WorldWideScience

Sample records for producing renewable hydrogen

  1. Ovonic Renewable Hydrogen (ORH) - low temperature hydrogen production from renewable fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichman, B.; Mays, W.; Strebe, J.; Fetcenko, M.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text': ECD has developed a new technology to produce hydrogen from various organic matters. In this technology termed Ovonic Renewable Hydrogen (ORH), base material such as NaOH is used as a reactant to facilitate the reforming of the organic matters to hydrogen gas. This Base-Facilitated Reforming (BFR) process is a one-step process and has number of advantages over the conventional steam reforming and gasification processes including lower operation temperature and lower heat consumption. This paper will describe the ORH process and discuss its technological and economics advantages over the conventional hydrogen production processes. ORH process has been studied and demonstrated on variety of renewable fuels including liquid biofuels and solid biomass materials. Results of these studies will be presented. (author)

  2. The Economic Potential of Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems Producing Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that Idaho National Laboratory and the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis are publishing that address the technical and economic aspects of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs). This report discusses an analysis of the economic potential of a tightly coupled N-R HES that produces electricity and hydrogen. Both low and high temperature electrolysis options are considered in the analysis. Low-temperature electrolysis requires only electricity to convert water to hydrogen. High temperature electrolysis requires less electricity because it uses both electricity and heat to provide the energy necessary to electrolyze water. The study finds that, to be profitable, the examined high-temperature electrosis and low-temperature electrosis N-R HES configurations that produce hydrogen require higher electricity prices, more electricity price volatility, higher natural gas prices, or higher capacity payments than the reference case values of these parameters considered in this analysis.

  3. New perspectives on renewable energy systems based on hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, T. K.; Agbossou, K.; Benard, P.; St-Arnaud, J-M.

    1999-01-01

    Current hydrocarbon-based energy systems, current energy consumption and the push towards the utilization of renewable energy sources, fuelled by global warming and the need to reduce atmospheric pollution are discussed. The consequences of climatic change and the obligation of Annex B countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions in terms of the Kyoto Protocols are reviewed. The role that renewable energy sources such as hydrogen, solar and wind energy could play in avoiding the most catastrophic consequences of rapidly growing energy consumption and atmospheric pollution in the face of diminishing conventional fossil fuel resources are examined. The focus is on hydrogen energy as a means of storing and transporting primary energy. Some favorable characteristics of hydrogen is its abundance, the fact that it can be produced utilizing renewable or non-renewable sources, and the further fact that its combustion produces three times more energy per unit of mass than oil, and six times more than coal. The technology of converting hydrogen into energy, storing energy in the form of hydrogen, and its utilization, for example in the stabilization of wind energy by way of electrolytic conversion to hydrogen, are described. Development at Hydro-Quebec's Institute of Research of a hydrogen-based autonomous wind energy system to produce electricity is also discussed. 2 tabs., 11 refs

  4. Expert Opinion Analysis on Renewable Hydrogen Storage Systems Potential in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Astiaso Garcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the several typologies of storage technologies, mainly on different physical principles (mechanical, electrical and chemical, hydrogen produced by power to gas (P2G from renewable energy sources complies with chemical storage principle and is based on the conversion of electrical energy into chemical energy by means of the electrolysis of water which does not produce any toxic or climate-relevant emission. This paper aims to pinpoint the potential uses of renewable hydrogen storage systems in Europe, analysing current and potential locations, regulatory framework, governments’ outlooks, economic issues, and available renewable energy amounts. The expert opinion survey, already used in many research articles on different topics including energy, has been selected as an effective method to produce realistic results. The obtained results highlight strategies and actions to optimize the storage of hydrogen produced by renewables to face varying electricity demand and generation-driven fluctuations reducing the negative effects of the increasing share of renewables in the energy mix of European Countries.

  5. Integrated Renewable Hydrogen Utility System (IRHUS) business plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This business plan is for a proposed legal entity named IRHUS, Inc. which is to be formed as a subsidiary of Energy Partners, L.C. (EP) of West Palm Beach, Florida. EP is a research and development company specializing in hydrogen proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and systems. A fuel cell is an engine with no moving parts that takes in hydrogen and produces electricity. The purpose of IRHUS, Inc. is to develop and manufacture a self-sufficient energy system based on the fuel cell and other new technology that produces hydrogen and electricity. The product is called the Integrated renewable Hydrogen utility System (IRHUS). IRHUS, Inc. plans to start limited production of the IRHUS in 2002. The IRHUS is a unique product with an innovative concept in that it provides continuous electrical power in places with no electrical infrastructure, i.e., in remote and island locations. The IRHUS is a zero emissions, self-sufficient, hydrogen fuel generation system that produces electricity on a continuous basis by combining any renewable power source with hydrogen technology. Current plans are to produce a 10 kilowatt IRHUS MP (medium power). Future plans are to design and manufacture IRHUS models to provide power for a variety of power ranges for identified attractive market segments. The technological components of the IRHUS include an electrolyzer, hydrogen and oxygen storage subsystems, fuel cell system, and power control system. The IRHUS product is to be integrated with a variety of renewable energy technologies. 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Exergetic life cycle assessment of hydrogen production from renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    Life cycle assessment is extended to exergetic life cycle assessment and used to evaluate the exergy efficiency, economic effectiveness and environmental impact of producing hydrogen using wind and solar energy in place of fossil fuels. The product hydrogen is considered a fuel for fuel cell vehicles and a substitute for gasoline. Fossil fuel technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas and gasoline from crude oil are contrasted with options using renewable energy. Exergy efficiencies and greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions are evaluated for all process steps, including crude oil and natural gas pipeline transportation, crude oil distillation and natural gas reforming, wind and solar electricity generation, hydrogen production through water electrolysis, and gasoline and hydrogen distribution and utilization. The use of wind power to produce hydrogen via electrolysis, and its application in a fuel cell vehicle, exhibits the lowest fossil and mineral resource consumption rate. However, the economic attractiveness, as measured by a "capital investment effectiveness factor," of renewable technologies depends significantly on the ratio of costs for hydrogen and natural gas. At the present cost ratio of about 2 (per unit of lower heating value or exergy), capital investments are about five times lower to produce hydrogen via natural gas rather than wind energy. As a consequence, the cost of wind- and solar-based electricity and hydrogen is substantially higher than that of natural gas. The implementation of a hydrogen fuel cell instead of an internal combustion engine permits, theoretically, an increase in a vehicle's engine efficiency of about of two times. Depending on the ratio in engine efficiencies, the substitution of gasoline with "renewable" hydrogen leads to (a) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions of 12-23 times for hydrogen from wind and 5-8 times for hydrogen from solar energy, and (b) air pollution (AP) emissions reductions of 38

  7. Comparative costs of hydrogen produced from photovoltaic electrolysis and from photoelectrochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    The need for hydrogen produced from renewable energy sources is the key element to the world's large-scale usage of hydrogen and to the hydrogen economy envisioned by the World Hydrogen Energy Association. Renewables-produced hydrogen is also the most technically difficult problem to be solved. Hydrogen will never achieve large-scale usage until it can be competitively produced from renewable energy. One of the important questions that has to be addressed is: What are the economics of present and expected future technologies that will be used to produce hydrogen from renewables? The objective of this study is to give an answer to this question by determining the cost of hydrogen (in U.S.$/MBtu) from competing renewable production technologies. It should be noted that the costs and efficiencies assumed in this paper are assumptions of the author, and that the values are expected to be achieved after additional research on photoelectrochemical process technologies. The cost analysis performed is for three types of hydrogen (H 2 ) produced from five different types of renewable processes: photovoltaic (PV) electrolysis, three photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes and higher temperature electrolysis (HTE). The costs and efficiencies for PV, PEC and HTE processes are established for present day, and for expected costs and efficiencies 10 years into the future. A second objective of this analysis is to set base case costs of PV electrolysis. For any other renewable process, the costs for PV electrolysis, which is existing technology, sets the numbers which the other processes must better. (author)

  8. Hydrogen from renewable sources. Current and future constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falchetta, M.; Galli, S.

    2001-01-01

    Using renewable energy sources to produce hydrogen as an energy vector could assure a fully sustainable renewable energy system with zero emissions. Many conversion technologies (in particular water electrolysis) are already available and proven, but are still far from being economically competitive [it

  9. Potential of producing renewable hydrogen from livestock animal waste. Paper no. IGEC-1-143

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, F.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen economy and fuel cell technology have become increasingly recognized as means for maintaining a sustainable energy supply as well as a sustainable environment. Simultaneously, solutions are being sought to effectively manage the animal wastes from livestock farming of cattle, cow, hog, and poultry to ensure an environmentally sustainable method of food production. This discussion examines the potential of producing hydrogen from livestock waste on a scale that can effectively solve a waste management problem for the livestock industry and provide significant quantities of renewable hydrogen to the clean energy industry. The green energy derived from animal waste is considered to be carbon-neutral because animal feed is largely grown from photosynthesis of carbon dioxide. Electricity and heat thus generated will offset those generated from fossil fuels and can be rewarded with greenhouse gas emission reduction credits. Two groups of well proven technologies: biochemical processes such as anaerobic digestion (AD), and thermochemical processes such as gasification are considered in this paper. A theoretical analysis of the potential of reforming the biogas and syngas from these reactions has been conducted using mathematical models of AD, gasification, steam reforming and water-gas shift reactions, and the results indicate that significant quantities of renewable hydrogen can be generated to fuel clean energy technologies such as the fuel cell. Practical considerations are presented to complement the theoretical analysis and future research directions are also discussed. (author)

  10. The Design of a Renewable Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure for London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parissis, O.; Bauen, A.

    2006-01-01

    The development of a least cost hydrogen infrastructure is key to the introduction of hydrogen fuel in road transport. This paper presents a generic framework for modelling the development of a renewable hydrogen infrastructure that can be applied to different cases and geographical regions. The model was designed by means of mixed integer linear programming and developed in MATLAB. It was applied to the case of London aiming to examine the possibilities of developing a renewable hydrogen infrastructure within a 50 years time horizon. The results presented here are preliminary results from a study looking at the least cost solutions to supplying hydrogen produced exclusively from renewable energy resources to large urban centres. (authors)

  11. Coupling renewables via hydrogen into utilities: Temporal and spatial issues, and technology opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannucci, J.J.; Horgan, S.A.; Eyer, J.M. [Distributed Utility Associates, San Ramon, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses the technical potential for hydrogen used as an energy storage medium to couple time-dependent renewable energy into time-dependent electric utility loads. This analysis will provide estimates of regional and national opportunities for hydrogen production, storage and conversion, based on current and near-term leading renewable energy and hydrogen production and storage technologies. Appropriate renewable technologies, wind, photovoltaics and solar thermal, are matched to their most viable regional resources. The renewables are assumed to produce electricity which will be instantaneously used by the local utility to meet its loads; any excess electricity will be used to produce hydrogen electrolytically and stored for later use. Results are derived based on a range of assumptions of renewable power plant capacity and fraction of regional electric load to be met (e.g., the amount of hydrogen storage required to meet the Northwest region`s top 10% of electric load). For each renewable technology national and regional totals will be developed for maximum hydrogen production per year and ranges of hydrogen storage capacity needed in each year (hydroelectric case excluded). The sensitivity of the answers to the fraction of peak load to be served and the land area dedicated for renewable resources are investigated. These analyses can serve as a starting point for projecting the market opportunity for hydrogen storage and distribution technologies. Sensitivities will be performed for hydrogen production, conversion. and storage efficiencies representing current and near-term hydrogen technologies.

  12. Storing Renewable Energy in the Hydrogen Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas; Callini, Elsa; Kato, Shunsuke; Atakli, Züleyha Özlem Kocabas

    2015-01-01

    An energy economy based on renewable energy requires massive energy storage, approx. half of the annual energy consumption. Therefore, the production of a synthetic energy carrier, e.g. hydrogen, is necessary. The hydrogen cycle, i.e. production of hydrogen from water by renewable energy, storage and use of hydrogen in fuel cells, combustion engines or turbines is a closed cycle. Electrolysis splits water into hydrogen and oxygen and represents a mature technology in the power range up to 100 kW. However, the major technological challenge is to build electrolyzers in the power range of several MW producing high purity hydrogen with a high efficiency. After the production of hydrogen, large scale and safe hydrogen storage is required. Hydrogen is stored either as a molecule or as an atom in the case of hydrides. The maximum volumetric hydrogen density of a molecular hydrogen storage is limited to the density of liquid hydrogen. In a complex hydride the hydrogen density is limited to 20 mass% and 150 kg/m(3) which corresponds to twice the density of liquid hydrogen. Current research focuses on the investigation of new storage materials based on combinations of complex hydrides with amides and the understanding of the hydrogen sorption mechanism in order to better control the reaction for the hydrogen storage applications.

  13. Solar hydrogen production: renewable hydrogen production by dry fuel reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Jamie; Miyamoto, Henry K.

    2006-09-01

    SHEC LABS - Solar Hydrogen Energy Corporation constructed a pilot-plant to demonstrate a Dry Fuel Reforming (DFR) system that is heated primarily by sunlight focusing-mirrors. The pilot-plant consists of: 1) a solar mirror array and solar concentrator and shutter system; and 2) two thermo-catalytic reactors to convert Methane, Carbon Dioxide, and Water into Hydrogen. Results from the pilot study show that solar Hydrogen generation is feasible and cost-competitive with traditional Hydrogen production. More than 95% of Hydrogen commercially produced today is by the Steam Methane Reformation (SMR) of natural gas, a process that liberates Carbon Dioxide to the atmosphere. The SMR process provides a net energy loss of 30 to 35% when converting from Methane to Hydrogen. Solar Hydrogen production provides a 14% net energy gain when converting Methane into Hydrogen since the energy used to drive the process is from the sun. The environmental benefits of generating Hydrogen using renewable energy include significant greenhouse gas and criteria air contaminant reductions.

  14. Hydrogen from renewable resources - the hundred year commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade interest in a potential 'Hydrogen Economy' has increased and is now discussed in main stream literature and political debates. This is largely due to the promise that fuel cell technology, which uses a hydrogen-rich gas, has shown. Though hydrogen can be produced from a number of sources, it is steam reforming of natural gas that has gained a substantial support base, and is seen as an important bridge to a sustainable hydrogen production from renewable energy. What this paper examines is the synergy that exists now between hydrogen from renewable resources and the inception of the fuel cell market. It argues that although the natural gas pathway will be necessary for the short to medium term, there should not be a complete dominance of the production route. The paper also brings together a number of policy documents from the EU and argues that what is needed from the level of the EU is a long term, binding commitment to ensure that the natural gas pathway does not become locked in. (author)

  15. Energy Systems With Renewable Hydrogen Compared to Direct Use of Renewable Energy in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerfried Jungmeier; Kurt Konighofer; Josef Spitzer; R Haas; A Ajanovic

    2006-01-01

    The current Austrian energy system has a renewable energy share of 20% - 11% hydropower and 9 % biomass - of total primary energy consumption. Whereas a possible future introduction of renewable hydrogen must be seen in the context of current energy policies in Austria e.g. increase of energy efficiency and use of renewable energy, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of the research project is a life cycle based comparison of energy systems with renewable hydrogen from hydropower, wind, photovoltaic and biomass compared to the direct use of renewable energy for combined heat and power applications and transportation services. In particular this paper focuses on the main question, if renewable energy should be used directly or indirectly via renewable hydrogen. The assessment is based on a life cycle approach to analyse the energy efficiency, the material demand, the greenhouse gas emissions and economic aspects e.g. energy costs and some qualitative aspects e.g. energy service. The overall comparison of the considered energy systems for transportation service and combined heat and electricity application shows, that renewable hydrogen might be beneficial mainly for transportation services, if the electric vehicle will not be further developed to a feasibly wide-spread application for transportation service in future. For combined heat and electricity production there is no advantage of renewable hydrogen versus the direct use of renewable energy. Conclusions for Austria are therefore: 1) renewable hydrogen is an interesting energy carrier and might play an important role in a future sustainable Austrian energy system; 2) renewable hydrogen applications look most promising in the transportation sector; 3) renewable hydrogen applications will be of low importance for combined heat and electricity applications, as existing technologies for direct use of renewable energy for heat and electricity are well developed and very efficient; 4) In a future '100

  16. Renewable hydrogen utilisation for the production of methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo Cifre, P.; Badr, O.

    2007-01-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen production is an efficient way of storing renewable energy generated electricity and securing the contribution of renewables in the future electricity supply. The use of this hydrogen for the production of methanol results in a liquid fuel that can be utilised directly with minor changes in the existing infrastructure. To utilise the renewable generated hydrogen for production of renewable methanol, a sustainable carbon source is needed. This carbon can be provided by biomass or CO 2 in the flue gases of fossil fuel-fired power stations, cement factories, fermentation processes and water purification plants. Methanol production pathways via biomass gasification and CO 2 recovery from the flue gasses of a fossil fuel-fired power station have been reviewed in this study. The cost of methanol production from biomass was found to lie in the range of 300-400 EUR/tonne of methanol, and the production cost of CO 2 based methanol was between 500 and 600 EUR/tonne. Despite the higher production costs compared with methanol produced by conventional natural gas reforming (i.e. 100-200 EUR/tonne, aided by the low current price of natural gas), these new processes incorporate environmentally beneficial aspects that have to be taken into account. (author)

  17. Renewable energy for hydrogen production and sustainable urban mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briguglio, N.; Andaloro, L.; Ferraro, M.; Di Blasi, A.; Dispenza, G.; Antonucci, V.; Matteucci, F.; Breedveld, L.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the number of power plants based on renewable energy (RWE) has been increasing and hydrogen as an energy carrier has become a suitable medium-to-long term storage solution as well as a ''fuel'' for FCEV's because of its CO 2 -free potential. In this context, the aim of the present study is to carry out both an economic and environmental analysis of a start-up RWE plant using a simulation code developed in previous work and a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The plant will be located in the South of Italy (Puglia) and will consist of different RWE sources (Wind Power, Photovoltaic, Biomass). RWE will be used to produce hydrogen from an electrolyzer, which will feed a fleet of buses using different fuels (methane, hydrogen, or a mixture of these). In particular, a wind turbine of 850 kW will feed a hydrogen production plant and a biomass plant will produce methane. Preliminary studies have shown that it is possible to obtain hydrogen at a competitive cost (DOE target) and that components (wind turbine, electrolyzer, vessel, etc.) influence the final price. In addition, LCA results have permitted a comparison of different minibuses using either fossil fuels or renewable energy sources. (author)

  18. Renewable energy for hydrogen production and sustainable urban mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briguglio, N.; Andaloro, L.; Ferraro, M.; Di Blasi, A.; Dispenza, G.; Antonucci, V. [Istituto di Tecnologie avanzate per l' Energia ' ' Nicola Giordano' ' Salita S, Lucia sopra Contesse, 5, 98126 Messina (Italy); Matteucci, F. [TRE SpA Tozzi Renewable Energy, Via Zuccherificio, 10, 48100 Mezzano (RA) (Italy); Breedveld, L. [2B Via della Chiesa Campocroce, 4, 31021 Mogliano Veneto (TV) (Italy)

    2010-09-15

    In recent years, the number of power plants based on renewable energy (RWE) has been increasing and hydrogen as an energy carrier has become a suitable medium-to-long term storage solution as well as a ''fuel'' for FCEV's because of its CO{sub 2}-free potential. In this context, the aim of the present study is to carry out both an economic and environmental analysis of a start-up RWE plant using a simulation code developed in previous work and a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The plant will be located in the South of Italy (Puglia) and will consist of different RWE sources (Wind Power, Photovoltaic, Biomass). RWE will be used to produce hydrogen from an electrolyzer, which will feed a fleet of buses using different fuels (methane, hydrogen, or a mixture of these). In particular, a wind turbine of 850 kW will feed a hydrogen production plant and a biomass plant will produce methane. Preliminary studies have shown that it is possible to obtain hydrogen at a competitive cost (DOE target) and that components (wind turbine, electrolyzer, vessel, etc.) influence the final price. In addition, LCA results have permitted a comparison of different minibuses using either fossil fuels or renewable energy sources. (author)

  19. Renewable hydrogen production via thermochemical/electrochemical coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosini, Andrea [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Babiniec, Sean Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    A coupled electrochemical/thermochemical cycle was investigated to produce hydrogen from renewable resources. Like a conventional thermochemical cycle, this cycle leverages chemical energy stored in a thermochemical working material that is reduced thermally by solar energy. However, in this concept, the stored chemical energy only needs to be partially, but not fully, capable of splitting steam to produce hydrogen. To complete the process, a proton-conducting membrane is driven to separate hydrogen as it is produced, thus shifting the thermodynamics toward further hydrogen production. This novel coupled-cycle concept provides several benefits. First, the required oxidation enthalpy of the reversible thermochemical material is reduced, enabling the process to occur at lower temperatures. Second, removing the requirement for spontaneous steam-splitting widens the scope of materials compositions, allowing for less expensive/more abundant elements to be used. Lastly, thermodynamics calculations suggest that this concept can potentially reach higher efficiencies than photovoltaic-to-electrolysis hydrogen production methods. This Exploratory Express LDRD involved assessing the practical feasibility of the proposed coupled cycle. A test stand was designed and constructed and proton-conducting membranes were synthesized. While the full proof of concept was not achieved, the individual components of the experiment were validated and new capabilities that can be leveraged by a variety of programs were developed.

  20. A Renewably Powered Hydrogen Generation and Fueling Station Community Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Sekura, Linda S.; Prokopius, Paul; Theirl, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The proposed project goal is to encourage the use of renewable energy and clean fuel technologies for transportation and other applications while generating economic development. This can be done by creating an incubator for collaborators, and creating a manufacturing hub for the energy economy of the future by training both white- and blue-collar workers for the new energy economy. Hydrogen electrolyzer fueling stations could be mass-produced, shipped and installed in collaboration with renewable energy power stations, or installed connected to the grid with renewable power added later.

  1. Renewable solar hydrogen production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakos, J.

    2006-01-01

    There is a tremendous opportunity to generate large quantities of hydrogen from low grade and economical sources of methane including landfill gas, biogas, flare gas, and coal bed methane. The environmental benefits of generating hydrogen using renewable energy include significant greenhouse gas and air contaminant reductions. Solar Hydrogen Energy Corporation (SHEC LABS) recently constructed and demonstrated a Dry Fuel Reforming (DFR) hydrogen generation system that is powered primarily by sunlight focusing-mirrors in Tempe, Arizona. The system comprises a solar mirror array, a temperature controlling shutter system, and two thermo-catalytic reactors to convert methane, carbon dioxide, and water into hydrogen. This process has shown that solar hydrogen generation is feasible and cost-competitive with traditional hydrogen production. The presentation will provide the following: An overview of the results of the testing conducted in Tempe, Arizona; A look at the design and installation of the scaled-up technology site at a landfill site in Canada; An examination of the economic and environmental benefits of renewable hydrogen production using solar energy

  2. Renewable energy from biomass: a sustainable option? - Hydrogen production from alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Zoltán; Kith, Károly; Tamás, András; Nagy, Orsolya

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable development requires us to find new energy sources instead of fossil fuels. One possibility is the hydrogen fuel cell, which uses significantly more efficient than the current combustion engines. The task of the hydrogen is clean, carbon-free renewable energy sources to choose in the future by growing degree. Hungary can play a role in the renewable energy sources of biomass as a renewable biomass annually mass of about 350 to 360 million tons. The biomass is only a very small proportion of fossil turn carbonaceous materials substitution, while we may utilize alternative energy sources as well. To the hydrogen production from biomass, the first step of the chemical transformations of chemical bonds are broken, which is always activation energy investment needs. The methanol and ethanol by fermentation from different agricultural products is relatively easy to produce, so these can be regarded as renewable energy carriers of. The ethanol can be used directly, and used in several places in the world are mixed with the petrol additive. This method is the disadvantage that the anhydrous alcohol is to be used in the combustion process in the engine more undesired by-products may be formed, and the fuel efficiency of the engine is significantly lower than the efficiency of the fuel cells. More useful to produce hydrogen from the alcohol and is used in a fuel cell electric power generation. Particularly attractive option for the so-called on-board reforming of alcohols, that happens immediately when the vehicle hydrogen production. It does not need a large tank of hydrogen, because the hydrogen produced would be directly to the fuel cell. The H2 tank limit use of its high cost, the significant loss evaporation, the rare-station network, production capacity and service background and lack of opportunity to refuel problems. These can be overcome, if the hydrogen in the vehicle is prepared. As volume even 700 bar only about half the H2 pressure gas can be stored

  3. Feasibility of hydrogen from renewable energy in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, B.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' There is an abundance of renewable resources in the Canadian Arctic. Despite that diesel is still the conventional source used by homes and businesses for their electrical and space heating needs. Electrolysis of water to produce hydrogen using renewable resources is under investigation. A techno-economic feasibility has been conducted for hybrid systems including wind turbine, photovoltaic system, electrolyser and fuel cells. Different scenarios have been considered for meeting the needs of a small, remote community in the Arctic. Results will be presented indicating the most cost-effective Wind-PV-Electrolyser-Fuel Cell system for combined heat and power. (author)

  4. Hydrogen production via catalytic processing of renewable feedstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazim Muradov; Franklyn Smith; Ali T-Raissi

    2006-01-01

    Landfill gas (LFG) and biogas can potentially become important feedstocks for renewable hydrogen production. The objectives of this work were: (1) to develop a catalytic process for direct reforming of CH 4 -CO 2 gaseous mixture mimicking LFG, (2) perform thermodynamic analysis of the reforming process using AspenPlus chemical process simulator, (3) determine operational conditions for auto-thermal (or thermo-neutral) reforming of a model CH 4 -CO 2 feedstock, and (4) fabricate and test a bench-scale hydrogen production unit. Experimental data obtained from catalytic reformation of the CH 4 -CO 2 and CH 4 -CO 2 -O 2 gaseous mixtures using Ni-catalyst were in a good agreement with the simulation results. It was demonstrated that catalytic reforming of LFG-mimicking gas produced hydrogen with the purity of 99.9 vol.%. (authors)

  5. Transportable Hydrogen Research Plant Based on Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikel Fernandez; Carlos Madina; Asier Gil de Muro; Jose Angel Alzolab; Iker Marino; Javier Garcia-Tejedor; Juan Carlos Mugica; Inaki Azkkrate; Jose Angel Alzola

    2006-01-01

    Efficiency and cost are nowadays the most important barriers for the penetration of systems based on hydrogen and renewable energies. According to this background, TECNALIA Corporation has started in 2004 the HIDROTEC project: 'Hydrogen Technologies for Renewable Energy Applications'. The ultimate aim of this project is the implementation of a multipurpose demonstration and research plant in order to explore diverse options for sustainable energetic solutions based on hydrogen. The plant is conceived as an independent system that can be easily transported and assembled. Research and demonstration activities can thus be carried out at very different locations, including commercial renewable facilities. Modularity and scalability have also been taken into account for an optimised exploitation. (authors)

  6. Renewable Hydrogen Potential from Biogas in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saur, G.; Milbrandt, A.

    2014-07-01

    This analysis updates and expands upon previous biogas studies to include total potential and net availability of methane in raw biogas with respect to competing demands and includes a resource assessment of four sources of biogas: (1) wastewater treatment plants, including domestic and a new assessment of industrial sources; (2) landfills; (3) animal manure; and (4) a new assessment of industrial, institutional, and commercial sources. The results of the biogas resource assessment are used to estimate the potential production of renewable hydrogen from biogas as well as the fuel cell electric vehicles that the produced hydrogen might support.

  7. Overview of U.S. programs for hydrogen from renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses US program for hydrogen from renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources include biomass, wind, solar, hydropower, geothermal and ocean waves. Although nuclear power is not considered renewable, a case can be made that it is, but requires recycling of spent fuel. The paper also discusses hydrogen production, storage and delivery. It discusses fuel cells, safety codes and standards and system analysis

  8. Bio-hydrogen production from renewable organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shihwu Sung

    2004-04-30

    Methane fermentation has been in practice over a century for the stabilization of high strength organic waste/wastewater. Although methanogenesis is a well established process and methane--the end-product of methanogenesis is a useful energy source; it is a low value end product with relatively less energy content (about 56 kJ energy/g CH{sub 4}). Besides, methane and its combustion by-product are powerful greenhouse gases, and responsible for global climate change. So there is a pressing need to explore alternative environmental technologies that not only stabilize the waste/wastewater but also generate benign high value end products. From this perspective, anaerobic bioconversion of organic wastes to hydrogen gas is an attractive option that achieves both goals. From energy security stand point, generation of hydrogen energy from renewable organic waste/wastewater could substitute non-renewable fossil fuels, over two-third of which is imported from politically unstable countries. Thus, biological hydrogen production from renewable organic waste through dark fermentation represents a critically important area of bioenergy production. This study evaluated both process engineering and microbial physiology of biohydrogen production.

  9. The economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from sunlight and wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, M. K.; Spath, P. L.; Watt, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing photoelectrochemical and electrolytical technologies to convert energy from the sun and wind into hydrogen was studied. In exploring opportunities to reduce the cost of hydrogen production through interaction with the electric utility grid, it was found that direct photoelectrochemical (PEC) conversion of sunlight has the economic potential to compete with direct photovoltaic/electrolysis, notwithstanding the significant stability and efficiency issues that are still awaiting solution. Interaction with the grid, while maximizing electrolizer use, makes a significant impact on the economics of producing hydrogen by photovoltaic/electrolysis, making wind-based systems also more economical. Electrolysis was found to be the optimal solution only with electricity from renewable sources or with less expensive non-peak electricity. On the other hand, the delivered cost of hydrogen was found to the lowest when electricity production was decoupled from the hydrogen production operation. Decoupled hydrogen production also has an additional benefit, i.e. it produces the hydrogen where it is needed, therefore it mitigates the need for various storage and distribution costs. 6 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  10. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier — Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Percival Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology—cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB. Assembly of numerous enzymes and co-enzymes in vitro can create complicated set of biological reactions or pathways that microorganisms or catalysts cannot complete, for example, C6H10O5 (aq + 7 H2O (l à 12 H2 (g + 6 CO2 (g (PLoS One 2007, 2:e456. Thanks to 100% selectivity of enzymes, modest reaction conditions, and high-purity of generated hydrogen, carbohydrate is a promising hydrogen carrier for end users. Gravimetric density of carbohydrate is 14.8 H2 mass% if water can be recycled from proton exchange membrane fuel cells or 8.33% H2 mass% without water recycling. Renewable carbohydrate can be isolated from plant biomass or would be produced from a combination of solar electricity/hydrogen and carbon dioxide fixation mediated by high-efficiency artificial photosynthesis mediated by SyPaB. The construction of this carbon-neutral carbohydrate economy would address numerous sustainability challenges, such as electricity and hydrogen storage, CO2 fixation and long-term storage, water conservation, transportation fuel production, plus feed and food production.

  11. A renewable energy and hydrogen scenario for northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2008-01-01

    renewable energy supply system is demonstrated with the use of the seasonal reservoir-based hydrocomponents in the northern parts of the region. The outcome of the competition between biofuels and hydrogen in the transportation sector is dependent on the development of viable fuel cells and on efficient......A scenario based entirely on renewable energy with possible use of hydrogen as an energy carrier is constructed for a group of North European countries. Temporal simulation of the demand-supply matching is carried out for various system configurations. The role of hydrogen technologies for energy...... of energy trade between the countries, due to the different endowments of different countries with particular renewable energy sources, and to the particular benefit that intermittent energy sources, such as wind and solar, can derive from exchange of power. The establishment of a smoothly functioning...

  12. A rationale for large inertial fusion plants producing hydrogen for powering low emission vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) has been identified in the 1991 National Energy Strategy, along with Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE), as one of only three inexhaustible energy sources for long term energy supply (past 2025), the other alternatives being fission and solar energy. Fusion plants, using electrolysis, could also produce hydrogen to power low emission vehicles in a potentially huge future US market: > 500 GWe would be needed for example, to replace all foreign oil imports with equal-energy hydrogen, assuming 70%-efficient electrolysis. Any inexhaustible source of electricity, including IFE and MFE reactors, can thus provide a long term renewable source of hydrogen as well as solar, wind and biomass sources. Hydrogen production by both high temperature thermochemical cycles and by electrolysis has been studied for MFE, but avoiding trace tritium contamination of the hydrogen product would best be assured using electrolysis cells well separated from any fusion coolant loops. The motivations to consider IFE or MFE producing renewable hydrogen are: (1) reducing US dependence on foreign oil imports and the associated trade deficient; (2) a hydrogen-based transportation system could greatly mitigate future air pollution and greenhouse gases; (3) investments in hydrogen pipelines, storage, and distribution systems could be used for a variety of hydrogen sources; (4) a hydrogen pipeline system could access and buffer sufficiently large markets that temporary outages of large (>> 1 GWe size) fusion hydrogen units could be tolerated

  13. Hydrogen generator characteristics for storage of renewably-generated energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Bartela, Łukasz; Węcel, Daniel; Dubiel, Klaudia

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology for determining the efficiency of a hydrogen generator taking the power requirements of its auxiliary systems into account. Authors present results of laboratory experiments conducted on a hydrogen generator containing a PEM water electrolyzer for a wide range of device loads. On the basis of measurements, the efficiency characteristics of electrolyzers were determined, including that of an entire hydrogen generator using a monitored power supply for its auxiliary devices. Based on the results of the experimental tests, the authors have proposed generalized characteristics of hydrogen generator efficiency. These characteristics were used for analyses of a Power-to-Gas system cooperating with a 40 MW wind farm with a known yearly power distribution. It was assumed that nightly-produced hydrogen is injected into the natural gas transmission system. An algorithm for determining the thermodynamic and economic characteristics of a Power-to-Gas installation is proposed. These characteristics were determined as a function of the degree of storage of the energy produced in a Renewable Energy Sources (RES) installation, defined as the ratio of the amount of electricity directed to storage to the annual amount of electricity generated in the RES installation. Depending on the degree of storage, several quantities were determined. - Highlights: • The efficiency characteristics of PEM electrolyzer are determined. • Generalized characteristics of hydrogen generator efficiency are proposed. • Method of choice of electrolyser nominal power for Power-to-Gas system was proposed. • Development of Power-to-Gas systems requires implementation of support mechanisms.

  14. Study the feasibility of hydrogen assisted renewable power for off-grid communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.H.; Fleetwood, M.; Roberston, R.; Nielsen, N.

    2004-01-01

    Most Renewable energy sources lack the controllability and availability of conventional fossil fuel-based energy sources and therefore cannot meet load requirements of a community without a backup or storage system. The advances of hydrogen technologies enable these renewable energy options to supply power to remote communities relying on independent sources of electrical and other energy. The hydrogen assisted renewable power (HARP) concept promises to make renewable energy more practical and mainstream through the use of hydrogen based electrical generation systems. The study herein is the first of a multiphase project to investigate the benefits of HARP as an environmentally friendly replacement for diesel in the supply of electricity to off-grid communities and analyse its feasibility and suitability as a back-up power supply. A small-scale pilot project was selected and this study assesses the major elements of a plant required to integrate electrical generation system, hydrogen storage and hydrogen generation into a renewable energy generation system. Based on the available renewable energy profiles, a simulation model was developed to assist in selecting, integrating, and evaluating various configurations and operational scenarios. This paper describes the components of the proposed HARP system as well as its cost, benefits and opportunities for other applications. (author)

  15. Renewable hydrogen production by catalytic steam reforming of peanut shells pyrolysis products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, R.J.; Chornet, E.; Czernik, S.; Feik, C.; French, R.; Phillips, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Abedi, J.; Yeboah, Y.D. [Clark Atlanta Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States); Day, D.; Howard, J. [Scientific Carbons Inc., Blakely, GA (United States); McGee, D. [Enviro-Tech Enterprises Inc., Matthews, NC (United States); Realff, M.J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    A project was initiated to determine the feasibility of producing hydrogen from agricultural wastes at a cost comparable to methane-reforming technologies. It is possible that hydrogen can be produced cost competitively with natural gas reforming by integrating hydrogen production with existing waste product utilization processes. This report presents initial results of an engineering demonstration project involving the development of a steam reforming process by a team of government, industrial and academic organizations working at the thermochemical facility at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The process is to be used on the gaseous byproducts from a process for making activated carbon from densified peanut shells. The reactor is interfaced with a 20 kg/hour fluidized-bed fast pyrolysis system and takes advantage of process chemical analysis and computer control and monitoring capacity. The reactor will be tested on the pyrolysis vapors produced in the activated carbon process. The final phase of the project will look at the production of hydrogen through the conversion of residual CO to H{sub 2} over a shift catalyst and separating hydrogen from CO{sub 2} using pressure swing adsorption. The purified oxygen will be mixed with natural gas and used for transportation purposes. The study demonstrates the potential impact of hydrogen and bioenergy on the economic development and diversification of rural areas. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. Fuel and Chemicals from Renewable Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Rass

    2008-01-01

    The present work entitled Fuel and Chemicals from Renewable Alcohols covers the idea of developing routes for producing sustainable fuel and chemicals from biomass resources. Some renewable alcohols are already readily available from biomass in significant amounts and thus the potential...... for these renewable alcohols, together with other primary renewable building blocks, has been highlighted in the introductory chapter. While the first chapter covers the general potential of a renewable chemical industry, the other chapters deal with particular possibilities. It is shown how ethanol and glycerol can...... be converted into hydrogen by steam reforming over nickel or ruthenium based catalysts. This process could be important in a future hydrogen society, where hydrogen can be utilized in high efficiency fuel cells. Hydrogen produced from biofeedstocks can also be used directly in the chemical industry, where...

  17. From water to water, hydrogen as a renewable energy vector for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    The most important property of hydrogen is that it is the cleanest fuel. Its combustion produces only water and a small amount of NO x . No acid rain, no greenhouse effect, no ozone layer depletion, no particulates aerosols. It seems then ideally suited for the conversion to renewable energy. Hydrogen has now established it self as a clean choice for an environmentally compatible energy system. It can provide a sustainable future for building, industrial and transport sectors of human activities. On average, it has about 20-30% higher combustion efficiency than fossil fuels and can produce electricity directly in fuel cells. In combination with solar PV- and hydro-electrolysis, it is compatible with land area requirements on a worldwide basis. If fossil fuels combustion environmental damage is taken into account, the hydrogen energy system is already cost effective. The question is thus no longer , but, and soon, will hydrogen energy become a practical solution to sustainable energy development. (Author)

  18. A renewable energy based hydrogen demonstration park in Turkey. HYDEPARK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilhan, Niluefer; Ersoez, Atilla [TUEBITAK Marmara Research Center Energy Institute, Gebze Kocaeli (Turkey); Cubukcu, Mete [Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey). Solar Energy Inst.

    2010-07-01

    The main goal of this national project is to research hydrogen technologies and renewable energy applications. Solar and wind energy are utilized to obtain hydrogen via electrolysis, which can either be used in the fuel cell or stored in cylinders for further use. The management of all project work packages was carried by TUeBITAK Marmara Research Center (MRC) Energy Institute (EI) with the support of the collaborators. The aim of this paper is to present the units of the renewable energy based hydrogen demonstration park, which is in the demonstration phase now and share the experimental results. (orig.)

  19. Renewable based hydrogen energy projects in remote and island communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, S.; Gillie, M.

    2009-01-01

    Task 18 working group of the International Energy Agency's Hydrogen Implementing Agreement has been evaluating and documenting experiences with renewable based hydrogen energy projects in remote and island communities in the United Kingdom, Canada, Norway, Iceland, Gran Canaria, Spain and New Zealand. The objective was to examine the lessons learned from existing projects and provide recommendations regarding the effective development of hydrogen systems. In order to accomplish this task, some of the drivers behind the niche markets where hydrogen systems have already been developed, or are in the development stages, were studied in order to determine how these could be expanded and modified to reach new markets. Renewable based hydrogen energy projects for remote and island communities are currently a key niche market. This paper compared various aspects of these projects and discussed the benefits, objectives and barriers facing the development of a hydrogen-based economy

  20. Hydrogen research and development in Hawaii: Hawaii natural energy institute's hydrogen from renewable resources research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, K.R.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Takahashi, P.K.; Jensen, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Hawaii, an energy-vulnerable state, has launched a Renewable Resources Research Program, focusing on hydrogen production and storage; the main tasks of this effort are: photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen through the use of coated silicon electrodes; solar conversion and the production of hydrogen with cyanobacteria; improved hydrogen storage through the use of nonclassical poly-hydride metal complexes. 10 refs

  1. Evaluation tool for selection and optimisation of hydrogen demonstration projects. Application to a decentralized renewable hydrogen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracht, M.; De Groot, A.; Gregoire Padro, C.E.; Schucan, T.H.; Skolnik, E.

    1998-06-01

    As part of the International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement, an evaluation tool to assist in the design, operation and optimisation of hydrogen demonstration facilities is under development. Using commercially available flowsheet simulation software (ASPEN- Plus) as the integrating platform, this tool is designed to provide system developers with a comprehensive data base or library of component models and an integrating platform through which these models may be linked. By combining several energy system components a conceptual design of a integrated hydrogen energy system can be made. As a part of the tool and connected to the library are design guidelines which can help finding the optimal configuration in the design process. The component categories considered include: production, storage, transport, distribution and end use. Many component models have already been included in the initial test platform. The use of the tool will be illustrated by presenting the results of a specific sample system that has been designed and assessed with use of the tool. The system considered is a decentralized renewable hydrogen system in which the hydrogen is produced by biomass gasification or pyrolysis, the produced hydrogen is transported through a pipeline or with a tank truck. The storage options that are considered are liquid hydrogen and compressed gas. The hydrogen is dispensed through a refueling station. Several options for integration are conceivable; i.e. storage of the hydrogen can take place centrally or district heat of a gasification unit can be used to generate electricity for liquefaction, etc. With use of the tool several configurations with different components and various integration options have been examined. Both the results of the modeling effort and an assessment of the evaluation tool will be presented. 5 refs

  2. A mesophilic Clostridium species that produces butanol from monosaccharides and hydrogen from polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramono, Sandhi Eko; Lam, Yuen Sean; Ong, Say Leong; He, Jianzhong

    2011-10-01

    A unique mesophilic Clostridium species strain BOH3 is obtained in this study, which is capable of fermenting monosaccharides to produce butanol and hydrolyzing polysaccharides to produce hydrogen (H(2)) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs). From 30 g/L of glucose and xylose each, batch culture BOH3 was able to produce 4.67 and 4.63 g/L of butanol. Enhancement treatments by increasing the inoculated cells improved butanol production to 7.05 and 7.41 g/L, respectively. Hydrogen production (2.47 and 1.93 mmol) was observed when cellulose and xylan (10 g/L each) were used, suggesting that strain BOH3 possesses xylanolytic and cellulolytic capabilities. These unique features reveal the strain's novelty as most wild-type solventogenic strains have not been reported to have such properties. Therefore, culture BOH3 is promising in generating butanol and hydrogen from renewable feedstock. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Technoeconomic analysis of renewable hydrogen production, storage, and detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.; Kadam, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Technical and economic feasibility studies of different degrees of completeness and detail have been performed on several projects being funded by the Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. Work this year focused on projects at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, although analyses of projects at other institutions are underway or planned. Highly detailed analyses were completed on a fiber optic hydrogen leak detector and a process to produce hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis followed by steam reforming of the pyrolysis oil. Less detailed economic assessments of solar and biologically-based hydrogen production processes have been performed and focused on the steps that need to be taken to improve the competitive position of these technologies. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on all analyses to reveal the degree to which the cost results are affected by market changes and technological advances. For hydrogen storage by carbon nanotubes, a survey of the competing storage technologies was made in order to set a baseline for cost goals. A determination of the likelihood of commercialization was made for nearly all systems examined. Hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis and steam reforming was found to have significant economic potential if a coproduct option could be co-commercialized. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production may have economic potential, but only if low-cost cells can be modified to split water and to avoid surface oxidation. The use of bacteria to convert the carbon monoxide in biomass syngas to hydrogen was found to be slightly more expensive than the high end of currently commercial hydrogen, although there are significant opportunities to reduce costs. Finally, the cost of installing a fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detection system in passenger vehicles was found to be very low and competitive with alternative sensor systems.

  4. Renewable carbohydrates are a potential high-density hydrogen carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.-H. Percival [Biological Systems Engineering Department, 210-A Seitz Hall, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Sciences (ICTAS), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); DOE BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The possibility of using renewable biomass carbohydrates as a potential high-density hydrogen carrier is discussed here. Gravimetric density of polysaccharides is 14.8 H{sub 2} mass% where water can be recycled from PEM fuel cells or 8.33% H{sub 2} mass% without water recycling; volumetric densities of polysaccharides are >100 kg of H{sup 2}/m{sup 3}. Renewable carbohydrates (e.g., cellulosic materials and starch) are less expensive based on GJ than are other hydrogen carriers, such as hydrocarbons, biodiesel, methanol, ethanol, and ammonia. Biotransformation of carbohydrates to hydrogen by cell-free synthetic (enzymatic) pathway biotransformation (SyPaB) has numerous advantages, such as high product yield (12 H{sub 2}/glucose unit), 100% selectivity, high energy conversion efficiency (122%, based on combustion energy), high-purity hydrogen generated, mild reaction conditions, low-cost of bioreactor, few safety concerns, and nearly no toxicity hazards. Although SyPaB may suffer from current low reaction rates, numerous approaches for accelerating hydrogen production rates are proposed and discussed. Potential applications of carbohydrate-based hydrogen/electricity generation would include hydrogen bioreactors, home-size electricity generators, sugar batteries for portable electronics, sugar-powered passenger vehicles, and so on. Developments in thermostable enzymes as standardized building blocks for cell-free SyPaB projects, use of stable and low-cost biomimetic NAD cofactors, and accelerating reaction rates are among the top research and development priorities. International collaborations are urgently needed to solve the above obstacles within a short time. (author)

  5. Hydrogen, fuel cells and renewable energy integration in islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauen, A.; Hart, D.; Foradini, F.; Hart, D.

    2002-01-01

    Remote areas such as islands rely on costly and highly polluting diesel and heavy fuel oil for their electricity supply. This paper explored the opportunities for exploiting economically and environmentally viable renewable energy sources, in particular hydrogen storage, on such islands. In particular, this study focused on addressing the challenge of matching energy supply with demand and with technical issues regarding weak grids that are hindered with high steady state voltage levels and voltage fluctuations. The main technical characteristics of integrated renewable energy and hydrogen systems were determined by modelling a case study for the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands). The paper referred to the challenges regarding the technical and economic viability of such systems and their contribution to the economic development of remote communities. It was noted that energy storage plays an important role in addressing supply and demand issues by offering a way to control voltage and using surplus electricity at times of low load. Electrical energy can be stored in the form of potential or chemical energy. New decentralized generation technologies have also played a role in improving the energy efficiency of renewable energy sources. The feasibility of using hydrogen for energy storage was examined with particular reference to fuel-cell based energy supply in isolated island communities. 4 refs., 5 figs

  6. Storage of Renewable Energy by Reduction of CO2 with Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas; Mauron, Philippe; Kato, Shunsuke; Callini, Elsa; Holzer, Marco; Huang, Jianmei

    2015-01-01

    The main difference between the past energy economy during the industrialization period which was mainly based on mining of fossil fuels, e.g. coal, oil and methane and the future energy economy based on renewable energy is the requirement for storage of the energy fluxes. Renewable energy, except biomass, appears in time- and location-dependent energy fluxes as heat or electricity upon conversion. Storage and transport of energy requires a high energy density and has to be realized in a closed materials cycle. The hydrogen cycle, i.e. production of hydrogen from water by renewable energy, storage and use of hydrogen in fuel cells, combustion engines or turbines, is a closed cycle. However, the hydrogen density in a storage system is limited to 20 mass% and 150 kg/m(3) which limits the energy density to about half of the energy density in fossil fuels. Introducing CO(2) into the cycle and storing hydrogen by the reduction of CO(2) to hydrocarbons allows renewable energy to be converted into synthetic fuels with the same energy density as fossil fuels. The resulting cycle is a closed cycle (CO(2) neutral) if CO(2) is extracted from the atmosphere. Today's technology allows CO(2) to be reduced either by the Sabatier reaction to methane, by the reversed water gas shift reaction to CO and further reduction of CO by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to hydrocarbons or over methanol to gasoline. The overall process can only be realized on a very large scale, because the large number of by-products of FTS requires the use of a refinery. Therefore, a well-controlled reaction to a specific product is required for the efficient conversion of renewable energy (electricity) into an easy to store liquid hydrocarbon (fuel). In order to realize a closed hydrocarbon cycle the two major challenges are to extract CO(2) from the atmosphere close to the thermodynamic limit and to reduce CO(2) with hydrogen in a controlled reaction to a specific hydrocarbon. Nanomaterials with

  7. Potential of hydrogen from oil palm biomass as a source of renewable energy worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly-Yong, Tau Len; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Bhatia, Subhash

    2007-01-01

    energy of the millennium) through gasification reaction in supercritical water, as a source of renewable energy to policy-makers. Oil palm topped the ranking as number 1 fruit crops in terms of production for the year 2007 with 36.90 million tonnes produced or 35.90% of the total edible oil in the world. Its potentiality is further enhanced by the fact that oil constitutes only about 10% of the palm production, while the rest 90% is biomass. With a world oil palm biomass production annually of about 184.6 million tons, the maximum theoretical yield of hydrogen potentially produced by oil palm biomass via this method is 2.16 x 10 10 kg H 2 year -1 with an energy content of 2.59 EJ year -1 , meeting almost 50% of the current worldwide hydrogen demand. (author)

  8. Using renewables and the co-production of hydrogen and electricity from CCS-equipped IGCC facilities, as a stepping stone towards the early development of a hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeseldonckx, Dries; D'haeseleer, William

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, specific cases for the interaction between the future electricity-generation mix and a newly-developing hydrogen-production infrastructure is modelled with the model E-simulate. Namely, flexible integrated-gasification combined-cycle units (IGCC) are capable of producing both electricity and hydrogen in different ratios. When these units are part of the electricity-generation mix and when they are not operating at full load, they could be used to produce a certain amount of hydrogen, avoiding the costly installation of new IGCC units for hydrogen production. The same goes for the massive introduction of renewable energies (especially wind), possibly generating excess electricity from time to time, which could then perhaps be used to produce hydrogen electrolytically. However, although contra-intuitive, the interaction between both 'systems' turns out to be almost negligible. Firstly, it is shown that it is more beneficial to use IGCC facilities to produce hydrogen with, rather than (excess) wind-generated electricity due to the necessary electrolyser investment costs. But even flexible IGCC facilities do not seem to contribute substantially to the early development of a hydrogen economy. Namely, in most scenarios - which are combinations of a wide range of fuel prices and carbon taxes - one primary-energy carrier (natural gas or coal) seems to be dominant, pushing the other, and the corresponding technologies such as reformers or IGCCs, out of the market. (author)

  9. Hydro Solar 21- A building energetic demand providing system based on renewable energies and hydrogen; Hydro Solar 21- Energias renovables e hidrogeno para el abastecimiento energetico de un edificio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renilla Collado, R.; Ortega Izquierdo, M.

    2008-07-01

    Hydro Solar 21 is an energy innovation Project carried out in Burgos City to develop an energy production system based on renewable energies to satisfy light and air condition requirements of a restored building. Nocturnal light demand is satisfied with hydrogen consumption in fuel cells. This hydrogen is produced with an energy renewable system made up of two wind turbine generators and a photovoltaic system. The air conditioning demand is satisfied with an adsorption solar system which produces cold water using thermal solar energy. (Author) 8 refs.

  10. New Horizons for Hydrogen: Producing Hydrogen from Renewable Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-01

    Recent events have reminded us of the critical need to transition from crude oil, coal, and natural gas toward sustainable and domestic sources of energy. One reason is we need to strengthen our economy. In 2008 we saw the price of oil reach a record $93 per barrel. With higher oil prices, growing demand for gasoline, and increasing oil imports, an average of $235 billion per year, has left the United States economy to pay for foreign oil since 2005, or $1.2 trillion between 2005 and 2009. From a consumer perspective, this trend is seen with an average gasoline price of $2.50 per gallon since 2005, compared to an average of $1.60 between 1990 and 2004 (after adjusting for inflation). In addition to economic impacts, continued reliance on fossil fuels increases greenhouse gas emissions that may cause climate change, health impacts from air pollution, and the risk of disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Energy efficiency in the form of more efficient vehicles and buildings can help to reduce some of these impacts. However, over the long term we must shift from fossil resources to sustainable and renewable energy sources.

  11. How green are the hydrogen production processes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miele, Ph.; Demirci, U.B.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen is recognised as being one of the most promising fuels alternate to fossil fuels. Unfortunately it only exists combined with other elements like e.g. oxygen in the case of water and therefore has to be produced. Today various methods for producing molecular hydrogen are being investigated. Besides its energy potential, molecular hydrogen is regarded as being a green energy carrier because it can be produced from renewable sources and its combustion/oxidation generates water. However as it has to be produced its greenness merits a deeper discussion especially stressing on its production routes. The goal of the present article is to discuss the relative greenness of the various hydrogen production processes on the basis of the twelve principles of green chemistry. It is mainly showed that the combination 'renewable raw materials, biological or electrochemical methods, and renewable energies (e.g. solar or wind)' undeniably makes the hydrogen production green. (authors)

  12. Bioreactor design studies for a hydrogen-producing bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfrum, Edward J; Watt, Andrew S

    2002-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) can be metabolized by a number of microorganisms along with water to produce hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide. National Renewable Energy Laboratory researchers have isolated a number of bacteria that perform this so-called water-gas shift reaction at ambient temperatures. We performed experiments to measure the rate of CO conversion and H2 production in a trickle-bed reactor (TBR). The liquid recirculation rate and the reactor support material both affected the mass transfer coefficient, which controls the overall performance of the reactor. A simple reactor model taken from the literature was used to quantitatively compare the performance of the TBR geometry at two different size scales. Good agreement between the two reactor scales was obtained.

  13. Autonomous hydrogen power plants with renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popel', O.S.; Frid, S.E.; Shpil'rajn, Eh.Eh.; Izosimov, D.B.; Tumanov, V.L.

