WorldWideScience

Sample records for producing misguided energy

  1. Secrecy and misguided policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossin, A D [Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford, California (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The atomic bomb was born in secrecy. After the war, scientists and statesmen committed themselves to develop the promise of nuclear energy without the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The most obvious tool available to them was secrecy. But secrecy was not the sword that could easily be beaten into the plowshare. It proved to be a double-edged sword. It could not stop the spread of basic scientific information, and it turned out to be a weapon for marketing information to promote political aims. It served that purpose in promoting President Carter policy to stop reprocessing of spent fuel. (author)

  2. Secrecy and misguided policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossin, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    The atomic bomb was born in secrecy. After the war, scientists and statesmen committed themselves to develop the promise of nuclear energy without the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The most obvious tool available to them was secrecy. But secrecy was not the sword that could easily be beaten into the plowshare. It proved to be a double-edged sword. It could not stop the spread of basic scientific information, and it turned out to be a weapon for marketing information to promote political aims. It served that purpose in promoting President Carter policy to stop reprocessing of spent fuel. (author)

  3. Academic Misguidance in Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.; Hugel, Paul S.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the various legal remedies that students, believing that they have been victims of misguidance, have pursued against institutions of higher education. The legal theories available primarily fit in four categories: (1) estoppel; (2) fraud; (3) breach of contract; and (4) due process. (MLF)

  4. Energy shortage - a produced crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Five articles of the central organ of the KPD/ML, the 'Roter Morgen', and a declaration of the central committee of th KPD/ML are published here. The articles deal with: raw materials-utilization and deposits; the oil-multis - the world's greatest financial power; the energy industry of the FRG; nuclear power - the new trick of the old bosses; resisting the bulling of oil prices, securing energy supply on the basis of coal. The articles are clearly combative and against capitalism, energy concerns and oil-multis. The energy crisis is declared to be a problem of capitalism which can only be solved by abolishing the capitalist system and its laws of profit. (HSCH) [de

  5. Method for producing chemical energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Danen, Wayne C.

    2004-09-21

    Fluoroalkylsilane-coated metal particles having a central metal core, a buffer layer surrounding the core, and a fluoroalkylsilane layer attached to the buffer layer are prepared by combining a chemically reactive fluoroalkylsilane compound with an oxide coated metal particle having a hydroxylated surface. The resulting fluoroalkylsilane layer that coats the particles provides them with excellent resistance to aging. The particles can be blended with oxidant particles to form energetic powder that releases chemical energy when the buffer layer is physically disrupted so that the reductant metal core can react with the oxidant.

  6. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

  7. Myth of energy competitiveness in energy producing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Chihiro; Widayanti, Tjahya

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the relative comparative advantage, focusing on energy prices, of an energy producing developing country (Indonesia) and a non-energy producing developed country (Japan). For energy producing developing countries, it is strategically important to increase the competitiveness of energy dependent industries, and encourage the development of value-added industries. Much work has been done on relative advantage analysis, but the effects of the energy price formation mechanisms on price competitiveness have not been analysed. In this paper a comprehensive approach, using production and cost functions and synchronized price formation by means of principal component analysis, is introduced. (Author)

  8. Sounds energetic: the radio producer's energy minibook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Minibook will be expanded into the final Radio Producer's Energy Sourcebook. Radio producers and broadcasters are asked to contribute ideas for presenting energy knowledge to the public and to be included in the Sourcebook. Chapter One presents a case study suggesting programming and promotion ideas and sample scripts for a radio campaign that revolves around no-cost or low-cost steps listeners can take to increase their home energy efficiency and save money. A variety of other energy topics and suggestions on ways to approach them are addressed in Chapter Two. Chapter Three contains energy directories for Baltimore, Philadelphia, Pittsburg, and Washington, DC. The directories will be expanded in the Sourcebook and will consist of a selection of local public and private sector energy-related organizations and list local experts and organizations and the best Federal, state, and local government programs that can provide consumers and citizens groups with information, technical assistance, and financial support. (MCW)

  9. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations

  10. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-23

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  11. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1991 is the fifteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1991, as well as reviews important trends. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report

  12. The economics of producing energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapouri, H.; Duffield, J.

    1993-01-01

    The US agricultural sector has an immense supply of natural resources which can be used to product energy. Production of energy from these resources could stimulate economic growth, improve environmental quality, and enhance energy security. However, producing feedstocks and converting biomass to energy require large amounts of capital, equipment, labor, and processing facilities. This paper looks at the costs and benefits of producing energy crops for fuel conversion. A review of studies and crop data show that the cost of growing and converting various feedstocks with current technology is greater than the cost of producing conventional fuels. Conventional motor fuels have a price advantage over biofuels, but market prices don't always reflect the cost of negative externalities imposed on society. Government decisions to invest in alternative energy sources should be based on research that includes the environmental costs and benefits of energy production. The future of biofuels will depend on the continuation of government research and incentive programs. As new technologies advance, the costs of processing energy crops and residues will fall, making biofuels more competitive in energy markets

  13. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

  14. Energy transport in laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.

    1989-06-01

    The study of energy transport in laser produced plasmas is of great interest both because it tests and develops understanding of several aspects of basic plasma physics and also because it is of central importance in major applications of laser produced plasmas including laser fusion, the production of intense X-ray sources, and X-ray lasers. The three sections cover thermal electrons (energy transport in one dimension, plane targets and lateral transport from a focal spot, thermal smoothing, thermal instabilities), hot electrons (preheating in one dimension, lateral transport from a focal spot) and radiation (preheating in one dimension, lateral transport and smoothing, instabilities). (author)

  15. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs

  16. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs.

  17. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-13

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations.

  18. Recycling of aluminum to produce green energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Susana Silva; Lopez Benites, Wendy; Alvarez Gallegos, Alberto A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos C.P. 62210 (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-15

    High-purity hydrogen gas was generated from the chemical reaction of aluminum with sodium hydroxide. Several molar relations of sodium hydroxide/aluminum were investigated in this study. The experimental results showed that hydrogen yields are acceptable and its purity was good enough to be used in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell to produce electricity. An estimation of the amount of energy produced from the reaction of 100 aluminum cans with caustic soda showed that the hydrogen production is feasible to be scaled up to reach up to 5kWh in a few hours. This study is environmentally friendly and also shows that green energy can be produced from aluminum waste at a low cost.

  19. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The energy industry generally and petroleum and natural gas operations in particular are frequently reacting to a variety of unsettling forces. Falling oil prices, economic upswings, currency devaluations, increasingly rigorous environmental quality standards, deregulation of electricity markets, and continued advances in exploration and production technology were among the challenges and opportunities to the industry in 1997. To analyze the extent to which these and other developments have affected energy industry financial and operating performance, strategies, and industry structure, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) maintains the Financial Reporting Systems (FRS). Through Form EIA-28, major US energy companies annually report to the FRS. Financial and operating information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production (upstream), petroleum refining and marketing (downstream), other energy operations, and nonenergy business. Performance Profiles of Major Producers 1997 examines the interplays of energy markets, companies` strategies, and government policies (in 1997 and in historical context) that gave rise to the results given here. The report also analyzes other key aspects of energy company financial performance as seen through the multifaceted lens provided by the FRS data and complementary data for industry overall. 41 figs., 77 tabs.

  20. Pulp mill as an energy producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaulamo, O.

    1998-01-01

    The recovery boilers of pulp mills are today the most significant producers of wood energy. The power-to-heat ratio of the power plant process, i.e., power yield, is poor in existing applications. In the study, an alternative of improving the power yield of conventional pulp mills significantly was studied by applying solutions used in power plants to a pulp mill. Extensive conversion of wood energy into electricity is possible only in the recovery boiler of the pulp mill and in a large combustion boiler of bark, wood waste and wood chips integrated to this boiler. Hence, the harvest and transports of wood raw materials, i.e. pulp wood and energy wood, are integrated, and the fraction going to cook and the energy wood fraction are separated at the pulp mill. The method guarantees competitive supply of energy wood. As a result a SELLUPOWER mill was designed, where the recovery boiler combusting black liquor and the large power plant boiler combusting energy wood are integrated to one unit and constructed to a power plant process with a high power-to-heat ratio. Necessary technical solutions, project costs and economical feasibility compared to a conventional pulp mill were determined, and the effect of different production-economical parameters was also studied. (orig.)

  1. Gains Based Remedies: the misguided search for a doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Stafford

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ADVANCE ACCESSIn this article Tom Stafford (Paralegal at Clyde & Co LLP examines the phenomenon of “Gains Based Remedies”. These are awards that, unlike classical damage awards which are calculated by reference to the loss suffered by the claimant, correlate to the gain made by the defendant. A couple of common examples include an account of profits for breach of trust claims, or the “disgorgement” damages that were awarded in AG v Blake. These awards are however available for a spectrum of varied wrongs. Their seeming lack of unity has often baffled commentators who have tried to search for an underpinning doctrine. One particularly renowned commentary is that of Professor Edelman’s, who suggests that these wrongs can be understood by being broken down into one of two categories: awards which seek to deter wrongdoing, and awards which reverse a wrongful transfer of value. The purpose of this article is to discuss the flaws of this view of the law, and to suggest that in fact, any search for a doctrinal underpinning to Gains Based Remedies is misguided. The cases in which these awards are granted have only one feature common to all: the claimant’s loss is, for whatever reason, difficult or impossible to assess. For that reason, the courts use the only other measure of the wrong available: the defendant’s gain.

  2. Marine Structures: consuming and producing energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2009-01-01

    and hydrocarbons. • The oceans receive 70 % of our primary sustainable energy source, i.e. the radiation from the sun; this thermal energy can be harvested in the form of thermal, wind, current or wave energy, salt gradients etc. To exploit these possibilities marine structures are required....

  3. Storing the Electric Energy Produced by an AC Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P. Simeao; Lima, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Pedro Simeao

    2010-01-01

    Producing energy from renewable energy sources is nowadays a priority in our society. In many cases this energy comes as electric energy, and when we think about electric energy generators, one major issue is how we can store that energy. In this paper we discuss how this can be done and give some ideas for applications that can serve as a…

  4. Connecting energy producers in an intelligent way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this interview with Dr. Thomas Erge, researcher at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, the prospects for renewable and environment-friendly energy carriers are discussed. The author comments that, today, electrical power is mostly generated in large-scale power stations. Renewable forms of energy and combined heat and power (CHP) installations are, however, beginning to appear on the market as sources of electricity. Questions dealt with in the interview include political, social, economical and technical questions, the reliability of electricity supply, emergency power systems, decentralised generation, power pricing, energy management and control systems. Also, the effects of a reduced number of power suppliers in Germany and the associated increase in power prices are discussed. The question if this situation offers wider opportunities for decentralised power generation is posed.

  5. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine year-to-year developments in the operations of 26 major US energy companies on a corporate level and also by major line of energy business and by major functions within each line of business. The period covered is 1977 to 1979. Comparisons of income and investment flow are featured and related to functionally allocated net investment in place. The presentation seeks to identify similarities and dissimilarities in results across lines-of-business activity or by firm size

  6. Renewable energies - Industrials, produce your own electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moragues, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    As a public bidding has been launched at the initiative of the French government on self-consumption in industrial and office building sites, this article discusses this issue of self-production and consumption, and its perspectives. Professionals and individuals could be interested in the recent evolutions as it was before more interesting to sell the produced photovoltaic electricity to EDF than to consume it. Some industries (warehouses, supermarkets, oil production, and airport) have already implemented this solution, and its development could boost the use of photovoltaic panels

  7. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, Shahida; Nazri, A H

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  8. Distributed asynchronous supply coordination for energy producers embedded in the energy grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkano, Desti; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Cao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the congestion control and energy flow allocation of renewable energy producers equipped with local energy storage devices and energy converters. The producers are embedded in the existing energy grids. Based on the producers’ own measurements and some coordination with the grid

  9. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area.

  10. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area

  11. Role of nuclear produced hydrogen for global environment and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashimo, M.; Kurosawa, A.; Ikeda, K.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability on economical growth, energy supply and environment are major issues for the 21. century. Within this context, one of the promising concepts is the possibility of nuclear-produced hydrogen. In this study, the effect of nuclear-produced hydrogen on the environment is discussed, based on the output of the computer code 'Grape', which simulates the effects of the energy, environment and economy in 21. century. Five cases are assumed in this study. The first case is 'Business as usual by Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)', the second 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by ICE', the third 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by Hybrid Car', the fourth 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) with Hydrogen produced by conventional Steam Methane Reforming (SMR)' and the fifth 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by FCV with Nuclear Produced-Hydrogen'. The energy used for transportation is at present about 25% of the total energy consumption in the world and is expected to be the same in the future, if there is no improvement of energy efficiency for transportation. On this point, the hybrid car shows the much better efficiency, about 2 times better than traditional internal combustion engines. Fuel Cell powered Vehicles are expected to be a key to resolving the combined issue of the environment and energy in this century. The nuclear-produced hydrogen is a better solution than conventional hydrogen production method using steam methane reforming. (author)

  12. Neutrino fluxes produced by high energy solar flare particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomeets, E.V.; Shmonin, V.L.

    1975-01-01

    In this work the calculated differential energy spectra of neutrinos poduced by high energy protons accelerated during 'small' solar flares are presented. The muon flux produced by neutrino interactions with the matter at large depths under the ground is calculated. The obtained flux of muons for the total number of solar flare accelerated protons of 10 28 - 10 32 is within 10 9 - 10 13 particles/cm 2 X s x ster. (orig.) [de

  13. Detection systems for high energy particle producing gaseous ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, L.; Duran, I.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains a review on the most used detectors based on the collection of the ionization produced by high energy particles: proportional counters, multiwire proportional chambers, Geiger-Muller counters and drift chambers. In six sections, the fundamental principles, the field configuration and useful gas mixtures, are discussed, most relevant devices are reported along 90 pages with 98 references. (Author) 98 refs

  14. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This annual report summarizes the results of research carried out in 1986 within the framework of the program 'High Energy Density in Matter Produced by Heavy Ion Beams' which is funded by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its initial motivation and its ultimate goal is the question whether inertial confinement can be achieved by intense beams of heavy ions. (orig./HSI)

  15. Detection systems for high energy particle producing gaseous ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez, L.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains a review on the most used detectors based on the collection of the ionization produced by high energy particles: proportional counters, multiwire proportional chambers, Geiger-Mueller counters and drift chambers. In six sections, the fundamental principles, the field configuration and useful gas mixtures are discussed, most relevant devices are reported. (author)

  16. Energy Spread Reduction of Electron Beams Produced via Laser Wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, Bradley Bolt [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration of electrons holds great promise for producing ultra-compact stages of GeV scale, high quality electron beams for applications such as x-ray free electron lasers and high energy colliders. Ultra-high intensity laser pulses can be self-guided by relativistic plasma waves over tens of vacuum diffraction lengths, to give >1 GeV energy in cm-scale low density plasma using ionization-induced injection to inject charge into the wake at low densities. This thesis describes a series of experiments which investigates the physics of LWFA in the self-guided blowout regime. Beginning with high density gas jet experiments the scaling of the LWFA-produced electron beam energy with plasma electron density is found to be in excellent agreement with both phenomenological theory and with 3-D PIC simulations. It is also determined that self-trapping of background electrons into the wake exhibits a threshold as a function of the electron density, and at the densities required to produce electron beams with energies exceeding 1 GeV a different mechanism is required to trap charge into low density wakes. By introducing small concentrations of high-Z gas to the nominal He background the ionization-induced injection mechanism is enabled. Electron trapping is observed at densities as low as 1.3 x 1018 cm-3 in a gas cell target, and 1.45 GeV electrons are demonstrated for the first time from LWFA. This is currently the highest electron energy ever produced from LWFA. The ionization-induced trapping mechanism is also shown to generate quasi-continuous electron beam energies, which is undesirable for accelerator applications. By limiting the region over which ionization-induced trapping occurs, the energy spread of the electron beams can be controlled. The development of a novel two-stage gas cell target provides the capability to tailor the gas composition in the longitudinal direction, and confine the trapping process to occur only in a

  17. Structural safety of trams in case of misguidance in a switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Christian; Schwickert, Martin; Simonis, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Tram vehicles mainly operate on street tracks where sometimes misguidance in switches occurs due to unfavourable conditions. Generally, in this situation, the first running gear of the vehicle follows the bend track while the next running gears continue straight ahead. This leads to a constraint that can only be solved if the vehicle's articulation is damaged or the wheel derails. The last-mentioned situation is less critical in terms of safety and costs. Five different tram types, one of them high floor, the rest low floor, were examined analytically. Numerical simulation was used to determine which wheel would be the first to derail and what level of force is needed in the articulation area between two carbodies to make a tram derail. It was shown that with pure analytical simulation, only an idea of which tram type behaves better or worse in such a situation can be gained, while a three-dimensional computational simulation gives more realistic values for the forces that arise. Three of the four low-floor tram types need much higher articulation forces to make a wheel derail in a switch misguidance situation. One particular three-car type with two single-axle running gears underneath the centre car must be designed to withstand nearly three times higher articulation forces than a conventional high-floor articulated tram. Tram designers must be aware of that and should design the carbody accordingly.

  18. Producing titanium-niobium alloy by high energy beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkeev, Yu. P., E-mail: sharkeev@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4 Akademicheski Prosp., Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Av., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Golkovski, M. G., E-mail: golkoski@mail.ru [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11 Akademika Lavrentiev Prosp., Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Glukhov, I. A., E-mail: gia@ispms.tsc.ru; Eroshenko, A. Yu., E-mail: eroshenko@ispms.tsc.ru; Fortuna, S. V., E-mail: s-fortuna@mail.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4 Akademicheski Prosp., Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Bataev, V. A., E-mail: bataev@vadm.ustu.ru [Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 K. Marx Prosp., Novosibirsk, 630073 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The research is involved in producing a Ti-Nb alloy surface layer on titanium substrate by high energy beam method, as well as in examining their structures and mechanical properties. Applying electron-beam cladding it was possible to produce a Ti-Nb alloy surface layer of several millimeters, where the niobium concentration was up to 40% at. and the structure itself could be related to martensite quenching structure. At the same time, a significant microhardness increase of 3200-3400 MPa was observed, which, in its turn, is connected with the formation of martensite structure. Cladding material of Ti-Nb composition could be the source in producing alloys of homogeneous microhardness and desired concentration of alloying niobium element.

  19. Vacancy supersaturations produced by high-energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venezia, V.C.; Eaglesham, D.J.; Jacobson, D.C.; Gossmann, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    A new technique for detecting the vacancy clusters produced by high-energy ion implantation into silicon is proposed and tested. This technique takes advantage of the fact that metal impurities, such as Au, are gettered near one-half of the projected range (1/2 R p ) of MeV implants. The vacancy clustered region produced by a 2 MeV Si + implant into silicon has been labeled with Au diffused in from the front surface. The trapped Au was detected by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) to profile the vacancy clusters. Cross section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) analysis shows that the Au in the region of vacancy clusters is in the form of precipitates. By annealing MeV implanted samples prior to introduction of the Au, changes in the defect concentration within the vacancy clustered region were monitored as a function of annealing conditions

  20. Structural bursts produced by high energy muons in the rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, K.; Takahashi, T.; Teramoto, Y.; Higashi, S.; Ozaki, S.

    1975-01-01

    Lateral structures of bursts produced by high energy muons in the rock have been observed at a depth 30 mw. e. underground by use of two layers of proportional counters. The running times were 7940 hr. The number of structural bursts observed, which have two cores in the both layers ( 1 >= 200, N 2 >= 20 particles) is 110, 1.6% of total events. These structural bursts have two types; 1) incident directions of two cores are parallel, 2) two cores intersect in the rock within 2 m above the roof of the tunnel. The events of this 2) type have large transverse momentum. (orig.) [de

  1. Biologically Produced Methane as a Renewable Energy Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, D E; Smith, J A

    2016-01-01

    Methanogens are a unique group of strictly anaerobic archaea that are more metabolically diverse than previously thought. Traditionally, it was thought that methanogens could only generate methane by coupling the oxidation of products formed by fermentative bacteria with the reduction of CO 2 . However, it has recently been observed that many methanogens can also use electrons extruded from metal-respiring bacteria, biocathodes, or insoluble electron shuttles as energy sources. Methanogens are found in both human-made and natural environments and are responsible for the production of ∼71% of the global atmospheric methane. Their habitats range from the human digestive tract to hydrothermal vents. Although biologically produced methane can negatively impact the environment if released into the atmosphere, when captured, it can serve as a potent fuel source. The anaerobic digestion of wastes such as animal manure, human sewage, or food waste produces biogas which is composed of ∼60% methane. Methane from biogas can be cleaned to yield purified methane (biomethane) that can be readily incorporated into natural gas pipelines making it a promising renewable energy source. Conventional anaerobic digestion is limited by long retention times, low organics removal efficiencies, and low biogas production rates. Therefore, many studies are being conducted to improve the anaerobic digestion process. Researchers have found that addition of conductive materials and/or electrically active cathodes to anaerobic digesters can stimulate the digestion process and increase methane content of biogas. It is hoped that optimization of anaerobic digesters will make biogas more readily accessible to the average person. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This Annual Report summarizes research activities carried out in 1988 in the framework of the government-funded program 'High Energy Density in Matter produced by Heavy Ion Beams'. It addresses fundamental problems of the generation of heavy ion beams and the investigation of hot dense plasmas produced by these beams. Its initial motivation and its long-term goal is the feasibility of inertial confinement fusion by intense heavy ion beams. Two outstanding events deserve to be mentioned explicity, the Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Conference held in Darmstadt and organized by GSI end of June and the first heavy ion beam injected into the new SIS facility in November. The former event attracted more than hundred scientists for three days to the 4th Conference in this field. This symposium showed the impressive progress since the last conference in Washington two years ago. In particular the first beams in MBE-4 at LBL and results of beam plasma interaction experiments at GSI open new directions for future investigations. The ideas for non-Lionvillean injection into storage rings presented by Carlo Rubbia will bring the discussion of driver scenarios into a new stage. The latter event is a milestone for both machine and target experiments. It characterizes the beginning of the commissioning phase for the new SIS/ESR facility which will be ready for experiments at the end of this year. The commissioning of SIS is on schedule and first experiments can start at the beginning of 1990. A status report of the accelerator project is included. Theoretical activities were continued as in previous years, many of them providing guide lines for future experiments, in particular for the radiation transport aspects and for beam-plasma interaction. (orig.)

  3. Economical-environmental assessment on technologies producing electric energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafzadeh, K.

    2000-01-01

    Currently, the electric power industry is undergoing substantial regulatory and organizational change with respect to economical and environmental aspects. Under these circumstances, with utilization of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) concept, we consider the assessment of Technologies producing energy from financial and pollution viewpoint. AHP techniques is one of the efficient methods in analysis of complex and multi-criteria problems, which has plenty of applications. General pattern of this assessment has been introduced, and the main goal is determining of overall priority weights for each technology. With using this pattern, overall priority weights has been determined for thermal, combined cycle and Gas turbine plants. It has been cleared that relative priority of these plants will change, if relative priority of assessment criterions changes. For application of this approach, capital budgeting process and selection of some suitable technologies among the alternatives candidate for construction have been presented. In this process the objective is to maximize the sum of overall priority weights of technologies which have been identified from AHP. Constraints are about the construction budget and annual budget for emission allowances. This process is in the integer programming IP form an has been applied to three kind of power plants with reasonable assumptions

  4. Fight with energy producers is a fight for the euro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucka, F.

    2006-01-01

    The battle between the cabinet and companies producing and distributing energy is not about meeting pre-election promises, i.e. decreasing the profits of companies in favour of consumers. The results of negotiations between the cabinet and companies will have a direct impact on Slovakians chances to adopt the common European currency by the planned deadline. Although in the pre-election period the Smer political party did not consider adoption of the euro in 2009 as a priority, the situation changed in the summer. In July, the Prime Minister supported the idea for the first time. His repeated statements supporting the plan to adhere to the original deadline were a part of his goal to stop the fall of the SKK exchange rate. Of all the Maastricht criteria applicable to Slovakia, the inflation criterion seems to be the most difficult one to meet assuming the cabinet keeps its word and government expenditure does not exceed its income by more than is permitted. It is more difficult to keep inflation below the set level than to meet the budget criterion. If Slovakia wants to join the monetary union on 1 January 2009, as of the end of first quarter 2007 inflation will have to be far lower than the current level. (author)

  5. Hydrophilic functionalized silicon nanoparticles produced by high energy ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmann, Steffen

    The mechanochemical synthesis of functionalized silicon nanoparticles using High Energy Ball Milling (HEBM) is described. This method facilitates the fragmentation of mono crystalline silicon into the nanometer regime and the simultaneous surface functionalization of the formed particles. The surface functionalization is induced by the reaction of an organic liquid, such as alkynes and alkenes with reactive silicon sites. This method can be applied to form water soluble silicon nanoparticles by lipid mediated micelle formation and the milling in organic liquids containing molecules with bi-functional groups, such as allyl alcohol. Furthermore, nanometer sized, chloroalkyl functionalized particles can be synthesized by milling the silicon precursor in the presence of an o-chloroalkyne with either alkenes or alkynes as coreactants. This process allows tuning of the concentration of the exposed, alkyl linked chloro groups, simply by varying the relative amounts of the coreactant. The silicon nanoparticles that are formed serve as the starting point for a wide variety of chemical reactions, which may be used to alter the surface properties of the functionalized nanoparticles. Finally, the use of functionalized silicon particles for the production of superhydrophobic films is described. Here HEBM proves to be an efficient method to produce functionalized silicon particles, which can be deposited to form a stable coating exhibiting superhydrophobic properties. The hydrophobicity of the silicon film can be tuned by the milling time and thus the resulting surface roughness of the films.

  6. Wood energy barometer. 43 million toe produced in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The use of wood in the form of energy contributes in fighting global warming since, unlike fossil energies, the carbon dioxide emitted by its combustion is reabsorbed by the forests. These environmental and energetic advantages explain why the European Union large wood countries are preparing programmes to develop both wood energy technologies and wood energy consumption; This document takes stock or gives information on the breakdown of valorization of wood energy origin primary energy, the gross electricity generation from wood energy in the 15 european union countries and Poland, the primary energy from wood energy, the comparative between different wood energy fuel prices in Europe, the number of direct and indirect job created in different sectors, the wood energy sector industrialists and a comparison between current trend and white paper objectives. (A.L.B.)

  7. Excitation energy of the fragments produced in central collisions of Xe + Sn at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudan, S.; Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    Characteristics of the primary fragments produced in central collisions of Xe + Sn system from 32 to 50 AMeV have been deduced. By using the relative velocity correlation technique between the light charged particles (LCP) and detected fragments, we were able to extract the multiplicities and average kinetic energy of the secondary evaporated LCP. We then reconstructed the size and excitation energy of the primary fragments. For each bombarding energy a constant value of the excitation energy per nucleon, over the whole range of fragment charge has been found, suggesting that on the average thermodynamical equilibrium has been achieved at the freeze-out. This value increases slightly from 2.8 to 3.8 AMeV with a large increase of bombarding energy, 32 to 50 AMeV. (authors)

  8. Excitation energy of the fragments produced in central collisions of Xe + Sn at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudan, S.; Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J.D. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    Characteristics of the primary fragments produced in central collisions of Xe + Sn system from 32 to 50 AMeV have been deduced. By using the relative velocity correlation technique between the light charged particles (LCP) and detected fragments, we were able to extract the multiplicities and average kinetic energy of the secondary evaporated LCP. We then reconstructed the size and excitation energy of the primary fragments. For each bombarding energy a constant value of the excitation energy per nucleon, over the whole range of fragment charge has been found, suggesting that on the average thermodynamical equilibrium has been achieved at the freeze-out. This value increases slightly from 2.8 to 3.8 AMeV with a large increase of bombarding energy, 32 to 50 AMeV. (authors)

  9. Electronic emission produced by light projectiles at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    Two aspects of the electronic emission produced by light projectiles of intermediate energies have been studied experimentally. In the first place, measurements of angular distributions in the range from θ = 0 deg -50 deg induced by collisions of 50-200 keV H + incident on He have been realized. It was found that the double differential cross section of electron emission presents a structure focussed in the forward direction and which extends up to relatively large angles. Secondly, the dependence of the double differential cross section on the projectile charge was studied using H + and He 3 2+ projectiles of 50 and 100 keV/amu incident on He. Strong deviations from a constant scaling factor were found for increasing projectile charge. The double differential cross sections and the single differential cross sections as a function of the emission angle, and the ratios of the emissions induced by He 3 2+ and H + at equal incident projectile velocities are compared with the 'Continuum Distorted Wave-Eikonal Initial State' (CDW-EIS) approximation and the 'Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo' (CTMC) method. Both approximations, in which the potential of the projectile exercises a relevant role, reproduce the general aspects of the experimental results. An electron analyzer and the corresponding projectile beam line has been designed and installed; it is characterized by a series of properties which are particularly appropriate for the study of double differential electronic emission in gaseous as well as solid targets. The design permits to assure the conditions to obtain a well localized gaseous target and avoid instrumental distortions of the measured distributions. (Author) [es

  10. Promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources - Strategic objective of the Romania energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandulescu, Alexandru; Stanciulescu, Georgeta; Jisa, Mihaela; Stanciu, Nadina

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents different types of support schemes for promoting electricity produced from renewable energy sources in some countries from European Union and details concerning the primary and secondary legislation developed in Romania in the field of promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources, making a rehearse of the acts issued. Romania has a clear regulatory framework in the field of promoting E-RES, the green certificates market becoming operational from November 2005, when the first green certificates transaction session organised by SC OPCOM SA took place. With hydro energy being exception from the rule, the Romanian RES potential is almost unused, existing the possibility for promotion some efficient investments in units which produce E-RES, turning to good account to the best emplacements. Although the achievements in using RES are still modest, taking into consideration the attention of numerous investors and the way that the support scheme worked until now, with advantages for the existing E-RES producers, it is expected an acceleration of the rhythm of appearance of new investments. In order to actuate the investors attention, a stronger involvement of the local authorities is necessary, for identifying and promoting the most efficient RES using projects

  11. Ionising energy treatment for fresh horticultural produce -mandarins and other produce, Trials 1 and 2, May-July 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLauchlan, R.L.; Brown, B.I.; Mitchell, G.E.; Aston, J.W.; Wood, A.F.; Isaacs, A.R.; Williams, S.M.; Nottingham, S.M.; Wilson, P.R.; Juffs, H.S.; Johnson, G.I.; Heather, N.W.; Giles, J.E.; Wills, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    Two trials are described on the effect of ionising energy treatment, or irradiation, on the quality, shelf-life and composition of fresh produce, mainly at doses consistent with disinfestation treatment for quarantine purposes. Trial 1, carried out in May 1987, deals with replicated treatments of Imperial mandarins and preliminary observation treatments on a range of other produce. Trial 2 deals with replicated treatments of Ellendale mandarins and preliminary observation treatments on other produce

  12. A Guide to Energy Savings - For the Poultry Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Verel W.

    This booklet gives a brief overview of energy use in poultry operations and gives examples of cutting costs of brooding, lighting, ventilation, feeding, watering, waste removal, housing design, construction and maintenance. Finally, energy use recordkeeping is discussed. (BB)

  13. Producing energy without greenhouse effect gases: the CEA action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Major actor in the domain of new energy technologies, the CEA manages the french research on the hydrogen and the fuel cells. It is also implied with INES (National Institute for the Solar Energy) in the photovoltaic and thermal solar. With the IFP (French Petroleum Institute), it manages research on biofuels. Of course the thermonuclear fusion, for the development of the energy of the future, is in its research program too. This information document presents the possibilities of these energies and the associated research programs. (A.L.B.)

  14. Wind energy. To produce electricity with the wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareau, Helene

    2015-11-01

    This guide addresses the different aspects of wind-based power generation. It outlines the role of wind energy to meet objectives related to the share of renewable energies in the French energy mix, that wind energy is actually replacing fossil energies, that it is based on local resources within higher safety and less wastage, that current advances are made to integrate wind energy production into the grid, and that it is a solution to diversify energy production. Some figures are presented and commented, regarding onshore wind energy production in France, the location of wind farms, and wind energy production in comparison with other renewable sources. The operation of a wind turbine is described and the different types of wind turbines are evoked. The issue of wind farm planning with citizen participation is addressed: regional planning, studies of pre-feasibility for location selection, procedure, and content of the impact study (radars, fauna and flora, landscapes, safety, health). Other features are outlined: a planned dismantling, and a globally favourable perception. The next part addresses offshore wind energy: the interesting potential of stronger and more reliable wind at sea (European situation, French opportunities, elements comprised in an offshore wind farm), impacts (on marine ecosystems, on neighbouring localities, and interests for visitors). Economic aspects are then addressed: cost and profitability, economic spin-offs, and perspectives. The last part concerns individuals and the possibilities to participate to wind farm projects or to invest in small wind turbines with some prerequisites (constant and steady winds, installation assessment, required expertise, indispensable preliminary steps, costs, aids and profitability)

  15. Energy shortage: a produced crisis. Energieknappheit - die gemachte Krise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Five articles of the central organ of the KPD/ML, the Roter Morgen, and a declaration of the central committee of th KPD/ML are published here. The articles deal with: raw materials-utilization and deposits; the oil-multis - the world's greatest financial power; the energy industry of the FRG; nuclear power - the new trick of the old bosses; resisting the bulling of oil prices, securing energy supply on the basis of coal. The articles are clearly combative and against capitalism, energy concerns, and oil-multis. The energy crisis is declared to be a problem of capitalism which can only be solved by abolishing the capitalist system and its laws of profit.

  16. Energy shortage: a produced crisis. Energieknappheit - die gemachte Krise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Five articles of the central organ of the KPD/ML, the Roter Morgen, and a declaration of the central committee of th KPD/ML are published here. The articles deal with: raw materials-utilization and deposits; the oil-multis - the world's greatest financial power; the energy industry of the FRG; nuclear power - the new trick of the old bosses; resisting the bulling of oil prices, securing energy supply on the basis of coal. The articles are clearly combative and against capitalism, energy concerns, and oil-multis. The energy crisis is declared to be a problem of capitalism which can only be solved by abolishing the capitalist system and its laws of profit.

  17. Renewable energies - China, first producer of 'green' electricity by 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    While being the biggest polluter and coal consumer in the world, China possess seven Chinese companies among the ten first solar array manufacturers, and some leaders in the wind energy and offshore wind energy sector. This article outlines the development of 'green' electricity production in China. This sector will exhibit a much greater growth rate than that foreseen in other countries during the next years: five times that in the USA, seven times that in India, eight times that in Germany, and eighteen times that in France. This progression relies on hydroelectricity and wind energy for 90 per cent. The article also comments the development of wind energy capacity in China at a higher rate than in Western countries

  18. The use of wind to produce energy in Ketodestrin province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirani, E.; Ahmadkia, H.; Talebi, F.; Mojib, J.

    2004-01-01

    Productivity of oil and gas and their high cost benefit in matters than combustion, in one hand and their problem of environmental pollution when they are burnt, on the other hand attracted the decision markers in Iran to consider the wind energy as a good alternative for energy resources . It is especially important because of the existence of regions with high potential for wind energy in Iran. The Kurdestan province is one of the windy places in Iran that has not been considered for wind energy yet. In this paper, the general characteristics of the different kinds of winds which are blown throughout the year in Kurdestan province are considered firstly. Then by using the information from the stations in the sixth major cities in the province, the wind characteristics including power, direction, intensity and probability at different months of the year, are considered. The statistical studies show that Bijar, Zarine Obatoo, Ghorveh, Sanandaj and Marivan have the most wind energy potential, and Bijar and Ghorveh are the best places to install the wind turbine. for all of the above regions, the maximum of the wind average speed and powe are obtained in March, April. May, and the minimum of the average wind speed occurs in December. Bijar, Ghorveh and Zarine Obatoo have high average wind speed and its recommended to search for best places in these regions for the wind turbine sites

  19. Potential of photosynthetically produced organic matter as an energy feedstock. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spedding, C.R.W.; Walsingham, J.M.; McDougall, V.D.; Shiels, L.A.; Carruthers, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    The following aspects of biomass as an energy source are discussed: fuel supplies, land resources, sources of biomass for fuel, utilization processes, energy cost of producing energy, and potential energy savings. Included in an appendix are fossil fuel energy budgets for crops grown in the United Kingdom.

  20. Energy deposition at the bone-tissue interface from nuclear fragments produced by high-energy nucleons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Hajnal, Ferenc; Wilson, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The transport of nuclear fragmentation recoils produced by high-energy nucleons in the region of the bone-tissue interface is considered. Results for the different flux and absorbed dose for recoils produced by 1 GeV protons are presented in a bidirectional transport model. The energy deposition in marrow cavities is seen to be enhanced by recoils produced in bone. Approximate analytic formulae for absorbed dose near the interface region are also presented for a simplified range-energy model.

  1. Transport of accelerator produced high energy neutrons though concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar Rao, G.; Sarkar, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    Development of a computational system for estimating the production and transport of high energy neutrons in particle accelerators is reported. The energy-angle distribution of neutrons from accelerated ions bombarding thick targets is calculated by a hybrid nuclear reaction model code, ALICE-91, modified to suit the purpose. Subsequent transmission of these neutrons through concrete slabs is treated using the anisotropic source-flux iteration technique (ASFIT) in the framework of a coupled neutron-gamma transport. Several parameters of both the codes have been optimized to obtain the transmitted dose through concrete. The calculations are found to be accurate and at the same time faster compared to the detailed Monte Carlo calculations. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs

  2. Carbon's footprints: The politics of producing energy and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Robert

    2011-12-01

    This study fills a gap in the literature on climate change policy: it investigates lessons from the historical experience of energy policy in addition to the more common analogies to environmental policy experiences that are drawn in the literature. By examining energy policies from the nineteen-seventies, an additional perspective is gained into situations where the costs of cooperation---and benefits of free-riding---are high. This provides a contrast with relatively easier cases like ozone depletion, where costs are low, benefits are high, and the incentives to participate and comply are both obvious and simple to modify. Such an approach can better explain persistent puzzles concerning divergences in policies relating to global public goods and common-pool resources, as well as to energy use and prices. The results suggest the need for a renewed focus on the incentives facing actors in the formation of climate change policies, and especially on the role that dynamic change in national resource bases play in shaping the initial conditions under which business-as-usual policy positions are set.

  3. Germany as an energy-producing country - quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, K.

    2003-01-01

    Secure, sufficient electricity supplies available at any time, as guaranteed in Germany, are vital to the existence of our modern society. Under the conditions of deregulated markets, it must continue to be possible in Germany to offer reliable, economical and non-polluting energy supplies. These three factors should enjoy equal importance in energy policy decisions in the interest of sustainability. The skewed balance caused by political preferences as experienced at the present time can jeopardize the general objective of optimization of the three factors in the long run. As in no other country, the power industry in Germany had to make a considerable adaptation effort, inter alia, because of market deregulation, airborne pollutant reduction, and agreements on the operating life of existing nuclear power plants. Other problems are likely to arise in the near future, e.g. in connection with emission trading. The power industry is willing and able to solve these future problems. This is true in particular of the expected replacement of power plants of approx. 40 000 MW generating capacity in Germany, where the European framework must be taken into account with a replacement requirement of approx. 200 000 MW. This implies investments of euro 50 billion in Germany alone, which can be made only if there is sufficient security in planning for the operators of power plants. The choice of efficient and economically viable power generation technologies must be possible in this respect. (orig.) [de

  4. The TEES process cleans waste and produces energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.C.; Silva, L.J.

    1995-02-01

    A gasification system is under development that can be used with most types of wet organic wastes. The system operates at 350 degrees C and 205 atm using a liquid water phase as the processing medium. Since a pressurized system is used, the wet waste can be fed as a solution or slurry to the reactor without drying. Through the development of catalysts, a useful processing system has been produced. The system has utility both for direct conversion of high-moisture biomass to fuel gas or as a wastewater cleanup system for wet organic wastes including unconverted biomass from bioconversion processes. By the use of this system >99% conversions of organic waste to medium-Btu fuel gas can be achieved

  5. Toward semantic interoperability of energy using and producing appliances in residential environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Daniele, L.M.; Roes, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    About two thirds of the energy consumed in buildings originates household appliances. Nowadays, appliances are often intelligent and networked devices that form complete energy consuming, producing, and managing systems. Reducing energy is therefore a matter of managing and optimizing the energy

  6. On the average luminosity of electron positron collider and positron-producing energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Jialin

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the average luminosity of linac injected electron positron collider is investigated from the positron-producing energy point of view. When the energy of the linac injector is fixed to be less than the operating energy of the storage ring, it has been found that there exists a positron-producing energy to give optimum average luminosity. Two cases have been studied, one for an ideal storage ring with no single-beam instability and the other for practical storage ring with fast head-tail instability. The result indicates that there is a positron-producing energy corresponding to the minimum injection time, but this does not correspond to the optimum average luminosity for the practical storage rings. For Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC), the positron-producing energy corresponding to the optimum average luminosity is about one tenth of the total injector energy

  7. Marine current turbine design for zero emission renewable energy producing a sailing boat

    OpenAIRE

    EKİNCİ, Serkan; ALVAR, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, rapid increase in theoretical studies and applications on electrical power generation from renewable sources, such as wind, sun, marine or tidal currents, can be encountered in the literature. Among these, marine current turbines, produce energy by taking the advantage of alternating motion of water, and have the ability to produce energy even at low flow rates, and are operated in oceans and seas as a renewable energy source. In this study, design of marine current turbi...

  8. Catalyst in alternate energy resources for producing environment friendly clean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.T.; Atta, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon monoxide, a by-product of the Chemical Process Industries, is a deadly poisonous gas; if released into the atmosphere causes irreparable damage to the environment. A bimetallic catalyst system Ru: Mn doped with different concentrations of 'K' (Potassium) and supported on high surface area alumina support was prepared by co impregnation method, dispersed and reduced at 450 deg. C under hydrogen flow using a closed reactor system at atmospheric pressure for the utilization of poisonous CO gas to produce environmental friendly clean energy. Fischer Tropsch catalyst, when subjected to CO/hydrogenation, gives methane and other hydrocarbon products. The main purpose of this research work was two fold: 1. The powder catalyst when dispersed/reduced on a high surface area oxide support spreads on the surface of the system in a different orientations and shapes. The particle size of the prepared catalysts ranges from 5.0-25.0 nm. The whole system forms a complicated mixture of numerous particles and hence becomes very complicated to study. The characterisation of these randomly oriented particles having different sizes and shapes is a difficult job. This required sensitive UHV spectroscopic techniques like SSIMS, XPS, EEls, XRD and TEM. Their operations needs strong skills. Hence the first aim was to utilize these techniques for the characterization of the prepared catalysts and to establish the usefulness of these techniques in studying such complicated systems. 2. Since Ru is a very good Fischer Tropsch catalyst for the production of aliphatic hydrocarbons product. Our other aim was to find out whether if by surface modification through additives or by surface reconstructing through chemical treatment, we could alter the path of this CO/hydrogenation reaction to produce potentially important unsaturated/aromatic hydrocarbon products. This would serve our dual purpose in which we could use poisonous CO for useful purpose. Hence 'K' potassium as surface modifier is

  9. Energy intensities and the impact of high energy prices on producing and consuming sectors in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The increase in oil prices has put pressure on the global economy. Even economies that have a high degree of self-sufficiency concerning oil products are experiencing rising production costs and price increases for households energy use. Therefore, changes in energy policies are under consideration for countries highly dependent on imported energy as well as countries with a high degree of self-sufficiency. Examination of dependence on cheap energy sources for economic growth in different...

  10. Energy intensities and the impact of high energy prices on producing and consuming sectors in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The increase in oil prices has put pressure on the global economy. Even economies that have a high degree of self-sufficiency concerning oil products are experiencing rising production costs and price increases for households energy use. Therefore, changes in energy policies are under consideration for countries highly dependent on imported energy as well as countries with a high degree of self-sufficiency. Examination of dependence on cheap energy sources for economic growth in different eco...

  11. Influence of the characteristic and installation site of wind generator on quantity of produced energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palge, V.; Lepa, J.; Tamm, T.

    2002-01-01

    In Estonia, especially in inland the wind speed is rather low. According to the Master thesis of Tonis Tamm the opportunities of use of several types of wind generators are analysed. It is found out, that the wind generator, beginning to produce energy at wind speed 2 m/s can in such conditions produce about four times more electricity energy than such having 'cut-in' wind speed 4 m/s. (author)

  12. Non-Renewable Energy and Macroeconomic Efficiency of Seven Major Oil Producing Economies in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awodumi Olabanji Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study adopted two-stage DEA to estimate the technical efficiency scores and assess the impact of the two most important components of fossil fuel associated with oil production on macroeconomic efficiency of Seven oil producing African countries during 2005-2012. Our results showed that increasing the consumption of natural gas would improve technical efficiency. Furthermore, increasing the share of fossil fuel in total energy consumption has negative effect on the efficiency of the economies of the top African oil producers. Also, we found that increasing the consumption of primary energy improves efficiency in these economies. We therefore, recommend that governments and other stakeholders in the energy industry should adopt inclusive strategies that will promote the use of natural gas in the short term. However, in the long-run, efforts should be geared towards increasing the use of primary energy, thereby reducing the percentage share of fossil fuel in total energy consumption.

