutual influence and the connection between the maize purchase price and the pig purchase price. We compared the Hungarian purchase prices with some international ones, and analyzed the tendencies, the influence of open economies and the approach of the prices.

  20. A principle to correlate extreme values of excess thermodynamic functions with partial molar quantities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尉志武; 刘芸; 周蕊; 薛芳渝

    2001-01-01

    Excess thermodynamic properties are widely used quantitatively for fluids. It was found that at constant temperature and pressure a molar excess quantity of a mutually miscible binary mixture at the extreme points equals the excess partial molar quantities of the two components, i.e.F1E = F2E = FmE , forming a triple cross point. The relationship is hold for properties such as en-thalpy, entropy, Gibbs free energy, and volume, and is applicable for excess functions with multi extreme points. Solutions at extreme points can be referred to as special mixtures. Particularly fora special mixture of Gibbs free energy, activity coefficients of the two components are identical.