    2006-01-01

    One studies the principles to design independent hydrogen power plants (IHPP) operating on renewable energy sources and the approaches to design a pilot IHP plant. One worded tasks of mathematical simulation and of calculations to substantiate the optimal configuration of the mentioned plants depending on the ambient conditions of operation and on peculiar features of a consumer [ru

  14. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid System Economic Basis for Electricity, Fuel, and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Forsberg; Steven Aumeier

    2014-04-01

    Concerns about climate change and altering the ocean chemistry are likely to limit the use of fossil fuels. That implies a transition to a low-carbon nuclear-renewable electricity grid. Historically variable electricity demand was met using fossil plants with low capital costs, high operating costs, and substantial greenhouse gas emissions. However, the most easily scalable very-low-emissions generating options, nuclear and non-dispatchable renewables (solar and wind), are capital-intensive technologies with low operating costs that should operate at full capacities to minimize costs. No combination of fully-utilized nuclear and renewables can meet the variable electricity demand. This implies large quantities of expensive excess generating capacity much of the time. In a free market this results in near-zero electricity prices at times of high nuclear renewables output and low electricity demand with electricity revenue collapse. Capital deployment efficiency—the economic benefit derived from energy systems capital investment at a societal level—strongly favors high utilization of these capital-intensive systems, especially if low-carbon nuclear renewables are to replace fossil fuels. Hybrid energy systems are one option for better utilization of these systems that consumes excess energy at times of low prices to make some useful product.The economic basis for development of hybrid energy systems is described for a low-carbon nuclear renewable world where much of the time there are massivequantities of excess energy available from the electric sector.Examples include (1) high-temperature electrolysis to generate hydrogen for non-fossil liquid fuels, direct use as a transport fuel, metal reduction, etc. and (2) biorefineries.Nuclear energy with its concentrated constant heat output may become the enabling technology for economically-viable low-carbon electricity grids because hybrid nuclear systems may provide an economic way to produce dispatachable variable

  15. Photochemical hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Both technical and economic factors affect the cost of producing hydrogen by photochemical processes. Technical factors include the efficiency and the capital and operating costs of the renewable hydrogen conversion system; economic factors include discount rates, economic life, credit for co-product oxygen, and the value of the energy produced. This paper presents technical and economic data for a system that generates on-peak electric power form photochemically produced hydrogen

  16. Compressor-less Hydrogen Transmission Pipelines Deliver Large-scale Stranded Renewable Energy at Competitive Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W Leighty; J Holloway; R Merer; B Somerday; C San Marchi; G Keith; D White

    2006-01-01

    We assume a transmission-constrained world, where large new wind plants and other renewable energies must pay all transmission costs for delivering their energy to distant markets. We modeled a 1,000 MW (1 GW) (name plate) wind plant in the large wind resource of the North America Great Plains, delivering exclusively hydrogen fuel, via a new gaseous hydrogen (GH2) pipeline, to an urban market at least 300 km distant. All renewable electric energy output would be converted, at the source, to hydrogen, via 100 bar output electrolyzers, directly feeding the GH2 transmission pipeline without costly compressor stations at inlet or at midline. The new GH2 pipeline is an alternative to new electric transmission lines. We investigate whether the pipeline would provide valuable energy storage. We present a simple model by which we estimate the cost of wind-source hydrogen fuel delivered to the distant city gate in year 2010, at GW scale. Ammonia, synthetic hydrocarbons, and other substances may also be attractive renewable-source energy carriers, storage media, and fuels; they are not considered in this paper. (authors)

  17. An examination of the criteria necessary for successful worldwide deployment of isolated, renewable hydrogen stationary power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambach, G. D.; Snyder, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the top-down rationale and methods for using hydrogen as an energy carrier in isolated, stationary power systems. Such an examination can be useful because it provides a framework for detailed research on subsystems and helps clarify why, when and where large-scale hydrogen use would be beneficial. It also helps define the pathway for an evolving hydrogen stationary power market worldwide. Remote, stationary power systems are an ideal market entry opportunity for hydrogen. For example, if it is sufficiently difficult for conventional fuels to reach a community, and indigenous renewable sources are present, then on-site clean energy production becomes economically competitive. Relying heavily on intermittent sources of energy requires an energy carrier system that is efficient over long periods of time. In addition, the energy carrier must not defeat the reasons for initially switching to the clean sources of energy, and must be economically feasible. Hydrogen is an elegant solution to all of these needs. Choices exist for the methods of producing hydrogen, storing and transporting it, and converting it back to useful energy. There is considerable debate about how best to increase the use of renewable hydrogen because it is not yet economically competitive with conventional energy carriers in most applications. The deployment of isolated power systems relying on hydrogen as the energy storage medium requires complex and comprehensive planning and design considerations to provide successful market entry strategies as well as appropriate system engineering. This paper will discuss the criteria and framework necessary to determine how to successfully deploy any specific system or to plan a global marketing strategy. (author)

  18. The Palm Desert renewable [hydrogen] transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlin, C.E.; Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period June 1997 through May 1998. The project began in March 1996. The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project demonstrates the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a vehicle power system. The project includes designing and building 4 fuel cell powered vehicles, a solar hydrogen generating and refueling station, and a fuel cell vehicle diagnostic center. Over this last year, SERC has built a fuel cell powered neighborhood electric vehicle and delivered it to the City of Palm Desert. The design of the hydrogen refueling station is near completion and it is anticipated that construction will be complete in the fall of 1998. The vehicles are currently being refueled at a temporary refueling station. The diagnostic center is being designed and maintenance procedures as well as computer diagnostic programs for the fuel cell vehicles are being developed. City employees are driving the vehicles daily and monitoring data are being collected. The drivers are pleased with the performance of the vehicles.

  19. Studies on membrane acid electrolysis for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marco Antonio Oliveira da; Linardi, Marcelo; Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Celulas a Combustivel e Hidrogenio], Email: saliba@ipen.br

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen represents great opportunity to be a substitute for fossil fuels in the future. Water as a renewable source of hydrogen is of great interest, since it is abundant and can decompose, producing only pure H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. This decomposition of water can be accomplished by processes such as electrolysis, thermal decomposition and thermochemical cycles. The electrolysis by membrane has been proposed as a viable process for hydrogen production using thermal and electrical energy derived from nuclear energy or any renewable source like solar energy. In this work, within the context of optimization of the electrolysis process, it is intended to develop a mathematical model that can simulate and assist in parameterization of the electrolysis performed by polymer membrane electrolytic cell. The experimental process to produce hydrogen via the cell membrane, aims to optimize the amount of gas produced using renewable energy with noncarbogenic causing no harm by producing gases deleterious to the environment. (author)

  20. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Francesch, Judit

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is an especially attractive transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel available, and can be produced anywhere there is water and a clean source of electricity. A fuel cycle in which hydrogen is produced by solar-electrolysis of water, or by gasification of renewably grown biomass, and then used in a fuel-cell powered electric-motor vehicle (FCEV), would produce little or no local, regional, or global pollution. Hydrogen FCEVs would combine the best features of bat...

  1. Sizing Hydrogen Energy Storage in Consideration of Demand Response in Highly Renewable Generation Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubbashir Ali

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available From an environment perspective, the increased penetration of wind and solar generation in power systems is remarkable. However, as the intermittent renewable generation briskly grows, electrical grids are experiencing significant discrepancies between supply and demand as a result of limited system flexibility. This paper investigates the optimal sizing and control of the hydrogen energy storage system for increased utilization of renewable generation. Using a Finnish case study, a mathematical model is presented to investigate the optimal storage capacity in a renewable power system. In addition, the impact of demand response for domestic storage space heating in terms of the optimal sizing of energy storage is discussed. Finally, sensitivity analyses are conducted to observe the impact of a small share of controllable baseload production as well as the oversizing of renewable generation in terms of required hydrogen storage size.

  2. The production of hydrogen fuel from renewable sources and its role in grid operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, John; Gammon, Rupert

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the scale and nature of hydrogen's potential role in the development of low carbon energy systems requires an examination of the operation of the whole energy system, including heat, power, industrial and transport sectors, on an hour-by-hour basis. The Future Energy Scenario Assessment (FESA) software model used for this study is unique in providing a holistic, high resolution, functional analysis, which incorporates variations in supply resulting from weather-dependent renewable energy generators. The outputs of this model, arising from any given user-definable scenario, are year round supply and demand profiles that can be used to assess the market size and operational regime of energy technologies. FESA was used in this case to assess what - if anything - might be the role for hydrogen in a low carbon economy future for the UK. In this study, three UK energy supply pathways were considered, all of which reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050, and substantially reduce reliance on oil and gas while maintaining a stable electricity grid and meeting the energy needs of a modern economy. All use more nuclear power and renewable energy of all kinds than today's system. The first of these scenarios relies on substantial amounts of 'clean coal' in combination with intermittent renewable energy sources by year the 2050. The second uses twice as much intermittent renewable energy as the first and virtually no coal. The third uses 2.5 times as much nuclear power as the first and virtually no coal. All scenarios clearly indicate that the use of hydrogen in the transport sector is important in reducing distributed carbon emissions that cannot easily be mitigated by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). In the first scenario, this hydrogen derives mainly from steam reformation of fossil fuels (principally coal), whereas in the second and third scenarios, hydrogen is made mainly by electrolysis using variable surpluses of low-carbon electricity. Hydrogen

  3. The production of hydrogen fuel from renewable sources and its role in grid operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, John; Gammon, Rupert

    Understanding the scale and nature of hydrogen's potential role in the development of low carbon energy systems requires an examination of the operation of the whole energy system, including heat, power, industrial and transport sectors, on an hour-by-hour basis. The Future Energy Scenario Assessment (FESA) software model used for this study is unique in providing a holistic, high resolution, functional analysis, which incorporates variations in supply resulting from weather-dependent renewable energy generators. The outputs of this model, arising from any given user-definable scenario, are year round supply and demand profiles that can be used to assess the market size and operational regime of energy technologies. FESA was used in this case to assess what - if anything - might be the role for hydrogen in a low carbon economy future for the UK. In this study, three UK energy supply pathways were considered, all of which reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050, and substantially reduce reliance on oil and gas while maintaining a stable electricity grid and meeting the energy needs of a modern economy. All use more nuclear power and renewable energy of all kinds than today's system. The first of these scenarios relies on substantial amounts of 'clean coal' in combination with intermittent renewable energy sources by year the 2050. The second uses twice as much intermittent renewable energy as the first and virtually no coal. The third uses 2.5 times as much nuclear power as the first and virtually no coal. All scenarios clearly indicate that the use of hydrogen in the transport sector is important in reducing distributed carbon emissions that cannot easily be mitigated by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). In the first scenario, this hydrogen derives mainly from steam reformation of fossil fuels (principally coal), whereas in the second and third scenarios, hydrogen is made mainly by electrolysis using variable surpluses of low-carbon electricity. Hydrogen

  4. Separating hydrogen and oxygen evolution in alkaline water electrolysis using nickel hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2016-01-01

    Low-cost alkaline water electrolysis has been considered a sustainable approach to producing hydrogen using renewable energy inputs, but preventing hydrogen/oxygen mixing and efficiently using the instable renewable energy are challenging. Here, using nickel hydroxide as a redox mediator, we decouple the hydrogen and oxygen production in alkaline water electrolysis, which overcomes the gas-mixing issue and may increase the use of renewable energy. In this architecture, the hydrogen production occurs at the cathode by water reduction, and the anodic Ni(OH)2 is simultaneously oxidized into NiOOH. The subsequent oxygen production involves a cathodic NiOOH reduction (NiOOH→Ni(OH)2) and an anodic OH− oxidization. Alternatively, the NiOOH formed during hydrogen production can be coupled with a zinc anode to form a NiOOH-Zn battery, and its discharge product (that is, Ni(OH)2) can be used to produce hydrogen again. This architecture brings a potential solution to facilitate renewables-to-hydrogen conversion. PMID:27199009

  5. Analysis of an Improved Solar-Powered Hydrogen Generation System for Sustained Renewable Energy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    hydrogen gas by electrolysis. In LT Aviles’ design , distilled water was collected from the ambient air using Peltier dehumidifiers, manufactured by...Figure 13 shows the shelfing along with the entire system. Figure 13. Reconfigured Hydrogen Production Facility Because the system was designed for...POWERED HYDROGEN GENERATION SYSTEM FOR SUSTAINED RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION by Sen Feng Yu December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Garth V. Hobson Co

  6. Comparison of the renewable transportation fuels, liquid hydrogen and methanol, with gasoline - energetic and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, M.; Staiss, F.; Bandi, A.; Weimer, T.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the renewable energy vectors liquid hydrogen (LH 2 ) and methanol generated from atmospheric CO 2 are compared with the conventional crude oil-gasoline system. Both renewable concepts, liquid hydrogen and methanol, lead to a drastic CO 2 reduction compared to the fossil-based system. The comparison between the LH 2 and methanol vector for the transport sector shows nearly the same fuel cost and energy efficiency but strong infrastructure advantages for methanol. (author)

  7. An anaerobic mitochondrion that produces hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, Brigitte; Graaf, Rob M. de; Staay, Georg W.M. van der; Alen, Theo A. van; Ricard, Guenola; Gabaldón, Toni; Hoek, Angela H.A.M. van; Moon-van der Staay, Seung Yeo; Koopman, Werner J.H.; Hellemond, Jaap J. van; Tielens, Aloysius G.M.; Friedrich, Thorsten; Veenhuis, Marten; Huynen, Martijn A.; Hackstein, Johannes H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogenosomes are organelles that produce ATP and hydrogen, and are found in various unrelated eukaryotes, such as anaerobic flagellates, chytridiomycete fungi and ciliates. Although all of these organelles generate hydrogen, the hydrogenosomes from these organisms are structurally and

  8. Wave power integration with a renewable hydrogen energy system. Paper no. IGEC-1-085

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St. Germain, L.; Wild, P.; Rowe, A.

    2005-01-01

    In British Columbia, approximately 90% of the electricity generated comes from hydroelectric facilities while another abundant and renewable resource, ocean wave energy, is not being utilized at all. Technologies exist that can capture and convert wave energy but there are few studies examining systemic integration of wave energy devices. This work examines the potential to use wave energy as an input into a hydrogen-based renewable energy system. A model of an oscillating water column (OWC) was developed as a module within TRNSYS where it can be coupled to other existing hydrogen-specific components such as an electrolyser, storage device, and fuel cell. The OWC model accounts for device geometry, dynamics, and generator efficiency. For this particular study, wave profiles generated from hourly average data for a location on the west coast of Vancouver Island are used as a resource input. An analysis of the potential to utilise wave energy is carried out with an emphasis on overall system efficiency and resulting device scaling. The results of the integration of wave energy with other renewable energy inputs into a hydrogen-based system are used to make recommendations regarding technical feasibility of wave power projects on Vancouver Island. (author)

  9. Bridging the European Wind Energy Market and a Future Renewable Hydrogen-Inclusive Economy. A Dynamic Techno-economic Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, S.; Peteves, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    The study establishes the link between the growing wind market and the emerging hydrogen market of the European Union, in a so-called 'wind-hydrogen strategy'. It considers specifically the diversion of wind electricity, as a wind power control mechanism in high wind penetration situations, for the production of renewable electrolytic hydrogen - a potentially important component of a renewable hydrogen-inclusive economy. The analysis examines the long-term competitiveness of a wind-hydrogen strategy via cost-benefit assessment. It indicates the duration and extent to which (financial) support, if any, would need to be provided in support of such a strategy, and the influence over time of certain key factors on the outcome

  10. Biological hydrogen production from biomass by thermophilic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Mars, A.E.; Budde, M.A.W.; Lai, M.; de Vrije, T.; van Niel, E.W.J.

    2006-01-01

    To meet the reduction of the emission of CO 2 imposed by the Kyoto protocol, hydrogen should be produced from renewable primary energy. Besides the indirect production of hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity from renewable resources, such as sunlight, wind and hydropower, hydrogen can be directly produced from biomass. At present, there are two strategies for the production of hydrogen from biomass: the thermochemical technology, such as gasification, and the biotechnological approach using micro-organisms. Biological hydrogen production delivers clean hydrogen with an environmental-friendly technology and is very suitable for the conversion of wet biomass in small-scale applications, thus having a high chance of becoming an economically feasible technology. Many micro-organisms are able to produce hydrogen from mono- and disaccharides, starch and (hemi)cellulose under anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic production of hydrogen is a common phenomenon, occurring during the process of anaerobic digestion. Here, hydrogen producing micro-organisms are in syn-trophy with methanogenic bacteria which consume the hydrogen as soon as it is produced. In this way, hydrogen production remains obscure and methane is the end-product. By uncoupling hydrogen production from methane production, hydrogen becomes available for recovery and exploitation. This study describes the use of extreme thermophilic bacteria, selected because of a higher hydrogen production efficiency as compared to mesophilic bacteria, for the production of hydrogen from renewable resources. As feedstock energy crops like Miscanthus and Sorghum bicolor and waste streams like domestic organic waste, paper sludge and potato steam peels were used. The feedstock was pretreated and/or enzymatically hydrolyzed prior to fermentation to make a fermentable substrate. Hydrogen production by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus, Thermotoga elfii and T. neapolitana on all substrates was observed. Nutrient

  11. Conversion of Claus plants of Kirkuk-Iraq to produce hydrogen and sulfur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naman, S.A.; Veziroglu, A.

    2009-01-01

    converting these two Claus plants to produce hydrogen gas fuel and sulfur will be a good achievement to the environment around the oil fields, besides production of a renewable energy source (hydrogen gas). A hydrogen production plant in this part of Iraq will save a large area from polluted sulfur gas, and will demonstrate how utilization of hydrogen from these waste gases is very significant. Our calculations show that these plants can produce about 140 ton / day of hydrogen gas. Different technological options are available and associated costs reported. They are supplied by a range of hydrogen technology suppliers. The price of hydrogen from H 2 S is now much lower than the price of any other present technology for production of hydrogen. The last report for the price of hydrogen from gas companies by modifications of Claus process and production of CS 2 gas is zero dollars cost. (author)

  12. Renewable energy carriers: Hydrogen or liquid air/nitrogen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongliang; Chen Haisheng; Zhang Xinjing; Tan Chunqing; Ding Yulong

    2010-01-01

    The world's energy demand is met mainly by the fossil fuels today. The use of such fuels, however, causes serious environmental issues, including global warming, ozone layer depletion and acid rains. A sustainable solution to the issues is to replace the fossil fuels with renewable ones. Implementing such a solution, however, requires overcoming a number of technological barriers including low energy density, intermittent supply and mobility of the renewable energy sources. A potential approach to overcoming these barriers is to use an appropriate energy carrier, which can store, transport and distribute energy. The work to be reported in this paper aims to assess and compare a chemical energy carrier, hydrogen, with a physical energy carrier, liquid air/nitrogen, and discuss potential applications of the physical carrier. The ocean energy is used as an example of the renewable energy sources in the work. The assessment and comparison are carried out in terms of the overall efficiency, including production, storage/transportation and energy extraction. The environmental impact, waste heat recovery and safety issues are also considered. It is found that the physical energy carrier may be a better alternative to the chemical energy carrier under some circumstances, particularly when there are waste heat sources.

  13. Hydrogen production through biocatalyzed electrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendal, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    cum laude graduation (with distinction) To replace fossil fuels, society is currently considering alternative clean fuels for transportation. Hydrogen could be such a fuel. In theory, large amounts of renewable hydrogen can be produced from organic contaminants in wastewater. During his PhD research

  14. Optimal production of renewable hydrogen based on an efficient energy management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziogou, Chrysovalantou; Ipsakis, Dimitris; Seferlis, Panos; Bezergianni, Stella; Papadopoulou, Simira; Voutetakis, Spyros

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the development of a flexible energy management strategy (EMS) for a renewable hydrogen production unit through water electrolysis with solar power. The electricity flow of the unit is controlled by a smart microgrid and the overall unattended operation is achieved by a supervisory control system. The proposed approach formalizes the knowledge regarding the system operation using a finite-state machine (FSM) which is subsequently combined with a propositional-based logic to describe the transitions among various process states. The operating rules for the integrated system are derived by taking into account both the operating constraints and the interaction effects among the individual subsystems in a systematic way. Optimal control system parameter values are obtained so that a system performance criterion incorporating efficient and economic operation is satisfied. The resulted EMS has been deployed to the industrial automation system that monitors and controls a small-scale experimental solar hydrogen production unit. The overall performance of the proposed EMS in the experimental unit has been evaluated over short-term and long-term operating periods resulting in smooth and efficient hydrogen production. - Highlights: • Development of an energy management strategy based on a finite-state machine and propositional-based reasoning. • Deployment of the energy-aware algorithm to an autonomous renewable hydrogen production unit. • Supervisory control of the electricity flow by a smart microgrid using an industrial automation system. • Unattended operation and remote monitoring incorporating subsystem interactions in a systematic way. • Optimal hydrogen production regardless of the weather conditions through water electrolysis with solar power

  15. Hydrogen producing method and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Yasuhiro; Ito, Takehiko; Goto, Nobuo; Toyota, Ichiro; Tonegawa, Hiroshi.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention concerns a process for producing hydrogen from water by utilizing a γ · X ray radiation source such as spent nuclear fuels. Hydrogen is formed from water by combining a scintillator which uses a γ · X ray radiation source as an energy source to emit UV light and an optical catalyst or an optical catalyst electrode which undergoes UV light to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen. The present invention provides a method of effectively using spent fuel assemblies which have not been used at present and capable of converting them into hydrogen as storable chemical energy. (N.H.)

  16. Energy modeling and analysis for optimal grid integration of large-scale variable renewables using hydrogen storage in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Otsuki, Takashi; Fujii, Yasumasa

    2015-01-01

    Although the extensive introduction of VRs (variable renewables) will play an essential role to resolve energy and environmental issues in Japan after the Fukushima nuclear accident, its large-scale integration would pose a technical challenge in the grid management; as one of technical countermeasures, hydrogen storage receives much attention, as well as rechargeable battery, for controlling the intermittency of VR power output. For properly planning renewable energy policies, energy system modeling is important to quantify and qualitatively understand its potential benefits and impacts. This paper analyzes the optimal grid integration of large-scale VRs using hydrogen storage in Japan by developing a high time-resolution optimal power generation mix model. Simulation results suggest that the installation of hydrogen storage is promoted by both its cost reduction and CO 2 regulation policy. In addition, hydrogen storage turns out to be suitable for storing VR energy in a long period of time. Finally, through a sensitivity analysis of rechargeable battery cost, hydrogen storage is economically competitive with rechargeable battery; the cost of both technologies should be more elaborately recognized for formulating effective energy policies to integrate massive VRs into the country's power system in an economical manner. - Highlights: • Authors analyze hydrogen storage coupled with VRs (variable renewables). • Simulation analysis is done by developing an optimal power generation mix model. • Hydrogen storage installation is promoted by its cost decline and CO 2 regulation. • Hydrogen storage is suitable for storing VR energy in a long period of time. • Hydrogen storage is economically competitive with rechargeable battery

  17. The safe operation zone of the spark ignition engine working with dual renewable supplemented fuels (hydrogen+ethyl alcohol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Baghdadi, Maher Abdul-Resul Sadiq [Babylon Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Babylon (Iraq)

    2001-04-01

    The effect of the amount of hydrogen/ethyl alcohol addition on the performance and pollutant emission of a four-stroke spark ignition engine has been studied. The results of the study show that all engine performance parameters have been improved when operating the gasoline spark ignition engine with dual addition of hydrogen and ethyl alcohol. The important improvements of alcohol addition are to reduce the NOx emission while increasing the higher useful compression ratio and output power of hydrogen-supplemented engine. An equation has been derived from experimental data to specify the least quantity of ethyl alcohol blended with gasoline and satisfying constant NOx emission when hydrogen is added. A chart limiting the safe operation zone of the engine fueled with dual renewable supplemented fuel, (hydrogen and ethyl alcohol) has been produced. The safe zone provides lower NOx and CO emission, lower s.f.c. and higher brake power compared to an equivalent gasoline engine. When ethyl alcohol is increased over 30%, it causes unstable engine operation which can be related to the fact that the fuel is not vaporized, and this causes a reduction in both brake power and efficiency. (Author)

  18. Relative economic incentives for hydrogen from nuclear, renewable, and fossil energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorensek, Maximilian B.; Forsberg, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    The specific hydrogen market determines the value of hydrogen from different sources. Each hydrogen production technology has its own distinct characteristics. For example, steam reforming of natural gas produces only hydrogen. In contrast, nuclear and solar hydrogen production facilities produce hydrogen together with oxygen as a by-product or co-product. For a user who needs both oxygen and hydrogen, the value of hydrogen from nuclear and solar plants is higher than that from a fossil plant because ''free'' oxygen is produced as a by-product. Six factors that impact the relative economics of fossil, nuclear, and solar hydrogen production to the customer are identified: oxygen by-product, avoidance of carbon dioxide emissions, hydrogen transport costs, storage costs, availability of low-cost heat, and institutional factors. These factors imply that different hydrogen production technologies will be competitive in different markets and that the first markets for nuclear and solar hydrogen will be those markets in which they have a unique competitive advantage. These secondary economic factors are described and quantified in terms of dollars per kilogram of hydrogen. (author)

  19. Proposal for a Northeast Asian Hydrogen Highway: From a Natural-gas-based to a Hydrogen-based Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuhiko O Hashi; Masaru Hirata; William C Leighty; D Eng

    2006-01-01

    In Northeast Asia, East Siberia and Sakhalin are rich in natural gas (NG). The environmental protection and energy security of the Northeast Asian region requires constructing an energy infrastructure network that can transport and distribute NG throughout the region in the near term, and renewable-source gaseous hydrogen (GH2) in the long term. We have promoted the construction of an NG pipeline network, the principal component of the energy infrastructure essential to our evolution toward a hydrogen-based society, through the Northeast Asia Natural Gas and Pipeline Forum (NAGPF). Our ultimate goal is a clean and sustainable society based on renewable energy sources, wherein hydrogen is produced from the vast potential of renewable energy in Siberia and China. The hydrogen thus produced would be transmitted through the pipeline network, progressively replacing NG as it is depleted. Over three-quarters of commercially exploitable hydroelectric power (hydro) resources of all Russia is in East Siberia. The areas from Kamchatka through the Kurilskiye Islands (called the Chishima Islands, in Japan) to Sakhalin is a world-class wind energy resource. West China has huge potential for solar energy. (authors)

  20. Nuclear energy and its synergies with renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Mermilliod, N.; Devezeaux De Lavergne, J.G.; Durand, S.

    2011-01-01

    France has the ambition to become a world leader in both nuclear industry and in renewable energies. 3 types of synergies between nuclear power and renewable energies are highlighted. First, nuclear power can be used as a low-carbon energy to produce the equipment required to renewable energy production for instance photovoltaic cells. Secondly, to benefit from the complementary features of both energies: continuous/intermittency of the production, centralized/local production. The future development of smart grids will help to do that. Thirdly, to use nuclear energy to produce massively hydrogen from water and synthetic fuels from biomass. (A.C.)

  1. Hydrogen production by catalytic processing of renewable methane-rich gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, Nazim; Smith, Franklyn; T-Raissi, Ali [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Biomass-derived methane-rich gases such as landfill gas (LFG), biogas and digester gas are promising renewable resources for near-future production of hydrogen. The technical and economical feasibility of hydrogen production via catalytic reforming of LFG and other methane-rich gases is evaluated in this paper. The thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and experimental measurements of reformation of methane-rich CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixtures over Ni-based catalyst were conducted. The problems associated with the catalyst deactivation due to carbon lay down and effects of steam and oxygen on the process sustainability were explored. Two technological approaches distinguished by the mode of heat input to the endothermic process (i.e., external vs autothermal) were modeled using AspenPlus trademark chemical process simulator and validated experimentally. A 5 kW{sub th} pilot unit for hydrogen production from LFG-mimicking CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixture was fabricated and operated. A preliminary techno-economic assessment indicates that the liquid hydrogen production costs are in the range of 3.00-7.00 per kilogram depending upon the plant capacity, the process heat input option and whether or not carbon sequestration is included in the process. (author)

  2. Hydrogen gas sample environment for TOSCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibble, Mark G; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J; Goodway, Chris M; Evans, Beth E; Kirichek, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    The idea of using hydrogen as a fuel has gained immense popularity over many years. Hydrogen is abundant, can be produced from renewable resources and is not a greenhouse gas. However development of hydrogen based technology is impossible without understanding of physical and chemical processes that involve hydrogen sometime in extreme conditions such as high pressure or low and high temperatures. Neutron spectroscopy allows measurement of a hydrogen atom motion in variety of samples. Here we describe and discuss a sample environment kit developed for hydrogen gas experiment in a broad range of pressure up to 7 kbar and temperatures from 4 K to 473 K. We also describe para-hydrogen rig which produces para-hydrogen gas required for studying the rotational line of molecular hydrogen

  3. 2015 Survey of Non-Starch Ethanol and Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels Producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lewis, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-22

    In order to understand the anticipated status of the industry for non-starch ethanol and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels as of the end of calendar year 2015, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted its first annual survey update of U.S. non-starch ethanol and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels producers. This report presents the results of this survey, describes the survey methodology, and documents important changes since the 2013 survey.

  4. An energy self-sufficient public building using integrated renewable sources and hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, C.; Nucara, A.; Pietrafesa, M.; Pudano, A.

    2013-01-01

    The control of the use of fossil fuels, major cause of greenhouse gas emissions and climate changes, in present days represents one of Governments' main challenges; particularly, a significant energy consumption is observed in buildings and might be significantly reduced through sustainable design, increased energy efficiency and use of renewable sources. At the moment, the widespread use of renewable energy in buildings is limited by its intrinsic discontinuity: consequently integration of plants with energy storage systems could represent an efficient solution to the problem. Within this frame, hydrogen has shown to be particularly fit in order to be used as an energetic carrier. In this aim, in the paper an energetic, economic and environmental analysis of two different configurations of a self-sufficient system for energy production from renewable sources in buildings is presented. In particular, in the first configuration energy production is carried out by means of photovoltaic systems, whereas in the second one a combination of photovoltaic panels and wind generators is used. In both configurations, hydrogen is used as an energy carrier, in order to store energy, and fuel cells guarantee its energetic reconversion. The analysis carried out shows that, although dimensioned as a stand-alone configuration, the system can today be realized only taking advantage from the incentivizing fares applied to grid-connected systems, that are likely to be suspended in the next future. In such case, it represents an interesting investment, with capital returns in about 15 years. As concerns economic sustainability, in fact, the analysis shows that the cost of the energy unit stored in hydrogen volumes, due to the not very high efficiency of the process, presently results greater than that of directly used one. Moreover, also the starting fund of the system proves to be very high, showing an additional cost with respect to systems lacking of energy storage equal to about 50

  5. Position Of Hydrogen Energy In Latvian Economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanags, M.; Kleperis, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: World energy resources are based on fossil fuels mostly (coal, oil, gas) which don't regenerate and will be run low after 30-80 years. Therefore it is necessary to elaborate alternative energy sources today. Also Latvia's energy balance is based mostly on the burning of fossil fuels and importing it from neighbor countries. One from much outstanding alternative energy sources is hydrogen. Hydrogen itself is a very important and most common element in the universe. Only hydrogen obtained from water and burnt in fuel cell back to water will be the renewed and sustainable fuel. There are hundred years old history of hydrogen related researches in Latvia, and there are researchers nowadays here trying to incorporate Latvia in the Hydrogen Society. The power supply in Latvia is based on local resources - water, wind, biogas (partly from waste), wood, peat, and on imported resources (natural gas, natural liquid gas, oil products (including heavy black oil) and coal. Total demand for electricity in Latvia only partly (63% in 2002) is covered with that produced on the site. If energy for heating in Latvia is produced from fossil fuels mostly (natural gas and heavy oil), than more than half of electricity produced in Latvia are based on local renewable resources. The water resources for the production of electricity in Latvia are almost exhausted - there are 3 large HEPS on Daugava River and more than 100 small HEPS on different rivers all over the Latvia. The building of small power stations in Latvia was accelerated very much after introduction of 'double tariff' for electricity from renewable, but from 2003 this time is over. Unfortunately directly power stations on small rivers made very big ecological distress on country side and no more expansion is welcome. The landfill gas in Latvia is a new resource and would result in additional capacity of 50 MW energy. Nowadays two projects started to realize for gas extraction from Getlini (Riga) and Grobina (Liepaja

  6. 2016 Survey of Non-Starch Alcohol and Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels Producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwab, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bacovsky, Dina [Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    In order to understand the anticipated status of the industry for non-starch ethanol and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels as of the end of calendar year 2015, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) updated its annual survey of U.S. non-starch ethanol and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels producers. This report presents the results of this survey update, describes the survey methodology, and documents important changes since the 2015 survey published at the end of 2015 (Schwab et al. 2015).

  7. System and method for integration of renewable energy and fuel cell for the production of electricity and hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a system and method for integrating renewable energy and a fuel cell for the production of electricity and hydrogen, wherein this comprises the use of renewable energy as fluctuating energy source for the production of electricity and also comprises the use of at least one

  8. Current Renewable Energy Technologies and Future Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ward, Christina D [ORNL; Smith, Barton [ORNL; Grubb, Kimberly R [ORNL; Lee, Russell [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    The generally acknowledged sources of renewable energy are wind, geothermal, biomass, solar, hydropower, and hydrogen. Renewable energy technologies are crucial to the production and utilization of energy from these regenerative and virtually inexhaustible sources. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies provide benefits beyond the establishment of sustainable energy resources. For example, these technologies produce negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants in providing energy, and they exploit domestically available energy sources, thereby reducing our dependence on both the importation of fossil fuels and the use of nuclear fuels. The market price of renewable energy technologies does not reflect the economic value of these added benefits.

  9. Hydrogen from Biomass for Urban Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, William

    2008-02-18

    The objective of this project was to develop a method, at the pilot scale, for the economical production of hydrogen from peanut shells. During the project period a pilot scale process, based on the bench scale process developed at NREL (National Renewable Energy Lab), was developed and successfully operated to produce hydrogen from peanut shells. The technoeconomic analysis of the process suggests that the production of hydrogen via this method is cost-competitive with conventional means of hydrogen production.

  10. Economic Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies Participating in California Electricity Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichman, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-19

    As the electric sector evolves and increasing amounts of variable renewable generation are installed on the system, there are greater needs for system flexibility and sufficient capacity, and greater concern for overgeneration from renewable sources not well matched in time with electric loads. Hydrogen systems have the potential to support the grid in each of these areas. However, limited information is available about the economic competitiveness of hydrogen system configurations. This paper quantifies the value for hydrogen energy storage and demand response systems to participate in select California wholesale electricity markets using 2012 data. For hydrogen systems and conventional storage systems (e.g., pumped hydro, batteries), the yearly revenues from energy, ancillary service, and capacity markets are compared to the yearly cost to establish economic competitiveness. Hydrogen systems can present a positive value proposition for current markets. Three main findings include: (1) For hydrogen systems participating in California electricity markets, producing and selling hydrogen was found to be much more valuable than producing and storing hydrogen to later produce electricity; therefore systems should focus on producing and selling hydrogen and opportunistically providing ancillary services and arbitrage. (2) Tighter integration with electricity markets generates greater revenues (i.e., systems that participate in multiple markets receive the highest revenue). (3) More storage capacity, in excess of what is required to provide diurnal shifting, does not increase competitiveness in current California wholesale energy markets. As more variable renewable generation is installed, the importance of long duration storage may become apparent in the energy price or through additional markets, but currently, there is not a sufficiently large price differential between days to generate enough revenue to offset the cost of additional storage. Future work will involve

  11. MAHRES: Spanish hydrogen geography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordallo, C.R.; Moreno, E.; Brey, R.; Guerrero, F.M.; Carazo, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, it is common to hear about the hydrogen potential as an energetic vector or the renewable character of fuel cells; thus, the conjunction between both of them as a way to produce electricity, decreasing pollutant emission, is often discussed. However, that renewable character is only guaranteed in the case that the hydrogen used comes from some renewable energy source. Because of that, and due to the Spanish great potential related to natural usable resources like water, sun, wind or biomass, for instance, it seems attractive to make a meticulous study (supported by the statistical Multicriteria Decision Making Method) in order to quantify that potential and place it in defined geographical areas. Moreover, the growth of the electricity demand is always significant, and in this way the energy consumption in Spain is estimated to grow up to 3'4 % above the average during the next ten years. On the other hand, it must be taken into account that the contribution of the oil production will not be enough in the future. The study being carried out will try to elaborate 'The Spanish Renewable Hydrogen Map', that would contemplate, not only the current situation but also predictable scenarios and their implementation. (author)

  12. Single step fabrication method of fullerene/TiO2 composite photocatalyst for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kum, Jong Min; Cho, Sung Oh

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is one of the most promising alternative energy sources. Fossil fuel, which is the most widely used energy source, has two defects. One is CO 2 emission causing global warming. The other is exhaustion. On the other hand, hydrogen emits no CO 2 and can be produced by splitting water which is renewable and easily obtainable source. However, about 95% of hydrogen is derived from fossil fuel. It limits the merits of hydrogen. Hydrogen from fossil fuel is not a renewable energy anymore. To maximize the merits of hydrogen, renewability and no CO 2 emission, unconventional hydrogen production methods without using fossil fuel are required. Photocatalytic water-splitting is one of the unconventional hydrogen production methods. Photocatalytic water-splitting that uses hole/electron pairs of semiconductor is expectable way to produce clean and renewable hydrogen from solar energy. TiO 2 is the semiconductor material which has been most widely used as photocatalyst. TiO 2 shows high photocatalytic reactivity and stability in water. However, its wide band gap only absorbs UV light which is only 5% of sun light. To enhance the visible light responsibility, composition with fullerene based materials has been investigated. 1-2 Methano-fullerene carboxylic acid (FCA) is one of the fullerene based materials. We tried to fabricate FCA/TiO 2 composite using UV assisted single step method. The method not only simplified the fabrication procedures, but enhanced hydrogen production rate

  13. Prospects for using multi-walled carbon nanotubes formed from renewable feedstock in hydrogen energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishchenko, D. V.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanoactivation of amorphous carbon synthesized from renewable feedstock promotes formation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and the best results were obtained using the feedstock of sphagnum moss. It is shown that the carbon nanotubes formed from different plant feedstock have a high sorption capacity with respect to hydrogen. (author)

  14. Hydrogen production by alkaline water electrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Diogo M. F.; Sequeira, César A. C.; Figueiredo, José L.

    2013-01-01

    Water electrolysis is one of the simplest methods used for hydrogen production. It has the advantage of being able to produce hydrogen using only renewable energy. To expand the use of water electrolysis, it is mandatory to reduce energy consumption, cost, and maintenance of current electrolyzers, and, on the other hand, to increase their efficiency, durability, and safety. In this study, modern technologies for hydrogen production by water electrolysis have been investigated. In this article...

  15. Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap identifies research pathways leading to hydrogen production technologies that produce near-zero net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from highly efficient and diverse renewable energy sources. This roadmap focuses on initial development of the technologies, identifies their gaps and barriers, and describes activities by various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) offices to address the key issues and challenges.

  16. Hydrogen: a clean energy for tomorrow?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artero, V.; Guillet, N.; Fruchart, D.; Fontecave, M.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen has a strong energetic potential. In order to exploit this potential and transform this energy into electricity, two chemical reactions could be used which do not release any greenhouse effect gas: hydrogen can be produced by water electrolysis, and then hydrogen and oxygen can be combined to produce water and release heat and electricity. Hydrogen can therefore be used to store energy. In Norway, the exceeding electricity produced by wind turbines in thus stored in fuel cells, and the energy of which is used when the wind weakens. About ten dwellings are thus supplied with only renewable energy. Similar projects are being tested in Corsica and in the Reunion Island. The main challenges for this technology are its cost, its compactness and its durability. The article gives an overview of the various concepts, apparatus and systems involved in hydrogen and energy production. Some researches are inspired by bacteria which produce hydrogen with enzymes. The objective is to elaborate better catalysts. Another explored perspective is the storage of solid hydrogen

  17. Solar driven technologies for hydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medojević Milovan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind that the production of hydrogen based on renewable energy sources, without doubt, is an important aspect to be taken into account when considering the potential of this gas, where as particularly interesting technologies stand out the ones which are based on the use of solar energy to produce hydrogen. The goal of this paper provides basic technological trajectories, with the possibility of combining, for solar driven hydrogen production, such as: electrochemical, photochemical and thermochemical process. Furthermore, the paper presents an analysis of those technologies from a technical as well as economic point of view. In addition, the paper aims to draw attention to the fact that the generation of hydrogen using renewable energy should be imposed as a logical and proper way to store solar energy in the form of chemical energy.

  18. Renewable energy production by photoelectrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using WO3 photoanodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Dimitrios; Dracopoulos, Vassilios; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2017-07-05

    The present work has studied renewable hydrogen production by photoelectrocatalytic degradation of model organic substances representing biomass derived organic wastes. Its purpose was to show that renewable energy can be produced by consuming wastes. The study has been carried out by employing nanoparticulate WO 3 photoanodes in the presence of ethanol, glycerol or sorbitol, i.e. three substances which are among typical biomass products. In these substances, the molecular weight and the number of hydroxyl groups increases from ethanol to sorbitol. The photocurrent produced by the cell was the highest in the presence of ethanol, smaller in the case of glycerol and further decreased in the presence of sorbitol. The photocurrent was roughly the double of that produced in the absence of an organic additive thus demonstrating current doubling phenomena. Hydrogen was produced only under illumination and was monitored at two forward bias, 0.8 and 1.6V vs Ag/AgCl. Hydrogen production rates followed the same order as the photocurrent thus indicating that hydrogen production by reduction of protons mainly depends on the current flowing through the external circuit connecting photoanode with cathode. The maximum solar-to-hydrogen efficiency reached by the present system was 2.35%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of nuclear produced hydrogen for global environment and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashimo, M.; Kurosawa, A.; Ikeda, K.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability on economical growth, energy supply and environment are major issues for the 21. century. Within this context, one of the promising concepts is the possibility of nuclear-produced hydrogen. In this study, the effect of nuclear-produced hydrogen on the environment is discussed, based on the output of the computer code 'Grape', which simulates the effects of the energy, environment and economy in 21. century. Five cases are assumed in this study. The first case is 'Business as usual by Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)', the second 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by ICE', the third 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by Hybrid Car', the fourth 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) with Hydrogen produced by conventional Steam Methane Reforming (SMR)' and the fifth 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by FCV with Nuclear Produced-Hydrogen'. The energy used for transportation is at present about 25% of the total energy consumption in the world and is expected to be the same in the future, if there is no improvement of energy efficiency for transportation. On this point, the hybrid car shows the much better efficiency, about 2 times better than traditional internal combustion engines. Fuel Cell powered Vehicles are expected to be a key to resolving the combined issue of the environment and energy in this century. The nuclear-produced hydrogen is a better solution than conventional hydrogen production method using steam methane reforming. (author)

  20. Challenges for renewable hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, D.B.; Chahine, R.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing demand for H 2 for heavy oil upgrading, desulfurization and upgrading of conventional petroleum, and for production of ammonium, in addition to the projected demand for H 2 as a transportation fuel and portable power, will require H 2 production on a massive scale. Increased production of H 2 by current technologies will consume greater amounts of conventional hydrocarbons (primarily natural gas) which in turn will generate greater greenhouse gas emissions. Production of H 2 from renewable sources derived from agricultural or other waste streams offers the possibility to contribute to the production capacity with lower or no net greenhouse gas emissions (without carbon sequestration technologies), increasing the flexibility and improving the economics of distributed and semi-centralized reforming. Electrolysis, thermo-catalytic, and biological production can be easily adapted to on-site decentralized production of H 2 , circumventing the need to establish a large and costly distribution infrastructure. Each of these H 2 production technologies, however, faces technical challenges, including conversion efficiencies, feedstock type, and the need to safely integrate H 2 production systems with H 2 purification and storage technologies. These issues are being addressed by H2CAN, a recently launched NSERC funded national strategic network in hydrogen production, purification, storage, infrastructure and safety. (author)

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production from biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohce, M.K.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    'Full Text': Biomass resources have the advantage of being renewable and can therefore contribute to renewable hydrogen production. In this study, an overview is presented of hydrogen production methods in general, and biomass-based hydrogen production in particular. For two methods in the latter category (direct gasification and pyrolysis), assessments are carried out, with the aim of investigating the feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass and better understanding the potential of biomass as a renewable energy source. A simplified model is presented here for biomass gasification based on chemical equilibrium considerations, and the effects of temperature, pressure and the Gibbs free energy on the equilibrium hydrogen yield are studied. Palm oil (designated C 6 H 10 O 5 ), one of the most common biomass resources in the world, is considered in the analyses. The gasifier is observed to be one of the most critical components of a biomass gasification system, and is modeled using stoichiometric reactions. Various thermodynamic efficiencies are evaluated, and both methods are observed to have reasonably high efficiencies. (author)

  2. Analysis of Hybrid Hydrogen Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Braun, R.; Munoz, D.; Penev, M.; Kinchin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Report on biomass pathways for hydrogen production and how they can be hybridized to support renewable electricity generation. Two hybrid systems were studied in detail for process feasibility and economic performance. The best-performing system was estimated to produce hydrogen at costs ($1.67/kg) within Department of Energy targets ($2.10/kg) for central biomass-derived hydrogen production while also providing value-added energy services to the electric grid.

  3. Producing hydrogen from coke-oven gas: the Solmer project. [PSA process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, G; Vidal, J

    1984-05-01

    After presenting the energy situation at the Solmer plant, where coke-oven gas is produced to excess, the authors examine the technical and economic possibilities of utilizing this gas for hydrogen extraction. They describe a project (based on the PSA process) for producing some 65 t/d of hydrogen and present the technical features of the scheme. An evaluation of the energy and financial costs of producing the hydrogen confirms the competitive status of the process.

  4. An examination of isolated, stationary, hydrogen power systems supplied by renewables: component and system issues and criteria necessary for successful worldwide deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambach, G. D. [Energy and Environmental Engineering Center, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The premise of this paper is that remote, stationary power systems, based on indigenous renewable energy sources, are an ideal market entry opportunity for hydrogen, but that the deployment of isolated power systems relying on hydrogen as the energy storage medium requires complex and comprehensive planning and design considerations to provide for successful market entry strategies and appropriate systems engineering. Accordingly, this paper sets out to discuss the criteria and the framework necessary to determine how to successfully deploy any specific system or to plan a global marketing strategy. Details of the indigenous intermittent energy sources (wind turbines, solar photovoltaic, micro-hydroelectric, etc), primary power-to-hydrogen conversion systems, hydrogen storage methods, and hydrogen-to-electricity conversion systems (hydrogen-internal combustion engine generator set, hydrogen fuel cells) are described, along with the criteria for technically and commercially successful deployment of any renewable utility power system that employs energy storage.2 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Hydrogen as a renewable and sustainable solution in reducing global fossil fuel consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midilli, Adnan; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, hydrogen is considered as a renewable and sustainable solution for reducing global fossil fuel consumption and combating global warming and studied exergetically through a parametric performance analysis. The environmental impact results are then compared with the ones obtained for fossil fuels. In this regard, some exergetic expressions are derived depending primarily upon the exergetic utilization ratios of fossil fuels and hydrogen: the fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency, fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator. These relations incorporate predicted exergetic utilization ratios for hydrogen energy from non-fossil fuel resources such as water, etc., and are used to investigate whether or not exergetic utilization of hydrogen can significantly reduce the fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient (ranging from 1 to +∞) indicating the fossil fuel consumption and contribute to increase the hydrogen based global exergetic indicator (ranging from 0 to 1) indicating the hydrogen utilization at a certain ratio of fossil fuel utilization. In order to verify all these exergetic expressions, the actual fossil fuel consumption and production data are taken from the literature. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for analysis, it is assumed that the utilization ratios of hydrogen are ranged between 0 and 1. For the verification of these parameters, the variations of fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator as the functions of fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency and exergetic utilization of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels are analyzed and discussed in detail. Consequently, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels increases

  6. Guidance on Biogas used to Produce CNG or LNG under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides EPA’s interpretation of biogas quality and RIN generation requirements that apply to renewable fuel production pathways involving the injection into a commercial pipeline of biogas for use in producing renewable CNG or renewable LNG.

  7. Energy–exergy and economic analyses of a hybrid solar–hydrogen renewable energy system in Ankara, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozden, Ender; Tari, Ilker

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Uninterrupted energy in an emergency blackout situation. • System modeling of a solar–hydrogen based hybrid renewable energy system. • A comprehensive thermodynamical analysis. • Levelized cost of electricity analysis for a project lifetime of 25 years. - Abstract: A hybrid (Solar–Hydrogen) stand-alone renewable energy system that consists of photovoltaic panels (PV), Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells, PEM based electrolyzers and hydrogen storage is investigated by developing a complete model of the system using TRNSYS. The PV panels are mounted on a tiltable platform to improve the performance of the system by monthly adjustments of the tilt angle. The total area of the PV panels is 300 m 2 , the PEM fuel cell capacity is 5 kW, and the hydrogen storage is at 55 bars pressure and with 45 m 3 capacity. The main goal of this study is to verify that the system meets the electrical power demand of the emergency room without experiencing a shortage for a complete year in an emergency blackout situation. For this purpose, after modeling the system, energy and exergy analyses for the hydrogen cycle of the system for a complete year are performed, and the energy and exergy efficiencies are found as 4.06% and 4.25%, respectively. Furthermore, an economic analysis is performed for a project lifetime of 25 years based on Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCE), and the LCE is calculated as 0.626 $/kWh.

  8. Alternatives to electricity for transmission and annual-scale firming - Storage for diverse, stranded, renewable energy resources: hydrogen and ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighty, William

    2010-09-15

    The world's richest renewable energy resources 'of large geographic extent and high intensity' are stranded: far from end-users with inadequate or nonexistent gathering and transmission systems to deliver energy. Output of most renewables varies greatly, at time scales of seconds-seasons: energy capture assets operate at low capacity factor; energy delivery is not 'firm'. New electric transmission systems, or fractions thereof, dedicated to renewables, suffer the same low CF: substantial stranded capital assets, increasing the cost of delivered renewable-source energy. Electricity storage cannot affordably firm large renewables at annual scale. Gaseous hydrogen and anhydrous ammonia fuels can: attractive alternatives.

  9. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  10. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO 2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint

  11. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  12. Engineering microbial chemical factories to produce renewable "biomonomers".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Jake; Pugh, Shawn; McKenna, Rebekah; Nielsen, David R

    2012-01-01

    By applying metabolic engineering tools and strategies to engineer synthetic enzyme pathways, the number and diversity of commodity and specialty chemicals that can be derived directly from renewable feedstocks is rapidly and continually expanding. This of course includes a number of monomer building-block chemicals that can be used to produce replacements to many conventional plastic materials. This review aims to highlight numerous recent and important advancements in the microbial production of these so-called "biomonomers." Relative to naturally-occurring renewable bioplastics, biomonomers offer several important advantages, including improved control over the final polymer structure and purity, the ability to synthesize non-natural copolymers, and allowing products to be excreted from cells which ultimately streamlines downstream recovery and purification. To highlight these features, a handful of biomonomers have been selected as illustrative examples of recent works, including polyamide monomers, styrenic vinyls, hydroxyacids, and diols. Where appropriate, examples of their industrial penetration to date and end-product uses are also highlighted. Novel biomonomers such as these are ultimately paving the way toward new classes of renewable bioplastics that possess a broader diversity of properties than ever before possible.

  13. Renewable energy production by photoelectrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using WO{sub 3} photoanodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raptis, Dimitrios [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece); Dracopoulos, Vassilios [FORTH/ICE-HT, P.O. Box 1414, 26504 Patras (Greece); Lianos, Panagiotis, E-mail: lianos@upatras.gr [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece)

    2017-07-05

    Highlights: • Efficient nanoparticulate WO{sub 3} photoanodes. • Photoelectrocatalytic hydrogen production by consumption of organic wastes. • Photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol, glycerol or sorbitol. • Recording of hydrogen production and calculation of efficiencies. - Abstract: The present work has studied renewable hydrogen production by photoelectrocatalytic degradation of model organic substances representing biomass derived organic wastes. Its purpose was to show that renewable energy can be produced by consuming wastes. The study has been carried out by employing nanoparticulate WO{sub 3} photoanodes in the presence of ethanol, glycerol or sorbitol, i.e. three substances which are among typical biomass products. In these substances, the molecular weight and the number of hydroxyl groups increases from ethanol to sorbitol. The photocurrent produced by the cell was the highest in the presence of ethanol, smaller in the case of glycerol and further decreased in the presence of sorbitol. The photocurrent was roughly the double of that produced in the absence of an organic additive thus demonstrating current doubling phenomena. Hydrogen was produced only under illumination and was monitored at two forward bias, 0.8 and 1.6 V vs Ag/AgCl. Hydrogen production rates followed the same order as the photocurrent thus indicating that hydrogen production by reduction of protons mainly depends on the current flowing through the external circuit connecting photoanode with cathode. The maximum solar-to-hydrogen efficiency reached by the present system was 2.35%.

  14. The effect of weather uncertainty on the financial risk of green electricity producers under various renewable policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagl, Stephan

    2013-06-15

    In recent years, many countries have implemented policies to incentivize renewable power generation. In this paper, we analyze the variance in profits of renewable-based electricity producers due to weather uncertainty under a 'feed-in tariff' policy, a 'fixed bonus' incentive and a 'renewable quota' obligation. In a first step, we discuss the price effects of fluctuations in the feed-in from renewables and their impact on the risk for green electricity producers. In a second step, we numerically solve the problem by applying a spatial stochastic equilibrium model to the European electricity market. The simulation results allow us to discuss the variance in profits under the different renewable support mechanisms and how different technologies are affected by weather uncertainty. The analysis suggests that wind producers benefit from market integration, whereas producers from biomass and solar plants face a larger variance in profits. Furthermore, the simulation indicates that highly volatile green certificate prices occur when introducing a renewable quota obligation without the option of banking and borrowing. Thus, all renewable producers face a higher variance in profits, as the price effect of weather uncertainty on green certificates overcompensates the negatively correlated fluctuations in production and prices.

  15. New hydrogen technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the overall hydrogen system. There are separate sections for production, distribution, transport, storage; and applications of hydrogen. The most important methods for hydrogen production are steam reformation of natural gas and electrolysis of water. Of the renewable energy options, production of hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity from wind turbines or by gasification of biomass were found to be the most economic for Finland. Direct use of this electricity or the production of liquid fuels from biomass will be competing alternatives. When hydrogen is produced in the solar belt or where there is cheap hydropower it must be transported over long distances. The overall energy consumed for the transport is from 25 to 40 % of the initial available energy. Hydrogen storage can be divided into stationary and mobile types. The most economic, stationary, large scale hydrogen storage for both long and short periods is underground storage. When suitable sites are not available, then pressure vessels are the best for short period and liquid H 2 for long period. Vehicle storage of hydrogen is by either metal hydrides or liquid H 2 . Hydrogen is a very versatile energy carrier. It can be used to produce heat directly in catalytic burners without flame, to produce electricity in fuel cells with high efficiency for use in vehicles or for peak power shaving, as a fuel component with conventional fuels to reduce emissions, as a way to store energy and as a chemical reagent in reactions

  16. Multi-unit Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plants producing hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.

    1993-12-01

    A quantitative energy pathway comparison is made between a modern oil refinery and genetic fusion hydrogen plant supporting hybrid-electric cars powered by gasoline and hydrogen-optimized internal combustion engines, respectively, both meeting President Clinton's goal for advanced car goal of 80 mpg gasoline equivalent. The comparison shows that a fusion electric plant producing hydrogen by water electrolysis at 80% efficiency must have an electric capacity of 10 GWe to support as many hydrogen-powered hybrid cars as one modern 200,000 bbl/day-capacity oil refinery could support in gasoline-powered hybrid cars. A 10 GWe fusion electric plant capital cost is limited to 12.5 B$ to produce electricity at 2.3 cents/kWehr, and hydrogen production by electrolysis at 8 $/GJ, for equal consumer fuel cost per passenger mile as in the oil-gasoline-hybrid pathway

  17. Combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources and electrochemical hydrogen systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, S. A.; Grigor'ev, A. S.; Kuleshov, N. V.; Fateev, V. N.; Kuleshov, V. N.

    2015-02-01

    The layout of a combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources (RESs) and hydrogen electrochemical systems for the accumulation of energy via the direct and inverse conversion of the electrical energy from RESs into the chemical energy of hydrogen with the storage of the latter is described. Some efficient technical solutions on the use of electrochemical hydrogen systems in power engineering for the storage of energy with a cyclic energy conversion efficiency of more than 40% are proposed. It is shown that the storage of energy in the form of hydrogen is environmentally safe and considerably surpasses traditional accumulator batteries by its capacitance characteristics, being especially topical in the prolonged absence of energy supply from RESs, e.g., under the conditions of polar night and breathless weather. To provide the required heat consumption of an object during the peak period, it is proposed to burn some hydrogen in a boiler house.