  13. Monte-Carlo study on primary knock-on atom energy spectrum produced by neutron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wei; Liu Yongkang; Deng Yongjun; Ma Jimin

    2012-01-01

    Computational method on energy distribution of primary knock-on atom (PKA) produced by neutron radiation was built in the paper. Based on the DBCN card in MCNP, reaction position, reaction type and energy transfer between neutrons and atoms were recorded. According to statistic of these data, energy and space distributions of PKAs were obtained. The method resolves preferably randomicity of random number and efficiency of random sampling computation. The results show small statistical fluctuation and well statistical. Three-dimensional figure of energy and space distribution of PKAs were obtained, which would be important to evaluate radiation capability of materials and study radiation damage by neutrons. (authors)

  14. Formula for average energy required to produce a secondary electron in an insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Ai-Gen; Zhan Yu; Gao Zhi-Yong; Wu Hong-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Based on a simple classical model specifying that the primary electrons interact with the electrons of a lattice through the Coulomb force and a conclusion that the lattice scattering can be ignored, the formula for the average energy required to produce a secondary electron (in) is obtained. On the basis of the energy band of an insulator and the formula for in, the formula for the average energy required to produce a secondary electron in an insulator (in i ) is deduced as a function of the width of the forbidden band (E g ) and electron affinity χ. Experimental values and the in i values calculated with the formula are compared, and the results validate the theory that explains the relationships among E g , χ, and in i and suggest that the formula for in i is universal on the condition that the primary electrons at any energy hit the insulator. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  15. Income tax credits and incentives available for producing energy from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    In the 1970's the US became interested in the development of energy from biomass and other alternative sources. While this interest was stimulated primarily by the oil embargoes of the 1970's, the need for environmentally friendly alternative fuels was also enhanced by the Clean Water Act and the Clean Air Act, two prominent pieces of environmental legislation. As a result, Congress created several tax benefits and subsidies for the production of energy for biomass. Congress enacted biomass energy incentives in 1978 with the creation of excise tax exemptions for alcohol fuels, in 1980 with the enactment of the IRC section 29 nonconventional fuel credit provisions and the IRC section 40 alcohol fuel credits, and recently with the addition of favorable biomass energy provisions as part of the Comprehensive National energy Policy Act of 1992. This article focuses on the following specific tax credits, tax benefits and subsidies for biomass energy: (1) IRC section 29 credit for producing gas from biomass, (2) IRC section 45 credit for producing electricity from biomass, (3) Incentive payments for electricity produced from biomass, (4) Excise tax exemptions for alcohol fuels, (5) IRC section 40 alcohol fuels credits, and (6) IRC section 179A special deduction for alcohol fuels property

  16. Energy-producing electro-flocculation for harvest of Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Zhang, Meng; Lv, Tao; Chen, Hongjun; Chika, Anthony Okonkwo; Xiang, Changli; Guo, Minxue; Wu, Minghui; Li, Jianjun; Jia, Lishan

    2017-10-01

    In this study, an efficient electro-flocculation process for Dunaliella salina with energy production by aluminum-air battery has been successfully applied. The formed aluminum hydroxide hydrates during discharging of battery were positively charged, which have a great potential for microalgae flocculation. The precipitation of aluminum hydroxide hydrates by algae also could improve the performance of aluminum-air battery. The harvesting efficiency could reach 97% in 20mins with energy production of 0.11kWh/kg. This discharging electro-flocculation (DEF) technology provides a new energy producing process to effectively harvest microalgae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Producing energy from cardboard factory waste, Finding sustainable solutions for handling non-recyclable waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Thijs

    2008-01-01

    Eska Graphic Board is a cardboard factory which requires large amounts of energy in the form of heat for the production of graphical cardboard. Currently, Eska has on-site gas powered boilers to produce heat and a combined-heat-and-power (CHP) system to p

  18. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. In these studies we investigated use of food waste to produce butanol by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initia...

  19. Energy and climate impacts of producing synthetic hydrocarbon fuels from CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Giesen, Coen; Kleijn, René; Kramer, Gert Jan

    2014-06-17

    Within the context of carbon dioxide (CO2) utilization there is an increasing interest in using CO2 as a resource to produce sustainable liquid hydrocarbon fuels. When these fuels are produced by solely using solar energy they are labeled as solar fuels. In the recent discourse on solar fuels intuitive arguments are used to support the prospects of these fuels. This paper takes a quantitative approach to investigate some of the claims made in this discussion. We analyze the life cycle performance of various classes of solar fuel processes using different primary energy and CO2 sources. We compare their efficacy with respect to carbon mitigation with ubiquitous fossil-based fuels and conclude that producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels starting from CO2 by using existing technologies requires much more energy than existing fuels. An improvement in life cycle CO2 emissions is only found when solar energy and atmospheric CO2 are used. Producing fuels from CO2 is a very long-term niche at best, not the panacea suggested in the recent public discourse.

  20. Energy-producing system of the membrane potential generation in γ-irradiated Streptococcus faecalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomenko, B.S.

    1976-01-01

    γ-irradiated (20-100 krads) Str. faecalis cells exhibited increased glycolytic and ATPase activity whereas the ATP level remained unaffected by radiation. It is concluded that the radiation-induced reduction of the membrane potential in Str. faecalis, that has been earlier described, is not connected with the impairment of the energy-producing system of the potential generation

  1. One-dimensional modeling of thermal energy produced in a seismic fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konga, Guy Pascal; Koumetio, Fidèle; Yemele, David; Olivier Djiogang, Francis

    2017-12-01

    Generally, one observes an anomaly of temperature before a big earthquake. In this paper, we established the expression of thermal energy produced by friction forces between the walls of a seismic fault while considering the dynamic of a one-dimensional spring-block model. It is noted that, before the rupture of a seismic fault, displacements are caused by microseisms. The curves of variation of this thermal energy with time show that, for oscillatory and aperiodic displacement, the thermal energy is accumulated in the same way. The study reveals that thermal energy as well as temperature increases abruptly after a certain amount of time. We suggest that the corresponding time is the start of the anomaly of temperature observed which can be considered as precursory effect of a big seism. We suggest that the thermal energy can heat gases and dilate rocks until they crack. The warm gases can then pass through the cracks towards the surface. The cracks created by thermal energy can also contribute to the rupture of the seismic fault. We also suggest that the theoretical model of thermal energy, produced in seismic fault, associated with a large quantity of experimental data may help in the prediction of earthquakes.

  2. Domestic wastewater treatment as a net energy producer--can this be achieved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Perry L; Bae, Jaeho; Kim, Jeonghwan

    2011-09-01

    In seeking greater sustainability in water resources management, wastewater is now being considered more as a resource than as a waste-a resource for water, for plant nutrients, and for energy. Energy, the primary focus of this article, can be obtained from wastewater's organic as well as from its thermal content. Also, using wastewater's nitrogen and P nutrients for plant fertilization, rather than wasting them, helps offset the high energy cost of producing synthetic fertilizers. Microbial fuel cells offer potential for direct biological conversion of wastewater's organic materials into electricity, although significant improvements are needed for this process to be competitive with anaerobic biological conversion of wastewater organics into biogas, a renewable fuel used in electricity generation. Newer membrane processes coupled with complete anaerobic treatment of wastewater offer the potential for wastewater treatment to become a net generator of energy, rather than the large energy consumer that it is today.

  3. Change in energy metabolism of in vitro produced embryos: an alternative to make them more cryoresistant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Renata Oliveira Dias

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available For the development of in vitro produced (IVP as well as in vivo produced bovine embryos, it is extremely important that their energy metabolism works properly because the embryo must be able to metabolize energy substrates that are necessary for producing energy. Lipids play an important role in early embryonic development, acting as source of energy for oocytes and embryos. However, it is known that oocytes and embryos, mainly IVP, accumulate large amounts of lipids in the cytoplasm. Although they are extremely important in embryonic development, lipids have been associated with the reduced survival of bovine embryos following cryopreservation. There is evidence that at least four different categories of lipids affect embryo survival after cryopreservation, including triglycerides (TAG, free fatty acids, cholesterol and phospholipids. Thus, many studies are being conducted to improve the resistance of IVP embryos to the cryopreservation process by reducing the concentration or removing the source of serum from the medium or by reducing oocyte/embryo lipids using mechanical or chemical means. Regarding the use of delipidating agents that reduce the uptake and synthesis of fatty acids (FA by cells, substances such as phenazine ethosulfate (PES, forskolin, L-carnitine and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA have been utilized. This review aims to address important issues related to embryonic energy metabolism, the importance of lipid metabolism and its relation to the cryopreservation of IVP bovine embryos by summarizing the latest research in this field.

  4. The Economic Potential of Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems Producing Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that Idaho National Laboratory and the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis are publishing that address the technical and economic aspects of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs). This report discusses an analysis of the economic potential of a tightly coupled N-R HES that produces electricity and hydrogen. Both low and high temperature electrolysis options are considered in the analysis. Low-temperature electrolysis requires only electricity to convert water to hydrogen. High temperature electrolysis requires less electricity because it uses both electricity and heat to provide the energy necessary to electrolyze water. The study finds that, to be profitable, the examined high-temperature electrosis and low-temperature electrosis N-R HES configurations that produce hydrogen require higher electricity prices, more electricity price volatility, higher natural gas prices, or higher capacity payments than the reference case values of these parameters considered in this analysis.

  5. Mapping the energy footprint of produced water management in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemlick, Katie; Kalhor, Elmira; Thomson, Bruce M.; Chermak, Janie M.; Sullivan Graham, Enid J.; Tidwell, Vincent C.

    2018-02-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) and horizontal drilling have revolutionized the fossil fuel industry by enabling production from unconventional oil and gas (UOG) reserves. However, UOG development requires large volumes of water, and subsequent oil and gas production from both conventional and unconventional wells generate large volumes of produced water (PW). While PW is usually considered a waste product, its reuse may lessen demand for freshwater supplies, reduce costs for transportation and disposal, and reduce the risks for injection-induced seismicity. Whether this water is disposed of or treated and reused, both methods require significant amounts of energy. The objective of this study was to identify the primary energy demands of alternative water management strategies, and to characterize and quantify their geographic variability in four oil and gas producing basins in New Mexico using a single year of production. Results illustrate the importance of each component of each produced water management strategy in determining its total energy footprint. Based on 2015 production and water use data, the energy to extract fresh groundwater for hydraulic fracturing (34 GWh-th yr-1.) exceeds the energy that would be required if the same volume of PW were treated chemically (19 GWh-th yr-1.). In addition, the energy required to transport fresh water and dispose of PW (167 GWh-th yr-1.) is far greater than that required to move treated PW (8 GWh-th yr-1.) to a point of reuse. Furthermore, transportation distances, which contribute significantly to the total energy footprint of a given management strategy, are underestimated by nearly 50% state-wide. This indicates that reuse may be an even more energy efficient way to manage PW, even with energy-intensive treatment strategies like electrocoagulation. Reuse of PW for HF is not only more energy efficient than conventional management techniques, it also reduces both demand for scarce fresh water resources and

  6. Time-resolved energy spectrum of a pseudospark-produced high-brightness electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, T.J.; Ding, B.N.; Rhee, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    The pseudospark, a fast low-pressure gas discharge between a hollow cathode and a planar anode, is found to be an interesting high-brightness electron beam source. Typically, all electron beam produced in the pseudospark has the peak current of ∼1 kA, pulse duration of ∼50 ns, and effective emittance of ∼100 mm-mrad. The energy information of this electron beam, however, is least understood due to the difficulty of measuring a high-current-density beam that is partially space-charge neutralized by the background ions produced in the gas. In this paper, an experimental study of the time-resolved energy spectrum is presented. The pseudospark produced electron beam is injected into a vacuum through a small pinhole so that the electrons without background ions follow single particle motion; the beam is sent through a negative biased electrode and the only portion of beam whose energy is greater than the bias voltage can pass through the electrode and the current is measured by a Faraday cup. The Faraday cup signals with various bias voltage are recorded in a digital oscilloscope. The recorded waveforms are then numerically analyzed to construct a time-resolved energy spectrum. Preliminary results are presented

  7. On some methods to produce high-energy polarized electron beams by means of proton synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessonov, E.G.; Vazdik, Ya.A.

    1980-01-01

    Some methods of production of high-energy polarized electron beams by means of proton synchrotrons are considered. These methods are based on transfer by protons of a part of their energy to the polarized electrons of a thin target placed inside the working volume of the synchrotron. It is suggested to use as a polarized electron target a magnetized crystalline iron in which proton channeling is realized, polarized atomic beams and the polarized plasma. It is shown that by this method one can produce polarized electron beams with energy approximately 100 GeV, energy spread +- 5 % and intensity approximately 10 7 electron/c, polarization approximately 30% and with intensity approximately 10 4 -10 5 electron/c, polarization approximately 100% [ru

  8. Sn ion energy distributions of ns- and ps-laser produced plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayerle, A.; Deuzeman, M. J.; van der Heijden, S.; Kurilovich, D.; de Faria Pinto, T.; Stodolna, A.; Witte, S.; Eikema, K. S. E.; Ubachs, W.; Hoekstra, R.; Versolato, O. O.

    2018-04-01

    Ion energy distributions arising from laser-produced plasmas of Sn are measured over a wide laser parameter space. Planar-solid and liquid-droplet targets are exposed to infrared laser pulses with energy densities between 1 J cm‑2 and 4 kJ cm‑2 and durations spanning 0.5 ps to 6 ns. The measured ion energy distributions are compared to two self-similar solutions of a hydrodynamic approach assuming isothermal expansion of the plasma plume into vacuum. For planar and droplet targets exposed to ps-long pulses, we find good agreement between the experimental results and the self-similar solution of a semi-infinite simple planar plasma configuration with an exponential density profile. The ion energy distributions resulting from solid Sn exposed to ns-pulses agrees with solutions of a limited-mass model that assumes a Gaussian-shaped initial density profile.

  9. Comparison of the energy efficiency to produce agroethanol between various industries and processes: Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, Xavier; Frangi, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The article assesses the energy R required by a system to transform a cereal or sugar plant into ethanol. From the specific consumption r j of each process j and its weight w j in the system, process consumption share R j is deduced and hence R, sum of R j . Depending on w j definition, R j and R are relative to either 100 J of ethanol produced or 100 J of plant harvested. Depending on the nature of r j , R j and R represent either only primary external energies, or all fuel and electricity consumed directly, or external and internal energies. From one definition to another R for average sugar cane based industries is the best or the worst relative to other plants. This results also from the use of cane residues as fuels while operating outdated processes. Through r j the process based analysis allows to examine for each system the impact of modern processes or different use of residues. All systems benefit except sugar beet based industry close to its best efficiency. This flexibility permits even to build a self-sufficient system where existing processes produce from system resources substitutes to external energies. R becomes an unambiguous definition of a system efficiency. It shows that all agroethanol systems are more consuming than petroleum industry. The system can be expanded to the vehicle stage to compare with alternatives to ethanol such as electricity and biogas. Wheat straw burnt to produce electricity used in an electrical vehicle will present R close to that of petroleum industry. -- Highlights: → Study of the energy consumptions of agroethanol industries with a process based analysis. → Different definitions of energy efficiency with potential opposite conclusions. → Previous highlight is overcome using self sufficient systems with existing processes. → Consumptions of average and improved agroethanol industries larger than for petroleum industries. → Electricity from wheat straw combustion can compete with gasoline from crude oil.

  10. Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Xinping [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)], E-mail: zhxpmark@hotmail.com; Yang Jiakuan; Wang Jinbo; Xiao Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2009-03-15

    The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar collector with a mountain hollow is presented and described. Solar energy is collected in the collector and heats the ground, which is used to store heat energy and heat the indoor air. Then, the hot air is forced by the pressure difference between it and the ambient air to move along the tilted segment and up the vertical segment of the 'chimney', driving the turbine generators to generate electricity. The mountain hollow, formed by excavation in a large-elevation mountain, can avoid the safety issues of erecting a gigantic concrete chimney, which is needed for commercial solar chimney thermal power plants. Furthermore, it can also save a great amount of construction materials for constructing a robust chimney structure and reduce the energy cost to a level less than that of a clean coal power plant, providing a good solution to the reclamation and utilization of undeveloped mountains, especially in mountainous countries.

  11. Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xinping [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Yang, Jiakuan; Wang, Jinbo; Xiao, Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2009-03-15

    The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar collector with a mountain hollow is presented and described. Solar energy is collected in the collector and heats the ground, which is used to store heat energy and heat the indoor air. Then, the hot air is forced by the pressure difference between it and the ambient air to move along the tilted segment and up the vertical segment of the 'chimney', driving the turbine generators to generate electricity. The mountain hollow, formed by excavation in a large-elevation mountain, can avoid the safety issues of erecting a gigantic concrete chimney, which is needed for commercial solar chimney thermal power plants. Furthermore, it can also save a great amount of construction materials for constructing a robust chimney structure and reduce the energy cost to a level less than that of a clean coal power plant, providing a good solution to the reclamation and utilization of undeveloped mountains, especially in mountainous countries. (author)

  12. Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xinping; Yang Jiakuan; Wang Jinbo; Xiao Bo

    2009-01-01

    The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar collector with a mountain hollow is presented and described. Solar energy is collected in the collector and heats the ground, which is used to store heat energy and heat the indoor air. Then, the hot air is forced by the pressure difference between it and the ambient air to move along the tilted segment and up the vertical segment of the 'chimney', driving the turbine generators to generate electricity. The mountain hollow, formed by excavation in a large-elevation mountain, can avoid the safety issues of erecting a gigantic concrete chimney, which is needed for commercial solar chimney thermal power plants. Furthermore, it can also save a great amount of construction materials for constructing a robust chimney structure and reduce the energy cost to a level less than that of a clean coal power plant, providing a good solution to the reclamation and utilization of undeveloped mountains, especially in mountainous countries

  13. Peak creation in the energy spectrum of laser-produced protons by phase rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Akira; Nakamura, Shu; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Shirai, Toshiyuki; Tongu, Hiromu; Ito, Hiroyuki; Souda, Hikaru; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Tanabe, Mikio; Daido, Hiroyuki; Mori, Michiaki; Kado, Masataka; Sagisaka, Akito; Ogura, Koichi; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Orimo, Satoshi; Hayashi, Yukio; Yogo, Akifumi; Bulanov, Sergei; Esirkepov, Timur; Nagashima, Akira; Kimura, Toyoaki; Tajima, Toshiki; Fukumi, Atsushi; Li, Zhong

    2007-01-01

    In collaboration between JAEA, Kansai Photon Science Institute and Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, proton generation from a thin foil target (Ti 3 or 5 μm in thickness) with use of 10 TW laser (JLITEX) has been performed. Proton production is optimized by real time proton energy measurement with use of TOF method. Phase rotation with use of an RF electric field phase-synchronized to the pulse laser enabled the creation of peaks with the spread of ∼7% in the energy spectrum of the produced protons, which resulted in the increase of the intensity ∼4 times at peak position. (author)

  14. Deformation and energy absorption properties of powder-metallurgy produced Al foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michailidis, N.; Stergioudi, F.; Tsouknidas, A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Porous Al fabricated via a dissolution and sintering method using raw cane sugar. → Different deformation mode depending on the relative density of the foams. → Enhanced energy absorption by reducing pore size and relative density of the foam. → Pore size uniformity and sintering temperature affect energy absorption. - Abstract: Al-foams with relative densities ranging from 0.30 to 0.60 and mean pore sizes of 0.35, 0.70 and 1.35 mm were manufactured by a powder metallurgy technology, based on raw cane sugar as a space-holder material. Compressive tests were carried out to investigate the deformation and energy absorbing characteristics and mechanisms of the produced Al-foams. The deformation mode of low density Al-foams is dominated by the bending and buckling of cell walls and the formation of macroscopic deformation bands whereas that of high density Al-foams is predominantly attributed to plastic yielding. The energy absorbing capacity of Al-foams rises for increased relative density and compressive strength. The sintering temperature of Al-foams having similar relative densities has a marked influence on both, energy absorbing efficiency and capacity. Pore size has a marginal effect on energy efficiency aside from Al-foams with mean pore size of 0.35 which exhibit enhanced energy absorption as a result of increased friction during deformation at lower strain levels.

  15. Energy Saving in an ETC Solar System to Produce High Temperature Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Porras-Prieto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of solar water heating systems (SWHS based on evacuated tube collectors (ETC has experienced rapid growth in the residential sector. In contrast, the implementation of these systems in the industrial sector is very limited, due in part to the demand of a higher temperature in water. Taking into account that the final energy of the industrial sector is similar to the residential sector, to increase the generation of renewable energy and energy saving in cities, efforts in this sector should be redoubled. Therefore, the present work characterises the behaviour of a SWHS-ETC with active circulation to produce hot water at 90 °C, determining its performance, energy saving and profitability in different scenarios in Europe. The annual energy savings generated by the SWHS Range between 741 and 435 kWh m−2 (reduction of emissions between 215 and 88 kg CO2 m−2. The results of the analysis of profitability, studying the variation of the conventional energy price, the cost of the investment, the useful life and the energy supplied, in thousands of scenarios, are a valuable tool for correct decision making, as they can be of great utility to increase the implementation of these systems in the industrial sector.

  16. Instantaneous x-ray radiation energy from laser produced polystyrene plasmas for shock ignition conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Wanli; Wei, Huiyue; Li, Zhichao; Yi, Rongqing; Zhu, Tuo; Song, Tianmin; Huang, Chengwu; Yang, Jiamin

    2013-01-01

    Laser target energy coupling mechanism is crucial in the shock ignition (SI) scheme, and x-ray radiation energy is a non-negligible portion of the laser produced plasma energy. To evaluate the x-ray radiation energy amount at conditions relevant to SI scheme, instantaneous x-ray radiation energy is investigated experimentally with continuum phase plates smoothed lasers irradiating layer polystyrene targets. Comparative laser pulses without and with shock spike are employed. With the measured x-ray angular distribution, full space x-ray radiation energy and conversion efficiency are observed. Instantaneous scaling law of x-ray conversion efficiency is obtained as a function of laser intensity and time. It should be pointed out that the scaling law is available for any laser pulse shape and intensity, with which irradiates polystyrene planar target with intensity from 2 × 10 14 to 1.8 × 10 15 W/cm 2 . Numerical analysis of the laser energy transformation is performed, and the simulation results agree with the experimental data

  17. The value of producing food, energy, and ecosystem services within an agro-ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porter, John Roy; Constanza, Robert; Sandhu, Harpinder

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem Services within an Agro- Ecosystem Agricultural ecosystems produce food, fiber, and nonmarketed ecosystem services (ES). Agriculture also typically involves high negative external costs associated with, for example, fossil fuel use. We estimated, via fieldscale ecological monitoring...... and economic value-transfer methods, the market and nonmarket ES value of a combined food and energy (CFE) agro-ecosystem that simultaneously produces food, fodder, and bioenergy. Such novel CFE agro-ecosystems can provide a significantly increased net crop, energy, and nonmarketed ES compared...... with conventional agriculture, and require markedly less fossil-based inputs. Extrapolated to the European scale, the value of nonmarket ES from the CFE system exceeds current European farm subsidy payments. Such integrated food and bioenergy systems can thus provide environmental value for money for European Union...

  18. Economic and energy analysis about disposal interventions of waste tires produced in Calabria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florio, Gaetano; Cersosimo, Attilio.

    1997-01-01

    The present paper refers to an analysis aimed at researching disposal strategies, for waste tires produced in Calabria, which ensure correct disposal with regard to environmental compatibility and their evaluation in terms of material recovery and energy. The starting point has been an estimate of the quantities of potentially usable waste tires and disposal methods currently employed. It has therefore been possible to identify two specific disposal proposals for which an economic and energy evaluation has been conducted. The last part of the paper has faced the problem of plant location under consideration, with the aim of determining, for both proposal, the cost that each producer must bear to have his waste tires eliminated

  19. Minimizing Wind Power Producer's Balancing Costs Using Electrochemical Energy Storage: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miettinen, J.; Tikka, V.; Lassila, J.; Partanen, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper examines how electrochemical energy storage can be used to decrease the balancing costs of a wind power producer in the Nordic market. Because electrochemical energy storage is developing in both technological and financial terms, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for the most important variables in the wind-storage hybrid system. The system was studied from a wind power producer's point of view. The main result is that there are no technical limitations to using storage for reducing the balancing costs. However, in terms of economic feasibility, installing hybrid wind-storage systems such as the one studied in this paper faces challenges in both the short and long terms.

  20. Stochastic multiobjective self-scheduling of a power producer in joint energy and reserves markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahidinasab, V.; Jadid, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a stochastic multiobjective model for self-scheduling of a power producer which participates in the day-ahead joint energy and reserves markets. The objective of a power producer is to compromise the conflicting objectives of payoff maximization and gaseous emissions minimization when committing its generation of thermal units. The proposed schedule will be used by the power producers to decide on emission quota arbitrage opportunities and for strategic bidding to the energy and reserves market. The paper analyzes a scenario-based multiobjective model in which random distributions, such as price forecasting inaccuracies as well as forced outage of generating units are modeled as scenarios tree using a combined fuzzy c-mean/Monte-Carlo simulation (FCM/MCS) method. With the above procedure the stochastic multiobjective self-scheduling problem is converted into corresponding deterministic problems. Then a multiobjective mathematical programming (MMP) approach based on ε-constraint method is implemented for each deterministic scenario. Piecewise linearized fuel and emission cost functions are applied for computational efficiency and the model is formulated as a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem. Numerical simulations for a power producer with 21 thermal units are discussed to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach in increasing expected payoffs by adjusting the emission quota arbitrage opportunities. (author)

  1. Energy evaluation at a winery: a case study at a Portuguese producer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correia João

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of cooling systems in the wine industry to control the fermentation has allowed the oenologist to produce more and more excellent wines. In this regard, the alcoholic fermentation is a target for various studies that aims at explaining the chemical reactions involved in the release of energy. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the energy consumption of a winery and to discuss and understand the main parameters involved in the process of fermentation. The weather profile during fermentation and the schedule of charging the tanks with freshly affect strongly the needs of cooling power, and the energy use. The study conducted at the Adega da Ervideira in the South of Portugal allowed to define a model for the computation of the cooling power and the electricity consumption. The heat gains from outdoor in convection mode and the heat released during maturation and fermentation phases are the main contributors for the cooling requirements at a winery. As a result of the real fact study, it will allow an oenologist to estimate the cooling power and energy for a winery as well as to produce other types of wines.

  2. Some interesting features of charged particles produced in high-energy hadron-emulsion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khushnood, H.; Ansari, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    The emission characteristics of secondary charged particles produced in 400 GeV proton-emulsion interactions were compared with those obtained at other energies. The results revealed that the angular distribution of grey particles does not depend on the nature and energy of the projectile. The dependence of the average multiplicity of the grey, black, shower, and heavily ionizing tracks on the mass of the target nucleus (A) and the nature and energy of the projectiles are also examined. The ratio of the valance quarks in pions (π - ) and protons (p) was found to be almost equal to the ratio of the grey particles produced in π - -A and p-A collisions at the same energy. The values of the normalized moments of the multiplicity distributions of charged shower particles in different N h intervals were found to nearly the same. However, this value increased with increasing values of the moment index, K. Finally, the values of the normalized and central moments were almost equal for both p-p and p-A interactions

  3. Neutron energy spectra produced by α-bombardment of light elements in thick targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, G.J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the work, presented in this thesis, is to determine energy spectra of neutrons produced by α-particle bombardment of thick targets containing light elements. These spectra are required for nuclear waste management. The set-up of the neutron spectrometer is described, and its calibration discussed. Absolute efficiencies were determined at various neutron energies, using monoenergetic neutrons produced with the Van de Graaff accelerator in pulsed mode. The additional calibration of the neutron spectrometer as proton-recoil spectrometer was carried out primarily for future applications in measurements where no pulsed neutron source is available or the neutron flux density is too low. The basis for an accurate uncertainty analysis is made by the determination of the covariance matrix for the uncertainties in the efficiencies. The determination of the neutron energy spectra from time-of-flight and from proton-recoil measurements is described. A comparison of the results obtained from the two different types of measurements is made. The experimentally determined spectra were compared with spectra calculated from stopping powers and theoretically determined cross sections. These cross sections were calculated from optical model parameters and level parameters using the Hauser-Feshbach formalism. Measurements were carried out on thick targets of silicon, aluminium, magnesium, carbon, boron nitride, calcium fluoride, aluminium oxide, silicon oxide and uranium oxide at four different α-particle energies. (Auth.)

  4. The Integration of Gasification Systems with Gas Engine to Produce Electrical Energy from Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, K.; Alamsyah, R.; Ichwana; Sholihati; Tou, S. B.; Siregar, N. C.

    2018-05-01

    The need for energy especially biomass-based renewable energy continues to increase in Indonesia. The objective of this research was to design downdraft gasifier machine with high content of combustible gas on gas engine. Downdraft gasifier machine was adjusted with the synthetic gas produced from biomass. Besides that, the net energy ratio, net energy balance, renewable index, economic analysis, and impact assessment also been conducted. Gas engine that was designed in this research had been installed with capacity of 25 kW with diameter and height of reactor were 900 mm and 1000 mm respectively. The method used here were the design the Detailed Engineering Design (DED), assembly, and performance test of gas engine. The result showed that gas engine for biomass can be operated for 8 hours with performance engine of 84% and capacity of 25 kW. Net energy balance, net energy ratio, and renewable index was 30 MJ/kWh-electric; 0.89; 0.76 respectively. The value of GHG emission of Biomass Power Generation is 0.03 kg-CO2eq/MJ. Electrical production cost for Biomass Power Generation is about Rp.1.500,/kWh which is cheaper than Solar Power Generation which is about of Rp. 3.300,-/kWh.

  5. Country analysis briefs: 1994. Profiles of major world energy producers, consumers, and transport centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Country Analysis Briefs: 1994 is a compilation of country profiles prepared by the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (EMCID) of the Office of Energy Markets and End Use. EMCID maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries or geographical areas that are important to world energy markets. As a general rule, CABs are prepared for all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers (i.e., the North Sea, Russia), major energy transit areas (i.e., Ukraine), and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers. As of January 1995, EMCID maintained over 40 CABs, updated on an annual schedule and subject to revision as events warrant. This report includes 25 CABs updated during 1994. All CABs contain a profile section, a map showing the country`s location, and a narrative section. The profile section includes outlines of the country`s economy, energy sector, and environment. The narrative provides further information and discussion of these topics. Some CABs also include a detailed map displaying locations of major oil and gas fields, pipelines, ports, etc. These maps were created as a result of special individual requests and so are not typically a standard feature of the CABs. They are presented here wherever available as a supplement to the information contained in the CABs.

  6. Comparative energy analysis of agricultural crops used for producing ethanol and CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M.A. dos

    1997-01-01

    A variety of biomass sources can be used for producing ethanol. Among these are sugar cane (Brazil), corn (USA), sweet sorghum (USA and Europe), sugar beets (Europe) and wheat (USA and Europe). The production of fuel alcohol worldwide has been analyzed from various perspectives: productivity, the competition between food and energy crops, the social and economic aspects and, more recently, the environmental dimension. Another relevant study is aimed at calculating the energy costs of the production and use of alcohol from sugar cane as compared to other primary sources for this fuel. The present analysis employs the methodology of energy balance, highlighting local conditions that influence how biomass is transformed into ethanol: technology, agricultural productivity, environmental conditions and an estimate of the carbon dioxide emissions from these different processes. (author)

  7. Analysis of unstable secondary particles produced in jet of 30 TeV energy sum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Takeshi

    1978-01-01

    High energy jet shower with energy sum of about 30 TeV has been obtained in the airplane-bone emulsion chamber. The size of the emulsion chamber was 20 cm x 25 cm x 12 cm. The airplane altitude was 260 g/cm 2 , and the exposure time was 600 hours. In this experiment, two jet events were found, and one of two events, KG-7, was the largest obtained so far. Three secondary charged particles produced by high energy interaction were analysed in detail. The analysis indicated that three charged particles seemed to be created by the decay of an unstable secondary particle. The lifetime of the unstable particle was estimated to be 10 -3 - 10 -14 sec, and this particle seems to be a charm particle. (Yoshimori, M.)

  8. A heuristic-based approach for reliability importance assessment of energy producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhavein, A.; Fotuhi Firuzabad, M.

    2011-01-01

    Reliability of energy supply is one of the most important issues of service quality. On one hand, customers usually have different expectations for service reliability and price. On the other hand, providing different level of reliability at load points is a challenge for system operators. In order to take reasonable decisions and obviate reliability implementation difficulties, market players need to know impacts of their assets on system and load-point reliabilities. One tool to specify reliability impacts of assets is the criticality or reliability importance measure by which system components can be ranked based on their effect on reliability. Conventional methods for determination of reliability importance are essentially on the basis of risk sensitivity analysis and hence, impose prohibitive calculation burden in large power systems. An approach is proposed in this paper to determine reliability importance of energy producers from perspective of consumers or distribution companies in a composite generation and transmission system. In the presented method, while avoiding immense computational burden, the energy producers are ranked based on their rating, unavailability and impact on power flows in the lines connecting to the considered load points. Study results on the IEEE reliability test system show successful application of the proposed method. - Research highlights: → Required reliability level at load points is a concern in modern power systems. → It is important to assess reliability importance of energy producers or generators. → Generators can be ranked based on their impacts on power flow to a selected area. → Ranking of generators is an efficient tool to assess their reliability importance.

  9. Re-energizing energy supply: Electrolytically-produced hydrogen as a flexible energy storage medium and fuel for road transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emonts, Bernd; Schiebahn, Sebastian; Görner, Klaus; Lindenberger, Dietmar; Markewitz, Peter; Merten, Frank; Stolten, Detlef

    2017-02-01

    "Energiewende", which roughly translates as the transformation of the German energy sector in accordance with the imperatives of climate change, may soon become a byword for the corresponding processes most other developed countries are at various stages of undergoing. Germany's notable progress in this area offers valuable insights that other states can draw on in implementing their own transitions. The German state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) is making its own contribution to achieving the Energiewende's ambitious objectives: in addition to funding an array of 'clean and green' projects, the Virtual Institute Power to Gas and Heat was established as a consortium of seven scientific and technical organizations whose aim is to inscribe a future, renewable-based German energy system with adequate flexibility. Thus, it is tasked with conceiving of and evaluating suitable energy path options. This paper outlines one of the most promising of these pathways, which is predicated on the use of electrolytically-produced hydrogen as an energy storage medium, as well as the replacement of hydrocarbon-based fuel for most road vehicles. We describe and evaluate this path and place it in a systemic context, outlining a case study from which other countries and federated jurisdictions therein may draw inspiration.

  10. Use of various types of carbon-containing raw materials to produce thermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Б. Кусков

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many types of carbon-containing organic compounds and all possible carbon-containing products or wastes in low demand can be used to produce thermal energy. A technology has been developed for producing highly flammable briquettes on the basis of bituminous coal. These briquettes have a special incendiary layer. It is easily ignites from low energy heat sources (e.g. matches, and then flame spreads to the rest of briquette. Use of coal slacks and paper wastes as carbon-containing components playing the role of binders provides an opportunity to get a fuel briquette easy in terms of production and plain in composition while at the same time dispose of coal and paper wastes. Such briquettes may also have a special incendiary layer. Technology for fuel briquettes production from wood and slate wastes employed no binding agents, as wood products acted as binders. Thus technologies have been developed to produce fuel briquettes from various carbon-containing materials in low demand. The briquettes are intended for household boilers, fireplaces, different ovens in order to cook food, heat residential and utility premises, cabins, etc.

  11. HIGH ENERGY, HIGH BRIGHTNESS X-RAYS PRODUCED BY COMPTON BACKSCATTERING AT THE LIVERMORE PLEIADES FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremaine, A M; Anderson, S G; Betts, S; Crane, J; Gibson, D J; Hartemann, F V; Jacob, J S; Frigola, P; Lim, J; Rosenzweig, J; Travish, G

    2005-01-01

    PLEIADES (Picosecond Laser Electron Interaction for the Dynamic Evaluation of Structures) produces tunable 30-140 keV x-rays with 0.3-5 ps pulse lengths and up to 10 7 photons/pulse by colliding a high brightness electron beam with a high power laser. The electron beam is created by an rf photo-injector system, accelerated by a 120 MeV linac, and focused to 20 (micro)m with novel permanent magnet quadrupoles. To produce Compton back scattered x-rays, the electron bunch is overlapped with a Ti:Sapphire laser that delivers 500 mJ, 100 fs, pulses to the interaction point. K-edge radiography at 115 keV on Uranium has verified the angle correlated energy spectrum inherent in Compton scattering and high-energy tunability of the Livermore source. Current upgrades to the facility will allow laser pumping of targets synchronized to the x-ray source enabling dynamic diffraction and time-resolved studies of high Z materials. Near future plans include extending the radiation energies to >400 keV, allowing for nuclear fluorescence studies of materials

  12. Kinetic-energy distributions of O- produced by dissociative electron attachment to physisorbed O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huels, M.A.; Parenteau, L.; Michaud, M.; Sanche, L.

    1995-01-01

    We report measurements of the kinetic energy (E k ) distributions of O - produced by low-energy electron impact (5.5--19.5 eV) on disordered multilayers of O 2 physisorbed on a polycrystalline Pt substrate. The results confirm that dissociative electron attachment (DEA) proceeds via the formation of the 2 Π u , 2 Σ g + (I), and 2 Σ x + (II) (x=g and/or u) states of O 2 -* . We also find evidence for an additional resonance, namely the 2 Σ u + (I), positioned at about 10 eV above the neutral ground state in the Franck-Condon region, and dissociating into O - +O( 3 P). The measurements suggest that the autodetachment lifetimes of the 2 Σ u + (I) and 2 Σ g + (II) states may be longer than previously suggested. It is also observed that the effects of electron energy loss (EEL) in the solid prior to DEA, O - scattering in the solid after dissociation, and the charge-induced polarization energy of the solid, broaden the E k distributions, shift them to lower anion energies, and result in additional structure in them. The effects of EEL on the desorption dynamics of O - are estimated from high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectra and excitation functions for losses in the vicinity of the Schumann-Runge continuum of the physisorbed O 2 molecules. We find indications for an enhancement of the optically forbidden X 3 Σ g - →A 3 Σ u + transition, and observe that the gas-phase Rydberg bands, for energy losses above 7 eV, are not distinguishable in the condensed phase

  13. Polarization of protons produced in diffractive disintegration of deuterons by high-energy pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gakh, G.Yi.; Rekalo, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    For the process of diffractive disintegration of unpolarized deuterons by the high-energy pions, π + d → π + p + n, the polarization characteristics of produced protons are calculated. Using the vector nature of the Pomeron exchange, the general structure of all components of proton polarization vector is found for d (π, π p) n. By the Pomeron-photon analogy, the amplitude of the process P + d → n + p is approximated by the isoscalar contribution of four Born diagrams similar to the case of deuteron electrodisintegration. Unitarization of the amplitude is achieved by introducing in multipole amplitudes the corresponding phases of np-scattering. The numerical calculation of all components of the polarization vector of protons, produced in the case of noncomplanar kinematics of the reaction π + d → π + p + n, is realized

  14. Economics of producing hydrogen as transportation fuel using offshore wind energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Jyotirmay; Agarwal, Nalin; Swaroop, Rakesh; Shah, Nikhar

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few years, hydrogen has been recognized as a suitable substitute for present vehicular fuels. This paper covers the economic analysis of one of the most promising hydrogen production methods-using wind energy for producing hydrogen through electrolysis of seawater-with a concentration on the Indian transport sector. The analysis provides insights about several questions such as the advantages of offshore plants over coastal installations, economics of large wind-machine clusters, and comparison of cost of producing hydrogen with competing gasoline. Robustness of results has been checked by developing several scenarios such as fast/slow learning rates for wind systems for determining future trends. Results of this analysis show that use of hydrogen for transportation is not likely to be attractive before 2012, and that too with considerable learning in wind, electrolyzer and hydrogen storage technology

  15. Multi-unit Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plants producing hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.

    1993-12-01

    A quantitative energy pathway comparison is made between a modern oil refinery and genetic fusion hydrogen plant supporting hybrid-electric cars powered by gasoline and hydrogen-optimized internal combustion engines, respectively, both meeting President Clinton's goal for advanced car goal of 80 mpg gasoline equivalent. The comparison shows that a fusion electric plant producing hydrogen by water electrolysis at 80% efficiency must have an electric capacity of 10 GWe to support as many hydrogen-powered hybrid cars as one modern 200,000 bbl/day-capacity oil refinery could support in gasoline-powered hybrid cars. A 10 GWe fusion electric plant capital cost is limited to 12.5 B$ to produce electricity at 2.3 cents/kWehr, and hydrogen production by electrolysis at 8 $/GJ, for equal consumer fuel cost per passenger mile as in the oil-gasoline-hybrid pathway

  16. The spectrum of protons produced in pp collisions at 31 GeV total energy

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, M G; Barber, D P; Bogaerts, A; Bosnjakovic, B; Brooks, J R; Clegg, A B; Erné, F C; Gee, C N P; Locke, D H; Loebinger, F K; Murphy, P G; Rudge, A; Sens, Johannes C; Van der Veen, F

    1973-01-01

    Data are reported on the distributions in longitudinal and transverse momentum of protons produced in the range 0.5energy at the CERN ISR. The invariant inelastic cross section shows a peak at high longitudinal momenta. The shape of this peak suggests substantial production of states with masses up to at least 7 GeV. (4 refs).

  17. Design and performance of an UHV beamline to produce low and hyperthermal energy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, D.L.; Cooper, B.H.

    1988-01-01

    We have constructed and tested an UHV beamline to produce beams of alkali metal and noble gas ions over the energy range 0 angular divergence, and nanoamps of current at 25 eV in a 4-mm beam spot with +- 2 0 angular divergence. By applying Liouville's theorem to the beam's emittance and using waist-to-waist transport through the beam optics, the current on the sample is maximized while limiting the spot size and angular divergence. To achieve useful current at the lowest energies, special attention was paid to minimizing space-charge effects. Beam emittances measured at the sample position are consistent with Liouville's theorem. Equations for waist-to-waist transport are derived in the Appendix

  18. Forest management strategies for producing wood for energy from conventional forestry systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, M.; Puttock, G.D. (Silv-Econ Ltd., Newmarket, ON (CA)); Richardson, J. (Forestry Canada, Science and Sustainable Development, Ottowa, ON (CA))

    1992-01-01

    The report reviews the current developments in forest management planning and practices to integrate the production of biomass for energy along with more conventional forest management goals. Efforts are under way to adapt management practices and silvicultural treatments to biomass production. These begin at the planning stage with the development of management tools and more accurate forest inventory data. They include silvicultural treatments such as shelterwood thinning in mixed wood stands and the interplanting of various tree species with the dual purpose of producing energy wood and conventional forest products. Three systems are available for recovering residues at time of final harvesting. The postharvest recovery of residues area is commonly used in Europe but is generally uneconomic in North America where the harvesting of small stems and integrated harvesting are favoured. (author).

  19. Crystalline and amorphous carbon nitride films produced by high-energy shock plasma deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursilll, L.A.; Peng, Julin; Gurarie, V.N.; Orlov, A.V.; Prawer, S.

    1995-01-01

    High-energy shock plasma deposition techniques are used to produce carbon-nitride films containing both crystalline and amorphous components. The structures are examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, parallel-electron-energy loss spectroscopy and electron diffraction. The crystalline phase appears to be face-centered cubic with unit cell parameter approx. a=0.63nm and it may be stabilized by calcium and oxygen at about 1-2 at % levels. The carbon atoms appear to have both trigonal and tetrahedral bonding for the crystalline phase. There is PEELS evidence that a significant fraction of the nitrogen atoms have sp 2 trigonal bonds in the crystalline phase. The amorphous carbon-nitride film component varies from essentially graphite, containing virtually no nitrogen, to amorphous carbon-nitride containing up to 10 at % N, where the fraction of sp 3 bonds is significant. 15 refs., 5 figs

  20. Electrophilic acid gas-reactive fluid, proppant, and process for enhanced fracturing and recovery of energy producing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Carlos A.; Heldebrant, David J.; Bonneville, Alain; Jung, Hun Bok; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2018-01-23

    An electrophilic acid gas-reactive fracturing fluid, proppant, and process are detailed. The fluid expands in volume to provide rapid and controlled increases in pressure that enhances fracturing in subterranean bedrock for recovery of energy-producing materials. The proppant stabilizes fracture openings in the bedrock to enhance recovery of energy-producing materials.

  1. Energy-efficient biogas reforming process to produce syngas: The enhanced methane conversion by O_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xuejing; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, Kaimin; Tian, Sicong; Yan, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of O_2 content from 0 to 15% on Ni/SiO_2 are studied for biogas reforming. • The presence of O_2 in biogas improves CH_4 conversion and stability of biogas reforming. • An obvious carbon-resistance effect is observed due to the carbon gasification effect of O_2 in biogas. • The presence of O_2 in biogas greatly helps inhibit the catalyst sintering. - Abstract: We report an energy-efficient biogas reforming process with high and stable methane conversions by O_2 presence. During this biogas reforming process, the effects of various O_2 concentrations in biogas on initial conversions and stability at various temperatures on a Ni/SiO_2 catalyst were detailed investigated. In addition, theoretical energy consumption and conversions were calculated based on the Gibbs energy minimization method to compare with experimental results. Carbon formation and sintering during the reforming process were characterized by thermal gravity analysis, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, X-ray diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy to investigate the feasibility of applying this process to an inexpensive nickel catalyst. The results showed that 5% O_2 in biogas improved the CH_4 conversion and stability of biogas reforming. The enhancement of stability was attributed to the inhibited sintering, our first finding, and the reduced carbon deposition at the same time, which sustained a stable conversion of CH_4, and proved the applicability of base Ni catalyst to this process. Higher O_2 concentrations (⩾10%) in biogas resulted in severe decrease in CO_2 conversion and greater H_2O productivity. Our proposed biogas reforming process, with a high and stable conversion of CH_4, reduced energy input, and the applicability to inexpensive base metal catalyst, offers a good choice for biogas reforming with low O_2 concentrations (⩽5%) to produce syngas with high energy efficiency.

  2. Growth of locally isolated microalga in POME to produce lipid as alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvitriana; Munir, E.; Delvian; Wahyuningsih, H.

    2018-04-01

    Purpose of this study was to find the best growth of locally isolated microalgae that produce lipids from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) as an alternative energy source. Microalgae was cultivated in POME in glass vessel at room temperature using a lighting intensity of 13,000 lux and continuously aeration for 24 and 12 hours, respectively. Biomass of microalgae were analyzed daily to get their growth by spectrophotometry at 624 nm wavelength, whereas Modified Bligh and Dyer method determined lipid content. Results show that the best growth occurred at 10% inoculum with lighting cycle and aeration of 24 hours (on/off) and resulting highest biomass content of 0.99 g dry weight/L followed by the decrease of organic substances in POME. The percentage reduction of COD, BOD, TSS, and oil at POME reached above 92%, while phosphate concentration reached 89.2%. Cultivation of microalgae in POME for 12 days showed its ability to reduce organic substances and nutrients in POME and produced biomass with lipid content of 35%. These results reached to the conclusion that locally isolated microalgae has an ability to treat POME safely for environment and POME can be used as a growing medium of microalgae that produces lipids.

  3. Optimization of palm kernel shell torrefaction to produce energy densified bio-coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Adi, Ag Mohammad; Suhada, Nurul; Malek, Nur Hanina; Saringat, Muhammad Ilmam; Azdarpour, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Around 70% of bio-coal yield was achieved from PKS torrefaction at 300 °C. • The higher heating value of optimized bio-coal was 24.5 MJ/kg. • Around 94% of thermal yield was achieved with 70% mass yield. • The grindability of optimized bio-coal was comparable with coal. - Abstract: Biomass torrefaction is a thermal process, which is similar to a mild form of pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200 to 320 °C to produce energy densified solid fuel. The torrefied biomass is almost equivalent to coal and is termed as bio-coal. During torrefaction, highly volatile fraction of biomass including moisture and hemicellulose are released as vapors, providing energy enriched solid fuel, which is hydrophobic and brittle. In this study, bio-coal is produced from palm kernel shell (PKS) in a batch feeding reactor. The operating variables such as temperature, residence time and swiping gas flow rate are optimized. Around 73% yield of bio-coal with calorific value of 24.5 MJ/kg was achieved at optimum temperature 300 °C with residence time of 20 min and nitrogen gas flow rate of 300 mL/min. The thermal yield was calculated to be maximum of 94% for the bio-coal produced at 300 °C. The temperature and residence time of torrefaction are found to be the most sensitive parameters in terms of product yield, calorific value and thermal yield of bio-coal

  4. Fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, including soil carbon effects, of producing agriculture and forestry feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina E. Canter; Zhangcai Qin; Hao Cai; Jennifer B. Dunn; Michael Wang; D. Andrew Scott

    2017-01-01

    The GHG emissions and fossil energy consumption associated with producing potential biomass sup­ply in the select BT16 scenarios include emissions and energy consumption from biomass production, harvest/collection, transport, and pre-processing activities to the reactor throat. Emissions associated with energy, fertilizers, and...

  5. Energy and Exergy Analyses of a New Combined Cycle for Producing Electricity and Desalinated Water Using Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Akbari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A new combined cogeneration system for producing electrical power and pure water is proposed and analyzed from the viewpoints of thermodynamics and economics. The system uses geothermal energy as a heat source and consists of a Kalina cycle, a LiBr/H2O heat transformer and a water purification system. A parametric study is carried out in order to investigate the effects on system performance of the turbine inlet pressure and the evaporator exit temperature. For the proposed system, the first and second law efficiencies are found to be in the ranges of 16%–18.2% and 61.9%–69.1%, respectively. For a geothermal water stream with a mass flow rate of 89 kg/s and a temperature of 124 °C, the maximum production rate for pure water is found to be 0.367 kg/s.

  6. Utilization of residual biochar produced from the pyrolysis of energy crops for soil enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilon, G.; Lavoie, J.M. [Sherbrooke Univ., Sherbrooke, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology

    2010-07-01

    Although national and international interest in the use of energy crops for the production of biofuels is increasing, it is understood that measures must be taken to ensure that the production and transportation of these energy crops does not require more energy than they provide and that the soil should not be left uncovered so as not to reduce its organic content and nutrients. In response, concerns regarding soil fertilization have increased. A technique for biomass preconversion known as pyrolysis-torrefaction involves the production of char and bio-oil from biomass. This processing method is gaining interest because the char may be useful for many applications such as a fuel, soil conditioner or carbon sequestration. An appropriate distribution of biochar applications could be potentially beneficial for the sustainability of biomass use in the imminent biomarket. In this study, biochar produced from switchgrass was prepared and characterized to verify its potential as a soil enhancer and its potential as a solid fuel. The biochar was prepared under varying reacting conditions using custom-made bench scale, batch-type fixed bed pyrolysis-torrefaction reactor. Volatiles were released by varying the residence times.

  7. Nanometer-size surface modification produced by single, low energy, highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Atomically flat surfaces of insulators have been bombarded with low energy, highly charged ions to search for nanometer-size surface modifications. It is expected that the high electron deficiency of highly charged ions will capture and/or remove many of the insulator's localized electrons when impacting on an insulating surface. The resulting local electron deficiency is expected to locally disintegrate the insulator through a open-quotes Coulomb explosionclose quotes forming nanometer-size craters. Xe ions with charge states between 10+ and 45+ and kinetic energies between 0 and 10 keV/q were obtained from the KSU-CRYEBIS, a CRYogenic Electron Beam Ion Source and directed onto various insulating materials. Mica was favored as target material as atomically flat surfaces can be obtained reliably through cleaving. However, the authors observations with an atomic force microscope have shown that mica tends to defoliate locally rather than disintegrate, most likely due to the small binding forces between adjacent layers. So far the authors measurements indicate that each ion produces one blister if the charge state is sufficiently high. The blistering does not seem to depend very much on the kinetic energy of the ions

  8. Producing energy while sequestering carbon? The relationship between biochar and agricultural productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, Nathan; Dumortier, Jerome; Hayes, Dermot J.; Brown, Robert C.; Laird, David A.

    2014-01-01

    A partial solution to problems associated with anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be the development and deployment of carbon-negative technologies, i.e., producing energy while reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Biofuels have been considered a possibility but have faced limitations due to competition with food production and GHG emissions through indirect land-use change (ILUC). In this article, we show how emissions from ILUC can potentially be reduced by producing food and bioenergy from biochar amended soils. The possibility of yield improvements from biochar would reduce the land requirement for crop production and thus, lead to a reduction in emissions from ILUC. In our application, biochar and bio-oil are produced via fast pyrolysis of corn stover. Bio-oil is subsequently upgraded into a fuel suitable for use in internal combustion engines. Applying the U.S. regulatory method used to determine biofuel life cycle emissions, our results show that a biochar-induced yield improvement in the U.S. Midwest ranging from 1% to 8% above trend can lead to an ILUC credit between 1.65 and 14.79 t CO 2 -equivalent ha −1  year −1 when future emissions are assessed over the next 30 years. The model is generalizable to other feedstocks and locations and illustrates the relationship between biochar and crop production. - Highlights: • If biochar leads to higher crop yields, a land-use change (LUC) credit applies. • Indirect LUC credit is applied to biofuel if biochar is produced as a by-product. • 1.65 to 14.79 t CO 2 -e ha −1  year −1 credit for 1%–8% yield increase in U.S. Midwest. • Life cycle analysis generalizable to other locations and feedstock

  9. State Support for Promotion of Electrical Energy Produced in High Efficiency Cogeneration in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushatescu V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania accumulated a useful experience in supporting high efficient cogeneration through a bonus type scheme. Spreading this experience to other countries that can choose a similar support scheme could lead to important savings and better results in developing this efficient tool. This state aid is operational, targeted to new investments stimulation for cogeneration technologies and replacement or existing plants rehabilitation. Present paper focuses on the results of support scheme after five years of its application: increase of number of producers who benefit of this aid, raising of general efficiency of high efficient cogeneration, important savings of primary energy and CO2 emissions avoided. On the other hand, use of this scheme showed a number of problems (to which this paper proposes adequate solutions on institutional/administrative, investition, technical, economical-financial and social frameworks that influences beneficiaries and/or financiers of state aid.

  10. Observations of visual sensations produced by Cerenkov radiation from high-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steidley, K.D.; Eastman, R.M.; Stabile, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Ten cancer patients whose eyes were therapeutically irradiated with 6-18 MeV electrons reported visual light sensations. Nine reported seeing blue light and one reported seeing white light. Controls reported seeing no light. Additionally, tests with patients ruled out the x-ray contamination of the electron beam as being important. The photon yield due to Cerenkov radiation produced by radium and its daughters for both electrons and gamma rays was calculated; it was found to account for a turn-of-the-century human observation of the radium phosphene. We conclude that the dominant mechanism of this phosphene is Cerenkov radiation, primarily from betas. From our own patient data, based on the color seen and the Cerenkov production rates, we conclude that the dominant mechanism is Cerenkov radiation and that high-energy electrons are an example of particle induced visual sensations

  11. Developing an energy efficient steam reforming process to produce hydrogen from sulfur-containing fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simson, Amanda

    Hydrogen powered fuel cells have the potential to produce electricity with higher efficiency and lower emissions than conventional combustion technology. In order to realize the benefits of a hydrogen fuel cell an efficient method to produce hydrogen is needed. Currently, over 90% of hydrogen is produced from the steam reforming of natural gas. However, for many applications including fuel cell vehicles, the use of a liquid fuel rather than natural gas is desirable. This work investigates the feasibility of producing hydrogen efficiently by steam reforming E85 (85% ethanol/15% gasoline), a commercially available sulfur-containing transportation fuel. A Rh-Pt/SiO2-ZrO2 catalyst has demonstrated good activity for the E85 steam reforming reaction. An industrial steam reforming process is often run less efficiently, with more water and at higher temperatures, in order to prevent catalyst deactivation. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a process that can operate without catalyst deactivation at more energy efficient conditions. In this study, the steam reforming of a sulfur-containing fuel (E85) was studied at near stoichiometric steam/carbon ratios and at 650C, conditions at which catalyst deactivation is normally measured. At these conditions the catalyst was found to be stable steam reforming a sulfur-free E85. However, the addition of low concentrations of sulfur significantly deactivated the catalyst. The presence of sulfur in the fuel caused catalyst deactivation by promoting ethylene which generates surface carbon species (coke) that mask catalytic sites. The amount of coke increased during time on stream and became increasingly graphitic. However, the deactivation due to both sulfur adsorption and coke formation was reversible with air treatment at 650°C. However, regenerations were found to reduce the catalyst life. Air regenerations produce exotherms on the catalyst surface that cause structural changes to the catalyst. During regenerations the

  12. Niobium Carbide-Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Produced by High-Energy Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travessa, Dilermando Nagle; Silva, Marina Judice; Cardoso, Kátia Regina

    2017-06-01

    Aluminum and its alloys are key materials for the transportation industry as they contribute to the development of lightweight structures. The dispersion of hard ceramic particles in the Al soft matrix can lead to a substantial strengthening effect, resulting in composite materials exhibiting interesting mechanical properties and inspiring their technological use in sectors like the automotive and aerospace industries. Powder metallurgy techniques are attractive to design metal matrix composites, achieving a homogeneous distribution of the reinforcement into the metal matrix. In this work, pure aluminum has been reinforced with particles of niobium carbide (NbC), an extremely hard and stable refractory ceramic. Its use as a reinforcing phase in metal matrix composites has not been deeply explored. Composite powders produced after different milling times, with 10 and 20 vol pct of NbC were produced by high-energy ball milling and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and by X-ray diffraction to establish a relationship between the milling time and size, morphology, and distribution of the particles in the composite powder. Subsequently, an Al/10 pct NbC composite powder was hot extruded into cylindrical bars. The strength of the obtained composite bars is comparable to the commercial high-strength, aeronautical-grade aluminum alloys.

  13. Scenarios for multi-unit inertial fusion energy plants producing hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.

    1993-12-01

    This work describes: (a) the motivation for considering fusion in general, and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) in particular, to produce hydrogen fuel powering low-emission vehicles; (b) the general requirements for any fusion electric plant to produce hydrogen by water electrolysis at costs competitive with present consumer gasoline fuel costs per passenger mile, for advanced car architectures meeting President Clinton's 80 mpg advanced car goal, and (c) a comparative economic analysis for the potential cost of electricity (CoE) and corresponding cost of hydrogen (CoH) from a variety of multi-unit IFE plants with one to eight target chambers sharing a common driver and target fab facility. Cases with either heavy-ion or diode-pumped, solid-state laser drivers are considered, with ''conventional'' indirect drive target gains versus ''advanced, e.g. Fast Ignitor'' direct drive gain assumptions, and with conventional steam balance-of-plant (BoP) versus advanced MHD plus steam combined cycle BoP, to contrast the potential economics under ''conventional'' and ''advanced'' IFE assumptions, respectively

  14. Modeling of X-ray Images and Energy Spectra Produced by Stepping Lightning Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Marshall, Robert A.; Celestin, Sebastien; Pasko, Victor P.

    2017-11-01

    Recent ground-based measurements at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) have greatly improved our knowledge of the energetics, fluence, and evolution of X-ray emissions during natural cloud-to-ground (CG) and rocket-triggered lightning flashes. In this paper, using Monte Carlo simulations and the response matrix of unshielded detectors in the Thunderstorm Energetic Radiation Array (TERA), we calculate the energy spectra of X-rays as would be detected by TERA and directly compare with the observational data during event MSE 10-01. The good agreement obtained between TERA measurements and theoretical calculations supports the mechanism of X-ray production by thermal runaway electrons during the negative corona flash stage of stepping lightning leaders. Modeling results also suggest that measurements of X-ray bursts can be used to estimate the approximate range of potential drop of lightning leaders. Moreover, the X-ray images produced during the leader stepping process in natural negative CG discharges, including both the evolution and morphological features, are theoretically quantified. We show that the compact emission pattern as recently observed in X-ray images is likely produced by X-rays originating from the source region, and the diffuse emission pattern can be explained by the Compton scattering effects.

  15. Room temperature diamond-like carbon coatings produced by low energy ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markwitz, A., E-mail: a.markwitz@gns.cri.nz [Department for Ion Beam Technologies, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Mohr, B.; Leveneur, J. [Department for Ion Beam Technologies, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2014-07-15

    Nanometre-smooth diamond-like carbon coatings (DLC) were produced at room temperature with ion implantation using 6 kV C{sub 3}H{sub y}{sup +} ion beams. Ion beam analysis measurements showed that the coatings contain no heavy Z impurities at the level of 100 ppm, have a homogeneous stoichiometry in depth and a hydrogen concentration of typically 25 at.%. High resolution TEM analysis showed high quality and atomically flat amorphous coatings on wafer silicon. Combined TEM and RBS analysis gave a coating density of 3.25 g cm{sup −3}. Raman spectroscopy was performed to probe for sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} bonds in the coatings. The results indicate that low energy ion implantation with 6 kV produces hydrogenated amorphous carbon coatings with a sp{sup 3} content of about 20%. Results highlight the opportunity of developing room temperature DLC coatings with ion beam technology for industrial applications.

  16. Final Technical Report: Magnetic Reconnection in High-Energy Laser-Produced Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germaschewski, Kai [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Fox, William [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Bhattacharjee, Amitava [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2017-04-06

    This report describes the final results from the DOE Grant DE-SC0007168, “Fast Magnetic Reconnection in HED Laser-Produced Plasmas.” The recent generation of laboratory high-energy-density physics facilities has opened significant physics opportunities for experimentally modeling astrophysical plasmas. The goal of this proposal is to use these new tools to study fundamental problems in plasma physics and plasma astrophysics. Fundamental topics in this area involve study of the generation, amplification, and fate of magnetic fields, which are observed to pervade the plasma universe and govern its evolution. This project combined experiments at DOE laser facilities with kinetic plasma simulation to study these processes. The primary original goal of the project was to study magnetic reconnection using a new experimental platform, colliding magnetized laser-produced plasmas. However through a series of fortuitous discoveries, the work broadened out to allow significant advancement on multiple topics in laboratory astrophysics, including magnetic reconnection, Weibel instability, and collisionless shocks.

  17. Study of Muon Pairs and Vector Mesons Produced in High Energy Pb-Pb Interactions

    CERN Multimedia

    Karavicheva, T; Atayan, M; Bordalo, P; Constans, N P; Gulkanyan, H; Kluberg, L

    2002-01-01

    %NA50 %title\\\\ \\\\The experiment studies dimuons produced in Pb-Pb and p-A collisions, at nucleon-nucleon c.m. energies of $ \\sqrt{s} $ = 18 and 30 GeV respectively. The setup accepts dimuons in a kinematical range roughly defined as $0.1$ $1 GeV/c$, and stands maximal luminosity (5~10$^{7}$~Pb ions and 10$^7$ interactions per burst). The physics includes signals which probe QGP (Quark-Gluon Plasma), namely the $\\phi$, J/$\\psi$ and $\\psi^\\prime$ vector mesons and thermal dimuons, and reference signals, namely the (unseparated) $\\rho$ and $\\omega$ mesons, and Drell-Yan dimuons. The experiment is a continuation, with improved means, of NA38, and expands its study of {\\it charmonium suppression} and {\\it strangeness enhancement}.\\\\ \\\\The muons are measured in the former NA10 spectrometer, which is shielded from the hot target region by a beam stopper and absorber wall. The muons traverse 5~m of BeO and C. The impact parameter is determined by a Zero Degree Calorimeter (Ta with silica fibres). Energy dissipation ...

  18. CALCULATING SEPARATE MAGNETIC FREE ENERGY ESTIMATES FOR ACTIVE REGIONS PRODUCING MULTIPLE FLARES: NOAA AR11158

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarr, Lucas; Longcope, Dana; Millhouse, Margaret [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    It is well known that photospheric flux emergence is an important process for stressing coronal fields and storing magnetic free energy, which may then be released during a flare. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) captured the entire emergence of NOAA AR 11158. This region emerged as two distinct bipoles, possibly connected underneath the photosphere, yet characterized by different photospheric field evolutions and fluxes. The combined active region complex produced 15 GOES C-class, two M-class, and the X2.2 Valentine's Day Flare during the four days after initial emergence on 2011 February 12. The M and X class flares are of particular interest because they are nonhomologous, involving different subregions of the active region. We use a Magnetic Charge Topology together with the Minimum Current Corona model of the coronal field to model field evolution of the complex. Combining this with observations of flare ribbons in the 1600 A channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board SDO, we propose a minimization algorithm for estimating the amount of reconnected flux and resulting drop in magnetic free energy during a flare. For the M6.6, M2.2, and X2.2 flares, we find a flux exchange of 4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, and 21.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, respectively, resulting in free energy drops of 3.89 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg, 2.62 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg, and 1.68 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 32} erg.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation for neutron yield produced by bombarding thick targets with high energy heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oranj, Leila Mokhtari; Oh, Joo Hee; Yoon, Moo Hyun; Lee, Hee Seock [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    One of radiation shielding issues at heavy-ion accelerator facilities is to estimate neutron production by primary heavy ions. A few Monte Carlo transport codes such as FLUKA and PHITS can work with primary heavy ions. Recently IBS/RISP((Rare Isotope Science Project) started to design a high-energy, high-power rare isotope accelerator complex for nuclear physics, medical and material science and applications. There is a lack of experimental and simulated data about the interaction of major beam, {sup 238}U with materials. For the shielding design of the end of first accelerating section section, we calculate a differential neutron yield using the FLUKA code for the interaction of 18.5 MeV/u uranium ion beam with thin carbon stripper of 1.3 μm). The benchmarking studies were also done to prove the yield calculation for 400 MeV/n {sup 131}Xe and other heavy ions. In this study, the benchmarking for Xe-C, Xe-Cu, Xe-Al, Xe-Pb and U-C, other interactions were performed using the FLUKA code. All of results show that the FLUKA can evaluate the heavy ion induced reaction with good uncertainty. For the evaluation of neutron source term, the calculated neutron yields are shown in Fig. 2. The energy of Uranium ion beam is only 18.5 MeV/u, but the energy of produced secondary neutrons was extended over 100 MeV. So the neutron shielding and the damage by those neutrons is expected to be serious. Because of thin stripper, the neutron intensity at forward direction was high. But the the intensity of produced secondary photons was relatively low and mostly the angular property was isotropic. For the detail shielding design of stripper section of RISP rare istope accelerator, the benchmarking study and preliminary evaluation of neutron source term from uranium beam have been carried out using the FLUKA code. This study is also compared with the evaluation results using the PHITS code performed coincidently. Both studies shows that two monte carlo codes can give a good results for

  20. 5. world inventory of the electric power produced by renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    This fifth edition of the electric power production in the world by renewable energies sources, has been realized by the renewable energies observatory for ''Electricite de France''. It proposes an evaluation of the situation, providing data and analysis for each renewable energy sources, hydro electric power, wind energy, biomass, geothermal energy, photovoltaic and the green energy. (A.L.B.)

  1. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibo; Singh, Vijay; Qureshi, Nasib

    2015-01-01

    Waste is currently a major problem in the world, both in the developing and the developed countries. Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. This study investigated using food waste to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initial glucose 56.7 g/L) was used to produce 14.2 g/L of ABE with a fermentation productivity and a yield of 0.22 g/L/h and 0.35 g/g, respectively. In a similar fermentation 81 g/L of food waste (containing equivalent glucose of 60.1 g/L) was used as substrate, and the culture produced 18.9 g/L ABE with a high ABE productivity of 0.46 g/L/h and a yield of 0.38 g/g. Fermentation of food waste at higher concentrations (129, 181 and 228 g/L) did not remarkably increase ABE production but resulted in high residual glucose due to the culture butanol inhibition. An integrated vacuum stripping system was designed and applied to recover butanol from the fermentation broth simultaneously to relieve the culture butanol inhibition, thereby allowing the fermentation of food waste at high concentrations. ABE fermentation integrated with vacuum stripping successfully recovered the ABE from the fermentation broth and controlled the ABE concentrations below 10 g/L during fermentation when 129 g/L food waste was used. The ABE productivity with vacuum fermentation was 0.49 g/L/h, which was 109 % higher than the control fermentation (glucose based). More importantly, ABE vacuum recovery and fermentation allowed near-complete utilization of the sugars (~98 %) in the broth. In these studies it was demonstrated that food waste is a superior feedstock for producing butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii. Compared to costly glucose, ABE fermentation of food waste has several advantages including lower feedstock cost, higher productivity, and less residual sugars.

  2. Comparison of the energy efficiency to produce agroethanol between various industries and processes: The transport stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, Xavier; Frangi, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The different modes of transport used in the agroethanol industry and their energy efficiencies have been studied. Their specific consumption of fuels t trans in MJ (t load km) -1 is assessed from raw data and from friction force laws. t trans depends on the mode characteristics, fuel/engine performance, velocity, geometry, total mass, actual load... Lack of precision on them increases the uncertainty on t trans (variation by a factor up to 8 for pipeline depending on the flow velocity). From t trans is deduced the consumption of the mode in the industry R trans in J for 100 J of the energy content of ethanol E etoh produced from the load. R trans takes also into account the distance of shipment d and the weight of the load in E etoh , w load . Trucks, t trans from 7 to 1.4 MJ(t load .km) -1 , can present the best R trans, lower than 0.5 J for 100 J of ethanol, because of trips over small d (less than 100 km) and of low w load (less than 0.04 t load .GJ etoh -1 for farm inputs and ethanol). R trans of the plant transport to the factory by trucks ranges to 3 J due to larger w load (up to 0.56 t load .GJ etoh -1 for sugar cane). Large part of the ethanol is moved from the factory to the local storages over 1000 km more or less depending on the proximity of consumption centers. Efficient modes such as pipeline and sea ships, t trans as low as 0.05 MJ (t load .km) -1 when optimized, can compensate for these distances with R trans around 1 J. R trans to export ethanol from Brazil to France would represent less than 5 J, much lower than the difference of consumptions R between sugar cane and sugar beet based ethanol productions. -- Highlights: → Local and global consumption rates (t and R) to carry inputs, plants or agroethanol. → t in J per km and ton of shipment, and its dependences from data and friction laws. → t from 7 for light trucks to 0.05 MJ (t load .km) -1 for optimized pipe or ship. → R in J for 100 J ethanol from t, distance and mass of load for 100

  3. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams. Annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    Research activities presented in this annual report were carried out in 1987 in the framework of the government-funded program 'High Energy Density in Matter Produced by Heavy Ion Beams'. It addresses fundamental problems of the generation and investigation of hot dense matter. Its initial motivation and its ultimate goal is the question whether inertial confinement can be achieved by intense heavy ion beams. The new accelerator facility SIS/ESR now under construction at GSI will provide an excellent potential for research in this field. The construction work at the new validity is on schedule. The building construction is near completion and the SIS accelerator will have its first beam at the beginning of next year. First experiments at lower intensity will start in summer 1989 and the full program will run after the cooler and storage ring ESR has got operational. Accordingly, the planning and the preparation of the high energy density experiments at this unique facility was an essential part of the activities last year. In this funding period emphasis was given to the experimental activities at the existing accelerator. In addition to a number of accelerator-oriented and instrumental developments, an experiment on beam-plasma interaction had first exciting results, a significant increase of the stopping power for heavy ions in plasma was measured. Other important activities were the investigation of dielectronic recombination of highly charged ions, spectroscopic investigations aiming at the pumping of short wavelength lasers by heavy ion beams and a crossed beam experiment for the determination of Bi + + Bi + ionization cross sections. As in previous years theoretical work an space-charge dominated beam dynamics as well as on hydrodynamics of dense plasmas, radiation transport and beam plasma interaction was continued, thus providing a basis for the future experiments. (orig.)

  4. Influence of negative energy balance on cyclicity and fertility in the high producing dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathes, D C; Fenwick, M; Cheng, Z; Bourne, N; Llewellyn, S; Morris, D G; Kenny, D; Murphy, J; Fitzpatrick, R

    2007-09-01

    The peripartum period is of critical importance to subsequent health and fertility. Most cows enter a state of negative energy balance (NEB) associated with many metabolic changes which have carry over effects on the resumption and normality of estrous cyclicity and the success of subsequent inseminations. A dataset on 500 lactations explored the relationships between metabolic traits measured before and after calving with fertility. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that longer calving to conception intervals were associated with altered profiles of IGF-I, urea and body condition score. These relationships between metabolic profiles and fertility differed between first lactation cows (which are still growing but produce less milk) and mature animals. Early postpartum the liver undergoes extensive biochemical and morphological modifications to adapt to NEB, the uterus is extensively remodeled and must clear bacterial infections, and the ovary must resume ovulatory cycles. RNA isolated from liver and uterine tissues harvested 2 weeks postpartum from cows in mild (MNEB) and severe (SNEB) energy balance was used to screen the Affymetrix 23K bovine microarray. In liver, SNEB resulted in differential expression of key genes involved in lipid catabolism, gluconeogenesis, and the synthesis and stability of IGF-I. This was accompanied by reduced systemic concentrations of IGF-I which is likely to impact on ovarian function and early embryo development. Within endometrium, cows in SNEB showed histological evidence for higher levels of inflammation and the microarray analysis identified groups of differentially expressed genes involved in tissue remodeling and immune response. This may delay uterine repair after calving, likely contributing to the observed reduction in fertility.

  5. Renewable energy to produce electricity; Nuevas fuentes de energia para producir electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadenas Tovar, Roberto; Lopez Rios, Serafin [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1996-05-01

    There are several new energy sources to produce electricity. One of them is the wind energy, which has reached huge commercialization in worldwide. There are in Mexico some zones with high speed wind, which can be used in a short term. This has been proved by the wind pilot power plant of La Venta, Oaxaca, where production costs of US 4.3 cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh) have been obtained. These costs are among the lowest in the world. By the other hand, among the main uses of solar energy, including both thermal and photovoltaic techniques, the biggest thermo-solar utility, with 350 megawatts (MW) of capacity, is remarkable. This is the plant located in the Mojave Desert, California, USA. In Mexico there is big potential, which can make an important contribution to supplies of electricity. Biomass is another important renewable source, particularly the use of solid municipal waste, the livestock and the wood waste. Finally, other alternate technique is represented by the fuel cells, though it is not properly renewable. However, considering its modular and low environmental impact characteristics, it can get a wide commercial development in the next decade. [Espanol] Existen diversas fuentes nuevas de energia para generar electricidad. Entre ellas, la energia eolica es una de las tecnologias alternas que mayor comercializacion ha alcanzado a nivel mundial. Mexico posee zonas con vientos de velocidades altas en las que su aplicacion puede ser inmediata, como lo prueba la experiencia obtenida con la central piloto de La Venta, Oaxaca, en donde se han alcanzado costos de produccion de 4.3 centavos de dolar por kilowatt-hora (kWh), de los mas bajos a nivel internacional. Por otra parte, entre las principales aplicaciones de la energia solar, en sus tecnologias termica y fotovoltaica, destaca el mayor de los aprovechamientos termosolares, con 350 megawatts de capacidad (MW), localizado en el desierto de Mojave, en California, EUA. En Mexico hay un gran potencial

  6. Effects of alternative energy sources on bacterial cellulose characteristics produced by Komagataeibacter medellinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Ramírez, Carlos; Enciso, Carla; Torres-Taborda, Mabel; Zuluaga, Robin; Gañán, Piedad; Rojas, Orlando J; Castro, Cristina

    2018-05-27

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) was produced by Komagataeibacter medellinensis using Hestrin and Schramm modified medium in the presence of alternative energy sources (AES), such as ethanol and acetic acid, to explore the effect of AES on the characteristics and properties of the resulting BC. In this study, the physicochemical and structural characteristics of the obtained BC were determined using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis, and mechanical testing analysis. Ethanol and acetic acid (at 0.1 wt%) were proven to improve the BC yield by K. medellinensis by 279% and 222%, respectively. However, the crystallinity index (%), the degree of polymerization, and maximum rate of degradation temperatures decreased by 9.2%, 36%, and 4.96%, respectively, by the addition of ethanol and by 7.2%, 27%, and 4.21%, respectively, by the addition of acetic acid. The significance of this work, lies on the fact that there is not any report about how BC properties change when substances like ethanol or acetic acid are added to culture medium, and which is the mechanism that provokes those changes, that in our case we could demonstrate the relationship of a higher BC production rate (provoked by ethanol and acetic acid adding) and changes in BC properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Air purification in industrial plants producing automotive rubber components in terms of energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzebielec Andrzej

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In automotive industry plants, which use injection molding machines for rubber processing, tar contaminates air to such an extent that air fails to enter standard heat recovery systems. Accumulated tar clogs ventilation heat recovery exchangers in just a few days. In the plant in which the research was conducted, tar contamination causes blockage of ventilation ducts. The effect of this phenomenon was that every half year channels had to be replaced with new ones, since the economic analysis has shown that cleaning them is not cost-efficient. Air temperature inside such plants is often, even in winter, higher than 30°C. The air, without any means of heat recovery, is discharged outside the buildings. The analyzed plant uses three types of media for production: hot water, cold water at 14°C (produced in a water chiller, and compressed air, generated in a unit with a rated power consumption of 180 kW. The aim of the study is to determine the energy efficiency improvement of this type of manufacturing plant. The main problem to solve is to provide an air purification process so that air can be used in heat recovery devices. The next problem to solve is to recover heat at such a temperature level that it would be possible to produce cold for technological purposes without air purification. Experimental studies have shown that air purification is feasible. By using one microjet head, a total of 75% of tar particles was removed from the air; by using 4 heads, a purification efficiency of 93% was obtained. This method of air purification causes air temperature to decrease from 35°C to 20°C, which significantly reduces the potential for heat recovery. The next step of the research was designing a cassette-plate heat exchanger to exchange heat without air purification. The economic analysis of such a solution revealed that replacing the heat exchanger with a new one even once a year was not cost-efficient. Another issue examined in the context of

  8. Energy pattern and conservations of condiment produced from soybean (Glycine max)

    OpenAIRE

    Ismaila B. Anjorin; Rahman Akinoso; Mayowa S. Sanusi

    2018-01-01

    Energy being one of the largest operating expenses in most organizations especially manufacturing and processing industries leading to considerable scope for energy conservation and hence cost. Information on energy utilization and conservation pattern were obtained based on time taken, number of person involved and sources of energy using standard energy equations. A total of 445.40 ± 17.32MJkg-1 where thermal energy (420MJ ≈ 94%) and manual energy (25.40MJ ≈ 6%) were the only forms of energ...

  9. Bioenergy to save the world. Producing novel energy plants for growth on abandoned land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Peter; Herzig, Rolf; Bojinov, Bojin; Ruttens, Ann; Nehnevajova, Erika; Stamatiadis, Stamatis; Memon, Abdul; Vassilev, Andon; Caviezel, Mario; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2008-05-01

    Following to the 2006 climate summit, the European Union formally set the goal of limiting global warming to 2 degrees Celsius. But even today, climate change is already affecting people and ecosystems. Examples are melting glaciers and polar ice, reports about thawing permafrost areas, dying coral reefs, rising sea levels, changing ecosystems and fatal heat periods. Within the last 150 years, CO2 levels rose from 280 ppm to currently over 400 ppm. If we continue on our present course, CO2 equivalent levels could approach 600 ppm by 2035. However, if CO2 levels are not stabilized at the 450-550 ppm level, the consequences could be quite severe. Hence, if we do not act now, the opportunity to stabilise at even 550 ppm is likely to slip away. Long-term stabilisation will require that CO2 emissions ultimately be reduced to more than 80% below current levels. This will require major changes in how we operate. Reducing greenhouse gases from burning fossil fuels seems to be the most promising approach to counterbalance the dramatic climate changes we would face in the near future. It is clear since the Kyoto protocol that the availability of fossil carbon resources will not match our future requirements. Furthermore, the distribution of fossil carbon sources around the globe makes them an even less reliable source in the future. We propose to screen crop and non-crop species for high biomass production and good survival on marginal soils as well as to produce mutants from the same species by chemical mutagenesis or related methods. These plants, when grown in adequate crop rotation, will provide local farming communities with biomass for the fermentation in decentralized biogas reactors, and the resulting nitrogen rich manure can be distributed on the fields to improve the soil. Such an approach will open new economic perspectives to small farmers, and provide a clever way to self sufficient and sustainable rural development. Together with the present economic reality

  10. Energy producers in the 21. century: Digital technology at the service of consumers and the energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chone, Fabien

    2017-01-01

    Direct Energie, a major player in France and Belgium, has compelled recognition as a well-balanced operator in the production and supply of electricity and natural gas. Having made innovation one of the major axes of its development, this firm is using digital technology for the energy transition and in response to consumer needs. Direct Energie, a supplier of 'energy 4.0', is seeking to position itself as a leader in 'orchestrating' the consumption of energy by its customers. Given this strong position as the single supplier of energy to its customers, the regulatory framework for data transmission must be reviewed to make it compatible with the 'single contract', which binds a customer to a firm that both supplies and transports energy

  11. Reaching to a featured formula to deduce the energy of the heaviest particles producing from the controlled thermonuclear fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Raad H.; Oudah, Osamah N.

    2018-05-01

    Thermonuclear fusion reaction plays an important role in developing and construction any power plant system. Studying the physical behavior for the possible mechanism governed energies released by the fusion products to precise understanding the related kinematics. In this work a theoretical formula controlled the general applied thermonuclear fusion reactions is achieved to calculating the fusion products energy depending upon the reactants physical properties and therefore, one can calculate other parameters governed a given reaction. By using this formula, the energy spectrum of 4He produced from T-3He fusion reaction has been sketched with respect to reaction angle and incident energy ranged from (0.08-0.6) MeV.

  12. Methodology to produce a water and energy stream map (WESM in the South African manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies, Edward

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for water and energy in South Africa, and the capacity constraints and restrictions of both resources, have led to a rapid increase in their cost. The manufacturing industry remains South Africa’s third-largest consumer of water and second- largest consumer of national energy. The improvement of water and energy efficiency is becoming an increasingly important theme for both organisational success and national economic sustainability. This paper presents the ‘lean based water and energy stream mapping framework’ developed for the manufacturing industry, with the specific objective of decreasing its water and energy intensity. As with the traditional value stream mapping tool, the water and energy stream mapping focuses on eliminating water- and energy-specific wastes within a process. Water and energy waste categories that will be used in conjunction with the framework will also be discussed. The key objective of this paper is to detail the process of creating the water and energy stream mapping, and the statistical forecasting methodology used to develop the baseline water and energy demand data. The outcome of the implementation of the framework is the future state water and energy stream mapping, which is effectively a blueprint for increased water and energy efficiency within a studied process.

  13. Netherlands as producer of energy knowledge. Dutch governmental efforts for energy R and D in an international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Duin, A.M.

    2006-04-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs aims to link its transition policy in a broader context to international energy - and climate policy. A clear view on the Dutch position in the field of energy research policy is an important aspect of this international anchoring of the transition policy. For that purpose this report offers a first insight in the scope, the quality and the focus of Dutch energy R and D budget in comparison with the situation in a number of other countries. Furthermore, the attention is directed at recent developments and issues involved in the organisation of energy research. Several instruments for priority setting and organisational issues are recommended for consideration in the process of the international anchoring of transition policy. With regard to the per capita budgets for energy R and D, the Netherlands is leading together with Japan and the United States. Concerning the knowledge position in the field of energy, as of yet no research has been conducted expressing this knowledge position in publications, citations and patents. However, in the programming for the Dutch energy research strategy (EOS) a positive picture is presented. The role of the Netherlands in the European Framework Programmes indirectly indicates a good position as well. However, the scope of the Dutch government budget for energy R and D has been relatively strongly decreasing over the past years. The private contributions to energy R and D in the Netherlands are reasonable (50%), but the Dutch government expects that these - as a result of liberalisation - will decrease as well. In the Netherlands a relatively great part of the budget is spent on sustainable energy and energy conservation (together 70%). The Netherlands spend more on biomass and in particular on wind energy and less on solar energy than is the case in the other countries. Compared to the other countries, the Dutch budget for energy conservation has been remarkably evenly divided over the

  14. Kepler-Chevreux: 100 billions invested in solar photovoltaic and wind energy produce more energy than with oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielo, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the calculation of a new index created by Kepler-Chevreux experts: the energy return on invested capital, EROCI. This index reveals the benefit of solar-energy and wind-energy based electro-mobility compared to the oil-based thermo-mobility. This index only takes economic issues into account, but not the benefits in terms of public health, environment, climate or geopolitics. It also outlines that whenever oil prices increase or decrease, the oil sector has reached a dead end, and that photovoltaic and wind energy present a growing interest among not only ecologists but also finance experts

  15. Energy consumption in desalinating produced water from shale oil and gas extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Tow, Emily W.; Chung, Hyung Won; Lienhard, John H.; Thiel, Gregory Parker; Banchik, Leonardo David

    2014-01-01

    On-site treatment and reuse is an increasingly preferred option for produced water management in unconventional oil and gas extraction. This paper analyzes and compares the energetics of several desalination technologies at the high salinities and diverse compositions commonly encountered in produced water from shale formations to guide technology selection and to inform further system development. Produced water properties are modeled using Pitzer's equations, and emphasis is placed on how t...

  16. The incredible challenge of producing energy in a deeply changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestrallet, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Major trends in the energy sector - emerging countries thirsty for energy, unconventional fossil fuels (a development roiling geopolitics around the globe) or the deep alterations occurring in the EU's energy policy - are forcing professionals to design a new planetary model. This sector is anticipating trends, innovating and thus proving its ability to change. These trends arise locally in response to customer needs, whether of businesses or private persons. Plans for the future will be oriented by the uses to which energy will be put. There will be room for decentralized, renewable forms of energy and related services; and priority will go to reducing the insecurity of the energy supply. The big challenge we now face is to cope with changes in the sources of energy and in related techniques and, too, with geopolitical trends

  17. An energy-saving opportunity in producing lubricating oil using mixed-solventin simulated Rotary Disc Contacting (RDC) extraction tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatamipour, M.S.; Fakhr Hoseini, S.M.; Tavakkoli, T.; Mehrkesh, A.H. [Chemical Engineering Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran)

    2010-05-15

    Industrial processes are the most energy consuming processes in the world. Modification of these processes helps us with controlling the consumption of energy and minimizing energy loss. Changing raw materials is one of the ways through which we can optimize industrial processes. In this paper, a new solvent mixture (furfural + a co-solvent) was used for the extraction of lubricating base oil from lube-oil cut. It was found that the energy consumption of the new solvent mixture for obtaining a product with the same quality was much lower than the original solvent. By using this new solvent mixture, the operating temperature of the top of tower was reduced by 30 K. This leads to a high reduction in energy consumption in extraction of aromatics from lube oil. At our new extraction process by means of using new solvent mixture, the maximum energy saving was 38% per cubic meter of produced raffinate. (author)

  18. Subjective State, Blood Pressure, and Behavioral Control Changes Produced by an "Energy Shot"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Stamates, Amy L; Ossege, Julianne; Maloney, Sarah F; Bardgett, Mark E; Brown, Clifford J

    2014-06-01

    Background: Energy drinks and energy shots are popular consumer beverages that are advertised to increase feelings of alertness. Typically, these products include high levels of caffeine, a mild psychostimulant drug. The scientific evidence demonstrating the specific benefits of energy products to users in terms of subjective state and objective performance is surprisingly lacking. Moreover, there are rising health concerns associated with the use of these products. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of a popular energy shot (5-Hour Energy ® ) on subjective and objective measures that were assessed hourly for 6 hours following consumption. Methods: Participants ( n =14) completed a three-session study where they received the energy shot, a placebo control, and no drink. Following dose administration, participants completed subjective Profile of Mood States ratings hourly for 6 hours. Participants also repeatedly completed a behavioral control task (the cued go/no-go task) and provided blood pressure and pulse rate readings at each hour. Results: Consumption of the energy shot did improve subjective state, as measured by increased ratings of vigor and decreased ratings of fatigue. However, the energy shot did not alter objective performance, which worsened over time. Importantly, the energy shot elevated both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Consumption of one energy shot may only result in modest benefits to subjective state. Individuals with preexisting hypertension or other medical conditions should be cautious about using these new consumer products.

  19. Listing the investment costs and producing material analyses for given plants for energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.J.; Hansen, K.; Schoen, R.; Wassmann, B.

    1989-01-01

    In this comparison, the investment and material cost for the following plants are examined: 1. Solar service water treatment plants, 2. Solar heating plants, 3. Conventional comparative plants, 4. Heat pump heating plants, 5. Nuclear power stations and hardcoal-fired power stations, and 6. Wind energy converters. The technique of energy conversion of each is generally explained. In the appendix, points of the use of energy are given for the manufacture of components of the heating and installation trade. Specific energy costs per product unit are compiled for the different branches. (UA) [de

  20. Status and perspectives for wind energy within the programme for the development of renewable energy. Background report for the document entitled 'Handlingsplan for Vedvarende Energi 1995-97' produced by the Committee for Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The report, which is intended to comprise the basis for the document 'Plan of Management for Renewable Energy 1995-97' produced by the (Danish) Committee for Renewable Energy, updates information on wind technology and its implementation and describes the status of wind energy as found in the relevant section contained in the Danish development programme for renewable energy. An evaluation is presented of the future perspectives for wind energy with regard to technological developments, market potential and overall costs. A detailed list is given of approved, rejected and concluded Danish projects relevant to wind energy under the Programme for the Development of Wind Energy during the period 1991-1994 and a global status for wind power status and estimates in MW ranging under the headings: New capacity in 1994, Estimated capacity in 1994 and Estimated capacity in 2000. (AB)

  1. Confinement characteristics of high-energy ions produced by ICRF heating in the large helical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumazawa, R; Saito, K; Torii, Y; Mutoh, T; Seki, T; Watari, T; Osakabe, M; Murakami, S; Sasao, M; Watanabe, T; Yamamoto, T; Notake, T; Takeuchi, N; Saida, T; Shimpo, F; Nomura, G; Yokota, M; Kato, A; Zao, Y; Okada, H; Isobe, M; Ozaki, T; Narihara, K; Nagayama, Y; Inagaki, S; Morita, S; Krasilnikov, A V; Idei, H; Kubo, S; Ohkubo, K; Sato, M; Shimozuma, T; Yoshimura, Y; Ikeda, K; Nagaoka, K; Oka, Y; Takeiri, Y; Tsumori, K; Ashikawa, N; Emoto, M; Funaba, H; Goto, M; Ida, K; Kobuchi, T; Liang, Y; Masuzaki, S; Minami, T; Miyazawa, J; Morisaki, T; Muto, S; Nakamura, Y; Nakanishi, H; Nishimura, K; Noda, N; Ohdachi, S; Peterson, B J; Sagara, A; Sakakibara, S; Sakamoto, R; Sato, K; Shoji, M; Suzuki, H; Tanaka, K; Toi, K; Tokuzawa, T; Watanabe, K Y; Yamada, I; Yamamoto, S; Yoshinuma, M; Yokoyama, M; Watanabe, K-Y; Kaneko, O; Kawahata, K; Komori, A; Ohyabu, N; Yamada, H; Yamazaki, K; Sudo, S; Matsuoka, K; Hamada, Y; Motojima, O; Fujiwara, M

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of high-energy ions accelerated by an ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) electric field in the large helical device (LHD) is discussed. A better confinement performance of high-energy ions in the inward-shifted magnetic axis configuration was experimentally verified by measuring their energy spectrum and comparing it with the effective temperature determined by an electron slowing down process. In the standard magnetic axis configuration a saturation of the measured tail temperature was observed as the effective temperature was increased. The ratio between these two quantities is a measure of the quality of transfer efficiency from high-energy ions to a bulk plasma; when this efficiency was compared with Monte Carlo simulations the results agreed fairly well. The ratio of the stored energy of the high-energy ions to that of the bulk plasma was measured using an ICRF heating power modulation method; it was deduced from phase differences between total and bulk plasma stored energies and the modulated ICRF heating power. The measured high energy fraction agreed with that calculated using the injected ICRF heating power, the transfer efficiency determined in the experiment and the confinement scaling of the LHD plasma

  2. FARM-PRODUCED ENERGY OF AGRICULTURAL WASTE ORIGIN IMPROVES ITS PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Węglarzy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The most important tasks of Polish agriculture in 2014-2020 perspective will include maintaining food quality and safety, and orientation toward the part of the production of renewable energy, especially using biomass. Processing of biomass in anaerobic methane fermentation of agricultural biogas solves the problem of waste storage, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, especially high concentrations of methane, coming from the fermentation of slowly stored biomass. The economic aspect explains the popularity of biogas works; it is related to diversification of agricultural production through the introduction of a qualitatively new production of green energy from biogas, which significantly affects the profitability of agricultural production and will be an alternative for some companies, or large farms as a source of additional income and energy security. Energy generated in small biogas plants can fully protect the energy needs of a small farm releasing it from external sources and generating savings. For installations larger surplus may provide an additional source of farms’ income.