  18. The hydrogen issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-01-17

    Hydrogen is often proposed as the fuel of the future, but the transformation from the present fossil fuel economy to a hydrogen economy will need the solution of numerous complex scientific and technological issues, which will require several decades to be accomplished. Hydrogen is not an alternative fuel, but an energy carrier that has to be produced by using energy, starting from hydrogen-rich compounds. Production from gasoline or natural gas does not offer any advantage over the direct use of such fuels. Production from coal by gasification techniques with capture and sequestration of CO₂ could be an interim solution. Water splitting by artificial photosynthesis, photobiological methods based on algae, and high temperatures obtained by nuclear or concentrated solar power plants are promising approaches, but still far from practical applications. In the next decades, the development of the hydrogen economy will most likely rely on water electrolysis by using enormous amounts of electric power, which in its turn has to be generated. Producing electricity by burning fossil fuels, of course, cannot be a rational solution. Hydroelectric power can give but a very modest contribution. Therefore, it will be necessary to generate large amounts of electric power by nuclear energy of by renewable energies. A hydrogen economy based on nuclear electricity would imply the construction of thousands of fission reactors, thereby magnifying all the problems related to the use of nuclear energy (e.g., safe disposal of radioactive waste, nuclear proliferation, plant decommissioning, uranium shortage). In principle, wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power have the potential to produce enormous amounts of electric power, but, except for wind, such technologies are too underdeveloped and expensive to tackle such a big task in a short period of time. A full development of a hydrogen economy needs also improvement in hydrogen storage, transportation and distribution

  19. Cost estimation of hydrogen and DME produced by nuclear heat utilization system II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Yasuaki; Nishihara, Tetsuo

    2004-09-01

    Utilization and production of hydrogen has been studied in order to spread utilization of the hydrogen energy in 2020 or 2030. It will take, however, many years for the hydrogen energy to be used very easily like gasoline, diesel oil and city gas in the world. During the periods, low CO 2 release liquid fuels would be used together with hydrogen. Recently, di-methyl-ether (DME). has been noticed as one of the substitute liquid fuels of petroleum. Such liquid fuels can be produced from the mixed gas such as hydrogen and carbon oxide which are produced from natural gas by steam reforming. Therefore, the system would become one of the candidates of future system of nuclear heat utilization. Following the study in 2002, we performed economic evaluation of the hydrogen and DME production by nuclear heat utilization plant where heat generated by HTGR is completely consumed for the production. The results show that hydrogen price produced by nuclear was about 17% cheaper than the commercial price by increase in recovery rate of high purity hydrogen with increased in PSA process. Price of DME in indirect method produced by nuclear heat was also about 17% cheaper than the commercial price by producing high purity hydrogen in the DME producing process. As for the DME, since price of DME produced near oil land in petroleum exporting countries is cheaper than production in Japan, production of DME by nuclear heat in Japan has disadvantage economically in this time. Trial study to estimate DME price produced by direct method was performed. From the present estimation, utilization of nuclear heat for the production of hydrogen would be more effective with coupled consideration of reduction effect of CO 2 release. (author)

  20. Marine current turbine design for zero emission renewable energy producing a sailing boat

    OpenAIRE

    EKİNCİ, Serkan; ALVAR, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, rapid increase in theoretical studies and applications on electrical power generation from renewable sources, such as wind, sun, marine or tidal currents, can be encountered in the literature. Among these, marine current turbines, produce energy by taking the advantage of alternating motion of water, and have the ability to produce energy even at low flow rates, and are operated in oceans and seas as a renewable energy source. In this study, design of marine current turbi...

  1. Prospects for hydrogen in the German energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hake, J.-F.; Linssen, J.; Walbeck, M.

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the paper concerns the current discussion on the contribution of the hydrogen economy to a 'sustainable energy system'. It considers whether advantages for the environmental situation and energy carrier supply can be expected from the already visible future characteristics of hydrogen as a new secondary energy carrier. Possible production paths for hydrogen from hydrocarbon-based, renewable or carbon-reduced/-free primary energy carriers are evaluated with respect to primary energy use and CO 2 emissions from the fuel cycle. Hydrogen has to be packaged by compression or liquefaction, transported by surface vehicles or pipelines, stored and transferred to the end user. Whether generated by electrolysis or by reforming, and even if produced locally at filling stations, the gaseous or liquid hydrogen has to undergo these market processes before it can be used by the customer. In order to provide an idea of possible markets with special emphasis on the German energy sector, a technical systems analysis of possible hydrogen applications is performed for the stationary, mobile and portable sector. Furthermore, different 'business as usual' scenarios are analysed for Germany, Europe and the World concerning end energy use in different sectors. The very small assumed penetration of hydrogen in the analysed scenarios up to the year 2050 indicates that the hydrogen economy is a long-term option. With reference to the assumed supply paths and analysed application possibilities, hydrogen can be an option for clean energy use if hydrogen can be produced with carbon-reduced or -free primary energy carriers like renewable energy or biomass. However, the energetic use of hydrogen competes with the direct use of clean primary energy and/or with the use of electric energy based on renewable primary energy. As a substitution product for other secondary energy carriers hydrogen is therefore under pressure of costs and/or must have advantages in comparison to the use of

  2. Scenarios of hydrogen production from wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaric, Mario

    2010-09-15

    Since almost total amount of hydrogen is currently being produced from natural gas, other ways of cleaner and 'more renewable' production should be made feasible in order to make benchmarks for total 'hydrogen economy'. Hydrogen production from wind power combined with electrolysis imposes as one possible framework for new economy development. In this paper various wind-to-hydrogen scenarios were calculated. Cash flows of asset based project financing were used as decision making tool. Most important parameters were identified and strategies for further research and development and resource allocation are suggested.

  3. An overview of renewable hydrogen production from thermochemical process of oil palm solid waste in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul; Ganjehkaviri, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 40% of energy demand of Malaysia could be supplied by thermochemical process of PSR. • SCWG of PSR is preferable thermochemical process due to char and tar elimination. • Potential of H 2 production from SCWG of PSR is 1.05 × 10 10 kgH 2 per year in Malaysia. • Highly moisturized PSR could be used in hydrogen production by SCWG process. - Abstract: Hydrogen is one of the most promising energy carriers for the future of the world due to its tremendous capability of pollution reduction. Hydrogen utilization is free of toxic gases formation as well as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission. Hydrogen production can be implemented using a wide variety of resources including fossil fuels, nuclear energy and renewable and sustainable energy (RSE). Amongst various RSE resources, biomass has great capacity to be employed for renewable hydrogen production. Hydrogen production from palm solid residue (PSR) via thermochemical process is a perfect candidate for waste-to-well strategy in palm oil mills in Malaysia. In this paper, various characteristics of hydrogen production from thermochemical process of PSR includes pyrolysis and gasification are reviewed. The annual oil palm fruits production in Malaysia is approximately 100 million tonnes which the solid waste of the fruits is capable to generate around 1.05 × 10 10 kgH 2 (1.26 EJ) via supercritical water gasification (SCWG) process. The ratio of energy output to energy input of SCWG process of PSR is about 6.56 which demonstrates the priority of SCWG to transform the energy of PSR into a high energy end product. The high moisture of PSR which is the most important barrier for its direct combustion, emerges as an advantage in thermochemical reactions and highly moisturized PSR (even more than 50%) is utilized directly in SCWG without application of any high cost drying process. Implementation of appropriate strategies could lead Malaysia to supply about 40% of its annual energy demand by hydrogen yield from

  4. Microbial electrolysis cells as innovative technology for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorbadzhiyska, Elitsa; Hristov, Georgi; Mitov, Mario; Hubenova, Yolina

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen production is becoming increasingly important in view of using hydrogen in fuel cells. However, most of the production of hydrogen so far comes from the combustion of fossil fuels and water electrolysis. Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC), also known as Bioelectrochemically Assisted Microbial Reactor, is an ecologically clean, renewable and innovative technology for hydrogen production. Microbial electrolysis cells produce hydrogen mainly from waste biomass assisted by various bacteria strains. The principle of MECs and their constructional elements are reviewed and discussed. Keywords: microbial Electrolysis Cells, hydrogen production, waste biomass purification

  5. Hydrogen production from sewage sludge by steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aye, L.; Klinkajorn, P. [Melbourne Univ. International Technologies Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Because of the shortage of energy sources in the near future, renewable energy, such as biomass, has become an important source of energy. One of the most common approaches for producing gaseous fuels from biomass is gasification. The main product gases of gasification are hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane and low molecular weight hydrocarbons. Because of the capability of very low emission at the point of use, the interest in using hydrogen for electrical power generation and in electric-vehicles has been increasing. Hydrogen from biomass steam gasification (SG) is a net zero green house gas emission fuel. Sewage sludge (SS) has a potential to produce hydrogen-rich gaseous fuel. Therefore, hydrogen production from sewage sludge may be a solution for cleaner fuel and the sewage sludge disposal problem. This paper presented the results of a computer model for SSSG by using Gibbs free energy minimization (GFEM) method. The computer model developed was used to determine the hydrogen production limits for various steam to biomass ratios. The paper presented an introduction to renewable energy and gasification and discussed the Gibbs free energy minimization method. The study used a RAND algorithm. It presented the computer model input parameters and discussed the results of the stoichiometric analysis and Gibbs free energy minimization. The energy requirement for hydrogen production was also presented. 17 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  6. The maximum specific hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures: definition and determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yang; Yang, Hou-Yun; Wang, Ya-Zhou; He, Chuan-Shu; Zhao, Quan-Bao; Wang, Yi; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-06-01

    Fermentative hydrogen production from wastes has many advantages compared to various chemical methods. Methodology for characterizing the hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures is essential for monitoring reactor operation in fermentative hydrogen production, however there is lack of such kind of standardized methodologies. In the present study, a new index, i.e., the maximum specific hydrogen-producing activity (SHAm) of anaerobic mixed cultures, was proposed, and consequently a reliable and simple method, named SHAm test, was developed to determine it. Furthermore, the influences of various parameters on the SHAm value determination of anaerobic mixed cultures were evaluated. Additionally, this SHAm assay was tested for different types of substrates and bacterial inocula. Our results demonstrate that this novel SHAm assay was a rapid, accurate and simple methodology for determining the hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures. Thus, application of this approach is beneficial to establishing a stable anaerobic hydrogen-producing system.

  7. The maximum specific hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures: definition and determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yang; Yang, Hou-Yun; Wang, Ya-Zhou; He, Chuan-Shu; Zhao, Quan-Bao; Wang, Yi; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-06-10

    Fermentative hydrogen production from wastes has many advantages compared to various chemical methods. Methodology for characterizing the hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures is essential for monitoring reactor operation in fermentative hydrogen production, however there is lack of such kind of standardized methodologies. In the present study, a new index, i.e., the maximum specific hydrogen-producing activity (SHAm) of anaerobic mixed cultures, was proposed, and consequently a reliable and simple method, named SHAm test, was developed to determine it. Furthermore, the influences of various parameters on the SHAm value determination of anaerobic mixed cultures were evaluated. Additionally, this SHAm assay was tested for different types of substrates and bacterial inocula. Our results demonstrate that this novel SHAm assay was a rapid, accurate and simple methodology for determining the hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures. Thus, application of this approach is beneficial to establishing a stable anaerobic hydrogen-producing system.

  8. One million ton of hydrogen is the key piece in the Danish renewable energy puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandal, Rune Duban; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2013-01-01

    Designing a 100 % renewable energy system (RES) for Denmark, the availability of a sustainable biomass resource potential is found to be a limiting factor. The biomass demand derives from specific needs in the system, i.e. 1) storable fuel for energy for balancing fluctuating power production, 2...... storage, i.e. storing wind power through electrolysis and further reaction of hydrogen to hydrocarbons with carbon feedstock from biomass. This involves biomass gasification and hydrogenation of the syngas or hydrogenation of recycled CO2. The advantage of hydro storage is a superior energy efficiency......) carbon feedstock for materials and chemicals and 3) energy dense fuels for the more demanding branches of the transportation sector such as aviation, ship freight and long distance road transportation. The challenge of balancing electricity over different timeslots comprise a short term balancing...

  9. Hydrogen gains further momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2017-01-01

    As first industrial production projects should become a reality in the next few years, hydrogen as a source of energy will find important applications with mobility, which momentum is rapid and irresistible. Next steps will be the (large capacity) storage of hydrogen associated to power-to-gas systems and the generalization of renewable energies. This document presents 5 articles, which themes are: Description and explanation of the process of hydrogen production; Presentation of the H2V project for the construction, in Normandy, of the first operational industrial hydrogen production plant using electric power 100 pc generated by renewable energies; The conversion of electric power from renewable energies through hydrogen storage and fuel cells for buildings applications (Sylfen project); The development of a reversible fuel cell at Mines-Paris Tech University, that will be adapted to the storage of renewable electric power; Hydrogen as a lever for the development of zero-emission vehicles, from trucks to cars and bicycles

  10. Aqueous-Phase Reforming of Renewable Polyols for Production of Hydrogen using Platinum Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boga, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen has the potential to fuel the energy needs of a more sustainable society. As hydrogen is not found in nature in any appreciable quantities, this energy carrier needs to be produced from a primary energy source. Biomass can serve as a source for sustainable hydrogen production. In principle,

  11. Hydrogen delivery technology rRoadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2005-11-01

    Hydrogen holds the long-term potential to solve two critical problems related to the energy infrastructure: U.S. dependence on foreign oil and U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants. The U.S. transportation sector is almost completely reliant on petroleum, over half of which is currently imported, and tailpipe emissions remain one of the country’s key air quality concerns. Fuel cell vehicles operating on hydrogen produced from domestically available resources – including renewable resources, coal with carbon sequestration, or nuclear energy – would dramatically decrease greenhouse gases and other emissions, and would reduce dependence on oil from politically volatile regions of the world. Clean, domestically-produced hydrogen could also be used to generate electricity in stationary fuel cells at power plants, further extending national energy and environmental benefits.

  12. Comparative study of hydrogen and methanol as energy carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Anna

    1998-06-01

    This report has been written with the purpose to compare hydrogen and methanol, with gasoline, as energy carriers for new energy systems in the future. This energy system must satisfy the demands for sustainable development. The report focuses on motor vehicle applications. A few different criteria has been developed to help form the characterisation method. The criteria proposed in this thesis are developed for an environmental comparison mainly based on emissions from combustion. The criteria concerns the following areas: Renewable resources, The ozone layer, The greenhouse effect, The acidification, and Toxic substances. In many ways, hydrogen may seem as a very good alternative compared with gasoline and diesel oil. Combustion of hydrogen in air results in water and small amounts of oxides of nitrogen. In this report, hydrogen produced from renewable resources is investigated. This is necessary to fulfill the demands for sustainable development. Today, however, steam reforming of fossil fuels represent 99% of the hydrogen production market. Problem areas connected with hydrogen use are for instance storage and distribution. Methanol has many advantages, while comparing methanol and gasoline, like lower emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons, limited emissions of carbon dioxide and no sulphur content. Methanol can be produced from many different resources, for example natural gas, naphtha, oil, coal or peat, and biomass. To meet demands for sustainable production, methanol has to be produced from biomass Examination paper. 32 refs, 20 figs, 13 tabs

  13. Hydrogen production by hyperthermophilic and extremely thermophilic bacteria and archaea: mechanisms for reductant disposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaart, M.R.A.; Bielen, A.A.M.; Oost, van der J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Kengen, S.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen produced from biomass by bacteria and archaea is an attractive renewable energy source. However, to make its application more feasible, microorganisms are needed with high hydrogen productivities. For several reasons, hyperthermophilic and extremely thermophilic bacteria and archaea are

  14. S.1269: This Act may be cited as the Renewable Hydrogen Energy Research and Development Act of 1991, introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, June 11, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The bill would require the Secretary of Energy to expedite the development of hydrogen derived from renewable energy sources as an alternative energy system for residential, industrial, utility, and motor vehicle use. The purposes of this bill are to reduce the US dependence on imported oil; accelerate the development of renewable hydrogen; accelerate research and development programs on components of a renewable hydrogen energy system; reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, acid rain, precursors to smog, and other air pollution; and establish industry and government cost shared projects to speed the development of renewable hydrogen energy systems

  15. 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2015 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  16. 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp; Tian, Tian

    2016-11-01

    The 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  17. 2014 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2014 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  18. 2016 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-12-29

    The 2016 Renewable Energy Data Book provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  19. Engineering Microbial Chemical Factories to Produce Renewable ‘Biomonomers’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake eAdkins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available By applying metabolic engineering tools and strategies to engineer synthetic enzyme pathways, the number and diversity of commodity and specialty chemicals that can be derived directly from renewable feedstocks is rapidly and continually expanding. This of course includes a number of monomer building-block chemicals that can be used to produce replacements to many conventional plastic materials. This review aims to highlight numerous recent and important advancements in the microbial production of these so-called ‘biomonomers’. Relative to naturally-occurring renewable bioplastics, biomonomers offer several important advantages, including improved control over the final polymer structure and purity, the ability to synthesize non-natural copolymers, and allowing products to be excreted from cells which ultimately streamlines downstream recovery and purification. To highlight these features, a handful of biomonomers have been selected as illustrative examples of recent works, including polyamide monomers, styrenic vinyls, hydroxyacids, and diols. Where appropriate, examples of their industrial penetration to date and end-product uses are also highlighted. Novel biomonomers such as these are ultimately paving the way towards new classes of renewable bioplastics that possess a broader diversity of properties than ever before possible.

  20. Engineering microbial chemical factories to produce renewable “biomonomers”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Jake; Pugh, Shawn; McKenna, Rebekah; Nielsen, David R.

    2012-01-01

    By applying metabolic engineering tools and strategies to engineer synthetic enzyme pathways, the number and diversity of commodity and specialty chemicals that can be derived directly from renewable feedstocks is rapidly and continually expanding. This of course includes a number of monomer building-block chemicals that can be used to produce replacements to many conventional plastic materials. This review aims to highlight numerous recent and important advancements in the microbial production of these so-called “biomonomers.” Relative to naturally-occurring renewable bioplastics, biomonomers offer several important advantages, including improved control over the final polymer structure and purity, the ability to synthesize non-natural copolymers, and allowing products to be excreted from cells which ultimately streamlines downstream recovery and purification. To highlight these features, a handful of biomonomers have been selected as illustrative examples of recent works, including polyamide monomers, styrenic vinyls, hydroxyacids, and diols. Where appropriate, examples of their industrial penetration to date and end-product uses are also highlighted. Novel biomonomers such as these are ultimately paving the way toward new classes of renewable bioplastics that possess a broader diversity of properties than ever before possible. PMID:22969753

  1. Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen - 2010 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Thomas, George [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-06-01

    A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage The purpose of this White Paper is to describe and evaluate the potential of aluminum-water reactions for the production of hydrogen for on-board hydrogen-powered vehicle applications. Although the concept of reacting aluminum metal with water to produce hydrogen is not new, there have been a number of recent claims that such aluminum-water reactions might be employed to power fuel cell devices for portable applications such as emergency generators and laptop computers, and might even be considered for possible use as the hydrogen source for fuel cell-powered vehicles.

  2. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the energy resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon hydrogen in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected energy resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following energy resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating hydrogen production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections

  3. Design of the electrolyzer for the solar hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Wan Ramli Wan Daud

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical design of hydrogen system. Also, it shown the details steps of theoretical calculation to produce the required amount of hydrogen. Hydrogen is considered the fuel of the future. It is promising alternative for fossil fuel. Since, it is non-pollutant and renewable. The system contains and required equipment are photovoltaic panel, energy storage battery, converter, electrolyzer and hydrogen storage. By using 1.7 V supplied by PV, the simulation results gives 89 1/day of hydrogen. Since, the electrolyzer efficiency assumed to be 50%

  4. Economics of producing hydrogen as transportation fuel using offshore wind energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Jyotirmay; Agarwal, Nalin; Swaroop, Rakesh; Shah, Nikhar

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few years, hydrogen has been recognized as a suitable substitute for present vehicular fuels. This paper covers the economic analysis of one of the most promising hydrogen production methods-using wind energy for producing hydrogen through electrolysis of seawater-with a concentration on the Indian transport sector. The analysis provides insights about several questions such as the advantages of offshore plants over coastal installations, economics of large wind-machine clusters, and comparison of cost of producing hydrogen with competing gasoline. Robustness of results has been checked by developing several scenarios such as fast/slow learning rates for wind systems for determining future trends. Results of this analysis show that use of hydrogen for transportation is not likely to be attractive before 2012, and that too with considerable learning in wind, electrolyzer and hydrogen storage technology

  5. Hydrogen from renewable energy: A pilot plant for thermal production and mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiorgis, L.; Santarelli, M.; Calì, M.

    In the mainframe of a research contract, a feasibility pre-design study of a hydrogen-fuelled Laboratory-Village has been carried out: the goals are the design and the simulation of a demonstration plant based on hydrogen as primary fuel. The hydrogen is produced by electrolysis, from electric power produced by a mix of hydroelectric and solar photovoltaic plants. The plant will be located in a small remote village in Valle d'Aosta (Italy). This country has large water availability from glaciers and mountains, so electricity production from fluent water hydroelectric plants is abundant and cheap. Therefore, the production of hydrogen during the night (instead of selling the electricity to the grid at very low prices) could become a good economic choice, and hydrogen could be a competitive local fuel in term of costs, if compared to oil or gas. The H 2 will be produced and stored, and used to feed a hydrogen vehicle and for thermal purposes (heating requirement of three buildings), allowing a real field test (Village-Laboratory). Due to the high level of pressure requested for H 2 storage on-board in the vehicle, the choice has been the experimental test of a prototype laboratory-scale high-pressure PEM electrolyzer: a test laboratory has been designed, to investigate the energy savings related to this technology. In the paper, the description of the dynamic simulation of the plant (developed with TRNSYS) together with a detailed design and an economic analysis (proving the technical and economical feasibility of the installation) has been carried out. Moreover, the design of the high-pressure PEM electrolyzer is described.

  6. Global status of hydrogen research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakeman, J.B.; Browning, D.J.

    2001-07-01

    This report surveys the global status of hydrogen research and identifies technological barriers to the implementation of a global hydrogen economy. It is concluded that there will be a 30 year transition phase to the full implementation of the hydrogen economy. In this period, hydrogen will be largely produced by the reformation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane. It will be necessary to ensure that any carbonaceous oxides (and other unwanted species) formed as by-products will be trapped and not released into the atmosphere. Following the transition phase, hydrogen should be largely produced from renewable energy sources using some form of water cracking, largely electrolysis. Target performances and costs are identified for key technologies. The status of hydrogen research in the UK is reviews and it is concluded that the UK does not have a strategy for the adoption of the hydrogen economy, nor does it have a coherent and co-ordinated research and development strategy addressing barriers to the hydrogen economy. Despite this fact, because of the long transition phase, it is still possible for the UK to formulate a coherent strategy and make a significant contribution to the global implementation of the hydrogen economy, as there are still unresolved technology issues. The report concludes with a number of recommendations. (Author)

  7. 77 FR 8254 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY... of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA''). EPA published a NODA, which included a request...

  8. 77 FR 19663 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS Program; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY... of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA''). EPA published a NODA, which included a request...

  9. Nuclear energy and its synergies with renewable energies; Le nucleaire dans ses synergies avec les renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, F. [CEA Saclay, DEN, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mermilliod, N. [CEA Grenoble, Dir. de la Recherche Technologique, 38 (France); Devezeaux De Lavergne, J.G. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Institut de tecchnico-economie des systemes energetiques I-tese, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Durand, S. [CEA Grenoble, European Institute of Technology -KIC InnoEnergy, 38 (France)

    2011-05-15

    France has the ambition to become a world leader in both nuclear industry and in renewable energies. 3 types of synergies between nuclear power and renewable energies are highlighted. First, nuclear power can be used as a low-carbon energy to produce the equipment required to renewable energy production for instance photovoltaic cells. Secondly, to benefit from the complementary features of both energies: continuous/intermittency of the production, centralized/local production. The future development of smart grids will help to do that. Thirdly, to use nuclear energy to produce massively hydrogen from water and synthetic fuels from biomass. (A.C.)

  10. 2010 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2011-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2010 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  11. 2013 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esterly, S.

    2014-12-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2013 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  12. 2011 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2012-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2011 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  13. Hydrogen transmission/storage with a metal hydride/organic slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W.; Rolfe, J.; McClaine, A. [Thermo Power Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Thermo Power Corporation has developed a new approach for the production, transmission, and storage of hydrogen. In this approach, a chemical hydride slurry is used as the hydrogen carrier and storage media. The slurry protects the hydride from unanticipated contact with moisture in the air and makes the hydride pumpable. At the point of storage and use, a chemical hydride/water reaction is used to produce high-purity hydrogen. An essential feature of this approach is the recovery and recycle of the spent hydride at centralized processing plants, resulting in an overall low cost for hydrogen. This approach has two clear benefits: it greatly improves energy transmission and storage characteristics of hydrogen as a fuel, and it produces the hydrogen carrier efficiently and economically from a low cost carbon source. The preliminary economic analysis of the process indicates that hydrogen can be produced for $3.85 per million Btu based on a carbon cost of $1.42 per million Btu and a plant sized to serve a million cars per day. This compares to current costs of approximately $9.00 per million Btu to produce hydrogen from $3.00 per million Btu natural gas, and $25 per million Btu to produce hydrogen by electrolysis from $0.05 per Kwh electricity. The present standard for production of hydrogen from renewable energy is photovoltaic-electrolysis at $100 to $150 per million Btu.

  14. Hydrogen - the fuel of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenwiesner, R.; Prosnan, J.

    2003-01-01

    Experts see hydrogen as the best possible long-term solution of the transport problem. Hydrogen as the fuel of the future should increase the competition amongst fuel suppliers and at the same time decrease the dependence of developed countries on oil import. Hydrogen can be produced from renewable sources - biomass, water, wind or solar energy. Hydrogen can be used as power source of mobile phones, computers, printers, television sets or even whole buildings. Hydrogen can be used as fuel for traditional combustion engines of cars but the system of mixing with air would have to be adjusted. For instance car producers like BMW or Hyundai have already started tests with hydrogen engines. These would then be much 'cleaner' then the traditional engines using diesel, petrol or natural gas. But rather then using hydrogen in traditional engines the experts consider fuel cells more perspective. According to company Shell Hydrogen first transformers would produce hydrogen using natural gas or other traditional fuels but this should decrease the volume of green-house-gasses by about 50 percent. In the opinion of company Shell the use of fuel cells would represent the most effective way of using minerals. Shell currently operates hydrogen filling stations on Island and in Tokyo, recently has opened a new one in Luxembourg and by the end of this month another one should open in Amsterdam. These plans are connected to a project of city busses run in cooperation of European Union and car producer Daimler Chrysler. (Authors)

  15. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocheleau, R.E.; Miller, E.; Misra, A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing energy provided by a renewable source to split water is one of the most ambitious long-term goals of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. One promising option to meet this goal is direct photoelectrolysis in which light absorbed by semiconductor-based photoelectrodes produces electrical power internally to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Under this program, direct solar-to-chemical conversion efficiencies as high as 7.8 % have been demonstrated using low-cost, amorphous-silicon-based photoelectrodes. Detailed loss analysis models indicate that solar-to-chemical conversion greater than 10% can be achieved with amorphous-silicon-based structures optimized for hydrogen production. In this report, the authors describe the continuing progress in the development of thin-film catalytic/protective coatings, results of outdoor testing, and efforts to develop high efficiency, stable prototype systems.

  16. A global survey of hydrogen energy research, development and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Banerjee, Abhijit

    2006-01-01

    Several factors have led to growing interest in a hydrogen energy economy, especially for transportation. A successful transition to a major role for hydrogen will require much greater cost-effectiveness, fueling infrastructure, consumer acceptance, and a strategy for its basis in renewable energy feedstocks. Despite modest attention to the need for a sustainable hydrogen energy system in several countries, in most cases in the short to mid term hydrogen will be produced from fossil fuels. This paper surveys the global status of hydrogen energy research and development (R and D) and public policy, along with the likely energy mix for making it. The current state of hydrogen energy R and D among auto, energy and fuel-cell companies is also briefly reviewed. Just two major auto companies and two nations have specific targets and timetables for hydrogen fuel cells or vehicle production, although the EU also has an aggressive, less specific strategy. Iceland and Brazil are the only nations where renewable energy feedstocks are envisioned as the major or sole future source of hydrogen. None of these plans, however, are very certain. Thus, serious questions about the sustainability of a hydrogen economy can be raised

  17. A novel endo-hydrogenase activity recycles hydrogen produced by nitrogen fixation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Ng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nitrogen (N(2 fixation also yields hydrogen (H(2 at 1:1 stoichiometric amounts. In aerobic diazotrophic (able to grow on N(2 as sole N-source bacteria, orthodox respiratory hupSL-encoded hydrogenase activity, associated with the cell membrane but facing the periplasm (exo-hydrogenase, has nevertheless been presumed responsible for recycling such endogenous hydrogen. METHODS AND FINDINGS: As shown here, for Azorhizobium caulinodans diazotrophic cultures open to the atmosphere, exo-hydrogenase activity is of no consequence to hydrogen recycling. In a bioinformatic analysis, a novel seven-gene A. caulinodans hyq cluster encoding an integral-membrane, group-4, Ni,Fe-hydrogenase with homology to respiratory complex I (NADH: quinone dehydrogenase was identified. By analogy, Hyq hydrogenase is also integral to the cell membrane, but its active site faces the cytoplasm (endo-hydrogenase. An A. caulinodans in-frame hyq operon deletion mutant, constructed by "crossover PCR", showed markedly decreased growth rates in diazotrophic cultures; normal growth was restored with added ammonium--as expected of an H(2-recycling mutant phenotype. Using A. caulinodans hyq merodiploid strains expressing beta-glucuronidase as promoter-reporter, the hyq operon proved strongly and specifically induced in diazotrophic culture; as well, hyq operon induction required the NIFA transcriptional activator. Therefore, the hyq operon is constituent of the nif regulon. CONCLUSIONS: Representative of aerobic N(2-fixing and H(2-recycling alpha-proteobacteria, A. caulinodans possesses two respiratory Ni,Fe-hydrogenases: HupSL exo-hydrogenase activity drives exogenous H(2 respiration, and Hyq endo-hydrogenase activity recycles endogenous H(2, specifically that produced by N(2 fixation. To benefit human civilization, H(2 has generated considerable interest as potential renewable energy source as its makings are ubiquitous and its combustion yields no greenhouse gases. As

  18. A novel endo-hydrogenase activity recycles hydrogen produced by nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Gordon; Tom, Curtis G S; Park, Angela S; Zenad, Lounis; Ludwig, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen (N(2)) fixation also yields hydrogen (H(2)) at 1:1 stoichiometric amounts. In aerobic diazotrophic (able to grow on N(2) as sole N-source) bacteria, orthodox respiratory hupSL-encoded hydrogenase activity, associated with the cell membrane but facing the periplasm (exo-hydrogenase), has nevertheless been presumed responsible for recycling such endogenous hydrogen. As shown here, for Azorhizobium caulinodans diazotrophic cultures open to the atmosphere, exo-hydrogenase activity is of no consequence to hydrogen recycling. In a bioinformatic analysis, a novel seven-gene A. caulinodans hyq cluster encoding an integral-membrane, group-4, Ni,Fe-hydrogenase with homology to respiratory complex I (NADH: quinone dehydrogenase) was identified. By analogy, Hyq hydrogenase is also integral to the cell membrane, but its active site faces the cytoplasm (endo-hydrogenase). An A. caulinodans in-frame hyq operon deletion mutant, constructed by "crossover PCR", showed markedly decreased growth rates in diazotrophic cultures; normal growth was restored with added ammonium--as expected of an H(2)-recycling mutant phenotype. Using A. caulinodans hyq merodiploid strains expressing beta-glucuronidase as promoter-reporter, the hyq operon proved strongly and specifically induced in diazotrophic culture; as well, hyq operon induction required the NIFA transcriptional activator. Therefore, the hyq operon is constituent of the nif regulon. Representative of aerobic N(2)-fixing and H(2)-recycling alpha-proteobacteria, A. caulinodans possesses two respiratory Ni,Fe-hydrogenases: HupSL exo-hydrogenase activity drives exogenous H(2) respiration, and Hyq endo-hydrogenase activity recycles endogenous H(2), specifically that produced by N(2) fixation. To benefit human civilization, H(2) has generated considerable interest as potential renewable energy source as its makings are ubiquitous and its combustion yields no greenhouse gases. As such, the reversible, group-4 Ni,Fe-hydrogenases, such

  19. 2012 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2013-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2012 provides facts and figures in a graphical format on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  20. Annex 15 of the IEA Hydrogen Implementing Agreement : Photobiological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblad, P. [Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)]|[International Energy Agency, Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    Task 15 of the Hydrogen Implementation Agreement of the International Energy Agency is to advance the science of biophotosynthesis of hydrogen, which is the biological production of hydrogen from water and sunlight using microalgal photosynthesis. A practical process for biophotolysis would result in an innovative biological source of sustainable and environmentally benign renewable energy source. Japan, Norway, Sweden and the United States initially committed to the project. Since then Canada, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom have joined. The current task is to produce hydrogen from both green algae and cyanobacteria with focus on early-stage applied research on biophotolysis processes with intermediate carbon dioxide fixation. Significant advances have also occurred in the scientific field of cyanobacterial biohydrogen. Cyanobacteria has enzymes that metabolise hydrogen. Photosynthetic cyanobacteria have simple nutritional requirements and can grow in air, water, or mineral salts with light as the only source of energy. This research will help provide the advances needed to achieve practical efficiencies and cost objectives of biological hydrogen production. tabs., figs.

  1. Hydrogen energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morovic, T.; Pilhar, R.; Witt, B.

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of different energy systems from the economic point of view has to be based on data showing all relevant costs incurred and benefits drawn by the society from the use of such energy systems, i.e. internal costs and benefits visible to the energy consumer as prices paid for power supplied, as well as external costs and benefits. External costs or benefits of energy systems cover among other items employment or wage standard effects, energy-induced environmental impacts, public expenditure for pollution abatement and mitigation of risks and effects of accidents, and the user costs connected with the exploitation of reserves, which are not rated high enough to really reflect and demonstrate the factor of depletion of non-renewable energy sources, as e.g. fossil reserves. Damage to the natural and social environment induced by anthropogenous air pollutants up to about 90% counts among external costs of energy conversion and utilisation. Such damage is considered to be the main factor of external energy costs, while the external benefits of energy systems currently are rated to be relatively unsignificant. This means that an internalisation of external costs would drive up current prices of non-renewable energy sources, which in turn would boost up the economics of renewable energy sources, and the hydrogen produced with their energy. Other advantages attributed to most of the renewable energy sources and to hydrogen energy systems are better environmental compatibility, and no user costs. (orig.) [de

  2. In vitro hydrogen production by glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A new in vitro enzymatic pathway for the generation of molecular hydrogen from glucose has been demonstrated. The reaction is based upon the oxidation of glucose by Thermoplasma acidophilum glucose dehydrogenase with the concomitant oxidation of NADPH by Pyrococcus furiosus hydrogenase. Stoichiometric yields of hydrogen were produced from glucose with continuous cofactor recycle. This simple system may provide a method for the biological production of hydrogen from renewable sources. In addition, the other product of this reaction, gluconic acid, is a high-value commodity chemical.

  3. Vision for a low-impact renewable energy future for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    The Clean Air Renewable Energy Coalition promotes the development of the renewable energy industry in Canada. The Coalition's vision for low-impact renewable energy focuses on green forms of electricity to provide not only light, heat and power, but to produce hydrogen fuel that could be used in fuel cell technologies. Low-impact renewable energy is a non-depleting resource with minimal environmental impacts. It includes wind energy, hydro energy, geothermal energy, biomass, tidal energy, and solar energy. The Coalition's goal is to have low-impact renewable energy account for at least 7 per cent of Canada's electricity production by 2010, and 15 per cent by 2020. It is currently at 1 per cent. This goal can be achieved by: defining a comprehensive renewable energy vision for Canada; setting long term targets for renewable energy in Canada; committing to a package of long term incentives; developing partnerships between all levels of government to increase financial investments in renewable energy projects; and, recognizing the potential for renewable energy in a carbon-constrained economy. refs., tabs

  4. Cyclic thermochemical process for producing hydrogen using cerium-titanium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, C.E.

    A thermochemical cyclic process for producing hydrogen employs the reaction between ceric oxide and titanium dioxide to form cerium titanate and oxygen. The titanate is treated with an alkali metal hydroxide to give hydrogen, ceric oxide, an alkali metal titanate and water. Alkali metal titanate and water are boiled to give titanium dioxide which, along with ceric oxide, is recycled.

  5. Timeline of bio-hydrogen production by anaerobic digestion of biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette E. TELEKY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion of biomass is a process capable to produce biohydrogen, a clean source of alternative energy. Lignocellulosic biomass from agricultural waste is considered a renewable energy source; therefore its utilization also contributes to the reduction of water, soil and air pollution. The study consists in five consecutive experiments designed to utilize anaerobic bacterial enrichment cultures originating from the Hungarian Lake, Hévíz. Wheat straw was used as complex substrate to produce hydrogen. The timeline evolution of hydrogen production was analyzed and modelled by two functions: Logistic and Boltzmann. The results proved that hydrogen production is significant, with a maximum of 0.24 mlN/ml and the highest hydrogen production occurs between the days 4-10 of the experiment.

  6. The US department of energy programme on hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paster, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Clean forms of energy are needed to support sustainable global economic growth while mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and impacts on air quality. To address these challenges, the U.S. President's National Energy Policy and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Strategic Plan call for expanding the development of diverse domestic energy supplies. Working with industry, the Department developed a national vision for moving toward a hydrogen economy - a solution that holds the potential to provide sustainable clean, safe, secure, affordable, and reliable energy. In February 2003, President George W. Bush announced a new Hydrogen Fuel Initiative to achieve this vision. To realize this vision, the U.S. must develop and demonstrate advanced technologies for hydrogen production, delivery, storage, conversion, and applications. Toward this end, the DOE has worked with public and private organizations to develop a National Hydrogen Energy Technology Road-map. The Road-map identifies the technological research, development, and demonstration steps required to make a successful transition to a hydrogen economy. One of the advantages of hydrogen is that it can utilize a variety of feedstocks and a variety of production technologies. Feedstock options include fossil resources such as coal, natural gas, and oil, and non-fossil resources such as biomass and water. Production technologies include thermochemical, biological, electrolytic and photolytic processes. Energy needed for these processes can be supplied through fossil, renewable, or nuclear sources. Hydrogen can be produced in large central facilities and distributed to its point of use or it can be produced in a distributed manner in small volumes at the point of use such as a refueling station or stationary power facility. In the shorter term, distributed production will play an important role in initiating the use of hydrogen due to its lower capital investment. In the longer term, it is likely that centralized

  7. Chemical storage of wind energy by renewable methanol production: Feasibility analysis using a multi-criteria decision matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzen, Michael; Alhajji, Mahdi; Demirel, Yaşar

    2015-01-01

    This study is for the technoeconomic analysis of an integral facility consisting of wind energy-based electrolytic hydrogen production, bioethanol-based carbon dioxide capture and compression, and direct methanol synthesis. ASPEN Plus was used to simulate the facility producing 97.01 mt (metric tons) methanol/day using 138.37 mt CO_2/day and 18.56 mt H_2/day. A discounted cash flow diagram for the integral facility is used for the economic analysis at various hydrogen production costs and methanol selling prices. The feasibility analysis is based on a multi-criteria decision matrix consisting of economic and sustainability indicators comparing renewable and non-renewable methanol productions. The overall energy efficiency for the renewable methanol is around 58%. Fixation of carbon reduces the CO_2 equivalent emission by around −1.05 CO_2e/kg methanol. The electrolytic hydrogen production cost is the largest contributor to the economics of the integral facility. The feasibility analysis based on multi-criteria shows that renewable methanol production may be feasible. - Highlights: • We simulate renewable methanol production from wind-based hydrogen and CO_2_. • Methanol production can fix 1.05 kg CO_2/kg methanol with an energy efficiency of 58%. • Economic and sustainability metrics are estimated for the integral facility. • We introduce a decision matrix with both economic and sustainability indicators. • Renewable methanol may be feasible versus conventional fossil fuel-based methanol.

  8. The organellar genome and metabolic potential of the hydrogen- producing mitochondrion of Nyctotherus ovalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.P. Hackstein (Johannes); C. Burgtorf; B.E. Dutilh (Bas); I. Duarte (Isabel); G.W.M. van der Staay (Georg); R.M. de Graaf (Rob); J.W.P. Kuiper (Jan); M. Huynen (Martijn); T.A. van Alen (Theo); G. Ricard (Guenola); A.G.M. Tielens (Aloysius)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract It is generally accepted that hydrogenosomes (hydrogen-producing organelles) evolved from a mitochondrial ancestor. However, until recently, only indirect evidence for this hypothesis was available. Here, we present the almost complete genome of the hydrogen-producing

  9. Hydrogen from catalytic reforming of biomass-derived hydrocarbons in liquid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortright, R. D.; Davda, R. R.; Dumesic, J. A.

    2002-08-01

    Concerns about the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and the pollution caused by continuously increasing energy demands make hydrogen an attractive alternative energy source. Hydrogen is currently derived from nonrenewable natural gas and petroleum, but could in principle be generated from renewable resources such as biomass or water. However, efficient hydrogen production from water remains difficult and technologies for generating hydrogen from biomass, such as enzymatic decomposition of sugars, steam-reforming of bio-oils and gasification, suffer from low hydrogen production rates and/or complex processing requirements. Here we demonstrate that hydrogen can be produced from sugars and alcohols at temperatures near 500K in a single-reactor aqueous-phase reforming process using a platinum-based catalyst. We are able to convert glucose-which makes up the major energy reserves in plants and animals-to hydrogen and gaseous alkanes, with hydrogen constituting 50% of the products. We find that the selectivity for hydrogen production increases when we use molecules that are more reduced than sugars, with ethylene glycol and methanol being almost completely converted into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. These findings suggest that catalytic aqueous-phase reforming might prove useful for the generation of hydrogen-rich fuel gas from carbohydrates extracted from renewable biomass and biomass waste streams.

  10. [Hydrogen systems analysis, education, and outreach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-01-01

    This paper illustrates a search of web sites on the keyword, Hydrogen, and a second search combining keywords, Hydrogen and Renewable Energy. Names, addresses, and E-mail addresses or web site URLs are given for a number of companies and government or commercial organizations dealing with hydrogen fuel cells. Finally, brief summaries are given on hydrogen research projects at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  11. Control of microbially generated hydrogen sulfide in produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, E.D.; Vance, I.; Gammack, G.F.; Duncan, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    Production of hydrogen sulfide in produced waters due to the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a potentially serious problem. The hydrogen sulfide is not only a safety and environmental concern, it also contributes to corrosion, solids formation, a reduction in produced oil and gas values, and limitations on water discharge. Waters produced from seawater-flooded reservoirs typically contain all of the nutrients required to support SRB metabolism. Surface processing facilities provide a favorable environment in which SRB flourish, converting water-borne nutrients into biomass and H{sub 2}S. This paper will present results from a field trial in which a new technology for the biochemical control of SRB metabolism was successfully applied. A slip stream of water downstream of separators on a produced water handling facility was routed through a bioreactor in a side-steam device where microbial growth was allowed to develop fully. This slip stream was then treated with slug doses of two forms of a proprietary, nonbiocidal metabolic modifier. Results indicated that H{sub 2}S production was halted almost immediately and that the residual effect of the treatment lasted for well over one week.

  12. Why hydrogen; Pourquoi l'hydrogene?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-02-01

    The energy consumption increase and the associated environmental risks, led to develop new energy sources. The authors present the potentialities of the hydrogen in this context of energy supply safety. They detail the today market and the perspectives, the energy sources for the hydrogen production (fossils, nuclear and renewable), the hydrogen transport, storage, distribution and conversion, the application domains, the associated risks. (A.L.B.)

  13. Well-To-Wheel Analysis of Solar Produced Hydrogen for Future Transportation Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remo Felder; Anton Meier

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen production, transport, and usage in future passenger car transportation systems is compared for selected solar and conventional hydrogen production technologies using a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Solar scenarios show distinctly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than fossil-based scenarios. For example, using solar produced hydrogen in fuel cell cars reduces life cycle GHG emissions by 75% compared to advanced gasoline vehicles and by more than 90% if car and road infrastructure are not considered. Utilization of solar produced hydrogen has the potential of reducing fossil energy requirements by a factor of up to 10 compared to conventional technologies. Environmental impacts are associated with the construction of the steel-intensive infrastructure for concentrating solar power plants due to mineral and fossil resource consumption as well as discharge of pollutants related to today's non-sustainable steel production technology. (authors)

  14. Well-To-Wheel Analysis of Solar Produced Hydrogen for Future Transportation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remo Felder; Anton Meier [Solar Technology Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    Hydrogen production, transport, and usage in future passenger car transportation systems is compared for selected solar and conventional hydrogen production technologies using a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Solar scenarios show distinctly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than fossil-based scenarios. For example, using solar produced hydrogen in fuel cell cars reduces life cycle GHG emissions by 75% compared to advanced gasoline vehicles and by more than 90% if car and road infrastructure are not considered. Utilization of solar produced hydrogen has the potential of reducing fossil energy requirements by a factor of up to 10 compared to conventional technologies. Environmental impacts are associated with the construction of the steel-intensive infrastructure for concentrating solar power plants due to mineral and fossil resource consumption as well as discharge of pollutants related to today's non-sustainable steel production technology. (authors)

  15. Multiscale Mathematics for Biomass Conversion to Renewable Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plechac, Petr [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Vlachos, Dionisios [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Katsoulakis, Markos [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics

    2013-09-05

    The overall objective of this project is to develop multiscale models for understanding and eventually designing complex processes for renewables. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first attempt at modeling complex reacting systems, whose performance relies on underlying multiscale mathematics. Our specific application lies at the heart of biofuels initiatives of DOE and entails modeling of catalytic systems, to enable economic, environmentally benign, and efficient conversion of biomass into either hydrogen or valuable chemicals. Specific goals include: (i) Development of rigorous spatio-temporal coarse-grained kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) mathematics and simulation for microscopic processes encountered in biomass transformation. (ii) Development of hybrid multiscale simulation that links stochastic simulation to a deterministic partial differential equation (PDE) model for an entire reactor. (iii) Development of hybrid multiscale simulation that links KMC simulation with quantum density functional theory (DFT) calculations. (iv) Development of parallelization of models of (i)-(iii) to take advantage of Petaflop computing and enable real world applications of complex, multiscale models. In this NCE period, we continued addressing these objectives and completed the proposed work. Main initiatives, key results, and activities are outlined.

  16. Cost estimation of hydrogen and DME produced by nuclear heat utilization system. Joint research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Yasuaki; Nishihara, Tetsuo

    2003-09-01

    Research of hydrogen energy has been performed in order to spread use of the hydrogen energy in 2020 or 2030. It will take, however, many years for the hydrogen energy to be used very easily like gasoline, diesel oil and city gas in all of countries. During the periods, low CO 2 release liquid fuels would be used together with hydrogen. Recently, di-methyl-either (DME) has been noticed as one of the substitute liquid fuels of petroleum. Such liquid fuels can be produced from the mixed gas such as hydrogen and carbon oxide which are produced by steam reforming hydrogen generation system by the use of nuclear heat. Therefore, the system would be one of the candidates of future system of nuclear heat utilization. In the present study, we focused on the production of hydrogen and DME. Economic evaluation was estimated for hydrogen and DME production in commercial and nuclear heat utilization plant. At first, heat and mass balance of each process in commercial plant of hydrogen production was estimated and commercial prices of each process were derived. Then, price was estimated when nuclear heat was used instead of required heat of commercial plant. Results showed that the production prices produced by nuclear heat were cheaper by 10% for hydrogen and 3% for DME. With the consideration of reduction effect of CO 2 release, utilization of nuclear heat would be more effective. (author)

  17. Quantitative Tools for Dissection of Hydrogen-Producing Metabolic Networks-Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Dismukes, G.Charles.; Rabitz, Herschel A.; Amador-Noguez, Daniel

    2012-10-19

    During this project we have pioneered the development of integrated experimental-computational technologies for the quantitative dissection of metabolism in hydrogen and biofuel producing microorganisms (i.e. C. acetobutylicum and various cyanobacteria species). The application of these new methodologies resulted in many significant advances in the understanding of the metabolic networks and metabolism of these organisms, and has provided new strategies to enhance their hydrogen or biofuel producing capabilities. As an example, using mass spectrometry, isotope tracers, and quantitative flux-modeling we mapped the metabolic network structure in C. acetobutylicum. This resulted in a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of central carbon metabolism that could not have been obtained using genomic data alone. We discovered that biofuel production in this bacterium, which only occurs during stationary phase, requires a global remodeling of central metabolism (involving large changes in metabolite concentrations and fluxes) that has the effect of redirecting resources (carbon and reducing power) from biomass production into solvent production. This new holistic, quantitative understanding of metabolism is now being used as the basis for metabolic engineering strategies to improve solvent production in this bacterium. In another example, making use of newly developed technologies for monitoring hydrogen and NAD(P)H levels in vivo, we dissected the metabolic pathways for photobiological hydrogen production by cyanobacteria Cyanothece sp. This investigation led to the identification of multiple targets for improving hydrogen production. Importantly, the quantitative tools and approaches that we have developed are broadly applicable and we are now using them to investigate other important biofuel producers, such as cellulolytic bacteria.

  18. Production of hydrogen from bio-ethanol in catalytic membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gernot, E.; Aupretre, F.; Deschamps, A.; Etievant, C.; Epron, F.; Marecot, P.; Duprez, D.

    2006-01-01

    Production of hydrogen from renewable energy sources offers a great potential for CO 2 emission reduction, responsible for global warming. Among renewable energies, liquid biofuels are very convenient hydrogen carriers for decentralized applications such as micro-cogeneration and transports. Ethanol, produced from sugar plants and cereals, allows a reduction of more than 60% of CO 2 emissions in comparison to gasoline. BIOSTAR is an R and D project, co-funded by the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) which aims at developing an efficient source of hydrogen from bio-ethanol, suitable for proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems. The objectives are to obtain, through catalytic process at medium temperature range, an efficient conversion of bio-ethanol into pure hydrogen directly usable for PEMFC. CETH has developed a catalytic membrane reformer (CMR), based on a patented technology, integrating a steam reforming catalyst as well as a combustion catalyst. Both catalysts have been developed and optimized for membrane reactor in partnership with the University of Poitiers. The composite metallic membrane developed by CETH allows hydrogen extraction near the hydrogen production sites, which enhances both efficiency and compactness. (authors)

  19. Enrichment of the hydrogen-producing microbial community from marine intertidal sludge by different pretreatment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongyan [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road, Shinan District, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); College of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Wang, Guangce [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road, Shinan District, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); College of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Zhu, Daling; Pan, Guanghua [College of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2009-12-15

    To determine the effects of pretreatment on hydrogen production and the hydrogen-producing microbial community, we treated the sludge from the intertidal zone of a bathing beach in Tianjin with four different pretreatment methods, including acid treatment, heat-shock, base treatment as well as freezing and thawing. The results showed that acid pretreatment significantly promoted the hydrogen production by sludge and provided the highest efficiency of hydrogen production among the four methods. The efficiency of the hydrogen production of the acid-pretreated sludge was 0.86 {+-} 0.07 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose (mean {+-} S.E.), whereas that of the sludge treated with heat-shock, freezing and thawing, base method and control was 0.41 {+-} 0.03 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose, 0.17 {+-} 0.01 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose, 0.11 {+-} 0.01 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose and 0.20 {+-} 0.04 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose, respectively. The result of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that pretreatment methods altered the composition of the microbial community that accounts for hydrogen production. Acid and heat pretreatments were favorable to enrich the dominant hydrogen-producing bacterium, i.e. Clostridium sp., Enterococcus sp. and Bacillus sp. However, besides hydrogen-producing bacteria, much non-hydrogen-producing Lactobacillus sp. was also found in the sludge pretreated with base, freezing and thawing methods. Therefore, based on our results, we concluded that, among the four pretreatment methods using acid, heat-shock, base or freezing and thawing, acid pretreatment was the most effective method for promoting hydrogen production of microbial community. (author)

  20. Overview of the Modified SI Cycle to Produce Nuclear Hydrogen Coupled to VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Youngjoon; Lee, Taehoon; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Minhwan

    2016-01-01

    The steam reforming of methane is one of hydrogen production processes that rely on cheap fossil feedstocks. An overview of the VHTR-based nuclear hydrogen production process with the modified SI cycle has been carried out to establish whether it can be adopted as a feasible technology to produce nuclear hydrogen

  1. Biological fermentative hydrogen production from olive pulp at 35 degrees C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutrouli, E.C.; Gavala, H.N.; Skiadas, I.V.; Lyberatos, G. [Patras Univ., Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2004-07-01

    In response to energy security and environmental concerns, there is renewed interest in the use of hydrogen gas as a renewable energy source. However, many processes for generating hydrogen are extremely energy intensive and costly. This study focused on biological production of hydrogen from wastewater or other biomass. Photosynthetic and fermentation processes were outlined, but the main focus of this paper was on continuous anaerobic fermentation of low cost substrates such as olive pulp at 35 degrees C. This process is linked to the acidogenic stage of anaerobic digestion where carbohydrates are the preferred carbon source. Volatile fatty acids and alcohols are produced simultaneously with the hydrogen gas. An added advantage is that the effluent from the fermentation process can be further used by methanogenesis due to its rich organic acids content. Batch experiments with olive pulp resulted in 2.5 mmole of hydrogen per gram of total carbohydrates. It was noted that more research is required to maximize hydrogen production in a continuous process. It was suggested that hydrogen production could be optimized through hydrolysis of the non-soluble carbohydrates. This could be accomplished through physicochemical or biological pretreatments. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  2. Hydrogen generation from water using Mg nanopowder produced by arc plasma method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Uda, Hideo Okuyama, Tohru S Suzuki and Yoshio Sakka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report that hydrogen gas can be easily produced from water at room temperature using a Mg nanopowder (30–1000 nm particles, average diameter 265 nm. The Mg nanopowder was produced by dc arc melting of a Mg ingot in a chamber with mixed-gas atmosphere (20% N2–80% Ar at 0.1 MPa using custom-built nanopowder production equipment. The Mg nanopowder was passivated with a gas mixture of 1% O2 in Ar for 12 h in the final step of the synthesis, after which the nanopowder could be safely handled in ambient air. The nanopowder vigorously reacted with water at room temperature, producing 110 ml of hydrogen gas per 1 g of powder in 600 s. This amount corresponds to 11% of the hydrogen that could be generated by the stoichiometric reaction between Mg and water. Mg(OH2 flakes formed on the surface of the Mg particles as a result of this reaction. They easily peeled off, and the generation of hydrogen continued until all the Mg was consumed.

  3. Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol. Update 2010. Methodology for the calculation and recording of the amounts of energy produced from renewable sources in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Te Buck, S.; Van Keulen, B.; Bosselaar, L.; Gerlagh, T.; Skelton, T.

    2010-07-15

    This is the fifth, updated edition of the Dutch Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol. The protocol, compiled on behalf of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, can be considered as a policy document that provides a uniform calculation method for determining the amount of energy produced in the Netherlands in a renewable manner. Because all governments and organisations use the calculation methods described in this protocol, this makes it possible to monitor developments in this field well and consistently. The introduction of this protocol outlines the history and describes its set-up, validity and relationship with other similar documents and agreements. The Dutch Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol is compiled by NL Agency, and all relevant parties were given the chance to provide input. This has been incorporated as far as is possible. Statistics Netherlands (CBS) uses this protocol to calculate the amount of renewable energy produced in the Netherlands. These data are then used by the Ministry of Economic Affairs to gauge the realisation of policy objectives. In June 2009 the European Directive for energy from renewable sources was published with renewable energy targets for the Netherlands. This directive used a different calculation method - the gross energy end-use method - whilst the Dutch definition is based on the so-called substitution method. NL Agency was asked to add the calculation according to the gross end use method, although this is not clearly defined on a number of points. In describing the method, the unanswered questions become clear, as do, for example, the points the Netherlands should bring up in international discussions.

  4. Wind in the future hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, P.

    2006-01-01

    Converting to a hydrogen economy will only be sustainable and have a positive impact on the environment if the fuel source for the hydrogen production is from a renewable or GHG free fuel source. Wind energy is of particular interest as a potential energy source for hydrogen production. It is modular, abundant and competitive and is far from fully exploited around the globe. Transmission constraints are however the current bottle neck to fully exploiting this resource. Producing electrolytic hydrogen from wind energy in transmission constraint areas will allow for better utilization of the available wind energy and transmission resources. The type of hydrogen storage and transportation option chosen and the size of the facilities will be the crucial factors in determining the relative cost competitiveness of a wind / hydrogen facility verses traditional hydrogen production from fossil fuels. With fossil fuel prices at record highs and the traditional demand for hydrogen growing (oil refining, ammonia production) and the fact that the world has entered a GHG constraint era the need to explore large scale wind / hydrogen production facilities has never been more urgent. (author)

  5. Alternative, Renewable and Novel Feedstocks for Producing Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-07-01

    Vision2020 and ITP directed the Alternative, Renewable and Novel Feedstocks project to identify industrial options and to determine the work required to make alternative, renewable and novel feedstock options attractive to the U.S. chemicals industry. This report presents the Alternative, Renewable and Novel Feedstocks project findings which were based on a technology review and industry workshop.