  3. An estimation of the capacity to produce hydrogen by wasted hydroelectric energy for the three largest Brazilian hydroelectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilha, Janine C.; Trindade, Leticia G. da; Souza, Roberto F. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry], Email: janine@iq.ufrgs.br; Miguel, Marcelo [Itaipu Binacional, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The use of water wasted in hydroelectric plants as normalization dam excess, which constitute a hydrodynamic potential useful to generate electric energy which can be subsequently used to produce hydrogen and its subsequent consumption in fuel cells has been considered as an alternative for hydraulic energy-rich countries like Brazil. The case is examined in which all the water wasted in the hydroelectric plants, spilled by dam gates to maintain acceptable water levels, from the 3 largest Brazilian hydroelectric plants was used to produce hydrogen. During the year of 2008, the electric energy produced from this utilization would have been equivalent to 52.8 TWh, an amount that corresponds to an increase of ca. 15% of the total electric energy produced in the country. Furthermore, if this amount of hydrogen was used in the replacement of internal combustion vehicles by fuel cells, this would have prevented the production of 2.26 x 10{sup 7} ton of Co{sub 2} per year. This plan would also significantly decrease production and release of greenhouse gases. (author)

  4. Anisotropy in angular distributions of 238U fission fragments by photons, produced in high energy electron interaction with Si monocrystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasilov, V.I.; Lapin, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    An enhancement is detected under the angle of 90 deg in the fission fragment yield from 238 U nuclei produced by photons emitted by high-energy electrons passing through a silicon monocrystal. The results enable one to select the most optimal conditions to obtain maximal yields of nuclear particles [ru

  5. Detection systems for high energy particle producing gaseous ionization; Sistemas de deteccion de particulas de alta energia mediante ionizacion gaseosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, L; Duran, I

    1985-07-01

    This report contains a review on the most used detectors based on the collection of the ionization produced by high energy particles: proportional counters, multiwire proportional chambers, Geiger-Muller counters and drift chambers. In six sections, the fundamental principles, the field configuration and useful gas mixtures, are discussed, most relevant devices are reported along 90 pages with 98 references. (Author) 98 refs.

  6. Biogas, as a renewable energy source, produced during the anaerobic digestion of organic waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, H

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available of the process is dependent on the balance between symbiotic growth of the different groups of bacteria, such as the acid forming bacteria, obligate hydrogen producing acetogens and methanogens (Angelidaki, et al., 2009). This symbiotic relationship can...

  7. Beneficial effects on host energy metabolism of short-chain fatty acids and vitamins produced by commensal and probiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Jean Guy; Chain, Florian; Martín, Rebeca; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Courau, Stéphanie; Langella, Philippe

    2017-05-08

    The aim of this review is to summarize the effect in host energy metabolism of the production of B group vitamins and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) by commensal, food-grade and probiotic bacteria, which are also actors of the mammalian nutrition. The mechanisms of how these microbial end products, produced by these bacterial strains, act on energy metabolism will be discussed. We will show that these vitamins and SCFA producing bacteria could be used as tools to recover energy intakes by either optimizing ATP production from foods or by the fermentation of certain fibers in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Original data are also presented in this work where SCFA (acetate, butyrate and propionate) and B group vitamins (riboflavin, folate and thiamine) production was determined for selected probiotic bacteria.

  8. Comparison of the potential for producing energy from agriculture in Brazil, India, and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyner, W E

    1980-04-01

    The energy supply and demand conditions and factor conditions are examined for Brazil, India, and the United States to compare energy development from agricultural programs. Each country is seen to be concentrating on an energy from biomass that is particularly suited: biogas from cow dung and crop residues in India; gasohol from corn or sugar cane in Brazil; and gasohol from grains in the US. Economic rationality, when viewed from a social perspective, appears to have prevailed in the policy decision in each of the countries. 6 references, 2 tables.

  9. The research and training of human resources to produce renewable resources of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernesto Rangel Delgado

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The prospective technique approach used as a context, this paper emphasizes the importance of a long term vision on the human resources development for renewable energies production. In the same sense it outlines the connection between the professions associated with the generation of renewable energy and the labor market. Results are presented on the research intellectual capacity of Mexico, highlighting, the public universities, specialized research centers, researchers, and the associated academic programs to renewable energies. Finally, it is presented the conclusions, and suggestions oriented to increase strategically, the renewable energies research for the technology development. Also it might incorporate our country towards the international market for renewable technologies, in the long term.

  10. Pyrophosphate as a central energy carrier in the hydrogen-producing extremely thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bielen, A.A.M.; Willquist, K.; Engman, J.; Oost, van der J.; Niel, van E.W.J.; Kengen, S.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    The role of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) as an energy carrier in the central metabolism of the extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was investigated. In agreement with its annotated genome sequence, cell extracts were shown to exhibit PPi-dependent

  11. Iran's Nuclear Program and Its Official Aim of Producing Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazaneh, Reza

    2008-01-01

    Iran says it aims at developing nuclear energy and mastering the whole cycle of nuclear combustion. After the withdrawal of Western experts, Russia took over the building of nuclear plants, without clearly explaining what it really intended to do. Nowadays Iran has no international assistance, either to complete the nuclear plants, or to achieve full control of the nuclear combustion cycle. Going forward seems difficult, even though Iran has proved capable of mobilizing a good deal of energy to attain its target

  12. Dose equivalent near the bone-soft tissue interface from nuclear fragments produced by high-energy protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavers, M. R.; Poston, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    During manned space missions, high-energy nucleons of cosmic and solar origin collide with atomic nuclei of the human body and produce a broad linear energy transfer spectrum of secondary particles, called target fragments. These nuclear fragments are often more biologically harmful than the direct ionization of the incident nucleon. That these secondary particles increase tissue absorbed dose in regions adjacent to the bone-soft tissue interface was demonstrated in a previous publication. To assess radiological risks to tissue near the bone-soft tissue interface, a computer transport model for nuclear fragments produced by high energy nucleons was used in this study to calculate integral linear energy transfer spectra and dose equivalents resulting from nuclear collisions of 1-GeV protons transversing bone and red bone marrow. In terms of dose equivalent averaged over trabecular bone marrow, target fragments emitted from interactions in both tissues are predicted to be at least as important as the direct ionization of the primary protons-twice as important, if recently recommended radiation weighting factors and "worst-case" geometry are used. The use of conventional dosimetry (absorbed dose weighted by aa linear energy transfer-dependent quality factor) as an appropriate framework for predicting risk from low fluences of high-linear energy transfer target fragments is discussed.

  13. Intermittency in multiparticle production produced by low momentum transfer at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Han Il; Jeong, Eun Mi; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Jae Young; Kim, Min Kyoung; Kim, Sin Joung; Kim, Tae Ick; Kim, Yeon Kyoung; Lee, Jin Ho; Lim, In Taek; Pac, Myoung Youl; Kim, Chong Oh; Bahk, Sang Yull

    1998-01-01

    We show the intermittent behavior of the distribution of the pseudo-rapidities of secondary charged particles produced by nucleus-nucleus interactions. In particular, using the modified G moments, which can be defined to suppress the statistical fluctuations, we study the intermittency in the low multiplicity processes produced by the 14.6-GeV/nucleon 28 Si - nucleus interactions. We have shown experimentally that the basic function B q,k (M), behaving as M λ(q,k) at large M, has the basic fractal behavior and that the exponent λ(q,k) depends linearly on the number of multiplicity in a bin

  14. When companies produce their own energy. Opportunities and risks; Wenn Unternehmen ihre Energie selbst erzeugen. Chancen und Risiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hergass, Andreas [Ensys AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    More and more companies are considering the option of electricity self-supply. According to a survey conducted by the German Chamber of Industry and Commerce, 5% of all German companies have already taken the step of becoming a self-supplier and another 10% are contemplating it. However investments to this end must be planned with precision. In many cases they fail to pay off because the costs of procurement, operation and maintenance of power production plants stand in direct competition with the prices that energy trading companies can achieve in the electricity market. For companies that have committed themselves to the principles of sustainability and ecology in their corporate philosophy, having their own electricity supply will be important regardless of its profitability. In any case however they will have a requirement for partners to help ensure that internal and external energy supply systems are optimally integrated with each other.

  15. Feedback control of a Darrieus wind turbine and optimization of the produced energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, T.; Henry, B.; Devos, F.; de Saint Louvent, B.; Gosselin, J.

    1984-03-01

    A microprocessor-driven control system, applied to the feedback control of a Darrieus wind turbine is presented. The use of a dc machine as a generator to recover the energy and as a motor to start the engine, allows simplified power electronics. The architecture of the control unit is built to ensure four different functions: starting, optimization of the recoverable energy, regulation of the speed, and braking. An experimental study of the system in a wind tunnel allowed optimization of the coefficients of the proportional and integral (pi) control algorithm. The electrical energy recovery was found to be much more efficient using the feedback system than without the control unit. This system allows a better characterization of the wind turbine and a regulation adapted to the wind statistics observed in one given geographical location.

  16. Bulk properties of the medium produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions from the beam energy scan program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Alekseev, I.; Anderson, D. M.; Aoyama, R.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Ashraf, M. U.; Attri, A.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Behera, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Brown, D.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chankova-Bunzarova, N.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Elsey, N.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Esumi, S.; Evdokimov, O.; Ewigleben, J.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Federicova, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A. I.; Hamed, A.; Harlenderova, A.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horvat, S.; Huang, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huang, H. Z.; Humanic, T. J.; Huo, P.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jentsch, A.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Jowzaee, S.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Kocmanek, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulathunga, N.; Kumar, L.; Kvapil, J.; Kwasizur, J. H.; Lacey, R.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Lidrych, J.; Lin, T.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, H.; Liu, P.; Liu, Y.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, R.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Mallick, D.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Miller, Z. W.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nie, M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Nonaka, T.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V. A.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Ray, R. L.; Reed, R.; Rehbein, M. J.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roth, J. D.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Saur, M.; Schambach, J.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Schweid, B. R.; Seger, J.; Sergeeva, M.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, Z.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solyst, W.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sugiura, T.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, X.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Taranenko, A.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbæk, F.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xie, G.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Z.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    We present measurements of bulk properties of the matter produced in Au+Au collisions at √{sN N}=7.7 ,11.5 ,19.6 ,27 , and 39 GeV using identified hadrons (π±, K±, p , and p ¯) from the STAR experiment in the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Midrapidity (|y |<0.1 ) results for multiplicity densities d N /d y , average transverse momenta 〈pT〉 , and particle ratios are presented. The chemical and kinetic freeze-out dynamics at these energies are discussed and presented as a function of collision centrality and energy. These results constitute the systematic measurements of bulk properties of matter formed in heavy-ion collisions over a broad range of energy (or baryon chemical potential) at RHIC.

  17. ORLIB: a computer code that produces one-energy group, time- and spatially-averaged neutron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blink, J.A.; Dye, R.E.; Kimlinger, J.R.

    1981-12-01

    Calculation of neutron activation of proposed fusion reactors requires a library of neutron-activation cross sections. One such library is ACTL, which is being updated and expanded by Howerton. If the energy-dependent neutron flux is also known as a function of location and time, the buildup and decay of activation products can be calculated. In practice, hand calculation is impractical without energy-averaged cross sections because of the large number of energy groups. A widely used activation computer code, ORIGEN2, also requires energy-averaged cross sections. Accordingly, we wrote the ORLIB code to collapse the ACTL library, using the flux as a weighting function. The ORLIB code runs on the LLNL Cray computer network. We have also modified ORIGEN2 to accept the expanded activation libraries produced by ORLIB

  18. Kinetic energy of ions produced with first-, second-, and multi-shot femtosecond laser ablation on a solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Kato, Toshiyuki; Kurata-Nishimura, Mizuki; Matsuo, Yukari; Kawai, Jun; Motobayashi, Tohru; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2007-01-01

    We report that the kinetic energy of samarium (Sm) atom and Sm + ion produced by femtosecond laser ablation of solid samarium is strongly dependent on the number of ablation laser shots in the range from 1 to 10. By ablating the fresh surface (i.e. 1st shot), we find the kinetic energy of both Sm and Sm + ion to be the largest (24 and 250 eV, respectively). Almost 10 times larger kinetic energy of Sm + ion than that of Sm clearly indicates the contribution of Coulomb explosion in the acceleration process. From the second shot, kinetic energies of Sm and Sm + ion are lower than those of the first shot and almost constant (ca. 12 and 80 eV, respectively). This behaviour suggests the change in the nature of the solid surface after femtosecond laser ablation, which can be explained by the amorphization of ablated sample surface reported in recent studies

  19. On the idea of low-energy nuclear reactions in metallic lattices by producing neutrons from protons capturing "heavy" electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennfors, Einar

    2013-02-01

    The present article is a critical comment on Widom and Larsens speculations concerning low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) based on spontaneous collective motion of protons in a room temperature metallic hydride lattice producing oscillating electric fields that renormalize the electron self-energy, adding significantly to the effective electron mass and enabling production of low-energy neutrons. The frequency and mean proton displacement estimated on the basis of neutron scattering from protons in palladium and applied to the Widom and Larsens model of the proton oscillations yield an electron mass enhancement less than one percent, far below the threshold for the proposed neutron production and even farther below the mass enhancement obtained by Widom and Larsen assuming a high charge density. Neutrons are not stopped by the Coulomb barrier, but the energy required for the neutron production is not low.

  20. A possible method to produce a polarized antiproton beam at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinka, H.; Vaandering, E.W.; Hofmann, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    A feasible and conservative design for a medium energy polarized antiproton beam has been presented. The design requires an intense beam of unpolarized antiprotons (≥ 10 7 /sec) from a typical secondary beam line in order to achieve reasonable anti pp elastic scattering count rates. All three beam spin directions can be achieved. Methods were discussed to reverse the spin directions in modest times, and to change to a polarized proton beam if desired. It is expected that experiments with such a beam would have a profound effect on the understanding of the anti NN interaction at intermediate energies

  1. Statistical modeling in phenomenological description of electromagnetic cascade processes produced by high-energy gamma quanta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slowinski, B.

    1987-01-01

    A description of a simple phenomenological model of electromagnetic cascade process (ECP) initiated by high-energy gamma quanta in heavy absorbents is given. Within this model spatial structure and fluctuations of ionization losses of shower electrons and positrons are described. Concrete formulae have been obtained as a result of statistical analysis of experimental data from the xenon bubble chamber of ITEP (Moscow)

  2. Home installations for producing renewable energy: a comparison between France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poize, Noemie; Rudinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    While home installations are on a strongly rising trend in neighbouring countries like Germany and Denmark, such initiatives are having difficulty in taking off in France. The Iddri (Institute for sustainable development and international relations) and the RAEE (Rhone-Alpes regional agency for energy and environment) reckon that regulatory obstacles can be rapidly adjusted at minimal, or no cost, for the State. (authors)

  3. How gas producers can position themselves to take advantage of a deregulated energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of Norcen Energy Resource's finances, their production of oil, natural gas liquids (NGL) and gas, and their approach to marketing was provided in this poster presentation. Formerly owned power projects and current opportunities for Norcen were summarized. The potential role of natural gas in electrical restructuring, and some possible marketing strategies were highlighted

  4. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 3: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2015-02-01

    This is the third and final part of the three-part article written to describe the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process produced from various types of waste streams through mechanical treatment. This article focused the production of solid recovered fuel from municipal solid waste. The stream of municipal solid waste used here as an input waste material to produce solid recovered fuel is energy waste collected from households of municipality. This article presents the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process. These balances are based on the proximate as well as the ultimate analysis and the composition determination of various streams of material produced in a solid recovered fuel production plant. All the process streams are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for solid recovered fuel. The results of the mass balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 72% of the input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel; 2.6% as ferrous metal, 0.4% as non-ferrous metal, 11% was sorted as rejects material, 12% as fine faction and 2% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 86% of the total input energy content of input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel. The remaining percentage (14%) of the input energy was split into the streams of reject material, fine fraction and heavy fraction. The material balances of this process showed that mass fraction of paper and cardboard, plastic (soft) and wood recovered in the solid recovered fuel stream was 88%, 85% and 90%, respectively, of their input mass. A high mass fraction of rubber material, plastic (PVC-plastic) and inert (stone/rock and glass particles) was found in the reject material stream. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Energy dependence of the stopping power of MeV 16O ions in a laser-produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakumi, A.; Shibata, K.; Sato, R.; Tsubuku, K.; Nishimoto, T.; Hasegawa, J.; Ogawa, M.; Oguri, Y.; Katayama, T.

    2001-01-01

    The energy dependence of the stopping power of 16 O ions in a laser-produced plasma target was experimentally investigated in the projectile energy range of 150-350 keV/u. In order to produce the target plasma a Q-Switched Nd-glass laser was focused onto a small lithium hydride (LiH) pellet. The plasma electron temperature and the electron line density were 15 eV and 2x10 17 cm -2 , respectively. The energy loss of 16 O ions in the plasma was measured by a time-of-flight (TOF) method. We found that the stopping power in the plasma agreed with the theoretical estimation based on a modified Bohr equation with correction at low velocities. In this evaluation, the effective charge of the projectile was calculated by means of rate equations on the loss and capture of electrons. It has been also found that in this projectile energy range the stopping power of the 16 O ions in the plasma still increases with decreasing projectile energy, while it decreases in cold equivalent

  6. Observation of transient lattice vacancies produced during high-energy ion irradiation of Ni foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Hidetsugu; Iwai, Takeo; Awano, Misa; Kishida, Mutsumi; Katayama, Ichiro; Jeong, Sun-Chang; Ogawa, Hidemi; Sakamoto, Naoki; Komatsu, Masao; Itoh, Akio

    2007-01-01

    Real-time positron annihilation spectroscopy has been applied for the first time for the investigation of lattice vacancies produced during ion irradiation. Measurements were performed for thin nickel foils irradiated with 2.5 MeV C ions. Doppler broadenings of positron annihilation γ-rays were measured alternately during beam-on and beam-off conditions. It was found that the Doppler broadening line-shape parameter measured during irradiation is larger than those obtained before and after irradiation. This evidently implies that transient or non-survivable vacancy defects are produced during ion irradiation. On the other hand, no such significant change in the line-shape parameter was observed for other face-centred-cubic metal forms of aluminium

  7. Lower temperatures in cases with doors improve produce quality and safety with reduced energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Time-temperature control of fresh-cut produce at 41 °F (5 ºC) or less can significantly reduce the growth of human pathogens. Since 2009, the FDA Food Code has required that packaged ready-to-eat leafy greens be kept at 41 °F (5 ºC) or lower to minimize the potential of pathogen proliferation in the...

  8. Accelerator-based transmuter-breeder and energy producer from transuranic actinides and thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batskikh, G.I.; Fedotov, A.P.; Murin, B.P. [Moscow Radiotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    A concept of an accelerator-driven subcritical blanket with Pb or molten salt (heavy chloride) as the primary target, a graphite moderator-reflector to produce high-density thermal neutron fluxes and a fluid fuel carrying TUA actinides and Th-U, is being studied at MRTI. A driver is CW H{sup +}/H{sup {minus}} linac: 1 GeV, 200 mA, SIU-DTL-D&W structure energized by regotron as RF power supply.

  9. Photovoltaic generator. Estimate of the energy produced by neural networks; Generador fotovoltaico. Estimacion de la energia producida mediante redes neuronales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almonacid, F.; Rus, C.; Perez-Higueras, P.; Hontoria, L.

    2010-07-01

    Despite the great technological advances in photovoltaic and in particular in network-connected systems, efforts are still required in research, technological development and innovation (i + d + i) must be aimed primarily at addressing the different system parts. one aspect that can help achieve this goal is majorette estimation methods of energy produced by photovoltaic generators. There are a number of cases resulting in a decrease of the expected energy. In this paper we will compare a standard method widely used in the estimation of the power of the photovoltaic generator with another novel method, developed at the University of Jaen, based on artificial neural networks (ANN). (Author) 9 refs.

  10. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems as a Strategy for Predicting and Controling the Energy Produced from Renewable Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Elena Dragomir

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The challenge for our paper consists in controlling the performance of the future state of a microgrid with energy produced from renewable energy sources. The added value of this proposal consists in identifying the most used criteria, related to each modeling step, able to lead us to an optimal neural network forecasting tool. In order to underline the effects of users’ decision making on the forecasting performance, in the second part of the article, two Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS models are tested and evaluated. Several scenarios are built by changing: the prediction time horizon (Scenario 1 and the shape of membership functions (Scenario 2.

  11. Measurement of the energy loss of heavy ions in laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knobloch-Maas, Renate

    2009-11-25

    The interaction of ions with plasma is not yet fully understood today, although it is important for inertial fusion technology. During recent years, the energy loss of heavy ions in plasma has therefore been a subject of research in the Laser and Plasma Physics group of Darmstadt University of Technology. Several experiments were carried out at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt using laser-created plasma, thereby taking advantage of the unique combination of GSI's accelerator facility and the laser system nhelix, which is also described in this work. The experiments focus on the measurement of the energy loss of medium heavy ions in a plasma created by directly heating a thin carbon foil with the nhelix laser, at an energy of about 50 J. In order to measure the energy loss using a time-of-flight method, a stop detector is used to register the arrival of the ion pulses after passing the plasma and a 12 m drift space. At the beginning of the work on this thesis, the ion detector types formerly used were found to be inadequately suited to the difficult task; this was changed during this thesis. The ion detector has to be able to temporarily resolve ion pulses with a frequency of 108 MHz and a width (FWHM) of 3 ns at a very low current. It also has to withstand the X-ray burst from the plasma with a dead time shorter than the difference between the X-ray and the ion time of flight between the plasma and the detector. In order to satisfy these and other demands, a new diamond detector was designed and has now been used for several measurements. In addition to the new detector, other improvements were made concerning the diagnostics and the laser. The laser-created plasma now reaches a maximum temperature exceeding 200 eV and a free electron density of up to 10{sup 22} cm{sup -3}. With this greatly improved setup, energy loss data could be obtained with a temporal resolution several times better than before, using an ion beam with a

  12. Measurement of the energy loss of heavy ions in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knobloch-Maas, Renate

    2009-01-01

    The interaction of ions with plasma is not yet fully understood today, although it is important for inertial fusion technology. During recent years, the energy loss of heavy ions in plasma has therefore been a subject of research in the Laser and Plasma Physics group of Darmstadt University of Technology. Several experiments were carried out at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt using laser-created plasma, thereby taking advantage of the unique combination of GSI's accelerator facility and the laser system nhelix, which is also described in this work. The experiments focus on the measurement of the energy loss of medium heavy ions in a plasma created by directly heating a thin carbon foil with the nhelix laser, at an energy of about 50 J. In order to measure the energy loss using a time-of-flight method, a stop detector is used to register the arrival of the ion pulses after passing the plasma and a 12 m drift space. At the beginning of the work on this thesis, the ion detector types formerly used were found to be inadequately suited to the difficult task; this was changed during this thesis. The ion detector has to be able to temporarily resolve ion pulses with a frequency of 108 MHz and a width (FWHM) of 3 ns at a very low current. It also has to withstand the X-ray burst from the plasma with a dead time shorter than the difference between the X-ray and the ion time of flight between the plasma and the detector. In order to satisfy these and other demands, a new diamond detector was designed and has now been used for several measurements. In addition to the new detector, other improvements were made concerning the diagnostics and the laser. The laser-created plasma now reaches a maximum temperature exceeding 200 eV and a free electron density of up to 10 22 cm -3 . With this greatly improved setup, energy loss data could be obtained with a temporal resolution several times better than before, using an ion beam with a diameter of only

  13. Partial inelasticity coefficients of negative pions produced in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OLIMOV, K.; LUTPULLAEV, S.L.; PETROV, V.I.; OLIMOV, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    New experimental data on the partial inelasticity coefficients of negative pions produced in "1"6Op-collisions at 3.25 A GeV/s, pC-interactions at 4.2 and 9.9 GeV/s, and d,α,C(C)-collisions at 4.2 A GeV/s are presented. It is established that the behavior of partial inelasticity coefficients of pions at intermediate energies (<10 GeV) in hadron-nucleus collisions has a transitional character, reaching the limiting value at ultrahigh energies. It is shown that the mean values of partial inelasticity coefficients of pions produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions decrease with an increase in mass number of the projectile nucleus. (authors)

  14. High yield antibiotic producing mutants of Streptomyces erythreus induced by low energy ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen; Zhixin, Lin; Zuyao, Zou; Feng, Zhang; Duo, Liu; Xianghuai, Liu; Jianzhong, Tang; Weimin, Zhu; Bo, Huang

    1998-05-01

    Conidia of Streptomyces erythreus, an industrial microbe, were implanted by nitrogen ions with energy of 40-60 keV and fluence from 1 × 10 11 to 5 × 10 14 ions/cm 2. The logarithm value of survival fraction had good linear relationship with the logarithm value of fluence. Some mutants with a high yield of erythromycin were induced by ion implantation. The yield increment was correlated with the implantation fluence. Compared with the mutation results induced by ultraviolet rays, mutation effects of ion implantation were obvious having higher increasing erythromycin potency and wider mutation spectrum. The spores of Bacillus subtilis were implanted by arsenic ions with energy of 100 keV. The distribution of implanted ions was measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and calculated in theory. The mechanism of mutation induced by ion implantation was discussed.

  15. Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from an algae fractionation process for producing renewable diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegallapati, Ambica K.; Frank, Edward D.

    2016-09-01

    In one approach to algal biofuel production, lipids are extracted and converted to renewable diesel and non-lipid remnants are converted to biogas, which is used for renewable heat and power to support the process. Since biofuel economics benefit from increased fuel yield, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzed an alternative pathway that extracts lipids and also makes ethanol from carbohydrates in the biomass. In this paper, we examine the environmental sustainability of this "fractionation pathway" through life-cycle analysis (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions and energy use. When the feedstock productivity was 30 (18) g/m(2)/d, this pathway emitted 31 (36) gCO(2)e/MJ of total fuel, which is less than the emissions associated with conventional low sulfur petroleum diesel (96 gCO(2)e/MJ). The fractionation pathway performed well in this model despite the diversion of carbon to the ethanol fuel.

  16. Optical measurements of lateral energy flow and plasma motion in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.F.; Riffle, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    An optical system consisting of a telephoto lens and multi-image camera is described and the experimental results and their implications are presented. We will also describe the opto-electronic system that will measure the time history of the energy flow with sub-nanosecond resolution. The system will be useful to study both one- and two-dimensional geometries. The third optical diagnostic is a laser probe utilizing detection by the opto-electronic system mentioned above. This diagnostic measures plasma motion as well as energy flow. The laser probe and detection system mounts directly onto the target chamber at LASLs Gemini CO 2 laser, causing severe alignment and stability problems whose solutions will be shown

  17. Evaluation of the impact energy of the samples produced by the additive manufacturing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dobránsky

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article covered the evaluation of the impact energy, notch toughness and morphology of the fracture surfaces of the specimens manufactured by the Direct Metal Laser Sintering Technology. Specimens without heat treatment with no notch were not broken through in course of testing, therefore there was no fracture surface present. The heat treatment resulted in the increase in hardness values. The values of impact energy after the heat treatment was approximately 60 % lower. Ductile intergranular fracture with more or less segmented dimple morphology appeared in every specimen. At places where the internal plastic bond was resisting the test, cracks remaining after particles broke away from the surface can be seen as craters.

  18. Producing drinking water with the aid of waste heat or solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    A method developed in Finland for the production of drinking water is described. The energy required comes either from the waste heat of nuclear power plants or from solar installations. The method has been tested in a pilot plant with an output of 120 m/sup 3/ drinking water per day. The construction of plants with an output of 500 m/sup 3/ per day is still in the planning stage.

  19. A simple method to produce quasi-simultaneous multiple energy helium implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paszti, F.; Fried, M.; Manuaba, A.; Mezey, G.; Kotai, E.; Lohner, T.

    1982-11-01

    If a monoenergetic ion beam is bombarding a target through an absorber foil tilted continuously (i.e. its effective thickness changing continuously), the depth distribution of the implanted ions in the sample depends on the way the absorber is moving. The present paper describes a way of absorber tilting for obtaining a uniform depth distribution and its experimental verification in the case of MeV energy helium ions implanted into aluminium target. (author)

  20. Modeling of X-ray images and energy spectra produced by stepping lightning leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Xu , Wei; Marshall , Robert A.; Celestin , Sébastien; Pasko , Victor P.

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Recent ground-based measurements at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) have greatly improved our knowledge of the energetics, fluence, and evolution of X-ray emissions during natural cloud-to-ground (CG) and rocket-triggered lightning flashes. In this paper, using Monte Carlo simulations and the response matrix of unshielded detectors in the Thunderstorm Energetic Radiation Array (TERA), we calculate the energy spectra of X-rays as woul...

  1. Utilizing the energy from induced wind produce by highway vehicle motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abas Abd Wahab; Tong, C.W.

    2000-01-01

    A research work has been conducted at the Faculty of mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia to utilize energy from airflow induced by moving vehicles along the highway for advertising and signboard lighting. Series of data collections have been made at Km 20 Johor Bahru - Kuala Lumpur Plus Highway. Wind anemometer equipped with data recorder has been placed at the highway divider to measure the wind speed induced by the vehicles moving from Johor Bahru to Kuala Lumpur and vice versa. From the data analysis it has been found that the to and from Kuala Lumpur motion of the vehicles induced a stable and continuous source of airflow (wind) ranges from 2 to 4 m/s. The energy in this induced wind has been estimated and has the potential to be used for the above said purpose. Five design models have been tested in the Faculty of mechanical Engineering Low Speed Wind Tunnel and the twisted vertical blades with circular end covers has proven to be the most efficient and suitable. The optimum sizing of the vertical axis wind turbine has also been determined. The details of the collection of wind induced data and analysis, estimation of energy content, the vertical axis wind turbine models testing and results are presented in this paper. (Author)

  2. [Search for strange quark matter and antimatter produced in high energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the development and progress of our group's research program in high energy heavy ion physics. We are a subset of the Yale experimental high energy physics effort (YAUG group) who became interested in the physics of high energy heavy ions in 1988. Our interest began with the possibility of performing significant searches for strange quark matter. As we learned more about the subject and as we gained experimental experience through our participation in AGS experiment 814, our interests have broadened. Our program has focused on the study of new particles, including (but not exclusively) strange quark matter, and the high sensitivity measurement of other composite nuclear systems such as antinuclei and various light nuclei. The importance of measurements of the known, but rare, nuclear systems lies in the study of production mechanisms. A good understanding of the physics and phenomenology of rare composite particle production in essential for the interpretation of limits to strange quark matter searches. We believe that such studies will also be useful in probing the mechanisms involved in the collision process itself. We have been involved in the running and data analysis for AGS E814. We have also worked on the R ampersand D for AGS E864, which is an approved experiment designed to reach sensitivities where there will be a good chance of discovering strangelets or of setting significant limits on the parameters of strange quark matter

  3. Energy distribution of ions produced by laser ablation of silver in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toftmann, B.; Schou, J.; Canulescu, S.

    2013-01-01

    The ion energy in a silver ablation plume for fluence in the range of 0.6–2.4 J cm −2 , typical for a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) experiment has been investigated. In this fluence range the ion fraction of the ablated particles becomes gradually dominant and can be utilized to characterize the ablation process. A silver target in vacuum was irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 355 nm and detailed measurements of the time-resolved angular distribution of plume ions were made. In contrast to earlier work, the beam spot was circular such that any flip-over effect of the plume is avoided. The angular energy distribution of ions in forward direction exceeds values of 500 eV, while at large angles the ion energy tail is below 100 eV. The maximum for the time-of-flight distributions agrees consistently with the prediction of Anisimov's model in the low fluence range, in which hydrodynamic motion prevails.

  4. An innovative use of marine energies can economically produce fifteen per cent of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2013-12-01

    After having outlined some interesting characteristics and opportunities of marine energies, the author analyses the peculiarities of tidal energy, presents the different components of tidal power stations: tanks or basins, plants (horizontal bulb-turbines, orthogonal turbines). Then, he focuses on an innovative solution: tidal gardens which can be created as closed basins along the coast comprising channels equipped with tidal turbines, and sea walls. Performance of such an installation is assessed. Issues of production gain by pumping, of connection to the grid and energy storage are addressed. The construction modality is described. Visual impacts, impact on the environment, direct and indirect social-economic impacts are discussed. The issue of ship navigation is also addressed. The example of the Somme Bay is presented and assessed in terms of production, of costs (turbines, channels, main sea wall), of impacts, and of possible additional wind turbines. Other potential and more or less important sites in France, in Great-Britain, in India, Bangladesh and Korea, in America (Canada, Argentina, Brazil) and notably in Australia are identified and briefly assessed

  5. On the dependance of the ''normalized multiplicity'' of particles produced in proton-nucleus interactions on the primary energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babecki, J.

    1975-01-01

    The mean ''normalized multiplicities'' of particles produced in p-nucleus interactions: with the leading particles (R 1 ) and without them (R 2 ) were calculated from the emulsion data. The independence of R 2 of the primary energy E 0 were stated in very wide interval of E 0 from 6.2 to thousands of GeV. R 2 is approximately equal to the mean number of collisions of the primary particle in the nucleus. (author)

  6. Traveling-wave laser-produced-plasma energy source for photoionization laser pumping and lasers incorporating said

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Mark H.; Macklin, John J.; Harris, Stephen E.

    1989-09-26

    A traveling-wave, laser-produced-plasma, energy source used to obtain single-pass gain saturation of a photoionization pumped laser. A cylindrical lens is used to focus a pump laser beam to a long line on a target. Grooves are cut in the target to present a surface near normal to the incident beam and to reduce the area, and hence increase the intensity and efficiency, of plasma formation.

  7. Producing bio-pellets from sunflower oil cake for use as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuichi; Kato, Hitoshi; Kanai, Genta; Togashi, Tatsushi [National Agricultural Research Center (Japan)], E-mail: kobay@affrc.go.jp

    2008-07-01

    Pellet fuels were produced from ground sunflower oil cake using a pelletizer. The length, hardness, and powder characteristics of dried pellets depend on the initial water content of the oil cake. The appropriate values of water contents were 19.9 - 21.0% w.b. Oil cake pellets were found to contain 6.07% ash and 20.99 MJ/kg caloric value, which are within the standard range of wood pellets. Combustion experiments using a commercial pellet stove demonstrate that oil cake pellets burn as well as wood pellets. Oil cake pellets are useful as a fuel alternative to wood pellets. (author)

  8. Variability in fluence and spectrum of high-energy photon bursts produced by lightning leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Celestin , Sebastien; Xu , Wei; Pasko , Victor P.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we model the production and acceleration of thermal runaway electrons during negative corona flash stages of stepping lightning leaders and the corresponding terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) or negative cloud-to-ground (−CG) lightning-produced X-ray bursts in a unified fashion. We show how the source photon spectrum and fluence depend on the potential drop formed in the lightning leader tip region during corona flash and how the X-ray burst spectrum ...

  9. Can pions created in high-energy heavy-ion collisions produce a Centauro-type effect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinis, M.; Mikuta-Martinis, V.; Crnugelj, J.

    1995-01-01

    We study a Centauro-type phenomenon in high-energy heavy-ion collisions by assuming that pions are produced semiclassically both directly and in pairs through the isovector channel. The leading-particle effect and the factorization property of the scattering amplitude in the impact-parameter space are used to define the classical pion field. We show that the Centauro-type effect is strongly suppressed if a large number of pions are produced in isovector pairs. Our conclusion is supported through the calculation of two pion correlation parameters, f 2 0- and f 2 00 , as well as f 2, n - 0 and the average number of neutral pions (left-angle n 0 right-angle n- ) a a function of negative pions (n - ) produced

  10. Energy flow and transverse momentum of hadron jets produced in deep inelastic muon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubatti, H.J.

    1990-12-01

    Forward di-jet production observed in μp and μd interactions (Fermilab E665) is reported. The W 2 range studied, 100 2 2 , is the largest yet achieved. Results from separate analyses, one using only charged hadrons and the other using both charged and the neutral energy deposited in the EM calorimeter, are presented. Correlations with Σ|P T | ≅ E T , an event variable, are studied. An azimuthal asymmetry of the hadrons about the virtual photon is observed. 14 refs., 8 figs

  11. Comments on pulses of characteristic energy produced in solar flare detonations and its possible application to other astrophysical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, P.

    1977-01-01

    A qualitative discussion of physical conditions at neutral sheets was developed in an attempt to explain the repetitive pulsed energy-production mechanism, which has been suggested for solar flares. A characteristic energy per pulse appears to depend critically on the magnetic field strength and dipole length applied to a high temperature plasma, and seem to be regulated by discrete characteristic relative changes in the magnetic moment, following Syrovatskii's model. Discrete energy pulses are produced when neutral sheet thickness approaches to critical values, proportional to the characteristic relative changes in the magnetic moment. Repetition of pulses may occur in multi-sheet configurations as magnetically complex active centres, or at a single sheet where the total system energy change exceeds the critical conditions. The time-scale of the pulsed energy release may be explained by the tearing mode instability, and the repetition time-scale might be understood by the Sweet mechanism in limit conditions. The mechanism might have attractive applications in other high temperature astrophysical plasmas. An empirical relation is derived for pulses' energy prediction, in orders of magnitude, and some possible tests were suggested. An attempt was made to interpret soft γ-ray events of cosmic origin. (Auth.)

  12. Comments on pulses of characteristic energy produced in solar flare detonations and its possible application to other astrophysical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, P [Universidade Mackenzie, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Radio-Astronomia e Astrofisica

    1977-06-01

    A qualitative discussion of physical conditions at neutral sheets was developed in an attempt to explain the repetitive pulsed energy-production mechanism, which has been suggested for solar flares. A characteristic energy per pulse appears to depend critically on the magnetic field strength and dipole length applied to a high temperature plasma, and seem to be regulated by discrete characteristic relative changes in the magnetic moment, following Syrovatskii's model. Discrete energy pulses are produced when neutral sheet thickness approaches to critical values, proportional to the characteristic relative changes in the magnetic moment. Repetition of pulses may occur in multi-sheet configurations as magnetically complex active centres, or at a single sheet where the total system energy change exceeds the critical conditions. The time-scale of the pulsed energy release may be explained by the tearing mode instability, and the repetition time-scale might be understood by the Sweet mechanism in limit conditions. The mechanism might have attractive applications in other high temperature astrophysical plasmas. An empirical relation is derived for pulses' energy prediction, in orders of magnitude, and some possible tests were suggested. An attempt was made to interpret soft ..gamma..-ray events of cosmic origin.

  13. Oil and natural gas strategies for North American energy markets: a submission by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This proposal by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) focuses on improving North American energy markets and addressing the challenges involved in meeting continental energy requirements by urging a renewed policy effort to enhance the current market-based policies of free trade and competition that have already proven to respond to market changes better than command-control government policies. The proposal urges new strategies to support development of the oil and natural gas resources of North America, and the development of additional infrastructure to bring oil and natural gas supplies to market. The new strategy should be based on the success of free trade to increase non-discriminatory treatment of energy investment and trade in energy commodities, recognize resource development in North America as a policy priority, and reform regulatory practices to facilitate responsible, market-driven resource activity. The new strategy should also ensure competitive tax and royalty regimes as well as consistent and compatible environmental policies that eliminate layering and duplication and are competitive among the various jurisdictions. It should also recognize the continental and global nature of energy supply and the increasing interdependence of the partner nations' economies, encourage research and development, and ensure co-ordinated action on frontier natural gas development within a framework of inter-jurisdictional cooperation. Overall, the document is a thorough, credible presentation of the first principles of the oil and gas markets and an important first step towards influencing energy policy on a continental scale. 2 maps, 5 figs

  14. The Association of Petroleum Producers of Africa (APPA): an instrument of cooperation for the development of energy in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semassoussi, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    The role and contribution of the Association of Petroleum Producers of Africa (APPA) to the cooperative development of energy in Africa were described. APPA was created in Lagos in 1987 by eight founding countries, i.e. Algeria, Gabon, Libya, Nigeria, Angola, Benin, Cameroun and Congo. Since then, the Ivory Coast, Egypt, Zaire and Equatorial Guinea have joined APPA. The objectives of APPA are primarily technical. They are to promote amongst its members commercial strategies, an understanding of the energy needs of Africa, and technical collaboration to improve the national energy needs definition in Africa. Current petroleum and natural gas reserves and crude oil and refined products production for the African continent were also reviewed

  15. Dynamical and many-body correlation effects in the kinetic energy spectra of isotopes produced in nuclear multifragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, S. R.; Donangelo, R.; Lynch, W. G.; Tsang, M. B.

    2018-03-01

    The properties of the kinetic energy spectra of light isotopes produced in the breakup of a nuclear source and during the de-excitation of its products are examined. The initial stage, at which the hot fragments are created, is modeled by the statistical multifragmentation model, whereas the Weisskopf-Ewing evaporation treatment is adopted to describe the subsequent fragment de-excitation, as they follow their classical trajectories dictated by the Coulomb repulsion among them. The energy spectra obtained are compared to available experimental data. The influence of the fusion cross section entering into the evaporation treatment is investigated and its influence on the qualitative aspects of the energy spectra turns out to be small. Although these aspects can be fairly well described by the model, the underlying physics associated with the quantitative discrepancies remains to be understood.

  16. Evolution of pressures and correlations in the glasma produced in high energy nuclear collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, M.; Liu, J. H.; Oliva, L.; Peng, G. X.; Greco, V.

    2018-04-01

    We consider the SU(2) glasma with Gaussian fluctuations and study its evolution by means of classical Yang-Mills equations solved numerically on a lattice. Neglecting in this first study the longitudinal expansion, we follow the evolution of the pressures of the system and compute the effect of the fluctuations in the early stage up to t ≈2 fm /c , that is the time range in which the glasma is relevant for high energy collisions. We measure the ratio of the longitudinal over the transverse pressure, PL/PT, and we find that unless the fluctuations carry a substantial amount of the energy density at the initial time, they do not change significantly the evolution of PL/PT in the early stage and that the system remains quite anisotropic. We also measure the longitudinal fields correlators both in the transverse plane and along the longitudinal direction: while at initial time fields appear to be anticorrelated in the transverse plane, this anticorrelation disappears in the very early stage, and the correlation length in the transverse plane increases. On the other hand, we find a dependence of the gauge invariant correlator on the longitudinal coordinate, which we interpret as a partial loss of correlation induced by the dynamics that we dub the gauge invariant string breaking. We finally study the effect of fluctuations on the longitudinal correlations: we find that string breaking is accelerated by the fluctuations and waiting for a sufficiently long time fluctuations lead to the complete breaking of the color strings.

  17. Rural Alaska Coal Bed Methane: Application of New Technologies to Explore and Produce Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David O. Ogbe; Shirish L. Patil; Doug Reynolds

    2005-06-30

    The Petroleum Development Laboratory, University of Alaska Fairbanks prepared this report. The US Department of Energy NETL sponsored this project through the Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory (AETDL) of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. The financial support of the AETDL is gratefully acknowledged. We also acknowledge the co-operation from the other investigators, including James G. Clough of the State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys; Art Clark, Charles Barker and Ed Weeks of the USGS; Beth Mclean and Robert Fisk of the Bureau of Land Management. James Ferguson and David Ogbe carried out the pre-drilling economic analysis, and Doug Reynolds conducted post drilling economic analysis. We also acknowledge the support received from Eric Opstad of Elko International, LLC; Anchorage, Alaska who provided a comprehensive AFE (Authorization for Expenditure) for pilot well drilling and completion at Fort Yukon. This report was prepared by David Ogbe, Shirish Patil, Doug Reynolds, and Santanu Khataniar of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and James Clough of the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Survey. The following research assistants, Kanhaiyalal Patel, Amy Rodman, and Michael Olaniran worked on this project.

  18. Why is solar cycle 24 an inefficient producer of high-energy particle events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Rami; Raukunen, Osku; Tylka, Allan J.; Dietrich, William F.; Afanasiev, Alexandr

    2017-08-01

    Aims: The aim of the study is to investigate the reason for the low productivity of high-energy SEPs in the present solar cycle. Methods: We employ scaling laws derived from diffusive shock acceleration theory and simulation studies including proton-generated upstream Alfvén waves to find out how the changes observed in the long-term average properties of the erupting and ambient coronal and/or solar wind plasma would affect the ability of shocks to accelerate particles to the highest energies. Results: Provided that self-generated turbulence dominates particle transport around coronal shocks, it is found that the most crucial factors controlling the diffusive shock acceleration process are the number density of seed particles and the plasma density of the ambient medium. Assuming that suprathermal populations provide a fraction of the particles injected to shock acceleration in the corona, we show that the lack of most energetic particle events as well as the lack of low charge-to-mass ratio ion species in the present cycle can be understood as a result of the reduction of average coronal plasma and suprathermal densities in the present cycle over the previous one.

  19. World's third-largest producer of nuclear power. Japan in need of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Japan is the third largest oil consumer in the world behind the United States and China, and the second largest net importer of oil. Japan boasts one of the largest economies in the world. The country continues to experience a moderate economic recovery that began in 2003, following a decade of economic stagnation. Japan's real gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 2.5% in 2005 and 2.3% in 2004. The modest upturn over the last few years reflects higher business confidence in Japan, a surge in export demand led by exports to China, and robust consumer spending. Unemployment in Japan fell to 4.4% in 2005, down from an early 2003 peak of 5.5%. Japan has virtually no domestic oil or natural gas reserves, and in 2005 was the second largest net importer of crude oil in the world. Despite the country's dearth of hydrocarbon resources, Japanese companies have actively pursued upstream oil and natural gas projects overseas. Japan remains one of the major exporters of energy-sector capital equipment, and Japanese companies provide engineering, construction, and project management services for energy projects. (orig.)

  20. High solids emulsions produced by ultrasound as a function of energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Larissa; de Figueiredo Furtado, Guilherme; da Cunha, Rosiane Lopes; Hubinger, Míriam Dupas

    2017-09-01

    The use of emulsifying methods is frequently required before spray drying food ingredients, where using high concentration of solids increases the drying process yield. In this work, we used ultrasound to obtain kinetically stable palm oil-in-water emulsions with 30g solids/100g of emulsion. Sodium caseinate, maltodextrin and dried glucose syrup were used as stabilizing agents. Sonication time of 3, 7 and 11min were evaluated at power of 72, 105 and 148W (which represents 50%, 75% and 100% of power amplitude in relation to the nominal power of the equipment). Energy density required for each assay was calculated. Emulsions were characterized for droplets mean diameter and size distribution, optical microscopy, confocal microscopy, ζ-potential, creaming index (CI) and rheological behavior. Emulsions presented bimodal size distribution, with D [3,2] ranging from 0.7 to 1.4μm and CI between 5% and 12%, being these parameters inversely proportional to sonication time and power, but with a visual kinetically stabilization after the treatment at 148W at 7min sonication. D [3,2] showed to depend of energy density as a power function. Sonication presented as an effective method to be integrated to spray drying when emulsification is needed before the drying process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reconstruction of semileptonically decaying beauty hadrons produced in high energy pp collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciezarek, G. [Nikhef,Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lupato, A. [INFN Padova,Viale dell’Università, 2, 35020 Legnaro PD (Italy); Rotondo, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati,Via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati RM (Italy); Vesterinen, M. [Physicalisches Institute Heidelberg,Klaus-Tschira-Gebäude, Im Neuenheimer Feld 226, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-02-06

    It is well known that in b-hadron decays with a single unreconstructible final state particle, the decay kinematics can be solved up to a quadratic ambiguity, without any knowledge of the b-hadron momentum. We present a method to infer the momenta of b-hadrons produced in hadron collider experiments using information from their reconstructed flight vectors. Our method is strictly agnostic to the decay itself, which implies that it can be validated with control samples of topologically similar decays to fully reconstructible final states. A multivariate regression algorithm based on the flight information provides a b-hadron momentum estimate with a resolution of around 60% which is sufficient to select the correct solution to the quadratic equation in around 70% of cases. This will improve the ability of hadron collider experiments to make differential decay rate measurements with semileptonic b-hadron decays.

  2. Spin polarization of 34Al fragments produced by nucleon pickup at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turzo, K.; Himpe, P.; Borremans, D.; Mallion, S.; Neyens, G.; Vermeulen, N.; Yordanov, D.; Balabanski, D.L.; Belier, G.; Daugas, J.M.; Georgiev, G.; Oliveira de Santos, F.; Matea, I.; Stodel, Ch.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2006-01-01

    The polarization of 34 Al fragments, produced by single neutron pickup from a 9 Be target by a 36 S projectile at 77.5 MeV/nucleon, have been observed at GANIL via the detection of resonantly destroyed β-asymmetry. The reaction-induced polarization is deduced using a tentative spin/parity assignment for the 34 Al ground state. A positive polarization was measured near the peak of the 34 Al yield curve. A kinematical model based on the spectator-participant model for projectile fragmentation reactions has been extended in order to take into account the features of pickup reactions, i.e., the picked-up nucleon having an average momentum equal to the Fermi momentum and aligned along the incident beam direction. The trend-line in the observed spin-orientation is very well reproduced by this model

  3. Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol. Update 2010. Methodology for the calculation and recording of the amounts of energy produced from renewable sources in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Te Buck, S.; Van Keulen, B.; Bosselaar, L.; Gerlagh, T.; Skelton, T.

    2010-07-15

    This is the fifth, updated edition of the Dutch Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol. The protocol, compiled on behalf of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, can be considered as a policy document that provides a uniform calculation method for determining the amount of energy produced in the Netherlands in a renewable manner. Because all governments and organisations use the calculation methods described in this protocol, this makes it possible to monitor developments in this field well and consistently. The introduction of this protocol outlines the history and describes its set-up, validity and relationship with other similar documents and agreements. The Dutch Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol is compiled by NL Agency, and all relevant parties were given the chance to provide input. This has been incorporated as far as is possible. Statistics Netherlands (CBS) uses this protocol to calculate the amount of renewable energy produced in the Netherlands. These data are then used by the Ministry of Economic Affairs to gauge the realisation of policy objectives. In June 2009 the European Directive for energy from renewable sources was published with renewable energy targets for the Netherlands. This directive used a different calculation method - the gross energy end-use method - whilst the Dutch definition is based on the so-called substitution method. NL Agency was asked to add the calculation according to the gross end use method, although this is not clearly defined on a number of points. In describing the method, the unanswered questions become clear, as do, for example, the points the Netherlands should bring up in international discussions.

  4. Rhabdomyosarcoma cells show an energy producing anabolic metabolic phenotype compared with primary myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higashi Richard M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The functional status of a cell is expressed in its metabolic activity. We have applied stable isotope tracing methods to determine the differences in metabolic pathways in proliferating Rhabdomysarcoma cells (Rh30 and human primary myocytes in culture. Uniformly 13C-labeled glucose was used as a source molecule to follow the incorporation of 13C into more than 40 marker metabolites using NMR and GC-MS. These include metabolites that report on the activity of glycolysis, Krebs' cycle, pentose phosphate pathway and pyrimidine biosynthesis. Results The Rh30 cells proliferated faster than the myocytes. Major differences in flux through glycolysis were evident from incorporation of label into secreted lactate, which accounts for a substantial fraction of the glucose carbon utilized by the cells. Krebs' cycle activity as determined by 13C isotopomer distributions in glutamate, aspartate, malate and pyrimidine rings was considerably higher in the cancer cells than in the primary myocytes. Large differences were also evident in de novo biosynthesis of riboses in the free nucleotide pools, as well as entry of glucose carbon into the pyrimidine rings in the free nucleotide pool. Specific labeling patterns in these metabolites show the increased importance of anaplerotic reactions in the cancer cells to maintain the high demand for anabolic and energy metabolism compared with the slower growing primary myocytes. Serum-stimulated Rh30 cells showed higher degrees of labeling than serum starved cells, but they retained their characteristic anabolic metabolism profile. The myocytes showed evidence of de novo synthesis of glycogen, which was absent in the Rh30 cells. Conclusion The specific 13C isotopomer patterns showed that the major difference between the transformed and the primary cells is the shift from energy and maintenance metabolism in the myocytes toward increased energy and anabolic metabolism for proliferation in the Rh30 cells

  5. Energy distribution of ions produced by laser ablation of silver in vacuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Schou, Jørgen; Canulescu, Stela

    2013-01-01

    the ablation process. A silver target in vacuum was irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 355nm and detailed measurements of the time-resolved angular distribution of plume ions were made. In contrast to earlier work, the beam spot was circular such that any flip-over effect of the plume is avoided......The ion energy in a silver ablation plume for fluence in the range of 0.6–2.4Jcm−2, typical for a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) experiment has been investigated. In this fluence range the ion fraction of the ablated particles becomes gradually dominant and can be utilized to characterize...

  6. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 1: SRF produced from commercial and industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of a solid recovered fuel (SRF) production process. The SRF is produced from commercial and industrial waste (C&IW) through mechanical treatment (MT). In this work various streams of material produced in SRF production process are analyzed for their proximate and ultimate analysis. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. Here mass balance describes the overall mass flow of input waste material in the various output streams, whereas material balance describes the mass flow of components of input waste stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. A commercial scale experimental campaign was conducted on an MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&IW. All the process streams (input and output) produced in this MT plant were sampled and treated according to the CEN standard methods for SRF: EN 15442 and EN 15443. The results from the mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&IW material to MT waste sorting plant, 62% was recovered in the form of SRF, 4% as ferrous metal, 1% as non-ferrous metal and 21% was sorted out as reject material, 11.6% as fine fraction, and 0.4% as heavy fraction. The energy flow balance in various process streams of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&IW to MT plant, 75% energy was recovered in the form of SRF, 20% belonged to the reject material stream and rest 5% belonged with the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. In the material balances, mass fractions of plastic (soft), plastic (hard), paper and cardboard and wood recovered in the SRF stream were 88%, 70%, 72% and 60% respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC), rubber material and non

  7. Utilization of biogas produced by anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste: Energy, economic and environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hublin, Andrea; Schneider, Daniel Rolph; Džodan, Janko

    2014-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste is of significant interest in order to facilitate a sustainable development of energy supply. Using of material and energy potentials of agro-industrial waste, in the framework of technical, economic, and ecological possibilities, contributes in increasing the share of energy generated from renewable energy sources. The paper deals with the benefits arising from the utilization of biogas produced by co-digestion of whey and cow manure. The advantages of this process are the profitability of the plant and the convenience in realizing an anaerobic digestion plant to produce biogas that is enabled by the benefits from the sale of electric energy at favorable prices. Economic aspects are related to the capital cost (€ 2,250,000) of anaerobic digestion treatment in a biogas plant with a 300 kW power and 510 kW heating unit in a medium size farm (450 livestock units). Considering the optimum biogas yield of 20.7 dm(3) kg(-1) of wet substrate and methane content in the biogas obtained of 79%, the anaerobic process results in a daily methane production of 2,500 kg, with the maximum power generation of 2,160,000 kWh y(-1) and heat generation of 2,400,000 kWh y(-1) The net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period for implementation of profitable anaerobic digestion process is evaluated. Ecological aspects related to carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission reduction are assessed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Sneaker Male Squid Produce Long-lived Spermatozoa by Modulating Their Energy Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirohashi, Noritaka; Tamura-Nakano, Miwa; Nakaya, Fumio; Iida, Tomohiro; Iwata, Yoko

    2016-09-09

    Spermatozoa released by males should remain viable until fertilization. Hence, sperm longevity is governed by intrinsic and environmental factors in accordance with the male mating strategy. However, whether intraspecific variation of insemination modes can impact sperm longevity remains to be elucidated. In the squid Heterololigo bleekeri, male dimorphism (consort and sneaker) is linked to two discontinuous insemination modes that differ in place and time. Notably, only sneaker male spermatozoa inseminated long before egg spawning can be stored in the seminal receptacle. We found that sneaker spermatozoa exhibited greater persistence in fertilization competence and flagellar motility than consort ones because of a larger amount of flagellar glycogen. Sneaker spermatozoa also showed higher capacities in glucose uptake and lactate efflux. Lactic acidosis was considered to stabilize CO2-triggered self-clustering of sneaker spermatozoa, thus establishing hypoxia-induced metabolic changes and sperm survival. These results, together with comparative omics analyses, suggest that postcopulatory reproductive contexts define sperm longevity by modulating the inherent energy levels and metabolic pathways. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Sneaker Male Squid Produce Long-lived Spermatozoa by Modulating Their Energy Metabolism *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirohashi, Noritaka; Tamura-Nakano, Miwa; Nakaya, Fumio; Iida, Tomohiro; Iwata, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    Spermatozoa released by males should remain viable until fertilization. Hence, sperm longevity is governed by intrinsic and environmental factors in accordance with the male mating strategy. However, whether intraspecific variation of insemination modes can impact sperm longevity remains to be elucidated. In the squid Heterololigo bleekeri, male dimorphism (consort and sneaker) is linked to two discontinuous insemination modes that differ in place and time. Notably, only sneaker male spermatozoa inseminated long before egg spawning can be stored in the seminal receptacle. We found that sneaker spermatozoa exhibited greater persistence in fertilization competence and flagellar motility than consort ones because of a larger amount of flagellar glycogen. Sneaker spermatozoa also showed higher capacities in glucose uptake and lactate efflux. Lactic acidosis was considered to stabilize CO2-triggered self-clustering of sneaker spermatozoa, thus establishing hypoxia-induced metabolic changes and sperm survival. These results, together with comparative omics analyses, suggest that postcopulatory reproductive contexts define sperm longevity by modulating the inherent energy levels and metabolic pathways. PMID:27385589

  10. The biorefinery concept: Using biomass instead of oil for producing energy and chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    A great fraction of worldwide energy carriers and material products come from fossil fuel refinery. Because of the on-going price increase of fossil resources, their uncertain availability, and their environmental concerns, the feasibility of oil exploitation is predicted to decrease in the near future. Therefore, alternative solutions able to mitigate climate change and reduce the consumption of fossil fuels should be promoted. The replacement of oil with biomass as raw material for fuel and chemical production is an interesting option and is the driving force for the development of biorefinery complexes. In biorefinery, almost all the types of biomass feedstocks can be converted to different classes of biofuels and biochemicals through jointly applied conversion technologies. This paper provides a description of the emerging biorefinery concept, in comparison with the current oil refinery. The focus is on the state of the art in biofuel and biochemical production, as well as discussion of the most important biomass feedstocks, conversion technologies and final products. Through the integration of green chemistry into biorefineries, and the use of low environmental impact technologies, future sustainable production chains of biofuels and high value chemicals from biomass can be established. The aim of this bio-industry is to be competitive in the market and lead to the progressive replacement of oil refinery products. (author)

  11. Azimuthal asymmetries of charged hadrons produced in high-energy muon scattering off longitudinally polarised deuterons

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C; Akhunzyanov, R; Alexeev, M G; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Andrieux, V; Anfimov, N V; Anosov, V; Augsten, K; Augustyniak, W; Austregesilo, A; Azevedo, C D R; Badełek, B; Balestra, F; Ball, M; Barth, J; Beck, R; Bedfer, Y; Bernhard, J; Bicker, K; Bielert, E R; Birsa, R; Bodlak, M; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bressan, A; Buchele, M; Chang, W-C; Chatterjee, C; Chiosso, M; Choi, I; Chung, S-U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Curiel, Q; Dalla Torre, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Dhara, L; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Dreisbach, Ch; Duic, V; Dunnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Finger, M; Finger jr, M; Fischer, H; Franco, C; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Fuchey, E; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Giarra, J; Giordano, F; Gnesi, I; Gorzellik, M; Grabmuller, S; Grasso, A; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Grube, B; Grussenmeyer, T; Guskov, A; Haas, F; Hahne, D; Hamar, G; von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Heitz, R; Herrmann, F; Horikawa, N; d’Hose, N; Hsieh, C-Y; Huber, S; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, A; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jary, V; Joosten, R; Jorg, P; Kabuß, E; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Konigsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O M; Kramer, M; Kremser, P; Krinner, F; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kulinich, Y; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Kurjata, R P; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levillain, M; Levorato, S; Lian, Y-S; Lichtenstadt, J; Longo, R; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makins, N; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Marianski, B; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matousek, J; Matsuda, H; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G V; Meyer, M; Meyer, W; Mikhailov, Yu V; Mikhasenko, M; Mitrofanov, E; Mitrofanov, N; Miyachi, Y; Nagaytsev, A; Nerling, F; Neyret, D; Novy, J; Nowak, W-D; Nukazuka, G; Nunes, A S; Olshevsky, A G; Orlov, I; Ostrick, M; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Peng, J-C; Pereira, F; Pesek, M; Peshekhonov, D V; Pierre, N; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Regali, C; Reicherz, G; Riedl, C; Roskot, M; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Rybnikov, A; Rychter, A; Salac, R; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Santos, C; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sawada, T; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schmidt, K; Schmieden, H; Schonning, K; Seder, E; Selyunin, A; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sirtl, S; Slunecka, M; Smolik, J; Srnka, A; Steffen, D; Stolarski, M; Subrt, O; Sulc, M; Suzuki, H; Szabelski, A; Szameitat, T; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; Tasevsky, M; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Thibaud, F; Thiel, A; Tosello, F; Tskhay, V; Uhl, S; Veloso, J; Virius, M; Vondra, J; Wallner, S; Weisrock, T; Wilfert, M; ter Wolbeek, J; Zaremba, K; Zavada, P; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Zhuravlev, N; Ziembicki, M; Zink, A

    2016-01-01

    Single hadron azimuthal asymmetries in the cross sections of positive and negative hadron production in muon semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering off longitudinally polarised deuterons are determined using the 2006 COMPASS data and also all deuteron COMPASS data. For each hadron charge, the dependence of the azimuthal asymmetry on the hadron azimuthal angle $\\phi$ is obtained by means of a five-parameter fitting function that besides a $\\phi$-independent term includes four modulations predicted by theory: $\\sin\\phi$, $\\sin 2 \\phi$, $\\sin 3\\phi$ and $\\cos\\phi$. The amplitudes of the five terms have been first extracted for the data integrated over all kinematic variables. In further fits, the $\\phi$-dependence is determined as a function of one of three kinematic variables (Bjorken-$x$, fractional energy of virtual photon taken by the outgoing hadron and hadron transverse momentum), while disregarding the other two. Except the $\\phi$-independent term, all the modulation amplitudes are very small, and no cl...

  12. A New Battery Energy Storage Charging/Discharging Scheme for Wind Power Producers in Real-Time Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Y Nguyen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Under a deregulated environment, wind power producers are subject to many regulation costs due to the intermittence of natural resources and the accuracy limits of existing prediction tools. This paper addresses the operation (charging/discharging problem of battery energy storage installed in a wind generation system in order to improve the value of wind power in the real-time market. Depending on the prediction of market prices and the probabilistic information of wind generation, wind power producers can schedule the battery energy storage for the next day in order to maximize the profit. In addition, by taking into account the expenses of using batteries, the proposed charging/discharging scheme is able to avoid the detrimental operation of battery energy storage which can lead to a significant reduction of battery lifetime, i.e., uneconomical operation. The problem is formulated in a dynamic programming framework and solved by a dynamic programming backward algorithm. The proposed scheme is then applied to the study cases, and the results of simulation show its effectiveness.

  13. Silviculture and economic benefits of producing wood energy from conventional forestry systems and measures to mitigate negative impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, A.; Richardson, J.

    1995-01-01

    Activity ''Forest Energy Production'' focused on the development and evaluation, in the context of conventional forestry systems, silvicultural and forest management practices which optimise productivity for traditional products and wood for energy, while safeguarding the forest ecosystem. A series of meetings, workshops, and review papers involving the three participating countries of Canada, Sweden, and the United Kingdom were planned and completed. An additional workshop in Switzerland was also held. Increasing production of biomass for energy is generally found to be positive, from silvicultural, economic, and environmental perspectives. Eight specific forest management systems were investigated and/or reported: five conventional systems involving multiple products in softwood and mixed wood, and three hardwood systems emphasising production of biomass for energy. Modifications in silvercultural practice to also produce biomass for energy included increased opportunities for thinnings, intermediate cuttings, and stand and site rehabilitation as well as more flexible and efficient harvesting systems. Economic benefits accrued from increased investment in harvesting and burning technology, improvements in stand quality and site utilisation, and substitution for more expensive fuels, especially if all costs are considered. Environmental effects were found to be generally positive, but negative effects of nutrient and organic matter removal on the overall sustainability of specific systems are possible. These need to be addressed. Harvest and management guidelines are being designed and put into practice. Social, institutional, and technical barriers to the increased use of biomass for energy are being addressed by specific strategies and initiatives involving programs and incentives for production, market development, research and education. Net positive effects indicate increased use of forest biomass for energy, in the short and long term. (Abstract Truncated)

  14. Characterization and comparison of biomass produced from various sources: Suggestions for selection of pretreatment technologies in biomass-to-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Kung-Yuh; Chien, Kuang-Li; Lu, Cheng-Han

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Biomass with higher volatile matter content has a higher carbon conversion rate. ► Applying the suitable pretreatment techniques that will enhance the bioenergy yield. ► The ratio of H 2 O/fixed carbon is a critical factor for enhancing the energy conversion. -- Abstract: This study investigated the characteristics of 26 varieties of biomass produced from forestry, agriculture, municipality, and industry in Taiwan to test their applicability in thermal conversion technologies and evaluation of enhanced energy efficiency. Understanding the reactivity of the tested biomass, the cluster analysis was also used in this research to classify into characteristics groups of biomass. This research also evaluated the feasibility of energy application of tested biomass by comparing it to the physicochemical properties of various coals used in Taiwan’s power plants. The experimental results indicated that the volatile matter content of the all tested biomass was 60% and above. It can be concluded that the higher carbon conversion rate will occur in the thermal conversion process of all tested biomass. Based on the results of lower heating value (LHV) of MSW and non-hazardous industrial sludge, the LHV was lower than other tested biomass that was between 1000 and 1800 kcal/kg. This is due to the higher moisture content of MSW and sludge that resulted in the lower LHV. Besides, the LHV of other tested biomass and their derived fuels was similar to the tested coal. However, the energy densities of woody and agricultural waste were smaller than that of the coal because the bulky densities of woody and agricultural wastes were low. That is, the energy utilization efficiency of woody and agricultural waste was relatively low. To improve the energy density of tested biomass, appropriate pre-treatment technologies, such as shredding, pelletizing or torrefied technologies can be applied, that will enhance the energy utilization efficiency of all tested biomass.

  15. Misguided guidelines for managing labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Wayne R; Friedman, Emanuel A

    2015-06-01

    In a recent review we expressed concerns about new guidelines for the assessment and management of labor recommended jointly by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM). These guidelines are based heavily on a new concept of how cervical dilatation and fetal descent progress, derived from the work of Zhang et al. In their Viewpoint article they have addressed, but not allayed, the concerns we described in our review. We assert that the dilatation curve promulgated by Zhang et al cannot be reconciled with direct clinical observation. Even if they were correct, however, it still does not follow that the ACOG/SMFM guidelines should recommend replacing the coherent system of identifying and managing labor aberrations described by Friedman. That system is grounded in well-established clinical principles based on decades of use and the objectively documented association of some labor abnormalities with poor fetal and maternal outcomes. Recommendations for new clinical management protocols should require the demonstration of superior outcomes through extensive, preferably prospective, assessment. Using untested guidelines for the management of labor may adversely affect women and children. Even if those guidelines were to reduce the currently excessive cesarean delivery rate, the price of that benefit is likely to be a trade-off in harm to parturients and their offspring. The nature and degree of that harm needs to be documented before considering adoption of the guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. R and D versus confidence in a nuclear energy producing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellnou Barcelo, Josep

    2006-01-01

    The author, Mayor of Vandellos and L'Hospitalet de L'Infant in Spain, addressed the linkages of R and D and stakeholder confidence from the perspective of a mayor. His presentation drew on his experience as mayor of nuclear community in Vandellos and Hospitalet, Spain. The author began by reviewing the economic profile of his community and the chronology of the nuclear program in that area. In discussing factors influencing trust and confidence at the local level, it was noted that safety and security were key, (not negotiable). Economic development and prospects for the future were also seen as important pillars for building public confidence. Cutting across these areas, was a role for R and D and information. It was important to provide information to the public, and to communicate effectively around issues of risk and security. R and D plays a role in supporting these activities to generate confidence. There were active training and education initiatives for elected officials and citizens and other stakeholders, which included local participation in site visits. Education on matters of nuclear energy was provided, seminars and technical visits. The community participated in the COWAM project, to benefit from the exchange of information internationally. In addition, local information committees were created that play an important role in ensuring a flow of information to the general public. The local level has access to experts to support their activities. The presentation profiled the ways in which the municipality retains an active role in overseeing the decommissioning of the local nuclear plant. The presentation reviewed areas in which R and D provided linkages to future well-being of the municipality, through professional training, linkages with universities, promotion of culture and business and economic diversification. Research in social disciplines is found to be important in building confidence of the public

  17. Synergic and conflicting issues in planning underground use to produce energy in densely populated countries, as Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quattrocchi, Fedora; Boschi, Enzo; Spena, Angelo; Buttinelli, Mauro; Cantucci, Barbara; Procesi, Monia

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► In densely populated countries, the public need a synergic approach to produce low-carbon energy. ► The paper is mapping coexistent and different underground technologies to produce low-GHG energy. ► The paper calculate Energy Density Potential in Land – EDPL in terms of [GW h/ha/year]. ► Draw-plate technologies platforms (EU-ZEP, etc.) should merge using underground together. ► Synergies among the different uses of deep underground (up to 5000 m) jointing the energy lobbies. -- Abstract: In densely populated countries there is a growing and compelling need to use underground for different and possibly coexisting technologies to produce “low carbon” energy. These technologies include (i) clean coal combustion merged with CO 2 Capture and Storage (CCS); (ii) last-generation nuclear power or, in any case, safe nuclear wastes disposal, both “temporary” and “geological” somewhere in Europe (at least in one site): Nuclear wastes are not necessarily associated to nuclear power plants; (iii) safe natural gas (CH 4 ) reserves to allow consumption also when the foreign pipelines are less available or not available for geopolitical reasons and (iv) “low-space-consuming” renewables in terms of Energy Density Potential in Land (EDPL measured in [GW h/ha/year]) as geothermics. When geothermics is exploited as low enthalpy technology, the heat/cool production could be associated, where possible, to increased measures of “building efficiency”, low seismic risks building reworking and low-enthalpy heat managing. This is undispensable to build up “smart cities”. In any case the underground geological knowledge is prerequisite. All these technologies have been already proposed and defined by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Road Map 2009 as priorities for worldwide security: all need to use underground in a rational and safe manner. The underground is not renewable in most of case histories [10,11]. IEA recently matched and

  18. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse waste to produce energy and fertilizer; Anaerobitekniikka muuttaa teollisuuden orgaaniset jaetteet energiaksi ja lannoitteeksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, E.; Rintala, J.

    1999-07-01

    The concern over the re-use of organic wastes on ecological and economical lines is constantly increasing. Anaerobic digestion is gaining popularity as a means of organic waste management, for several reasons. Besides generating biogas for energy production, it also produces a stabilised byproduct with reduced pathogens and thus forms a valuable source of nutrients for agricultural crops. Our primary aim in this part of our work was to develop economically viable and ecologically feasible techniques for treating slaughterhouse waste. Biomethanation of one tonne of poultry slaughterhouse waste produced about 80-100 m{sup 3} of methane with 60-70% reduction in total solids. Ammonification of total organic nitrogen to ammonical nitrogen was about 60%. Evidently, the control of long chain fatty acids under anaerobic conditions is critical for fat-rich wastes. Preliminary assessment of the anaerobically digested poultry slaughterhouse waste confirms its potential as a source of organic fertilizer for agricultural use. (author)

  19. Applying Adaptive Agricultural Management & Industrial Ecology Principles to Produce Lower- Carbon Ethanol from California Energy Beets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiades, Anthy Maria

    The life cycle assessment of a proposed beet-to-ethanol pathway demonstrates how agricultural management and industrial ecology principles can be applied to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, minimize agrochemical inputs and waste, provide ecosystem services and yield a lower-carbon fuel from a highly land-use efficient, first-generation feedstock cultivated in California. Beets grown in California have unique potential as a biofuel feedstock. A mature agricultural product with well-developed supply chains, beet-sugar production in California has contracted over recent decades, leaving idle production capacity and forcing growers to seek other crops for use in rotation or find a new market for beets. California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) faces risk of steeply-rising compliance costs, as greenhouse gas reduction targets in the transportation sector were established assuming commercial volumes of lower-carbon fuels from second-generation feedstocks -- such as residues, waste, algae and cellulosic crops -- would be available by 2020. The expected shortfall of cellulosic ethanol has created an immediate need to develop lower-carbon fuels from readily available feedstocks using conventional conversion technologies. The life cycle carbon intensity of this ethanol pathway is less than 28 gCO2e/MJEthanol: a 72% reduction compared to gasoline and 19% lower than the most efficient corn ethanol pathway (34 gCO2e/MJ not including indirect land use change) approved under LCFS. The system relies primarily on waste-to-energy resources; nearly 18 gCO2e/MJ are avoided by using renewable heat and power generated from anaerobic digestion of fermentation stillage and gasification of orchard residues to meet 88% of the facility's steam demand. Co-products displace 2 gCO2e/MJ. Beet cultivation is the largest source of emissions, contributing 15 gCO 2e/MJ. The goal of the study is to explore opportunities to minimize carbon intensity of beet-ethanol and investigate the potential

  20. Spectral measurements of few-electron uranium ions produced and trapped in a high-energy electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of 2s l/2 -2p 3/2 electric dipole and 2p 1/2 -2p 3/2 magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions in U 82+ through U 89+ have been made with a high-resolution crystal spectrometer that recorded the line radiation from stationary ions produced and trapped in a high-energy electron beam ion trap. From the measurements we infer -39.21 ± 0.23 eV for the QED contribution to the 2s 1/2 -2p 3/2 transition energy of lithiumlike U 89+ . A comparison between our measurements and various computations illustrates the need for continued improvements in theoretical approaches for calculating the atomic structure of ions with two or more electrons in the L shell

  1. 40-Hz square-wave stimulation requires less energy to produce muscle contraction: compared with the TASER® X26 conducted energy weapon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeaux, James A; Jauchem, James R; Cox, D Duane; Crane, Carrie C; D'Andrea, John A

    2013-07-01

    Conducted energy weapons (CEWs) (including the Advanced TASER(®) X26 model produced by TASER International, Inc.) incapacitate individuals by causing muscle contractions. In this study using anesthetized swine, the potential incapacitating effect of primarily monophasic, 19-Hz voltage imposed by the commercial CEW was compared with the effect of voltages imposed by a laboratory device that created 40-Hz square waves. Forces of muscle contraction were measured with the use of strain gauges. Stimulation with 40-Hz square waves required less pulse energy than stimulation with the commercial CEW to produce similar muscle contraction. The square-pulse stimulation, at the higher repetition rate, caused a more complete tetanus at a lower energy. Use of such a simple shape of waveform may be used to make future nonlethal weapon devices more efficient. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  2. Radial focusing and energy compression of a laser-produced proton beam by a synchronous rf field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Ikegami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of a MeV laser-produced proton beam affected by a radio frequency (rf electric field has been studied. The proton beam was emitted normal to the rear surface of a thin polyimide target irradiated with an ultrashort pulsed laser with a power density of 4×10^{18}  W/cm^{2}. The energy spread was compressed to less than 11% at the full width at half maximum (FWHM by an rf field. Focusing and defocusing effects of the transverse direction were also observed. These effects were analyzed and reproduced by Monte Carlo simulations. The simulation results show that the transversely focused protons had a broad continuous spectrum, while the peaks in the proton spectrum were defocused. Based on this new information, we propose that elimination of the continuous energy component of laser-produced protons is possible by utilizing a focal length difference between the continuous spectral protons and the protons included in the spectral peak.

  3. Effective source size, radial, angular and energy spread of therapeutic 11C positron emitter beams produced by 12C fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeroni, Marta; Brahme, Anders

    2014-02-01

    The use of positron emitter light ion beams in combination with PET (Positron Emission Tomography) and PET-CT (Computed Tomography) imaging could significantly improve treatment verification and dose delivery imaging during radiation therapy. The present study is dedicated to the analysis of the beam quality in terms of the effective source size, as well as radial, angular and energy spread of the 11C ion beam produced by projectile fragmentation of a primary point monodirectional and monoenergetic 12C ion beam in a dedicated range shifter of different materials. This study was performed combining analytical methods describing the transport of particles in matter and the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT+. A high brilliance and production yield of 11C fragments with a small effective source size and emittance is best achieved with a decelerator made of two media: a first liquid hydrogen section of about 20 cm followed by a hydrogen rich section of variable length. The calculated intensity of the produced 11C ion beam ranges from about 5% to 8% of the primary 12C beam intensity depending on the exit energy and the acceptance of the beam transport system. The angular spread is lower than 1 degree for all the materials studied, but the brilliance of the beam is the highest with the proposed mixed decelerator.

  4. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 2: SRF produced from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the fraction of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) complicated and economically not feasible to sort out for recycling purposes is used to produce solid recovered fuel (SRF) through mechanical treatment (MT). The paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of this SRF production process. All the process streams (input and output) produced in MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&D waste are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for SRF. Proximate and ultimate analysis of these streams is performed and their composition is determined. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. By mass balance means the overall mass flow of input waste material stream in the various output streams and material balances mean the mass flow of components of input waste material stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. The results from mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&D waste material to MT waste sorting plant, 44% was recovered in the form of SRF, 5% as ferrous metal, 1% as non-ferrous metal, and 28% was sorted out as fine fraction, 18% as reject material and 4% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&D waste material to MT waste sorting plant, 74% was recovered in the form of SRF, 16% belonged to the reject material and rest 10% belonged to the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. From the material balances of this process, mass fractions of plastic (soft), paper and cardboard, wood and plastic (hard) recovered in the SRF stream were 84%, 82%, 72% and 68% respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC) and rubber material was found in the reject material

  5. Relationship between Statistical and Dynamical properties of fragments produced at Fermi Energy in Heavy ion collisions: ng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehaut, G.

    2009-10-01

    The properties of the fragments produced in heavy-ion collisions around the Fermi energy have been studied through the isospin degree of freedom. First, a theoretical approach based on a lattice gas model with two types of particles (neutron,proton) interacting by an isospin dependent and Coulomb interactions was developed. The study of the phase diagram shows that this system presents three different phases (liquid, gas, fission). In the liquid and gas phases, the energy of the system was described by a density functional, where the temperature dependence acts only on the density. The symmetry term of this functional was related to the isotopic content of the biggest fragment via an iso-scaling analysis. Secondly a systematic study of the stopping power of the nuclear matter and isospin equilibration of light particles in the most violent collisions was carried out using the experimental data taken by the INDRA multidetector at GANIL and GSI. Two stopping power regimes appear; at low energy (< 40 MeV/A) the stopping power decreases with increasing beam energy, whereas at high energy the stopping power is governed by the quantity of matter along the beam direction. An other study has been focused on the Xe+Sn reaction at 32 and 45 MeV/A with different isospin systems. The separation of three different reaction mechanisms by use of a principal component analysis allowed us to observe that the isospin content of light particles seems to be independent on the mechanism, but depends on the violence of the collision (i.e. impact parameter). (author)

  6. HIGH ENERGY NEUTRINOS PRODUCED IN THE ACCRETION DISKS BY NEUTRONS FROM NUCLEI DISINTEGRATED IN THE AGN JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarek, W., E-mail: bednar@uni.lodz.pl [Department of Astrophysics, The University of Lodz, 90-236 Lodz, ul. Pomorska 149/153 (Poland)

    2016-12-20

    We investigate the consequences of acceleration of nuclei in jets of active galaxies not far from the surface of an accretion disk. The nuclei can be accelerated in the re-connection regions in the jet and/or at the jet boundary, between the relativistic jet and its cocoon. It is shown that the relativistic nuclei can efficiently fragment onto specific nucleons in collisions with the disk radiation. Neutrons, directed toward the accretion disk, take a significant part of energy from the relativistic nuclei. These neutrons develop a cascade in the dense accretion disk. We calculate the neutrino spectra produced in such a hadronic cascade within the accretion disk. We propose that the neutrinos produced in such a scenario, from the whole population of super-massive black holes in active galaxies, can explain the extragalactic neutrino background recently measured by the IceCube neutrino detector, provided that a 5% fraction of galaxies have an active galactic nucleus and a few percent of neutrons reach the accretion disk. We predict that the neutrino signals in the present neutrino detectors, produced in terms of such a model, will not be detectable even from the nearby radio galaxies similar to M87.

  7. Produced Water Treatment Using Geothermal Energy from Oil and Gas Wells: An Appropriateness of Decommissioned Wells Index (ADWI) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaghadi, A.; Rifai, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of harnessing geothermal energy from retrofitted oil and gas decommissioned wells to power desalination units and overcome the produced water treatment energy barrier. Previous studies using heat transfer models have indicated that well depth, geothermal gradient, formation heat conductivity, and produced water salt levels were the most important constraints that affect the achievable volume of treated water. Thus, the challenge of identifying which wells would be best suited for retrofit as geothermal wells was addressed by defining an Appropriateness of Decommissioned Wells Index (ADWI) using a 25 km x 25 km grid over Texas. Heat transfer modeling combined with fuzzy logic methodology were used to estimate the ADWI at each grid cell using the scale of Very Poor, Poor, Average, Good and Excellent. Values for each of the four constraints were extracted from existing databases and were used to select 20 representative values that covered the full range of the data. A heat transfer model was run for all the 160,000 possible combination scenarios and the results were regressed to estimate weighting coefficients that indicate the relative effect of well depth, geothermal gradient, heat conductivity, and produced water salt levels on the volume of treated water in Texas. The results indicated that wells located in cells with ADWI of "Average", "Good" or "Excellent" can potentially deliver 35,000, 106,000, or 240,000 L/day of treated water, respectively. Almost 98% of the cells in the Granite Wash, 97% in Eagle Ford Shale, 90% in Haynesville Shale, 79% in Permian Basin, and 78% in Barnett Shale were identified as better than "Average" locations; whereas, south of the Eagle Ford, southwestern Permian Basin, and the center of Granite Wash were "Excellent". Importantly, most of the locations with better than "Average" ADWI are within drought prone agricultural regions that would benefit from this resilient source of clean water.

  8. Feasibility of producing a short, high energy s-band linear accelerator using a klystron power source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Devin; St Aubin, J; Fallone, B G; Steciw, S

    2013-04-01

    To use a finite-element method (FEM) model to study the feasibility of producing a short s-band (2.9985 GHz) waveguide capable of producing x-rays energies up to 10 MV, for applications in a linac-MR, as well as conventional radiotherapy. An existing waveguide FEM model developed by the authors' group is used to simulate replacing the magnetron power source with a klystron. Peak fields within the waveguide are compared with a published experimental threshold for electric breakdown. The RF fields in the first accelerating cavity are scaled, approximating the effect of modifications to the first coupling cavity. Electron trajectories are calculated within the RF fields, and the energy spectrum, beam current, and focal spot of the electron beam are analyzed. One electron spectrum is selected for Monte Carlo simulations and the resulting PDD compared to measurement. When the first cavity fields are scaled by a factor of 0.475, the peak magnitude of the electric fields within the waveguide are calculated to be 223.1 MV∕m, 29% lower than the published threshold for breakdown at this operating frequency. Maximum electron energy increased from 6.2 to 10.4 MeV, and beam current increased from 134 to 170 mA. The focal spot FWHM is decreased slightly from 0.07 to 0.05 mm, and the width of the energy spectrum increased slightly from 0.44 to 0.70 MeV. Monte Carlo results show dmax is at 2.15 cm for a 10 × 10 cm(2) field, compared with 2.3 cm for a Varian 10 MV linac, while the penumbral widths are 4.8 and 5.6 mm, respectively. The authors' simulation results show that a short, high-energy, s-band accelerator is feasible and electric breakdown is not expected to interfere with operation at these field strengths. With minor modifications to the first coupling cavity, all electron beam parameters are improved.

  9. Feasibility of producing a short, high energy s-band linear accelerator using a klystron power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baillie, Devin [Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Aubin, J. St. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Fallone, B. G. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Steciw, S. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: To use a finite-element method (FEM) model to study the feasibility of producing a short s-band (2.9985 GHz) waveguide capable of producing x-rays energies up to 10 MV, for applications in a linac-MR, as well as conventional radiotherapy. Methods: An existing waveguide FEM model developed by the authors' group is used to simulate replacing the magnetron power source with a klystron. Peak fields within the waveguide are compared with a published experimental threshold for electric breakdown. The RF fields in the first accelerating cavity are scaled, approximating the effect of modifications to the first coupling cavity. Electron trajectories are calculated within the RF fields, and the energy spectrum, beam current, and focal spot of the electron beam are analyzed. One electron spectrum is selected for Monte Carlo simulations and the resulting PDD compared to measurement. Results: When the first cavity fields are scaled by a factor of 0.475, the peak magnitude of the electric fields within the waveguide are calculated to be 223.1 MV/m, 29% lower than the published threshold for breakdown at this operating frequency. Maximum electron energy increased from 6.2 to 10.4 MeV, and beam current increased from 134 to 170 mA. The focal spot FWHM is decreased slightly from 0.07 to 0.05 mm, and the width of the energy spectrum increased slightly from 0.44 to 0.70 MeV. Monte Carlo results show d{sub max} is at 2.15 cm for a 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm{sup 2} field, compared with 2.3 cm for a Varian 10 MV linac, while the penumbral widths are 4.8 and 5.6 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The authors' simulation results show that a short, high-energy, s-band accelerator is feasible and electric breakdown is not expected to interfere with operation at these field strengths. With minor modifications to the first coupling cavity, all electron beam parameters are improved.

  10. Feasibility of producing a short, high energy s-band linear accelerator using a klystron power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillie, Devin; Aubin, J. St.; Fallone, B. G.; Steciw, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To use a finite-element method (FEM) model to study the feasibility of producing a short s-band (2.9985 GHz) waveguide capable of producing x-rays energies up to 10 MV, for applications in a linac-MR, as well as conventional radiotherapy. Methods: An existing waveguide FEM model developed by the authors' group is used to simulate replacing the magnetron power source with a klystron. Peak fields within the waveguide are compared with a published experimental threshold for electric breakdown. The RF fields in the first accelerating cavity are scaled, approximating the effect of modifications to the first coupling cavity. Electron trajectories are calculated within the RF fields, and the energy spectrum, beam current, and focal spot of the electron beam are analyzed. One electron spectrum is selected for Monte Carlo simulations and the resulting PDD compared to measurement. Results: When the first cavity fields are scaled by a factor of 0.475, the peak magnitude of the electric fields within the waveguide are calculated to be 223.1 MV/m, 29% lower than the published threshold for breakdown at this operating frequency. Maximum electron energy increased from 6.2 to 10.4 MeV, and beam current increased from 134 to 170 mA. The focal spot FWHM is decreased slightly from 0.07 to 0.05 mm, and the width of the energy spectrum increased slightly from 0.44 to 0.70 MeV. Monte Carlo results show d max is at 2.15 cm for a 10 × 10 cm 2 field, compared with 2.3 cm for a Varian 10 MV linac, while the penumbral widths are 4.8 and 5.6 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The authors' simulation results show that a short, high-energy, s-band accelerator is feasible and electric breakdown is not expected to interfere with operation at these field strengths. With minor modifications to the first coupling cavity, all electron beam parameters are improved.

  11. The study of quasi-projectiles produced in Ni+Ni and Ni+Au collisions: excitation energy and spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buta, A.

    2003-02-01

    During the collision between the projectile and the target nuclei in the intermediate energy regime (E < 100 MeV/nucleon) two excited nuclei are mainly observed in the exit channel, the quasi projectile (QP) and the quasi target. They disintegrate by particle emission. However, this binary picture is perturbed by the emission of particles and light fragments with velocities intermediate between the projectile velocity and the target one, all along the interaction (midrapidity component). This work aim to determine the excitation energy and the intrinsic angular momentum (or spin) of quasi-projectiles produced in the Ni+Ni and Ni+Au collisions at 52 and 90 MeV/nucleon. The excitation energy is deduced from the kinematical characteristics of particles emitted by the quasi-projectile. They have to be separated from midrapidity particles. Three different scenarios have been used for this purpose. The spin of the quasi-projectile has been extracted from the experimental data by mean of proton and alpha particles multiplicities emitted by the QP in the Ni+Au at 52 MeV/nucleon reaction. The results have been compared to the predictions of a theoretical model based on nucleon transfers. Their evolution is qualitatively reproduced as a function of the violence of the collision. (author)

  12. Anisotropy of energy losses in high-current Z-pinches produced by the implosion of cylindrical tungsten wire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, V. V.; Volkov, G. S.; Grabovski, E. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Lakhtyushko, N. I.; Medovshchikov, S. F.; Oleinik, G. M.; Svetlov, E. V.

    2014-02-01

    Results are presented from measurements of the anisotropy of energy losses in high-current Z-pinches produced by the implosion of wire arrays at the ANGARA-5-1 facility at load currents of up to 4MA. The energy losses were measured in the radial direction and along the pinch axis from the anode side. The main diagnostics were time-integrated thermocouple calorimeters, nanosecond X-ray diodes (XRDs) with different filters, and a foil radiation calorimeter with a time resolution of 2 μs. The azimuthal anisotropy of energy losses was measured for different wire array configurations and different shapes of the high-voltage electrode. The presence of strong initial azimuthal inhomogeneity of the wire mass distribution (sectioned arrays), as well as the use of conical electrodes instead of plane ones, does not increase the azimuthal inhomogeneity of the total energy losses. For cylindrical wire arrays, energy losses in the radial direction are compared with those along the pinch axis. According to XRD and calorimetric measurements, the radiation yield per unit solid angle along the pinch axis is two to three times lower than that in the radial direction. In the axial direction, the energy flux density of the expanding plasma is two to three times lower than the radiation intensity. The measured radiation yield across the pinch is 2.5-5 kJ/sr, while that along the pinch axis is 1-2 kJ/sr. The results obtained by means of XRDs agree to within measurement errors with those obtained using the radiation calorimeter. It is found that the energy per unit solid angle carried by the expanding plasma in the radial direction does not exceed 10% of the soft X-ray yield. Analysis of the structure of time-integrated pinhole images and signals from the radial and axial XRDs shows that radiation emitted in the radial direction from the hot central region of the pinch is partially screened by the less dense surrounding plasma halo, whereas radiation emitted in the axial direction is a

  13. Spectroscopy of reactive species produced by low-energy atmospheric-pressure plasma on conductive target material surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hiromasa; Sakakita, Hajime; Kato, Susumu; Kim, Jaeho; Kiyama, Satoru; Fujiwara, Masanori; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Okazaki, Toshiya; Ikehara, Sanae; Nakanishi, Hayao; Shimizu, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    A method for blood coagulation using low-energy atmospheric-pressure plasma (LEAPP) is confirmed as an alternative procedure to reduce tissue damage caused by heat. Blood coagulation using LEAPP behaves differently depending on working gas species; helium is more effective than argon in promoting fast coagulation. To analyse the difference in reactive species produced by helium and argon plasma, spectroscopic measurements were conducted without and with a target material. To compare emissions, blood coagulation experiments using LEAPP for both plasmas were performed under almost identical conditions. Although many kinds of reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals and excited nitrogen molecules were observed with similar intensity in both plasmas, intensities of nitrogen ion molecules and nitric oxide molecules were extremely strong in the helium plasma. It is considered that nitrogen ion molecules were mainly produced by penning ionization by helium metastable. Near the target, a significant increase in the emissions of reactive species is observed. There is a possibility that electron acceleration was induced in a local electric field formed on the surface. However, in argon plasma, emissions from nitrogen ion were not measured even near the target surface. These differences between the two plasmas may be producing the difference in blood coagulation behaviour. To control the surrounding gas of the plasma, a gas-component-controllable chamber was assembled. Filling the chamber with O 2 /He or N 2 /He gas mixtures selectively produces either reactive oxygen species or reactive nitrogen species. Through selective treatments, this chamber would be useful in studying the effects of specific reactive species on blood coagulation. (paper)

  14. Spectroscopy of reactive species produced by low-energy atmospheric-pressure plasma on conductive target material surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiromasa; Sakakita, Hajime; Kato, Susumu; Kim, Jaeho; Kiyama, Satoru; Fujiwara, Masanori; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Okazaki, Toshiya; Ikehara, Sanae; Nakanishi, Hayao; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Ikehara, Yuzuru

    2016-10-01

    A method for blood coagulation using low-energy atmospheric-pressure plasma (LEAPP) is confirmed as an alternative procedure to reduce tissue damage caused by heat. Blood coagulation using LEAPP behaves differently depending on working gas species; helium is more effective than argon in promoting fast coagulation. To analyse the difference in reactive species produced by helium and argon plasma, spectroscopic measurements were conducted without and with a target material. To compare emissions, blood coagulation experiments using LEAPP for both plasmas were performed under almost identical conditions. Although many kinds of reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals and excited nitrogen molecules were observed with similar intensity in both plasmas, intensities of nitrogen ion molecules and nitric oxide molecules were extremely strong in the helium plasma. It is considered that nitrogen ion molecules were mainly produced by penning ionization by helium metastable. Near the target, a significant increase in the emissions of reactive species is observed. There is a possibility that electron acceleration was induced in a local electric field formed on the surface. However, in argon plasma, emissions from nitrogen ion were not measured even near the target surface. These differences between the two plasmas may be producing the difference in blood coagulation behaviour. To control the surrounding gas of the plasma, a gas-component-controllable chamber was assembled. Filling the chamber with O2/He or N2/He gas mixtures selectively produces either reactive oxygen species or reactive nitrogen species. Through selective treatments, this chamber would be useful in studying the effects of specific reactive species on blood coagulation.