  6. Strategy for a sustainable development in the UAE through hydrogen energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazim, Ayoub [Dubai Knowledge Village, P.O. Box 73000 Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2010-10-15

    Recently, it has been reported that United Arab Emirates is considered one of the highest energy consumers per capita in the world. Consequently, environmental pollution and carbon emission has been a major challenge facing the country over the past several years due to unprecedented high economic growth rate and abnormal population increase. Utilization of hydrogen energy to fulfill UAE's energy needs would be one of the key measures that the country could undertake to achieve a sustainable development and without any major environmental consequences. Hydrogen energy, which is an energy carrier, is consider by many scientists and researchers a major player in fulfilling the global energy demand due to its attractive features such as being environmentally clean, storable, transportable and inexhaustible. It can be used as a fuel in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, which is an electrochemical device that generates electric power and it can be utilized in various applications. Production of hydrogen energy can be carried out either through utilizing conventional resources or by renewable resources. Conventional resources such as crude oil and natural gas can produce hydrogen by steam-reformation while hydrogen can be produced from coal through gasification. On the other hand, hydrogen production through renewable resources can be achieved through biomass gasification, solar-hydrogen, wind-hydrogen and hydropower electrolysis process. Other renewable resources such as geothermal, wave, tidal and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) can also contribute into hydrogen production but at a marginal level. In this report, a roadmap to achieve a sustainable development in the UAE through utilization of hydrogen energy is presented. The report highlights the potentials of energy resources that the country possesses with respect to both conventional and non-conventional energy and determines major resources that could significantly contribute to production

  7. High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Katherine [Proton OnSite; Dalton, Luke [Proton OnSite; Roemer, Andy [Proton OnSite; Carter, Blake [Proton OnSite; Niedzwiecki, Mike [Proton OnSite; Manco, Judith [Proton OnSite; Anderson, Everett [Proton OnSite; Capuano, Chris [Proton OnSite; Wang, Chao-Yang [Penn State University; Zhao, Wei [Penn State University

    2014-02-05

    Renewable hydrogen from proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis is gaining strong interest in Europe, especially in Germany where wind penetration is already at critical levels for grid stability. For this application as well as biogas conversion and vehicle fueling, megawatt (MW) scale electrolysis is required. Proton has established a technology roadmap to achieve the necessary cost reductions and manufacturing scale up to maintain U.S. competitiveness in these markets. This project represents a highly successful example of the potential for cost reduction in PEM electrolysis, and provides the initial stack design and manufacturing development for Proton’s MW scale product launch. The majority of the program focused on the bipolar assembly, from electrochemical modeling to subscale stack development through prototyping and manufacturing qualification for a large active area cell platform. Feasibility for an advanced membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with 50% reduction in catalyst loading was also demonstrated. Based on the progress in this program and other parallel efforts, H2A analysis shows the status of PEM electrolysis technology dropping below $3.50/kg production costs, exceeding the 2015 target.

  8. Genomics and transcriptomics of the hydrogen producing extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaart, M.R.A.

    2010-01-01

    As fossil fuels are depleting, there is a clear need for alternative sustainable fuel sources. One of the interesting alternatives is hydrogen, which can be produced from biomass by bacteria and archaea. To make the application feasible, organisms are needed which have high hydrogen productivities

  9. A novel method for producing magnesium based hydrogen storage alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, A.; Matthews, J.; Barlow, R.; Almamouri, M.M.; Speight, J.D.; Harris, I.R.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional melt casting techniques for producing Mg 2 Ni often result in no stoichiometric compositions due to the excess Mg which is added to the melt in order to counterbalance sublimation during processing. In this work a vapour phase process known as Low Pressure Pack Sublimation (LPPS) has been used to coat Ni substrates with Mg at 460-600 o C producing layers of single phase Mg 2 Ni. Ni substrates coated to date include powder, foils and wire. Using Ni-Fe substrates it has also been demonstrated that Fe can be distributed through the Mg 2 Ni alloy layer which could have a beneficial effect on the hydrogen storage characteristics. The alloy layers formed have been characterised by XRD and SEM equipped with EDX analysis. Hydrogen storage properties have been evaluated using an Intelligent Gravimetric Analyser (IGA). LPPS avoids most of the sintering of powder particles during processing which is observed in other vapour phase techniques while producing a stoichiometric composition of Mg 2 Ni. It is also a simple, low cost technique for producing these alloys. (author)

  10. Efficiency analysis for the production of modern energy carriers from renewable resources and wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ptasinski, K.J.; Tiezzi, E.; Marques, J.C.; Brebbia, C.A.; Jorgensen, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Two global problems related to the use of fossil fuels are fast depletion and environmental damage. Biomass has a great potential as a clean renewable feedstock for producing modern energy carriers such as biodiesel, methanol, and hydrogen. However, the use of biomass is accompanied by possible

  11. Hydrogen: energy transition under way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franc, Pierre-Etienne; Mateo, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Written by a representative of Air Liquide with the help of a free lance journalist, this book proposes an overview of the technological developments for the use of hydrogen as a clean energy with its ability to store primary energy (notably that produced by renewable sources), and its capacity of energy restitution in combination with a fuel cell with many different applications (notably mobility-related applications). The authors outline that these developments are very important in a context of energy transition. They also outline what is left to be done, notably economically and financially, for hydrogen to play its role in the energy revolution which is now under way

  12. Hycom Pre - Feasibility study. Final report[Hydrogen communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacobazzi, A; Mario, F di [ENEA, (Italy); Hasenauer, U [Fraunhofer IS, (Germany); Joergensen, B H; Bromand Noergaard, P [Risoe National Lab., (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    The Quick-start Programme of the European Union Initiative for Growth identifies the hydrogen economy as one of the key areas for investment in the medium term (2004-2015). In this context the HyCOM (Hydrogen Communities) programme has been initiated. The main goal of this programme is the creation of a limited number of strategically sited stand-alone hydrogen communities producing hydrogen from various primary sources (mostly renewables) and using it for heat and electricity production and as fuel for vehicles. This report looks at the establishment of such hydrogen communities, analysing the main technical, economic, social, and environmental aspects as well as financial and regulatory barriers associated with the creation and operation of hydrogen communities. It also proposes a number of concepts for Hydrogen Communities and criteria with which a Hydrogen Community should be evaluated. The study is not in any way intended to be prescriptive. (ln)

  13. Assessment of hydrogen storage systems as a means of integrating electricity from renewable energies; Bewertung von Wasserstoffspeichersystemen zur Integration von Strom aus erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelis, Julia; Genoese, Fabio; Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Hydrogen storage is a possible option for an improved integration of renewable energies into the electricity supply system. Similarly to other technical storage options it is faced with the challenge of having to be economically viable. Compared with other storage media hydrogen has the virtue of being versatile. This has a significant impact on assessments of its profitability.

  14. Renewable Bio-Solar Hydrogen Production: The Second Generation (Part B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-20

    SUBJECT TERMS Biohydrogen, biofuels, cyanobacteria, photosynthesis, fermentation , transcription profiling, metabolic engineering, TCA cycle...transcription regulators, including RbcR, Fur, and ChlR, were identified and characterized, and a global model of the transcription network was...enhance hydrogen production. These data have recently been analyzed to produce a global transcription network model for this cyanobacterium [17]. At

  15. 1999 annual summary report on results. International clean energy network using hydrogen conversion (WE-NET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The R and D were conducted on the international clean network (WE-NET) which aims at producing hydrogen by using renewable energy, converting it in a form suitable for transportation and supplying the hydrogen to places of quantity consumption of energy. The FY 1999 results were summed up. In the system evaluation, study was made on sodium carbonate electrolysis by-producing hydrogen, the supply amount by coke oven by-producing hydrogen and the economical efficiency, etc. As to the safety, study was made on the design of hydrogen supply stand model. Concerning the power generation technology, study was conducted on element technologies of injection valve, exhaust gas condenser, gas/liquid separator, etc. Relating to the hydrogen fueled vehicle system, the shock destructive testing, etc. were conducted on the hydrogen tank and hydrogen storage alloys. Besides, a lot of R and D were carried out of pure water use solid polymer fuel cells, hydrogen stand, hydrogen production technology, hydrogen transportation/storage technology, low temperature materials, transportation/storage using hydrogen storage alloys, innovative advanced technology, etc. (NEDO)

  16. Renewable hydrocarbons for jet fuels from biomass and plastics via microwave-induced pyrolysis and hydrogenation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuesong

    This dissertation aims to enhance the production of aromatic hydrocarbons in the catalytic microwave-induced pyrolysis, and maximize the production of renewable cycloalkanes for jet fuels in the hydrogenation process. In the process, ZSM-5 catalyst as the highly efficient catalyst was employed for catalyzing the pyrolytic volatiles from thermal decomposition of cellulose (a model compound of lignocellulosic biomass). A central composite experiment design (CCD) was used to optimize the product yields as a function of independent factors (e.g. catalytic temperature and catalyst to feed mass ratio). The low-density polyethylene (a mode compound of waste plastics) was then carried out in the catalytic microwave-induced pyrolysis in the presence of ZSM-5 catalyst. Thereafter, the catalytic microwave-induced co-pyrolysis of cellulose with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was conducted over ZSM-5 catalyst. The results showed that the production of aromatic hydrocarbons was significantly enhanced and the coke formation was also considerably reduced comparing with the catalytic microwave pyrolysis of cellulose or LDPE alone. Moreover, practical lignocellulosic biomass (Douglas fir sawdust pellets) was converted into aromatics-enriched bio-oil by catalytic microwave pyrolysis. The bio-oil was subsequently hydrogenated by using the Raney Ni catalyst. A liquid-liquid extraction step was implemented to recover the liquid organics and remove the water content. Over 20% carbon yield of liquid product regarding lignocellulosic biomass was obtained. Up to 90% selectivity in the liquid product belongs to jet fuel range cycloalkanes. As the integrated processes was developed, catalytic microwave pyrolysis of cellulose with LDPE was conducted to improve aromatic production. After the liquid-liquid extraction by the optimal solvent (n-heptane), over 40% carbon yield of hydrogenated organics based on cellulose and LDPE were achieved in the hydrogenation process. As such, real

  17. A Game Theoretical Approach Based Bidding Strategy Optimization for Power Producers in Power Markets with Renewable Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a competitive electricity market with substantial involvement of renewable electricity, maximizing profits by optimizing bidding strategies is crucial to different power producers including conventional power plants and renewable ones. This paper proposes a game-theoretic bidding optimization method based on bi-level programming, where power producers are at the upper level and utility companies are at the lower level. The competition among the multiple power producers is formulated as a non-cooperative game in which bidding curves are their strategies, while uniform clearing pricing is considered for utility companies represented by an independent system operator. Consequently, based on the formulated game model, the bidding strategies for power producers are optimized for the day-ahead market and the intraday market with considering the properties of renewable energy; and the clearing pricing for the utility companies, with respect to the power quantity from different power producers, is optimized simultaneously. Furthermore, a distributed algorithm is provided to search the solution of the generalized Nash equilibrium. Finally, simulation results were performed and discussed to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed non-cooperative game-based bi-level optimization approach.

  18. Renewable Energy and Hydrogen System Concepts for Remote Communities in the West Nordic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulleberg, Oeystein; Moerkved, Andreas

    2008-02-25

    In 2003 the Nordic Council of Ministers granted the funding for the first of several studies on renewable energy and hydrogen (RE/H2) energy systems for remote communities in the West Nordic region. The objective with this report is to summarize the main findings from Phase II and III of the West Nordic project. The island Nolsoy, Faroe Islands, was selected as a case study. The main conclusion is that it makes sense to design a wind/diesel-system with thermal storage, both from a techno-economical and environmental point of view. Such systems can have close to 100% local utilization of the wind energy, and can cover up to 75% of the total annual electricity demand and 35% of the annual heat demand at a cost of energy around 0.07 - 0.09 euro/kWh. The introduction of a hydrogen system is technically feasible, but doubles the overall investment costs

  19. Nuclear-produced hydrogen by a thermochemical Cu-Cl plant for passenger hydrogen trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, G.; Naterer, G.; Gabriel, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares the technical and economic aspects of electrification of a passenger-train operation in Ontario Canada, versus operation with hydrogen trains using nuclear-produced hydrogen. A local GO Transit diesel operation in Ontario has considered electrification as an alternative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of passenger trains in the Toronto area. Hydrogen production from nuclear energy via a thermo-chemical Copper-Chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle for train operation is shown to have lower emissions than direct electrification. It significantly reduces the greenhouse gas emissions compared to diesel operation. A bench-mark reference case used for the nuclear thermo-chemical Cu-Cl cycle is the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) cycle, under investigation in the USA, Japan, and France, among others. The comparative study in this paper considers a base case of diesel operated passenger trains, within the context of a benefits case analysis for train electrification, for GO Transit operations in Toronto, and the impact of each cost component is discussed. The cost analysis includes projected prices of fuel cell trains, with reference to studies performed by train operators. (author)

  20. Seasonal storage and alternative carriers: A flexible hydrogen supply chain model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuß, M.; Grube, T.; Robinius, M.; Preuster, P.; Wasserscheid, P.; Stolten, D.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Techno-economic model of future hydrogen supply chains. •Implementation of liquid organic hydrogen carriers into a hydrogen mobility analysis. •Consideration of large-scale seasonal storage for fluctuating renewable hydrogen production. •Implementation of different technologies for hydrogen storage and transportation. -- Abstract: A viable hydrogen infrastructure is one of the main challenges for fuel cells in mobile applications. Several studies have investigated the most cost-efficient hydrogen supply chain structure, with a focus on hydrogen transportation. However, supply chain models based on hydrogen produced by electrolysis require additional seasonal hydrogen storage capacity to close the gap between fluctuation in renewable generation from surplus electricity and fuelling station demand. To address this issue, we developed a model that draws on and extends approaches in the literature with respect to long-term storage. Thus, we analyse Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHC) and show their potential impact on future hydrogen mobility. We demonstrate that LOHC-based pathways are highly promising especially for smaller-scale hydrogen demand and if storage in salt caverns remains uncompetitive, but emit more greenhouse gases (GHG) than other gaseous or hydrogen ones. Liquid hydrogen as a seasonal storage medium offers no advantage compared to LOHC or cavern storage since lower electricity prices for flexible operation cannot balance the investment costs of liquefaction plants. A well-to-wheel analysis indicates that all investigated pathways have less than 30% GHG-emissions compared to conventional fossil fuel pathways within a European framework.

  1. Hydrogen production by renewable energies. Final report of the integrated research program 4.1; Production d'hydrogene par des energies renouvelables. Rapport final du programme de recherche integree 4.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this PRI is to study and to develop methods of hydrogen production based on the renewable energies, without greenhouse gases emission in order to implement clean processes in the framework of a sustainable development. Two approaches are proposed. The first one uses microorganisms in condition of hydrogen production (micro-algae). The second one is based on the bio-mimetism approaches aiming to reproduce artificially the biological mechanisms of the photosynthesis leading to water decomposition. (A.L.B.)

  2. Hydrogen production by alkaline water electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo M. F. Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water electrolysis is one of the simplest methods used for hydrogen production. It has the advantage of being able to produce hydrogen using only renewable energy. To expand the use of water electrolysis, it is mandatory to reduce energy consumption, cost, and maintenance of current electrolyzers, and, on the other hand, to increase their efficiency, durability, and safety. In this study, modern technologies for hydrogen production by water electrolysis have been investigated. In this article, the electrochemical fundamentals of alkaline water electrolysis are explained and the main process constraints (e.g., electrical, reaction, and transport are analyzed. The historical background of water electrolysis is described, different technologies are compared, and main research needs for the development of water electrolysis technologies are discussed.

  3. Hydrogen based global renewable energy network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akai, Makoto [Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, AIST, MITI, Namiki, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    In the last quarter of this century, global environmental problem has emerged as a major scientific, political and social issue. Specific Problems include: depletion of ozone layer by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), acid rain, destruction of tropical forests and desertification, pollution of the sea and global wanning due to the greenhouse effect by carbon dioxide and others. Among these problems, particular attention of the world has been focused on the global warming because it has direct linkage to energy consumption which our economic development depends on so far. On the other hand, the future program of The Sunshine Project for alternative energy technology R&D, The Moonlight Project for energy conservation technology R&D, and The Global Environmental Technology Program for environmental problem mitigating technology R&D which are Japan`s national projects being promoted by their Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry have been reexamined in view of recent changes in the situations surrounding new energy technology. In this regard, The New Sunshine Program will be established by integrating these three activities to accelerate R&D in the field of energy and environmental technologies. In the reexamination, additional stress has been laid on the contribution to solving global environmental problem through development of clean renewable energies which constitute a major part of the {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes}, a comprehensive, long-term and international cooperative program proposed by MITI. The present paper discusses the results of feasibility study on hydrogen energy system leading to the concept of WE-NET following a brief summary on R&D status on solar and wind energy in Japan.

  4. Measurement of dissolved hydrogen and hydrogen gas transfer in a hydrogen-producing reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shizas, I.; Bagley, D.M. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a simple method to measure dissolved hydrogen concentrations in the laboratory using standard equipment and a series of hydrogen gas transfer tests. The method was validated by measuring hydrogen gas transfer parameters for an anaerobic reactor system that was purged with 10 per cent carbon dioxide and 90 per cent nitrogen using a coarse bubble diffuser stone. Liquid samples from the reactor were injected into vials and hydrogen was allowed to partition between the liquid and gaseous phases. The concentration of dissolved hydrogen was determined by comparing the headspace injections onto a gas chromatograph and a standard curve. The detection limit was 1.0 x 10{sup -5} mol/L of dissolved hydrogen. The gas transfer rate for hydrogen in basal medium and anaerobic digester sludge was used to validate the method. Results were compared with gas transfer models. In addition to monitoring dissolved hydrogen in reactor systems, this method can help improve hydrogen production potential. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  5. Safety issues of nuclear production of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piera, Mireia; Martinez-Val, Jose M.; Jose Montes, Ma

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is not an uncommon issue in Nuclear Safety analysis, particularly in relation to severe accidents. On the other hand, hydrogen is a household name in the chemical industry, particularly in oil refineries, and is also a well known chemical element currently produced by steam reforming of natural gas, and other methods (such as coal gasification). In the not-too-distant future, hydrogen will have to be produced (by chemical reduction of water) using renewable and nuclear energy sources. In particular, nuclear fission seems to offer the cheapest way to provide the primary energy in the medium-term. Safety principles are fundamental guidelines in the design, construction and operation both of hydrogen facilities and nuclear power plants. When these two technologies are integrated, a complete safety analysis must consider not only the safety practices of each industry, but any interaction that could be established between them. In particular, any accident involving a sudden energy release from one of the facilities can affect the other. Release of dangerous substances (chemicals, radiotoxic effluents) can also pose safety problems. Although nuclear-produced hydrogen facilities will need specific approaches and detailed analysis on their safety features, a preliminary approach is presented in this paper. No significant roadblocks are identified that could hamper the deployment of this new industry, but some of the hydrogen production methods will involve very demanding safety standards

  6. NEW STRAINS PRODUCER OF BIOBUTANOL. ІІ. RENEWABLE LIGNOCELLULOSE FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigunova O. O.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our work was to study generic and specific affinity of domestic strainsproducers, comparative productivity butanol strains-producers screening, fermentation of sugars being a part of renewable lignocelluloses raw materials and to determine the conditions for the butanol yield increasing. The objects of research were strains Clostridium acetobutylicum ІМВ В-7407 (IFBG C6H, IFBG C4B and IFBG C7P from «Collection microorganism’s stains and plants line for food and agriculture biotechnology» of Institute of Food Biotechnology and Genomics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. It was determined that domestic butanol-producing strains were relatively more productive and might be promising for improvement technology of butanol production.

  7. Energy infrastructure: hydrogen energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veziroglu, T N

    1979-02-01

    In a hydrogen system, hydrogen is not a primary source of energy, but an intermediary, an energy carrier between the primary energy sources and the user. The new unconventional energy sources, such as nuclear breeder reactors, fusion reactors, direct solar radiation, wind energy, ocean thermal energy, and geothermal energy have their shortcomings. These shortcomings of the new sources point out to the need for an intermediary energy system to form the link between the primary energy sources and the user. In such a system, the intermediary energy form must be transportable and storable; economical to produce; and if possible renewable and pollution-free. The above prerequisites are best met by hydrogen. Hydrogen is plentiful in the form of water. It is the cheapest synthetic fuel to manufacture per unit of energy stored in it. It is the least polluting of all of the fuels, and is the lightest and recyclable. In the proposed system, hydrogen would be produced in large plants located away from the consumption centers at the sites where primary new energy sources and water are available. Hydrogen would then be transported to energy consumption centers where it would be used in every application where fossil fuels are being used today. Once such a system is established, it will never be necessary to change to any other energy system.

  8. Carbon dioxide, the feedstock for using renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, K.; Kumagai, N.; Izumiya, K.; Kato, Z.

    2011-03-01

    Extrapolation of world energy consumption between 1990 and 2007 to the future reveals the complete exhaustion of petroleum, natural gas, uranium and coal reserves on Earth in 2040, 2044, 2049 and 2054, respectively. We are proposing global carbon dioxide recycling to use renewable energy so that all people in the whole world can survive. The electricity will be generated by solar cell in deserts and used to produce hydrogen by seawater electrolysis at t nearby desert coasts. Hydrogen, for which no infrastructures of transportation and combustion exist, will be converted to methane at desert coasts by the reaction with carbon dioxide captured by energy consumers. Among systems in global carbon dioxide recycling, seawater electrolysis and carbon dioxide methanation have not been performed industrially. We created energy-saving cathodes for hydrogen production and anodes for oxygen evolution without chlorine formation in seawater electrolysis, and ideal catalysts for methane formation by the reaction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen. Prototype plant and industrial scale pilot plant have been built.

  9. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys(reg. sign) design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more

  10. HYDROGEN ENERGY: TERCEIRA ISLAND DEMONSTRATION FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO ALVES

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper gives a general perspective of the efforts going on at Terceira Island in Azores, Portugal, concerning the implementation of an Hydrogen Economy demonstration campus. The major motivation for such a geographical location choice was the abundance of renewable resources like wind, sea waves and geothermal enthalpy, which are of fundamental importance for the demonstration of renewable hydrogen economy sustainability. Three main campus will be implemented: one at Cume Hill, where the majority of renewable hydrogen production will take place using the wind as the primary energy source, a second one at Angra do Heroismo Industrial park, where a cogen electrical – heat power station will be installed, mainly to feed a Municipal Solid Waste processing plant and a third one, the Praia da Vitoria Hydrogenopolis, where several final consumer demonstrators will be installed both for public awareness and intensive study of economic sustainability and optimization. Some of these units are already under construction, particularly the renewable hydrogen generation facilities.

  11. Hydrogen production by gasification of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R. III

    1994-05-20

    As fossil fuel reserves run lower and lower, and as their continued widespread use leads toward numerous environmental problems, the need for clean and sustainable energy alternatives becomes ever clearer. Hydrogen fuel holds promise as such as energy source, as it burns cleanly and can be extracted from a number of renewable materials such as municipal solid waste (MSW), which can be considered largely renewable because of its high content of paper and biomass-derived products. A computer model is being developed using ASPEN Plus flow sheeting software to simulate a process which produces hydrogen gas from MSW; the model will later be used in studying the economics of this process and is based on an actual Texaco coal gasification plant design. This paper gives an overview of the complete MSW gasification process, and describes in detail the way in which MSW is modeled by the computer as a process material. In addition, details of the gasifier unit model are described; in this unit modified MSW reacts under pressure with oxygen and steam to form a mixture of gases which include hydrogen.

  12. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  13. Potential of hydrogen production from wind energy in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uqaili, M. A.; Harijan, K.; Memon, M.

    2007-01-01

    The transport sector consumes about 34% of the total commercial energy consumption in Pakistan. About 97% of fuel used in this sector is oil and the remaining 3% is CNG and electricity. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country is heavily dependent on the import of oil. The oil import bill is serious strain on the country's economy. The production, transportation and consumption of fossil fuels also degrade the environment. Therefore, it is important to explore the opportunities for clean renewable energy for long-term energy supply in the transport sector. Sindh, the second largest province of Pakistan, has about 250 km long coastline. The estimated average annual wind speed at 50 m height at almost all sites is about 6-7 m/s, indicating that Sindh has the potential to effectively utilize wind energy source for power generation and hydrogen production. A system consisting of wind turbines coupled with electrolyzers is a promising design to produce hydrogen. This paper presents an assessment of the potential of hydrogen production from wind energy in the coastal area of Sindh, Pakistan. The estimated technical potential of wind power is 386 TWh per year. If the wind electricity is used to power electrolyzers, 347.4 TWh hydrogen can be produced annually, which is about 1.2 times the total energy consumption in the transport sector of Pakistan in 2005. The substitution of oil with renewable hydrogen is essential to increase energy independence, improve domestic economies, and reduce greenhouse gas and other harmful emissions

  14. Photoactivated Fuel Cells (PhotoFuelCells. An alternative source of renewable energy with environmental benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Sfaelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is a short review of Photoactivated Fuel Cells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume an organic or inorganic fuel to produce renewable electricity or hydrogen. The work presents the basic features of photoactivated fuel cells, their modes of operation, the materials, which are frequently used for their construction and some ideas of cell design both for electricity and solar hydrogen production. Water splitting is treated as a special case of photoactivated fuel cell operation.

  15. Near-surface hydrogen depletion of diamond-like carbon films produced by direct ion deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwitz, Andreas; Gupta, Prasanth; Mohr, Berit; Hübner, René; Leveneur, Jerome; Zondervan, Albert; Becker, Hans-Werner

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous atomically flat diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were produced by direct ion deposition using a system based on a Penning ion source, butane precursor gas and post acceleration. Hydrogen depth profiles of the DLC coatings were measured with the 15N R-NRA method using the resonant nuclear reaction 1H(15N, αγ)12C (Eres = 6.385 MeV). The films produced at 3.0-10.5 kV acceleration voltage show two main effects. First, compared to average elemental composition of the film, the near-surface region is hydrogen depleted. The increase of the hydrogen concentration by 3% from the near-surface region towards the bulk is attributed to a growth model which favours the formation of sp2 hybridised carbon rich films in the film formation zone. Secondly, the depth at which the maximum hydrogen concentration is measured increases with acceleration voltage and is proportional to the penetration depth of protons produced by the ion source from the precursor gas. The observed effects are explained by a deposition process that takes into account the contributions of ion species, hydrogen effusion and preferential displacement of atoms during direct ion deposition.

  16. All-Vanadium Dual Circuit Redox Flow Battery for Renewable Hydrogen Generation and Desulfurisation

    OpenAIRE

    Peljo, Pekka Eero; Vrubel, Heron; Amstutz, Veronique; Pandard, Justine; Morgado, Joana; Santasalo-Aarnio, Annukka; Lloyd, David; Gumy, Frederic; Dennison, C R; Toghill, Kathryn; Girault, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    An all-vanadium dual circuit redox flow battery is an electrochemical energy storage system capable to function as a conventional battery, but also to produce hydrogen and perform desulfurization when surplus of electricity is available by chemical discharge of the battery electrolytes. The hydrogen reactor chemically discharging the negative electrolyte has been designed and scaled up to kW scale, while different options to discharge the positive electrolyte have been evaluated, including ox...

  17. Renewable resources and renewable energy a global challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Fornasiero, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    As energy demands continue to surge worldwide, the need for efficient and environmentally neutral energy production becomes increasingly apparent. In its first edition, this book presented a well-rounded perspective on the development of bio-based feedstocks, biodegradable plastics, hydrogen energy, fuel cells, and other aspects related to renewable resources and sustainable energy production. The new second edition builds upon this foundation to explore new trends and technologies. The authors pay particular attention to hydrogen-based and fuel cell-based technologies and provide real-world c

  18. The generation of molecular hydrogen by cyanobacteria. Die Gewinnung von molekularem Wasserstoff durch Cyanobakterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kentemich, T.; Haverkamp, G.; Bothe, H. (Koeln Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Botanisches Inst.)

    1990-01-01

    Currently there is renewed interest in projects on solar-energy conversion by microorganisms. Among all organisms, cyanobacteria are first choice for such projects. Hydrogen production by cyanobacteria is light-dependent and catalyzed by the enzyme complex nitrogenase which concomitantly catalyzes the reduction of N{sub 2} to ammonia. The cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis can express an alternative, vanadium-containing nitrogenase which produces more hydrogen than the conventional, molybdenum-containing enzyme. In intact cells, most of the H{sub 2} produced by nitrogenase is immediatley reutilized by the hydrogenase enzymes. Maximal hydrogen production requires the genetic blockage of H{sub 2} utilization by the hydrogenases. (orig.).

  19. Breath Hydrogen Produced by Ingestion of Commercial Hydrogen Water and Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Shimouchi, Akito; Nose, Kazutoshi; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Kondo, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare how and to what extent ingestion of hydrogen water and milk increase breath hydrogen in adults.Methods: Five subjects without specific diseases, ingested distilled or hydrogen water and milk as a reference material that could increase breath hydrogen. Their end-alveolar breath hydrogen was measured.Results: Ingestion of hydrogen water rapidly increased breath hydrogen to the maximal level of approximately 40 ppm 10–15 min after ingestion and thereafter rapidly decrease...

  20. Impact of coffee crop renewal program on small producers in department Cundinamarca (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guarín N. Carlos Andrés

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The modernization of crops through renewal is a vital option for the restoration of the productivity and competitiveness of the coffee crop. The Federación Nacional de Cafeteros (National Federation of Coffee is banking on a strategy that promotes renewal by providing resources to stimulate growers. As a result of the implementation of the program, it is hoped that it will reverse the aging process of coffee crops, consolidate a productive and competitive market, provide appropriate ages and densities and promote the use of coffee rust resistant varieties. Similarly, it is expected that small producers, who constitute the majority of farmers and who presumably suffer major limitations to independent renewal, will be the main beneficiaries.

  1. Renewable Acrylonitrile Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Karp, Eric M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eaton, Todd R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sanchez i Nogue, Violeta [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vorotnikov, Vassili [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brandner, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Manker, Lorenz [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Michener, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vardon, Derek R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bratis, Adam D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Rongming [University of Colorado; Gill, Ryan T. [University of Colorado; Gilhespy, Michelle [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre; Skoufa, Zinovia [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre; Watson, Michael J. [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre; Fruchey, O. Stanley [MATRIC; Cywar, Robin M. [Formerly NREL

    2017-12-08

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a petroleum-derived compound used in resins, polymers, acrylics, and carbon fiber. We present a process for renewable ACN production using 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP), which can be produced microbially from sugars. The process achieves ACN molar yields exceeding 90% from ethyl 3-hydroxypropanoate (ethyl 3-HP) via dehydration and nitrilation with ammonia over an inexpensive titanium dioxide solid acid catalyst. We further describe an integrated process modeled at scale that is based on this chemistry and achieves near-quantitative ACN yields (98 +/- 2%) from ethyl acrylate. This endothermic approach eliminates runaway reaction hazards and achieves higher yields than the standard propylene ammoxidation process. Avoidance of hydrogen cyanide as a by-product also improves process safety and mitigates product handling requirements.

  2. Applications of the use of the renewable energies, solar power and wind power, for the securing of hydrogen, as power supply of the fuel cells; Obtencion de hidrogeno, a partir de la electrolisis del agua mediante energias renovables almacenamiento y aplicaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, J. J.; Martin, I.; Aperribay, V.; San Martin, J. I.; Arrieta, J. M.; Zuazua, J.; Romero, E.

    2004-07-01

    The object of the presented communication is to show the applications of the use of the renewable energies, particularly the solar power and the wind power, for the securing of hydrogen, as power supply of the fuel cells. The electrical energy produced in the solar badges and in the windpowers is, principally, injected into the electrical networks, for his transport, distribution and consumption, if the network the demand. The novel aspect is, that if the network does not demand potency, this one is transformed into hydrogen at the same photovoltaic station or into the base of the tower of the windpower and, later, stored to feed the fuel cells, not producing to him any type of element pollutant, since the residual element is the water. (Author)

  3. Evaluation of hydrogen demonstration systems (Task 18 of IEA Implementing Agreement on Hydrogen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J N; Carter, S

    2005-07-01

    Task 18 aims to gather information about the integration of hydrogen into society around the world. As part of subtask B (demonstration projects), EA Technology Limited collected information and data on specific UK hydrogen demonstration projects and case studies. The work involved desk research, a literature review, telephone conversations and meetings with developers and operators of hydrogen-related projects in the UK. Various examples were identified in phase 1 that were either proposed, planned, under construction, commissioned or operational. The main demonstration activities described in the report are: the Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) refuelling station at Hornchurch in Essex; the Hydrogen and Renewables Integration (HARI) project at West Beacon Farm, Leicestershire; the Promoting Unst Renewable Energy (PURE) project on Unst in the Shetland Isles; the Hunterston Hydrogen Project in North Ayrshire, Scotland; and the Tees Valley Hydrogen Project. The CUTE, HARI and PURE projects were selected for inclusion in the overall Task 18 workplan. The report also covers developments associated with the Fuel Cell House, the Hydrogen Office, INEOS Chlor, the London Hydrogen Partnership and the Wales Hydrogen Project.

  4. Hydrogen and renewable energy sources integrated system for greenhouse heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Blanco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A research is under development at the Department of Agro- Environmental Sciences of the University of Bari “Aldo Moro” in order to investigate the suitable solutions of a power system based on solar energy (photovoltaic and hydrogen, integrated with a geothermal heat pump for powering a self sustained heated greenhouse. The electrical energy for heat pump operation is provided by a purpose-built array of solar photovoltaic modules, which supplies also a water electrolyser system controlled by embedded pc; the generated dry hydrogen gas is conserved in suitable pressured storage tank. The hydrogen is used to produce electricity in a fuel cell in order to meet the above mentioned heat pump power demand when the photovoltaic system is inactive during winter night-time or the solar radiation level is insufficient to meet the electrical demand. The present work reports some theoretical and observed data about the electrolyzer operation. Indeed the electrolyzer has required particular attention because during the experimental tests it did not show a stable operation and it was registered a performance not properly consistent with the predicted performance by means of the theoretical study.

  5. Techno-economic feasibility analysis of hydrogen fuel cell and solar photovoltaic hybrid renewable energy system for academic research building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anand; Baredar, Prashant; Gupta, Bhupendra

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A HFC and SPV HRES for stand-alone applications is proposed. • The FC program computes the optimum cost of HRES components. • HOMER pro software to calculate the optimum performance of HRES. - Abstract: A hydrogen fuel cell (HFC) and solar photovoltaic (SPV) hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) for stand-alone applications is proposed. This system arrangement of a hydrogen tank, battery, and an electrolyzer are used as like the energy storage. The economic viability of using HRES power to supply the electrical load demand of academic research building located at 23°12′N latitude and 77°24′E longitudes, India is examined. The fuzzy logic program computes the optimum value of capital and replacement cost of the components, which is then utilized in HOMER pro software to calculate the optimum performance of HRES. The results shows the HFC and battery bank are the most significant modules of the HRES to meet load demand at late night and early morning hours. The AC primary load consuming 20712.63 kWh/year out of total power generation of HRES which is 24570.72 kWh/year. The excess of electricity produced by HRES is 791.7709 kWh/year with the optimized cost of energy, unmet electrical load and capacity shortage of 0%.

  6. Methanation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, Marko; Busch, Günter

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The biologic methanation of exclusively gases like hydrogen and carbon dioxide is feasible. • Electrical energy can be stored in the established gas grid by conversion to methane. • The quality of produced biogas is very high (c CH4 = 98 vol%). • The conversion rate is depending on H 2 -flow rate. - Abstract: A new method for the methanation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide is presented. In a novel anaerobic trickle-bed reactor, biochemical catalyzed methanation at mesophilic temperatures and ambient pressure can be realized. The conversion of gaseous substrates by immobilized hydrogenotrophic methanogens is a unique feature of this reactor type. The already patented reactor produces biogas which has a very high quality (c CH4 = 97.9 vol%). Therefore, the storage of biogas in the existing natural gas grid is possible without extensive purification. The specific methane production was measured with P = 1.17 Nm CH4 3 /(m R 3 d). It is conceivable to realize the process at sites that generate solar or wind energy and sites subject to the conditions for hydrogen electrolysis (or other methods of hydrogen production). The combination with conventional biogas plants under hydrogen addition to methane enrichment is possible as well. The process enables the coupling of various renewable energy sources

  7. Experiences from the operation of a wind-hydrogen pilot unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varkaraki, E.; Lymberopoulos, N.; Zoulias, E.; Kalyvas, E.; Christodoulou, C.; Karagiorgis, G.

    2006-01-01

    A pilot wind-hydrogen system has been erected and tested at the wind park of the Centre for Renewable Energy Sources, near Athens, Greece, composed of an alkaline water electrolyser, metal hydride tanks for long term storage and a hydrogen compressor for filling high pressure hydrogen cylinders. The 25 kW electrolyser produces 0.45 kg/h hydrogen under 20 bar pressure, which may be compressed up to 220 bar in one stage. A small conventional tank acts as hydrogen buffer to smooth the pressure and flow variations at the compressor inlet. The metal hydride tanks have a storage capacity of 3.6 kg hydrogen and contain a LaNi5-type alloy. The preliminary results show that the hydrogen system has an overall efficiency of 58%, considering the electrical power of the wind turbine consumed by the whole plant, including utilities. (authors)

  8. Fuel cells: yes, please, but not fuelled with hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossel, U.

    2004-01-01

    This short article takes a critical look at the fuel cell scene and criticises the fact that the word 'hydrogen' is almost always mentioned in the same breath as 'fuel cells'. Fundamental zeal that ignores physical reality and the technical possibilities available has, according to the author, led to politicians and journalists ignoring the laws of physics. The fact that hydrogen is not a source of energy but a synthetic energy carrier is stressed. The use of electricity - even if generated from renewable resources - to produce hydrogen is criticised on account of the conversion efficiencies involved. Figures are given on the overall efficiencies of a hydrogen-based energy-chain. The author recommends that novel, efficient methods of storing electricity should be promoted instead

  9. Scenarios for multi-unit inertial fusion energy plants producing hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.

    1993-12-01

    This work describes: (a) the motivation for considering fusion in general, and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) in particular, to produce hydrogen fuel powering low-emission vehicles; (b) the general requirements for any fusion electric plant to produce hydrogen by water electrolysis at costs competitive with present consumer gasoline fuel costs per passenger mile, for advanced car architectures meeting President Clinton's 80 mpg advanced car goal, and (c) a comparative economic analysis for the potential cost of electricity (CoE) and corresponding cost of hydrogen (CoH) from a variety of multi-unit IFE plants with one to eight target chambers sharing a common driver and target fab facility. Cases with either heavy-ion or diode-pumped, solid-state laser drivers are considered, with ''conventional'' indirect drive target gains versus ''advanced, e.g. Fast Ignitor'' direct drive gain assumptions, and with conventional steam balance-of-plant (BoP) versus advanced MHD plus steam combined cycle BoP, to contrast the potential economics under ''conventional'' and ''advanced'' IFE assumptions, respectively

  10. New renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewable s in the energy system of the future

  11. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE PRODUCTION OF SOLAR HYDROGEN IN ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bendaikha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a sustainable fuel option and one of the potential solutions for the current energy and environmental problems. In this study hydrogen is produced using a hydrogen generator with a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM electrolyser. An experimental study is done in the Center of Development of the Renewable Energy, Algiers, Algeria.The experimental device contains essentially a photovoltaic module, a PEM electrolyser, a gasometer and the devices of measures of characteristics of the PEM electrolyser as well as two pyranometers for the horizontal and diffuse global radiance registration. This system in pilots scale is permitted on the one hand, to measured and analyzed the characteristics: of the PEM electrolyser for two different pressures of working (Patm and P=3 bar, on the other hand, to study the volume of hydrogen produces in the time with different sources of electrical power (generator, photovoltaic module, fluorescent lamp, the efficiency for every case is calculated and compared. We present in this paper the variation of the solar hydrogen flow rate produced according to the global radiance and according to the time for a typical day’s of August.

  12. Solar photochemical production of HBr for off-peak electrolytic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, H. [Solar Reactor Technologies Inc., Miami, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Progress is reported on the development of a unique and innovative hydrogen production concept utilizing renewable (Solar) energy and incorporating energy storage. The concept is based on a solar-electrolytic system for production of hydrogen and oxygen. It employs water, bromine, solar energy, and supplemental electrical power. The process consumes only water, sunlight and off-peak electricity, and produces only hydrogen, oxygen, and peaking electrical power. No pollutants are emitted, and fossil fuels are not consumed. The concept is being developed by Solar Reactor Technologies, Inc., (SRT) under the auspices of a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  13. Electric Vehicles - Promoting Fuel Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Danish Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)......Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)...

  14. Saga of hydrogen civilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veziroglu, T.N. [Clean Energy Research Inst., Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida (United States)

    2009-07-01

    'Full text': Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted quickly. Also, their combustion products are causing global problems such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, all of which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life on our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the hydrogen energy system. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, and little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar-hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar-hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st century. (author)

  15. Saga of hydrogen civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veziroglu, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text': Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted quickly. Also, their combustion products are causing global problems such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, all of which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life on our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the hydrogen energy system. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, and little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar-hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar-hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st century. (author)

  16. Near-surface hydrogen depletion of diamond-like carbon films produced by direct ion deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markwitz, Andreas, E-mail: A.Markwitz@gns.cri.nz [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Gupta, Prasanth [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Mohr, Berit [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Hübner, René [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Leveneur, Jerome; Zondervan, Albert [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Becker, Hans-Werner [RUBION, Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Amorphous atomically flat diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were produced by direct ion deposition using a system based on a Penning ion source, butane precursor gas and post acceleration. Hydrogen depth profiles of the DLC coatings were measured with the 15N R-NRA method using the resonant nuclear reaction {sup 1}H({sup 15}N, αγ){sup 12}C (E{sub res} = 6.385 MeV). The films produced at 3.0–10.5 kV acceleration voltage show two main effects. First, compared to average elemental composition of the film, the near-surface region is hydrogen depleted. The increase of the hydrogen concentration by 3% from the near-surface region towards the bulk is attributed to a growth model which favours the formation of sp{sup 2} hybridised carbon rich films in the film formation zone. Secondly, the depth at which the maximum hydrogen concentration is measured increases with acceleration voltage and is proportional to the penetration depth of protons produced by the ion source from the precursor gas. The observed effects are explained by a deposition process that takes into account the contributions of ion species, hydrogen effusion and preferential displacement of atoms during direct ion deposition.

  17. Effect of temperature and hydraulic retention time on hydrogen producing granules: Homoacetogenesis and morphological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, A. A.; Danko, A. S.; Alves, M. M.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of temperature and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the homoacetogenesisi and on the morphological characteristics of hydrogen producing granules was investigated. Hydrogen was produced using an expanded granular sludge blanket (EGSB) reactor, fed with glucose and L-arabinose, under mesophilic (37 degree centigrade), thermophilic (55 degree centigrade), and hyper thermophilic (70 degree centigrade) conditions. (Author)

  18. Cationic mononuclear ruthenium carboxylates as catalyst prototypes for self-induced hydrogenation of carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruto, Masayuki; Saito, Susumu

    2015-08-28

    Carboxylic acids are ubiquitous in bio-renewable and petrochemical sources of carbon. Hydrogenation of carboxylic acids to yield alcohols produces water as the only byproduct, and thus represents a possible next generation, sustainable method for the production of these alternative energy carriers/platform chemicals on a large scale. Reported herein are molecular insights into cationic mononuclear ruthenium carboxylates ([Ru(OCOR)](+)) as prototypical catalysts for the hydrogenation of carboxylic acids. The substrate-derived coordinated carboxylate was found to function initially as a proton acceptor for the heterolytic cleavage of dihydrogen, and subsequently also as an acceptor for the hydride from [Ru-H](+), which was generated in the first step (self-induced catalysis). The hydrogenation proceeded selectively and at high levels of functional group tolerance, a feature that is challenging to achieve with existing heterogeneous/homogeneous catalyst systems. These fundamental insights are expected to significantly benefit the future development of metal carboxylate-catalysed hydrogenation processes of bio-renewable resources.

  19. Proceedings of World Renewable Energy Congress '99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Mohd Yusof Othman; Baharuddin Yatim

    2000-01-01

    The congress discussed the following subjects, 1. The role of renewable energy in the next millenium; 2. Challenges in the commercialization of renewable energy; 3. The role and agenda for renewable energy towards sustainable development. Topics covered in the technical session were biomass conversion; solar thermal technologies and systems; solar photovoltaic s; renewable energy economics, financing and policy; renewable energy education; climate and the environment; energy and architecture; energy management; wind and hydro technologies and systems; hydrogen and fuel cell

  20. Price determination for hydrogen produced from bio-ethanol in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorini, V.A.; Pasquevich, D.; Laborde, M.

    2010-01-01

    A massive penetration for hydrogen as a fuel vector requires a price reduction against fossil fuels (up to lower or at less equal to current prices). That is why it is important to calculate the current prices, so that we can determinate the gap between them and work in reducing them. In order to follow properly prices evolution it is necessary been able to compare data generated by Universities, Laboratories and Industries. So that, DOE creates in 2003 a tool (H2A) to determine prices for hydrogen, with some assumptions and pre defined values, to facilitate transparency and consistency of data. In this work we will use the H2A tool to calculate de price of hydrogen produced in a bio-ethanol semi-industrial Plant in Argentina, and we will compare it with the prices of USA studies. (author)

  1. Green methanol from hydrogen and carbon dioxide using geothermal energy and/or hydro power in Iceland or excess renewable electricity in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauw, Marco; Benders, Reinerus; Visser, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of green methanol from hydrogen and carbon dioxide can contribute to mitigation of greenhouse gasses. This methanol can be utilized as either a transport fuel or as an energy carrier for electricity storage. It is preferable to use inexpensive, reliable and renewable energy sources to

  2. Proceedings of the 14. world hydrogen energy conference 2002 : The hydrogen planet. CD-ROM ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venter, R.D.; Bose, T.K. [Quebec Univ., Trois-Rivieres, PQ (Canada). Institut de recherche sur l' hydrogene; Veziroglu, N. [International Association for Hydrogen Energy, Coral Gables, FL (United States)] (eds.)

    2002-07-01

    Hydrogen has often been named as the ultimate fuel because it can be generated from a variety of renewable and non-renewable fuels and its direct conversion to electricity in fuel cells is efficient and results in no emissions other than water vapour. The opportunities and issues associated with the use of hydrogen as the energy carrier of the future were presented at this conference which addressed all aspects of hydrogen and fuel cell development including hydrogen production, storage, hydrogen-fuelled internal combustion engines, hydrogen infrastructure, economics, and the environment. Hydrogen is currently used as a chemical feedstock and a space fuel, but it is receiving considerable attention for bring renewable energy into the transportation and power generation sectors with little or no environmental impact at the point of end use. Canada leads the way in innovative ideas for a hydrogen infrastructure, one of the most challenging tasks for the transportation sector along with hydrogen storage. Major vehicle manufacturers have announced that they will have hydrogen-fueled cars and buses on the market beginning in 2003 and 2004. Solid oxide fuel cells will be used for generating electricity with efficiencies of 70 per cent, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) and other fuel cells are being tested for residential power supply with efficiencies of 85 per cent. The conference included an industrial exposition which demonstrated the latest developments in hydrogen and fuel cell research. More than 300 papers were presented at various oral and poster sessions, of which 172 papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the database.

  3. Hydrogen production by hyperthermophilic and extremely thermophilic bacteria and archaea: mechanisms for reductant disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaart, Marcel R A; Bielen, Abraham A M; van der Oost, John; Stams, Alfons J M; Kengen, Servé W M

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen produced from biomass by bacteria and archaea is an attractive renewable energy source. However, to make its application more feasible, microorganisms are needed with high hydrogen productivities. For several reasons, hyperthermophilic and extremely thermophilic bacteria and archaea are promising is this respect. In addition to the high polysaccharide-hydrolysing capacities of many of these organisms, an important advantage is their ability to use most of the reducing equivalents (e.g. NADH, reduced ferredoxin) formed during glycolysis for the production of hydrogen, enabling H2/hexose ratios of between 3.0 and 4.0. So, despite the fact that the hydrogen-yielding reactions, especially the one from NADH, are thermodynamically unfavourable, high hydrogen yields are obtained. In this review we focus on three different mechanisms that are employed by a few model organisms, viz. Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis, Thermotoga maritima, and Pyrococcus furiosus, to efficiently produce hydrogen. In addition, recent developments to improve hydrogen production by hyperthermophilic and extremely thermophilic bacteria and archaea are discussed.

  4. The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) for Producing Hydrogen to Manufacture Liquid Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Peterson, P.F.; Ott, L.

    2004-01-01

    Conventional world oil production is expected to peak within a decade. Shortfalls in production of liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) from conventional oil sources are expected to be offset by increased production of fuels from heavy oils and tar sands that are primarily located in the Western Hemisphere (Canada, Venezuela, the United States, and Mexico). Simultaneously, there is a renewed interest in liquid fuels from biomass, such as alcohol; but, biomass production requires fertilizer. Massive quantities of hydrogen (H2) are required (1) to convert heavy oils and tar sands to liquid fuels and (2) to produce fertilizer for production of biomass that can be converted to liquid fuels. If these liquid fuels are to be used while simultaneously minimizing greenhouse emissions, nonfossil methods for the production of H2 are required. Nuclear energy can be used to produce H2. The most efficient methods to produce H2 from nuclear energy involve thermochemical cycles in which high-temperature heat (700 to 850 C) and water are converted to H2 and oxygen. The peak nuclear reactor fuel and coolant temperatures must be significantly higher than the chemical process temperatures to transport heat from the reactor core to an intermediate heat transfer loop and from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the chemical plant. The reactor temperatures required for H2 production are at the limits of practical engineering materials. A new high-temperature reactor concept is being developed for H2 and electricity production: the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR). The fuel is a graphite-matrix, coated-particle fuel, the same type that is used in modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs). The coolant is a clean molten fluoride salt with a boiling point near 1400 C. The use of a liquid coolant, rather than helium, reduces peak reactor fuel and coolant temperatures 100 to 200 C relative to those of a MHTGR. Liquids are better heat transfer fluids than gases

  5. Hydrogen as alternative clean fuel: Economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.

    1995-03-01

    In analogy to biofuel production from biomasses, the electrolytic conversion of other renewable energies into hydrogen as an alternative clean fuel is considered. This solution allows the intermittent renewable energy sources, as photovoltaics and wind energy, to enhance their development and enlarge the role into conventional fuel market. A rough economic analysis of hydrogen production line shows the costs, added by electrolysis and storage stages, can be recovered by properly accounting for social and environmental costs due to whole cycle of conventional fuels, from production to use. So, in a perspective of attaining the economic competitiveness of renewable energy, the hydrogen, arising from intermittent renewable energy sources, will be able to compete in the energy market with conventional fuels, making sure that their substitution will occur in a significant amount and the corresponding environment

  6. Energy, exergy and sustainability analyses of hybrid renewable energy based hydrogen and electricity production and storage systems: Modeling and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliskan, Hakan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Hepbasli, Arif

    2013-01-01

    In this study, hybrid renewable energy based hydrogen and electricity production and storage systems are conceptually modeled and analyzed in detail through energy, exergy and sustainability approaches. Several subsystems, namely hybrid geothermal energy-wind turbine-solar photovoltaic (PV) panel, inverter, electrolyzer, hydrogen storage system, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), battery and loading system are considered. Also, a case study, based on hybrid wind–solar renewable energy system, is conducted and its results are presented. In addition, the dead state temperatures are considered as 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C and 30 °C, while the environment temperature is 30 °C. The maximum efficiencies of the wind turbine, solar PV panel, electrolyzer, PEMFC are calculated as 26.15%, 9.06%, 53.55%, and 33.06% through energy analysis, and 71.70%, 9.74%, 53.60%, and 33.02% through exergy analysis, respectively. Also, the overall exergy efficiency, ranging from 5.838% to 5.865%, is directly proportional to the dead state temperature and becomes higher than the corresponding energy efficiency of 3.44% for the entire system. -- Highlights: ► Developing a three-hybrid renewable energy (geothermal–wind–solar)-based system. ► Undertaking a parametric study at various dead state temperatures. ► Investigating the effect of dead state temperatures on exergy efficiency

  7. Relative Importance of Various Sources of Defect-Producing Hydrogen Introduced into Steel During Application of Vitreous Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dwight G; Mason, Mary A; Harrison, William N

    1953-01-01

    When porcelain enamels or vitreous-type ceramic coatings are applied to ferrous metals, there is believed to be an evolution of hydrogen gas both during and after the firing operation. At elevated temperatures rapid evolution may result in blistering while if hydrogen becomes trapped in the steel during the rapid cooling following the firing operation gas pressures may be generated at the coating-metal interface and flakes of the coating literally blown off the metal. To determine experimentally the relative importance of the principal sources of the hydrogen causing the defects, a procedure was devised in which heavy hydrogen (deuterium) was substituted in turn for regular hydrogen in each of five possible hydrogen-producing operations in the coating process. The findings of the study were as follows: (1) the principal source of the defect-producing hydrogen was the dissolved water present in the enamel frit that was incorporated into the coating. (2) the acid pickling, the milling water, the chemically combined water in the clay, and the quenching water were all minor sources of defect-producing hydrogen under the test conditions used. Confirming experiments showed that fishscaling could be eliminated by using a water-free coating.

  8. Improving long-term operation of power sources in off-grid hybrid systems based on renewable energy, hydrogen and battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Pablo; Torreglosa, Juan P.; Fernández, Luis M.; Jurado, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents two novel hourly energy supervisory controls (ESC) for improving long-term operation of off-grid hybrid systems (HS) integrating renewable energy sources (wind turbine and photovoltaic solar panels), hydrogen system (fuel cell, hydrogen tank and electrolyzer) and battery. The first ESC tries to improve the power supplied by the HS and the power stored in the battery and/or in the hydrogen tank, whereas the second one tries to minimize the number of needed elements (batteries, fuel cells and electrolyzers) throughout the expected life of the HS (25 years). Moreover, in both ESC, the battery state-of-charge (SOC) and the hydrogen tank level are controlled and maintained between optimum operating margins. Finally, a comparative study between the controls is carried out by models of the commercially available components used in the HS under study in this work. These ESC are also compared with a third ESC, already published by the authors, and based on reducing the utilization costs of the energy storage devices. The comparative study proves the right performance of the ESC and their differences.

  9. An insight on hydrogen fuel injection techniques with SCR system for NO{sub X} reduction in a hydrogen-diesel dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, N. [ERC Engines, Hall 11A, Tata Motors, Pimpri, Pune 411019, Maharashtra (India); Nagarajan, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, ICE Division, College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University-Chennai, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2009-11-15

    Internal combustion engines continue to dominate in many fields like transportation, agriculture and power generation. Among the various alternative fuels, hydrogen is a long-term renewable and less polluting fuel (Produced from renewable energy sources). In the present experimental investigation, the performance and emission characteristics were studied on a direct injection diesel engine in dual fuel mode with hydrogen inducted along with air adopting carburetion, timed port and manifold injection techniques. Results showed that in timed port injection, the specific energy consumption reduces by 15% and smoke level by 18%. The brake thermal efficiency and NO{sub X} increases by 17% and 34% respectively compared to baseline diesel. The variation in performance between port and manifold injection is not significant. The unburnt hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions are lesser in port injection. The oxides of nitrogen are higher in hydrogen operation (both port and manifold injection) compared to diesel engine. In order to reduce the NO{sub X} emissions, a selective catalytic converter was used in hydrogen port fuel injection. The NO{sub X} emission reduced upto a maximum of 74% for ANR (ratio of flow rate of ammonia to the flow rate of NO) of 1.1 with a marginal reduction in efficiency. Selective catalytic reduction technique has been found to be effective in reducing the NO{sub X} emission from hydrogen fueled diesel engines. (author)

  10. Promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources - Strategic objective of the Romania energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandulescu, Alexandru; Stanciulescu, Georgeta; Jisa, Mihaela; Stanciu, Nadina

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents different types of support schemes for promoting electricity produced from renewable energy sources in some countries from European Union and details concerning the primary and secondary legislation developed in Romania in the field of promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources, making a rehearse of the acts issued. Romania has a clear regulatory framework in the field of promoting E-RES, the green certificates market becoming operational from November 2005, when the first green certificates transaction session organised by SC OPCOM SA took place. With hydro energy being exception from the rule, the Romanian RES potential is almost unused, existing the possibility for promotion some efficient investments in units which produce E-RES, turning to good account to the best emplacements. Although the achievements in using RES are still modest, taking into consideration the attention of numerous investors and the way that the support scheme worked until now, with advantages for the existing E-RES producers, it is expected an acceleration of the rhythm of appearance of new investments. In order to actuate the investors attention, a stronger involvement of the local authorities is necessary, for identifying and promoting the most efficient RES using projects

  11. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells for IT Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer

    2016-03-09

    With the increased push for carbon-free and sustainable data centers, data center operators are increasingly looking to renewable energy as a means to approach carbon-free status and be more sustainable. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a world leader in hydrogen research and already has an elaborate hydrogen infrastructure in place at the Golden, Colorado, state-of-the-art data center and facility. This presentation will discuss hydrogen generation, storage considerations, and safety issues as they relate to hydrogen delivery to fuel cells powering IT equipment.