  15. Firm Type, Feed-in Tariff, and Wind Energy Investment in Germany : An Investigation of Decision Making Factors of Energy Producers Regarding Investing in Wind Energy Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Lone; Scholtens, Lambertus

    2017-01-01

    The development of renewable and sustainable energy is advanced by public financial support. This is particularly so in the German Energiewende, which seeks to replace nuclear and fossil electricity generation with wind, sun, and biomass. We study the impact of the (changes in the) feed-in tariff

  16. Inquiry on the valorisation of heat produced by methanization with co-generation in France. Energy and territory: Valorisation of heat produced by methanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazin, Florian; David, Laura; Heuraux, Thalie; Jeziorny, Thibaud; Massazza, Michael; Mosse, Noemie; Nguyen Dai, Kim Yen; Pruvost, Paul; Regimbart, Amelie; Rogee, Pierre-Emmanuel; Roy, Samuel; Segret, Emilien

    2014-01-01

    A leaflet first proposes graphs which illustrate the valorisation of heat produced by methanization with co-generation in France: material and methods, farm characterisation, plant sources, valorisation modes. The second document proposes detailed and discussed presentations of the various involved processes. Contributions address methanization as a whole, valorisation of heat produced by co-generation through heating of agricultural and domestic buildings or through digestate dehydration, digestate hygienisation, and other types of valorisation such as fodder drying, cereal drying, wood drying, compost drying, fabrication of rape seed, greenhouse crops, cultures of micro algae, and mushroom farming

  17. Electromagnetic cascades produced by gamma-quanta with the energy Eγ=100-3500 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slowinski, B.

    1990-01-01

    Fluctuations of the electron ionization loss (IL) in electromagnetic showers produced by gamma-quanta of energy E γ between 100 and 3500 MeV have been studied using pictures of the 180 l xenon bubble chamber of ITEP (Moscow). The distribution of the standard deviation σ A of the part A of the IL released along the shower axis and in its lateral direction was obtained and found to be approximately independent of Eγ at Eγ≥500 MeV when expressed as a fuction of A and normalized to maximum value of the σ A in the case of the lateral shower development. The relative spread of the average longitudinal and lateral e.m. shower dimensions are discussed too. 18 refs.; 4 figs

  18. An innovative and very promising use of tidal turbines. Tidal turbines can produce twenty per cent of the French electricity. An economic solution can produce 500 GW of tide energy. An innovative use of tidal turbines can produce 10 per cent of the World energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2013-01-01

    A set of articles outlines and describes the opportunities of energy production associated with the use of tidal turbines. Such a technological principle is very efficient in terms of costs but very few natural sea or river sites present favourable conditions, notably in terms of current speed. A first article addresses the peculiarities of sea tide energy, presents the different concepts and components of a sea tide power plant (tanks or basins, plants), describes the present use of tidal turbines, proposes a new solution (the 'Marelienne'), describes and assesses the integration into the grid and the energy storage, evokes the production gain obtained by pumping and the association with wind turbines, describes the construction mode, discusses the various impacts (visual impact, impacts on the environment, direct and indirect socio-economic impacts), discusses issues related to navigation, presents an example of production, costs and impacts (case of the Bay of Somme), evokes other potential areas in France (about the Chausey island and about the Re island), discusses the world potential, evokes other examples in Europe, in Asia, in America, Africa and Australia), indicates the global cost for the main sites, outlines technical and economic uncertainties. The same aspects and issues can be found in the other articles which outline that tidal turbines can produce twenty per cent of the French electricity, that an economic solution can produce 500 GW of tide energy, and that an innovative use of tidal turbines can produce 10 per cent of the World energy

  19. Effect of Caffeine Contained in Sports Drink on Hormones Producing Energy Following Sprint Test Performance in Male Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fayiz Abumoh'd

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of caffeine contained in sports drink on hormones producing energy and sprint test performance in male soccer players. Twelve participants (25.97 ± 2.70 y performed the test under thre e conditions (one week apart: caffeine with sports drink (SD-CAF, sports drink (SD, and placebo (PLA. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover protocol, participants performed SD-CAF trial (5 mg/kg of caffeine contained in 300 ml of sports drink 30 minutes prior to sprinting test (7 × 30 m, SD trial (solely 300 ml of sports drink 30 minutes prior to sprinting test, or placebo. Blood analysis indicated significantly higher level of free thyroxine in SD-CAF (21.450 ± 3.048 compared to SD (18.742 ± 1.151 and PLA (16.983 ± 1.783. Similar findings existed regarding insulin (P 0.05. No significant differences were observed between trials in first–fourth repetitions (P > 0.05. Time of fifth-seventh repetitions were significantly lower in SD-CAF compared to SD and PLA (P < 0.05, and were significantly lower in SD than that in PLA (P < 0.05. The time of 7th repetition was (4.331 ± 0.210, 4.610 ± 0.197, 4.81 6 ± 0.171 s for SD-CAF, SD, and PLA, respectively; P < 0.05. In conclusion, caffeine interferes hormones that are responsible for producing energy which in turn have a positive effect on repeated sprint bouts.

  20. Attributing impacts to emissions traced to major fossil energy and cement producers over specific historical time periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwurzel, B.; Frumhoff, P. C.; Allen, M. R.; Boneham, J.; Heede, R.; Dalton, M. W.; Licker, R.

    2017-12-01

    Given the progress in climate change attribution research over the last decade, attribution studies can inform policymakers guided by the UNFCCC principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities." Historically this has primarily focused on nations, yet requests for information on the relative role of the fossil energy sector are growing. We present an approach that relies on annual CH4 and CO2 emissions from production through to the sale of products from the largest industrial fossil fuel and cement production company records from the mid-nineteenth century to present (Heede 2014). Analysis of the global trends with all the natural and human drivers compared with a scenario without the emissions traced to major carbon producers over full historical versus select periods of recent history can be policy relevant. This approach can be applied with simple climate models and earth system models depending on the type of climate impacts being investigated. For example, results from a simple climate model, using best estimate parameters and emissions traced to 90 largest carbon producers, illustrate the relative difference in global mean surface temperature increase over 1880-2010 after removing these emissions from 1980-2010 (29-35%) compared with removing these emissions over 1880-2010 (42-50%). The changing relative contributions from the largest climate drivers can be important to help assess the changing risks for stakeholders adapting to and reducing exposure and vulnerability to regional climate change impacts.

  1. The role played by stakeholders in the public debate that brought Italy out of the club of nuclear energy producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantone, Marie Claire; Sturloni, Giancarlo; Brunelli, Giancarlo

    2007-10-01

    In 1964, Italy was the fourth largest world producer of electricity generated by nuclear reactors, second in Europe only to United Kingdom. In subsequent years, various controversial political events contributed towards drastically slowing down the development of the Italian national nuclear program. The 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, which caused a public outcry all over Europe, had particularly serious repercussions in Italy. In a controversial referendum, held in November 1987, Italian citizens voted to repeal three laws promoting the installation of nuclear power plants (NPP) on Italian soil and allowing the National Institute for Electrical Energy (ENEL) to participate in the construction of NPP's abroad. This work analyzes the reasons for that decision and the communication strategies of the stakeholders that took part in the public debate on nuclear energy during the weeks following the Chernobyl accident. Drawing from the methodologies used in media studies, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of two leading Italian newspapers was performed. The results reveal that a variety of stakeholders, upholding different values and interests, took part in the debate. There being no tradition of a public dialogue and participation in Italy, the debate was polarized to a "yes/no choice," which eventually caused Italy to abandon the production of nuclear power for civilian use.

  2. Exergetic and exergoeconomic analysis of a novel hybrid solar–geothermal polygeneration system producing energy and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, Francesco; D’Accadia, Massimo Dentice; Macaluso, Adriano; Piacentino, Antonio; Vanoli, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergetic and exergoeconomic analysis of hybrid renewable system is presented. • The system provides electric, thermal and cooling energy and desalinated water. • Exergy efficiency varies between 40–50% in the winter and 16–20% in the summer. • Electricity and fresh water costs vary between 15–17 and 57–60 c€/kW h_e_x. • Chilled and hot water costs vary between 18.6–18.9 and 1.6–1.7 c€/kW h_e_x. - Abstract: A dynamic simulation model of a novel solar–geothermal polygeneration system and the related exergetic and exergoeconomic analyses are presented in this paper. The plant is designed in order to supply electrical, thermal and cooling energy and fresh water for a small community, connected to a district heating and cooling network. The hybrid system is equipped with an Organic Rankine Cycle fueled by medium-enthalpy geothermal energy and by a Parabolic Trough Collector solar field. Geothermal brine is also used for space heating and cooling purposes. Finally, geothermal fluid supplies heat to a Multi-Effect Distillation unit, producing also desalinized water from seawater. Dynamic simulations were performed in order to design the system. The overall simulation model, implemented in TRNSYS environment, includes detailed algorithms for the simulation of system components. Detailed control strategies were included in the model in order to properly manage the system. An exergetic and exergoeconomic analysis is also implemented. The exergetic analysis allows to identify all the aspects that affect the global exergy efficiency, in order to suggest possible system enhancements. The accounting of exergoeconomic costs aims at establishing a monetary value to all material and energy flows, then providing a reasonable basis for price allocation. The analysis is applied to integral values of energy and a comparison of results between summer and winter season is performed. Results are analyzed on different time bases presenting

  3. Thermal energy of nuclear origin produced in non-fissile materials (1962); Energie calorifique d'origine nucleaire degagee dans les materiaux non fissiles (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naudet, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Millies, P; Berger, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    A first part is devoted to the description of the interaction phenomena between elementary particles and material that may be observed during the irradiation process in a nuclear reactor: nuclear reactions due to neutrons, production of gamma rays and absorption of those gamma rays through various processes. In a second part the phenomena producing calorific energy in irradiated material are quantitatively examined. In the third part results are summed up in a formulary. The fourth part presents tables and figures giving to the reader all the numerical values necessary for practical calculations. (authors) [French] Une premiere partie est consacree a l'examen des principaux phenomenes d'interaction des particules avec la matiere qui interviennent lors d'une irradiation dans un reacteur: reactions nucleaires dues aux neutrons, production des rayons gamma et absorption de ces derniers par les divers processus. Une deuxieme partie etudie quantitativement les phenomenes qui conduisent a l'apparition d'energie calorifique dans le materiau irradie. En troisieme partie, un formulaire resume les resultats etablis. Dans une quatrieme partie, des tableaux et des courbes fournissent a l'experimentateur toutes les valeurs numeriques necessaires aux calculs pratiques. (auteurs)

  4. γ-Oryzanol nanoemulsions produced by a low-energy emulsification method: an evaluation of process parameters and physicochemical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jinfeng; Liu, Xiong; Wang, Yonghua; Qin, Xiaoli; Li, Zeling

    2017-06-21

    γ-Oryzanol is a natural antioxidant and nutraceutical compound, which makes it a good candidate for nutraceuticals, food supplements and pharmaceutical preparations. However, the incorporation of γ-oryzanol into aqueous formulations is rather difficult and its bioavailability can be severely decreased because of its water-insoluble property. In this study, γ-oryzanol-enriched nanoemulsion based fish oil and medium-chain triglyceride as carrier oils were proposed. The main objective was to optimize process parameters to form stable nanoemulsions and evaluate their physicochemical stability. The formulations of stable γ-oryzanol nanoemulsions were composed of 10% mixed carrier oils (weight ratio of fish oil to medium-chain triglyceride = 3 : 7) and 10% mixed surfactants (weight ratio of Tween 80 to Span 20 = 3 : 1). The nanoemulsions were stable at a broad pH range of 2-7 and high salt concentrations (≤0.8 mol L -1 ) and sucrose levels (≤16%). The nanoemulsions were much more stable at heating temperatures below 50 °C than at elevated heating temperatures (60 and 70 °C). The nanoemulsions maintained their physical stability at various storage temperatures (5-37 °C) for 18 days. Nanoemulsions at 5 and 23 °C had lower peroxide values and anisidine values than those at an elevated storage temperature (37 °C). These results demonstrate that the low-energy emulsification method can produce γ-oryzanol-enriched nanoemulsions using fish oil and medium-chain triglyceride as carrier oils, and provide useful information for producing bioactive lipids-loaded nanoemulsions for food systems, personal care and pharmaceutical products.

  5. On different experimental behaviour of fast secondary particles produced in 12C interactions at relativistic energies as studied with radiochemistry and in a propane chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakov, B.A.; Karachuk, J.; Gelovani, L.K.; Gridnev, T.G.; Sosnin, A.N.; Brandt, R.

    1998-01-01

    Energetic secondary fragments produced in the interaction of (41-44) GeV 12 C ions with copper exhibit experimentally a broader angular distribution as compared to energetic secondary fragments produced in the interactions at a lower 12 C-energy (15-25) GeV when studied with radiochemical techniques. Such a different experimental behaviour of secondary fragments produced by 12 C ions of the same two energy groups is not observed, when these secondary fragments are investigated with a propane bubble chamber. Separation of secondary particles is described

  6. Evaluation of internal and external doses from $^{11}C$ produced in the air in high energy proton accelerator tunnels

    CERN Document Server

    Endo, A; Kanda, Y; Oishi, T; Kondo, K

    2001-01-01

    Air has been irradiated with high energy protons at the 12 GeV proton synchrotron to obtain the following parameters essential for the internal dose evaluation from airborne /sup 11/C produced through nuclear spallation reactions: the abundance of gaseous and particulate /sup 11/C, chemical forms, and particle size distribution. It was found that more than 98% of /sup 11/C is present as gas and the rest is aerosol. The gaseous components were only /sup 11/CO and /sup 11/CO/sub 2/ and their proportions were approximately 80% and 20%, respectively. The particulate /sup 11/C was found to be sulphate and/or nitrate aerosols having a log-normal size distribution; the measurement using a diffusion battery showed a geometric mean radius of 0.035 mu m and a geometric standard deviation of 1.8 at a beam intensity of 6.8*10/sup 11/ proton.pulse /sup -1/ and an irradiation time of 9.6 min. By taking the chemical composition and particle size into account, effective doses both from internal and from external exposures pe...

  7. K$^{-}$ over K$^{+}$ multiplicity ratio for kaons produced in DIS with a large fraction of the virtual-photon energy

    CERN Document Server

    Akhunzyanov, R.; The COMPASS collaboration; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anfimov, N.V.; Anosov, V.; Antoshkin, A.; Augsten, K.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, M.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bodlak, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtsev, V.E.; Capozza, L.; Chang, W.-C.; Chatterjee, C.; Chiosso, M.; Chumakov, A.G.; Chung, S.-U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Dreisbach, Ch.; Dünnweber, W.; Dusaev, R.R.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; jr., M.Finger; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giarra, J.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grasso, A.; Gridin, A.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Guskov, A.; Hahne, D.; Hamar, G.; von Harrach, D.; Heitz, R.; Herrmann, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jary, V.; Joosten, R.; Jörg, P.; Kabuß, E.; Kerbizi, A.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.M.; Kral, Z.; Krämer, M.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kulinich, Y.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Kuznetsov, I.I.; Kveton, A.; Lednev, A.A.; Levchenko, E.A.; Levorato, S.; Lian, Y.-S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Lyubovitskij, V.E.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Mamon, S.A.; Marchand, C.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matoušek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.V.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, W.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Mitrofanov, E.; Mitrofanov, N.; Miyachi, Y.; Moretti, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nový, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, F.; Pesaro, G.; Pešek, M.; Pešková, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Pierre, N.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rybnikov, A.; Rychter, A.; Salac, R.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sawada, T.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmieden, H.; Seder, E.; Selyunin, A.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Smolik, J.; Srnka, A.; Steffen, D.; Stolarski, M.; Subrt, O.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thiel, A.; Tomsa, J.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Vasilishin, B.I.; Vauth, A.; Veit, B.M.; Veloso, J.; Vidon, A.; Virius, M.; Wallner, S.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Zaremba, K.; Zavada, P.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N.; Ziembicki, M.

    2018-01-01

    The K$^{-}$ over K$^{+}$ multiplicity ratio is measured in deep-inelastic scattering, for the first time for kaons carrying a large fraction $z$ of the virtual-photon energy. The data were obtained by the COMPASS collaboration using a 160 GeV muon beam and an isoscalar $^6$LiD target. The regime of deep-inelastic scattering is ensured by requiring $Q^2>1$ (GeV/$c)^2$ for the photon virtuality and $W>5$ GeV/$c^2$ for the invariant mass of the produced hadronic system. Kaons are identified in the momentum range from 12 GeV/$c$ to 40 GeV/$c$, thereby restricting the range in Bjorken-$x$ to $0.010.75$. For very large values of $z$, $i.e.$ $z>0.8$, the results contradict expectations obtained using the formalism of (next-to-)leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics. This may imply that cross-section factorisation or/and universality of (kaon) fragmentation functions do not hold. Our studies suggest that within this formalism an additional correction may be required, which takes into account th...

  8. The RaDIATE High-Energy Proton Materials Irradiation Experiment at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammigan, Kavin; et al.

    2017-05-01

    The RaDIATE collaboration (Radiation Damage In Accelerator Target Environments) was founded in 2012 to bring together the high-energy accelerator target and nuclear materials communities to address the challenging issue of radiation damage effects in beam-intercepting materials. Success of current and future high intensity accelerator target facilities requires a fundamental understanding of these effects including measurement of materials property data. Toward this goal, the RaDIATE collaboration organized and carried out a materials irradiation run at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer facility (BLIP). The experiment utilized a 181 MeV proton beam to irradiate several capsules, each containing many candidate material samples for various accelerator components. Materials included various grades/alloys of beryllium, graphite, silicon, iridium, titanium, TZM, CuCrZr, and aluminum. Attainable peak damage from an 8-week irradiation run ranges from 0.03 DPA (Be) to 7 DPA (Ir). Helium production is expected to range from 5 appm/DPA (Ir) to 3,000 appm/DPA (Be). The motivation, experimental parameters, as well as the post-irradiation examination plans of this experiment are described.

  9. Finnish farmers' willingness to produce and supply biomass from energy crops and forest residues. A survey of landowners' attitudes and intentions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raemoe, A.-K.; Latvala, T. (Pellervo Economic Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland)), Email: anna-kaisa.ramo@ptt.fi; Silvennoinen, H. (Univ. of Joensuu (Finland)), Email: harri.silvennoinen@joensuu.fi

    2009-07-01

    According to EU's Climate and Energy Plan Finland is obliged to increase the proportion of renewable energy sources considerably by the year 2020. The obligation is challenging and requires among others a considerably increased use of biomass. Besides wood energy crop production provides a considerable potential as energy source in Finland. Farmer forest owners are one of the key groups regarding the supply of field energy crops and energy wood in Finland. Basically, farmers have a positive attitude towards the production of field energy crops and energy wood. Their interest in bio-energy related entrepreneurship has also increased in recent years. However, farmers do not find the business environment of biomass production satisfactory. Still the results indicate that the number of field crop producers would at least double by the year 2012. The increase is, however, considerably less than the estimated potential of recent scenarios. The results also imply that famer forest owners have not any intentions to increase their energy wood supplies in the next few years. This is mainly due to undeveloped energy wood markets and unsatisfactory energy wood prices. In order to enhance the biomass production and supply, both field energy crop and energy wood markets and extension need to be improved to meet farmers' needs. (orig.)

  10. The influence of a Renewable Energy Feed in Tariff on the decision to produce biomass crops in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clancy, D.; Breen, J.P.; Thorne, F.; Wallace, M.

    2012-01-01

    A target of 30 per cent substitution of biomass for peat in the three peat fired power stations from 2015 has been set by the Irish Government. However, a knowledge gap exists on the extent to which Irish farmers would actually choose to grow these crops. An extension of the Renewable Energy Feed in Tariff (REFIT) scheme to include the co-firing of biomass with peat in electricity generation would enable the power stations to enter into Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs). These offer a fixed price to farmers for biomass feedstock. The decision to adopt biomass is represented as a constrained problem under certainty with the objective of profit maximisation. The results showed that the price offered under a PPA has a large effect on the economic returns from biomass crops. The price that the power stations previously estimated they would be able to pay, at €46 and €48 per tonne for willow and miscanthus, respectively, was used as a starting point. At this price the number of farmers who would choose to adopt biomass production is insufficient to achieve the national co-firing target. The target could be achieved at €70 and €65 per tonne for willow and miscanthus, respectively. - Highlights: ► We model the decision of Irish farmers to produce biomass crops. ► Current prices will lead to insufficient adoption to achieve policy targets. ► REFIT mechanism can succeed in meeting policy goals. ► Willow prices need to increase by approximately 27 per cent. ► Miscanthus prices need to increase by approximately 8 per cent.

  11. Effects of Prepartum Monensin Feeding on Energy Metabolism and Reproductive Performance of Postpartum High-Producing Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Changizi Mohammadi, Abbas Rowshan Ghasrodashti1, Amin Tamadon2,3 and Mohammad Amin Behzadi4*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of monensin in preparturient diet on postpartum milk production, energy metabolism, and reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows. Forty Holstein dairy cows on close-up period were randomly divided into monensin treated (300 mg/day in close-up ration, top dress and control groups. Body condition score (BCS was estimated three weeks before and three weeks after calving. Milk production and milk fat percentage were recorded in both groups within 3 weeks postpartum. Blood samples were collected from five randomly selected cows of each group three weeks after calving. Serum concentrations of insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I, insulin, glucose, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA were measured. Calving to the first observed estrus interval and calving to conception interval were compared between two groups. The results of the experiment showed that loss of BCS (P=0.3, increase of milk production (P=0.9, and milk fat percentage (P>0.05 were not significantly different between two groups during the period of study. In addition, mean serum glucose concentration (P=0.001 and serum insulin concentration (P=0.01 in monensin group were significantly higher than control cows in the first week postpartum. Moreover, serum BHBA concentration did not significantly change in monensin group. Serum IGF-I concentration in monensin group was significantly higher than control group in three weeks postpartum (P<0.01. The present study indicated that monensin treatment decreased calving to the first observed estrus interval (P=0.05 and calving to conception interval (P=0.002. In conclusion, supplementing the close-up ration can increase postpartum serum IGF-I concentration and prevent the increase of serum BHBA concentration. These may result in enhancement reproductive performance of high-producing dairy cows.

  12. Development of the nuclear energy producing as a main factor of preserving the ecological balance on the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanusova, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers in detail one of the sustainable development components - energy. lt is power availability that determines living standards (life quality) and capability to influence the environment in a proper manner. Today, people spend energy not only to meet their needs but more and more to compensate negative consequences of human activities (including reprocessing of wastes). The paper considers in detail advantages and disadvantages of different types of energy, including alternative ones, and analyzes prospects of their development in the XXl century. In the paper special attention is given to different types of atomic energy, including both conventional methods of atomic energy production and alternative ones, such as deuterium energy. (authors)

  13. Study of the electron energy distribution function in plasma produced by a rf discharge in a mixture of inert gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagner, S.D.; Ignat'ev, B.K.

    1983-01-01

    Electron energy distribution functions (EEDF) are recorded in an rf discharge in a mixture of neon and argon. The rates of different ionization processes and the energy losses of the electrons in the bulk of the discharge are calculated. The experimentally recorded electron energy distribution functions are compared with distributions calculated using a nonlocal theory. The effect of an rf voltage in the probe circuit on the recorded electron energy distribution functions is investigated experimentally

  14. Producing in France: nuclear energy in the service of buying power and of the fight against global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    While maintaining a strong industry in France is agreed by the vast majority, it appears irresponsible to advocate the phasing-out of nuclear energy in the French territory. Nuclear energy is undoubtedly France's best competitive advantage. The Concorde foundation recommends to avoid any change in France's energy mix which would have a significant impact on French citizens' standard of living

  15. Experimental Investigations of the Energy and Environmental Indices of Operation of a Low-Capacity Combined Gas Producer and Hot-Water Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, L. A.; Stepanov, D. V.; Dovgal‧, A. N.

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that the introduction of combined gas producers and boilers on renewable energy sources is a pressing issue. A structural diagram of a low-capacity combined gas producer and boiler on renewable energy sources has been given; a bench and procedures for investigation and processing of results have been developed. Experimental investigations of the energy and environmental indices of a 40-kW combined gas producer and hotwater boiler burning wood have been carried out. Results of the experimental investigations have been analyzed. Distinctive features have been established and a procedure of thermal calculation of the double furnace of a lowcapacity combined gas producer and boiler burning solid fuel has been proposed. The calculated coefficients of heat transfer from the gases in the convection bank have been compared with the obtained experimental results. A calculation dependence for the heat transfer from the gases in convection banks of low-capacity hot-water boilers has been proposed. The quantities of harmful emissions from the combined gas producer and boiler on renewable energy sources have been compared with the existing Ukrainian and foreign standards. It has been established that the environmental efficiency of the boiler under study complies with most of the standard requirements of European countries.

  16. Effectiveness of the Solar Panels in the Castro Valley Unified School District Based on Projected Amount of Energy to be Produced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, J. R.; Palmer, T. C.; Siegel, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years Americans have warmed to the idea of installing solar panels to their homes and businesses. These panels help reduce the cost of receiving energy from power plants that lose a lot of energy in transportation. These power plants provide energy by burning gas or coal producing emissions that add to the growing problem of pollution and global warming. In 2010 the Castro Valley Unified School District decided to add solar panels to Canyon Middle School, Castro Valley High School, and Castro Valley Adult School. We researched whether the solar panels reached their projected amount of energy (74%) for the sites where the panels were placed. The solar panels at all three sites were found to exceed these projected amounts. The solar panels at each site produce a little over 74% for the each school.

  17. Valorization of the energy potential of fossil and fissile fuels for heat production: dual-purpose power plants and heat-producing nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavite, Michel.

    1975-07-01

    The heat market is analyzed briefly within the French context: present structures and characteristics of the market, current means of heat production, predictable trend of the demand. The possible applications of nuclear energy to heat production, through the agency of combined electricity-steam stations or heat-producing stations, are then examined. Nuclear solutions are compared with others from the technico-economic and ecological wiewpoints and an estimate fo their respective impacts on the energy balance is attempted [fr

  18. Do Oil-Producing Countries Have Normal Oil Overconsumption? An Investigation of Economic Growth and Energy Subsidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Mirnezami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The data shows that oil-producing countries have low oil retail prices and low economic growth compared with other countries. Considering that oil-producing countries experience high oil consumption and low economic growth, it is possible to argue that economic growth is not an appropriate justification for oil consumption and that the main cause for high oil consumption is the low retail price. In addition, it should be noted that the global environmental movement against increasing greenhouse gas emissions—for example, the Kyoto 1998 agreement—seems to have had no effect on oil consumption in oil-producing countries.

  19. 76 FR 80913 - Carib Energy (USA) LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Domestically Produced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... volumes of domestic shale gas reserves and its development and extraction, as well as continued low... development of previously undeveloped reserves of domestic shale gas.\\3\\ The Annual Energy Outlook 2010, prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), forecasted shale gas production to increase...

  20. Comparing environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy – A life cycle perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Vinken, T.M.W.J.; Hamelin, L.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy, from a life cycle perspective. This included assessing environmental impacts and land use change emissions (LUC) required to replace used co-substrates for

  1. Treatment of Slaughterhouse Waste Water Mixed with Serum from Lacteal Industry of Extremadura in Spain to Produce Clean Energy

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Marcos; A. Al-Kassir; Francisco Cuadros; Talal Yusaf

    2017-01-01

    The problem of slaughterhouse waste water can be resolved by mixing it with serum from lacteal industry to produce a biogas. The effect of serum addition on the anaerobic co-digestion of solid and liquid slaughterhouse waste has been studied. The experimental device consisted of a continuous digester by recirculation of biogas produced in the anaerobic digestion. The input effluent was a mixture of slaughterhouse waste from Badajoz city (Spain) and animal serum in a proportion of 20%. The ana...

  2. Do Oil-Producing Countries Have Normal Oil Overconsumption? An Investigation of Economic Growth and Energy Subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Reza Mirnezami

    2015-01-01

    The data shows that oil-producing countries have low oil retail prices and low economic growth compared with other countries. Considering that oil-producing countries experience high oil consumption and low economic growth, it is possible to argue that economic growth is not an appropriate justification for oil consumption and that the main cause for high oil consumption is the low retail price. In addition, it should be noted that the global environmental movement against increasing greenhou...

  3. Gasification of heavy fuels to produce electrical energy and hydrogen; Gasificacion de combustibles pesados para producir energia electrica e hidrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera Garcia, Oscar Alberto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico(UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    A description is presented of the different types of integrated gasifiers that at the moment are used in the synthesis gas production to be used, with different fuels in the generation of electricity in Combined Cycle. Three cases of application of integrated gasifiers are analyzed. The first it is the engine power upgrade of a Combined Cycle power plant to natural gas to burn fuel of bad quality in an integrated gasifier (CCGI). The second one examines the incorporation of a shift reactor in which the synthesis gas is transformed into CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} which are used to move the turbine to gas, adapted for pure hydrogen. Finally is studied the amount of other by-products that can be obtained from these co-generation cycles such as CO{sub 2} to be used in secondary recovery of oil wells, N{sub 2} to be used in the fertilizer industry or in the proper oil production and H{sub 2} to be used in the oil industry or the generation with fuel cells. All the cases are studied in quantitative form, making the balance of mass and energy of each one of them. In order to give more practical sense to the calculations, the engineering data of the Valladolid Power station of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have been taken as base. This article provides a basic idea, but very practical, to estimate the fuel consumption of the different modes of arrangement of a CCGI power station, as well as the volumes of the different gases that can be produced and the modifications to the size of the equipment that is required. [Spanish] Se presenta una descripcion de los diferentes tipos de gasificadores integrados que actualmente se utilizan en la produccion de gas de sintesis para ser utilizados, con diferentes combustibles, en la generacion de electricidad con Ciclo Combinado. Se analizan tres casos de aplicacion de gasificadores integrados. El primero es la repotenciacion de una planta de Ciclo Combinado a gas natural para quemar combustible de mala calidad en un gasificador

  4. a Study of Charged d* Mesons Produced in Electron - Annihilation at Center-Of Energy = 29 GEV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    Charged D* mesons produced in e('+)e('-) annihilation at a center- of-mass energy of 29 GeV have been studied with the DELCO detec- tor at the PEP storage ring. The selection criteria of D* candidates exploit the (pi)/K separation capability in the momentum range from 2.6 GeV/c to 9.2 GeV/c provided by the gas Cerenkov counter. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 147 pb(' -1). We have measured the total production cross section of D*('(+OR-)) to be 0.16 (+OR-) 0.02(statistical) (+OR -) 0.02(systematic) nb x (TBOND) P(,D*)/(E(,beam)('2) - M(,D*)('2))(' 1/2) > 0.35 , and (0.18 (+OR-) 0.02 (+OR -) 0.03) nb (x > 0) if the contribution from bottom quarks is subtracted. The branching fractions used are Br(D*('+) (--->) D('0)(pi)('+)) = 64% and Br(D('0) (--->) K('-)(pi)('+)) = 3%. The systematic errors due to the branching ratios are not included in the errors. With Br(D('0) (--->) K(' -)(pi)('+)) = 4.9%, which is a recent measurement by the MARK III group, the above two cross sections become 0.10 (+OR-) 0.02 (+OR-) 0.02 nb (x > 0.35) and 0.11 (+OR-) 0.02 (+OR-) 0.02 nb (x > 0 and after the sub- traction of the contribution from b quarks). The charm fragmentation function is harder than that for light quarks, and the shape is found to be consistent with the prediction of the string model with a uniform string-breaking probability. Assuming the string model, the string-breaking probability is determined to be (0.019 (+OR-) 0.05 (+OR-) 0.09) GeV/c('2). We have also determined the lifetime of D('0) meson which is detec- ted in the D* decay, with the result. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). Together with the semileptonic branching fraction of D('0) measured elsewhere, the semileptonic decay rate of D('0) is estimated to be (1.4 (+OR-) 0.5) x 10('11) sec('-1), which corresponds to an effective charm quark mass of (1.54 (+OR-) 0.12) GeV/c('2). Using part of the D* candidates, we have set an upper limit on D('0)-(')D('0) mixing: r (TBOND) P

  5. Producing energy without greenhouse effect gases: the CEA action; Produire de l'energie sans gaz a effet de serre: l'action du CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Major actor in the domain of new energy technologies, the CEA manages the french research on the hydrogen and the fuel cells. It is also implied with INES (National Institute for the Solar Energy) in the photovoltaic and thermal solar. With the IFP (French Petroleum Institute), it manages research on biofuels. Of course the thermonuclear fusion, for the development of the energy of the future, is in its research program too. This information document presents the possibilities of these energies and the associated research programs. (A.L.B.)

  6. Excitation energy and angular momentum of quasiprojectiles produced in the Xe+Sn collisions at incident energies between 25 and 50 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steckmeyer, J.C.; Genouin-Duhamel, E.; Vient, E.; Colin, J.; Durand, D.; Auger, G.; Bacri, C.O.; Bellaize, N.; Borderie, B.; Bougault, R.; Bouriquet, B.; Brou, R.; Buchet, P.; Charvet, J.L.; Chbihi, A.; Cussol, D.; Dayras, R.; De Cesare, N.; Demeyer, A.; Dore, D.; Frankland, J.D.; Galichet, E.; Gerlic, E.; Guinet, D.; Hudan, S.; Lautesse, P.; Lavaud, F.; Laville, J.L.; Lecolley, J.F.; Leduc, C.; Legrain, R.; Le Neindre, N.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Maskay, A.M.; Nalpas, L.; Normand, J.; Parlog, M.; Pawlowski, P.; Plagnol, E.; Rivet, M.F.; Rosato, E.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Tabacaru, G.; Tamain, B.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tirel, O.; Turzo, K.; Vigilante, M.; Volant, C.; Wieleczko, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The excitation energy and angular momentum transferred to quasiprojectiles have been measured in the 129 Xe+ nat Sn collisions at bombarding energies between 25 and 50 MeV/nucleon. The excitation energy of quasiprojectiles has been determined from the kinetic energy of all decay products (calorimetry). It increases with the violence of the collision, approaching 10 MeV/nucleon in the most dissipative ones. The angular momentum has been deduced from the kinetic energies and angular distributions of the emitted light charged particles (p, d, t, 3 He and α). The (apparent) spin value decreases with the violence of the collision. Larger spin values are observed at the lowest bombarding energy. Data are compared with the predictions of dynamical and statistical models. They reproduce the data in a quantitative way indicating that large spin values are transferred to quasiprojectiles during the interaction. The results show that the one-body dissipation formalism still applies at intermediate bombarding energies and low-energy dissipations. With the increase of the energy, the data seem to be better described when the two-body interaction is accounted for

  7. Bulk properties of the medium produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions from the beam energy scan program

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Chaloupka, P.; Federič, Pavol; Federičová, P.; Harlenderová, A.; Kocmánek, Martin; Kvapil, J.; Lidrych, J.; Rusňák, Jan; Rusňáková, O.; Šaur, Miroslav; Šimko, Miroslav; Šumbera, Michal; Trzeciak, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 044904. ISSN 2469-9985 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15001; GA MŠk LM2015054 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : STAR collaboration * RHIC * Beam Energy Scan Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 3.820, year: 2016

  8. Preferred Spatial Directions in the Universe. Part II. Matter Distributed along Orbital Trajectories, and Energy Produced from It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borissova L.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Using General Relativity we study the rotating space of an orbiting body (of the Earth in the Galaxy, for example. In such a space Einstein’s equations predict that: (1 the space cannot be empty; (2 it abhors a vacuum (i. e. a pure λ-field, and so it must also possess a substantive distribution (e. g. gas, dust, radiations, etc.. In order for Maxwell’s equations to satisfy Einstein’s equations, it is shown that: (1 a free electromagnetic field along the trajectory of an orbiting body must be present, by means of purely magnetic “standing” waves; (2 electromagnetic fields don’t satisfy the Einstein equations in a region of orbiting space bodies if there is no distribution of another substance (e. g. dust, gas or something else. The braking energy of a medium pervading space equals the energy of the space non-holonomic field. The energy transforms into heat and radiations within stars by a stellar energy mechanism due to the background space non-holonomity, so a star takes energy for luminosity from the space during the orbit. Employing this mechanism in an Earth-bound laboratory, we can obtain a new source of energy due to the fact that the Earth orbits in the non-holonomic fields of the space.

  9. Energy balance of the global photovoltaic (PV) industry--is the PV industry a net electricity producer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Michael; Benson, Sally M

    2013-04-02

    A combination of declining costs and policy measures motivated by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and energy security have driven rapid growth in the global installed capacity of solar photovoltaics (PV). This paper develops a number of unique data sets, namely the following: calculation of distribution of global capacity factor for PV deployment; meta-analysis of energy consumption in PV system manufacture and deployment; and documentation of reduction in energetic costs of PV system production. These data are used as input into a new net energy analysis of the global PV industry, as opposed to device level analysis. In addition, the paper introduces a new concept: a model tracking energetic costs of manufacturing and installing PV systems, including balance of system (BOS) components. The model is used to forecast electrical energy requirements to scale up the PV industry and determine the electricity balance of the global PV industry to 2020. Results suggest that the industry was a net consumer of electricity as recently as 2010. However, there is a >50% that in 2012 the PV industry is a net electricity provider and will "pay back" the electrical energy required for its early growth before 2020. Further reducing energetic costs of PV deployment will enable more rapid growth of the PV industry. There is also great potential to increase the capacity factor of PV deployment. These conclusions have a number of implications for R&D and deployment, including the following: monitoring of the energy embodied within PV systems; designing more efficient and durable systems; and deploying PV systems in locations that will achieve high capacity factors.

  10. Optical and energy dependent response of the alanine gel solution produced at IPEN to clinical photons and electrons beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Cleber F.

    2011-01-01

    The DL-Alanine (C 3 H 7 NO 2 ) is an amino acid tissue equivalent traditionally used as standard dosimetric material in EPR dosimetry. Recently, it has been studied to be applied in gel dosimetry, considering that the addition of Alanine in the Fricke gel solution improves the production of ferric ions radiation induced. The spectrophotometric evaluation technique can be used comparing the two spectrum wavelengths bands: 457 nm band that corresponds to ferrous ions and 588 nm band that corresponds to ferric ions concentration to evaluate the dosimetric properties of this material. The performance of the Alanine gel solution developed at IPEN has been firstly studied using the spectrophotometric technique aiming to apply this material to 3D clinical doses evaluations using MRI technique. In this work, the optical and the energy dependent response of this solution submitted to clinical photons and electrons beams were studied. Different batches of gel solutions were prepared and maintained at low temperature during 12 h to solidification. Before irradiation, the samples were maintained during 1 h at room temperature. The photons and electrons irradiations were carried out using a Varian 2100C Medical Linear Accelerator of the Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital das Clinicas of the University of Sao Paulo with absorbed doses between 1 and 40 Gy; radiation field of 10 x 10 cm 2 ; photon energies of 6 MeV and 15 MeV; and electron with energies between 6 and 15 MeV. The obtained results indicate that signal response dependence for clinical photons and electrons beams, to the same doses, for Alanine gel dosimeter is better than 3.6 % (1σ), and the energy dependence response, to the same doses, is better 3% (1σ) for both beams. These results indicate that the same calibration factor can be used and the optical response is energy independent in the studied dose range and clinical photons and electrons beams energies. (author)

  11. Correlations associated with small angle protons produced in proton- proton collisions at 31 GeV total energy

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, M G; Barber, D P; Bogaerts, A; Bosnjakovic, B; Brooks, J R; Clegg, A B; Erné, F C; Gee, C N P; Locke, D H; Loebinger, F K; Murphy, P G; Rudge, A; Sens, Johannes C

    1973-01-01

    High energy inelastic protons with x=2 p/sub L//s/sup 1/2/>0.99 observed in 15.3/15.3 GeV proton-proton collisions at the CERN ISR are accompanied by particles whose angular distribution is confined to a narrow cone in the opposite direction. In contrast, lower energy protons (0.72

  12. Total bremsstrahlung spectra of thick lead compounds produced by {sup 90}Sr beta emitter in photon energy region of 10–100 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Suhansar Jit [Department of Physics, B.B.S.B Polytechnic, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India); Singh, Tajinder, E-mail: tajindersingh2k9@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mata Gujri College, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India); Singh, Doordarshi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.B.S.B Engineering College, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India); Singh, Amrit [Department of Physics, Baba Ajay Singh Khalsa College, Gurdas Nangal, Gurdaspur, Punjab (India); Dhaliwal, A.S. [Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Longowal (Sangrur), Punjab (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Total bremsstrahlung spectra in thick targets of Pb compounds by {sup 90}Sr in energy range 10–100 keV. • Experimental results show better agreement with the model which includes PB in SA up to 30 keV. • At higher photon energy region 30–100 keV the model which describes OB is more accurate. • Experimental results show positive deviations from the entire models at higher energy end spectrum. - Abstract: The total bremsstrahlung spectra in the thick targets of lead acetate trihydrate (Pb(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}·3H{sub 2}O), lead nitrate Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and lead chloride (PbCl{sub 2}) produced by {sup 90}Sr beta particles have been investigated in the photon energy region of 10–100 keV. The experimental bremsstrahlung spectra have been compared with the theoretical models Elwert corrected (non relativistic) Bethe Heitler theory, modified Elwert factor (relativistic) Bethe Heitler theory for ordinary bremsstrahlung and modified Elwert factor (relativistic) Bethe Heitler theory which includes polarization bremsstrahlung in the stripped atom approximation. The experimental results show better agreement with theoretical model that includes polarization bremsstrahlung in stripped approximation in the photon energy region below 30 keV. However, at higher photon energy region 30–100 keV, the theoretical model which describes ordinary bremsstrahlung is more accurate to describe the experimental bremsstrahlung spectra. The experimental results show positive deviations from the entire theoretical models at higher energy end of the spectrum. The results indicate that polarization bremsstrahlung plays important role in the formation of total bremsstrahlung spectra in lead compounds produced by continuous beta particles at low photon energy region of 10–30 keV.

  13. report on the french objectives of electricity consumption, produced from renewable energies sources and on the analysis of their realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the french objectives of electricity, from renewable energies sources, internal consumption for the next ten years, as the analysis of their realization taking into account the climatic factors likely to change the realization of these objectives. It also discusses the adequacy of the actions to the national engagement in matter of climatic change. (A.L.B.)

  14. Testing model energy spectra of charged particles produced in hadron interactions on the basis of atmospheric muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedenko, L. G.; Roganova, T. M.; Fedorova, G. F.

    2015-01-01

    An original method for calculating the spectrum of atmospheric muons with the aid of the CORSIKA 7.4 code package and numerical integration is proposed. The first step consists in calculating the energy distribution of muons for various fixed energies of primary-cosmic-ray particles and within several chosen hadron-interaction models included in the CORSIKA 7.4 code package. After that, the spectrum of atmospheric muons is calculated via integrating the resulting distribution densities with the chosen spectrum of primary-cosmic-ray particles. The atmospheric-muon fluxes that were calculated on the basis of the SIBYLL 2.1, QGSJET01, and QGSJET II-04 models exceed the predictions of the wellknown Gaisser approximation of this spectrum by a factor of 1.5 to 1.8 in the range of muon energies between about 10 3 and 10 4 GeV.Under the assumption that, in the region of extremely highmuon energies, a dominant contribution to the muon flux comes from one to two generations of charged π ± and K ± mesons, the production rate calculated for these mesons is overestimated by a factor of 1.3 to 1.5. This conclusion is confirmed by the results of the LHCf and TOTEM experiments

  15. Kinetic energy and charge distributions of multiply charged ions produced by heavy ions and by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.C.; Biedermann, C.; Cederquist, H.; Liljeby, L.; Short, R.T.; Sellin, I.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper contrasts two methods of production of multiply charged ions which may have application in future hot-atom chemistry experiments. Interest in extending the study of ion-atom collisions from MeV to keV to eV energies has grown rapidly in the last decade as previously inaccessible astrophysical, fusion, and spectroscopic problems have been addressed. One of these methods involves highly charged secondary beams formed from ions created in dilute gas samples irradiated by fast (MeV), high-charge-state, heavy ions. The measurements show, however, that such ions often have mean recoil energies two orders of magnitude higher than kinetic energies of ions in similar charge states resulting from vacancy cascades of atomic inner shells photoionized by synchrotron x rays. These results may be applicable to development of a cold source of highly charged ions featuring low energy spread and good angular definition. Results from other laboratories (Grandin et al at Ganil, Ullrich et al in Frankfurt, and Watson et al at Texas A ampersand M) will also be discussed

  16. Nitrogen and energy balance in growing mink (Mustela vison) fed different levels of bacterial protein meal produced with natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Øystein

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on energy and protein metabolism in growing mink kits. Sixteen male mink kits of the standard brown genotype were randomly fed one of four diets: A control (Diet III) and 60% (...

  17. Import/export policy as a tool of optimal utilization of power produced by renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meibom, P.; Svendsen, T.; Soerensen, B.

    1997-10-01

    The official Danish energy plan ENERGY 21 calls for a very high penetration of wind energy in the electricity sector. This will put issues of fitting a variable energy source into a stable supply system in focus. The present study investigates the role that collaboration with the hydro based Scandinavian countries can offer, and particularly looks at the conditions of the Nordic power pool, asking whether it will be possible profitably to trade wind power in such a pool system. Based upon hourly simulation of the Scandinavian electricity system, with connections to the European continent, we track the fate of wind power in satisfying Danish demand, selling surpluses to and buying deficits from the pool, assuming international transmission lines of the capacity existing today or larger, and repeating the simulation for combinations of good and bad wind and hydro years, as defined by historical sets of wind speeds and hydro resources depending on precipitation and ice melting. Decisions concerning pool bidding and regulation of the remaining power system (mainly gas-fired combined heat and power plants) are made on the basis of the calculated predictions based on the historical data sequences up to the time of decision, and then confronted with the subsequent data values in the set. (EG)

  18. A Monte Carlo Code (PHOEL) for generating initial energies of photoelectrons and compton electrons produced by photons in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.; Modolo, J.T.; Sordi, G.M.A.A.; Hamm, R.N.; Wright, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    PHOEL provides a source term for a Monte Carlo code which calculates the electron transport and energy degradation in liquid water. This code is used to study the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of low-LET radiation at low doses. The basic numerical data used and their mathematical treatment are described as well as the operation of the code [pt

  19. Gone with the wind: Do we know the impact that produce wind energy causes on flying vertebrates of Costa Rica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor J. Acosta-Chaves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The clean energy industry has been growing in Costa Rica, especially wind energy, during the last years. However, at least for the best of our knowledge, published scientific information about diversity, and collision rates, upon bats and birds in wind farms of Costa Rica is not-existent. In this manuscript we highlight the importance of establish biological monitoring programs in the wind farms, to determinate changes in the diversity of flying vertebrates, as well to evaluate the impact of wind towers upon the local and regional biodiversity. We suggest to public and private actors involving in wind energy production and conservation in Costa Rica to work together in order to answer the questions formulated in this manuscript as a priority, and eventually mitigate effectively any potential threat on our biodiversity. The development of research and politics related with those issues is critical to make correct decisions in relation with the wind energy future of the country in armony with nature.