  12. The hillsides would allow to produce electric power from renewable source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laby, F.

    2006-09-01

    A solar tower is a renewable energy plant, designed to channel the air warmed by the sun, in order to produce electric power by the use of turbines. It is composed of a giant greenhouse with a chimney in its center. The capacity of this system is proportional to the chimney high. That is the reason why french engineers proposed to use the hillsides to build chimneys of many kilometers high. The project and some technical informations are provided in this paper. (A.L.B.)

  13. Production of bioplastics and hydrogen gas by photosynthetic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuo, Asada; Masato, Miyake; Jun, Miyake

    1998-03-01

    Our efforts have been aimed at the technological basis of photosynthetic-microbial production of materials and an energy carrier. We report here accumulation of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a raw material of biodegradable plastics and for production of hydrogen gas, and a renewable energy carrier by photosynthetic microorganisms (tentatively defined as cyanobacteria plus photosynthetic bateria, in this report). A thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. MA19 that accumulates PHB at more than 20% of cell dry wt under nitrogen-starved conditions was isolated and microbiologically identified. The mechanism of PHB accumulation was studied. A mesophilic Synechococcus PCC7942 was transformed with the genes encoding PHB-synthesizing enzymes from Alcaligenes eutrophus. The transformant accumulated PHB under nitrogen-starved conditions. The optimal conditions for PHB accumulation by a photosynthetic bacterium grown on acetate were studied. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms was studied. Cyanobacteria can produce hydrogen gas by nitrogenase or hydrogenase. Hydrogen production mediated by native hydrogenase in cyanobacteria was revealed to be in the dark anaerobic degradation of intracellular glycogen. A new system for light-dependent hydrogen production was targeted. In vitro and in vivo coupling of cyanobacterial ferredoxin with a heterologous hydrogenase was shown to produce hydrogen under light conditions. A trial for genetic trasformation of Synechococcus PCC7942 with the hydrogenase gene from Clostridium pasteurianum is going on. The strong hydrogen producers among photosynthetic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Co-culture of Rhodobacter and Clostriumdium was applied to produce hydrogen from glucose. Conversely in the case of cyanobacteria, genetic regulation of photosynthetic proteins was intended to improve conversion efficiency in hydrogen production by the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV. A mutant acquired by

  14. Development of Hydrogen Electrodes for Alkaline Water Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjartansdóttir, Cecilía Kristín

    , production of electricity via fuel cells, fuel for internal combustion engines or gas turbines, or as a raw material for the production of synthetic fuels via Sabatier or Fischer - Tropsch process. In some situations it may be suitable to simply inject hydrogen into the existing natural gas based...... will be needed. Producing hydrogen via water electrolysis using surplus, low cost, power from renewables offers the possibility of increased production capacity and load management with no greenhouse emissions. Hydrogen is a valuable energy carrier, which is able to contribute to various forms of energy, such as...... infrastructure. Alkaline water electrolysis (AWE) is the current standard (stat of the art) for industrial large-scale water electrolysis systems. One of the main criteria for industrial AWE is efficient and durable electrodes. The aim of the present PhD study was to develop electrode materials for hydrogen...

  15. Hydrogen: Fueling the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leisch, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    As our dependence on foreign oil increases and concerns about global climate change rise, the need to develop sustainable energy technologies is becoming increasingly significant. Worldwide energy consumption is expected to double by the year 2050, as will carbon emissions along with it. This increase in emissions is a product of an ever-increasing demand for energy, and a corresponding rise in the combustion of carbon containing fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Undisputable scientific evidence indicates significant changes in the global climate have occurred in recent years. Impacts of climate change and the resulting atmospheric warming are extensive, and know no political or geographic boundaries. These far-reaching effects will be manifested as environmental, economic, socioeconomic, and geopolitical issues. Offsetting the projected increase in fossil energy use with renewable energy production will require large increases in renewable energy systems, as well as the ability to store and transport clean domestic fuels. Storage and transport of electricity generated from intermittent resources such as wind and solar is central to the widespread use of renewable energy technologies. Hydrogen created from water electrolysis is an option for energy storage and transport, and represents a pollution-free source of fuel when generated using renewable electricity. The conversion of chemical to electrical energy using fuel cells provides a high efficiency, carbon-free power source. Hydrogen serves to blur the line between stationary and mobile power applications, as it can be used as both a transportation fuel and for stationary electricity generation, with the possibility of a distributed generation energy infrastructure. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies will be presented as possible pollution-free solutions to present and future energy concerns. Recent hydrogen-related research at SLAC in hydrogen production, fuel cell catalysis, and hydrogen

  16. Thermophilic hydrogen-producing bacteria inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal environments represented by Caloranaerobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lijing; Xu, Hongxiu; Zeng, Xiang; Wu, Xiaobing; Long, Minnan; Shao, Zongze

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogen is an important energy source for deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems. However, little is known about microbes and their role in hydrogen turnover in the environment. In this study, the diversity and physiological characteristics of fermentative hydrogen-producing microbes from deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields were described for the first time. Seven enrichments were obtained from hydrothermal vent sulfides collected from the Southwest Indian Ocean, East Pacific and South Atlantic. 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that members of the Caloranaerobacter genus were the dominant component in these enrichments. Subsequently, three thermophilic hydrogen producers, strains H363, H53214 and DY22619, were isolated. They were phylogenetically related to species of the genus Caloranaerobacter. The H2 yields of strains H363, H53214, DY22619 and MV107, which was the type species of genus Caloranaerobacter, were 0.11, 1.21, 3.13 and 2.85 mol H2/mol glucose, respectively. Determination of the main soluble metabolites revealed that strains H363, H53214 and MV107 performed heterolactic fermentations, while strain DY22619 performed butyric acid fermentation, indicating distinct fermentation patterns among members of the genus. Finally, a diversity of forms of [FeFe]-hydrogenase with different modular structures was revealed based on draft genomic data of Caloranaerobacter strains. This highlights the complexity of hydrogen metabolism in Caloranaerobacter, reflecting adaptations to environmental conditions in hydrothermal vent systems. Collectively, results suggested that Caloranaerobacter species might be ubiquitous and play a role in biological hydrogen generation in deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimation of the hydrogen flux from a PEM electrolyzer, based in the solar irradiation measured in Zacatecas Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duron-Torres, S.M.; Villagrana-Munoz, L.E.; Garcia-Saldivar, V.M.; Escalante-Garcia, I.L. [Univ. Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico). Unidad Academica de Ciencias Quimicas; Arriaga-Hurtado, L.G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Pedro Escobedo (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    The current cost of obtaining hydrogen from electrolyzers is higher than the cost of producing fossil fuels. However, with advances in technology and greater use of alternative energy sources, the cost of electrolytic hydrogen production may decrease to the point of being competitive. This study calculated how much hydrogen can be produced in a typical polymer exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer. Local solar irradiation measurements were carried out from November 2007 to April 2008 at the Campus Siglo 21 Solarimetric Station at Zacatecas University in Mexico. The mean irradiation measured was 6.6 kW-h per m{sup 2}. Based on the solar data obtained at the station, the hydrogen produced by a typical solar-hydrogen (SH) system was evaluated. The study showed that an important quantity of hydrogen as an energy vector could be obtained from solar radiation. April was determined to be the month of maximum hydrogen production. The lowest hydrogen production was in November. The data obtained during this study can be used to evaluate the solar renewable energy resource expressed as hydrogen production. 19 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  18. Advances of zeolite based membrane for hydrogen production via water gas shift reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, M.; Rizki, Z.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-07-01

    Hydrogen is considered as a promising energy vector which can be obtained from various renewable sources. However, an efficient hydrogen production technology is still challenging. One technology to produce hydrogen with very high capacity with low cost is through water gas shift (WGS) reaction. Water gas shift reaction is an equilibrium reaction that produces hydrogen from syngas mixture by the introduction of steam. Conventional WGS reaction employs two or more reactors in series with inter-cooling to maximize conversion for a given volume of catalyst. Membrane reactor as new technology can cope several drawbacks of conventional reactor by removing reaction product and the reaction will favour towards product formation. Zeolite has properties namely high temperature, chemical resistant, and low price makes it suitable for membrane reactor applications. Moreover, it has been employed for years as hydrogen selective layer. This review paper is focusing on the development of membrane reactor for efficient water gas shift reaction to produce high purity hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Development of membrane reactor is discussed further related to its modification towards efficient reaction and separation from WGS reaction mixture. Moreover, zeolite framework suitable for WGS membrane reactor will be discussed more deeply.

  19. Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Ram

    2013-07-31

    This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15

  20. Hydrogen production system from photovoltaic panels: experimental characterization and size optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, M.L.; Rivarolo, M.; Massardo, A.F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Plant optimization for hydrogen generation from renewable sources. • Experimental tests on a 42 kW alkaline electrolyser. • Time-dependent hierarchical thermo-economic optimization. • Italian case for electricity costs and solar irradiation (Savona). - Abstract: In this paper an approach for the determination of the optimal size and management of a plant for hydrogen production from renewable source (photovoltaic panels) is presented. Hydrogen is produced by a pressurized alkaline electrolyser (42 kW) installed at the University Campus of Savona (Italy) in 2014 and fed by electrical energy produced by photovoltaic panels. Experimental tests have been carried out in order to analyze the performance curve of the electrolyser in different operative conditions, investigating the influence of the different parameters on the efficiency. The results have been implemented in a software tool in order to describe the behavior of the systems in off-design conditions. Since the electrical energy produced by photovoltaic panels and used to feed the electrolyser is strongly variable because of the random nature of the solar irradiance, a time-dependent hierarchical thermo-economic analysis is carried out to evaluate both the optimal size and the management approach related to the system, considering a fixed size of 1 MW for the photovoltaic panels. The thermo-economic analysis is performed with the software tool W-ECoMP, developed by the authors’ research group: the Italian energy scenario is considered, investigating the impact of electricity cost on the results as well.

  1. Prospects of ''solar'' hydrogen for desert development in the Arab world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aal, H.K.; Al-Naafa, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the Arab world is surveyed initially for the availability of new and renewable energy sources (NRES) including solar energy. A classification is made based on the level of development and on the energy balance of each Arab country. The target is to utilize these NRES for hydrogen production and hence for desert development claiming more arable land. The emphasis is on using solar energy. Hydrogen will be harnessed along the following avenues: (a) to provide energy for land development, (b) to provide energy for pumping and irrigation, (c) to produce fresh water, (d) to produce fertilizers based on ammonia as a starting raw material. Case studies are presented for Egypt and Saudi Arabia. (author)

  2. Hydrogen from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Vrije, de G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is generally regarded as the energy carrier of the future. The development of a process for hydrogen production from biomass complies with the policy of the Dutch government to obtain more renewable energy from biomass. This report describes the progress of the BWP II project, phase 2 of

  3. Final report : Alberta renewable diesel demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-02-15

    The Alberta renewable diesel demonstration (ARDD) was a demonstration project aimed at providing information and operating experience to stakeholders in the diesel fuel industry. The demonstration took renewable diesel from the lab to the road, providing hands-on experience at 2 and 5 per cent blends (B2 in winter and B5 in shoulder and summer seasons). The ARDD fleet consisted of 59 vehicles running on two types of renewable diesel, notably fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and hydrogenated-derived renewable diesel (HDRD). This report was a summary of the observations of the ARDD. The report provided a general account of the project scope, methods and observations employed in a multi-stakeholder, real-world demonstration of low-level renewable diesel fuels in challenging winter conditions. The purpose of the report was to provide feedback to stakeholders regarding the use of renewable diesel fuels in Canada's on-road diesel fuel market and to confirm the operability of low level renewable diesel blends under the specific conditions tested ensuring full and continuous compliance with CAN/CGSB 3.520. The report discussed Canada's fuel distribution system in western Canada; the blending facility; blending techniques; fuel retail locations; fuel properties; fuel handling; fuel selection; and fuel testing. It was concluded that the ARDD demonstrated that B2 blends of canola methyl ester and 2 per cent blends of hydrogenation derived renewable diesel were fully operable in winter conditions in the study area when cloud points were adjusted to meet CAN/CGSB requirements. 4 refs., 15 tabs., 20 figs., 2 appendices.

  4. Analysis of economic and infrastructure issues associated with hydrogen production from nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, W.A.; Gorensek, M.B.; Danko, E.; Schultz, K.R.; Richards, M.B.; Brown, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    Consideration is being given to the large-scale transition of the world's energy system from one based on carbon fuels to one based on the use of hydrogen as the carrier. This transition is necessitated by the declining resource base of conventional oil and gas, air quality concerns, and the threat of global climate change linked to greenhouse gas emissions. Since hydrogen can be produced from water using non-carbon primary energy sources, it is the ideal sustainable fuel. The options for producing the hydrogen include renewables (e.g. solar and wind), fossil fuels with carbon sequestration, and nuclear energy. A comprehensive study has been initiated to define economically feasible concepts and to determine estimates of efficiency and cost for hydrogen production using next generation nuclear reactors. A unique aspect of the study is the assessment of the integration of a nuclear plant, a hydrogen production process and the broader infrastructure requirements. Hydrogen infrastructure issues directly related to nuclear hydrogen production are being addressed, and the projected cost, value and end-use market for hydrogen will be determined. The infrastructure issues are critical, since the combined cost of storing, transporting, distributing, and retailing the hydrogen product could well exceed the cost of hydrogen production measured at the plant gate. The results are expected to be useful in establishing the potential role that nuclear hydrogen can play in the future hydrogen economy. Approximately half of the three-year study has been completed. Results to date indicate that nuclear produced hydrogen can be competitive with hydrogen produced from natural gas for use at oil refineries or ammonia plants, indicating a potential early market opportunity for large-scale centralized hydrogen production. Extension of the hydrogen infrastructure from these large industrial users to distributed hydrogen users such as refueling stations and fuel cell generators could

  5. Dark hydrogen production in nitrogen atmosphere - An approach for sustainability by marine cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya valderiana BDU 20041

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabaharan, D.; Arun Kumar, D.; Uma, L.; Subramanian, G. [National Facility for Marine Cyanobacteria (Sponsored by DBT, Govt. of India), Department of Marine Biotechnology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli 620 024 (India)

    2010-10-15

    Biological hydrogen production is an ideal system for three main reasons i) forms a renewable energy source, ii) gives clean fuel and iii) serves as a good supplement to oil reserves. The major challenges faced in biological hydrogen production are the presence of uptake hydrogenase and lack of sustainability in the cyanobacterial hydrogen production system. Three different marine cyanobacterial species viz. Leptolyngbya valderiana BDU 20041, Dichothrix baueriana BDU 40481 and Nostoc calcicola BDU 40302 were studied for their potential use in hydrogen production. Among these, L. valderiana BDU 20041, was found to produce hydrogen even in 100% nitrogen atmosphere which was 85% of the hydrogen produced in argon atmosphere. This is the first report of such a high rate of production of hydrogen in a nitrogen atmosphere by a cyanobacterium, which makes it possible to develop sustained hydrogen production systems. L. valderiana BDU 20041, a dark hydrogen producer uses the reductant essentially supplied by the respiratory pathway for hydrogen production. Using inhibitors, this organism was found to produce hydrogen due to the activities of both nitrogenase and bidirectional hydrogenase, while it had no 'uptake' hydrogenase activity. The other two organisms though had low levels of bidirectional hydrogenase, possessed considerable 'uptake' hydrogenase activity and hence could not release much hydrogen either in argon or nitrogen atmosphere. (author)

  6. Hydrogen in energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-02-01

    This publication proposes a rather brief overview of challenges related to the use of hydrogen as an energy vector in the fields of transports and of energy storage to valorise renewable energies. Processes (steam reforming of natural gas or bio-gas, alkaline or membrane electrolysis, biological production), installation types (centralised or decentralised), raw materials and/or energy (natural gas, water, bio-gas, electricity, light), and their respective industrial maturity are indicated. The role of hydrogen to de-carbonate different types of transports is described (complementary energy for internal combustion as well as electrical vehicles) as well as its role in the valorisation and integration of renewable energies. The main challenges faced by the hydrogen sector are identified and discussed, and actions undertaken by the ADEME are indicated

  7. The Vision of the Role of Hydrogen in Energy Supply in the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbir, F.

    2008-01-01

    Europe is in a very difficult situation regarding the future of energy supply because it is highly dependent on import of oil and natural gas. In addition, because of environmental pollution, global climate changes, ?nite World reserves of fossil fuels and geo-political implications of distribution of those reserves, such an energy system is not sustainable. The need for inevitable changes in energy supply is becoming more and more obvious. This includes not only a change of the energy sources, but also in energy carriers and technologies for their conversion into useful forms of energy, as well as a change in the ways energy is used today. Based on present knowledge, the only energy sources that satisfy the sustainability requirements are the renewable energy sources - direct solar insolation and its consequences (wind, hydro, biomass). As the renewable energy sources cannot be utilized directly in most of applications there is a need for such energy carriers which can be produced from renewable energy sources and which can satisfy all the energy needs at the end use, again satisfying the sustainability requirements. Electricity is one of such energy carrier which may be used in most but not in all applications. There is a need for other energy carriers in the form of fuels which can be stored and used, for example, in the transportation sector. This is a role that hydrogen can fulfill in a future energy system - hydrogen satisfies the conditions of sustainability, can be produced from renewable energy sources and together with electricity can satisfy all energy needs. Although the role of hydrogen in a future energy system can be envisioned with some certainty, the problem is the transition, i.e. switching from the present energy system based on fossil fuels to the future energy system based on renewable energy sources. Of course, such transition cannot happen overnight, but the question is where and how to start and at which pace to proceed. Insistence on short

  8. Real-time integration of optimal generation scheduling with MPC for the energy management of a renewable hydrogen-based microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrollese, Mario; Valverde, Luis; Cocco, Daniele; Cau, Giorgio; Guerra, José

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy management strategy for a renewable hydrogen-based microgrid. • Integration of optimal generation scheduling with a model predictive control. • Experimental tests are carried out simulating typical summer and winter days. • Effective improvement in performance and reduction in microgrid operating cost are achieved. - Abstract: This paper presents a novel control strategy for the optimal management of microgrids with high penetration of renewable energy sources and different energy storage systems. The control strategy is based on the integration of optimal generation scheduling with a model predictive control in order to achieve both long and short-term optimal planning. In particular, long-term optimization of the various microgrid components is obtained by the adoption of an optimal generation scheduling, in which a statistical approach is used to take into account weather and load forecasting uncertainties. The real-time management of the microgrid is instead entrusted to a model predictive controller, which has the important feature of using the results obtained by the optimal generation scheduling. The proposed control strategy was tested in a laboratory-scale microgrid present at the University of Seville, which is composed of an electronic power source that emulates a photovoltaic system, a battery bank and a hydrogen production and storage system. Two different experimental tests that simulate a summer and a winter day were carried out over a 24-h period to verify the reliability and performance enhancement of the control system. Results show an effective improvement in performance in terms of reduction of the microgrid operating cost and greater involvement of the hydrogen storage system for the maintenance of a spinning reserve in batteries.

  9. Hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahwa, P.K.; Pahwa, Gulshan Kumar

    2013-10-01

    In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable and sustainable, efficient and cost-effective, convenient and safe. Hydrogen has been proposed as the perfect fuel for this future energy system. The availability of a reliable and cost-effective supply, safe and efficient storage, and convenient end use of hydrogen will be essential for a transition to a hydrogen economy. Research is being conducted throughout the world for the development of safe, cost-effective hydrogen production, storage, and end-use technologies that support and foster this transition. This book discusses hydrogen economy vis-a-vis sustainable development. It examines the link between development and energy, prospects of sustainable development, significance of hydrogen energy economy, and provides an authoritative and up-to-date scientific account of hydrogen generation, storage, transportation, and safety.

  10. Application of hydrogen-plasma technology for property modification of silicon and producing the silicon-based structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotov, A.K.; Mazanik, A.V.; Ul'yashin, A.G.; Dzhob, R; Farner, V.R.

    2000-01-01

    Effects of atomic hydrogen on the properties of Czochralski-grown single crystal silicon as well as polycrystalline shaped silicon have been investigated. It was established that the buried defect layers created by high-energy hydrogen or helium ion implantation act as a good getter centers for hydrogen atoms introduced in silicon in the process of hydrogen plasma hydrogenation. Atomic hydrogen was shown to be active as a catalyzer significantly enhancing the rate of thermal donors formation in p-type single crystal silicon. This effect can be used for n-p- and p-n-p-silicon based device structures producing [ru

  11. Assessing the Life-Cycle Performance of Hydrogen Production via Biofuel Reforming in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Susmozas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, hydrogen is mainly produced through steam reforming of natural gas. However, this conventional process involves environmental and energy security concerns. This has led to the development of alternative technologies for (potentially green hydrogen production. In this work, the environmental and energy performance of biohydrogen produced in Europe via steam reforming of glycerol and bio-oil is evaluated from a life-cycle perspective, and contrasted with that of conventional hydrogen from steam methane reforming. Glycerol as a by-product from the production of rapeseed biodiesel and bio-oil from the fast pyrolysis of poplar biomass are considered. The processing plants are simulated in Aspen Plus® to provide inventory data for the life cycle assessment. The environmental impact potentials evaluated include abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, land competition, acidification and eutrophication. Furthermore, the cumulative (total and non-renewable energy demand is calculated, as well as the corresponding renewability scores and life-cycle energy balances and efficiencies of the biohydrogen products. In addition to quantitative evidence of the (expected relevance of the feedstock and impact categories considered, results show that poplar-derived bio-oil could be a suitable feedstock for steam reforming, in contrast to first-generation bioglycerol.

  12. Production of hydrogen using composite membrane in PEM water electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhi priya, E.L.; Mahender, C.; Mahesh, Naga; Himabindu, V. [Centre for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally, Hyderabad-500 085, A.P (India); Anjaneyulu, Y. [Director, TLGVRC, JSU Box 18739, JSU, Jackson, MS 32917-0939 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Electrolysis of water is the best known technology till today to produce hydrogen. The only practical way to produce hydrogen using renewable energy sources is by proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis. The most commonly used PEM membrane is Nafion. Composite membrane of TiO2 is synthesized by casting method using Nafion 5wt% solution. RuO2 is used as anode and 10 wt% Pd on activated carbon is used as cathode in the water electrolyser system. The performance of this Composite membrane is studied by varying voltage range 1.8 to 2.6V with respect to hydrogen yield and at current density 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5(A cm-2). This Composite membrane has been tested using in-house fabricated single cell PEM water electrolysis cell with 10cm2 active area at temperatures ranging from 30,45,65 850c and at 1 atmosphere pressure.

  13. Biogas, as a renewable energy source, produced during the anaerobic digestion of organic waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, H

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available of the process is dependent on the balance between symbiotic growth of the different groups of bacteria, such as the acid forming bacteria, obligate hydrogen producing acetogens and methanogens (Angelidaki, et al., 2009). This symbiotic relationship can...

  14. The U.S. department of energy program on hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, David; Paster, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Clean forms of energy are needed to support sustainable global economics growth while mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and impacts on air quality. To address these challenges, the U.S. President's National Energy Policy and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Strategic Plan call for expanding the development of diverse domestic energy supplies. Working with industry, the Department developed a national vision roadmap for moving toward a hydrogen economy-a solution that holds the potential to provide sustainable clean, safe, secure, affordable, and reliable energy. DOE has examined and organized its hydrogen activities in pursuit of this national vision. This includes the development of fossil and renewable sources, as well as nuclear technologies capable of economically producing large quantities of hydrogen. (author)

  15. Thermal Cracking of Jatropha Oil with Hydrogen to Produce Bio-Fuel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Yu Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study used thermal cracking with hydrogen (HTC to produce bio-fuel oil (BFO from jatropha oil (JO and to improve its quality. We conducted HTC with different hydrogen pressures (PH2; 0–2.07 MPa or 0–300 psig, retention times (tr; 40–780 min, and set temperatures (TC; 623–683 K. By applying HTC, the oil molecules can be hydrogenated and broken down into smaller molecules. The acid value (AV, iodine value, kinematic viscosity (KV, density, and heating value (HV of the BFO produced were measured and compared with the prevailing standards for oil to assess its suitability as a substitute for fossil fuels or biofuels. The results indicate that an increase in PH2 tends to increase the AV and KV while decreasing the HV of the BFO. The BFO yield (YBFO increases with PH2 and tr. The above properties decrease with increasing TC. Upon HTC at 0.69 MPa (100 psig H2 pressure, 60 min time, and 683 K temperature, the YBFO was found to be 86 wt%. The resulting BFO possesses simulated distillation characteristics superior to those of boat oil and heavy oil while being similar to those of diesel oil. The BFO contains 15.48% light naphtha, 35.73% heavy naphtha, 21.79% light gas oil, and 27% heavy gas oil and vacuum residue. These constituents can be further refined to produce gasoline, diesel, lubricants, and other fuel products.

  16. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafticht, T.; Agbossou, K. [Institut de recherche sur l hydrogene, Universite du Quebec - Trois-Rivieres, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivieres, (Ciheam), G9A 5H7, (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyser, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  17. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T Tafticht; K Agbossou

    2006-01-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyzer, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  18. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafticht, T.; Agbossou, K.

    2006-01-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyser, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  19. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T Tafticht; K Agbossou [Institut de recherche sur l hydrogene, Universite du Quebec - Trois-Rivieres, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivieres, (Ciheam), G9A 5H7, (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyzer, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  20. Method of producing hydrogen, and rendering a contaminated biomass inert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dennis N [Idaho Falls, ID; Klingler, Kerry M [Idaho Falls, ID; Wilding, Bruce M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-23

    A method for rendering a contaminated biomass inert includes providing a first composition, providing a second composition, reacting the first and second compositions together to form an alkaline hydroxide, providing a contaminated biomass feedstock and reacting the alkaline hydroxide with the contaminated biomass feedstock to render the contaminated biomass feedstock inert and further producing hydrogen gas, and a byproduct that includes the first composition.

  1. Development of a combined bio-hydrogen- and methane-production unit using dark fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstermann, R.; Widmann, R. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Urban Water and Waste Management

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen is regarded as a source of energy of the future. Currently, hydrogen is produced, predominantly, by electrolysis of water by using electricity or by stream reforming of natural gas. So both methods are based on fossil fuels. If the used electricity is recovered from renewable recourses, hydrogen produced by water electrolysis may be a clean solution. At present, the production of hydrogen by biological processes finds more and more attention world far. The biology provides a wide range of approaches to produce hydrogen, including bio-photolysis as well as photo-fermentation and dark-fermentation. Currently these biological technologies are not suitable for solving every day energy problems [1]. But the dark-fermentation is a promising approach to produce hydrogen in a sustainable way and was already examined in some projects. At mesophilic conditions this process provides a high yield of hydrogen by less energy demand, [2]. Short hydraulic retention times (HRT) and high metabolic rates are advantages of the process. The incomplete transformation of the organic components into various organic acids is a disadvantage. Thus a second process step is required. Therefore the well known biogas-technique is used to degrade the organic acids predominantly acetic and butyric acid from the hydrogen-production unit into CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. This paper deals with the development of a combined hydrogen and methane production unit using dark fermentation at mesophilic conditions. The continuous operation of the combined hydrogen and methane production out of DOC loaded sewages and carbohydrate rich biowaste is necessary for the examination of the technical and economical implementation. The hydrogen step shows as first results hydrogen concentration in the biogas between 40 % and 60 %.The operating efficiency of the combined production of hydrogen and methane shall be checked as a complete system. (orig.)

  2. Developing an energy efficient steam reforming process to produce hydrogen from sulfur-containing fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simson, Amanda

    Hydrogen powered fuel cells have the potential to produce electricity with higher efficiency and lower emissions than conventional combustion technology. In order to realize the benefits of a hydrogen fuel cell an efficient method to produce hydrogen is needed. Currently, over 90% of hydrogen is produced from the steam reforming of natural gas. However, for many applications including fuel cell vehicles, the use of a liquid fuel rather than natural gas is desirable. This work investigates the feasibility of producing hydrogen efficiently by steam reforming E85 (85% ethanol/15% gasoline), a commercially available sulfur-containing transportation fuel. A Rh-Pt/SiO2-ZrO2 catalyst has demonstrated good activity for the E85 steam reforming reaction. An industrial steam reforming process is often run less efficiently, with more water and at higher temperatures, in order to prevent catalyst deactivation. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a process that can operate without catalyst deactivation at more energy efficient conditions. In this study, the steam reforming of a sulfur-containing fuel (E85) was studied at near stoichiometric steam/carbon ratios and at 650C, conditions at which catalyst deactivation is normally measured. At these conditions the catalyst was found to be stable steam reforming a sulfur-free E85. However, the addition of low concentrations of sulfur significantly deactivated the catalyst. The presence of sulfur in the fuel caused catalyst deactivation by promoting ethylene which generates surface carbon species (coke) that mask catalytic sites. The amount of coke increased during time on stream and became increasingly graphitic. However, the deactivation due to both sulfur adsorption and coke formation was reversible with air treatment at 650°C. However, regenerations were found to reduce the catalyst life. Air regenerations produce exotherms on the catalyst surface that cause structural changes to the catalyst. During regenerations the

  3. A comparison between renewable transport fuels that can supplement or replace biofuels in a 100% renewable energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Ridjan, Iva

    2014-01-01

    Identifying renewable energy alternatives in transport is particularly complicated, since the end-user can vary from a single-person car to a cargo ship. The aim of this paper is to aid this process by comparing 7 different methods for producing transport fuels in terms of the resources required......, the conversion processes used, the fuel obtained, and the transport demand met. The results indicate that electricity should be prioritised as a transport fuel in the future since it is the most efficient and cheapest pathway. However, since electricity is not suitable for all modes of transport, some form...... of energy dense fuel is also necessary. The results in this paper suggest that this fuel will be produced by hydrogenating either biomass or carbon dioxide, depending on the residual biomass available. Biomass gasification, steam electrolysis, and carbon capture are key technologies in the future...

  4. Optimizing investments in coupled offshore wind -electrolytic hydrogen storage systems in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Peng; Enevoldsen, Peter; Eichman, Joshua; Hu, Weihao; Jacobson, Mark Z.; Chen, Zhe

    2017-08-01

    In response to electricity markets with growing levels of wind energy production and varying electricity prices, this research examines incentives for investments in integrated renewable energy power systems. A strategy for using optimization methods for a power system consisting of wind turbines, electrolyzers, and hydrogen fuel cells is explored. This research reveals the investment potential of coupling offshore wind farms with different hydrogen systems. The benefits in terms of a return on investment are demonstrated with data from the Danish electricity markets. This research also investigates the tradeoffs between selling the hydrogen directly to customers or using it as a storage medium to re-generate electricity at a time when it is more valuable. This research finds that the most beneficial configuration is to produce hydrogen at a time that complements the wind farm and sell the hydrogen directly to end users.

  5. Economic competitiveness of off-peak hydrogen production today - A European comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansilla, C.; Dautremont, S.; Louyrette, J.; Albou, S.; Bourasseau, C.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen has a wide range of applications. In view of the environmental benefits, hydrogen can be produced by de-carbonized means. When alkaline electrolysis is the selected process, extra value is offered by flexible operation that could bring both; an opportunity to reduce the cost of hydrogen produced (by consuming electricity during off-peak hours, and stopping the process during peak hours) and also a complementary tool to help balancing of the electric system. This paper assesses the profitability of market-driven operation for three different markets: France, Germany and Spain, with an analysis on the spot market. The market that exhibits the biggest potential in terms of profitability thanks to flexible operation is the French one, for each studied year. France is also the country that has the smallest installed renewable capacity amongst three considered countries. The gain on the hydrogen production cost allowed by the optimization is less than 3%. Hence, market-driven operation does not seem highly favourable to valorize fluctuating hydrogen production, when only the market price opportunities are considered. The balancing tool provided by the electrolysis system needs to be specifically valorized, in order to make flexible operation profitable. (authors)

  6. Hybrid systems to address seasonal mismatches between electricity production and demand in nuclear renewable electrical grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Charles

    2013-01-01

    A strategy to enable zero-carbon variable electricity production with full utilization of renewable and nuclear energy sources has been developed. Wind and solar systems send electricity to the grid. Nuclear plants operate at full capacity with variable steam to turbines to match electricity demand with production (renewables and nuclear). Excess steam at times of low electricity prices and electricity demand go to hybrid fuel production and storage systems. The characteristic of these hybrid technologies is that the economic penalties for variable nuclear steam inputs are small. Three hybrid systems were identified that could be deployed at the required scale. The first option is the gigawatt-year hourly-to-seasonal heat storage system where excess steam from the nuclear plant is used to heat rock a kilometer underground to create an artificial geothermal heat source. The heat source produces electricity on demand using geothermal technology. The second option uses steam from the nuclear plant and electricity from the grid with high-temperature electrolysis (HTR) cells to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen is primarily for industrial applications; however, the HTE can be operated in reverse using hydrogen for peak electricity production. The third option uses variable steam and electricity for shale oil production. -- Highlights: •A system is proposed to meet variable hourly to seasonal electricity demand. •Variable solar and wind electricity sent to the grid. •Base-load nuclear plants send variable steam for electricity and hybrid systems. •Hybrid energy systems can economically absorb gigawatts of variable steam. •Hybrid systems include geothermal heat storage, hydrogen, and shale-oil production

  7. Hydrogen from nuclear energy and the impact on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.; Miller, A.I.; Poehnell, T.G.

    2001-01-01

    The two major candidates for hydrogen production include nuclear power and other renewable energy sources. However, hydrogen produced by steam reforming of natural gas offers little advantage in total cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over hybrid internal combustion engine (ICE) technology. Only nuclear power offers the possibility of cutting GHG emissions significantly and to economically provide electricity for traditional applications and by producing hydrogen for its widespread use in the transportation sector. Using nuclear energy to produce hydrogen for transportation fuel, doubles or triples nuclear's capacity to reduce GHG emissions. An analysis at the Atomic Energy of Canada shows that a combination of hydrogen fuel and nuclear energy can stabilize GHG emissions and climate change for a wide range of the latest scenarios presented by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The technology for replacing hydrocarbon fuels with non-polluting hydrogen exists with nuclear power, electrolysis and fuel cells, using electric power grids for distribution. It was emphasized that a move toward total emissions-free transportation will be a move towards solving the negative effects of climate change. This paper illustrated the trends between global economic and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Low carbon dioxide emission energy alternatives were discussed along with the sources of hydrogen and the full cycle assessment results in reduced emissions. It was shown that deploying 20 CANDU NPPs (of 690 MW (e) net each) would fuel 13 million vehicles with the effect of levelling of carbon dioxide emissions from transportation between 2020 to 2030. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  8. Kicking the habit[Hydrogen fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, N.; Lawton, G.; Pearce, F.

    2000-11-25

    This article focuses on the use of clean non-polluting hydrogen fuel as opposed to the use of fossil fuels which ties western nations to the Middle East. Details are given of Iceland's plans to use hydrogen fuelled buses, cars, trucks and trawlers, car manufacturers' options of using internal combustion engines burning hydrogen and hydrogen fuel cells, and the production of hydrogen using electrolysis of water and steam reforming of hydrocarbons. The 'Green Dream' of pollution-free hydrogen production, the use of solar energy for renewable hydrogen production in California, and problems associated with hydrogen storage are discussed.

  9. Hydrogen Through Water Electrolysis and Biomass Gasification for Application in Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kirosa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is considered to be one of the most promising green energy carrier in the energy storage and conversion scenario. Although it is abundant on Earth in the form of compounds, its occurrence in free form is extremely low. Thus, it has to be produced by reforming processes, steam reforming (SR, partial oxidation (POX and auto-thermal reforming (ATR mainly from fossil fuels for high throughput with high energy requirements, pyrolysis of biomass and electrolysis. Electrolysis is brought about by passing electric current though two electrodes to evolve water into its constituent parts, viz. hydrogen and oxygen, respectively. Hydrogen produced by non-noble metal catalysts for both anode and cathode is therefore cost-effective and can be integrated into fuel cells for direct chemical energy conversion into electrical energy electricity, thus meeting the sustainable and renewable use with low carbon footprint.

  10. An integrated approach to hydrogen economy in Sicilian islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matera, Fabio V.; Sapienza, C.; Andaloro, L.; Dispensa, G.; Ferraro, M.; Antonucci, V. [Italian National Research Council, Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies ' ' Nicola Giordano' ' , salita S. Lucia sopra Contesse, 5, Messina 98126 (Italy)

    2009-08-15

    CNR-ITAE is developing several hydrogen and fuel cell demonstration and research projects, each intended to be part of a larger strategy for hydrogen communities settling in small Sicilian islands. These projects involve vehicle design, hydrogen production from renewable energy sources and methane, as well as implementation strategies to develop a hydrogen and renewable energy economy. These zero emission lightweight vehicles feature regenerative braking and advanced power electronics to increase efficiency. Moreover, to achieve a very easy-to-use technology, a very simple interface between driver and the system is under development, including fault-recovery strategies and GPS positioning for car-rental fleets. Also marine applications have been included, with tests on PEFC applied on passenger ships and luxury yacht as power system for on-board loads. In marine application, it is under study also an electrolysis hydrogen generator system using seawater as hydrogen carrier. For stationary and automotive applications, the project includes a hydrogen refuelling station powered by renewable energy (wind or/and solar) and test on fuel processors fed with methane, in order to make the power generation self-sufficient, as well as to test the technology and increase public awareness toward clean energy sources. (author)

  11. Synthesis of Renewable Lubricant Alkanes from Biomass-Derived Platform Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mengyuan; Xia, Qineng; Liu, Xiaohui; Guo, Yong; Wang, Yanqin

    2017-10-23

    The catalytic synthesis of liquid alkanes from renewable biomass has received tremendous attention in recent years. However, bio-based platform chemicals have not to date been exploited for the synthesis of highly branched lubricant alkanes, which are currently produced by hydrocracking and hydroisomerization of long-chain n-paraffins. A selective catalytic synthetic route has been developed for the production of highly branched C 23 alkanes as lubricant base oil components from biomass-derived furfural and acetone through a sequential four-step process, including aldol condensation of furfural with acetone to produce a C 13 double adduct, selective hydrogenation of the adduct to a C 13 ketone, followed by a second condensation of the C 13 ketone with furfural to generate a C 23 aldol adduct, and finally hydrodeoxygenation to give highly branched C 23 alkanes in 50.6 % overall yield from furfural. This work opens a general strategy for the synthesis of high-quality lubricant alkanes from renewable biomass. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Călin C. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Arany Janos 11, RO-400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H{sub 2} and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  13. Evaluation of pretreatment methods on harvesting hydrogen producing seeds from anaerobic digested organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Li [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhenhong, Yuan; Yongming, Sun; Longlong, Ma [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-08-15

    In order to harvest high-efficient hydrogen producing seeds, five pretreatment methods (including acid, heat, sonication, aeration and freeze/thawing) were performed on anaerobic digested sludge (AS) which was collected from a batch anaerobic reactor for treating organic fraction of municipal solid waste. The hydrogen production tests were conducted in serum bottles containing 20 gVS/L (24.8 g COD/L) mixture of rice and lettuce powder at 37 C. The experimental results showed that the heat and acid pretreatment completely repressed the methanogenic activity of AS, but acid pretreatment also partially repressed hydrogen production. Sonication, freeze/thawing and aeration did not completely suppress the methanogen activity. The highest hydrogen yields were 119.7, 42.2, 26.0, 23.0, 22.7 and 22.1 mL/gVS for heated, acidified, freeze/thawed, aerated, sonicated and control AS respectively. A pH of about 4.9 was detected at the end of hydrogen producing fermentation for all tests. The selection of an initial pH can markedly affect the hydrogen producing ability for heated and acidified AS. The higher initial pH generated higher hydrogen yield and the highest hydrogen yield was obtained with initial pH 8.9 for heated AS. (author)

  14. Market Penetration Simulation of Hydrogen Powered Vehicles in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eunju Jun; Yong Hoon, Jeong; Soon Heung, Chang

    2006-01-01

    As oil price being boosted, hydrogen has been considered to be a strong candidate for the future energy carrier along with electricity. Although hydrogen can be produced by many energy sources, carbon-free sources such as nuclear and renewable energy may be ideal ones due to their environmental friendliness. For the analysis of hydrogen economy, the cost and market penetration of various end-use technologies are the most important factors in production and consumer side, respectively. Particularly, hydrogen powered vehicle is getting more interests as fuel cell technologies are developed. In this paper, the hydrogen powered vehicle penetration into the transportation market is simulated. A system dynamic code, Vensim, was utilized to simulate the dynamics in the transportation, assuming various types of vehicle such as gasoline, hybrid electricity and hydrogen powered. Market shares of each vehicle are predicted by using currently available data. The result showed that hydrogen era will not be bright as we think. To reach the era of hydrogen fuel cell cost should be reduced dramatically. And if the hydrogen cost which includes both operating and capital cost reaches to a $0.16 per kilometer, hydrogen portion can be a 50 percent in the transportation sector. However, if strong policy or subsidy can be given, the result will be changed. [1] (authors)

  15. Conceptual design study FY 1981: synfuels from fusion - using the tandem mirror reactor and a thermochemical cycle to produce hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krikorian, O.H.

    1982-01-01

    This report represents the second year's effort of a scoping and conceptual design study being conducted for the express purpose of evaluating the engineering potential of producing hydrogen by thermochemical cycles using a tandem mirror fusion driver. The hydrogen thus produced may then be used as a feedstock to produce fuels such as methane, methanol, or gasoline. The main objective of this second year's study has been to obtain some approximate cost figures for hydrogen production through a conceptual design study

  16. Solar Hydrogen Energy Systems Science and Technology for the Hydrogen Economy

    CERN Document Server

    Zini, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    It is just a matter of time when fossil fuels will become unavailable or uneconomical to retrieve. On top of that, their environmental impact is already too severe. Renewable energy sources can be considered as the most important substitute to fossil energy, since they are inexhaustible and have a very low, if none, impact on the environment. Still, their unevenness and unpredictability are drawbacks that must be dealt with in order to guarantee a reliable and steady energy supply to the final user. Hydrogen can be the answer to these problems. This book presents the readers with the modeling, functioning and implementation of solar hydrogen energy systems, which efficiently combine different technologies to convert, store and use renewable energy. Sources like solar photovoltaic or wind, technologies like electrolysis, fuel cells, traditional and advanced hydrogen storage are discussed and evaluated together with system management and output performance. Examples are also given to show how these systems are ...

  17. IEA hydrogen agreement, task 15: photobiological hydrogen production - an international collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblad, P.; Asada, Y.; Benemann, J.; Hallenbeck, P.; Melis, A.; Miyake, J.; Seibert, M.; Skulberg, O.

    2000-01-01

    Biological hydrogen production, the production of H 2 by microorganisms, has been an active field of basic and applied research for many years. Realization of practical processes for photobiological hydrogen production from water using solar energy would result in a major, novel source of sustainable and renewable energy, without greenhouse gas emissions or environmental pollution. However, development of such processes requires significant scientific and technological advances, and long-term basic and applied R and D. This International Energy Agency (lEA) Task covers research areas and needs at the interface of basic and applied R and D which are of mutual interest to the countries and researchers participating in the lEA Hydrogen Agreement. The overall objective is to sufficiently advance the basic and early-stage applied science in this area of research over the next five years to allow an evaluation of the potential of such a technology to be developed as a practical renewable energy source for the 21st Century. (author)

  18. Wind Energy and Hydrogen, a previous Symbiosis announced; Energia eolica e hidrogeno. Una simbiosis anticipada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aso Aguarta, I.; Correas Uson, L.; Burkhalter, E.

    2008-07-01

    Nowadays, renewable energies are taken an important role into electricity generation, in order to mitigate the Co2 emissions, which are producing the Climate Change. Spain, is a special case where wind energy has been developed for several years, so the percentage wind energy producing is really high, but as a renewable energy, this energy is only available when primary resources exist, in this case the wind, and in cases in which it does not exit, production is reduced drastically, so, it is necessary to develop energy storage systems, in order to increase the amount wind energy introduce into the electrical system, in order to be able to control the production. One storage method proposed is produce hydrogen, in order to be use later when the resources are not available, to produce energy. (Author) 8 refs.

  19. Energy management strategy based on short-term generation scheduling for a renewable microgrid using a hydrogen storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cau, Giorgio; Cocco, Daniele; Petrollese, Mario; Knudsen Kær, Søren; Milan, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy management strategy for hybrid stand-alone power plant with hydrogen storage. • Optimal scheduling of storage devices to minimize the utilization costs. • A scenario tree method is used to manage uncertainties of weather and load forecasts. • A reduction of operational costs and energy losses is achieved. - Abstract: This paper presents a novel energy management strategy (EMS) to control an isolated microgrid powered by a photovoltaic array and a wind turbine and equipped with two different energy storage systems: electric batteries and a hydrogen production and storage system. In particular, an optimal scheduling of storage devices is carried out to maximize the benefits of available renewable resources by operating the photovoltaic systems and the wind turbine at their maximum power points and by minimizing the overall utilization costs. Unlike conventional EMS based on the state-of-charge (SOC) of batteries, the proposed EMS takes into account the uncertainty due to the intermittent nature of renewable resources and electricity demand. In particular, the uncertainties are evaluated with a stochastic approach through the construction of different scenarios with corresponding probabilities. The EMS is defined by minimizing the utilization costs of the energy storage equipment. The weather conditions recorded in four different weeks between April and December are used as case studies to test the proposed EMS and the results obtained are compared with a conventional EMS based on the state-of-charge of batteries. The results show a reduction of utilization costs of about 15% in comparison to conventional SOC-based EMS and an increase of the average energy storage efficiency

  20. 21st century's energy: hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    2007-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the Hydrogen Energy System. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system, which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st Century

  1. 21st Century's energy: Hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veziroglu, T. Nejat; Sahin, Suemer

    2008-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the hydrogen energy system. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system, which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar-hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar-hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st century

  2. Assessment of feasible strategies for seasonal underground hydrogen storage in a saline aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáinz-García, Alvaro; Abarca, Elena; Rubí, Violeta; Grandia, Fidel

    2017-04-01

    Renewable energies are unsteady, which results in temporary mismatches between demand and supply. The conversion of surplus energy to hydrogen and its storage in geological formations is one option to balance this energy gap. This study evaluates the feasibility of seasonal storage of hydrogen produced from wind power in Castilla-León region (northern Spain). A 3D multiphase numerical model is used to test different extraction well configurations during three annual injection-production cycles in a saline aquifer. Results demonstrate that underground hydrogen storage in saline aquifers can be operated with reasonable recovery ratios. A maximum hydrogen recovery ratio of 78%, which represents a global energy efficiency of 30%, has been estimated. Hydrogen upconing emerges as the major risk on saline aquifer storage. However, shallow extraction wells can minimize its effects. Steeply dipping geological structures are key for an efficient hydrogen storage.

  3. Biologically Produced Methane as a Renewable Energy Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, D E; Smith, J A

    2016-01-01

    Methanogens are a unique group of strictly anaerobic archaea that are more metabolically diverse than previously thought. Traditionally, it was thought that methanogens could only generate methane by coupling the oxidation of products formed by fermentative bacteria with the reduction of CO 2 . However, it has recently been observed that many methanogens can also use electrons extruded from metal-respiring bacteria, biocathodes, or insoluble electron shuttles as energy sources. Methanogens are found in both human-made and natural environments and are responsible for the production of ∼71% of the global atmospheric methane. Their habitats range from the human digestive tract to hydrothermal vents. Although biologically produced methane can negatively impact the environment if released into the atmosphere, when captured, it can serve as a potent fuel source. The anaerobic digestion of wastes such as animal manure, human sewage, or food waste produces biogas which is composed of ∼60% methane. Methane from biogas can be cleaned to yield purified methane (biomethane) that can be readily incorporated into natural gas pipelines making it a promising renewable energy source. Conventional anaerobic digestion is limited by long retention times, low organics removal efficiencies, and low biogas production rates. Therefore, many studies are being conducted to improve the anaerobic digestion process. Researchers have found that addition of conductive materials and/or electrically active cathodes to anaerobic digesters can stimulate the digestion process and increase methane content of biogas. It is hoped that optimization of anaerobic digesters will make biogas more readily accessible to the average person. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 5. world inventory of the electric power produced by renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    This fifth edition of the electric power production in the world by renewable energies sources, has been realized by the renewable energies observatory for ''Electricite de France''. It proposes an evaluation of the situation, providing data and analysis for each renewable energy sources, hydro electric power, wind energy, biomass, geothermal energy, photovoltaic and the green energy. (A.L.B.)

  5. Study on the viability for the implantation of a hydrogen-solar-aeolian system for the state of Ceara, Brazil; Estudo de viabilidade para implantacao de um sistema a hidrogenio-solar-eolico para o estado do Ceara, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, A.D.; Sacramento, E.M. do; Lima, L.C. de [Universidade Estadual do Ceara (UECE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The state of the Ceara imports most of its consumed energy, configuring itself as a region eminently energy importer. However, the manufacture of its wind power Atlas demonstrated a high potential for the generation of electric energy originated from this renewable source. It is known, also, through studies, that this state possesses high potential for the exploitation of solar energy also for the generation of electric energy. A clean option to obtain hydrogen is the utilization of such renewable sources. This work presents results of the application of a model of solar-wind hydrogen energy for the Ceara state and variables such as population, gross intern product, energetic demand, energy imports, fossil fuel and hydrogen prices, income from hydrogen sale, and others parameters. The hydrogen will be produced from the sea water desalinisation, using solar and wind energies. The produced hydrogen eventually will be introduced in Ceara State through three scenarios which are one of, fast introduction, other of slow introduction and other of no introduction of hydrogen. (author)

  6. China could satisfied her energy demand by her domestic resource of renewable and hydrogen energy and with her favorite condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao De You

    2006-01-01

    Paper described recent situation and the reason of oils consumed increasing rapidly and the activity for searching oil around the world wide and proposed some suggestion for rapid development and commercialization of hydrogen energy system in China with her domestic resources. China could satisfy the energy demand with her domestic resources of renewable energies and depending on her domestic scientific and technology and personal resources etc. It could Clean up the misunderstanding of other country and worried about the oil price increasing. (author)

  7. Decentralized and direct solar hydrogen production: Towards a hydrogen economy in MENA region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensebaa, Farid; Khalfallah, Mohamed; Ouchene, Majid

    2010-09-15

    Hydrogen has certainly some advantages in spite of its high cost and low efficiency when compared to other energy vectors. Solar energy is an abundant, clean and renewable source of energy, currently competing with fossil fuel for water heating without subsidy. Photo-electrochemical, thermo-chemicals and photo-biological processes for hydrogen production processes have been demonstrated. These decentralised hydrogen production processes using directly solar energy do not require expensive hydrogen infrastructure for packaging and delivery in the short and medium terms. MENA region could certainly be considered a key area for a new start to a global deployment of hydrogen economy.

  8. Integrating recycling, renewable energy and agriculture for commercial waste to wealth businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Khai Chung; Angeline Pang

    2010-01-01

    Recycling organic material to produce renewable energy and organic fertilizer is an attractive business model in waste to wealth business proposition. Azed Bina Sdn Bhd has developed an integrated recycling facility to recycle solid organic materials into energy and organic fertilizer, a project partially funded by MOSTI TechnoFund in 2008. The novel and innovative aspect is the water disassociation technology which separates the water into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas economically using thermal heat from the burning of biomass which is a waste material. This system is modular, scalable, economical and environmental friendly. It has many applications in the field of, Environment and Solid Waste Management - recycling organic waste into energy and organic fertilizer rather than disposal at the landfill, hence preserving our environment. Green technology - economical biogas production consists of 50% hydrogen gas which is a clean and renewable energy source. The biogas has many applications in the food industry, manufacturing industry and agriculture sector. Agro-based industry - production of clean heat energy is useful for the drying of agriculture crops. Agriculture Sector - production of ash can be used to produce organic fertilizer by incorporating effective microbes. Reduce the dependence on chemical fertilizer which is bad for the environment Rural Development - developing rural area by integrating small scale industries, agro based industry, agriculture and rural area. The company commercial applications of recycling organic materials to produce energy for companies such as laundry business, agro based food drying and waste management recycling. The next project is to provide chilled water using organic waste. (author)

  9. Harvesting and redistributing renewable energy: on the role of gas and electricity grids to overcome intermittency through the generation and storage of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Dennis; Leach, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    If intermittent renewable energy technologies such as those based on solar, wind, wave and tidal resources are eventually to supply significant shares of total energy supplies, it is crucial that the energy storage problem is solved. There are several (long-recognised) possibilities ahead including compressed air, pumped storage, further developments in batteries, regenerable fuel cells, 'super-capacitors' and so forth. But one that is being revisited extensively by industry and research establishments is the production and storage of hydrogen from electricity at off-peak times, and in times when there would be a surplus of renewable energy, for reuse in the electricity, gas and transport markets; short-term and even seasonal and longer-term storage is technically feasible with this option. This paper looks at the costs of the option both in the near-term and the long-term relative to the current costs of electricity and natural gas supplies. While the costs of hydrogen would necessarily be greater than those of natural gas (though not disruptively so), when used in conjunction with emerging technologies for decentralised generation and combined heat and power there is scope for appreciable economies in electricity supply. A lot will depend on innovation at the systems level, and on how we operate our electricity and gas grids and regulate our electricity and gas industries. We have also suggested that we now need to experiment more, at the commercial level, and in the laboratories, with the hydrogen option

  10. Technical and economic assessment of producing hydrogen by reforming syngas from the Battelle indirectly heated biomass gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, M.K.

    1995-08-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass by means of indirectly heated gasification and steam reforming was studied. A detailed process model was developed in ASPEN Plus trademark to perform material and energy balances. The results of this simulation were used to size and cost major pieces of equipment from which the determination of the necessary selling price of hydrogen was made. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the process to study hydrogen price as a function of biomass feedstock cost and hydrogen production efficiency. The gasification system used for this study was the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) indirectly heated gasifier. The heat necessary for the endothermic gasification reactions is supplied by circulating sand from a char combustor to the gasification vessel. Hydrogen production was accomplished by steam reforming the product synthesis gas (syngas) in a process based on that used for natural gas reforming. Three process configurations were studied. Scheme 1 is the full reforming process, with a primary reformer similar to a process furnace, followed by a high temperature shift reactor and a low temperature shift reactor. Scheme 2 uses only the primary reformer, and Scheme 3 uses the primary reformer and the high temperature shift reactor. A pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system is used in all three schemes to produce a hydrogen product pure enough to be used in fuel cells. Steam is produced through detailed heat integration and is intended to be sold as a by-product

  11. History of adaptation determines short-term shifts in performance and community structure of hydrogen-producing microbial communities degrading wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Vazquez, Idania; Morales, Ana L; Escalante, Ana E

    2017-11-01

    This study addresses the question of ecological interest for the determination of structure and diversity of microbial communities that degrade lignocellulosic biomasses to produce biofuels. Two microbial consortia with different history, native of wheat straw (NWS) and from a methanogenic digester (MD) fed with cow manure, were contrasted in terms of hydrogen performance, substrate disintegration and microbial diversity. NWS outperformed the hydrogen production rate of MD. Microscopic images revealed that NWS acted on the cuticle and epidermis, generating cellulose strands with high crystallinity, while MD degraded deeper layers, equally affecting all polysaccharides. The bacterial composition markedly differed according to the inocula origin. NWS almost solely comprised hydrogen producers of the phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, with 38% members of Enterococcus. After hydrogen fermentation, NWS comprised 8% Syntrophococcus, an acetogen that cleaves aryl ethers of constituent groups on the aromatic components of lignin. Conversely, MD comprised thirteen phyla, primarily including Firmicutes with H 2 -producing members, and Bacteroidetes with non-H 2 -producing members, which reduced the hydrogen performance. Overall, the results of this study provide clear evidence that the history of adaptation of NWS enhanced the hydrogen performance from untreated wheat straw. Further, native wheat straw communities have the potential to refine cellulose fibers and produce biofuels simultaneously. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Producing light hydrocarbons by destructive hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fohlen, J H

    1928-06-20

    A method of obtaining light hydrocarbons from fuels and natural or industrial carbonaceous materials by cracking under pressure from 5 to 200 atmospheres and within a temperature range of 200 to 1,000/sup 0/C, the cracking operation being assisted by the presence of catalysts such as metallic halides, simultaneously, with hydrogenation by means of nascent hydrogen in the reaction chamber.

  13. Hydrogen evolution in enzymatic photoelectrochemical cell using modified seawater electrolytes produced by membrane desalination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyunku; Yoon, Jaekyung [Hydrogen Energy Research Center, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea); Bae, Sanghyun [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, 234 Maeji-ri, Hungub-myun, Wonju, Gangwon-do 220-710 (Korea); Kim, Chunghwan; Kim, Suhan [Korea Institute of Water and Environment, K-Water, 462-1 Jeonmin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-730 (Korea)

    2009-09-15

    In the near future, potential water shortages are expected to occur all over the world and this problem will have a significant influence on the availability of water for water-splitting processes, such as photocatalysis and electrolysis, as well as for drinking water. For this reason, it has been suggested that seawater could be used as an alternative for the various water industries including hydrogen production. Seawater contains a large amount of dissolved ion components, thus allowing it to be used as an electrolyte in photoelectrochemical (PEC) systems for producing hydrogen. Especially, the concentrate (retentate) stream shows higher salinity than the seawater fed to the membrane desalination process, because purified water (fresh water) is produced as the permeate stream and the waste brine is more concentrated than the original seawater. In this study, we investigated the hydrogen evolution rate in a photoelectrochemical system, including the preparation and characterization of an anodized tubular TiO{sub 2} electrode (ATTE) as both the photoanode and the cathode with the assistance of an immobilized hydrogenase enzyme and an external bias (solar cell), and the use of various qualities of seawater produced by membrane desalination processes as the electrolyte. The results showed that the rate of hydrogen evolution obtained using the nanofiltration (NF) retentate in the PEC system is ca. 105 {mu}mol/cm{sup 2} h, showing that this is an effective seawater electrolyte for hydrogen production, the optimum amount of enzyme immobilized on the cathode is ca. 3.66 units per geometrical unit area (1 cm x 1 cm), and the optimum external external bias supplied by the solar cell is 2.0 V. (author)

  14. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This booklet describes in simple terms the so-called new renewable energy sources: solar energy, biomass, wind power and wave power. In addition, there are brief discussions on hydrogen, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), tidal power, geothermal energy, small hydropower plants and energy from salt gradients. The concept of new renewable energy sources is used to exclude large hydropower plants as these are considered conventional energy sources. The booklet also discusses the present energy use, the external frames for new renewable energy sources, and prospects for the future energy supply.

  15. A review of renewable energy in Canada, 1990-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyboer, J.; Rivers, N.; Muncaster, K.; Bennett, M.; Bennett, S.

    2004-10-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive database of renewable energy facilities in Canada by province and by resource type. It considers technologies used for power generation or cogeneration, renewable energy heating systems, hydrogen generation and transportation fuels. Renewable energy technologies convert naturally regenerating resources into useful energy such as electricity, thermal energy, hydrogen or bio-fuels. The database contains information on renewable power operations in Canada over a scale of 100 kilowatts of rated capacity. Smaller applications have been included for run-of-river, hydro, earth, wind and solar power. There are 753 records for renewable energy facilities in Canada, including wind, hydroelectricity, wood residue biomass, landfill/sewage gas, solar photovoltaic, municipal solid waste, and tidal energy. The data in this report was acquired from Statistics Canada and other public information sources. For each of the 753 renewable energy power plants, this report states its type of renewable energy, the province, the name of the project, its location, its operator, electrical generating capacity, number of generating units, average annual electricity production, and the year it began operation. Canada currently has an installed electrical capacity of 115 GW, of which renewable energy sources constitute 76 per cent with the dominant source being hydroelectricity. Manitoba has the highest portion of renewable energy in its installed electrical capacity. Approximately 40 per cent Canada's renewable power capacity is in Quebec, followed by 15 per cent in British Columbia. Nova Scotia has Canada's only tidal power plant. Most of the installed renewable energy power capacity in Canada is owned by integrated electric utilities and a small percentage is owned by renewable electricity generating companies, aluminium companies, pulp and paper companies or diversified electricity generators. It is expected that interest in renewable energy will grow with

  16. Hydrogen Technology Education Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-12-01

    This document outlines activities for educating key target audiences, as suggested by workshop participants. Held December 4-5, 2002, the Hydrogen Technology Education Workshop kicked off a new education effort coordinated by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, & Infrastructure Technologies Program of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  17. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  18. Conference on hydrogen-energy in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodineau, Luc; Menzen, Georg; Arnold, Peter Erich; Mauberger, Pascal; Roentzsch, Lars; Poggi, Philippe; Gervais, Thierry; Schneider, Guenther; Colomar, David; Buenger, Ulrich; Nieder, Babette; Zimmer, Rene; Jeanne, Fabrice; Le Grand, Jean-Francois

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on hydrogen-energy in France and Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 200 participants exchanged views on the different perspectives for use of hydrogen, in particular in transportation and energy storage applications. The technical production, transport and storage means were addressed too, as well as the technological models and the conditions for a large-scale industrial deployment. The economic prospects of hydrogen-energy in tomorrow's energy mix were also considered during the conference. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Hydrogen energy and Fuel Cells in France Today, and prospective (Luc Bodineau); 2 - The situation of energy Policy in Germany and the challenges for the Hydrogen Technology (Georg Menzen); 3 - Unlocking the Hydrogen Potential for Transport and Industry (Peter Erich Arnold); 4 - Hydrogen, a new energy for our planet - Hydrogen storage possibilities: example of solid storage (Pascal Mauberger); 5 - Innovative Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for H 2 Production and H 2 Storage (Lars Roentzsch); 6 - Scientific development and industrial strategy: experience feedback from the Myrte platform and energy transition-related perspectives (Philippe Poggi, Thierry Gervais); 7 - 'Power to Gas' - Important partner for renewables with big impact potential (Guenther Schneider) 8 - Developing a Hydrogen Infrastructure for Transport in France and Germany - A Comparison (David Colomar, Ulrich Buenger); 9 - H 2 and Fuel-Cells as Key Technologies for the Transition to Renewable energies - The example of Herten (Babette Nieder); 10 - Social acceptance of hydrogen mobility in Germany (Rene Zimmer); 11 - Hydrogen - A development opportunity for regions? (Fabrice Jeanne)

  19. Fuel cell cars in a microgrid for synergies between hydrogen and electricity networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, Farid; Park Lee, Esther; Wouw, Nathan van de; De Schutter, Bart; Lukszo, Zofia

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel concept of a flexible energy system that uses fuel cell cars as dispatchable power plants. • Synergies between hydrogen and electricity networks by operating of fuel cell cars in a microgrid. • A robust min-max model predictive control scheme for optimal dispatch of the fuel cell cars. • A novel model predictive control scheme to govern the system operation. - Abstract: Fuel cell electric vehicles convert chemical energy of hydrogen into electricity to power their motor. Since cars are used for transport only during a small part of the time, energy stored in the on-board hydrogen tanks of fuel cell vehicles can be used to provide power when cars are parked. In this paper, we present a community microgrid with photovoltaic systems, wind turbines, and fuel cell electric vehicles that are used to provide vehicle-to-grid power when renewable power generation is scarce. Excess renewable power generation is used to produce hydrogen, which is stored in a refilling station. A central control system is designed to operate the system in such a way that the operational costs are minimized. To this end, a hybrid model for the system is derived, in which both the characteristics of the fuel cell vehicles and their traveling schedules are considered. The operational costs of the system are formulated considering the presence of uncertainty in the prediction of the load and renewable energy generation. A robust min-max model predictive control scheme is developed and finally, a case study illustrates the performance of the designed system.

  20. Tetrahydroborates: Development and Potential as Hydrogen Storage Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Puszkiel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of fossil fuels as an energy supply becomes increasingly problematic from the point of view of both environmental emissions and energy sustainability. As an alternative, hydrogen is widely regarded as a key element for a potential energy solution. However, different from fossil fuels such as oil, gas, and coal, the production of hydrogen requires energy. Alternative and intermittent renewable sources such as solar power, wind power, etc., present multiple advantages for the production of hydrogen. On one hand, the renewable sources contribute to a remarkable reduction of pollutants released to the air. On the other hand, they significantly enhance the sustainability of energy supply. In addition, the storage of energy in form of hydrogen has a huge potential to balance an effective and synergetic utilization of the renewable energy sources. In this regard, hydrogen storage technology presents a key roadblock towards the practical application of hydrogen as “energy carrier”. Among the methods available to store hydrogen, solid-state storage is the most attractive alternative both from the safety and the volumetric energy density points of view. Because of their appealing hydrogen content, complex hydrides and complex hydride-based systems have attracted considerable attention as potential energy vectors for mobile and stationary applications. In this review, the progresses made over the last century on the development in the synthesis and research on the decomposition reactions of homoleptic tetrahydroborates is summarized. Furthermore, theoretical and experimental investigations on the thermodynamic and kinetic tuning of tetrahydroborates for hydrogen storage purposes are herein reviewed.

  1. Heat pump cycle by hydrogen-absorbing alloys to assist high-temperature gas-cooled reactor in producing hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoshi, Fukada; Nobutaka, Hayashi

    2010-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system using two hydrogen-absorbing alloys is proposed to utilise heat exhausted from a high-temperature source such as a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), more efficiently. The heat pump system is designed to produce H 2 based on the S-I cycle more efficiently. The overall system proposed here consists of HTGR, He gas turbines, chemical heat pumps and reaction vessels corresponding to the three-step decomposition reactions comprised in the S-I process. A fundamental research is experimentally performed on heat generation in a single bed packed with a hydrogen-absorbing alloy that may work at the H 2 production temperature. The hydrogen-absorbing alloy of Zr(V 1-x Fe x ) 2 is selected as a material that has a proper plateau pressure for the heat pump system operated between the input and output temperatures of HTGR and reaction vessels of the S-I cycle. Temperature jump due to heat generated when the alloy absorbs H 2 proves that the alloy-H 2 system can heat up the exhaust gas even at 600 deg. C without any external mechanical force. (authors)

  2. Hydrogen production from algal biomass - Advances, challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Show, Kuan-Yeow; Yan, Yuegen; Ling, Ming; Ye, Guoxiang; Li, Ting; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2018-06-01

    Extensive effort is being made to explore renewable energy in replacing fossil fuels. Biohydrogen is a promising future fuel because of its clean and high energy content. A challenging issue in establishing hydrogen economy is sustainability. Biohydrogen has the potential for renewable biofuel, and could replace current hydrogen production through fossil fuel thermo-chemical processes. A promising source of biohydrogen is conversion from algal biomass, which is abundant, clean and renewable. Unlike other well-developed biofuels such as bioethanol and biodiesel, production of hydrogen from algal biomass is still in the early stage of development. There are a variety of technologies for algal hydrogen production, and some laboratory- and pilot-scale systems have demonstrated a good potential for full-scale implementation. This work presents an elucidation on development in biohydrogen encompassing biological pathways, bioreactor designs and operation and techno-economic evaluation. Challenges and prospects of biohydrogen production are also outlined. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Removal of the effect of ammonium on the regulation of nitrogenase enzyme in Rhodobacter capsulatus DSM1710 for improved hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekgoez, Guelsah; Guenduez, Ufuk [Middle East Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Biology; Eroglu, Inci [Middle East Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Rakhely, Gabor [Szeged Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Biotechnology

    2010-07-01

    Photofermentative biohydrogen production by purple non-sulfur (PNS) bacteria is a renewable and clean way of producing hydrogen. Hydrogen production by PNS bacteria, Rhodobacter capsulatus, is mediated mainly by nitrogenases, which primarily fix molecular nitrogen to ammonium and produce hydrogen as byproduct. The reaction catalyzed by nitrogenases requires a lot of energy. Hence, there is a complex regulation on nitrogenase enzyme complex, consequently, on hydrogen production. Whenever ammonium, which is the end product of nitrogen fixation reaction, is found in the environment, hydrogen production stops. GlnB and GlnK proteins are the critical regulatory proteins in ammonium dependent regulation of the nitrogenase gene expression. In this study, the aim is to release the ammonium regulation on nitrogenase enzyme by inactivating glnB and glnK genes. For this purpose, relevant recombinant vectors were constructed; R.capsulatus glnB- strain was obtained. The double R.capsulatus glnB{sup -}glnK{sup -} strain, able to produce hydrogen independent of ammonium concentration of the environment is to be obtained. (orig.)

  4. Performance of Existing Hydrogen Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In this presentation, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presented aggregated analysis results on the performance of existing hydrogen stations, including performance, operation, utilization, maintenance, safety, hydrogen quality, and cost. The U.S. Department of Energy funds technology validation work at NREL through its National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC).

  5. The role of hydrogen as a future solution to energetic and environmental problems for residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, G.; Felseghi, R. A.; Aşchilean, I.; Rǎboacǎ, S. M.; Şoimoşan, T.

    2017-12-01

    The concept of sustainable development aims to meet the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations. In achieving the desideratum "low-carbon energy system", in the domain of energy production, the use of innovative low-carbon technologies providing maximum efficiency and minimum pollution is required. Such technology is the fuel cell; as these will be developed, it will become a reality to obtain the energy based on hydrogen. Thus, hydrogen produced by electrolysis of water using different forms of renewable resources becomes a secure and sustainable energy alternative. In this context, in the present paper, a comparative study of two different hybrid power generation systems for residential building placed in Cluj-Napoca was made. In these energy systems have been integrated renewable energies (photovoltaic panels and wind turbine), backup and storage system based on hydrogen (fuel cell, electrolyser and hydrogen storage tank), and, respectively, backup and storage system based on traditional technologies (diesel generator and battery). The software iHOGA was used to simulate the operating performance of the two hybrid systems. The aim of this study was to compare energy, environmental and economic performances of these two systems and to define possible future scenarios of competitiveness between traditional and new innovative technologies. After analyzing and comparing the results of simulations, it can be concluded that the fuel cells technology along with hydrogen, integrated in a hybrid system, may be the key to energy production systems with high energy efficiency, making possible an increased capitalization of renewable energy which have a low environmental impact.

  6. Hydrogen production by Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhuri Surabhi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The limited fossil fuel prompts the prospecting of various unconventional energy sources to take over the traditional fossil fuel energy source. In this respect the use of hydrogen gas is an attractive alternate source. Attributed by its numerous advantages including those of environmentally clean, efficiency and renew ability, hydrogen gas is considered to be one of the most desired alternate. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganism for hydrogen production. In comparison to the traditional ways of hydrogen production (chemical, photoelectrical, Cyanobacterial hydrogen production is commercially viable. This review highlights the basic biology of cynobacterial hydrogen production, strains involved, large-scale hydrogen production and its future prospects. While integrating the existing knowledge and technology, much future improvement and progress is to be done before hydrogen is accepted as a commercial primary energy source.

  7. Hydrogen. A small molecule with large impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, H.; Ruthardt, K.; Mathiak, J.; Roosen, C. [Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    The first section of the presentation will provide general information about hydrogen including physical data, natural abundance, production and consumption figures. This will be followed by detailed information about current industrial production routes for hydrogen. Main on-purpose production for hydrogen is by classical steam reforming (SR) of natural gas. A brief overview of most important steps in stream reforming is given including reforming section, CO conversion and gas purification. Also the use of heavier than methane feedstocks and refinery off-gases is discussed. Alternative routes for hydrogen production or production of synthesis gas are autothermal reforming (ATR) or partial oxidation (POX). Pros and Cons for each specific technology are given and discussed. Gasification, especially gasification of renewable feedstocks, is a further possibility to produce hydrogen or synthesis gas. New developments and current commercial processes are presented. Hydrogen from electrolysis plants has only a small share on the hydrogen production slate, but in some cases this hydrogen is a suitable feedstock for niche applications with future potential. Finally, production of hydrogen by solar power as a new route is discussed. The final section focuses on the use of hydrogen. Classical applications are hydrogenation reactions in refineries, like HDS, HDN, hydrocracking and hydrofinishing. But, with an increased demand for liquid fuels for transportation or power supply, hydrogen becomes a key player in future as an energy source. Use of hydrogen in synthesis gas for the production of liquid fuels via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or coal liquefaction is discussed as well as use of pure hydrogen in fuel cells. Additional, new application for biomass-derived feedstocks are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Piezoelectric Bimorph Cantilever for Vibration-Producing-Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Cheng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A device composed of a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever and a water electrolysis device was fabricated to realize piezoelectrochemical hydrogen production. The obvious output of the hydrogen and oxygen through application of a mechanical vibration of ~0.07 N and ~46.2 Hz was observed. This method provides a cost-effective, recyclable, environment-friendly and simple way to directly split water for hydrogen fuels by scavenging mechanical waste energy forms such as noise or traffic vibration in the environment.

  9. Renewable and non-renewable exergy costs and CO2 emissions in the production of fuels for Brazilian transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flórez-Orrego, Daniel; Silva, Julio A.M. da; Velásquez, Héctor; Oliveira, Silvio de

    2015-01-01

    An exergy and environmental comparison between the fuel production routes for Brazilian transportation sector, including fossil fuels (natural gas, oil-derived products and hydrogen), biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel) and electricity is performed, and the percentage distribution of exergy destruction in the different units of the processing plants is characterized. An exergoeconomy methodology is developed and applied to properly allocate the renewable and non-renewable exergy costs and CO 2 emission cost among the different products of multiproduct plants. Since Brazilian electricity is consumed in the upstream processing stages of the fuels used in the generation thereof, an iterative calculation is used. The electricity mix comprises thermal (coal, natural gas and oil-fired), nuclear, wind and hydroelectric power plants, as well as bagasse-fired mills, which, besides exporting surplus electricity, also produce sugar and bioethanol. Oil and natural gas-derived fuels production and biodiesel fatty acid methyl-esters (FAME) derived from palm oil are also analyzed. It was found that in spite of the highest total unit exergy costs correspond to the production of biofuels and electricity, the ratio between the renewable to non-renewable invested exergy (cR/cNR) for those fuels is 2.69 for biodiesel, 4.39 for electricity, and 15.96 for ethanol, whereas for fossil fuels is almost negligible. - Highlights: • Total and non-renewable exergy costs of Brazilian transportation fuels are evaluated. • Specific CO 2 emissions in the production of Brazilian transportation fuels are determined. • Representative production routes for fossil fuels, biofuels and electricity are reviewed. • Exergoeconomy is used to distribute costs and emissions in multiproduct processes

  10. Hydrogen Infrastructure Testing and Research Facility Video (Text Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    grid integration, continuous code improvement, fuel cell vehicle operation, and renewable hydrogen Systems Integration Facility or ESIF. Research projects including H2FIRST, component testing, hydrogen

  11. Hydrogen for small-scale energy consumers and CO2-storage. Feasibility study of a demonstration project in the Rijnmond, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsma, G.C.; Van der Werff, T.T.; Rooijers, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    In the future natural gas can be substituted by hydrogen. In the short term hydrogen can be produced from fossil fuels. Released CO 2 can be stored. In the long run it will be possible to produce hydrogen from renewable energy sources (solar cells and wind turbines), which can be transported to the consumer. In the study on the title subject attention is paid to different methods of hydrogen production from natural gas and from residual oils, costs and problems of hydrogen distribution, hydrogen appliances, and CO 2 storage. From the results it appears that a demonstration project to use hydrogen on a small-scale is feasible, although expensive. The costs of the reconstruction of the present natural gas distribution system to a hydrogen distribution system is higher than expected. The price of hydrogen per GJ is higher than the equal energy content of natural gas, in spite of a reduction of the energy levy. The demonstration project will be 25% cheaper per GJ hydrogen when carried out in a newly built area. A demonstration project in which hydrogen is mixed with natural gas is even a factor 2 cheaper. 17 refs., 7 appendices

  12. A Simple Method To Demonstrate the Enzymatic Production of Hydrogen from Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershlag, Natalie; Hurley, Ian; Woodward, Jonathan

    1998-10-01

    There is current interest in and concern for the development of environmentally friendly bioprocesses whereby biomass and the biodegradable content of municipal wastes can be converted to useful forms of energy. For example, cellulose, a glucose polymer that is the principal component of biomass and paper waste, can be enzymatically degraded to glucose, which can subsequently be converted by fermentation or further enzymatic reaction to fuels such as ethanol or hydrogen. These products represent alternative energy sources to fossil fuels such as oil. Demonstration of the relevant reactions in high-school and undergraduate college laboratories would have value not only in illustrating environmentally friendly biotechnology for the utilization of renewable energy sources, such as cellulosic wastes, but could also be used to teach the principles of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. In the experimental protocol described here, it has been demonstrated that the common sugar glucose can be used to produce hydrogen using two enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase. No sophisticated or expensive hydrogen detection equipment is required-only a redox dye, benzyl viologen, which turns purple when it is reduced. The color can be detected by a simple colorimeter. Furthermore, it is shown that the renewable resource cellulose, in its soluble derivative from carboxymethylcellulose, as well as aspen-wood waste, is also a source of hydrogen if the enzyme cellulase is included in the reaction mixture.

  13. A light hydrocarbon fuel processor producing high-purity hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Daniel G.; Taylor, Kyle; Mason, Dylan

    This paper discusses the design process and presents performance data for a dual fuel (natural gas and LPG) fuel processor for PEM fuel cells delivering between 2 and 8 kW electric power in stationary applications. The fuel processor resulted from a series of design compromises made to address different design constraints. First, the product quality was selected; then, the unit operations needed to achieve that product quality were chosen from the pool of available technologies. Next, the specific equipment needed for each unit operation was selected. Finally, the unit operations were thermally integrated to achieve high thermal efficiency. Early in the design process, it was decided that the fuel processor would deliver high-purity hydrogen. Hydrogen can be separated from other gases by pressure-driven processes based on either selective adsorption or permeation. The pressure requirement made steam reforming (SR) the preferred reforming technology because it does not require compression of combustion air; therefore, steam reforming is more efficient in a high-pressure fuel processor than alternative technologies like autothermal reforming (ATR) or partial oxidation (POX), where the combustion occurs at the pressure of the process stream. A low-temperature pre-reformer reactor is needed upstream of a steam reformer to suppress coke formation; yet, low temperatures facilitate the formation of metal sulfides that deactivate the catalyst. For this reason, a desulfurization unit is needed upstream of the pre-reformer. Hydrogen separation was implemented using a palladium alloy membrane. Packed beds were chosen for the pre-reformer and reformer reactors primarily because of their low cost, relatively simple operation and low maintenance. Commercial, off-the-shelf balance of plant (BOP) components (pumps, valves, and heat exchangers) were used to integrate the unit operations. The fuel processor delivers up to 100 slm hydrogen >99.9% pure with <1 ppm CO, <3 ppm CO 2. The

  14. Application of Liquid Hydrogen with SMES for Efficient Use of Renewable Energy in the Energy Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering that generally frequency instability problems occur due to abrupt variations in load demand growth and power variations generated by different renewable energy sources (RESs, the application of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES may become crucial due to its rapid response features. In this paper, liquid hydrogen with SMES (LIQHYSMES is proposed to play a role in the future energy internet in terms of its combination of the SMES and the liquid hydrogen storage unit, which can help to overcome the capacity limit and high investment cost disadvantages of SMES. The generalized predictive control (GPC algorithm is presented to be appreciatively used to eliminate the frequency deviations of the isolated micro energy grid including the LIQHYSMES and RESs. A benchmark micro energy grid with distributed generators (DGs, electrical vehicle (EV stations, smart loads and a LIQHYSMES unit is modeled in the Matlab/Simulink environment. The simulation results show that the proposed GPC strategy can reschedule the active power output of each component to maintain the stability of the grid. In addition, in order to improve the performance of the SMES, a detailed optimization design of the superconducting coil is conducted, and the optimized SMES unit can offer better technical advantages in damping the frequency fluctuations.

  15. The Development of Lifecycle Data for Hydrogen Fuel Production and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    An evaluation of renewable hydrogen production technologies anticipated to be available in the short, mid- and long-term timeframes was conducted. Renewable conversion pathways often rely on a combination of renewable and fossil energy sources, with ...

  16. Renewable energies in the transport sector: Costs and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanovic, Amela; Haas, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    Alternative fuels based on renewable energy sources, such as biodiesel, bioethanol and hydrogen from RES, have potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, climate change, to increase supply security and energy diversity. Transition from a fossil fuels based transport to future sustainable and clean transport is a long term and cost intensive process, especially for hydrogen use in transport. Hydrogen infrastructure is missing and most of hydrogen technologies are still at developing stage.This paper examines the economics of biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) and hydrogen production from renewable energy sources. The current and future costs of alternative fuels as well as the costs of the provided energy services are analysed in a dynamic framework till the year 2050. The goal is to identify the market chance of alternative fuels in a long term (till 2050). A rapid increase of fuel cell vehicles with hydrogen on the market is not expected before 2030, mainly because the costs of the fuel cells are still very high and because their efficiency, as well as the travelling range, is rather moderate.However, the use of alternative fuels in transport sector is very dependent on the political will. If political preferences, like e.g. zero-emission-vehicles, gain strong relevance this new fuels could accelerate its market penetration significantly

  17. Hydrogenation of rapeseed oil for production of liquid bio-chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, F.; Martins, S.; Gonçalves, M.; Costa, P.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Alves, A.; Mendes, B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Production of renewable liquid hydrocarbons through rapeseed oil hydrogenation. ► Hydrogenation at lower temperature and lower hydrogen pressures. ► Test of a catalyst commonly employed in petrochemical industry. ► Improve of hydrogenation process viability by decreasing operational costs. ► Analysis of hydrogenated product applications as bio-chemicals. -- Abstract: The main objective of rapeseed oil hydrogenation tests was the production of liquid bio-chemicals to be used as renewable raw material for the production of several chemicals and in chemical synthesis to substitute petroleum derived stuff. As, hydrogenation of vegetable oils is already applied for the production of biofuels, the work done focused in producing aromatic compounds, due to their economic value. The effect of experimental conditions on rapeseed oil hydrogenation was studied, namely, reaction temperature and time with the aim of selecting the most favourable conditions to convert rapeseed oil into liquid valuable bio-chemicals. Rapeseed oil was hydrogenated at a hydrogen initial pressure of 1.10 MPa. Reaction temperature varied in the range from 200 °C to 400 °C, while reaction times between 6 and 180 min were tested. The performance of a commercial cobalt and molybdenum catalyst was also studied. The highest hydrocarbons yields were obtained at the highest temperature and reaction times tested. At a temperature of 400 °C and at the reaction time of 120 min hydrocarbons yield was about 92% in catalyst presence, while in the absence of the catalyst this value decreased to 85%. Hydrocarbons yield was even higher when the reaction time of 180 min was used in the presence of catalyst, as the yield of 97% was observed. At these conditions hydrocarbons formed had a high content of aromatic compounds, around 50%. For this reason, the viscosity values of hydrogenated oils were lower than that established by EN590, which together with hydrogenated liquids composition

  18. Renewable energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshaies, M.

    2009-01-01

    Europe's increasing demand for energy and its environmental preoccupations are creating a favourable environment for the development of renewable energy sources. This article stated that although many European countries have adopted voluntary policies since the 1990s to increase the use of renewable energy sources, they have not been developed in an equal or consistent manner. A table was included to show the consumption of renewable energies by country; the percentage of renewable energies in 1995 as compared to 2006; and the consumption of primary energy resources. Combined, Germany, Spain and Denmark produce 75 per cent of wind energy in Europe, while 75 per cent of Europe's hydroelectricity is produced in Norway, Sweden, France, Italy, Austria and Switzerland. Germany has also made significant contributions in developing biomass energy. The article emphasized that the development of renewable energy sources is limited by the fact that it cannot keep up with growing energy demands. In addition, renewable energies cannot yet replace all fossil fuel consumption in Europe because of the variation in development from one country to another. 1 ref., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. Pathway of Fermentative Hydrogen Production by Sulfate-reducing Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2015-02-16

    Biofuels are a promising source of sustainable energy. Such biofuels are intermediate products of microbial metabolism of renewable substrates, in particular, plant biomass. Not only are alcohols and solvents produced in this degradative process but energy-rich hydrogen as well. Non photosynthetic microbial hydrogen generation from compounds other than sugars has not been fully explored. We propose to examine the capacity of the abundant soil anaerobes, sulfate-reducing bacteria, for hydrogen generation from organic acids. These apparently simple pathways have yet to be clearly established. Information obtained may facilitate the exploitation of other microbes not yet readily examined by molecular tools. Identification of the flexibility of the metabolic processes to channel reductant to hydrogen will be useful in consideration of practical applications. Because the tools for genetic and molecular manipulation of sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio are developed, our efforts will focus on two strains, D. vulgaris Hildenborough and Desulfovibrio G20.Therefore total metabolism, flux through the pathways, and regulation are likely to be limiting factors which we can elucidate in the following experiments.

  20. Power to gas. The final breakthrough for the hydrogen economy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler-Goldstein, Raphael [Germany Trade and Invest (GTAI), Paris (France); Rastetter, Aline [Alphea Hydrogene, Forbach (France)

    2013-04-01

    storage of extra energy produced by renewable sources. The hydrogen produced via electrolysis could be drawn upon - directly or as synthetic natural gas (SNG) in a second additional methanation process step - to provide electricity by means of CCGT (combined cycle gas turbines) or CHP (combined heat and power) using for example fuel cells. It could also address the industrial and household heat market. DVGW is furthermore participating in the 'Power-to-Gas Platform' that was set up in 2012 by the German Energy Agency, bringing together RnD institutes, renewable energy project developers and park operators, utilities, underground storage providers in order to create political support for this new technology. Demonstration projects will be completed by 2020 in order to develop business models (for storage, production and trade of 'green gas') and devices (electrolysers, turbines, smart gas metering, compressors, storage capacities amongst others) to enable the implementation of this concept on a broad scale. This means that a multitude of industrial players will be involved in the changes that will occur in the value chain: utilities (electricity, gas), power technology companies, car makers, heating device manufacturers, but also manufacturers of measurement, regulation and control devices, suppliers of the biogas and methanation industry. Germany is the pioneer in this field. This technology however increasingly interests its neighbours, with project developments in France, Italy, Spain, and UK but also in North America and North Africa. Germany can contribute its valuable experience (e.g. legal framework for power-to-gas) to the development of these industries. German participants in demonstration projects in these countries could for example be renewable energy park operators, RnD institutes and suppliers. (orig.)

  1. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Jørgensen K.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore toillustrate the potential synergistic interplay...... between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalisedelectricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell...... vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and forthe conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport...

  2. Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Future Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Alekseev, Alexander; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-06-07

    Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO 2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required. Hydrogen, in particular, is a promising secondary energy vector for storing, transporting, and distributing large and very large amounts of energy at the gigawatt-hour and terawatt-hour scales. However, we also discuss energy storage at the 120-200-kWh scale, for example, for onboard hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles using compressed hydrogen storage. This article focuses on the characteristics and development potential of hydrogen storage technologies in light of such a changing energy system and its related challenges. Technological factors that influence the dynamics, flexibility, and operating costs of unsteady operation are therefore highlighted in particular. Moreover, the potential for using renewable hydrogen in the mobility sector, industrial production, and the heat market is discussed, as this potential may determine to a significant extent the future economic value of hydrogen storage technology as it applies to other industries. This evaluation elucidates known and well-established options for hydrogen storage and may guide the development and direction of newer, less developed technologies.

  3. Life cycle assessment of hydrogen energy pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aissani, Lynda; Bourgois, Jacques; Rousseaux, Patrick; Jabouille, Florent; Loget, Sebastien; Perier Camby, Laurent; Sessiecq, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades transportation sector is a priority for environmental research. Indeed, it is the most impacting sector because it involves greenhouse emissions and fossil resources exhaustion. The Group of 'Ecole des Mines' (GEM), in France, carries out studies concerning clean and renewable energies for this sector with the 'H2-PAC' project. The GEM with four teams performs studies concerning energy systems for transportation sector and more particularly the hydrogen system. The four teams of the GEM work each one on a process of this system. More precisely, the team of Albi studies biomass gasification in order to produce synthesis gas. The team of Nantes studies purification of this gas to obtain pure hydrogen and hydrogen storage on activated carbon. The team of Paris studies fuel cell use and especially Polymer Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell. Finally, the team of St Etienne evaluates this system along its life cycle from an environmental point of view. This paper presents this environmental evaluation witch is realized according to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. (authors)

  4. 40 CFR 80.1426 - How are RINs generated and assigned to batches of renewable fuel by renewable fuel producers or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contaminants that are impractical to remove and are related to customary feedstock production and transport... Biodiesel, and renewable diesel Soy bean oil;Oil from annual covercrops; One of the following:Trans... renewable biomass andpetroleum. Non-food grade corn oil Biodiesel, and renewable diesel Soy bean oil; One of...

  5. Characteristics of hydrogen produced by partial oxidation and auto-thermal reforming in a small methanol reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Rong-Fang; Chou, Huann-Ming; Lee, Chiou-Hwang; Tsai, Hsien-Te

    This paper investigates experimentally, the transient characteristics of a small methanol reformer using partial oxidation (POX) and auto-thermal reforming (ATR) for fuel cell applications. The parameters varied were heating temperature, methanol supply rate, steady mode shifting temperature, O 2/C (O 2/CH 3OH) and S/C (H 2O/CH 3OH) molar ratios with the main aim of promoting a rapid response and a high flow rate of hydrogen. The experiments showed that a high steady mode shifting temperature resulted in a faster temperature rise at the catalyst outlet and vice versa and that a low steady mode shifting temperature resulted in a lower final hydrogen concentration. However, when the mode shifting temperature was too high, the hydrogen production response was not necessarily improved. It was subsequently shown that the optimum steady mode shifting temperature for this experimental set-up was approximately 75 °C. Further, the hydrogen concentration produced by the auto-thermal process was as high as 49.12% and the volume flow rate up to 23.0 L min -1 compared to 40.0% and 20.5 L min -1 produced by partial oxidation.

  6. Performance and emission comparison of a supercharged dual-fuel engine fueled by producer gases with varying hydrogen content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohon Roy, Murari [Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology (JSPS Research Fellow, Okayama University), Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Okayama University, Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Tomita, Eiji; Kawahara, Nobuyuki; Harada, Yuji [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Okayama University, Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakane, Atsushi (Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., 6-4 Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo)

    2009-09-15

    This study investigated the effect of hydrogen content in producer gas on the performance and exhaust emissions of a supercharged producer gas-diesel dual-fuel engine. Two types of producer gases were used in this study, one with low hydrogen content (H{sub 2} = 13.7%) and the other with high hydrogen content (H{sub 2} = 20%). The engine was tested for use as a co-generation engine, so power output while maintaining a reasonable thermal efficiency was important. Experiments were carried out at a constant injection pressure and injection quantity for different fuel-air equivalence ratios and at various injection timings. The experimental strategy was to optimize the injection timing to maximize engine power at different fuel-air equivalence ratios without knocking and within the limit of the maximum cylinder pressure. Two-stage combustion was obtained; this is an indicator of maximum power output conditions and a precursor of knocking combustion. Better combustion, engine performance, and exhaust emissions (except NO{sub x}) were obtained with the high H{sub 2}-content producer gas than with the low H{sub 2}-content producer gas, especially under leaner conditions. Moreover, a broader window of fuel-air equivalence ratio was found with highest thermal efficiencies for the high H{sub 2}-content producer gas. (author)

  7. An estimation of the capacity to produce hydrogen by wasted hydroelectric energy for the three largest Brazilian hydroelectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilha, Janine C.; Trindade, Leticia G. da; Souza, Roberto F. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry], Email: janine@iq.ufrgs.br; Miguel, Marcelo [Itaipu Binacional, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The use of water wasted in hydroelectric plants as normalization dam excess, which constitute a hydrodynamic potential useful to generate electric energy which can be subsequently used to produce hydrogen and its subsequent consumption in fuel cells has been considered as an alternative for hydraulic energy-rich countries like Brazil. The case is examined in which all the water wasted in the hydroelectric plants, spilled by dam gates to maintain acceptable water levels, from the 3 largest Brazilian hydroelectric plants was used to produce hydrogen. During the year of 2008, the electric energy produced from this utilization would have been equivalent to 52.8 TWh, an amount that corresponds to an increase of ca. 15% of the total electric energy produced in the country. Furthermore, if this amount of hydrogen was used in the replacement of internal combustion vehicles by fuel cells, this would have prevented the production of 2.26 x 10{sup 7} ton of Co{sub 2} per year. This plan would also significantly decrease production and release of greenhouse gases. (author)

  8. Renewable Energy Devices and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ionel, Dan M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, essential statistics demonstrating the increasing role of renewable energy generation are firstly discussed. A state of the art review section covers fundamentals of wind turbines and PV systems. Included are schematic diagrams illustrating the main components and system topologies...... and the fundamental and increasing role of power electronics as an enabler for renewable energy integration, and for the future power system and smart grid. Recent examples of research and development, including new devices and system installations for utility power plants, as well for as residential and commercial......, fuel cells, and storage with batteries and hydrogen, respectively. Recommended further readings on topics of electric power engineering for renewable energy are included in a final section. This paper also represents an editorial introduction for two special issues of the Electric Power Component...

  9. Physiological and Biochemical characterization of Chlamydomonas sp. the Hydrogen Production's Strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chader, S.; Belhamel, M.; H Hacene

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen produced by biological way became, one of the most interesting subjects of research relating to development the energy system starting from renewable sources. This study describes the closed relation between the physiological behaviour, biochemical and rate of gases produced by Chlamydomonas sp. strain AT14, isolated in the area of Touat (the Sahara Algerian) and cultivated in a toric photo-bioreactor. A considerable growth was noted, where the concentration of the biomass double in only two days after incubation. The micro-algal cells present a 100% of viability, which relocate has satisfactory behaviour in the toric engine. In addition, the displacement water level in the system of measurement implies has gas production (0.1 ml) in coordination with the anaerobic period of the reactional enclosure. The yield of this way of hydrogen production is depending on the species used, the light intensity, and the conditions of culture. (authors)

  10. Solar Production of Fuels from Water and CO2: Perspectives and Opportunities for a Sustainable Use of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passalacqua R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing energy demand, the depletion of fossil fuels and the concern of maintaining clean environment have become the main reasons for a worldwide attention on renewable energy production. Fuel and energy productions from sunlight represent exciting challenges in the next future thank to the recent developments in related technologies, catalysts and materials. It will be discussed the present economic data concerning energy request, the current technological issues required to face an increase of the use of renewable energy, the main drawbacks related to low conversion efficiency in energy applications, the new routes for producing renewable hydrogen and the bio-mimicking approach provided by artificial leaves. Finally, the critical role of nanoscale engineered processes for the development of efficient and cost-effective systems will be evidenced.

  11. California-Specific Power-to-Hydrogen and Power-to-Gas Business Case Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichman, Joshua D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-12

    Flexible operation of electrolysis systems represents an opportunity to reduce the cost of hydrogen for a variety of end-uses while also supporting grid operations and thereby enabling greater renewable penetration. California is an ideal location to realize that value on account of growing renewable capacity and markets for hydrogen as a fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fuel, refineries, and other end-uses. Shifting the production of hydrogen to avoid high cost electricity and participation in utility and system operator markets along with installing renewable generation to avoid utility charges and increase revenue from the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) program can result in around $2.5/kg (21%) reduction in the production and delivery cost of hydrogen from electrolysis. This reduction can be achieved without impacting the consumers of hydrogen. Additionally, future strategies for reducing hydrogen cost were explored and include lower cost of capital, participation in the Renewable Fuel Standard program, capital cost reduction, and increased LCFS value. Each must be achieved independently and could each contribute to further reductions. Using the assumptions in this study found a 29% reduction in cost if all future strategies are realized. Flexible hydrogen production can simultaneously improve the performance and decarbonize multiple energy sectors. The lessons learned from this study should be used to understand near-term cost drivers and to support longer-term research activities to further improve cost effectiveness of grid integrated electrolysis systems.

  12. A survey of processes for producing hydrogen fuel from different sources for automotive-propulsion fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.F.

    1996-03-01

    Seven common fuels are compared for their utility as hydrogen sources for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells used in automotive propulsion. Methanol, natural gas, gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation jet fuel, ethanol, and hydrogen are the fuels considered. Except for the steam reforming of methanol and using pure hydrogen, all processes for generating hydrogen from these fuels require temperatures over 1000 K at some point. With the same two exceptions, all processes require water-gas shift reactors of significant size. All processes require low-sulfur or zero-sulfur fuels, and this may add cost to some of them. Fuels produced by steam reforming contain {approximately}70-80% hydrogen, those by partial oxidation {approximately}35-45%. The lower percentages may adversely affect cell performance. Theoretical input energies do not differ markedly among the various processes for generating hydrogen from organic-chemical fuels. Pure hydrogen has severe distribution and storage problems. As a result, the steam reforming of methanol is the leading candidate process for on-board generation of hydrogen for automotive propulsion. If methanol unavailability or a high price demands an alternative process, steam reforming appears preferable to partial oxidation for this purpose.

  13. Deactivation of iron oxide used in the steam-iron process to produce hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.F.; Veringa, H.J.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the steam-iron process pure hydrogen can be produced from any hydrocarbon feedstock by using a redox cycle of iron oxide. One of the main problems connected to the use of the iron oxide is the inherent structural changes that take place during oxygen loading and unloading leading to severe

  14. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2003 Research Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-04-01

    In-depth articles on several NREL technologies and advances, including: production of hydrogen using renewable resources and technologies; use of carbon nanotubes for storing hydrogen; enzymatic reduction of cellulose to simple sugars as a platform for making fuel, chemicals, and materials; and the potential of electricity from wind energy to offset carbon dioxide emissions. Also covered are NREL news, awards and honors received by the Laboratory, and patents granted to NREL researchers.

  15. Is the hydrogen production from biomass technology really sustainable? Answer by Life Cycle Emergy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Hanwei; Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    The Sustainability performance of biomass-based hydrogen is in debate. This study aims at using Emergy Theory to investigate the sustainability hydrogen production from corn stalks by supercritical water gasification, all the inputs including renewable resources, non-renewable resources, purchased...

  16. Questioning hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerschlag, Roel; Mazza, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    As an energy carrier, hydrogen is to be compared to electricity, the only widespread and viable alternative. When hydrogen is used to transmit renewable electricity, only 51% can reach the end user due to losses in electrolysis, hydrogen compression, and the fuel cell. In contrast, conventional electric storage technologies allow between 75% and 85% of the original electricity to be delivered. Even when hydrogen is extracted from gasified coal (with carbon sequestration) or from water cracked in high-temperature nuclear reactors, more of the primary energy reaches the end user if a conventional electric process is used instead. Hydrogen performs no better in mobile applications, where electric vehicles that are far closer to commercialization exceed fuel cell vehicles in efficiency, cost and performance. New, carbon-neutral energy can prevent twice the quantity of GHG's by displacing fossil electricity than it can by powering fuel cell vehicles. The same is true for new, natural gas energy. New energy resources should be used to displace high-GHG electric generation, not to manufacture hydrogen

  17. Potential use of thermophilic dark fermentation effluents in photofermentative hydrogen production by Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgura, E.; Afsar, N.; Eroglu, I. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); De Vrije, T.; Claassen, P.A.M. [Wageningen UR, Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Yucel, M.; Gunduz, U. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Biology, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Biological hydrogen production by a sequential operation of dark and photofermentation is a promising route to produce hydrogen. The possibility of using renewable resources, like biomass and agro-industrial wastes, provides a dual effect of sustainability in biohydrogen production and simultaneous waste removal. In this study, photofermentative hydrogen production on effluents of thermophilic dark fermentations on glucose, potato steam peels (PSP) hydrolysate and molasses was investigated in indoor, batch operated bioreactors. An extreme thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was used in the dark fermentation step, and Rhodobacter capsulatus (DSM1710) was used in the photofermentation step. Addition of buffer, Fe and Mo to dark fermentor effluents (DFEs) improved the overall efficiency of hydrogen production. The initial acetate concentration in the DFE needed to be adjusted to 30-40 mM by dilution to increase the yield of hydrogen in batch light-supported fermentations. The thermophilic DFEs are suitable for photofermentative hydrogen production, provided that they are supplemented with buffer and nutrients. The overall hydrogen yield of the two-step fermentations was higher than the yield of single step dark fermentations.

  18. Developments and constraints in fermentative hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartacek, J.; Zabranska, J.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2007-01-01

    Fermentative hydrogen production is a novel aspect of anaerobic digestion. The main advantage of hydrogen is that it is a clean and renewable energy source/carrier with high specific heat of combustion and no contribution to the Greenhouse effect, and can be used in many industrial applications.

  19. New Raman-peak at 1850 cm(-1) observed in multiwalled carbon nanotubes produced by hydrogen arc discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B; Kadowaki, Y; Inoue, S; Ohkohchi, M; Zhao, X; Ando, Y

    2010-06-01

    The new peak (near 1850 cm(-1)) assigned to carbon linear chain included in the centre of very thin innermost multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) has been verified by Raman spectroscopy. These MWNTs were produced by dc arc discharge of pure graphite rods in pure hydrogen gas and existed in the cathode deposit. In this paper, we clarified that the new Raman-peaks could also be observed in the cathode deposit including MWNTs produced by hydrogen dc arc discharge using graphite electrode with added Y or La. By changing the quantity of addition (Y or La), dc arc current and pressure of ambient hydrogen gas, the optimum condition to get maximum intensity of the new Raman-peaks was obtained. For the case of 1 wt% La, dc 50 A, H2 pressure of 50 Torr was found to be optimum, and the intensity of new Raman-peak was even higher than the G-band peak. For the case of 1 wt% Y, dc 50 A, H2 pressure of 50 Torr was optimum, but the intensity of new Raman-peak was weaker than the G-band peak. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that the crystallinity of MWNTs produced with pure graphite rod was better than those produced with added Y or La.

  20. Gold nanoparticles produced in situ mediate bioelectricity and hydrogen production in a microbial fuel cell by quantized capacitance charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2013-02-01

    Oppan quantized style: By adding a gold precursor at its cathode, a microbial fuel cell (MFC) is demonstrated to form gold nanoparticles that can be used to simultaneously produce bioelectricity and hydrogen. By exploiting the quantized capacitance charging effect, the gold nanoparticles mediate the production of hydrogen without requiring an external power supply, while the MFC produces a stable power density. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Technology selection for hydrogen production using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Alimah; Erlan Dewita

    2008-01-01

    The NPP can either be used to produce electricity, or as heat source for non-electric applications (cogeneration). High Temperature Reactor (HTR) with high outlet coolant temperature around 900~1000 o C, is a reactor type potential for cogeneration purposes such as hydrogen production and other chemical industry processes that need high heat. Considering the national energy policy that a balanced arrangement of renewable and unrenewable natural resources has to be made to keep environmental conservation for the sake of society prosperity in the future, hydrogen gas production using nuclear heat is an appropriate choice. Hydrogen gas is a new energy which is environmentally friendly that it is a prospecting alternative energy source in the future. Within the study, a comparison of three processes of hydrogen gas production covering electrolysis, steam reforming and sulfur-iodine cycle, have been conducted. The parameters that considered are the production cost, capital cost and energy cost, technological status, the independence of fossil fuel, the environmental friendly aspect, as well as the efficiency and the independence of corrosion-resistance material. The study result showed that hydrogen gas production by steam reforming is a better process compared to electrolysis and sulfur-iodine process. Therefore, steam reforming process can be a good choice for hydrogen gas production using nuclear energy in Indonesia. (author)

  2. Renewable Hydrogen for Carbon-Free Data Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hammond, Steven W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wipke, Keith B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cader, T. [Hewlett Packard Enterprise

    2017-11-28

    NREL, in collaboration with Hewlett Packard Enterprise, has developed a system model for simulating both grid-tied and island microgrid power for hydrogen production and data center operation (assumed at 50 MW, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week).

  3. The research and training of human resources to produce renewable resources of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernesto Rangel Delgado

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The prospective technique approach used as a context, this paper emphasizes the importance of a long term vision on the human resources development for renewable energies production. In the same sense it outlines the connection between the professions associated with the generation of renewable energy and the labor market. Results are presented on the research intellectual capacity of Mexico, highlighting, the public universities, specialized research centers, researchers, and the associated academic programs to renewable energies. Finally, it is presented the conclusions, and suggestions oriented to increase strategically, the renewable energies research for the technology development. Also it might incorporate our country towards the international market for renewable technologies, in the long term.

  4. California Power-to-Gas and Power-to-Hydrogen Near-Term Business Case Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichman, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Flexible operation of electrolysis systems represents an opportunity to reduce the cost of hydrogen for a variety of end-uses while also supporting grid operations and thereby enabling greater renewable penetration. California is an ideal location to realize that value on account of growing renewable capacity and markets for hydrogen as a fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fuel, refineries, and other end-uses. Shifting the production of hydrogen to avoid high cost electricity and participation in utility and system operator markets along with installing renewable generation to avoid utility charges and increase revenue from the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) program can result in around $2.5/kg (21%) reduction in the production and delivery cost of hydrogen from electrolysis. This reduction can be achieved without impacting the consumers of hydrogen. Additionally, future strategies for reducing hydrogen cost were explored and include lower cost of capital, participation in the Renewable Fuel Standard program, capital cost reduction, and increased LCFS value. Each must be achieved independently and could each contribute to further reductions. Using the assumptions in this study found a 29% reduction in cost if all future strategies are realized. Flexible hydrogen production can simultaneously improve the performance and decarbonize multiple energy sectors. The lessons learned from this study should be used to understand near-term cost drivers and to support longer-term research activities to further improve cost effectiveness of grid integrated electrolysis systems.

  5. Hybrid hydrogen-battery systems for renewable off-grid telecom power

    OpenAIRE

    Scamman, D.; Newborough, M.; Bustamante, H.

    2015-01-01

    Off-grid hybrid systems, based on the integration of hydrogen technologies (electrolysers, hydrogen stores and fuel cells) with battery and wind/solar power technologies, are proposed for satisfying the continuous power demands of telecom remote base stations. A model was developed to investigate the preferred role for electrolytic hydrogen within a hybrid system; the analysis focused on powering a 1 kW telecom load in three locations of distinct wind and solar resource availability. When com...

  6. Towards sustainable energy systems: The related role of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennicke, Peter; Fischedick, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    The role of hydrogen in long run sustainable energy scenarios for the world and for the case of Germany is analysed, based on key criteria for sustainable energy systems. The possible range of hydrogen within long-term energy scenarios is broad and uncertain depending on assumptions on used primary energy, technology mix, rate of energy efficiency increase and costs degression ('learning effects'). In any case, sustainable energy strategies must give energy efficiency highest priority combined with an accelerated market introduction of renewables ('integrated strategy'). Under these conditions hydrogen will play a major role not before 2030 using natural gas as a bridge to renewable hydrogen. Against the background of an ambitious CO 2 -reduction goal which is under discussion in Germany the potentials for efficiency increase, the necessary structural change of the power plant system (corresponding to the decision to phase out nuclear energy, the transformation of the transportation sector and the market implementation order of renewable energies ('following efficiency guidelines first for electricity generation purposes, than for heat generation and than for the transportation sector')) are analysed based on latest sustainable energy scenarios

  7. Re-energizing energy supply: Electrolytically-produced hydrogen as a flexible energy storage medium and fuel for road transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emonts, Bernd; Schiebahn, Sebastian; Görner, Klaus; Lindenberger, Dietmar; Markewitz, Peter; Merten, Frank; Stolten, Detlef

    2017-02-01

    "Energiewende", which roughly translates as the transformation of the German energy sector in accordance with the imperatives of climate change, may soon become a byword for the corresponding processes most other developed countries are at various stages of undergoing. Germany's notable progress in this area offers valuable insights that other states can draw on in implementing their own transitions. The German state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) is making its own contribution to achieving the Energiewende's ambitious objectives: in addition to funding an array of 'clean and green' projects, the Virtual Institute Power to Gas and Heat was established as a consortium of seven scientific and technical organizations whose aim is to inscribe a future, renewable-based German energy system with adequate flexibility. Thus, it is tasked with conceiving of and evaluating suitable energy path options. This paper outlines one of the most promising of these pathways, which is predicated on the use of electrolytically-produced hydrogen as an energy storage medium, as well as the replacement of hydrocarbon-based fuel for most road vehicles. We describe and evaluate this path and place it in a systemic context, outlining a case study from which other countries and federated jurisdictions therein may draw inspiration.