  20. Development and optimization of a modified process for producing the battery grade LiOH: Optimization of energy and water consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grágeda, Mario; González, Alonso; Alavia, Wilson; Ushak, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    LiOH·H 2 O is used for preparation of alkaline batteries. The required characteristics of this compound are low levels of impurities and a specific particle size distribution. LiOH·H 2 O is produced from ore and brines. In northern Chile, lithium is produced from brines. This region presents particular desert climate conditions where water and energy are scarce. To help solve this problem, the conventional production process for battery grade LiOH·H 2 O was simulated and a modified process was developed, with an efficient consumption of energy and water, to improve the environmental sustainability of the plant, and greater process yield and product purity. Different configurations of the equipments were studied and for the best configurations the behavior of the modified process at different scenarios were simulated. It was found that the purity is independent of concentration used in feed to thickeners. The process yield increases in average 2.4% for modified process due to recycling operation. In modified process is obtained 28% more product mass, specific energy consumption decreases up to 4.8% and losses of Li/kg of product decreased by 83% compared to conventional process. The water consumption per kg of product in modified process is 1%–6.3%, being lower than in conventional process. The results presented can be considered as guidelines to address the optimization of the industrial process for obtaining the battery grade LiOH. - Highlights: • Water and energy are important resources in any sustainable industrial process. • High purity LiOH·H 2 O is a material for producing of lithium batteries. • Conventional and modified optimized processes for LiOH·H 2 O production were simulated. • Energy and water consumptions decrease for the modified process. • Optimal operational conditions of H 2 O, feed, pressure and energy were established

  1. Measurement of energy deposition distributions produced in cylindrical geometry by irradiation with 15 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandan, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    Cellular survival experiments have shown that the biological damage induced by radiation depends on the density of energy deposition along the trajectory of the ionizing particle. The quantity L is defined to measure the density of energy transfer along a charged particle's trajectory. It is equal to sigma/l, where sigma is the energy transferred to a medium and l is the path length along which the transfer takes place. L is the stochastic quantity whose mean value is the unrestricted linear energy transfer, L/sub infinity/. Measurements of the distribution of L in a thin medium by secondary charged particles from fast neutron irradiation were undertaken. A counter operating under time coincidence between two coaxial cylindrical detectors was designed and built for this purpose. Secondary charged particles enter a gas proportional counter and deposit some energy sigma. Those particles traversing the chamber along a radial trajectory strike a CsI scintillator. A coincidence between both detectors' signals selects a known path length for these events, namely the radius of the cavity. Measurements of L distributions for l = 1 μm in tissue were obtained for 3 and 15 MeV neutron irradiation of a tissue-equivalent target wall and for 15 MeV neutron irradiation of a graphite wall. Photon events were corrected for by measurements with a Pb target wall and 15 MeV neutron irradiation as well as exposure to a pure photon field. The measured TE wall distributions with 15 MeV neutron bombardment show contributions from protons, α-particles, 9 Be and 12 C recoils. The last three comprise the L distribution for irradiation of the graphite wall. The proton component of the measured L distributions at 3 and 15 MeV was compared to calculated LET distributions

  2. Methods for calculations of potential and producible associated with marine energies: case studies in the Channel - Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledoux, Sebastien; Chotard, David; Mazeiraud, Vincent; Garcia, Nicolas; Saillard, Thibault; Mensencal, Yvon; Mouslim, Hakim

    2015-01-01

    Faced with the development of Marine Renewable Energy (MRE) in recent years and demand from regional public authorities to evaluate the energy potential of their coastal domains, it was necessary to design an integrated tool for determining, at the scale of a site and then a region, first the gross resource per energy type and then its technical potential followed by its technico-economic potential. In response to this need, Artelia mobilised its experts in maritime and river hydraulics and in energy with the aim of developing a tool dedicated to calculating MRE production capacities. With this operational objective in mind, ARTELIA undertook R and D actions in order to determine the state of the art in calculation methods and in tools already developed and in use in other European countries spearheading this activity, especially the United Kingdom (Atlas of UK Marine Renewable Energy Resources, ABPmer,) and the United States (in particular the work of the EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute)). The tool was then developed and applied successively in the framework of calculating the MRE potential of the coastal domain of the Poitou-Charentes region (client: Poitou-Charentes regional council), then through study assessments performed on the marine current power potential of Lower Normandy (client: DREAL Basse-Normandie) and on the MRE potential of the Aquitaine coast (client: Aquitaine regional council - GIP Littoral Aquitain). The tool allows for the assessment of the resources, technical and techno-economic potentials It has been applied to the following topics: marine current power (offshore and in estuaries and rivers), wave power (offshore, near-shore and coastal) and wind power (offshore and floating turbines). This article provides a brief summary of the various aspects of the tool implemented, illustrated through a few examples drawn from the studies referred to above. (authors)

  3. Dose coefficients for radionuclides produced in high energy proton accelerator facilities. Coefficients for radionuclides not listed in ICRP publications

    CERN Document Server

    Kawai, K; Noguchi, H

    2002-01-01

    Effective dose coefficients, the committed effective dose per unit intake, by inhalation and ingestion have been calculated for 304 nuclides, including (1) 230 nuclides with half-lives >= 10 min and their daughters that are not listed in ICRP Publications and (2) 74 nuclides with half-lives < 10 min that are produced in a spallation target. Effective dose coefficients for inhalation of soluble or reactive gases have been calculated for 21 nuclides, and effective dose rates for inert gases have been calculated for 9 nuclides. Dose calculation was carried out using a general-purpose nuclear decay database DECDC developed at JAERI and a decay data library newly compiled from the ENSDF for the nuclides abundantly produced in a spallation target. The dose coefficients were calculated with the computer code DOCAP based on the respiratory tract model and biokinetic model of ICRP. The effective dose rates were calculated by considering both external irradiation from the surrounding cloud and irradiation of the lun...

  4. Measurement of secondary neutrons and gamma rays produced by neutron interactions in aluminum over the incident energy range 1 to 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, G.L.

    1975-11-01

    The spectra of secondary neutrons and gamma rays produced by neutron interaction in a thin sample (approximately 1/6 mean free path) of aluminum have been measured as a function of the incident neutron energy over the range 1 to 20 MeV. Data were taken at an angle of 125 0 . A linac (ORELA) was used as a neutron source with a 47-m flight path. Incident energy was determined by time-of-flight, while secondary spectra were determined by pulse-height unfolding techniques. The results of the measurements are presented in forms suitable for comparison to calculations based on the evaluated data files. (6 tables, 4 figures)

  5. Quantitative determination of caffeine and alcohol in energy drinks and the potential to produce positive transdermal alcohol concentrations in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Jessica; Simons, Kelsie; Kerrigan, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether non-alcoholic energy drinks could result in positive "alcohol alerts" based on transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) using a commercially available electrochemical monitoring device. Eleven energy drinks were quantitatively assayed for both ethanol and caffeine. Ethanol concentrations for all of the non-alcoholic energy drinks ranged in concentration from 0.03 to 0.230% (w/v) and caffeine content per 8-oz serving ranged from 65 to 126 mg. A total of 15 human subjects participated in the study. Subjects consumed between 6 and 8 energy drinks over an 8-h period. The SCRAM II monitoring device was used to determine TACs every 30 min before, during, and after the study. None of the subjects produced TAC readings that resulted in positive "alcohol alerts". TAC measurements for all subjects before, during and after the energy drink study period (16 h total) were study consumed a quantity of non-alcoholic energy drink that greatly exceeds what would be considered typical. Based on these results, it appears that energy drink consumption is an unlikely explanation for elevated TACs that might be identified as potential drinking episodes or "alcohol alerts" using this device.

  6. A novel nuclear pyrometry for the characterization of high-energy bremsstrahlung and electrons produced in relativistic laser-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, M. M.; Sonnabend, K.; Harres, K.; Roth, M.; Brambrink, E.; Vogt, K.; Bagnoud, V.

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel nuclear activation-based method for the investigation of high-energy bremsstrahlung produced by electrons above 7 MeV generated by a high-power laser. The main component is a novel high-density activation target that is a pseudo alloy of several selected isotopes with different photo-disintegration reaction thresholds. The gamma spectrum emitted by the activated targets is used for the reconstruction of the bremsstrahlung spectrum using an analysis method based on Penfold and Leiss. This nuclear activation-based technique allows for the determination of the number of bremsstrahlung photons per energy bin in a wide range energy without any anticipated fit procedures. Furthermore, the analysis method also allows for the determination of the absolute yield, the energy distribution, and the temperature of high-energy electrons at the relativistic laser-plasma interaction region. The pyrometry is sensitive to energies above 7 MeV only, i.e., this diagnostic is insensitive to any low-energy processes.

  7. A novel nuclear pyrometry for the characterization of high-energy bremsstrahlung and electrons produced in relativistic laser-plasma interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, M. M.; Sonnabend, K.; Harres, K.; Roth, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Schlossgartenstr. 9, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Brambrink, E. [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, UMR 7605 CNRS-CEA-Ecole Polytechnique-Universite Paris VI, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Vogt, K.; Bagnoud, V. [GSI - Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    We present a novel nuclear activation-based method for the investigation of high-energy bremsstrahlung produced by electrons above 7 MeV generated by a high-power laser. The main component is a novel high-density activation target that is a pseudo alloy of several selected isotopes with different photo-disintegration reaction thresholds. The gamma spectrum emitted by the activated targets is used for the reconstruction of the bremsstrahlung spectrum using an analysis method based on Penfold and Leiss. This nuclear activation-based technique allows for the determination of the number of bremsstrahlung photons per energy bin in a wide range energy without any anticipated fit procedures. Furthermore, the analysis method also allows for the determination of the absolute yield, the energy distribution, and the temperature of high-energy electrons at the relativistic laser-plasma interaction region. The pyrometry is sensitive to energies above 7 MeV only, i.e., this diagnostic is insensitive to any low-energy processes.

  8. Low-energy x-ray and electron physics and applications to diagnostics development for laser-produced plasma research. Final report, April 30, 1980-April 29, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, B.L.

    1981-08-01

    This final report describes a collaborative extension of an ongoing research program in low-energy x-ray and electron physics into particular areas of immediate need for the diagnostics of plasmas as involved in laser-produced fusion research. It has been for the continued support for one year of a post-doctoral research associate and for three student research assistants who have been applied to the following specific efforts: (1) the continuation of our research on the absolute characterization of x-ray photocathode systems for the 0.1 to 10 keV photon energy region. The research results were applied collaboratively to the design, construction and calibration of photocathodes for time-resolved detection with the XRD and the streak and framing cameras; (2) the design, construction and absolute calibration of optimized, bolt-on spectrographs for the absolute measurement of laser-produced plasma spectra.

  9. Economic and energy analysis about disposal interventions of waste tires produced in Calabria; Valutazioni economiche ed energetiche di interventi di smaltimento di penumatici fuori uso in Calabria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, Gaetano [Cosenza, Univ. della Calabria (Italy). Fac. di Ingegneria. Dipt. di Meccanica; Cersosimo, Attilio

    1997-05-01

    The present paper refers to an analysis aimed at researching disposal strategies, for waste tires produced in Calabria, which ensure correct disposal with regard to environmental compatibility and their evaluation in terms of material recovery and energy. The starting point has been an estimate of the quantities of potentially usable waste tires and disposal methods currently employed. It has therefore been possible to identify two specific disposal proposals for which an economic and energy evaluation has been conducted. The last part of the paper has faced the problem of plant location under consideration, with the aim of determining, for both proposal, the cost that each producer must bear to have his waste tires eliminated.

  10. Low-energy x-ray and electron physics and applications to diagnostics development for laser-produced plasma research. Final report, April 30, 1980-April 29, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, B.L.

    1981-08-01

    This final report describes a collaborative extension of an ongoing research program in low-energy x-ray and electron physics into particular areas of immediate need for the diagnostics of plasmas as involved in laser-produced fusion research. It has been for the continued support for one year of a post-doctoral research associate and for three student research assistants who have been applied to the following specific efforts: (1) the continuation of our research on the absolute characterization of x-ray photocathode systems for the 0.1 to 10 keV photon energy region. The research results were applied collaboratively to the design, construction and calibration of photocathodes for time-resolved detection with the XRD and the streak and framing cameras; (2) the design, construction and absolute calibration of optimized, bolt-on spectrographs for the absolute measurement of laser-produced plasma spectra

  11. Assesment of the energy quality of the synthesis gas produced from biomass derived fuels conversion: Part I: Liquid Fuels, Ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteaga Perez, Luis E; Casas, Yannay; Peralta, Luis M; Granda, Daikenel; Prieto, Julio O

    2011-01-01

    The use of biofuels plays an important role to increase the efficiency and energetic safety of the energy processes in the world. The main goal of the present research is to study from the thermodynamics and kinetics the effect of the operational variables on the thermo-conversion processes of biomass derived fuels focused on ethanol reforming. Several models are developed to assess the technological proposals. The minimization of Gibbs free energy is the criterion applied to evaluate the performance of the different alternatives considering the equilibrium constraints. All the models where validated on an experimental data base. The gas composition, HHV and the ratio H2/CO are used as measures for the process efficiency. The operational parameters are studied in a wide range (reactants molar ratio, temperature and oxygen/fuel ratio). (author)

  12. Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Saricks, Christoper [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    1997-12-19

    This study addresses two issues: (1) data and information essential to an informed choice about the corn-to-ethanol cycle are in need of updating, thanks to scientific and technological advances in both corn farming and ethanol production; and (2) generalized national estimates of energy intensities and greenhouse gas (GHG) production are of less relevance than estimates based specifically on activities and practices in the principal domestic corn production and milling region -- the upper Midwest.

  13. Simulation of electron density disturbances of the ionospheric D region produced by high-energy particle fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, S.I.

    1989-01-01

    Using the large-scale tim expansion analytical solutions of electron concentration balance equation in D-region of the ionosphere for pulsed and periodic changes in the rate of ion formatin under the effect of fluxes of precipitating high-energy particles are obtained. Possible effect of disturbances of temperature of nutrals is taken into account. On the basis of model representations the space-time structure of emerging ionospheric disturbances is discussed

  14. A Study of the use of a Crystal as a `Quarter-Wave Plate' to Produce High Energy Circularly Polarized Photons

    CERN Multimedia

    Kononets, I

    2002-01-01

    %NA59 %title\\\\ \\\\We present a proposal to study the use of a crystal as a `quarter-wave plate' to produce high energy circularly polarized photons, starting from unpolarized electrons. The intention is to generate linearly polarized photons by letting electrons pass a crystalline target, where they interact coherently with the lattice nuclei. The photon polarization is subsequently turned into circular polarization after passing another crystal, which acts as a `quarter-wave plate'.

  15. Utilization of solar energy in the photodegradation of gasoline in water and of oil-field-produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, José Ermírio F; Silva, Douglas N; Quina, Frank H; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Nascimento, Cláudio Augusto O

    2004-07-01

    The photo-Fenton process utilizes ferrous ions (Fe2+), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as a source of hydroxyl radicals for the oxidation of organic matter present in aqueous effluents. The cost associated with the use of artificial irradiation sources has hindered industrial application of this process. In this work, the applicability of solar radiation for the photodegradation of raw gasoline in water has been studied. The photo-Fenton process was also applied to a real effluent, i.e., oil-field-produced water, and the experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of employing solar irradiation to degrade this complex saturated-hydrocarbon-containing system.

  16. Oxidation of nanostructured Ti films produced by low energy cluster beam deposition: An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simone, Monica de; Snidero, Elena; Coreno, Marcello; Bongiorno, Gero; Giorgetti, Luca; Amati, Matteo; Cepek, Cinzia

    2012-01-01

    We used in-situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to study the oxidation process of a cluster-assembled metallic titanium film exposed to molecular oxygen at room temperature. The nanostructured film has been grown on a Si(111) substrate, in ultra high vacuum conditions, by coupling a supersonic cluster beam deposition system with an XPS experimental chamber. Our results show that upon in-situ oxygen exposure Ti 3+ is the first oxidation state observed, followed by Ti 4+ , whereas Ti 2+ is practically absent during the whole process. Our results compare well with the existing literature on Ti films produced using other techniques.

  17. Report of an International Atomic Energy Agency's Advisory Group meeting on ''Quality control of cyclotron-produced radiopharmaceuticals''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera-Ruiz, H.; Marcus, C.S.; Pike, V.W.

    1990-01-01

    The special requirements for the preparation and quality control of cyclotron-produced tracers have been described with particular reference to the production of short-lived positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. The regulatory philosophy and training aspects of implementation are considered followed by various aspects of quality of control including good production practice, chemical purity, radionuclide purity, radiochemical purity, specific activity, shelf-life and sterility and apyrogenicity. Finally some organizational aspects such as legal and regulatory aspects, supply of radiopharmaceuticals and professional liability are considered. (UK)

  18. Decree 158/012. It promotes the celebration of power purchase contracts between UTE and industrial customers that produce electrical energy as a primary source using wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This decree is about the political promotion in relation of new energy ways to supply the industrial sector. Uruguay is developing the knowledge of the availability of the wind resource as well as the technical, economic and social issues associated with its use

  19. Treatment of Slaughterhouse Waste Water Mixed with Serum from Lacteal Industry of Extremadura in Spain to Produce Clean Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Marcos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of slaughterhouse waste water can be resolved by mixing it with serum from lacteal industry to produce a biogas. The effect of serum addition on the anaerobic co-digestion of solid and liquid slaughterhouse waste has been studied. The experimental device consisted of a continuous digester by recirculation of biogas produced in the anaerobic digestion. The input effluent was a mixture of slaughterhouse waste from Badajoz city (Spain and animal serum in a proportion of 20%. The anaerobic digestion was developed in a complete mixing continuous digester with a capacity of 6.2 L at 37 °C and a feed rate of 350 mL/day. From the results obtained for the co-digestion of the feeding effluent of the slaughterhouse waste, without and with serum added, in the same operating conditions, comparative data about the biological depuration and biogas production have been obtained. A 10 L biogas production was obtained with the slaughterhouse waste and 18 L with the slaughterhouse waste with serum added. In conclusion, the highest energetic yield (97.52% higher was obtained in the second case, due to the positive action of catalytic enzymes present in the animal serum.

  20. [Water disinfection by the combined exposure to super-high frequency energy and available chlorine produced during water electrolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimarev, S I; Siniak, Iu E

    2014-01-01

    The article reports the results of studying the effects on polluted water of SHF-energy together with the residual free (active) chlorine as a by-product of electrolysis action on dissolved chlorine-containing salts. Purpose of the studies was to evaluate input of these elements to the water disinfection effect. The synergy was found to kill microorganisms without impacts on the physicochemical properties of processed water or nutrient medium; therefore, it can be used for water treatment, and cultivation of microorganisms in microbiology.

  1. Update of ENDF/B-V Mod 3 iron: neutron-producing reaction cross sections and energy-angle correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, C.Y.; Hetrick, D.M.

    1986-07-01

    An update of the ENDF/B-V Mod-3 evaluation for natural iron is described. The cross sections of (n,n') and (n,2n) reactions are revised. Energy-angle correlations in the secondary (n,n') neutrons are introduced in the ENDF/B-V formats. Anisotropic angular distributions are provided for the secondary neutrons in (n,2n), (n,np), and (n,nα) reactions. Revelant integral results, microscopic data, and nuclear model calculations that influence the revised results are summarized. 54 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  2. The Integration of Gasification Systems with Gas Engine by Developing Wet Tar Scrubbers and Gas Filter to Produce Electrical Energy from Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siregar Kiman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for energy especially biomass-based renewable energy continues to increase in Indonesia. The objective of this research was to design downdraft gasifier machine with high content of combustible gas on gas engine. Downdraft gasifier machine was adjusted with the synthetic gas produced from biomass. Besides that, the net energy ratio, net energy balance, renewable index, economic analysis and impact assessment also been conducted. Gas engine that was designed in this research had been installed with capacity of 25 kW with diameter and height of reactorwere 900 mm and 1 000 mm respectively. The method used here werethe design the Detailed Engineering Design, assembly, and performance test of gas engine. The result showed that gas engine for biomass can be operated for 8 h with performance engine of 84 % and capacity of 25 kW. Net energy balance, net energy ratio, and renewable index was 30 MJ/kW h electric; 0.89; 0.76 respectively. The value of GHG emission of Biomass Power Generation is 0.03 kg-CO2 eq per MJ. Electrical production cost for Biomass Power Generation is about IDR 1 500 per kW h which is cheaper than solar power generation which is about of IDR 3 300 per kW h.

  3. Coherent bremsstrahlung in crystals as a tool for producing high energy photon beams to be used in photoproduction experiments at CERN SPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilokon, H; D' Ettorre Piazzoli, B; Mannocchi, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati); Bologna, G; Picchi, P [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati); Celani, F; Falcioni, R [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati

    1983-01-01

    We recall the properties of coherent bremsstrahlung of high energy electrons in single crystals and show that a suitably oriented diamond crystal can produce a high energy bremsstrahlung beam whose quasimonochromatic spectral composition may be exploited for increasing the production rate in a photoproduction experiment at hundreds of GeV. A careful analysis of the required angular resolutions is performed. It turns out that the standard deviation of the electron beam angular divergence in one plane should be less than 0.3 mrad, for a beam energy of 150 GeV. The standard deviation in the perpendicular plane is not critical. In this situation the photoproduction rate in a typical case is increased by a factor of about 3 with respect to the conventional bremsstrahlung beam.

  4. Losing weight without dieting. Use of commercial foods as meal replacements for lunch produces an extended energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky, David A; Pacanowski, Carly

    2011-10-01

    High-protein liquid meal replacements have proven to be effective in reducing caloric intake and body weight. Recently, substituting high fiber breakfast cereals for the more expensive high-protein drinks has been found to be equally effective to reduce weight. The following study tested the hypothesis that the mechanism responsible for the reduced intake was not the dietary composition of the meal replacement, but the controlled portion sized meals. Seventeen volunteers ate all of their meals and snacks from foods provided by the research unit from Monday to Friday for five consecutive weeks. For the first week, all participants selected their food from a buffet where each food was weighed before and after eating. For the next two weeks, half of the group selected their lunch by choosing one food from a selection of six commercially available portion controlled foods. They could eat as much as they wished at other meals or snacks. For final weeks four and five, the conditions were reversed for the two groups. Consuming the portion controlled lunches resulted in about a 250 kcal reduction in energy intake. More importantly, no sign of caloric compensation was evident across the 10 days of testing, an observation substantiated by a significant loss of body weight. The results suggest that the mere substitution of one smaller portioned meal each day is sufficient to cause reduction in daily energy intake and a significant amount of weight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental assessment of food waste valorization in producing biogas for various types of energy use based on LCA approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, Kok Sin; Lo, Irene M C; Chiu, Sam L H; Yan, Dickson Y S

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the environmental impacts of valorizing food waste for three types of energy use, namely electricity and heat, city gas, and biogas fuel as a petrol, diesel, and liquefied petroleum gas substitute for vehicle use, with reference to the Hong Kong scenario. The life cycle based environmental assessment is conducted from bin-to-cradle system boundary via SimaPro 7.2.4 with ReCiPe 1.04. All of the inventory data of included processes is based on reports of government and industrial sectors. The results show that biogas fuel as a petrol substitute for vehicle use is advantageous over other types of energy use in regard to human health and ecosystems, and it is also the best considering the government's future emission reduction targets set out for the power and transport sectors in Hong Kong. By turning 1080 tonnes per day of food waste into biogas vehicle fuel as petrol substitute, it reduces 1.9% of greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sectors, which results a larger decrease of GHG emissions than the achieved mitigation in Hong Kong from 2005 to 2010. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Producing an integrated climate-land-energy-water (CLEW) model for glaciated regions in the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delman, E. M.; Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Growing concern over the impact of climate change on global freshwater resources has spurred a demand for practical, basin-specific adaptation tools. The potential for water stress is particularly inflated in the glaciated watersheds of the developing world; widespread and rapid glacial retreat has forced regional resource managers to reconcile the reality of a diminishing supply with an overall increase in demand, while accounting for the underlying geopolitical and cultural context. An integrated approach, such as the development of a Climate-Land-Energy-Water (CLEW) model that examines relationships among climate, land-use, and the energy and water sectors, can be used to assess the impact of different climate change scenarios on basin sustainability and vulnerability. This study will first constrain the hydrologic budget in the Río Santa Watershed of Peru using satellite imagery, historical and contemporary stream discharge data, hydrologic modeling, climatic data analysis, and isotopic and chemical tracers. Ultimately, glacier retreat will be examined at the watershed scale and be used as an input in the CLEW model framework to assess hydrologic budget scenarios and the subsequent impact on regional economic and environmental sustainability.

  7. Technological, economic and environmental evaluation of rice husk gasification in a biorefinery context to produce indirect energy as jet fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jacobo Jaramillo Obando

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Higher alcohol 1-octanol was evaluated as jet fuel potential. The synthesis of the 1-octanol was modeled and the technological, economic and environmental evaluation of the global production process of the rice husk gasification was performed. The best operating conditions to 1-octanol synthesis were obtained in packed bed reactor PBR using Matlab software. Mass and energy balances were calculated using Aspen Plus Software. Economic assessment was developed using Aspen Process Economic Analyzer Software. Environmental impact evaluation was carried out using the waste reduction algorithm WAR. Process yield was 0.83 kg of 1-Octanol by kg of rice husk. Total production cost obtained was USD 0.957 per kg of 1-octanol and the total PEI of product leave the system is 0.08142 PEI/kg with a PEI mitigated of 12.97 PEI/kg. Production process of high alcohols from rice husk shows a high potential technological, economical and environmental as a sustainable industry at take advantage of an agroindustrial residue and transformed in products with added value and energy. 1-octanol as jet fuel has a potential but need to be more studied for direct use in jet motors.

  8. Potentialities of energy generation from waste and feedstock produced by the agricultural sector in Brazil: The case of the State of Paraná

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Maria de Fátima dos Santos; Raiher, Augusta Pelinski

    2013-01-01

    The State of Paraná contributes significantly for the Brazilian production of sugar cane, ethanol, soybeans and pigs. In addition to the current production of ethanol, the State has a huge potential for electricity, biodiesel and biogas production. This paper presents an overview of the current situation regarding energy generation from the agricultural sector in the State, an assessment of the potentialities of energy generation from sugar cane residues and pig agricultural chains, as well as an analysis of the socioeconomic factors underlying the availability of feedstock for biodiesel production. This study has shown that it is possible to expand the energy supply in the State using residual biomass from the sugar cane and pig production. On the other side, the biodiesel production increase in the State will depend on the expansion in the consumption of products that use the cake as raw material; the increase in the feedstock availability other than canola, castor beans and sunflower; the increase of the number of family farmers as feedstock providers, so as to ensure access for biodiesel producers to the Social Fuel Stamp. - Highlights: • Potentialities of energy generation from agriculture at Paraná State were assessed. • Energy offer from the sugar cane sector will triple if residual biomass is used. • The use of pig production wastes can increase energy offer up to 103 GW h. • Paraná produces 25% of oil seeds and only 3% of the biodiesel in Brazil. • Economic factors explaining the low share of biodiesel production are pointed out

  9. Proton radiography of dynamic electric and magnetic fields in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Manuel, M.; Casey, D.; Sinenian, N.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Landen, O. L.; Rygg, J. R.; Town, R. P. J.; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Delettrez, J.; Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F.; Sangster, T. C.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Soures, J. M.; Shvarts, D.

    2009-01-01

    Time-gated, monoenergetic-proton radiography provides unique measurements of the electric (E) and magnetic (B) fields produced in laser-foil interactions and during the implosion of inertial-confinement-fusion capsules. These experiments resulted in the first observations of several new and important features: (1) observations of the generation, decay dynamics, and instabilities of megagauss B fields in laser-driven planar plastic foils, (2) the observation of radial E fields inside an imploding capsule, which are initially directed inward, reverse direction during deceleration, and are likely related to the evolution of the electron pressure gradient, and (3) the observation of many radial filaments with complex electromagnetic field striations in the expanding coronal plasmas surrounding the capsule. The physics behind and implications of such observed fields are discussed.

  10. Topological background on charmed and beauty particle pairs produced in high energy hadron interactions in nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, G.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates that by making use of the fact that new flavors must be produced in pairs in strong interactions and that beauty particles are expected to decay often into charmed particles, the contribution of background simulating decays can be computed from a pure topological point of view. Topics covered include the emulsion data, the search for charmed particles, the search for beauty particles, detection efficiency, and the evaluation of mean life-time. It is assumed that in the interaction of (350-400) GeV hadrons in emulsion the production rate of charmed particle pairs is 5X10 -3 /interaction. The corresponding figures for BB production are estimated to be 10 3 times smaller. It is noted that some neutral decay topology, like 4 or more charged prongs, are much less affected by background

  11. Assessing the strength of soil aggregates produced by two types of organic matter amendments using the ultrasonic energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhaolong; minasny, Budiman; Field, Damien; Angers, Denis

    2017-04-01

    The presence of organic matter (OM) is known to stimulate the formation of soil aggregates, but the aggregation strength may vary with different amount and type/quality of OM. Conventionally wet sieving method was used to assess the aggregates' strength. In this study, we wish to get insight of the effects of different types of C inputs on aggregate dynamics using quantifiable energy via ultrasonic agitation. A clay soil with an inherently low soil organic carbon (SOC) content, was amended with two different sources of organic matter (alfalfa, C:N = 16.7 and barley straw, C:N = 95.6) at different input levels (0, 10, 20, & 30 g C kg-1 soil). The soil's inherent macro aggregates were first destroyed via puddling. The soils were incubated in pots at moisture content 70% of field capacity for a period of 3 months. The pots were housed in a 1.2L sealed opaque plastic container. The CO2 generated during the incubation was captured by a vial of NaOH which was placed in each of the sealed containers and sampled per week. At 14, 28, 56, and 84 days, soil samples were collected and the change in aggregation was assessed using a combination of wet sieving and ultrasonic agitation. The relative strength of aggregates exposed to ultrasonic agitation was modelled using the aggregate disruption characteristic curve (ADCC) and soil dispersion characteristic curve (SDCC). Both residue quality and quantity of organic matter input influenced the amount of aggregates formed and their relative strength. The MWD of soils amended with alfalfa residues was greater than that of barley straw at lower input rates and early in the incubation. In the longer term, the use of ultrasonic energy revealed that barley straw resulted in stronger aggregates, especially at higher input rates despite showing similar MWD as alfalfa. The use of ultrasonic agitation, where we quantify the energy required to liberate and disperse aggregates allowed us to differentiate the effects of C inputs on the size of

  12. The influence of defects produced by high energy electrons on the electrical characteristics of p-n junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.; Van Dong, N.

    1961-01-01

    The life-time of minority carriers in semi-conductors is very sensitive to the presence of defects introduced by high-energy electrons. The formation of defects thus affects the short-circuiting current and the open circuit voltage of a p-n junction, these being dependent on the life-time. In the work presented, we have bombarded several types of germanium and silicon junctions with 2 MeV electrons from a Van der Graaff, and with β-particles from radioactive sources. The experiments were carried out both at ordinary temperatures and that of liquid air. In this latter case an anomaly in the electron-volt effect was found: the short-circuiting current and the voltage in vacuo, after an initial decrease, increase again and exceed their initial maximum value before once more decreasing. A qualitative interpretation of this abnormal effect is given. (author) [fr

  13. Metabolic reprogramming for producing energy and reducing power in fumarate hydratase null cells from hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youfeng Yang

    Full Text Available Fumarate hydratase (FH-deficient kidney cancer undergoes metabolic remodeling, with changes in mitochondrial respiration, glucose, and glutamine metabolism. These changes represent multiple biochemical adaptations in glucose and fatty acid metabolism that supports malignant proliferation. However, the metabolic linkages between altered mitochondrial function, nucleotide biosynthesis and NADPH production required for proliferation and survival have not been elucidated. To characterize the alterations in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the pentose phosphate pathways (PPP that either generate NADPH (oxidative or do not (non-oxidative, we utilized [U-(13C]-glucose, [U-(13C,(15N]-glutamine, and [1,2- (13C2]-glucose tracers with mass spectrometry and NMR detection to track these pathways, and measured the oxygen consumption rate (OCR and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR of growing cell lines. This metabolic reprogramming in the FH null cells was compared to cells in which FH has been restored. The FH null cells showed a substantial metabolic reorganization of their intracellular metabolic fluxes to fulfill their high ATP demand, as observed by a high rate of glucose uptake, increased glucose turnover via glycolysis, high production of glucose-derived lactate, and low entry of glucose carbon into the Krebs cycle. Despite the truncation of the Krebs cycle associated with inactivation of fumarate hydratase, there was a small but persistent level of mitochondrial respiration, which was coupled to ATP production from oxidation of glutamine-derived α-ketoglutarate through to fumarate. [1,2- (13C2]-glucose tracer experiments demonstrated that the oxidative branch of PPP initiated by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity is preferentially utilized for ribose production (56-66% that produces increased amounts of ribose necessary for growth and NADPH. Increased NADPH is required to drive reductive carboxylation of α-ketoglutarate and fatty acid

  14. Reconstruction of missing transverse energy and prospect of searching for Higgs boson produced via vector boson fusion in Compact Muon Solenoid experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pi, Haifeng

    2005-01-01

    We performed full detector simulation studies of missing transverse energy (Emiss T ) reconstruction and correction, and the prospects for searching for a low mass Higgs Boson (120 < mH < 250 GeV/c 2 ) produced via the vector boson fusion (VBF) process through the decay of H → W+W− → `νjj at Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment in Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We developed a new jet energy correction algorithm by parameterizing the jet energy distribution around the jet axis. The jet energy resolution is improved by calibrating the jet energy scale and by reducing the variance of the measurement error. Correction functions showed good performance in restoring the jet transverse momentum (pT) spectrum. The methods provide a good framework to study jet quantities and optimize jet reconstruction and correction techniques. We evaluated the performance of the CMS detector for measuring the Emiss T using QCD events. We also studied the contributions from detector resolution, minimum bias pileup, event...

  15. Surface deformation effects on stainless steel, Ni, Cu and Mo produced by medium energy He ions irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Florescu, V.; Sarbu, C.

    1993-01-01

    To investigate dose and energy dependence of surface deformation effects (blistering and flaking), different kinds of candidate CTR first wall materials as 12KH18N10T, W-4541, W-4016 and SS-304 stainless steels, Ni, Cu, Mo were irradiated at room temperature with 3.0, 4.7 and 6.8 MeV He + ions at IAP Cyclotron. The effects were investigated by means of a TEMSCAN 200 CX electron microscope and two metallographic Orthoplan Pol Leitz and Olympus microscopes. We observed two dose dependent main phenomena: blistering and flaking (craters). So, blisters occurrence on the irradiated surface is almost instantaneous when a critical dose (number of He ions accumulated in the region at the end of alpha particles range) is reached. Increasing irradiation dose, we reached flaking stage. So, isolated submicronic fissures along grain boundaries were observed on the blister skin, chronologically followed by large (5-20 μm) deep cracks of hundreds of microns in length, blisters opening and, finally, flaking appearance. (author) 8 figs., 1 tab

  16. First Report of Pseudobodo sp, a New Pathogen for a Potential Energy-Producing Algae: Chlorella vulgaris Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bangzhou; Yang, Luxi; Zhang, Huajun; Zhang, Jingyan; Li, Yi; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yun; Liu, Jingwen; Zheng, Tianling

    2014-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris, is a kind of single-celled green algae, which could serve as a potential source of food and energy because of its photosynthetic efficiency. In our study, a pathogenic organism targeting C. vulgaris was discovered. The algae-lytic activity relates to a fraction from lysates of infected C. vulgaris that was blocked upon filtration through a 3 µm filter. 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that it shared 99.0% homology with the protist Pseudobodo tremulans. Scanning electron microscope analysis showed that Pseudobodo sp. KD51 cells were approximately 4–5 µm long, biflagellate with an anterior collar around the anterior part of the cell in unstressed feeding cells. Besides the initial host, Pseudobodo sp. KD51 could also kill other algae, indicating its relatively wide predatory spectrum. Heat stability, pH and salinity tolerance experiments were conducted to understand their effects on its predatory activities, and the results showed that Pseudobodo sp. KD51 was heat-sensitive, and pH and salinity tolerant. PMID:24599263

  17. First report of Pseudobodo sp, a new pathogen for a potential energy-producing algae: Chlorella vulgaris cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangran Chen

    Full Text Available Chlorella vulgaris, is a kind of single-celled green algae, which could serve as a potential source of food and energy because of its photosynthetic efficiency. In our study, a pathogenic organism targeting C. vulgaris was discovered. The algae-lytic activity relates to a fraction from lysates of infected C. vulgaris that was blocked upon filtration through a 3 µm filter. 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that it shared 99.0% homology with the protist Pseudobodo tremulans. Scanning electron microscope analysis showed that Pseudobodo sp. KD51 cells were approximately 4-5 µm long, biflagellate with an anterior collar around the anterior part of the cell in unstressed feeding cells. Besides the initial host, Pseudobodo sp. KD51 could also kill other algae, indicating its relatively wide predatory spectrum. Heat stability, pH and salinity tolerance experiments were conducted to understand their effects on its predatory activities, and the results showed that Pseudobodo sp. KD51 was heat-sensitive, and pH and salinity tolerant.

  18. The mechanism of producing energy-polarization entangled photon pairs in the cavity-quantum electrodynamics scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu Chang-Gan; Xin Xia; Liu Yu-Min; Yu Zhong-Yuan; Yao Wen-Jie; Wang Dong-Lin; Cao Gui

    2012-01-01

    We investigate theoretically two photon entanglement processes in a photonic-crystal cavity embedding a quantum dot in the strong-coupling regime. The model proposed by Johne et al. (Johne R, Gippius N A, Pavlovic G, Solnyshkov D D, Shelykh I A and Malpuech G 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 240404), and by Robert et al. (Robert J, Gippius N A and Malpuech G 2009 Phys. Rev. B 79 155317) is modified by considering irreversible dissipation and incoherent continuous pumping for the quantum dot, which is necessary to connect the realistic experiment. The dynamics of the system is analysed by employing the Born—Markov master equation, through which the spectra for the system are computed as a function of various parameters. By means of this analysis the photon-reabsorption process in the strong-coupling regime is first observed and analysed from the perspective of radiation spectrum and the optimal parameters for observing energy-entangled photon pairs are identified. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  19. Si-FeSi2/C nanocomposite anode materials produced by two-stage high-energy mechanical milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun Mo; Loka, Chadrasekhar; Kim, Dong Phil; Joo, Sin Yong; Moon, Sung Whan; Choi, Yi Sik; Park, Jung Han; Lee, Kee-Sun

    2017-05-01

    High capacity retention Silicon-based nanocomposite anode materials have been extensively explored for use in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. Here we report the preparation of Si-FeSi2/C nanocomposite through scalable a two-stage high-energy mechanical milling process, in which nano-scale Si-FeSi2 powders are besieged by the carbon (graphite/amorphous phase) layer; and investigation of their structure, morphology and electrochemical performance. Raman analysis revealed that the carbon layer structure comprised of graphitic and amorphous phase rather than a single amorphous phase. Anodes fabricated with the Si-FeSi2/C showed excellent electrochemical behavior such as a first discharge capacity of 1082 mAh g-1 and a high capacity retention until the 30th cycle. A remarkable coulombic efficiency of 99.5% was achieved within a few cycles. Differential capacity plots of the Si-FeSi2/C anodes revealed a stable lithium reaction with Si for lithiation/delithiation. The enhanced electrochemical properties of the Si-FeSi2/C nanocomposite are mainly attributed to the nano-size Si and stable solid electrolyte interface formation and highly conductive path driven by the carbon layer.

  20. Solid-solid and gas-solid interactions induced during high-energy milling to produce PbTe nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Chavez, H., E-mail: rojas_hugo@ittlahuac2.edu.mx [Instituto Tecnologico de Tlahuac - II (Mexico); Reyes-Carmona, F. [Facultad de Quimica - UNAM (Mexico); Garibay-Febles, V. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Laboratorio de Microscopia Electronica de Ultra Alta Resolucion (Mexico); Jaramillo-Vigueras, D. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica - IPN (Mexico)

    2013-05-15

    Transformations from precursors to nanoparticles by high-energy milling are promoted by two major driving forces, namely physical and/or chemical. While the former has been difficult to trace since stress, strain and recovery may occur almost simultaneously during milling, the latter has been sequentially followed as an evolution from precursors to intermediate phases and thereof to high purity nanocrystals. The specific objective of this work is to discern how solid-solid and partially solid-gas reactions manifest themselves correspondingly as a short-range diffusion through an interface or how vapor species, as a subliming phenomenon, grows as a different phase on an active local surface. These series of changes were traced by sub-cooling the as-milled powders extracted during a milling cycle. Through this experimental technique, samples were electron microscopically analyzed and where it was required, selected area electron diffraction images were obtained. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy results, unambiguously, confirm that nanocrystals in the last stage show a cubic morphology which average size distributions are around 17 nm.

  1. Characterisation and dissolution of depleted uranium aerosols produced during impacts of kinetic energy penetrators against a tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chazel, V.; Gerasimo, P.; Debouis, V.; Laroche, P.; Paquet, F

    2003-07-01

    Aerosols produced during impacts of depleted uranium (DU) penetrators against the glacis (sloping armour) and the turret of a tank were sampled. The concentration and size distribution were determined. Activity median aerodynamic diameters were 1 {mu}m (geometric standard deviation, s{sub g} = 3.7) and 2 {mu}m (s{sub g} = 2.5), respectively, for glacis and turret. The mean air concentration was 120 Bq m{sup -3}, i.e. 8.5 mg m{sup -3} of DU. Filters analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X ray diffraction showed two types of particles (fine particles and large molten particles) composed mainly of a mixture of uranium and aluminium. The uranium oxides were mostly U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, UO{sub 2.25} and probably UO{sub 3.01} and a mixed compound of U and Al. The kinetics of dissolution in three media (HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, HCl and Gamble's solution) were determined using in-vitro tests. The slow dissolution rates were respectively slow, and intermediate between slow and moderate, and the rapid dissolution fractions were mostly intermediate between moderate and fast. According to the in-vitro results for Gamble's solution, and based on a hypothetical single acute inhalation of 90 Bq, effective doses integrated up to 1 y after incorporation were 0.54 and 0.56 mSv respectively, for aerosols from glacis and turret. In comparison, the ICRP limits are 20 mSv y{sup -1} for workers and 1 mSv y{sup -1} for members of public. A kidney concentration of approximately 0.1 {mu}g U g{sup -1} was predicted and should not, in this case, lead to kidney damage. (author)

  2. Characterisation and dissolution of depleted uranium aerosols produced during impacts of kinetic energy penetrators against a tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazel, V.; Gerasimo, P.; Debouis, V.; Laroche, P.; Paquet, F.

    2003-01-01

    Aerosols produced during impacts of depleted uranium (DU) penetrators against the glacis (sloping armour) and the turret of a tank were sampled. The concentration and size distribution were determined. Activity median aerodynamic diameters were 1 μm (geometric standard deviation, s g = 3.7) and 2 μm (s g = 2.5), respectively, for glacis and turret. The mean air concentration was 120 Bq m -3 , i.e. 8.5 mg m -3 of DU. Filters analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X ray diffraction showed two types of particles (fine particles and large molten particles) composed mainly of a mixture of uranium and aluminium. The uranium oxides were mostly U 3 O 8 , UO 2.25 and probably UO 3.01 and a mixed compound of U and Al. The kinetics of dissolution in three media (HCO 3 - , HCl and Gamble's solution) were determined using in-vitro tests. The slow dissolution rates were respectively slow, and intermediate between slow and moderate, and the rapid dissolution fractions were mostly intermediate between moderate and fast. According to the in-vitro results for Gamble's solution, and based on a hypothetical single acute inhalation of 90 Bq, effective doses integrated up to 1 y after incorporation were 0.54 and 0.56 mSv respectively, for aerosols from glacis and turret. In comparison, the ICRP limits are 20 mSv y -1 for workers and 1 mSv y -1 for members of public. A kidney concentration of approximately 0.1 μg U g -1 was predicted and should not, in this case, lead to kidney damage. (author)

  3. Characterisation and dissolution of depleted uranium aerosols produced during impacts of kinetic energy penetrators against a tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazel, V; Gerasimo, P; Dabouis, V; Laroche, P; Paquet, F

    2003-01-01

    Aerosols produced during impacts of depleted uranium (DU) penetrators against the glacis (sloping armour) and the turret of a tank were sampled. The concentration and size distribution were determined. Activity median aerodynamic diameters were 1 microm (geometric standard deviation, sigma(g) = 3.7) and 2 microm (sigma(g) = 2.5), respectively, for glacis and turret. The mean air concentration was 120 Bq m(-3), i.e. 8.5 mg m(-3) of DU. Filters analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X ray diffraction showed two types of particles (fine particles and large molten particles) composed mainly of a mixture of uranium and aluminium. The uranium oxides were mostly U3O8, UO2.25 and probably UO3.01 and a mixed compound of U and Al. The kinetics of dissolution in three media (HCO3-, HCl and Gamble's solution) were determined using in-vitro tests. The slow dissolution rates were respectively slow, and intermediate between slow and moderate, and the rapid dissolution fractions were mostly intermediate between moderate and fast. According to the in-vitro results for Gamble's solution, and based on a hypothetical single acute inhalation of 90 Bq, effective doses integrated up to 1 y after incorporation were 0.54 and 0.56 mSv, respectively, for aerosols from glacis and turret. In comparison, the ICRP limits are 20 mSv y(-1) for workers and 1 mSv y(-1) for members of the public. A kidney concentration of approximately 0.1 microg U g(-1) was predicted and should not, in this case, lead to kidney damage.