  8. Effect of hydrogenation pressure on microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy produced by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvaizem, Jose Helio; Galdino, Gabriel Souza; Bressiani, Ana Helena; Faria Junior, Rubens Nunes de; Takiishi, Hidetoshi

    2009-01-01

    The effects of the hydrogenation stage on microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy produced by powder metallurgy have been studied. Powder alloys have been produced by hydrogenation with 250 MPa or 1 GPa and via high energy planetary ball milling. Samples were isostatically pressed at 200 MPa and sintered at 1150 deg C for 7, 10 and 13 hours. Elastic modulus and microhardness were determined using a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) and a Vickers microhardness tester. Density of the samples was measured using a liquid displacement system. Microstructure and phases presents were analyzed employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Elastic modulus were 81.3 ± 0.8 and 62.6 ± 0.6 GPa for samples produced by 250 MPa and 1 GPa hydrogenation, respectively when sintered for 7h. (author)

  9. Hydrogen mobility from wind energy – A life cycle assessment focusing on the fuel supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, Jörg; Patyk, Andreas; Tanguy, Philippe; Retzke, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Environmental performance, focusing on production and provision of hydrogen. • Primary data collected from a 700 bar refueling station incl. alkaline electrolyser. • Construction of facilities dominates the primary energy demand and emissions. • Refueling station contributes to same extent to GHG emissions as electricity supply. • Remarkably high expenditures for provision of supplies. - Abstract: In the current debates on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the mobility sector, hydrogen produced via water electrolysis from renewable electricity is commonly regarded to be a sustainable energy carrier with large potential for decarbonisation of the mobility sector. Directly produced at the refueling stations site, hydrogen greenhouse gas emissions are presently defined to be zero in e.g. the Directives of the European Union since emissions arising from the facilities construction are defined to be negligible. In order to check the validity of this assumption with respect to the latest technical developments in hydrogen supply, the present article aims to report the environmental performance of hydrogen being produced and compressed for mobility purposes. To this end, a state-of-the-art hydrogen refueling station (HRS) with an on-site alkaline electrolyser is assessed, which was built and operated in Berlin. Assuming electricity supply from wind energy generation, a life cycle assessment for the complete value chain was carried out where primary data for the build-up of electrolyser and HRS were obtained during decommissioning of the station. The results show that the construction of HRS and on-site electrolyser requires higher material and energy expenditures compared to previous investigations on similar but technically less advanced systems. These expenditures generate a significant footprint in the specific e.g. greenhouse gas emissions if the electrolyser is operated at a reduced load factor as it may be foreseen for grid stabilisation

  10. ''Green'' path from fossil-based to hydrogen economy: An overview of carbon-neutral technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, Nazim Z. [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States); Veziroglu, T. Nejat [Clean Energy Research Institute, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    While the dominant role of hydrogen in a sustainable energy future is widely accepted, the strategies for the transition from fossil-based to hydrogen economy are still actively debated. This paper emphasizes the role of carbon-neutral technologies and fuels during the transition period. To satisfy the world's growing appetite for energy and keep our planet healthy, at least 10 TW (or terawatt) of carbon-free power has to be produced by mid-century. Three prominent options discussed in the literature include: decarbonization of fossil energy, nuclear energy and renewable energy sources. These options are analyzed in this paper with a special emphasis on the role of hydrogen as a carbon-free energy carrier. In particular, the authors compare various fossil decarbonization strategies and evaluate the potential of nuclear and renewable energy resources to meet the 10 TW target. An overview of state-of-the-art technologies for production of carbon-free energy carriers and transportation fuels, and the assessment of their commercial potential is provided. It is shown that neither of these three options alone could provide 10 TW of carbon-neutral power without major changes in the existing infrastructure, and/or technological breakthroughs in many areas, and/or a considerable environmental risk. The authors propose a scenario for the transition from current fossil-based to hydrogen economy that includes two key elements: (i) changing the fossil decarbonization strategy from one based on CO{sub 2} sequestration to one that involves sequestration and/or utilization of solid carbon, and (ii) producing carbon-neutral synthetic fuels from bio-carbon and hydrogen generated from water using carbon-free sources (nuclear, solar, wind, geothermal). This strategy would allow taking advantage of the existing fuel infrastructure without an adverse environmental impact, and it would secure a smooth carbon-neutral transition from fossil-based to future hydrogen economy. (author)

  11. Hydrogen and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.; Miller, A.I.; Hancox, W.T.; Pendergast, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The current world-wide emphasis on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions provides an opportunity to revisit how energy is produced and used, consistent with the need for human and economic growth. Both the scale of the problem and the efforts needed for its resolution are extremely large. We argue that GHG reduction strategies must include a greater penetration of electricity into areas, such as transportation, that have been the almost exclusive domain of fossil fuels. An opportunity for electricity to displace fossil fuel use is through electrolytic production of hydrogen. Nuclear power is the only large-scale commercially proven non-carbon electricity generation source, and it must play a key role. As a non-carbon power source, it can also provide the high-capacity base needed to stabilize electricity grids so that they can accommodate other non-carbon sources, namely low-capacity factor renewables such as wind and solar. Electricity can be used directly to power standalone hydrogen production facilities. In the special case of CANDU reactors, the hydrogen streams can be preprocessed to recover the trace concentrations of deuterium that can be re-oxidized to heavy water. World-wide experience shows that nuclear power can achieve high standards of public safety, environmental protection and commercially competitive economics, and must . be an integral part of future energy systems. (author)

  12. Hydrogen - From hydrogen to energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    More than a century ago, Jules Verne wrote in 'The Mysterious Island' that water would one day be employed as fuel: 'Hydrogen and oxygen, which constitute it, used singly or together, will furnish an inexhaustible source of heat and light'. Today, the 'water motor' is not entirely the dream of a writer. Fiction is about to become fact thanks to hydrogen, which can be produced from water and when burned in air itself produces water. Hydrogen is now at the heart of international research. So why do we have such great expectations of hydrogen? 'Hydrogen as an energy system is now a major challenge, both scientifically and from an environmental and economic point of view'. Dominated as it is by fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal), our current energy system has left a dual threat hovering over our environment, exposing the planet to the exhaustion of its natural reserves and contributing to the greenhouse effect. If we want sustainable development for future generations, it is becoming necessary to diversify our methods of producing energy. Hydrogen is not, of course, a source of energy, because first it has to be produced. But it has the twofold advantage of being both inexhaustible and non-polluting. So in the future, it should have a very important role to play. (author)

  13. Influences of environmental and operational factors on dark fermentative hydrogen production: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Parviz; Ibrahim, Shaliza; Ghafari, Shahin; Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad; Vikineswary, Sabaratnam; Zinatizadeh, Ali Akbar

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen (H 2 ) is one of renewable energy sources known for its non-polluting and environmentally friendly nature, as its end combustion product is water (H 2 O). The biological production of H 2 is a less energy intensive alternative where processes can be operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Dark fermentation by bacterial biomass is one of multitude of approaches to produce hydrogen which is known as the cleanest renewable energy and is thus receiving increasing attention worldwide. The present study briefly reviews the biohydrogen production process with special attention on the effects of several environmental and operational factors towards the process. Factors such as organic loading rate, hydraulic retention time, temperature, and pH studied in published reports were compared and their influences are discussed in this work. This review highlights the variations in examined operating ranges for the factors as well as their reported optimum values. Divergent values observed for the environmental/operational factors merit further exploration in this field. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Influences of environmental and operational factors on dark fermentative hydrogen production: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Parviz [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ibrahim, Shaliza; Ghafari, Shahin [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad; Vikineswary, Sabaratnam [Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Zinatizadeh, Ali Akbar [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Water and Wastewater Research Center (WWRC), Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is one of renewable energy sources known for its non-polluting and environmentally friendly nature, as its end combustion product is water (H{sub 2}O). The biological production of H{sub 2} is a less energy intensive alternative where processes can be operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Dark fermentation by bacterial biomass is one of multitude of approaches to produce hydrogen which is known as the cleanest renewable energy and is thus receiving increasing attention worldwide. The present study briefly reviews the biohydrogen production process with special attention on the effects of several environmental and operational factors towards the process. Factors such as organic loading rate, hydraulic retention time, temperature, and pH studied in published reports were compared and their influences are discussed in this work. This review highlights the variations in examined operating ranges for the factors as well as their reported optimum values. Divergent values observed for the environmental/operational factors merit further exploration in this field. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Hydrogen-Induced Phase Transformation and Microstructure Evolution for Ti-6Al-4V Parts Produced by Electron Beam Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pushilina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, phase transitions and microstructure evolution in titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy parts produced by electron beam melting (EBM under hydrogenation was investigated. Hydrogenation was carried out at the temperature of 650 °C to the absolute hydrogen concentrations in the samples of 0.29, 0.58, and 0.90 wt. %. Comparative analysis of microstructure changes in Ti-6Al-4V alloy parts was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Furthermore, in-situ XRD was used to investigate the phase transitions in the samples during hydrogenation. The structure of Ti-6Al-4V parts produced by EBM is represented by the α phase plates with the transverse length of 0.2 μm, the β phase both in the form of plates and globular grains, and metastable α″ and ω phases. Hydrogenation to the concentration of 0.29 wt. % leads to the formation of intermetallic Ti3Al phase. The dimensions of intermetallic Ti3Al plates and their volume fraction increase significantly with hydrogen concentration up to 0.58 wt. % along with precipitation of nano-sized crystals of titanium δ hydrides. Individual Ti3Al plates decay into nanocrystals with increasing hydrogen concentration up to 0.9 wt. % accompanied by the increase of proportion and size of hydride plates. Hardness of EBM Ti-6Al-4V alloy decreases with hydrogen content.

  16. Dispatchable Hydrogen Production at the Forecourt for Electricity Demand Shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Rahil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues and concerns about depletion of fossil fuels have driven rapid growth in the generation of renewable energy (RE and its use in electricity grids. Similarly, the need for an alternative to hydrocarbon fuels means that the number of fuel cell vehicles is also expected to increase. The ability of electricity networks to balance supply and demand is greatly affected by the variable, intermittent output of RE generators; however, this could be relieved using energy storage and demand-side response (DSR techniques. One option would be production of hydrogen by electrolysis powered from wind and solar sources. The use of tariff structures would provide an incentive to operate electrolysers as dispatchable loads. The aim of this paper is to compare the cost of hydrogen production by electrolysis at garage forecourts in Libya, for both dispatchable and continuous operation, without interruption of fuel supply to vehicles. The coastal city of Derna was chosen as a case study, with the renewable energy being produced via a wind turbine farm. Wind speed was analysed in order to determine a suitable turbine, then the capacity was calculated to estimate how many turbines would be needed to meet demand. Finally, the excess power was calculated, based on the discrepancy between supply and demand. The study looked at a hydrogen refueling station in both dispatchable and continuous operation, using an optimisation algorithm. The following three scenarios were considered to determine whether the cost of electrolytic hydrogen could be reduced by a lower off-peak electricity price. These scenarios are: Standard Continuous, in which the electrolyser operates continuously on a standard tariff of 12 p/kWh; Off-peak Only, in which the electrolyser operates only during off-peak periods at the lower price of 5 p/kWh; and 2-Tier Continuous, in which the electrolyser operates continuously on a low tariff at off-peak times and a high tariff at other

  17. Metabolic flux analysis of the hydrogen production potential in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, E. [Departamento de Lenguajes y Ciencias de la Computacion, Campus de Teatrinos, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Montagud, A.; Fernandez de Cordoba, P.; Urchueguia, J.F. [Instituto Universitario de Matematica Pura y Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    Hydrogen is a promising energy vector; however, finding methods to produce it from renewable sources is essential to allow its wide-scale use. In that line, biological hydrogen production, although it is considered as a possible alternative, requires substantial improvements to overcome its present low yields. In that direction, genetic manipulation probably will play a central role and from that point of view metabolic flux analysis (MFA) constitutes an important tool to guide a priori most suitable genetic modifications oriented to a hydrogen yield increase. In this work MFA has been applied to analyze hydrogen photoproduction of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Flux analysis was carried out based on literature data and several basic fluxes were estimated in different growing conditions of the system. From this analysis, an upper limit for hydrogen photoproduction has been determined indicating a wide margin for improvement. MFA was also used to find a feasible operating space for hydrogen production, which avoids oxygen inhibition, one of the most important limitations to make hydrogen production cost effective. In addition, a set of biotechnological strategies are proposed that would be consistent with the performed mathematical analysis. (author)

  18. Hydrogen from nuclear plus wind using real-time electricity prices. Abstract 154

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.I.; Duffey, R.B.; Fairlie, M.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' During the early years of hydrogen's use as a vehicle fuel, penetration of the market will be small. This favours distributed production by electrolysis, which avoids the scale-dependent costs of distribution from centralized plants. For electrolysis actually to be the preferred option, capital equipment for electrolysis must be reasonably cheap but the dominant cost component is the electricity price. By about 2006, advanced designs of nuclear reactors should be available to produce electricity at around 30 US$/MW.h. The best approach to producing low-cost electrolytic hydrogen is shown to be use of such reactors to supply electricity to the grid at times of peak price and demand and to make hydrogen at other times. This model has been analysed using the actual prices of electricity paid by the Alberta Power Pool in 2002 and 2003 and by the Ontario Grid for 2003. The analysis shows clearly that this route electrolytic hydrogen can comfortably meet the US Department of Energy's hydrogen production-cost target of 2000$/t. Because of its low availability wind-produced electricity cannot meet this cost target. However, if wind availability can reach 35% availability, an intermittent supplementary current of wind-generated electricity may economically be fed to an electrolytic plant primarily supplied by nuclear power. Additional current raises the voltage for electrolysis but there would be only small additional capital costs. The two non-CO 2 -emitting sources, nuclear and wind (or other intermittent renewables with costs comparable to advanced nuclear) could become complementary, providing an affordable way of storing wind-generated electricity. (author)

  19. New opportunity for hydrogen fuelled vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepec, T.; Hong, H.

    1998-01-01

    The present case study is showing that with recent developments in automotive technology, the concept of a hydrogen hybrid electric vehicle with a range of 300 km is feasible. To extend this range, more progress must be made in the batteries and in the gas tanks, as well as in automobile materials and structure to lower the weight of the vehicle. Regarding a possible commercialization of HHEV, the greatest obstacles are: the cost of the fuel, the refueling infrastructure and the public acceptance of hydrogens as the fuel for cars, taking into account some negative perception related to the past history of accidents with hydrogen. Still, the deciding factor in the acceptance of HHEV's might be the society's desire for zero emission vehicles supported by subsidies towards ZEV's from higher taxation of gasoline. One more aspect of hydrogen car should be discussed here. It is the recently, by Chrysler unveiled, new fuel cell car supplied with gasoline which is scheduled for production in 2005. While it is a step in the right direction, several doubts remain: (1) it will be an LEV not a ZEV, (2) it will produce CO 2 , contributing to greenhouse effect, (3) it will use a not renewable energy source, and as such it can be considered only as a mid-solution to the environmental and energy crisis. 3 refs

  20. Optimization of the photovoltaic-hydrogen supply system of a stand-alone remote-telecom application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Guillermo; Martinez, Graciano; Galvez, Jose L.; Cuevas, Raquel; Maellas, Jesus [National Institute for Aerospace Technology (INTA), Renewable Energy Department, Ctra. Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Gila, Raul; Bueno, Emilio [Polytechnical School - Alcala de Henares University, Electronics Department, Campus Universitario, Ctra. De Madrid-Barcelona Km 33.600, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-15

    Hydrogen is considered as the optimal carrier for the surplus energy storage from renewable resources. Although hydrogen and its application in fuel cell is considered as a high-cost energy system, some cost-efficient solutions have been found for their use in stand-alone applications, which usually depend on the variability of renewable sources that have to be oversized in order to reduce their dependence on external energy sources. This paper shows the results from the simulation of several alternatives of introducing hydrogen technologies to increase the independence of a remote-telecom application fed by photovoltaic panels. Hydrogen is obtained by electrolysis and it is used in a fuel cell when the renewable energy source is not enough to maintain the stand-alone application. TRNSYS simulation environment has been used for evaluating the proposed alternatives. The results show that the best configuration option is that considering the use of hydrogen as a way to storage the surplus of radiation and the management system can vary the number of photovoltaic panels assigned to feed the hydrogen generation, the batteries or the telecom application. (author)

  1. Salinity dependent hydrogen isotope fractionation in alkenones produced by coastal and open ocean haptophyte algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M'boule, D.; Chivall, D.; Sinke-Schoen, D.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; van der Meer, M.T.J.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogen isotope fractionation in alkenones produced by haptophyte algae is a promising new proxy for paleosalinity reconstructions. To constrain and further develop this proxy the coastal haptophyte Isochrysis galbana and the open ocean haptophyte alga Emiliania huxleyi were cultured at

  2. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

  3. Tungsten effect over co-hydrotalcite catalysts to produce hydrogen from bio-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, J.L.; Ortiz, M.A.; Luna, R.; Nuno, L. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapozalco, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de Energia; Fuentes, G.A. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de IPH; Salmones, J.; Zeifert, B. [Inst. Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City (Mexico); Vazquez, A. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    The use of bioethanol has been considered for generating hydrogen via catalytic reforming. The reaction of ethanol with stream is strongly endothermic and produces hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). However, undesirable products such as carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH{sub 4}) may also form during the reaction. This paper reported on the newly found stabilization effect of tungsten over the Co-hydrotalcite catalysts to produce H{sub 2} from ethanol in steam reforming. The catalysts were characterized by nitrogen (N{sub 2}) physisorption (BET area), X-ray diffraction, Infrared, Raman and UV-vis spectroscopies. Catalytic evaluations were determined using a fixed bed reactor with a water/ethanol mol ratio of 4 at 450 degrees C. The tungsten concentration studied was from 0.5 to 3 wt percent. The intensity of crystalline reflections of the Co-hydrotalcite catalysts decreased as tungsten concentration increased. Infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the superficial chemical groups, notably -OH, H{sub 2}O, Al-OH, Mg-OH, W-O-W and CO{sub 3}{sup 2.} The highest H{sub 2} production and the best catalytic stability was found in catalysts with low tungsten. The smallest pore volume of this catalyst could be related with long residence times of ethanol in the pores. Tungsten promoted the conversion for the Co-hydrotalcite catalysts. The reaction products were H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}CHO, CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and the catalysts did not produce CO. 33 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  4. Hydrogen perspectives in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furutani, H.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen energy is considered to present a potential effective options for achieving the greenhouse gas minimization. The MITI (Ministry of International Trade and Industry) of Japanese Government is promoting the WE-NET (World Energy Network System) Project which envisions (1) construction of a global energy network for effective supply, transportation, storage and utilization of renewable energy using hydrogen as an energy carrier as a long-term options of sustainable energy economy, and (2) promotion of market entry of hydrogen energy in near and/or mid future even before construction of a WE-NET system. In this paper, I would like to report how far the hydrogen energy technology development addressed under Phase I has progressed, and describe the outline of the Phase II Plan. (author)

  5. Water electrolysis for hydrogen production in Brazilian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo; Carvalho, Fatima M.S.; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei Sergio; Linardi, Marcelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCCH/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Center], Email: saliba@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation and distributed energy sector of Brazilian economy. Fossil fuels are polluting by carbogenic emissions from their combustion, being so co-responsible for present global warming. However, no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally non-carbogenic hydrogen production process is currently available for commercialization. There are feasible possibilities to use electrolysis as one of the main sources of hydrogen, especially thinking on combination with renewable sources of energy, mainly eolic and solar. In this work some perspectives for Brazilian energy context is presented, where electrolysis combined with renewable power source and fuel cell power generation would be a good basis to improve the distributed energy supply for remote areas, where the electricity grid is not present or is deficient. (author)

  6. 78 FR 18578 - Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cell... Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Hydrogen... Avenue, Washington, DC 20585. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Purpose of the Committee: The Hydrogen and Fuel...

  7. Hydrogen Contractors Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Tim [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering

    2006-05-16

    This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Hydrogen Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) on behalf of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). Hydrogen Contractors Meeting held from May 16-19, 2006 at the Crystal Gateway Marriott Hotel Arlington, Virginia. This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings sponsored by DMS&E held in conjunction with our counterparts in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the first with the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The focus of this year’s meeting is BES funded fundamental research underpinning advancement of hydrogen storage. The major goals of these research efforts are the development of a fundamental scientific base in terms of new concepts, theories and computational tools; new characterization capabilities; and new materials that could be used or mimicked in advancing capabilities for hydrogen storage.

  8. Microbial Electrolysis Cells for High Yield Hydrogen Gas Production from Organic Matter

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2008-12-01

    The use of electrochemically active bacteria to break down organic matter, combined with the addition of a small voltage (>0.2 V in practice) in specially designed microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), can result in a high yield of hydrogen gas. While microbial electrolysis was invented only a few years ago, rapid developments have led to hydrogen yields approaching 100%, energy yields based on electrical energy input many times greater than that possible by water electrolysis, and increased gas production rates. MECs used to make hydrogen gas are similar in design to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) that produce electricity, but there are important differences in architecture and analytical methods used to evaluate performance. We review here the materials, architectures, performance, and energy efficiencies of these MEC systems that show promise as a method for renewable and sustainable energy production, and wastewater treatment. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  9. A hybrid HTGR system producing electricity, hydrogen and such other products as water demanded in the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X., E-mail: yan.xing@jaea.go.jp; Noguchi, H.; Sato, H.; Tachibana, Y.; Kunitomi, K.; Hino, R.

    2014-05-01

    Alternative energy products are being considered by the Middle East countries for both consumption and export. Electricity, water, and hydrogen produced not from oil and gas are amongst those desirable. A hybrid nuclear production system, GTHTR300C, under development in JAEA can achieve this regional strategic goal. The system is based on a 600 MWt HTGR and equipped to cogenerate electricity by gas turbine and seawater desalination by using only the nuclear plant waste heat. Hydrogen is produced via a thermochemical water-splitting process driven by the reactor's 950 °C heat. Additionally process steam may be produced for industrial uses. An example is shown of manufacturing soda ash, an internationally traded commodity, from using the steam produced and the brine discharged from desalination. The nuclear reactor satisfies nearly all energy requirements for the hybrid generations without emitting CO{sub 2}. The passive safety of the reactor as described in the paper permits proximity of siting the reactor with the production facilities to enhance energy transmission. Production flowsheet of the GTHTR300C is given for up to 300 MWe electricity, 58 t/day hydrogen, 56,000 m{sup 3}/day potable water, 3500 t/day steam, and 1000 t/day soda ash. The production thermal efficiency reaches 88%.

  10. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder. Revidert utgave 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewables in the energy system of the future.

  11. GAT 4 production and storage of hydrogen. Report July 2004; GAT 4 procduction et stockage de l'hydrogene. Rapport juillet 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This paper concerns two aspects of the hydrogen: the production and the storage. For both parts the challenges and a state of the art are presented. It discusses also the hydrogen production by renewable energies, by solar energy, the hydrogen of hydrocarbons reforming purification, active phases development, thermal transfer simulation. Concerning the hydrogen storage the hydrogen adsorption by large surface solid, the storage by metallic hydrides, the alanates and light hydrides, the adsorption on carbon nano-tubes, the storage in nano-structures, the thermal and mechanical simulation of the hydrogen are presented. (A.L.B.)

  12. High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Solar Thermochemical Splitting of Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heske, Clemens; Moujaes, Samir; Weimer, Alan; Wong, Bunsen; Siegal, Nathan; McFarland, Eric; Miller, Eric; Lewis, Michele; Bingham, Carl; Roth, Kurth; Sabacky, Bruce; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2011-09-29

    The objective of this work is to identify economically feasible concepts for the production of hydrogen from water using solar energy. The ultimate project objective was to select one or more competitive concepts for pilot-scale demonstration using concentrated solar energy. Results of pilot scale plant performance would be used as foundation for seeking public and private resources for full-scale plant development and testing. Economical success in this venture would afford the public with a renewable and limitless source of energy carrier for use in electric power load-leveling and as a carbon-free transportation fuel. The Solar Hydrogen Generation Research (SHGR) project embraces technologies relevant to hydrogen research under the Office of Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technology (HFCIT) as well as concentrated solar power under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Although the photoelectrochemical work is aligned with HFCIT, some of the technologies in this effort are also consistent with the skills and technologies found in concentrated solar power and photovoltaic technology under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Hydrogen production by thermo-chemical water-splitting is a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or a combination of heat and electrolysis instead of pure electrolysis and meets the goals for hydrogen production using only water and renewable solar energy as feed-stocks. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production also meets these goals by implementing photo-electrolysis at the surface of a semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte with bias provided by a photovoltaic source. Here, water splitting is a photo-electrolytic process in which hydrogen is produced using only solar photons and water as feed-stocks. The thermochemical hydrogen task engendered formal collaborations among two universities, three national laboratories and two private sector

  13. Effective Land Use for Renewable Energy Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Teunis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the energy densities for different methods to produce renew-able energy. Energy density is defined here as the energy that is annually produced on a certain area. Using low, average, and high energy density scenari

  14. Analysis of available wind resources and their suitability for hydrogen production in the Sacramento area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomy, O.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper looks at the technical, economic, environmental and regulatory barriers to the production of hydrogen from local wind resources in Sacramento, CA. Both central and distributed hydrogen generation are compared. The technical analysis uses 6 years of hourly wind data from Solano County to define the diurnal and seasonal wind resource. The impacts of a fluctuating power source on the electrolyzer are examined as well as the grid or hydrogen distribution and storage infrastructure constraints for implementation. An economic analysis comparing the price of hydrogen produced from the local wind resource is done with sensitivity analyses for capital and operating costs of both wind turbines and electrolyzers. In addition, the economic analysis includes considerations of increased demand for wind electricity by California utilities attempting to meet their Renewable Portfolio Standards. The environmental analysis compares the emissions reductions of CO 2 and criteria pollutants for different energy usage scenarios. These include comparing electricity and transportation emissions rates to optimize the use of wind energy and natural gas, as well as comparison of SULEV hybrid vehicles with FCV's and H 2 ICE's. Finally, an examination of the existing regulatory structure and policies that could prevent or encourage the use of wind to produce hydrogen in Sacramento is also included. (author)

  15. Nanoconfined Alkali-metal borohydrides for Reversible Hydrogen Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngene, P.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen has been identified as a promising energy carrier. Its combustion is not associated with pollution when generated from renewable energy sources like solar and wind. The large-scale use of hydrogen for intermittent energy storage and as a fuel for cars can contribute to the realization of a

  16. 77 FR 65542 - Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cell... Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee... Agenda: (updates will be posted on the web at: http://hydrogen.energy.gov ). Public Comment DOE Program...

  17. 75 FR 2860 - Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cell... Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee... change; updates will be posted on http://hydrogen.energy.gov and copies of the final agenda will...

  18. A dynamic model of a 100 kW micro gas turbine fuelled with natural gas and hydrogen blends and its application in a hybrid energy grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Gaeta, Alessandro; Reale, Fabrizio; Chiariello, Fabio; Massoli, Patrizio

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the development of a dynamic model of a commercial 100 kW Micro Gas Turbine (MGT) fuelled with mixtures of standard (i.e. natural gas or methane) and alternative fuels (i.e. hydrogen). The model consists of a first-order differential equation (ODE) describing the dominant dynamics of the MGT imposed by its own control system during production electrical power. The differential equation is coupled to a set of nonlinear maps derived numerically from a detailed 0D thermodynamic matching model of the MGT evaluated over a wide range of operating conditions (i.e. mechanical power, fraction of hydrogen and ambient temperature). The efficiency of the electrical machine with power inverter and power absorbed by auxiliary devices is also taken into account. The resulting model is experimentally validated for a sequence of power step responses of the MGT at different ambient conditions and with different fuel mixtures. The model is suited for simulation and control of hybrid energy grids (HEGs) which rely on advanced use of MGT and hydrogen as energy carrier. In this regard, the MGT model is used in the simulation of an HEG based on an appropriate mix of renewable (non-programmable) and non-renewable (programmable) energy sources with hydrogen storage and its reuse in the MGT. Here, the MGT is used as a programmable energy vector for compensating the deficits of renewable energies (such as solar and wind) with respect to user demand, while excess renewable energy is used to produce hydrogen via electrolysis of water. The simulated HEG comprises a solar PhotoVoltaic (PV) plant (300 kW), an MGT (100 kW) fuelled with natural gas and hydrogen blends, a water electrolyzer (WE) system (8 bar, 56 Nm 3 /h), a hydrogen tank (54 m 3 ), and an Energy Management Control System (EMCS). - Highlights: • A dynamic model of a commercial 100 kW MGT fuelled with natural gas and hydrogen blends is developed. • The model reproduces the electrical power generated by

  19. The energy carrier hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The potential of hydrogen to be used as a clean fuel for the production of heat and power, as well as for the propulsion of aeroplanes and vehicles, is described, in particular for Germany. First, attention is paid to the application of hydrogen as a basic material for the (petro)chemical industry, as an indirect energy source for (petro)chemical processes, and as a direct energy source for several purposes. Than the importance of hydrogen as an energy carrier in a large-scale application of renewable energy sources is discussed. Next an overview is given of new and old hydrogen production techniques from fossil fuels, biomass, or the electrolysis of water. Energetic applications of hydrogen in the transportation sector and the production of electric power and heat are mentioned. Brief descriptions are given of techniques to store hydrogen safely. Finally attention is paid to hydrogen research in Germany. Two hydrogen projects, in which Germany participates, are briefly dealt with: the Euro-Quebec project (production of hydrogen by means of hydropower), and the HYSOLAR project (hydrogen production by means of solar energy). 18 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  20. Economic and environmental effects under resource scarcity and substitution between renewable and non-renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Susana; Soares, Isabel; Afonso, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    We build a general equilibrium model with renewable (non-polluting) and non-renewable (polluting) resources to analyze the interaction and compatibility between economic growth and a cleaner environment. The study is in two phases: (i) resource extraction/production costs are constant; (ii) resource producers invest in knowledge to reduce extraction/production costs, endogenizing technical change. With constant costs, there is a permanent trade-off between economic growth and a cleaner environment. With endogenous technical change, it is possible to harmonize more output and less emissions by replacing non-renewable resources for renewable ones. We also conduct a sensitivity analysis to explore three specific policy actions. With constant costs, the best policy action is the imposition of a higher renewable resources standard, while with endogenous technical change, under certain conditions, all policy interventions may benefit both the economy and the environment. - Highlights: ► Our general equilibrium model includes renewable and non-renewable resources. ► Under constant resource production costs emissions grow at the same rate as output. ► Resource producers can invest in knowledge to reduce production costs. ► Under decreasing costs, lower emissions are compatible with stable output growth. ► Empirical results differ under constant costs and under endogenous technical change

  1. H2@Scale: Technical and Economic Potential of Hydrogen as an Energy Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jadun, Paige [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pivovar, Bryan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-09

    The H2@Scale concept is focused on developing hydrogen as an energy carrier and using hydrogen's properties to improve the national energy system. Specifically hydrogen has the abilities to (1) supply a clean energy source for industry and transportation and (2) increase the profitability of variable renewable electricity generators such as wind turbines and solar photovoltaic (PV) farms by providing value for otherwise potentially-curtailed electricity. Thus the concept also has the potential to reduce oil dependency by providing a low-carbon fuel for fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and pollutants such as NOx, and support domestic energy production, manufacturing, and U.S. economic competitiveness. The analysis reported here focuses on the potential market size and value proposition for the H2@Scale concept. It involves three analysis phases: 1. Initial phase estimating the technical potential for hydrogen markets and the resources required to meet them; 2. National-scale analysis of the economic potential for hydrogen and the interactions between willingness to pay by hydrogen users and the cost to produce hydrogen from various sources; and 3. In-depth analysis of spatial and economic issues impacting hydrogen production and utilization and the markets. Preliminary analysis of the technical potential indicates that the technical potential for hydrogen use is approximately 60 million metric tons (MMT) annually for light duty FCEVs, heavy duty vehicles, ammonia production, oil refining, biofuel hydrotreating, metals refining, and injection into the natural gas system. The technical potential of utility-scale PV and wind generation independently are much greater than that necessary to produce 60 MMT / year hydrogen. Uranium, natural gas, and coal reserves are each sufficient to produce 60 MMT / year hydrogen in addition to their current uses for decades to centuries. National estimates of the economic potential of

  2. Renewable energies and the challenge for a sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    After a presentation of some basic definitions and data (locations, assessment, utilisation), this collective report proposes a first set of contributions about perspectives for renewable energies: their role in middle- and long-term world scenarios, their relationship with greenhouse effect, the relentless technological pursuit through the example of hydrogen. A second set of contributions deals with the relationship between renewable energies and sustainable development: in northern countries (an environmental responsibility and a society issue), in southern countries (the challenge of access to energy), the promotion of renewable energies in the North-South cooperation, the chaotic decentralized electrification program in South Africa, the relationship between energy and struggle against poverty, the search for instruments to stimulate renewable electricity development, the sociological constraints to renewable energy development, the sustainable development at the service of new industries in countries of the North

  3. Hydrogen: it's now. Hydrogen, essential today, indispensable tomorrow. Power-to-Gas or how to meet the challenge of electricity storage. To develop hydrogen mobility. Hydrogen production modes and scope of application of the IED directive - Interview. Regulatory evolutions needed for an easier deployment of hydrogen energy technologies for a clean mobility. Support of the Community's policy to hydrogen and to fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauberger, Pascal; Boucly, Philippe; Quint, Aliette; Pierre, Helene; Lucchese, Paul; Bouillon-Delporte, Valerie; Chauvet, Bertrand; Ferrari, Fabio; Boivin, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Published by the French Association for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells (AFHYPAC), this document first outlines how hydrogen can reduce our dependence on fossil energies, how it supports the development of electric mobility to reduce CO 2 emissions by transports, how it enables a massive storage of energy as a support to renewable energies deployment and integration, and how hydrogen can be a competitiveness driver. Then two contributions address technical solutions, the first one being Power-to-Gas as a solution to energy storage (integration of renewable energies, a mean for massive storage of electricity, economic conditions making the first deployments feasible, huge social and economical benefits, necessity of creation of an adapted legal and economic framework), and the second one being the development of hydrogen-powered mobility (a major societal concern for air quality, strategies of car manufacturers in the world, necessity of a favourable framework, the situation of recharging infrastructures). Two contributions address the legal framework regarding hydrogen production modes and the scope of application of the European IED directive on industrial emissions, and the needed regulatory evolutions for an easier deployment of Hydrogen-energy technologies for a clean mobility. A last article comments the evolution of the support of European policies to hydrogen and fuel cells through R and d programs, presents the main support program (FCH JU) and its results, other European financing and support policy, and discusses perspectives, notably for possible financing mechanisms

  4. Density evaluation of remotely-supplied hydrogen radicals produced via tungsten filament method for SiCl4 reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohra Dahmani, Fatima; Okamoto, Yuji; Tsutsumi, Daiki; Ishigaki, Takamasa; Koinuma, Hideomi; Hamzaoui, Saad; Flazi, Samir; Sumiya, Masatomo

    2018-05-01

    Effect of the hydrogen radical on the reduction of a silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) source was studied. The hydrogen radicals were generated using a tungsten (W) filament in a generation chamber, and were remotely supplied to another reaction chamber. The density of the hydrogen radical was estimated from the optical transmittance of 600-nm-wavelength light through phosphate glass doped with tungsten oxide (WO3). Lifetime of the hydrogen radical seemed sufficiently long, and its density as supplied to the reaction chamber was estimated to be on the order of 1012 cm‑3. Signal intensity of the peak corresponding to SiCl4 (m/z = 170) detected by quadrupole-mass measurement was confirmed to decrease owing to the reaction with the remotely-supplied hydrogen radical. This indicates the possibility that chemically-stable SiCl4, as one of the by-products of the Siemens process, can be reduced to produce silicon.

  5. The Hawaii hydrogen plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, P.K.; McKinley, K.R.; Antal, M.J. Jr.; Kinoshita, C.M.; Neill, D.R.; Phillips, V.D.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Koehler, R.L.; Huang, N.

    1990-01-01

    Hawaii is the most energy-vulnerable state in the Union. Over the last 16 years the State has undertaken programs to reduce its energy needs and to provide alternatives to current usage tapping its abundant renewable energy resources. This paper describes the long-range research and development plans in Renewable Hydrogen for the State of Hawaii with special attention to the contributions of the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Current activities in production, storage, and utilization are detailed, and projections through the year 2000 are offered

  6. Investigation of hydrogenase molecular marker to optimize hydrogen production from organic wastes and effluents of agro-food industries [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years policy makers have started looking for alternatives to fossil fuels, not only to counter the threat of global warming, but also to reduce the risk of overdependence on imported oil and gas supplies. By contrast with hydrocarbon fuels, hydrogen (H2, whether burned directly or used in fuel cells, is intrinsically a clean energy vector with near zero emission. However the main current method of producing hydrogen, steam reforming of methane, involves the release of large quantities of greenhouse gases. So although hydrogen already accounts for around 2% of world consumption of energy, its more widespread adoption is limited by several challenges. Therefore new processes are investigated, especially those using renewable raw material, e.g. woods and organic wastes, and/or involving microorganisms. Indeed, for some algae and bacteria, the generation of molecular hydrogen is an essential part of their energy metabolism. The approach with the greatest commercial potential is fermentative hydrogen generation (dark fermentation by bacteria from the Clostridium genus. This biological process, as a part of the methane-producing anaerobic digestion process, is very promising since it allows the production of hydrogen from a wide variety of renewable resources such as carbohydrate waste from the agricultural and agro-food industries or processed urban waste and sewage. To date most publications on hydrogen production by Clostridium strains have focused on the effects of operating parameters (such as temperature, pH, dilution rate, etc.. We now need to extend this knowledge by identifying and monitoring the various different metabolic agents involved in high H2 activity. Consequently the aim of this research at the CWBI in the University of Liege is to investigate the role of [Fe] hydrogenases, the key enzymes that remove excess electrons accumulating during fermentation. Clostridium butyricum CWBI1009, the strain used for these investigations

  7. Redox Flow Batteries, Hydrogen and Distributed Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, C R; Vrubel, Heron; Amstutz, Véronique; Peljo, Pekka; Toghill, Kathryn E; Girault, Hubert H

    2015-01-01

    Social, economic, and political pressures are causing a shift in the global energy mix, with a preference toward renewable energy sources. In order to realize widespread implementation of these resources, large-scale storage of renewable energy is needed. Among the proposed energy storage technologies, redox flow batteries offer many unique advantages. The primary limitation of these systems, however, is their limited energy density which necessitates very large installations. In order to enhance the energy storage capacity of these systems, we have developed a unique dual-circuit architecture which enables two levels of energy storage; first in the conventional electrolyte, and then through the formation of hydrogen. Moreover, we have begun a pilot-scale demonstration project to investigate the scalability and technical readiness of this approach. This combination of conventional energy storage and hydrogen production is well aligned with the current trajectory of modern energy and mobility infrastructure. The combination of these two means of energy storage enables the possibility of an energy economy dominated by renewable resources.

  8. Accelerated formation of hydrogen-producing granules for the start-up of UASB reactors using vinasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César González-Ugalde

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen-producing granules formation was studied in a CSTR. The aim of this process is to later transfer the mixed liquor to a UASB reactor to reduce its start-up period. Vinasses from a national bioetha­nol-producing industry (from sugar cane were used as substrate and their anaerobic fermentation was carried out under mesophilic conditions. The seed sludge was collected from an UASB reactor oper­ated in an industrial wastewater treatment plant and it was heat treated to inactivate methanogenic bacteria. Total viable and non-viable material growth curves were generated and it was determined that the exponential growth phase of the thermally pre­treated mixed culture was between 20 and 120 h. Finally, the anaerobic fermentation of the vinasses in batch mode for 70 hours, and then in continuous CSTR mode for 7 days, showed to be an effective method for accelerating the formation of hydrogen-producing granules. Using this method, granules with an average size of 1.24 mm were achieved. The good efficiency of the process is attributed to high mass transfer in the CSTR reactor.

  9. Hydrogen as a clean energy option; Option Wasserstoff als sauberer Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newi, G. [Consulectra Unternehmensberatung GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Many visionary action programmes are based on the conviction that hydrogen produced from renewable, environmentally sustainable resources is the chemical energy carrier of the future. In Hamburg there have been various pilot projects over the past ten years which deal explicitly with problems of infrastructure relating to the integration of renewable energy sources in the existing energy supply. One such example is the fuel cell block heating station in Hamburg Behrenfeld which has been supplying residential buildings for some time now. Another is a practice-oriented pilot project involving a hydrogen-fuelled PAFC with 220 kW thermal and 200 kW electrical power output. The hydrogen is supplied by a 60 m-3 LH{sub 2} tank, the first of its kind to be approved by the authorities and accepted by the public. [Deutsch] Viele visionaere Aktionsprogramme sehen aus dauerhaft umweltvertraeglichen Quellen erzeugten Wasserstoff als chemischen Energietraeger der Zukunft. In Hamburg gibt es seit rd. 10 Jahren verschiedene Pilotprojekte, die sich insbesondere mit Fragen der Infrastruktur zur Integration erneuerbarer Energiequellen in die bestehende Energieversorgung befassen. Ein Beispiel ist das in Hamburg-Behrenfeld seit einiger Zeit betriebene Brennstoffzellen-Blockheizkraftwerk zur Versorgung von Wohngebaeuden. Als praxisbezogenes Pilotprojekt wird u.a. eine H{sub 2}-versorgte PAFC mit 220 kW thermischer und 200 kW elektrischer Leistung betrieben. Die Wasserstoffversorgung aus einem oberirdischen 60 m{sup 3} LH{sub 2}-Tank wurde erstmals in dieser Anwendungsform behoerdlich genehmigt und von der Oeffentlichkeit akzeptiert. (orig./MSK)

  10. Hydrogen and its challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schal, M.

    2008-01-01

    The future of hydrogen as a universal fuel is in jeopardy unless we are able to produce it through an environment-friendly way and at a competitive cost. Today almost all the hydrogen used in the world is produced by steam reforming of natural gas. This process releases 8 tonnes of CO 2 per tonne of hydrogen produced. Other means of producing hydrogen are the hydrolysis, the very high temperature hydrolysis, and the direct chemical dissociation of water, these processes are greener than steam reforming but less efficient. About one hundred buses in the world operate on fuel cells fed by hydrogen, but it appears that the first industrial use of hydrogen at great scale will be for the local generation of electricity. Globally the annual budget for research concerning hydrogen is 4.4 milliard (10 9 ) euros worldwide. (A.C.)

  11. Electrochemical Approaches to Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobaccaro, Peter

    Renewable energy is becoming an increasingly important component of the world's energy supply as the threat of global warming continues to rise. There is a need to reduce the cost of this renewable energy and a future challenge to deal with the strain intermittent power sources like renewables place on the power grid. In this dissertation, electrochemistry is harnessed to address possible solutions to both of these issues. First, it is used to develop a low cost alternative photovoltaic material. Then, it is used to investigate the production of chemical fuel stocks which can be used for energy storage. In chapter 2, advances are made in the electrochemical deposition of indium (In) on molybdenum foil which enables the deposition of electronic-grade purity, continuous films with thicknesses in the micron range. As an example application, the electrodeposited In films are phosphorized via the thin-film vapor-liquid-solid growth method. The resulting poly-crystalline InP films display excellent optoelectronic quality, comparable to films grown from more standard vacuum deposition techniques. This demonstrates the versatility of the developed electrochemical deposition procedure. In the remaining chapters, renewable fuel production is investigated. First in chapter 3, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is examined as a catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Typically, high-cost synthesized MoS2 is used as the catalyst because the pristine MoS 2 mineral is known to be a poor catalyst. The fundamental challenge with pristine MoS2 is the inert HER activity of the predominant (0001) basal surface plane. Here, we report a general thermal process in which the basal plane is texturized to increase the density of HER-active edge sites. The process generates high HER catalytic performance in pristine MoS 2 across various morphologies such as the bulk mineral, films composed of micron-scale flakes, and even films of a commercially-available spray of nanoflake MoS2. In

  12. Factors that May Lead on the Non-renewal of Certified Organic Product According to Organic Producers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Rossi Scalco

    Full Text Available Abstract: The regulatory process of the organic sector in Brazil began in 1999 and has gone through several changes, culminating in the Decree-Law of December 2007, which established rules for the production and trading of organic products in Brazil. In such Decree, the certification has become a compulsory requirement for production and trading of such products, whose rules governing their obtaining follow rigorous controls standards. As the certification process of organic products is recent and there is a lack of studies carried on this subject, this study will contribute to fill the existing gap in the international literature, mainly national about this topic, once that aimed to identify factors that influence the possibility of non-renewal of organic production certificate, according to the perception of certified producers in Brazil. Through this effort, this research should contribute to wider adherence and maintenance of the producer in the certified system or, at least, proposals for further works. A total of 200 producers from several Brazilian states participated in this study, and data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and, later, exploratory factor analysis. The results achieved holds that the determining factors to the non-renewal of the certificate involve variables related to transactions among operators, organization of the supply chain and to the regulations. Furthermore, to overcome the challenges imposed to rural producers, one of the proposals is for greater effective actions from representative industry entities of the sector in aspects that are related to the certification process.

  13. Production of Renewable Hydrogen from Glycerol Steam Reforming over Bimetallic Ni-(Cu,Co,Cr Catalysts Supported on SBA-15 Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Carrero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol steam reforming (GSR is a promising alternative to obtain renewable hydrogen and help the economics of the biodiesel industry. Nickel-based catalysts are typically used in reforming reactions. However, the choice of the catalyst greatly influences the process, so the development of bimetallic catalysts is a research topic of relevant interest. In this work, the effect of adding Cu, Co, and Cr to the formulation of Ni/SBA-15 catalysts for hydrogen production by GSR has been studied, looking for an enhancement of its catalytic performance. Bimetallic Ni-M/SBA-15 (M: Co, Cu, Cr samples were prepared by incipient wetness co-impregnation to reach 15 wt % of Ni and 4 wt % of the second metal. Catalysts were characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES, N2-physisorption, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, hydrogen temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA, and tested in GSR at 600 °C and atmospheric pressure. The addition of Cu, Co, and Cr to the Ni/SBA-15 catalyst helped to form smaller crystallites of the Ni phase, this effect being more pronounced in the case of the Ni-Cr/SBA-15 sample. This catalyst also showed a reduction profile shifted towards higher temperatures, indicating stronger metal-support interaction. As a consequence, the Ni-Cr/SBA-15 catalyst exhibited the best performance in GSR in terms of glycerol conversion and hydrogen production. Additionally, Ni-Cr/SBA-15 achieved a drastic reduction in coke formation compared to the Ni/SBA-15 material.

  14. Renewable energy policy. Into the mainstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Renewable energy today is at a critical stage of development: renewable technologies are maturing, and costs for some technologies are in the competitive range. Beyond the energy they produce, renewable energy technologies offer a variety of other benefits towards the achievement of sustainable development goals. This promise has led to all IEA governments to support their greater development. But, while renewables markets are growing strongly, additional steps must be taken to accelerate the achievement of sustainable, large-scale markets. This report by the IEA's Renewable Energy Working Party outlines those steps, and the benefits of moving renewable energy into the mainstream

  15. An experimental study of the growth and hydrogen production of C. reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamburic, B.; Burgess, S.; Nixon, P.J.; Hellgardt, K. [Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Some unicellular green algae, such as C. reinhardtii, have the ability to photosynthetically produce molecular hydrogen under anaerobic conditions. They offer a biological route to renewable, carbon-neutral hydrogen production from two of nature's most plentiful resources - sunlight and water. This process provides the additional benefit of carbon dioxide sequestration and the option of deriving valuable products from algal biomass. The growth of dense and healthy algal biomass is a prerequisite for efficient hydrogen production. This study investigates the growth of C. reinhardtii under different cyclic light regimes and at various continuous light intensities. Algal growth is characterised in terms of the cell count, chlorophyll content and optical density of the culture. The consumption of critical nutrients such as acetate and sulphate is measured by chromatography techniques. C. reinhardtii wild-type CC-124 strain is analysed in a 3 litre tubular flow photobioreactor featuring a large surface-to-volume ratio and excellent light penetration through the culture. Key parameters of the hydrogen production process are continuously monitored and controlled; these include pH, pO{sub 2}, optical density, temperature, agitation and light intensity. Gas phase hydrogen production is determined by mass spectrometry. (orig.)

  16. Developing the use of renewable heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2013-01-01

    The author reports a study in which he shows that the heat production by means of renewable energies is an efficient method to reach the objective of 23 per cent of renewable energies in the French final energy consumption. He browses the different techniques of renewable heat production (solar heat, wood-fuel, surface geothermal) and indicates the associated potential resources. He proposes a cost analysis which compares the use of gas and electricity with three techniques of production of renewable heat: solar heat to produce hot water, biomass combustion (more particularly wood), solar heat extracted with fuel cells. He also assesses tariffs and CO 2 emissions. Then, he elaborates a strategy to phase out fossil energies: a modification of the RT 2012 thermal regulation, to give up the purchase obligation for electricity produced by wind and photovoltaic energy, to extend the CSPE calculation basis, to put oil-fuel and gas boilers out of the market, to support the development of renewable heat production, to improve the competitiveness of the different techniques of renewable heat production. He finally gives a brief overview of industrial perspectives created by such a development of renewable heat

  17. Hydrogen from biomass: state of the art and research challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, Thomas A; Elam, Carolyn C; Evans, Robert J

    2002-02-01

    The report was prepared for the International Energy Agency (IEA) Agreement on the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen, Task 16, Hydrogen from Carbon-Containing Materials. Hydrogen's share in the energy market is increasing with the implementation of fuel cell systems and the growing demand for zero-emission fuels. Hydrogen production will need to keep pace with this growing market. In the near term, increased production will likely be met by conventional technologies, such as natural gas reforming. In these processes, the carbon is converted to CO2 and released to the atmosphere. However, with the growing concern about global climate change, alternatives to the atmospheric release of CO2 are being investigated. Sequestration of the CO2 is an option that could provide a viable near-term solution. Reducing the demand on fossil resources remains a significant concern for many nations. Renewable-based processes like solar- or wind-driven electrolysis and photobiological water splitting hold great promise for clean hydrogen production; however, advances must still be made before these technologies can be economically competitive. For the near-and mid-term, generating hydrogen from biomass may be the more practical and viable, renewable and potentially carbon-neutral (or even carbon-negative in conjunction with sequestration) option. Recently, the IEA Hydrogen Agreement launched a new task to bring together international experts to investigate some of these near- and mid-term options for producing hydrogen with reduced environmental impacts. This review of the state of the art of hydrogen production from biomass was prepared to facilitate in the planning of work that should be done to achieve the goal of near-term hydrogen energy systems. The relevant technologies that convert biomass to hydrogen, with emphasis on thermochemical routes are described. In evaluating the viability of the conversion routes, each must be put in the context of the availability of

  18. The Use of Hydrogen as a Fuel for Inland Waterway Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Morsy El Gohary; Yousri M.A.Welaya; Amr Abdelwahab Saad

    2014-01-01

    Escalating apprehension about the harmful effects of widespread use of conventional fossil fuels in the marine field and in internal combustion engines in general, has led to a vast amount of efforts and the directing of large capital investment towards research and development of sustainable alternative energy sources. One of the most promising and abundant of these sources is hydrogen. Firstly, the use of current fossil fuels is discussed focusing on the emissions and economic sides to emphasize the need for a new, cleaner and renewable fuel with particular reference to hydrogen as a suitable possible alternative. Hydrogen properties, production and storage methods are then reviewed along with its suitability from the economical point of view. Finally, a cost analysis for the use of hydrogen in internal combustion engines is carried out to illustrate the benefits of its use as a replacement for diesel. The outcome of this cost analysis shows that 98% of the capital expenditure is consumed by the equipment, and 68.3% of the total cost of the equipment is spent on the solar photovoltaic cells. The hydrogen plant is classified as a large investment project because of its high initial cost which is about 1 billion US$;but this is justified because hydrogen is produced in a totally green way. When hydrogen is used as a fuel, no harmful emissions are obtained.

  19. The use of hydrogen as a fuel for inland waterway units

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gohary, M. Morsy; Welaya, Yousri M. A.; Saad, Amr Abdelwahab

    2014-06-01

    Escalating apprehension about the harmful effects of widespread use of conventional fossil fuels in the marine field and in internal combustion engines in general, has led to a vast amount of efforts and the directing of large capital investment towards research and development of sustainable alternative energy sources. One of the most promising and abundant of these sources is hydrogen. Firstly, the use of current fossil fuels is discussed focusing on the emissions and economic sides to emphasize the need for a new, cleaner and renewable fuel with particular reference to hydrogen as a suitable possible alternative. Hydrogen properties, production and storage methods are then reviewed along with its suitability from the economical point of view. Finally, a cost analysis for the use of hydrogen in internal combustion engines is carried out to illustrate the benefits of its use as a replacement for diesel. The outcome of this cost analysis shows that 98% of the capital expenditure is consumed by the equipment, and 68.3% of the total cost of the equipment is spent on the solar photovoltaic cells. The hydrogen plant is classified as a large investment project because of its high initial cost which is about 1 billion US; but this is justified because hydrogen is produced in a totally green way. When hydrogen is used as a fuel, no harmful emissions are obtained.

  20. Hydrogen production from microbial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Caroline S; Rey, Federico E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention is directed to a method of screening microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. This method involves inoculating one or more microbes in a sample containing cell culture medium to form an inoculated culture medium. The inoculated culture medium is then incubated under hydrogen producing conditions. Once incubating causes the inoculated culture medium to produce hydrogen, microbes in the culture medium are identified as candidate microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. Methods of producing hydrogen using one or more of the microbial strains identified as well as the hydrogen producing strains themselves are also disclosed.

  1. Hydrogen and syngas production from sewage sludge via steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nipattummakul, Nimit [The Combustion Laboratory, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); The Waste Incineration Research Center, Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, North Bangkok (Thailand); Ahmed, Islam I.; Gupta, Ashwani K. [The Combustion Laboratory, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Kerdsuwan, Somrat [The Waste Incineration Research Center, Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, North Bangkok (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    High temperature steam gasification is an attractive alternative technology which can allow one to obtain high percentage of hydrogen in the syngas from low-grade fuels. Gasification is considered a clean technology for energy conversion without environmental impact using biomass and solid wastes as feedstock. Sewage sludge is considered a renewable fuel because it is sustainable and has good potential for energy recovery. In this investigation, sewage sludge samples were gasified at various temperatures to determine the evolutionary behavior of syngas characteristics and other properties of the syngas produced. The syngas characteristics were evaluated in terms of syngas yield, hydrogen production, syngas chemical analysis, and efficiency of energy conversion. In addition to gasification experiments, pyrolysis experiments were conducted for evaluating the performance of gasification over pyrolysis. The increase in reactor temperature resulted in increased generation of hydrogen. Hydrogen yield at 1000 C was found to be 0.076 g{sub gas} g{sub sample}{sup -1}. Steam as the gasifying agent increased the hydrogen yield three times as compared to air gasification. Sewage sludge gasification results were compared with other samples, such as, paper, food wastes and plastics. The time duration for sewage sludge gasification was longer as compared to other samples. On the other hand sewage sludge yielded more hydrogen than that from paper and food wastes. (author)

  2. Renewable Energy Systems: Technology Overview and Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ionel, Dan M.; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, essential statistics demonstrating the increasing role of renewable energy generation are first discussed. A state-of-the-art review section covers the fundamentals of wind turbine and photovoltaic (PV) systems. Schematic diagrams illustrating the main components and system topol......, including PV and concentrating solar power; wave energy; fuel cells; and storage with batteries and hydrogen, respectively. Recommended further readings on topics of electric power engineering for renewable energy are included in the final section.......In this chapter, essential statistics demonstrating the increasing role of renewable energy generation are first discussed. A state-of-the-art review section covers the fundamentals of wind turbine and photovoltaic (PV) systems. Schematic diagrams illustrating the main components and system...... topologies are included. Also, the increasing role of power electronics is explained as an enabler for renewable energy integration and for future power systems and smart grids. Recent examples of research and development, including new devices and system installations for utility power plants...

  3. Hydrogen, fuel of the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, B.

    2008-01-01

    The European project HyWays has drawn out the road map of hydrogen energy development in Europe. The impact of this new energy vector on the security of energy supplies, on the abatement of greenhouse gases and on the economy should be important in the future. This article summarizes the main conclusions of the HyWays study: CO 2 emissions, hydrogen production mix, oil saving abatement, economic analysis, contribution of hydrogen to the development of renewable energies, hydrogen uses, development of regional demand and of users' centers, transport and distribution. The proposals of the HyWays consortium are as follows: implementing a strong public/private European partnership to reach the goals, favoring market penetration, developing training, tax exemption on hydrogen in the initial phase for a partial compensation of the cost difference, inciting public fleets to purchase hydrogen-fueled vehicles, using synergies with other technologies (vehicles with internal combustion engines, hybrid vehicles, biofuels of second generation..), harmonizing hydrogen national regulations at the European scale. (J.S.)

  4. Microbiological Hydrogen Production by Anaerobic Fermentation and Photosynthetic Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Y.; Ohsawa, M.; Nagai, Y.; Fukatsu, M.; Ishimi, K.; Ichi-ishi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen gas is a clean and renewable energy carrier. Microbiological hydrogen production from glucose or starch by combination used of an anaerobic fermenter and a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter spheroides RV was studied. In 1984, the co-culture of Clostridium butyricum and RV strain to convert glucose to hydrogen was demonstrated by Miyake et al. Recently, we studied anaerobic fermentation of starch by a thermophilic archaea. (Author)

  5. The potential of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    On June 27 and 28, 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories were convened to discuss plans for the development of a National Energy Strategy (NES) and, in particular, the analytic needs in support of NES that could be addressed by the laboratories. As a result of that meeting, interlaboratory teams were formed to produce analytic white papers on key topics, and a lead laboratory was designated for each core laboratory team. The broad-ranging renewables assignment is summarized by the following issue statement from the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis: to what extent can renewable energy technologies contribute to diversifying sources of energy supply What are the major barriers to greater renewable energy use and what is the potential timing of widespread commercialization for various categories of applications This report presents the results of the intensive activity initiated by the June 1989 meeting to produce a white paper on renewable energy. Scores of scientists, analysts, and engineers in the five core laboratories gave generously of their time over the past eight months to produce this document. Their generous, constructive efforts are hereby gratefully acknowledged. 126 refs., 44 figs., 32 tabs.

  6. Energy, The Storage Challenge. Better Batteries Included. Running Hot and Cold. A Tank-full of Hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdet, Julien; Hait, Jean-Francois; Demarthon, Fabrice; Brault, Pascal; Dollet, Alain; Py, Olivier; Tarascon, Jean-Marie; Gonbeau, Danielle; Simon, Patrice; Pourcelly, Gerald; Latroche, Michel; Rango, Patricia de; Miraglia, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    To secure its future and that of the planet, humanity must find alternatives to oil. But this vital transition toward renewable energy (currently the subject of a national debate in France), is highly dependent on the development of efficient storage solutions. Today's technologies make it relatively easy to produce electricity, heat, and even hydrogen, but their long-term storage remains a daunting scientific and technical challenge-a high priority for CNRS researchers

  7. The hydrogen economy for a sustainable future and the potential contribution of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, C.

    2003-01-01

    The Hydrogen Economy encompasses the production of hydrogen using a wide range of energy sources, its storage and distribution as an economic and universal energy carrier, and its end use by industry and individuals with negligible emission of pollutants and greenhouse gases. Hydrogen is an energy carrier not a primary energy source, just like electricity is an energy carrier. The advantages of hydrogen as a means of storage and distribution of energy, and the methods of production of hydrogen, are reviewed. Energy sources for hydrogen production include fossil fuels, renewables, hydropower and nuclear power. Hydrogen has many applications in industry, for residential use and for transport by air, land and sea. Fuel cells are showing great promise for conversion of hydrogen into electricity and their development and current status are discussed. Non-energy uses of hydrogen and the safety aspects of hydrogen are also considered. It is concluded that the Hydrogen Economy, especially if coupled to renewable and nuclear energy sources, is a technically viable and economic way of achieving greater energy diversity and security and a sustainable future in this century

  8. The renewable energy market in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Australia is committed to an 8 per cent reduction in its emissions of greenhouse gases above 1990 levels as a result of the Kyoto Protocol for the period 2008-2012. At present, the emissions stand at 17.4 per cent above 1990 levels. Total electrical power in Australia resulting from renewable energy is in the order of 10.5 per cent. A mandatory renewable energy target of 9500 gigawatt hour (GWh) of extra renewable energy is to be produced annually by 2010, under the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Act. An emissions trading system has been implemented, involving one renewable energy certificate (REC) created for each megawatt hour of renewable energy generated. A significant expansion of the demand for renewable energy is expected in Australia over the next ten years, according to the Australian Greenhouse Office. Increased opportunities for local and international firms operating in the field of renewable energy are being created by the Australian government through initiatives such as the Renewable Energy Commercialization Program, and the Renewable Remote Power Generation Program. Solar, biomass, and wind power are comprised in the wealth of renewable energy resources in Australia. The market remains largely undeveloped. Firms from the United States and the European Union are the leading exporters of renewable energy technology to Australia. Public utilities and independent power producers having entered the deregulated electricity market are the consumers of renewable energy technology and services. A country with minimal duties in most cases, Australia has much in common with Canada, including similar regulatory and legal systems. Australia applies a 10 per cent goods and services tax, which would apply to Canadian exports. It was advised to consult the Australian Customs Service for additional information concerning duties that might be applicable to the renewable energy industry. 28 refs., 3 tabs

  9. Study about hydrogen and methanation as power surplus valorization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the use of technologies that allow converting power into gas as ways of providing added value to power surpluses. In the Anglo-Saxon world, and in numerous other countries, this concept is known as Power-to-Gas (PtG or P2G). The massive integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources ((wind and photovoltaic principally) into electricity systems implies more and more time periods during which production will exceed consumption. The volumes at stake could surpass the conventional capacities of flexibility and storage of the electricity system: the conversion into another energy carrier therefore appears as a solution for giving value to these surpluses. As the basic technology of Power-to-Gas, electrolysis converts electrical energy into chemical energy in the form of hydrogen gas (H2), by separating molecules of water (H 2 O). The gas produced can be used on-site in different manners, for example by a manufacturer for it's own process needs or by a filling station for hydrogen-fuelled vehicles (fuel-cell motorisation), or it can be stored locally for being later converted back into power through a fuel-cell. However it can also be directly injected into the gas distribution or transmission networks, thus creating a coupling of various energy networks and carriers: in this way the possibilities to create added-value from power surpluses are significantly increased and diversified both in terms of final use as well as across a scope of time and space. The development of Power-to-Gas can be summarized in three key steps. In the short to mid-term, hydrogen represents, when incorporated into the gas network in limited proportions (a few %) and/or used directly in some niche markets (particularly via fuel cells) a way to provide added value to substantial renewable electricity surpluses.. In the longer term, a transition toward synthetic methane production would allow to overcome all technical barriers linked with gas

  10. [Isolation and identification of hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria producing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase and the determination of enzymatic activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bo; Wang, Weiwei; Tang, Ming; Chen, Xingdu

    2009-03-01

    We used Medicago sativa rhizosphere in Shaanxi province of China to isolate and identify hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria that produced ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) deaminase, and then studied the mechanism why they can promote the growth of plants. Hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria were isolated by gas-cycle incubation system. We studied the morphological character, physiological characteristics, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and built the phylogenic tree. Thin layer chromatography was used to isolate the strain that produced ACC deaminase. Ninhydrin reaction was used to test the enzyme activity. In total 37 strains were isolated, 8 of which could oxidize H2 strongly and grow chemolithoautotrophically. We initially identified them as hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria. Only strain WMQ-7 produced ACC deaminase among these 8 strains. Morphological and physiological characteristics analysis showed that strain WMQ-7 was essentially consistent with Pseudomonas putida. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis (GenBank accession number EU807744) suggested that strain WMQ-7 was clustered together with Pseudomonas putida in phylogenetic tree, with the sequence identity of 99%. Based on all these results, strain WMQ-7 was identified as Pseudomonas putida. The enzyme activity of strain WMQ-7 was 0.671 U/microg. A strain producing ACC deaminase was identified and tested.

  11. Catalytic steam reforming of ethanol for hydrogen production: Brief status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bineli Aulus R.R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen represents a promising fuel since it is considered as a cleanest energy carrier and also because during its combustion only water is emitted. It can be produced from different kinds of renewable feedstocks, such as ethanol, in this sense hydrogen could be treated as biofuel. Three chemical reactions can be used to achieve this purpose: the steam reforming (SR, the partial oxidation (POX and the autothermal reforming (ATR. In this study, the catalysts implemented in steam reforming of ethanol were reviewed. A wide variety of elements can be used as catalysts for this reaction, such as base metals (Ni, Cu and Co or noble metals (Rh, Pt and Ru usually deposited on a support material that increases surface area and improves catalytic function. The use of Rh, Ni and Pt supported or promoted with CeO2, and/or La2O3 shows excellent performance in ethanol SR catalytic process. The ratio of water to ethanol, reaction temperatures, catalysts loadings, selectivity and activity are also discussed as they are extremely important for high hydrogen yields.

  12. Economical hydrogen production by electrolysis using nano pulsed DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmaraj, C.H. [Tangedco, Tirunelveli, ME Environmental Engineering (India); Adshkumar, S. [Department of Civil Engineering, Anna University of Technology Tirunelveli, Tirunelveli - 627007 (India)

    2012-07-01

    Hydrogen is an alternate renewable eco fuel. The environmental friendly hydrogen production method is electrolysis. The cost of electrical energy input is major role while fixing hydrogen cost in the conventional direct current Electrolysis. Using nano pulse DC input makes the input power less and economical hydrogen production can be established. In this investigation, a lab scale electrolytic cell developed and 0.58 mL/sec hydrogen/oxygen output is obtained using conventional and nano pulsed DC. The result shows that the nano pulsed DC gives 96.8 % energy saving.

  13. Hydrogen Cyanide Produced by Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 Exhibits Nematicidal Activity against Meloidogyne hapla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom Ryong Kang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. are parasites that attack many field crops and orchard trees, and affect both the quantity and quality of the products. A root-colonizing bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6, possesses beneficial traits including strong nematicidal activity. To determine the molecular mechanisms involved in the nematicidal activity of P. chlororaphis O6, we constructed two mutants; one lacking hydrogen cyanide production, and a second lacking an insecticidal toxin, FitD. Root drenching with wild-type P. chlororaphis O6 cells caused juvenile mortality in vitro and in planta. Efficacy was not altered in the fitD mutant compared to the wild-type but was reduced in both bioassays for the mutant lacking hydrogen cyanide production. The reduced number of galls on tomato plants caused by the wild-type strain was comparable to that of a standard chemical nematicide. These findings suggest that hydrogen cyanide-producing root colonizers, such as P. chlororaphis O6, could be formulated as “green” nematicides that are compatible with many crops and offer agricultural sustainability.

  14. Magnesium-Nickel alloy for hydrogen storage produced by melt spinning followed by cold rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rodrigo Leiva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Severe plastic deformation routes (SPD have been shown to be attractive for short time preparation of magnesium alloys for hydrogen storage, generating refined microstructures and interesting hydrogen storage properties when compared to the same materials processed by high-energy ball milling (HEBM, but with the benefit of higher air resistance. In this study, we present results of a new processing route for Mg alloys for hydrogen storage: rapid solidification followed by cold work. A Mg97Ni3 alloy was processed by melt spinning (MS and by extensive cold rolling (CR. Submitting Mg97Ni3 ribbons between steel plates to cold rolling has shown to be a viable procedure, producing a thin cold welded foil, with little material waste. The as-processed material presents a high level of [002] fiber texture, a sub microcrystalline grain structure with a high density of defects, and also a fine dispersion of Mg2Ni nanoparticles. This refined microstructure allied to the developed texture resulted in enhanced activation and H-sorption kinetics properties.

  15. Homogeneous Catalysis for Sustainable Hydrogen Storage in Formic Acid and Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordakis, Katerina; Tang, Conghui; Vogt, Lydia K; Junge, Henrik; Dyson, Paul J; Beller, Matthias; Laurenczy, Gábor

    2018-01-24

    Hydrogen gas is a storable form of chemical energy that could complement intermittent renewable energy conversion. One of the main disadvantages of hydrogen gas arises from its low density, and therefore, efficient handling and storage methods are key factors that need to be addressed to realize a hydrogen-based economy. Storage systems based on liquids, in particular, formic acid and alcohols, are highly attractive hydrogen carriers as they can be made from CO 2 or other renewable materials, they can be used in stationary power storage units such as hydrogen filling stations, and they can be used directly as transportation fuels. However, to bring about a paradigm change in our energy infrastructure, efficient catalytic processes that release the hydrogen from these molecules, as well as catalysts that regenerate these molecules from CO 2 and hydrogen, are required. In this review, we describe the considerable progress that has been made in homogeneous catalysis for these critical reactions, namely, the hydrogenation of CO 2 to formic acid and methanol and the reverse dehydrogenation reactions. The dehydrogenation of higher alcohols available from renewable feedstocks is also described. Key structural features of the catalysts are analyzed, as is the role of additives, which are required in many systems. Particular attention is paid to advances in sustainable catalytic processes, especially to additive-free processes and catalysts based on Earth-abundant metal ions. Mechanistic information is also presented, and it is hoped that this review not only provides an account of the state of the art in the field but also offers insights into how superior catalytic systems can be obtained in the future.

  16. Efficient production and economics of the clean fuel hydrogen. Paper no. IGEC-1-Keynote-Elnashaie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnashaie, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper/plenary lecture to this green energy conference briefly discusses six main issues: 1) The future of hydrogen economy; 2) Thermo-chemistry of hydrogen production for different techniques of autothermic operation using different feedstocks; 3) Improvement of the hydrogen yield and minimization of reformer size through combining fast fluidization with hydrogen and oxygen membranes together with CO 2 sequestration; 4) Efficient production of hydrogen using novel Autothermal Circulating Fluidized Bed Membrane Reformer (ACFBMR); 5) Economics of hydrogen production; and, 6) Novel gasification process for hydrogen production from biomass. It is shown that hydrogen economy is not a Myth as some people advocate, and that with well-directed research it will represent a bright future for humanity utilizing such a clean, everlasting fuel, which is also free of deadly conflicts for the control of energy sources. It is shown that autothermic production of hydrogen using novel reformers configurations and wide range of feedstocks is a very promising route towards achieving a successful hydrogen economy. A novel process for the production of hydrogen from different renewable biomass sources is presented and discussed. The process combines the principles of pyrolysis with the simultaneous use of catalyst, membranes and CO 2 sequestration to produce pure hydrogen directly from the unit. Some of the novel processes presented are essential components of modern bio-refineries. (author)

  17. GAT 4 production and storage of hydrogen. Report July 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This paper concerns two aspects of the hydrogen: the production and the storage. For both parts the challenges and a state of the art are presented. It discusses also the hydrogen production by renewable energies, by solar energy, the hydrogen of hydrocarbons reforming purification, active phases development, thermal transfer simulation. Concerning the hydrogen storage the hydrogen adsorption by large surface solid, the storage by metallic hydrides, the alanates and light hydrides, the adsorption on carbon nano-tubes, the storage in nano-structures, the thermal and mechanical simulation of the hydrogen are presented. (A.L.B.)

  18. Scope for solar hydrogen power plants along Indian coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajra, Debdyut; Mukhopadhyay, Swarnav

    2016-09-01

    Energy is at the core of economic growth and development in the present day world. But relentless and unchecked use of harmful energy resources like fossil fuels (coil and oil), nuclear energy has taken a toll on mother nature. The energy coffers are being rapidly depleted and within a few years all of them will become empty, leaving nothing for the future generations to build on. Their constant usage has degraded the air quality and given way to land and water pollution. Scientists and world leaders have initiated a call for action to shift our dependence from currently popular energy sources to cleaner and renewable energy sources. Search for such energy sources have been going on for many years. Solar energy, wind energy, ocean energy, tidal energy, biofuel, etc. have caught the attention of people. Another such important which has become popular is 'Solar Hydrogen'. Many visionary scientists have called hydrogen the energy of the future. It is produced from water by direct or indirect use of sunlight in a sustainable manner. This paper discusses the current energy scenario, the importance of solar-hydrogen as a fuel and most importantly the scope for solar hydrogen power plants along Indian coastline.

  19. Alternative transportation fuels in the USA: government hydrogen vehicle programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    The linkage between natural gas-based transportation and hydrogen-based transportation strategies, two clean burning gaseous fuels, provides a strong policy rationale for increased government sponsorship of hydrogen vehicle research and demonstration programs. Existing federal and state government hydrogen vehicle projects are discussed in this paper: research at the NREL, alternate-fueled buses, Renewable Hydrogen for the State of Hawaii program, New York state alternative transportation fuels program, Colorado program. 9 refs

  20. Isolation and characterization of Ethanologenbacterium HitB49 gen. nov. sp. nov., an anaerobic, high hydrogen-producing bacterium with a special ethanol-type-fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, M. [Harbin Inst. of Technology, Harbin, HL (China). School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering]|[Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). Inst. of Environmental Science and Engineering; Ren, N.Q.; Wang, A.J. [Harbin Inst. of Technology, Harbin, HL (China). School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering; Liang, D.T.; Tay, J.H. [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). Inst. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Hydrogen, an important future energy source, can be produced by several fermentative microorganisms. The factor that prevents widespread biohydrogen production is the difficulty in isolating the ideal high hydrogen-producing bacterium (HPB). In this study, the Hungate technology was used to isolate and cultivate 210 strains of dominant fermentative bacteria. They were isolated from 6 sludges with ethanol-type fermentation (ETF) bioreactors. The study examined the production of hydrogen in pH 4, very low pH in ETF. The maximum rate in the biohydrogen-producing reactor was promising under continuous flow condition. The novel genus of HPB was Ethanologenbacterium Hit, of which strain B49 belonged to the ETF bacteria.

  1. Silicon based multilayer photoelectrodes for photoelectrolysis of water to produce hydrogen from the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, Faisal

    The main objective of this work is to study different materials for the direct photosynthesis of hydrogen from water. A variety of photocatalysts such as titanium dioxide, titanium oxy-nitride, silicon carbide, and gallium nitride are being investigated by others for the clean production of hydrogen for fuel cells and hydrogen economy. Our approach was to deposit suitable metallic regions on photocatalyst nanoparticles to direct the efficient synthesis of hydrogen to a particular site for convenient collection. We studied different electrode metals such as gold, platinum, titanium, palladium, and tungsten. We also studied different solar cell materials such as silicon (p- and n-types), silicon carbide and titanium dioxide semiconductors in order to efficiently generate electrons under illumination. We introduced a novel silicon-based multilayer photosynthesis device to take advantage of suitable properties of silicon and tungsten to efficiently produce hydrogen. The device consisted of a silicon (0.5mm) substrate, a deposited atomic layer of Al2O 3 (1nm), a doped polysilicon (0.1microm), and finally a tungsten nanoporous (5-10nm) layer acting as an interface electrode with water. The Al2O 3 layer was introduced to reduce leakage current and to prevent the spreading of the diffused p-n junction layer between the silicon and doped polysilicon layers. The surface of the photoelectrode was coated with nanotextured tungsten nanopores (TNP), which increased the surface area of the electrodes to the electrolyte, assisting in electron-hole mobility, and acting as a photocatalyst. The reported device exhibited a fill factor (%FF) of 27.22% and solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 0.03174%. This thesis describes the structures of the device, and offers a characterization and comparison between different photoelectrodes.

  2. Fuel Cells for Balancing Fluctuation Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage of...... with hydrogen production or electric cars, and on the other hand using biomass and bio fuels [11]. Fuel cells can have an important role in these future energy systems.......In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage...... flexibility, such as SOFCs, heat pumps and heat storage technologies are more important than storing electricity as hydrogen via electrolysis in energy systems with high amounts of wind [12]. Unnecessary energy conversions should be avoided. However in future energy systems with wind providing more than 50...

  3. Hydrogen-powered road vehicles. Positive and negative health effects of new fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    Because of the political, social and environmental problems associated with dependency on fossil fuels, there is considerable interest in alternative energy sources. Hydrogen is regarded as a promising option, particularly as a fuel for road vehicles. The Dutch Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) recently published a vision of the future, in which it suggested that by 2050 more than half of all cars in the Netherlands could be running on hydrogen. Assuming that the hydrogen is produced from renewable energy sources, migration to hydrogen-powered vehicles would also curb carbon dioxide emissions. In the United States, Japan and Europe, considerable public and private investment is therefore being made with a view to developing the technologies needed to make the creation of a hydrogen-based economy possible within a few decades. A switch to using hydrogen as the primary energy source for road vehicles would have far-reaching social consequences. As with all technological developments, opportunities would be created, but drawbacks would inevitably be encountered as well. Some of the disadvantages associated with hydrogen are already known, and are to some degree manageable. It is likely, however, that other drawbacks would come to light only once hydrogen-powered cars were actually in use With that thought in mind, and in view of the social significance of a possible transition to hydrogen, it was decided that the Health Council should assess the positive and negative effects that hydrogen use could have on public health. It is particularly important to make such an assessment at the present early stage in the development of hydrogen technologies, so that gaps in existing scientific knowledge may be identified and appropriate strategies may be developed for addressing such gaps. This report has been produced by the Health and Environment Surveillance Committee, which has special responsibility for the identification of important correlations between

  4. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks. A Review of Key Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Antonia, O. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipelines. Blending hydrogen into the existing natural gas pipeline network has also been proposed as a means of increasing the output of renewable energy systems such as large wind farms.

  5. The US department of energy's research and development plans for the use of nuclear energy for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, A.D.; Pickard, P.S.; Park, C.V.; Kotek, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    The potential of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and for stationary power applications has generated significant interest in the United States. President George W. Bush has set the transition to a 'hydrogen economy' as one of the Administration's highest priorities. A key element of an environmentally-conscious transition to hydrogen is the development of hydrogen production technologies that do not emit greenhouse gases or other air pollutants. The Administration is investing in the development of several technologies, including hydrogen production through the use of renewable fuels, fossil fuels with carbon sequestration, and nuclear energy. The US Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology initiated the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative to develop hydrogen production cycles that use nuclear energy. The Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative has completed a Nuclear Hydrogen R and D Plan to identify candidate technologies, assess their viability, and define the R and D required to enable the demonstration of nuclear hydrogen production by 2016. This paper gives a brief overview of the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative, describes the purposes of the Nuclear Hydrogen R and D Plan, explains the methodology followed to prepared the plan, presents the results, and discusses the path forward for the US programme to develop technologies which use nuclear energy to produce hydrogen. (author)

  6. Experimental study on steam gasification of coal using molten blast furnace slag as heat carrier for producing hydrogen-enriched syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Wenjun; Yu, Qingbo; Wu, Tianwei; Yang, Fan; Qin, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New method for producing HRG by gasification using BFS as heat carrier was proposed. • The continuous experiment of steam gasification in molten BFS was conducted. • The hydrogen-enriched syngas was produced by this method. • The molten BFS waste heat was utilized effectively by steam gasification. • This method could be widely used in steam gasification of different types of coal. - Abstract: The new method for producing hydrogen-enriched syngas (HRG) by steam gasification of coal using molten blast furnace slag (BFS) as heat carrier was established. In order to achieve the HRG production, a gasification system using this method was proposed and constructed. The carbon gasification efficiency (CE), hydrogen yield (YH_2) and cold gasification efficiency (CGE) in the molten slag reactor were measured, and the effects of temperature, S/C (steam to coal) ratio and coal type on the reaction performance were accessed. The results indicated that the preferred temperature was 1350 °C, which ensured the miscibility of coal–steam–slag, the diffusion of reactant in molten BFS as well as recovering waste heat. The optimal S/C ratio was 1.5–2.0 for producing HRG. Under these conditions, the hydrogen fraction was higher than 63% and the gas yield reached to 1.89 Nm"3/kg. The CE and CGE were higher than 96% and 102%, respectively. The YH_2 also reached to 1.20 Nm"3/kg. Meanwhile, different types of coal were successfully gasified in molten BFS reactor for producing HRG. The proposed method enhanced the gasification efficiency of different types of coal, recovered the BFS waste heat effectively, and had important guidance for industrial manufacture.

  7. Conference on grid integration of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, Pierre; Goeke, Berthold; Mignon, Herve; Brakelmann, Heinrich; Huebner, Gundula; Tanja Schmedes; Remy Garaude Verdier; Pierre-Guy Therond; Werner Diwald

    2012-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on grid integration of renewable energies. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about a hundred of participants exchanged views on the similarities and differences between the French and German approaches of renewable energies integration to grids. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Power grid development - Policy and challenges (Pierre Fontaine); 2 - Grid Development: German Strategy (Berthold Goeke); 3 - Power grids development: situational analysis (Herve Mignon); 4 - Traditional Power Lines, Partial Underground Cabling and HVDC lines: Costs, Benefits and Acceptance (Heinrich Brakelmann); 5 - Transmission Lines - Local Acceptance (Gundula Huebner); 6 - eTelligence- energy meets Intelligence: experience feedback from the grid operator EWe on smart grids and the integration of renewable energies (Tanja Schmedes); 7 - Nice Grid, The French Smart Grid Project within Grid4eU (Remy Garaude Verdier); 8 - Economical Analysis Of energy Storage For Renewable energy Farms - experience of EDF en on the basis of 3 call for tender issued by the French Government in 01/2010, 11/2010, and 09/2011: what conditions for a real deployment (Pierre-Guy Therond); 9 - Hydrogen as a renewable energies storage mean (Werner Diwald)

  8. Project Maghreb - Europe: Solar Production of Hydrogen. Phase I: Feasibility and opportunity study of the project; Projet Maghreb - Europe: Production d'hydrogene solaire. Phase I: Etude d'opportunite et de faisabilite du projet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmah, Bouziane; Belhamel, Maiouf; Chader, Samira; M' Raoui, Abdelhamid; Harouadi, Farid; Etievant, Claude; Lechevalier, Steve; Cherigui, Abdel-Nasser

    2007-07-01

    During the 16th World Hydrogen Energy Conference which held on June 13-16, 2006, in Lyon (France), an important project appeared, the Maghreb-Europe Project for production and export of solar hydrogen, proposed in the Algiers Declaration of the hydrogen of origin renewable and directed by the researchers efforts of the Renewable Energies Development Center of Algiers (CDER) and members of the European company of Hydrogen Technologies (CETH). The present introductory communication exposes a scientific study on the appropriateness and the feasibility of the Project, as well as the objectives, missions and the fundamental elements for a scientific and technique accompaniment of this important project. (auth)

  9. Definition, analysis and experimental investigation of operation modes in hydrogen-renewable-based power plants incorporating hybrid energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde, L.; Pino, F.J.; Guerra, J.; Rosa, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A conceptual analysis of operation modes in energy storage plants is presented. • Key Performance Indicators to select operation modes are provided. • The approach has been applied to a laboratory hybrid power plant. • The methodology provides guidance for the operation of hybrid power plants. - Abstract: This paper is concerned with Operating Modes in hybrid renewable energy-based power plants with hydrogen as the intermediate energy storage medium. Six operation modes are defined according to plant topology and the possibility of operating electrolyzer and fuel cell at steady-power or partial load. A methodology for the evaluation of plant performance is presented throughout this paper. The approach includes a set of simulations over a fully validated model, which are run in order to compare the proposed operation modes in various weather conditions. Conclusions are drawn from the simulation stage using a set of Key Performance Indicators defined in this paper. This analysis yields the conclusion that certain modes are more appropriate from technical and practical standpoints when they are implemented in a real plant. From the results of the simulation assessment, selected operating modes are applied to an experimental hydrogen-based pilot plant to illustrate and validate the performance of the proposed operation modes. Experimental results confirmed the simulation study, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of each operation mode in terms of performance and equipment durability.

  10. Economic analysis of a combined production of hydrogen-energy from empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langè, Stefano; Pellegrini, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    This work relates to an economic analysis and a comparison between different process solutions for the production of hydrogen and the co-production of hydrogen and energy by means of a zero emission biomass integrated supercritical water gasification (SCWG) and combined cycle power plant. The case study will be located in Malaysia. Energy will be produced in agreement with the Small Renewable Energy Power Plant (SREP) Program, promoted by the Government of Malaysia. Hydrogen is obtained by supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of empty fruit bunches (EFB), a technology of interest for the processing of biomass with high moisture content. The economic analysis has been carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the process solutions and to compare their convenience. The feedstock is 35 Mg h −1 of empty fruit bunches (EFB), a biomass obtained in the Palm Oil Industry. The location of the site is Teluk Intak District in the State of Perak (Malaysia). The study is performed with Aspen Plus ® V7.2. The aim of this work is to investigate the economic convenience of supercritical water gasification technology applied to a potential industrial case study in order to state the possibilities and the trade-off for the production of hydrogen and the co-production of hydrogen and energy from biomass, using an innovative technology (SCWG) instead of a typical unit for syngas and energy production. The processes have been developed to reach zero emissions and zero wastes. CO 2 and solid residuals are recycled inside palm oil lifecycle. -- Highlights: • Supercritical water gasification of empty fruit bunches has been used for hydrogen production. • Malaysia Small Renewable Energy Power Plant Program is aiming to reduce by 40% its greenhouse gases emissions by 2020. • An economic analysis has been performed to assess the sustainability of hydrogen and energy production from palm oil biomass. • Carbon dioxide and solid residuals are recycled back into biomass

  11. Status and perspectives for wind energy within the programme for the development of renewable energy. Background report for the document entitled 'Handlingsplan for Vedvarende Energi 1995-97' produced by the Committee for Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The report, which is intended to comprise the basis for the document 'Plan of Management for Renewable Energy 1995-97' produced by the (Danish) Committee for Renewable Energy, updates information on wind technology and its implementation and describes the status of wind energy as found in the relevant section contained in the Danish development programme for renewable energy. An evaluation is presented of the future perspectives for wind energy with regard to technological developments, market potential and overall costs. A detailed list is given of approved, rejected and concluded Danish projects relevant to wind energy under the Programme for the Development of Wind Energy during the period 1991-1994 and a global status for wind power status and estimates in MW ranging under the headings: New capacity in 1994, Estimated capacity in 1994 and Estimated capacity in 2000. (AB)

  12. Microalgal hydrogen production - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetkorn, Wanthanee; Rastogi, Rajesh P; Incharoensakdi, Aran; Lindblad, Peter; Madamwar, Datta; Pandey, Ashok; Larroche, Christian

    2017-11-01

    Bio-hydrogen from microalgae including cyanobacteria has attracted commercial awareness due to its potential as an alternative, reliable and renewable energy source. Photosynthetic hydrogen production from microalgae can be interesting and promising options for clean energy. Advances in hydrogen-fuel-cell technology may attest an eco-friendly way of biofuel production, since, the use of H 2 to generate electricity releases only water as a by-product. Progress in genetic/metabolic engineering may significantly enhance the photobiological hydrogen production from microalgae. Manipulation of competing metabolic pathways by modulating the certain key enzymes such as hydrogenase and nitrogenase may enhance the evolution of H 2 from photoautotrophic cells. Moreover, biological H 2 production at low operating costs is requisite for economic viability. Several photobioreactors have been developed for large-scale biomass and hydrogen production. This review highlights the recent technological progress, enzymes involved and genetic as well as metabolic engineering approaches towards sustainable hydrogen production from microalgae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The fusion-hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper will describe the structure of the system, from energy generation and hydrogen production through distribution to the end users. It will show how stationary energy users will convert to hydrogen and will outline ancillary uses of hydrogen to aid in reducing other forms of pollution. It will show that the adoption of the fusion hydrogen energy system will facilitate the use of renewable energy such as wind and solar. The development of highly efficient fuel cells for production of electricity near the user and for transportation will be outlined. The safety of the hydrogen fusion energy system is addressed. This paper will show that the combination of fusion generation combined with hydrogen distribution will provide a system capable of virtually eliminating the negative impact on the environment from the use of energy by humanity. In addition, implementation of the energy system will provide techniques and tools that can ameliorate environmental problems unrelated to energy use. (Author)

  14. Hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  15. Soft computing in green and renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Iowa Bioeconomy Inst.; US Department of Energy, Ames, IA (United States). Ames Lab; Kalogirou, Soteris [Cyprus Univ. of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Sciences and Engineering; Khaitan, Siddhartha Kumar (eds.) [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Engineering

    2011-07-01

    Soft Computing in Green and Renewable Energy Systems provides a practical introduction to the application of soft computing techniques and hybrid intelligent systems for designing, modeling, characterizing, optimizing, forecasting, and performance prediction of green and renewable energy systems. Research is proceeding at jet speed on renewable energy (energy derived from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides, rain, geothermal heat, biomass, hydrogen, etc.) as policy makers, researchers, economists, and world agencies have joined forces in finding alternative sustainable energy solutions to current critical environmental, economic, and social issues. The innovative models, environmentally benign processes, data analytics, etc. employed in renewable energy systems are computationally-intensive, non-linear and complex as well as involve a high degree of uncertainty. Soft computing technologies, such as fuzzy sets and systems, neural science and systems, evolutionary algorithms and genetic programming, and machine learning, are ideal in handling the noise, imprecision, and uncertainty in the data, and yet achieve robust, low-cost solutions. As a result, intelligent and soft computing paradigms are finding increasing applications in the study of renewable energy systems. Researchers, practitioners, undergraduate and graduate students engaged in the study of renewable energy systems will find this book very useful. (orig.)

  16. Environmental and Health Benefits and Risks of a Global Hydrogen Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, M.; Horowitz, L. W.; Rahn, T. A.; Kinnison, D. E.

    2003-12-01

    Rapid development in hydrogen fuel-cell technologies will create a strong impetus for a massive hydrogen supply and distribution infrastructure in the coming decades. Hydrogen provides an efficient energy carrier that promises to enhance urban and regional air quality that will benefit human health. It could also reduce risks of climate change if large-scale hydrogen production by renewable or nuclear energy sources becomes viable. While it is well known that the byproduct of energy produced from hydrogen is water vapor, it is not well known that the storage and transfer of hydrogen is inevitably accompanied by measurable leakage of hydrogen. Unintended consequences of hydrogen leakage include reduction in global oxidative capacity, changes in tropospheric ozone, and increase in stratospheric water that would exacerbate halogen induced ozone losses as well as impact the earth's radiation budget and climate. Stratospheric ozone depletion would increase exposure to harmful ultraviolet radiation and increased risk to melanoma. We construct plausible global hydrogen energy use and leak scenarios and assess their impacts using global 3-D simulations by the Model for Ozone And Related Trace species (MOZART). The hydrogen fluxes and photochemistry in our model successfully reproduce the contemporary hydrogen cycle as observed by a network of remote global stations. Our intent is to determine environmentally tolerable leak rates and also facilitate a gradual phasing in of a hydrogen economy over the next several decades as the elimination of the use of halocarbons gradually reduces halogen induced stratospheric ozone loss rates. We stress that the future evolution of microbial soil sink of hydrogen that determines its current lifetime (about 2 years) is the principal source of uncertainty in our assessment. We propose global monitoring of hydrogen and its deuterium content to define a baseline and track its budget to responsibly prepare for a global hydrogen economy.

  17. Techno-economical Analysis of Hybrid PV-WT-Hydrogen FC System for a Residential Building with Low Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badea G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a techno-economical analysis on performance indicators of hybrid solar-wind-hydrogen power generation system which supply with electricity a low - energy building, located in Cluj-Napoca. The case study had the main objectives, as follows: cost estimation, evaluation of energy and environmental performance for a fuel cell integrated into a small-scale hybrid system power generation and estimation of electrolytic hydrogen production based on renewable energy resources available on the proposed site. The results presented in this paper illustrate a case study for location Cluj-Napoca. The wind and solar resource can play an important role in energy needs for periods with "peak load" or intermittent energy supply. However, hydrogen production is dependent directly proportional to the availability of renewable energy resources, but the hydrogen can be considered as a storage medium for these renewable resources. It can be said that this study is a small-scale model analysis, a starting point for a detailed analysis of Romania's potential electrolytic production of hydrogen from renewable resources and supply electricity using fuel cells integrated into hybrid energy systems.

  18. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier - Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    combinations have been investigated for the production of hydrogen from biomass carbohydrate. Chemical catalysis approaches include pyrolysis [19...temperature. High fructose corn syrup, low-cost sucrose replacement, is made by stabilized glucose isomerase, which can work at ~60 °C for even about two...gasoline, vegetable oil vs. biodiesel, corn kernels vs. ethanol [31,109]. Given a price of $0.18/kg carbohydrate (i.e., $10.6/GJ) [2,44], the hydrogen

  19. Thermodynamic modelling of an onsite methanation reactor for upgrading producer gas from commercial small scale biomass gasifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, S; Malamis, D; Moustakas, K

    2018-06-15

    Small scale biomass gasifiers have the advantage of having higher electrical efficiency in comparison to other conventional small scale energy systems. Nonetheless, a major drawback of small scale biomass gasifiers is the relatively poor quality of the producer gas. In addition, several EU Member States are seeking ways to store the excess energy that is produced from renewables like wind power and hydropower. A recent development is the storage of energy by electrolysis of water and the production of hydrogen in a process that is commonly known as "power-to-gas". The present manuscript proposes an onsite secondary reactor for upgrading producer gas by mixing it with hydrogen in order to initiate methanation reactions. A thermodynamic model has been developed for assessing the potential of the proposed methanation process. The model utilized input parameters from a representative small scale biomass gasifier and molar ratios of hydrogen from 1:0 to 1:4.1. The Villar-Cruise-Smith algorithm was used for minimizing the Gibbs free energy. The model returned the molar fractions of the permanent gases, the heating values and the Wobbe Index. For mixtures of hydrogen and producer gas on a 1:0.9 ratio the increase of the heating value is maximized with an increase of 78%. For ratios higher than 1:3, the Wobbe index increases significantly and surpasses the value of 30 MJ/Nm 3 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrogen Production from Sea Wave for Alternative Energy Vehicles for Public Transport in Trapani (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Franzitta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The coupling of renewable energy and hydrogen technologies represents in the mid-term a very interesting way to match the tasks of increasing the reliable exploitation of wind and sea wave energy and introducing clean technologies in the transportation sector. This paper presents two different feasibility studies: the first proposes two plants based on wind and sea wave resource for the production, storage and distribution of hydrogen for public transportation facilities in the West Sicily; the second applies the same approach to Pantelleria (a smaller island, including also some indications about solar resource. In both cases, all buses will be equipped with fuel-cells. A first economic analysis is presented together with the assessment of the avoidable greenhouse gas emissions during the operation phase. The scenarios addressed permit to correlate the demand of urban transport to renewable resources present in the territories and to the modern technologies available for the production of hydrogen from renewable energies. The study focuses on the possibility of tapping the renewable energy potential (wind and sea wave for the hydrogen production by electrolysis. The use of hydrogen would significantly reduce emissions of particulate matter and greenhouse gases in urban districts under analysis. The procedures applied in the present article, as well as the main equations used, are the result of previous applications made in different technical fields that show a good replicability.

  1. Promoting renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, S.

    2004-06-01

    Technologies using renewable energy sources are receiving increasing interest from both public authorities and power producing companies, mainly because of the environmental advantages they procure in comparison with conventional energy sources. These technologies can be substitution for conventional energy sources and limit damage to the environment. Furthermore, several of the renewable energy technologies satisfy an increasing political goal of self-sufficiency within energy production. The subject of this thesis is promotion of renewable technologies. The primary goal is to increase understanding on how technological development takes place, and establish a theoretical framework that can assist in the construction of policy strategies including instruments for promotion of renewable energy technologies. Technological development is analysed by through quantitative and qualitative methods. (BA)

  2. Hydrogen peroxide as a sustainable energy carrier: Electrocatalytic production of hydrogen peroxide and the fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Yamada, Yusuke; Karlin, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    This review describes homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic reduction of dioxygen with metal complexes focusing on the catalytic two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide. Whether two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide or four-electron O 2 -reduction to produce water occurs depends on the types of metals and ligands that are utilized. Those factors controlling the two processes are discussed in terms of metal–oxygen intermediates involved in the catalysis. Metal complexes acting as catalysts for selective two-electron reduction of oxygen can be utilized as metal complex-modified electrodes in the electrocatalytic reduction to produce hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide thus produced can be used as a fuel in a hydrogen peroxide fuel cell. A hydrogen peroxide fuel cell can be operated with a one-compartment structure without a membrane, which is certainly more promising for the development of low-cost fuel cells as compared with two compartment hydrogen fuel cells that require membranes. Hydrogen peroxide is regarded as an environmentally benign energy carrier because it can be produced by the electrocatalytic two-electron reduction of O 2 , which is abundant in air, using solar cells; the hydrogen peroxide thus produced could then be readily stored and then used as needed to generate electricity through the use of hydrogen peroxide fuel cells.

  3. Hydrogen Peroxide as a Sustainable Energy Carrier: Electrocatalytic Production of Hydrogen Peroxide and the Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Yamada, Yusuke; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2012-11-01

    This review describes homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic reduction of dioxygen with metal complexes focusing on the catalytic two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide. Whether two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide or four-electron O 2 -reduction to produce water occurs depends on the types of metals and ligands that are utilized. Those factors controlling the two processes are discussed in terms of metal-oxygen intermediates involved in the catalysis. Metal complexes acting as catalysts for selective two-electron reduction of oxygen can be utilized as metal complex-modified electrodes in the electrocatalytic reduction to produce hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide thus produced can be used as a fuel in a hydrogen peroxide fuel cell. A hydrogen peroxide fuel cell can be operated with a one-compartment structure without a membrane, which is certainly more promising for the development of low-cost fuel cells as compared with two compartment hydrogen fuel cells that require membranes. Hydrogen peroxide is regarded as an environmentally benign energy carrier because it can be produced by the electrocatalytic two-electron reduction of O 2 , which is abundant in air, using solar cells; the hydrogen peroxide thus produced could then be readily stored and then used as needed to generate electricity through the use of hydrogen peroxide fuel cells.

  4. The marine renewable energies file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A set of articles addresses several aspects and issues related to the development of renewable marine energies: the objectives defined by the French government and the European Union in terms of share of renewable energies in energy consumption, some existing projects, the definition and assessment of the different renewable marine energies (offshore wind energy, sea thermal energy, sea current energy, sea tide energy, sea wave energy, marine biomass, osmotic energy), the need for a national strategy according to two researchers belonging to IFREMER, the implementation of the first offshore test platform by the Ecole Centrale de Nantes, the role of the ADEME (financial support, marketing studies, legislation, definition of a national programme), the recommendation by the European Commission of a large scale offshore wind energy development, the activities of EDF and Total in the field of marine energy, the problems faced by the first French offshore wind generator project, the actions undertaken in La Reunion in the field of sea thermal energy, and the opportunities in the use of micro-algae for hydrogen, bio-fuel or biogas production

  5. Hydrogen Storage Experiments for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course--Clean Energy: Hydrogen/Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Alla; Andrews, Lisa; Khot, Ameya; Rubin, Lea; Young, Jun; Allston, Thomas D.; Takacs, Gerald A.

    2015-01-01

    Global interest in both renewable energies and reduction in emission levels has placed increasing attention on hydrogen-based fuel cells that avoid harm to the environment by releasing only water as a byproduct. Therefore, there is a critical need for education and workforce development in clean energy technologies. A new undergraduate laboratory…

  6. Hawaiian hydrogen mass transit system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.W.; Russell, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper proposes a joint effort between the scientific and business communities; to create, make and have hydrogen fuel become the primary fuel of the future. Hawaii has abundant, unharnessed renewable resources yet imports almost all of its fuel. Initiating hydrogen production and industrial application in conjunction with a prototype pilot project such as this mass transit system would not only accomplish the joining of science and business but give an environmentally safe energy alternative to the state and people of Hawaii and hopefully the world

  7. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Leon; Wade, Dave

    2003-07-01

    During the past decade the interest in hydrogen as transportation fuel has greatly escalated. This heighten interest is partly related to concerns surrounding local and regional air pollution from the combustion of fossil fuels along with carbon dioxide emissions adding to the enhanced greenhouse effect. More recently there has been a great sensitivity to the vulnerability of our oil supply. Thus, energy security and environmental concerns have driven the interest in hydrogen as the clean and secure alternative to fossil fuels. Remarkable advances in fuel-cell technology have made hydrogen fueled transportation a near-term possibility. However, copious quantities of hydrogen must be generated in a manner independent of fossil fuels if environmental benefits and energy security are to be achieved. The renewable technologies, wind, solar, and geothermal, although important contributors, simply do not comprise the energy density required to deliver enough hydrogen to displace much of the fossil transportation fuels. Nuclear energy is the only primary energy source that can generate enough hydrogen in an energy secure and environmentally benign fashion. Methods of production of hydrogen from nuclear energy, the relative cost of hydrogen, and possible transition schemes to a nuclear-hydrogen economy will be presented.

  8. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen-producing culture enriched from digested household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Kotay, Shireen Meher; Trably, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to enrich, characterize and identify strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen (H-2) producers from digested household solid wastes. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic H-2 producing bacterial culture was enriched from a lab-scale digester treating household...... wastes at 70 degrees C. The enriched mixed culture consisted of two rod-shaped bacterial members growing at an optimal temperature of 80 degrees C and an optimal pH 8.1. The culture was able to utilize glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, maltose, sucrose, pyruvate and glycerol as carbon...... sources. Growth on glucose produced acetate, H-2 and carbon dioxide. Maximal H-2 production rate on glucose was 1.1 mmol l(-1) h(-1) with a maximum H-2 yield of 1.9 mole H-2 per mole glucose. 16S ribosomal DNA clone library analyses showed that the culture members were phylogenetically affiliated...

  9. Functional nanometers for hydrogen storage produced by ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czujko, T. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering]|[Military Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland). Dept. of Advanced Materials and Technologies; Varin, R.A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering; Wronski, Z.S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Transportation; Zaranski, Z. [Military Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland). Dept. of Advanced Materials and Technologies

    2008-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to switch to cleaner alternative energy carriers such as hydrogen, as environmental concerns over greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuel increase. Specifically, there is a need for efficient on-board hydrogen storage technologies for vehicular applications. This paper discussed three different methods of hydrogen desorption temperature reduction and desorption kinetics of nanostructured hydrides. The first method was based on substantial hydride particle size refinement. The second method utilized catalytic effects of nanometric n-alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), n-yttrium oxide powder (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and n-nickel (Ni) additives. The third method was based on a composite of nanohydride mixtures. The composite approach was applied to the magnesium hydride (MgH{sub 2}) plus sodium tetrahydridoborate (NaBH{sub 4}) and lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH{sub 4}) systems. The paper presented the effects of nanostructuring and nanocatalytic additives on Mg hydride desorption properties as well as a composite behaviour of nanostructured complex hydrides. It was concluded that milling of commercial MgH{sub 2} with the nano-oxide additives had a limited effect on improving the hydrogen storage properties. The addition of specialty Inco nanometric Ni reduced the hydrogen desorption temperature considerably. 28 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  10. Potential for greenhouse gas emission reductions using surplus electricity in hydrogen, methane and methanol production via electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusitalo, Ville; Väisänen, Sanni; Inkeri, Eero; Soukka, Risto

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Greenhouse gas emission reductions using power-to-x processes are studied using life cycle assessment. • Surplus electricity use led to greenhouse gas emission reductions in all studied cases. • Highest reductions can be achieved by using hydrogen to replace fossil based hydrogen. • High reductions are also achieved when fossil transportation fuels are replaced. - Abstract: Using a life cycle perspective, potentials for greenhouse gas emission reductions using various power-to-x processes via electrolysis have been compared. Because of increasing renewable electricity production, occasionally surplus renewable electricity is produced, which leads to situations where the price of electricity approach zero. This surplus electricity can be used in hydrogen, methane and methanol production via electrolysis and other additional processes. Life cycle assessments have been utilized to compare these options in terms of greenhouse gas emission reductions. All of the power-to-x options studied lead to greenhouse gas emission reductions as compared to conventional production processes based on fossil fuels. The highest greenhouse gas emission reductions can be gained when hydrogen from steam reforming is replaced by hydrogen from the power-to-x process. High greenhouse gas emission reductions can also be achieved when power-to-x products are utilized as an energy source for transportation, replacing fossil transportation fuels. A third option with high greenhouse gas emission reduction potential is methane production, storing and electricity conversion in gas engines during peak consumption hours. It is concluded that the power-to-x processes provide a good potential solution for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in various sectors.

  11. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. The main support scheme to stimulate electricity from renewable energy sources is a feed-in premium scheme. RES-E project developers with installations = 10 kW have to acquire access to this scheme by submitting successful bids in tenders. Subsidies and loans can be obtained by RES-E project developers through successful applications at the Climate Change Special Programme or the Lithuanian Environmental Investment Funds (investment subsidies only). RES-E plants are exempted from excise duty. Consumers with a small PV installation can benefit from net metering. Producers of heating and cooling from renewable energy sources are exempt from environmental pollution tax and are eligible for grants. Moreover, heat suppliers are obliged to purchase all heat produced from renewable energy sources. Renewable transport fuels are promoted through reimbursement of raw materials for bio-fuel production, a bio-fuels (blending) quota scheme as well as exemption from excise tax and environmental pollution tax

  12. Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-02

    An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

  13. RESEARCH ISSUES REGARDING THE MAIN INDICATORS USED FOR ANALYSING THE INCOMES AND COSTS OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCERS OPERATING IN ROMANIA IN VIEW OF DEVELOPING A DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Paulina BOTEZATU; Cezar BOTEZATU; George CARUTASU; Alexandru PÎRJAN

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have analysed the main indicators regarding the incomes and costs of the renewable energy producers, indicators that a Decision Support System must take into account for when predicting, analysing and monitoring the technological and business processes in the field of energy produced from renewable sources in Romania. The results presented in this paper represent a part of the research conducted within the SIPAMER project ("Sistem Inteligent pentru Predicţia, Analiza și Moni...

  14. Biopitch produced from eucalyptus wood pyrolysis liquids as a renewable binder for carbon electrode manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in biomass as a clean source of fuel, chemicals and materials is growing fast. What is attractive about biomass is its renewability and that it is CO2 balanced and sulfur-free. Biomass pyrolysis produces charcoal, bio-oil and gases in different proportions, depending on the technology and raw material used. In this study biopitch, a substitute for fossil pitches in electrodes, was produced from bio-oil distillation in bench-scale equipment. Biopitch and charcoal were mixed and thermically modified to give prebaked electrodes. The physico-chemical and mechanical properties of the biopitch and final electrodes were measured and compared with those of coal tar and petroleum materials. Despite their similar application, biomaterials are structurally and chemically different from minerals. The oxygen content in biopitch is ca 20 wt% and in mineral pitches it is no more than 2 wt%. Characterization experiments for electrode samples measured electrical resistivity, Young's modulus, rupture strength, density, porosity and proximate analysis.

  15. Biomass as a Source of Renewable Energy in Spain: A Case Study in Regulating Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Sáez, Antonio José

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines how, in Andalusia, the installation of plants producing biomass or processing electricity from renewable energies could conform to the public interest actions in Article 42 of the Andalusian Town Planning Act; and how the Andalusian Draft of Renewable Energies and Saving and Energy Efficiency proposes working out territorial plans for renewable energies for specific areas, where those zones enjoying the best conditions for the usage of these energies will be...

  16. Synfuels from fusion: producing hydrogen with the tandem mirror reactor and thermochemical cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribe, F.L.; Werner, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    This report examines, for technical merit, the combination of a fusion reactor driver and a thermochemical plant as a means for producing synthetic fuel in the basic form of hydrogen. We studied: (1) one reactor type - the Tandem Mirror Reactor - wishing to use to advantage its simple central cell geometry and its direct electrical output; (2) two reactor blanket module types - a liquid metal cauldron design and a flowing Li 2 O solid microsphere pellet design so as to compare the technology, the thermal-hydraulics, neutronics and tritium control in a high-temperature operating mode (approx. 1200 K); (3) three thermochemical cycles - processes in which water is used as a feedstock along with a high-temperature heat source to produce H 2 and O 2

  17. 100 pc renewable, at which cost?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, Bernard; Nifenecker, Herve

    2015-01-01

    The authors discuss the content and results of a study performed by the ADEME which tried to establish that it will be possible to produce hundred per cent of the electricity in France by means of renewable energies, and thus to do without fossil and nuclear energies. The authors describe the structure of the ADEME scenario and then discuss costs associated with the different electricity production means: rooftop photovoltaic, ground-based photovoltaic, ground-based wind; offshore wind. It also discusses the study arguments on energy storage to deal with intermittent energy production of some renewable energies: short-term storage by means of batteries or air compression-depression cycles, daily storage by means of Plant for Transfer of Energy by Pumping, and inter-seasonal storage by means of a first electric energy transformation into hydrogen by electrolysis and then into methane through a Sabatier reaction. The authors state that the ADEME study does not address the required modifications of local electric grids to take solar and wind energy productions into account. They also state that this study underestimates the issue of intermittency management: they outline constraints for operators and the risk to put energy independence into question again. They also question the ADEME's hypothesis of a strong decrease of electricity consumption, and criticize how the storage problem is addressed. They also criticize how nuclear energy is addressed and economically assessed, and consider that the ADEME's scenario is unreasonably optimistic on many issues

  18. Worldwide clean energy system technology using hydrogen (WE-NET). Interim report of the research and development in Phase 1; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). Daiikki kenkyu kaihatsu chukan seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    Large scale and effective utilization of renewable energy including hydroelectric power, photovoltaic power, and wind power which are abundant on the earth can contribute to the solution of global environmental issues as well as the release of energy demand and supply. Hydrogen can be produced from the renewable energy, and is converted, transferred and stored if necessary. Such hydrogen can be used in various fields for power generation, fuel for transport, and city gas. In order to establish the technology by which worldwide energy network can be introduced for wide range of fields, conceptual design of a total system has been conducted, and elemental core technologies have been developed. Conceptual design of a practical scale system (total system) including a wide range from production of hydrogen to its utilization has been conducted, and its constitution has been illustrated. In addition, the energy balance and cost of hydrogen have been calculated and analyzed as a trial. Hydrogen production technology, transport and storage technology, and hydrogen utilization technology are introduced as individual elemental technologies. Research results of innovative and leading technologies obtained in FY 1996 are reviewed. 80 figs., 56 tabs.

  19. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. The main support scheme for electricity from renewable energy sources is a feed-in tariff scheme. For operators of photovoltaics (PV) and onshore wind installations an investment subsidy instrument is available as well. Besides, the sale of generated renewable electricity is incentivized by an exemption from excise duty. Also renewable heat production installations are eligible for an investment subsidy instrument. For renewable transport fuels a bio-fuels quota scheme is on place. Moreover, producers/suppliers of bio-fuels and petroleum fuels blended with bio-fuels benefit from a fiscal incentive

  20. Study of a molten carbonate fuel cell combined heat, hydrogen and power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, Tarek A.; Agll, Abdulhakim A.; Hamad, Yousif M.; Bapat, Sushrut; Thomas, Mathew; Martin, Kevin B.; Sheffield, John W.

    2014-01-01

    To address the problem of fossil fuel usage and high greenhouse gas emissions at the Missouri University of Science and Technology campus, using of alternative fuels and renewable energy sources can lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Biogas, produced by anaerobic digestion of wastewater, organic waste, agricultural waste, industrial waste, and animal by-products is a potential source of renewable energy. In this work, we have discussed the design of CHHP (combined heat, hydrogen and power) system for the campus using local resources. An energy flow and resource availability study is performed to identify the type and source of feedstock required to continuously run the fuel cell system at peak capacity. Following the resource assessment study, the team selects FuelCell Energy DFC (direct fuel cell) 1500™ unit as a molten carbonate fuel cell. The CHHP system provides electricity to power the university campus, thermal energy for heating the anaerobic digester, and hydrogen for transportation, back-up power and other needs. In conclusion, the CHHP system will be able to reduce fossil fuel usage, and greenhouse gas emissions at the university campus. - Highlights: • A molten carbonate fuel cell tri-generation by using anaerobic digestion system. • Anaerobic digestion system will be able to supply fuel for the DFC1500™ unit. • Use locally available feedstock to production electric power, hydrogen and heat. • Application energy end-uses on the university. • CHHP system will reduce energy consumption, fossil fuel usage, and GHG emissions

  1. 18th world hydrogen energy conference 2010. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This CD-ROM contains lectures, power points slides and posters presented on the 18th World Hydrogen Energy Conference. The topics of the conference are: (A). Fuel Cell Basics: 1. Electrochemistry of PEM Fuell Cells; 2. PEM/HT-PEM Fuel Cells: Electrolytes, Stack Components; 3. Direct Fuel Cells; 4. High-Temperature Fuel Cells; 5. Advanced Modelling (B). Existing and Emerging Markets: 1. Off-Grid Power Supply and Premium Power Generation; 2. Space and Aeronautic Applications; 3. APUs for LDV, Trucks, Ships and Airplanes; 4. Portable Applications and Light Traction. (C). Stationary Applications: 1. High-Temperature Fuel Cells; 2. Fuell Cells for Buildings. (D). Transportation Applications: 1. Fuel-Cell Power Trains; 3. Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines; 4. Systems Analysis and Well-to-Wheel Studies; 5. Demonstration Projects, Costs and Market Introduction; 6 Electrification in Transportation Systems. (E). Fuel Infrastructures: 1. Hydrogen Distribution Technologies; 2. Hydrogen Deployment; 3. Fuel Provision for Early Market Applications. (G). Hydrogen Production Technologies: 1a. Photobiological Hydrogen Production; 1b. Fermentative Hydrogen Production; 1c. The HYVOLUTION Project. (H). Thermochemical Cycles: 3a. Hydrogen from Renewable Electricity; 3b. High-Temperature Electrolysis; 3c Alcaline Electrolysis; 3d PEM Electrolysis; 4a Reforming and Gasification-Fossil Energy Carriers; 4b Reforming and Gasification-Biomass; 5. Hydrogen-Separation Membranes; 6. Hydrogen Systems Assessment;.7. Photocatalysis (I). Storages: 1. Physical Hydrogen Storage; 2a. Metal Hydrides; 2b. Complex Hydrides; 3. Adsorption Technologies; (J). Strategic Analyses: 1. Research + Development Target and Priorities; 2. Life-Cycle Assessment and Economic Impact; 3. Socio-Economic Studies; 4. Education and Public Awareness; 5. Market Introduction; 7. Regional Activities; 8. The Zero Regio Project. (K). Safety Issues: 1. Vehicle and Infrastructural Safety; 2. Regulations, Codes, Standards and Test

  2. 18th world hydrogen energy conference 2010. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains lectures, power points slides and posters presented on the 18th World Hydrogen Energy Conference. The topics of the conference are: (A). Fuel Cell Basics: 1. Electrochemistry of PEM Fuell Cells; 2. PEM/HT-PEM Fuel Cells: Electrolytes, Stack Components; 3. Direct Fuel Cells; 4. High-Temperature Fuel Cells; 5. Advanced Modelling (B). Existing and Emerging Markets: 1. Off-Grid Power Supply and Premium Power Generation; 2. Space and Aeronautic Applications; 3. APUs for LDV, Trucks, Ships and Airplanes; 4. Portable Applications and Light Traction. (C). Stationary Applications: 1. High-Temperature Fuel Cells; 2. Fuell Cells for Buildings. (D). Transportation Applications: 1. Fuel-Cell Power Trains; 3. Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines; 4. Systems Analysis and Well-to-Wheel Studies; 5. Demonstration Projects, Costs and Market Introduction; 6 Electrification in Transportation Systems. (E). Fuel Infrastructures: 1. Hydrogen Distribution Technologies; 2. Hydrogen Deployment; 3. Fuel Provision for Early Market Applications. (G). Hydrogen Production Technologies: 1a. Photobiological Hydrogen Production; 1b. Fermentative Hydrogen Production; 1c. The HYVOLUTION Project. (H). Thermochemical Cycles: 3a. Hydrogen from Renewable Electricity; 3b. High-Temperature Electrolysis; 3c Alcaline Electrolysis; 3d PEM Electrolysis; 4a Reforming and Gasification-Fossil Energy Carriers; 4b Reforming and Gasification-Biomass; 5. Hydrogen-Separation Membranes; 6. Hydrogen Systems Assessment;.7. Photocatalysis (I). Storages: 1. Physical Hydrogen Storage; 2a. Metal Hydride