  4. Possible involvement of mitochondrial energy-producing ability in the development of right ventricular failure in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daicho, Takuya; Yagi, Tatsuya; Abe, Yohei; Ohara, Meiko; Marunouchi, Tetsuro; Takeo, Satoshi; Tanonaka, Kouichi

    2009-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the possible involvement of alterations in the mitochondrial energy-producing ability in the development of the right ventricular failure in monocrotaline-administered rats. The rats at the 6th week after subcutaneous injection of 60 mg/kg monocrotaline revealed marked myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis, that is, severe cardiac remodeling. The time-course study on the cardiac hemodynamics of the monocrotaline-administered rat by the cannula and echocardiographic methods showed a reduction in cardiac double product, a decrease in cardiac output index, and an increase in the right ventricular Tei index, suggesting that the right ventricular failure was induced at the 6th week after monocrotaline administration in rats. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate of the right ventricular muscle isolated from the monocrotaline-administered animal was decreased, which was associated with a reduction in myocardial high-energy phosphates. Furthermore, the decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate was inversely related to the increase in the right ventricular Tei index of the monocrotaline-administered rats. These results suggest that impairment of the mitochondrial energy-producing ability is involved in the development of the right ventricular failure in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertensive rats.

  5. Fermi LAT Observation of Diffuse Gamma-Rays Produced through Interactions Between Local Interstellar Matter and High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A.A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Federal City Coll.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, T.H.; /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /Milan Polytechnic /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U., OKC /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /NASA, Goddard /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /George Mason U. /NASA, Goddard /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /ASDC, Frascati /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Trieste /Hiroshima U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /INFN, Bari; /more authors..

    2012-03-30

    Observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi mission of diffuse {gamma}-rays in a mid-latitude region in the third quadrant (Galactic longitude l from 200{sup o} to 260{sup o} and latitude |b| from 22{sup o} to 60{sup o}) are reported. The region contains no known large molecular cloud and most of the atomic hydrogen is within 1 kpc of the solar system. The contributions of {gamma}-ray point sources and inverse Compton scattering are estimated and subtracted. The residual {gamma}-ray intensity exhibits a linear correlation with the atomic gas column density in energy from 100 MeV to 10 GeV. The measured integrated {gamma}-ray emissivity is (1.63 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup -26} photons s{sup -1}sr{sup -1} H-atom{sup -1} and (0.66 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup -26} photons s{sup -1}sr{sup -1} H-atom{sup -1} above 100 MeV and above 300 MeV, respectively, with an additional systematic error of {approx}10%. The differential emissivity from 100 MeV to 10 GeV agrees with calculations based on cosmic ray spectra consistent with those directly measured, at the 10% level. The results obtained indicate that cosmic ray nuclei spectra within 1 kpc from the solar system in regions studied are close to the local interstellar spectra inferred from direct measurements at the Earth within {approx}10%.

  6. Use of Multibeam and Dual-Beam Sonar Systems to Observe Cavitating Flow Produced by Ferryboats: In a Marine Renewable Energy Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Francisco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With the prospect to deploy hydrokinetic energy converters in areas with heavy boat traffic, a study was conducted to observe and assess the depth range of cavitating flow produced by ferryboats in narrow channels. This study was conducted in the vicinity of Finnhamn Island in Stockholm Archipelago. The objectives of the survey were to assess whether the sonar systems were able to observe and measure the depth of what can be cavitating flow (in a form of convected cloud cavitation produced by one specific type of ferryboats frequently operating in that route, as well as investigate if the cavitating flow within the wake would propagate deep enough to disturb the water column underneath the surface. A multibeam and a dual-beam sonar systems were used as measurement instruments. The hypothesis was that strong and deep wake can disturb the optimal operation of a hydrokinetic energy converter, therefore causing damages to its rotors and hydrofoils. The results showed that both sonar system could detect cavitating flows including its strength, part of the geometrical shape and propagation depth. Moreover, the boat with a propeller thruster produced cavitating flow with an intense core reaching 4 m of depth while lasting approximately 90 s. The ferry with waterjet thruster produced a less intense cavitating flow; the core reached depths of approximately 6 m, and lasted about 90 s. From this study, it was concluded that multibeam and dual-beam sonar systems with operating frequencies higher than 200 kHz were able to detect cavitating flows in real conditions, as long as they are properly deployed and the data properly analyzed.

  7. Agriculture 2008. The critical agrarian report. Main topic 2008: Agriculture as an energy producer; Landwirtschaft 2008. Der kritische Agrarbericht. Schwerpunkt 2008: Landwirtschaft als Energieerzeuger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.; Fink-Kessler, A.; Stodieck, F. (comps.)

    2008-01-15

    The focus of the critical agrarian report in this year is the topic 'agriculture as an energy producer'. In 44 contributions, the agrarian events of the year 2007 are analyzed and the setting the points for the future are discussed. The topics of this report are: Agricultural policy and social situation, world trade and nutrition, ecological agriculture, production and market, regional market, regional development, nature and environment, forest, animal protection and animal husbandry, genetic engineering, agrarian culture, consumer and nourishing culture.

  8. A study of events with large total transverse energy produced in proton-antiproton collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekarz, H.

    1994-09-01

    Properties of events originating from proton-antiproton interactions in which the total transverse energy, Σ|E T |, of the event exceeded 400 GeV are presented. These events were produced at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider operating at a center-of-mass energy of 1.8 TeV and recorded in the D0 detector. The authors describe their analysis method which minimizes the effect of multiple interactions in the data sample. Based on a data sample of 5.45 ± 0.65 pb -1 , the topology of these hard scattering events as well as preliminary results for the cross-section, dσ/dΣ|E T |, are presented and discussed

  9. Energetic, exergetic and economic analysis of an innovative Solar CombiSystem (SCS) producing thermal and electric energies: Application in residential and tertiary households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazami, Majdi; Mehdaoui, Farah; Naili, Nabiha; Noro, Marco; Lazzarin, Renato; Guizani, AmenAllah

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The present work studies the potential of using innovative SCS in Tunisia. • In cold months the SCS provide about 50–75% of the total exergy provides. • The SCS produces between 70–150% of electric energy needs. • The SCS payback period (Pb) based on electric water heater was 10.2 years. • The SCS payback period (Pb) based on gas/gas town was about and 8.7 years. - Abstract: The endeavor of this paper is to study of the potential offered by the expenditure of an innovative Solar CombiSystem, SCS, used for the space heating load, the domestic hot water supply and the electric energy production. The investigation achieved in this work was based on an experimental and a simulation studies. A TRNSYS simulation program was achieved in order to evaluate the SCS monthly/annual thermal and electric performances. It was found that the proposed SCS covered between 20 and 45% of the SH energy needs by considering only solar energy. The result shows also that the SCS provided from 40 to 70% of the total DHW needs. It was also found that the SCS electric production ranged between 32 and 225 MJ/m 2 with a gain factor varying between 49 and 125%. An economic appraisal was also achieved to appraise the SCS feasibility. The results of the economic analysis show that the annual energy saved (ARE) and the payback period (Pb) based on electric water heater were respectively equal to 7618.3 kW h/year and 10.2 years. It was found that ARE and Pb based on gas/gas town were about 5825 m 3 and 8.7 years, respectively. The results of the economic analysis shows that the adoption of the SCS saves about 48% of electric energy and about 46% of gas/gas town kept back by the conventional system.

  10. Energy losses produced by differential currents in the metallic ducts of electric installations; Perdidas de energia producidas por corrientes diferenciales en la tuberia metalica de instalaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero L, Eduardo; Bratu S, Neagu; Marquez M, Luis; Caballero R, Rafael [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    In this article it is explained what is known as differential currents and the conditions in which they appear in the electrical installations. A short outline is made on the magnetic induction phenomenon that appears in metallic conduits, due to the circulation of differential currents along the inside of the tube and that in turn produces energy losses in the form of heat, that is dissipated in the tube surrounding environment. The results of the measurements performed in the laboratory are shown in order to quantify the energy losses in the metallic conduit. It was found that for certain conditions these losses are significant. [Espanol] En este articulo se explica lo que se entiende por corrientes diferenciales y se describen las condiciones en las que estas aparecen en las instalaciones electricas. Se plantea brevemente el fenomeno de induccion magnetica que aparece en las tuberias metalicas, debido a la circulacion de corrientes diferenciales por el interior del tubo y que a su vez produce perdidas de energia en forma de calor, que se disipa en el ambiente que rodea al tubo. Se muestran los resultados de las mediciones que se llevaron a cabo en laboratorio para poder cuantificar las perdidas en tuberia metalica conduit. Se encontro que para ciertas condiciones estas perdidas son significativas.

  11. Identification and characterization of an anaerobic ethanol-producing cellulolytic bacterial consortium from Great Basin hot springs with agricultural residues and energy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Deng, Yunjin; Wang, Xingna; Li, Qiuzhe; Huang, Yifan; Liu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    In order to obtain the cellulolytic bacterial consortia, sediments from Great Basin hot springs (Nevada, USA) were sampled and enriched with cellulosic biomass as the sole carbon source. The bacterial composition of the resulting anaerobic ethanol-producing celluloytic bacterial consortium, named SV79, was analyzed. With methods of the full-length 16S rRNA librarybased analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 21 bacteria belonging to eight genera were detected from this consortium. Clones with closest relation to the genera Acetivibrio, Clostridium, Cellulosilyticum, Ruminococcus, and Sporomusa were predominant. The cellulase activities and ethanol productions of consortium SV79 using different agricultural residues (sugarcane bagasse and spent mushroom substrate) and energy crops (Spartina anglica, Miscanthus floridulus, and Pennisetum sinese Roxb) were studied. During cultivation, consortium SV79 produced the maximum filter paper activity (FPase, 9.41 U/ml), carboxymethylcellulase activity (CMCase, 6.35 U/ml), and xylanase activity (4.28 U/ml) with sugarcane bagasse, spent mushroom substrate, and S. anglica, respectively. The ethanol production using M. floridulus as substrate was up to 2.63 mM ethanol/g using gas chromatography analysis. It has high potential to be a new candidate for producing ethanol with cellulosic biomass under anoxic conditions in natural environments.

  12. Angular distribution of thick-target bremsstrahlung produced by electrons with initial energies ranging from 10 to 20 keV incident on Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, D.; Cavness, B.; Williams, S. [Department of Physics, Angelo State University, San Angelo, Texas 76909 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Experimental results are presented comparing the intensities of the bremsstrahlung produced by electrons with initial energies ranging from 10 to 20 keV incident on a thick Ag target, measured at forward angles in the range of 0 degree sign to 55 degree sign . When the data are corrected for attenuation due to photon absorption within the target, the results indicate that the detected radiation is distributed anisotropically only at photon energies k that are approximately equal to the initial energy of the incident electrons E{sub 0}. The results of our experiments suggest that, as k/E{sub 0}{yields} 0, the detected radiation essentially becomes isotropic due primarily to the scattering of electrons within the target. A comparison to the theory of Kissel et al.[At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 28, 381 (1983)] suggests that the angular distribution of bremsstrahlung emitted by electrons incident on thick targets is similar to the angular distribution of bremsstrahlung emitted by electrons incident on free-atom targets only when k/E{sub 0}{approx_equal} 1. The experimental data also are in approximate agreement with the angular distribution predictions of the Monte Carlo program penelope.

  13. BioCO2 - a multidisciplinary, biological approach using solar energy to capture CO2 while producing H2 and high value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjånes, Kari; Lindblad, Peter; Muller, Jiri

    2007-10-01

    Many areas of algae technology have developed over the last decades, and there is an established market for products derived from algae, dominated by health food and aquaculture. In addition, the interest for active biomolecules from algae is increasing rapidly. The need for CO(2) management, in particular capture and storage is currently an important technological, economical and global political issue and will continue to be so until alternative energy sources and energy carriers diminish the need for fossil fuels. This review summarizes in an integrated manner different technologies for use of algae, demonstrating the possibility of combining different areas of algae technology to capture CO(2) and using the obtained algal biomass for various industrial applications thus bringing added value to the capturing and storage processes. Furthermore, we emphasize the use of algae in a novel biological process which produces H(2) directly from solar energy in contrast to the conventional CO(2) neutral biological methods. This biological process is a part of the proposed integrated CO(2) management scheme.

  14. 10 lessons learned by a misguided physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Barry E

    2017-07-01

    It was a great and humbling honor to receive the 2016 Distinguished Career Award from my SSIB colleagues. This paper summarizes the major points of my DCA talk at the 2016 annual meeting. It is a reflection on my 50year medical and research career and 10 lessons I have learned over those years which might be of help to young investigators near the beginning of their own research careers. These lessons include: the value of being receptive to the opportunities provided you; how clinician-scientists can serve as critical role models for young investigators like me and a history of how my career developed as a result of their influence; the importance of carefully examining your own data, particularly when it doesn't agree with your preconceived ideas; the critical role that students, postdocs and PhD (and even veterinarian) colleagues can play in developing one's career; the likelihood that your career path will have many interesting twists and turns determined by changes in your own scientific interests and how rewarding various areas of research focus are to you; the importance of building a close-knit laboratory staff family; the fact that science and romance can mix. Finally, I offer 3 somewhat self-evident free pieces of advice for building and maintaining a rewarding career. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparing environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy – A life cycle perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vries, J.W.; Vinken, T.M.W.J; Hamelin, Lorie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy, from a life cycle perspective. This included assessing environmental impacts and land use change emissions (LUC) required to replace used co-substrates for an...... (up to 568%), but at expense of increasing climate change (through LUC), marine eutrophication, and land use. Codigestion with wastes or residues like roadside grass gave the best environmental performance.......-substrates for anaerobic digestion. Environmental impact categories considered were climate change, terrestrial acidification, marine and freshwater eutrophication, particulate matter formation, land use, and fossil fuel depletion. Six scenarios were evaluated: mono-digestion of manure, co-digestion with: maize silage...

  16. Study of a neutron producing target via the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction near its energy threshold for BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlon, Alejandro; Kreiner, Andres J.; Debray, Mario E.; Stoliar, Pablo; Kesque, Jose M.; Naab, Fabian; Ozafran, Mabel J.; Schuff, Juan; Vazquez, Monica; Caraballo, Maria E.; Valda, Alejandro; Somacal, Hector; Davidson, Miguel; Davidson, Jorge

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of Accelerator Based BNCT (AB-BNCT) the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction near its energy threshold is one of the most promising. In this work a thick LiF target irradiated with a proton beam was studied as a neutron source. The 1.88-2.0 MeV proton beam was produced by the tandem accelerator TANDAR at CNEA's facilities in Buenos Aires. A water-filled phantom, containing a boron sample was irradiated with the resulting neutron beam. The boron neutron capture reaction produces a 0.478 MeV gamma ray in 94 % of the cases. The neutron yield was monitored by detecting this gamma ray using a germanium detector with an 'anti-Compton' shield. Moreover, the thermal neutron flux was evaluated at different depths inside the phantom using bare and Cd-covered gold foils. A maximum neutron thermal flux of 1.4 x 10 8 1/(cm 2 -s-mA) was obtained at 4.2 cm from the phantom surface. (author)

  17. An innovative apparatus provided with a cutting auger for producing short logs for biomass energy from fast-growing tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colorio, G.; Tomasone, R.; Cedrola, C.; Pagano, M.; Pochi, D.; Fanigliulo, R.; Sperandio, G. [Council for Research in Agriculture, Agricultural Engineering Research Unit, Rome (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a new cutting mechanism that cuts fresh wood into small pieces instead of wood chips in order to avoid the problem of fermentation that occurs in storage. The prototype cutting device performs a gradual and oblique cut. It consists of a large auger in which a knife is inserted on the outer edge of the helicoid. Tree trunks up to 20 cm in diameter are fed perpendicularly into the machine and are pushed along the axis where slices are cut off against a fixed sharp-edged counter blade. The cylinder enclosing the auger is the main frame of the machine, and is closed at one end, where a heavy flywheel delivers the energy coming from the tractor's power take-off (PTO). The wood pieces ranging in length from 4 to 19 cm exit through the opposite end. The auger is 700 mm in diameter with a 300 mm pitch spacing. The logs are pushed into the machine by counter-rotating rollers placed in the feed funnel. Tests were conducted to determine the operative performance and power requirements of the machine. The cutting method requires less power compared to wood chipping machines. Work capacity is greater when producing slices instead of chips and the system produces less noise and fewer vibrations. The auger reaches a constant velocity of 200 RPM and can easily cut fresh wood of different species.

  18. Producing explicit UPSILON flavor in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation at DORIS energies. [neutral currents, cross section, signature, 15 to 20 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genz, H [Karlsruhe Univ. (TH) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Kernphysik; Gorn, M [Karlsruhe Univ. (TH) (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-07-31

    If the neutral currents changing the flavor implicit in the UPSILON(9.5) are not suppressed, vector mesons with explicit UPSILON flavor should be produced in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation at up to two e/sup +/e/sup -/ energies between ..sqrt..s approximately 5 - 6.5 GeV with a cross section sigma (peak, averaged over 7 MeV beam resolution) approximately 0.25% of sigma(e/sup +/e/sup -/..--> mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/). The signature would be monochromatic ..gamma.. lines with Esub(..gamma..)approximately 50-150 MeV, probably together with K production. Explicit flavor of a (anti QQ)sub(V) at 30 GeV would be produced at ..sqrt..s approximately 15-16 and ..sqrt..s approximately 20 GeV with sigmasup(averaged)sub(peak) approximately 3% and 5% of sigmasub(..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/) with GAMMAsub(beam) = 27 and 48 MeV, respectively. The signature would be the same as above.

  19. Transportation Energy - Sandia Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Energy Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Menu Stationary Power solar Energy Conversion Efficiency Increasing the amount of electricity produced from a given thermal energy input. Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2

  20. Energy Research - Sandia Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Energy Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Menu Stationary Power solar Energy Conversion Efficiency Increasing the amount of electricity produced from a given thermal energy input. Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2

  1. RESEARCH ISSUES REGARDING THE MAIN INDICATORS USED FOR ANALYSING THE INCOMES AND COSTS OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCERS OPERATING IN ROMANIA IN VIEW OF DEVELOPING A DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Paulina BOTEZATU; Cezar BOTEZATU; George CARUTASU; Alexandru PÎRJAN

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have analysed the main indicators regarding the incomes and costs of the renewable energy producers, indicators that a Decision Support System must take into account for when predicting, analysing and monitoring the technological and business processes in the field of energy produced from renewable sources in Romania. The results presented in this paper represent a part of the research conducted within the SIPAMER project ("Sistem Inteligent pentru Predicţia, Analiza și Moni...

  2. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  3. X-ray short-time lags in the Fe-K energy band produced by scattering clouds in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Misaki; Done, Chris; Hagino, Kouichi; Ebisawa, Ken; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Odaka, Hirokazu

    2018-05-01

    X-rays illuminating the accretion disc in active galactic nuclei give rise to an iron K line and its associated reflection spectrum which are lagged behind the continuum variability by the light-travel time from the source to the disc. The measured lag timescales in the iron band can be as short as ˜Rg/c, where Rg is the gravitational radius, which is often interpreted as evidence for a very small continuum source close to the event horizon of a rapidly spinning black hole. However, the short lags can also be produced by reflection from more distant material, because the primary photons with no time-delay dilute the time-lags caused by the reprocessed photons. We perform a Monte-Carlo simulation to calculate the dilution effect in the X-ray reverberation lags from a half-shell of neutral material placed at 100 Rg from the central source. This gives lags of ˜2 Rg/c, but the iron line is a distinctly narrow feature in the lag-energy plot, whereas the data often show a broader line. We show that both the short lag and the line broadening can be reproduced if the scattering material is outflowing at ˜0.1c. The velocity structure in the wind can also give shifts in the line profile in the lag-energy plot calculated at different frequencies. Hence we propose that the observed broad iron reverberation lags and shifts in profile as a function of frequency of variability can arise from a disc wind at fairly large distances from the X-ray source.

  4. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  5. Isotopic distribution of Rb, In and Cs, produced in interactions of high energy protons, deuterons and alpha particles with Ta nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, S.P.; Karnaukhov, V.A.; Korovin, G.Yu.; Kuznetsov, V.D.; Nad', T.; Petrov, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to clarify how the isotopical distribution form of deep fissaon products depends on the type of the bombarding particles. Isotopical distributions of Rb, In, Cs, produced at interactions of protons, deuterons ( 8 GeV) and α particles (15.2 GeV) with Ta nuclei are measured by means of the ''off-line'' mass separation. The isotopical distributions are obtained by the experimentally measured yields directly without complex procedure of processing necessary for transition to the charge distribution. It was found that neither the position of the maximum, nor the shape of the curve are changed essentially at variation of the projectile. In all the cases the relative behaviour of the distribution is in a qualitative agreement with the calculations based upon the semiempirical formula by Rudstam. For indium the mesurements are performed also with the proton beam of energy 0.66 GeV. In this case the shape of the isotopic distribution is influenced by the fission process [ru

  6. Effect of Annealing to the Formation of The 123 Phase YBa2Cu3O7-x Superconductor Produced by High Energy Milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didin S Winatapura; Yustinus P, Wisnu A.A; Sukirman, E.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of annealing to the formation of 123 phase YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x superconductor produced by high energy milling (HEM) has been investigated. The milling process by using HEM method was performed for 30 hours, and followed by annealing at 500 o C, 600 o C, and 700 o C for 10 hours. The phase quality and quantity inside the specimen was measured by X-rays diffraction technique (XRD), and analyzed using Rietveld method. The microstructure of the specimen was observed with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and electric property of the specimen was measured with four point probe. The result showed that the milling for 30 hours caused the deformation and partial decomposition of 123 phase resulting in another phase. The anneal effect caused the recrystallization process of decomposed 123 phase in such away that reformed 123 phase having finer crystallite size. According to the calculation using the Hall-Williamson's equation, the diameter of the crystallite size, D was obtained of about 496 Armstrong for milled specimen, and D ∼ 1,714 Armstrong for sintered specimen. By decreasing the 123 phase grain size, the intergrain contact surface became larger. It means that the intergrain link of 123 phase became stronger. The critical current (density) of milled specimen was obtained as J c ∼23.74 A.cm -2 , and J c ∼ 3.18 A.cm -2 for sintered specimen. Thus, the transport current that flowed intergrain inside 123 phase increased.(author)

  7. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Object of sciences and technologies, energy plays a major part in economics and relations between nations. Jean-Louis Bobin, physicist, analyses the relations between man and energy and wonders about fears that delivers nowadays technologies bound to nuclear energy and about the fear of a possible shortage of energy resources. (N.C.). 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Utilization possibilities of palm shell as a source of biomass energy in Malaysia by producing bio-oil in pyrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnisa, Faisal; Daud, W.M.A. Wan; Husin, W.N.W.; Sahu, J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture residues such as palm shell are one of the biomass categories that can be utilized for conversion to bio-oil by using pyrolysis process. Palm shells were pyrolyzed in a fluidized-bed reactor at 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800 o C with N 2 as carrier gas at flow rate 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 L/min. The objective of the present work is to determine the effects of temperature, flow rate of N 2 , particle size and reaction time on the optimization of production of renewable bio-oil from palm shell. According to this study the maximum yield of bio-oil (47.3 wt%) can be obtained, working at the medium level for the operation temperature (500 o C) and 2 L/min of N 2 flow rate at 60 min reaction time. Temperature is the most important factor, having a significant positive effect on yield product of bio-oil. The oil was characterized by Fourier Transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. -- Highlights: → This study reports the results of experimental investing of conversion palm shell into bio-oil by using pyrolysis and to find the optimum condition to produce the highest yield of bio-oil. → Several parameters which have effect to the process such as temperature, N 2 flow rate, reaction time and particle size is will be investigated in this study. → The outcome of this result will be important for abatement and control of increasingly waste palm shell storage problems any energy source to the world.

  9. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  10. Development of producing equipment of mixed butane-air with low dew point. Energy saving dewatering apparatus and 6A-Gas producing apparatus utilizing vaporization latent heat of butane and potential heat of air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komine, Jin; Okada, Hiroto; Taniue, Nobuo; Tanoue, Keiju; Yamada, Tatsuhiko; Maekawa, Hisami; Murakami, Keiji

    1988-02-10

    A producing equipment of mixed butane-air with low dew point was developed. The dewatering was made during the period from the middle of May to the middle of October with high atmospheric humidity. The production capacity of the mixed gas is 3000 Nm/sup 3/ of 22% of butane and 78% of air per hour. The designed dew point is 18/sup 0/C or less under the pressure of 0.7 kg/cm/sup 2/G. The saturation temperature is 7.5/sup 0/C after the liquid butane is evacuated by a regulating valve. The air introduced into the dehumidifier through finned tubes is cooled to dewater based on those data. The partially vaporized butane is completely gasified by hot water in a vaporizer and mixed with the dewatered air by a venture mixer to produce the mixed butane-air. When the dewatering is incomplete, the spray nozzle must be just exchanged. The dew point of the produced gas was sufficiently below the designed value. The investment cost is low. The total operating cost is reduced by the remarkably decreased fuel cost though the power cost is increased. The noise level is low and the heat control is easy. (11 figs, 4 tabs, 1 photo)

  11. CARAIBES: the use of a relational data base management system framework to take account radioactive waste produced by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantera, L.

    2008-01-01

    The French nuclear waste regulation requires the classification of nuclear waste into several categories according to the radioactive activity and the nature of the isotopes. The research carried out in the laboratories of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) only generates nuclear waste belonging to categories A and B. The waste from category A is divided into two sub-categories: Very Low Level Activity and Low Activity. The waste from category B corresponds to Intermediate Level Activity. According to this classification, a set of constraints to be respected for the processing of the packaging has been established in order to authorize the storage in a final surface repository. These constraints are very drastic and the repositories are managed by an independent institute: the facilities sending the waste to the repositories are regularly audited in order to control the compliance of the final packaging in terms of activity and nature of the waste. Furthermore, there are several kinds of packaging (from big bags to big containers). For each of them, depending on the waste category to be put inside, all the possible verifications and measurements have to be carried out to be sure that the agreement is entirely respected. It is not always easy to control the entire life cycle of waste. First of all, waste is generated in the laboratories of every research centre, which initiates the process of selection of an appropriate repository. In order to reduce the volume of waste, it is often compacted, then solidified in concrete or bitumen, and finally put into a form of packaging, thus making it possible to send it to a repository. Besides the audits of the waste producers, statistical controls are carried out at the repository. When the acceptability framework is not respected, all the shipments are immediately forbidden for the all laboratories, of the concerned centre, for an unspecified period. The consequences are disastrous, both concerning the financial

  12. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  13. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    On the occasion of the World Environment Day the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment held a conference on growth problems in energy consumption. The themes which were treated were energy conservation, hydroelectric power, the role of nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, fossil fuel resources, ecological limits, pollution and international aspects. Nuclear energy forms the main theme of one lecture and an aspect of several others. (JIW)

  14. Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    The impact of energy policy measures has been assessed with various appraisal and evaluation tools since the 1960s. Decision analysis, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are all notable examples of progenitors of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in the assessment of energy policies, programmes and projects. This chapter provides overview of policy tools which have been historically applied to assess the impacts of energy policies, programmes and projects....

  15. Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  16. Producing cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E G

    1923-09-12

    A process and apparatus are described for producing Portland cement in which pulverized shale is successively heated in a series of inclined rotary retorts having internal stirrers and oil gas outlets, which are connected to condensers. The partially treated shale is removed from the lowermost retort by a conveyor, then fed separately or conjointly into pipes and thence into a number of vertically disposed retorts. Each of these retorts may be fitted interiorly with vertical arranged conveyors which elevate the shale and discharge it over a lip, from whence it falls to the bottom of the retorts. The lower end of each casing is furnished with an adjustable discharge door through which the spent shale is fed to a hopper, thence into separate trucks. The oil gases generated in the retorts are exhausted through pipes to condensers. The spent shale is conveyed to a bin and mixed while hot with ground limestone. The admixed materials are then ground and fed to a rotary kiln which is fired by the incondensible gases derived from the oil gases obtained in the previous retorting of the shale. The calcined materials are then delivered from the rotary kiln to rotary coolers. The waste gases from the kiln are utilized for heating the retorts in which the ground shale is heated for the purpose of extracting therefrom the contained hydrocarbon oils and gases.

  17. Analysis of energy culture the Crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst) produced in no tillage; Analise energetica da cultura do Crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst) produzida em plantio direto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, Samir Paulo; Biaggioni, Marco Antonio Martin; Silva, Paulo Roberto Arbex; Seki, Andre Satoshi; Bueno, Osmar Carvalho de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], E-mail: jasper@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the energy consumption in the deployment and conduct of the culture of Crambe abyssinica Hochst in no-tillage, at the Experimental Farm Farm belonging to the Faculty of Agronomic Sciences - UNESP, located in Botucatu - SP. Assessing the sustainability of the system were estimated, energy efficiency and culture of crambe. To survey the components of the structure of expenditures, we used coefficients Energetic in specialized literature. The structures of energy expenditure by type, source and form, demonstrated that the indirect energy participated with 65.03%, industrial sources, fossil and biological accounted for 68.80%, 23.67% and 11.30%, respectively. The forms have been introduced; chemical fertilizers contributed 44.31% and diesel to 23.04% to 67.35% of energy expenditure, showing the dependence of the system of energy sources and industrial fuels. The efficiency of the culture was found to be 9.98, indicating that for each calorie used in the production of crambe return was 8.98 units, the efficiency was above 38, demonstrating the high sustainability of the agricultural system to reach energy cultural exceeding 37 thousand MJ ha{sup -1}. (author)

  18. Determination of the excitation energy and angular momentum of the quasi-projectiles produced in the heavy ion collisions Xe + Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genouin-Duhamel, Emmanuel

    1999-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the study of properties of hot nuclei formed in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. The experiment has been performed with the INDRA multidetector. It is shown that most of the reaction cross section is associated with binary dissipative collisions, accompanied by the production of particles from a region between the two reaction partners. This study is focussed on excitation energy and angular momentum of projectile-like fragment (PLF) in 129 Xe + nat Sn reactions from 25 to 50 MeV per nucleon. Several methods are used to characterize hot nuclei (velocity, charge, mass and excitation energy). All these methods are compared between them and indicate that high energies are deposited in the nuclei during collision (it may exceed the nucleus binding energy). The angular momentum transferred into intrinsic spin to PLF in the peripheral collisions has been deduced from angular distributions and kinetic energies of the emitted light charged particles (atomic number smaller ar equal to 2). Both methods agree qualitatively. The spin values decrease with the violence of the collision. These values correspond to values averaged over the whole deexcitation chain of nuclei. The predictions of transport models reproduce qualitatively the most peripheral collisions and suggest that high spins are transferred to PLF (from 30 to 50 ℎ). Larger angular momentum values are observed at the lowest incident energy. The time hierarchy in the evaporation process and the role of mid-rapidity emission are also discussed. (author)

  19. China's challenging fast track. Far more energy will have to be produced - and conserved - to power the expanding economy and protect the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zhihong

    2004-01-01

    China's economy is on a fast track, with growth projected to quadruple in the first two decades of this century. A mix of clean and affordable energy sources will be needed to fuel and sustain development. Since China opened to outside markets in the 1980s, the national economy has expanded steadily, with an average annual growth rate of 9.6% in gross domestic product (GDP) from 1980 to 2000. Development has stayed strong in this century, and GDP grew 9.1% in 2003, the highest rate in the past six years. For the first time, per capita GDP topped $1000, reaching $1090 last year. How to best manage and sustain growth is driving energy decisions. Analyses show that China has entered a stage of manufacturing, chemical, and heavy industrial development that is energy intensive. At the same time, demands for energy at home and in businesses are growing among China's population of 1.3 billion people. As consumption grows, so do concerns about air, water, and land pollution in the context of sustainable energy development

  20. Dependence of Parameters of Laser-Produced Au Plasmas on the Incident Laser Energy of Sub-Nanosecond and Picosecond Laser Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woryna, E.; Badziak, J.; Makowski, J.; Parys, P.; Vankov, A.B.; Wolowski, J.; Krasa, J.; Laska, L.; Rohlena, K.

    2001-01-01

    The parameters of Au plasma as functions of laser energy for ps pulses are presented and compared with the ones for sub-ns pulses at nearly the same densities of laser energy. The experiments were performed at the IPPLM with the use of CPA (chirped pulse amplification) Nd:glass laser system. Thick Au foil targets were irradiated by normally incident focused laser beams with maximum intensities of 8x10 16 and 2x10 14 W/cm 2 for ps and sub-ns laser pulses, respectively. The characteristics of ion streams were investigated with the use of ion diagnostics methods based on the time-of flight technique. In these experiments the laser energies were changed in the range from 90 to 700 mJ and the measurements were performed at a given focus position FP = 0 and along the target normal for both the laser pulses. The charge carried by the ions, the maximum ion velocities of fast and thermal ion groups, the maximum ion current density as well as the area of photopeak in dependence on the incident laser energy for sub-ns and ps pulses were investigated and discussed. (author)

  1. Energy distributions study of spallation neutrons produced at 0 deg. by proton beams (0.8 GeV and 1.6 GeV) and deuteron beams (1.2 and 1.6 GeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Eugenie

    1997-01-01

    We are studying the energy distributions of spallation neutrons produced at 0 deg. by protons of 0.8 GeV up to 1.6 GeV and deuterons of 1.2 and 1.6 GeV with two complementary experimental techniques: the time of flight measurement with tagged incident protons for low energy neutrons (3-400 MeV) and the use of a magnetic spectrometer at high energy (E ≥ 200 MeV). These measurements enable us to measure for the first time the neutron spectra for incident energies higher than 800 MeV. We have compared the double differential cross sections produced with 1.2 GeV protons on several thin targets (Al, Fe, Zr, W, Pb and Th). The neutron production obtained for a lead target is also studied for various energies (0.8 up to 1.6 GeV) and incident particles (p, d). Data are compared with theoretical simulations carried out using the TIERCE system and the intranuclear cascade model of J. Cugnon associated to the decay code of D. Durand. The neutron spectra calculated by using the HETC and MCNP codes, included in TIERCE, are significantly higher than the measured distributions. A better agreement is observed with the results of the Cugnon's cascade model. (author) [fr

  2. Energy Fact Sheets - Sandia Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Energy Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Menu Stationary Power solar Energy Conversion Efficiency Increasing the amount of electricity produced from a given thermal energy input. Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2

  3. Observation of ions with energies above 100 keV produced by the interaction of a 60-fs laser pulse with clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobosz, S.; Schmidt, M.; Perdrix, M.; Meynadier, P.; Gobert, O.; Normand, D.; Ellert, K.; Blenski, T.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Magunov, A.I.; Pikuz, T.A.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Andreev, N.E.

    1999-01-01

    The x-ray spectra of a plasma generated by heating CO 2 and Ar clusters with high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses with q las ≅10 18 W/cm 2 are investigated. Spatially resolved x-ray spectra of a cluster plasma are obtained for the first time. Photoionization absorption is observed to influence the spectral line profiles. The recorded features of the x-ray emission spectra definitely indicate the existence of a large relative number of excited ions (≅10 -2 -10 -3 ) with energies of 0.1-1 MeV in such a plasma. Possible mechanisms underlying the acceleration of ions to high energies are discussed. It is shown that the experimental results can be attributed to the influence of ponderomotive forces in standing waves generated by the reflection of laser radiation from the clusters

  4. Energy and Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibilities of Chinese Distillers Dried Grains, Produced from Different Regions and Grains Fed to Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Xue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to determine the digestibility of crude protein (CP, amino acids and energy in three Chinese corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS, one rice DDGS, one American corn DDGS and one American high protein distillers dried grains (HP-DDG. In Exp. 1, the apparent ileal digestibility (AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID of CP and amino acids in the six samples were determined using cannulated barrows (initial BW: 43.3±1.7 kg. In Exp. 2, the digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME content of these six samples were determined using crossbred barrows (initial BW: 46.0±2.5 kg. The results of the two experiments indicated that Chinese corn DDGS is generally similar to American DDGS in chemical composition, digestibility of amino acids, DE and ME. However, Chinese DDGS had a lower Lys concentration (0.50% vs. 0.74% and SID Lys (52.3% vs. 57.0%, p<0.01. The DE and ME values in Chinese corn DDGS were 3,427 and 3,306 kcal/kg, respectively. Rice DDGS had a similar DE and ME (3,363 and 3,228 kcal/kg but higher Lys concentration (0.64% vs. 0.50% to corn DDGS, while the SID of Lys was quite low (61.8%, p<0.01. HP-DDG had high value of SID of Lys, DE and ME (79.8%, 3,899 and 3,746 kcal/kg. In conclusion, except for a lower Lys concentrations and availability, the chemical composition, digestibility of amino acids, DE and ME values in Chinese corn DDGS are similar to American corn DDGS. Additionally, the rice DDGS had lower Lys content and digestible Lys values than that in corn DDGS. Thirdly, HP-DDG has higher levels of digestible amino acids and energy than DDGS.

  5. Energy dependence of Lα-to-Ll x-ray intensity ratios for Yb and Pb produced by heavy-ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the incident-ion energy dependence of Lα-to-Ll x-ray intensity ratios are reported for protons incident at 0.40 to 2.20 MeV/amu on thin targets of Pb and for 4 He and C ions incident upon Yb. The data are compared to calculations of the Lα-to-Ll ratio which include the effects of alignment of the 2p/sub 3/2/ state of the target

  6. Dictionary of the energy-producing industry. Nuclear and non-nuclear energy sources. Vol. 1. Fachwoerterbuch zur Energiewirtschaft. Nukleare und nichtnukleare Energietraeger. Bd. 1. Deutsch-Englisch/Englisch-Deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannhardt, K H

    1981-01-01

    This technical dictionary, compiled in everyday practice, gives an outline of the terminology and phraseology of a modern field of engineering. Users should have some basic knowledge of the English language and also of engineering as well as access to standard-language dictionaries. Core subjects of the dictionary are nuclear power, reactor engineering, fusion technology, solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, radiation protection, nuclear safety, coal gasification and coal liquefaction, cooperative agreements and managerial problems.

  7. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emission and energy use of bioethanol produced from corn stover in China: Current perspectives and future prospectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Lili; Ou, Xunmin; Chang, Shiyan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a life cycle analysis (LCA) of bioethanol production from corn stover is carried out under Chinese context. Three scenarios were developed and assessed based on current and future technology levels of the ethanol conversion process. Well-to-pump (WTP) and well-to-wheels (WTW) results are presented in this paper via functional units of 1 MJ of ethanol produced, 1 MJ of E100 produced and used, and 1 km of distance driven by a light-duty vehicle on E10 fuel, respectively. It was calculated that for 1 MJ of E100, the WTW Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction relative to gasoline reaches 52%–55%, and the savings of fossil fuel and petroleum fuel reach 72%–76% and 74%–85%, respectively. For 1 MJ of ethanol produced, GHG emissions occurred in ethanol conversion process account for 51%–55%, and the contribution of chemical inputs reaches 36%–37% of the total life cycle GHG emissions. Furthermore, the life cycle results were found to be highly sensitive to allocation methods. - Highlights: • The study is focused on 2 G bioethanol derived from corn stover in Chinese context. • LCA is based on both current and future technology levels for ethanol conversion. • The life cycle GHG emission reduction of E100 relative to gasoline reaches 52%–55%. • Contributions of chemicals account for 36%–37% of life cycle GHG emissions. • E100 saves 74%–85% of petroleum fuel during its life cycle production and use.

  8. The composition of readily available carbon sources produced by fermentation of fish faeces is affected by dietary protein:energy ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Letelier-Gordo, Carlos Octavio; Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Dalsgaard, Johanne

    2017-01-01

    , 17, 19, 21 and 23 g/MJ) to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ethanol during 7 days fermentation of the produced fish faeces. The total yields of VFAs and ethanol obtained (expressed as chemical oxygen demand (COD)) ranged between 0.21–0.24 g...... of acetic and valeric acid. Changing the diet composition thus affects the composition of readily available carbon that can be derived from the faeces. This can be applied to enhance on-farm single sludge denitrification and reduce the need for adding external carbon sources such as e.g. methanol....

  9. Producing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of producing x-rays by directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target is described. Conversion efficiency of at least about 3 percent is obtained by providing the radiant energy in a low-power precursor pulse of approximately uniform effective intensity focused onto the surface of the target for about 1 to 30 nanoseconds so as to generate an expanding unconfined coronal plasma having less than normal solid density throughout and comprising a low-density (underdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is less than the laser radiation frequency and a higher-density (overdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is greater than the laser radiation frequency and, about 1 to 30 nanoseconds after the precursor pulse strikes the target, a higher-power main pulse focused onto the plasma for about 10 -3 to 30 nanoseconds and having such power density and total energy that the radiant energy is absorbed in the underdense region and conducted into the overdense region to heat it and thus to produce x-rays therefrom with the plasma remaining substantially below normal solid density and thus facilitating the substantial emission of x-rays in the form of spectral lines arising from nonequilibrium ionization states

  10. Solution for the future smart energy system: A polygeneration plant based on reversible solid oxide cells and biomass gasification producing either electrofuel or power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Hafthor Ægir; Clausen, Lasse R.

    2018-01-01

    price scenario and bio-SNG price. A system that can select the production or consumption of electricity depending on the market price enables constant operation all year round. This results in a higher net present value for the system and may lead to a positive return on investment, given...... the appropriate market price of electricity and bio-SNG. However, the techno-economic analysis revealed that the district heating product may be important for the economic feasibility of the polygeneration plant. This system may offer solutions in a smart energy system connecting electrofuel, heat, and power...

  11. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis of zinc and calcium in organelles of insulin-producing cells of the mouse, rat, and a fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkmer, S; Odselius, R [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Blondel, B; Prentki, M; Wollheim, C B [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland)

    1985-01-01

    By means of energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis in the scanning-transmission electron microscope, spectra were obtained from quick-frozen, cryo-ultramicrotome-cut, freeze-dried sections of insulin cells from a fish and a mouse. It was shown that both zinc and calcium are present in significant quantities in native islet cell ..beta.. granules. In the ..beta.. granules of the rat RINm5F insuloma cells calcium, but not zinc, seemed to accumulate; the zinc contents in the secretion granules of these neoplastic ..beta.. cells were probably below the detection limit.

  12. Update on the jet energy scale systematic uncertainty for jets produced in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$~TeV measured with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    An update to the jet energy scale systematic uncertainty for inclusive jets measured in the ATLAS detector and produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=7$~TeV is described. The jet energy scale systematic uncertainty for jets reconstructed with the \\antikt~algorithm with distance parameters of $R=0.4$ and $R=0.6$ is evaluated starting from a transverse momentum of $20$~GeV and for a calorimeter coverage up to pseudo-rapidities of $|\\eta| = 4.5$. In the central detector region the jet energy scale uncertainty is obtained from the single isolated hadron response measured in-situ in proton proton collisions and in the ATLAS combined test-beam for pion momenta up to $350$~GeV. Further uncertainties are evaluated with systematic variations of Monte Carlo simulations. The uncertainty is extended to the endcap and forward detector regions exploiting the transverse momentum balance between a central and a forward jet in events where only two jets are produced. The JES uncertainty a...

  13. Pilot-scale data provide enhanced estimates of the life cycle energy and emissions profile of algae biofuels produced via hydrothermal liquefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowei; Saydah, Benjamin; Eranki, Pragnya; Colosi, Lisa M; Greg Mitchell, B; Rhodes, James; Clarens, Andres F

    2013-11-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used widely to estimate the environmental implications of deploying algae-to-energy systems even though no full-scale facilities have yet to be built. Here, data from a pilot-scale facility using hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is used to estimate the life cycle profiles at full scale. Three scenarios (lab-, pilot-, and full-scale) were defined to understand how development in the industry could impact its life cycle burdens. HTL-derived algae fuels were found to have lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than petroleum fuels. Algae-derived gasoline had significantly lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol. Most algae-based fuels have an energy return on investment between 1 and 3, which is lower than petroleum biofuels. Sensitivity analyses reveal several areas in which improvements by algae bioenergy companies (e.g., biocrude yields, nutrient recycle) and by supporting industries (e.g., CO2 supply chains) could reduce the burdens of the industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Search for Pair-Produced Neutralinos in Events with Photons and Missing Energy from $e^{+}e^{-}$ Collisions at $\\Sqrt{s}=130-183$ GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adzic, P; Ajinenko, I; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, Guido; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blom, H M; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerruti, C; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Collins, P; Colomer, M; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Damgaard, G; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Green, C; Gris, P; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Knoblauch, D; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Krstic, J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Masik, J; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Muresan, R; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neufeld, N; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nikolaenko, V; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rakoczy, D; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwemling, P; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Siebel, M; Silvestre, R; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stampfer, D; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stapnes, Steinar; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Chikilev, O G; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Vulpen, I B; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Voulgaris, G; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1999-01-01

    The events with two photons and missing (transverse) energy collected by the DELPHI detector at centre-of-mass energies between 130~GeV and 183~GeV have been studied to search for processes of the type $\\mbox{e}^+\\mbox{e}^- \\to \\mbox{Y} \\mbox{Y}$ with the subsequent decay $\\mbox{Y} \\to \\mbox{X} \\gamma$, where X is an undetectable neutral particle. Reactions of this kind are expected in supersymmetric models, where the Y particle can be either the lightest neutralino, decaying to a photon and a gravitino, or the next-to-lightest neutralino, decaying to a photon and the lightest neutralino. To study the case of long-lived Y particles, a search for single-photon events with the reconstructed photon axis pointing far from the beam interaction region has also been performed. No evidence for a deviation from Standard Model expectations has been observed in the data and upper limits have been derived on the signal cross-section as a function of the the X and Y masses and of the Y mean decay path.

  15. On the determination of the water energy dose for X-rays produced with high voltages up to 100 kV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelke, B.A.; Grosswendt, B.

    1989-01-01

    For X-rays produced with high-tensions up to 100 kV the absorbed dose to water in water can be determined by measuring the exposure or air kerma and by means of the calibration factor of the dosemeter for these quantities and a conversion factor and a correction factor. For this procedure it is necessary that the exposure or air kerma measured and the correction factor are referred to the same diameter of the X-ray beam and the same measuring distance as used for the determination of the calibration factor. If they do not agree, an additional correction factor for the influence of this discrepancy in the measuring geometry is needed. The paper gives the values of this correction factor. Furthermore, it informs on new values of the backscattering factor in water and of the correction k a→w required for the determination of the absorbed dose to water in water. (orig.) [de

  16. Decree of the 6 May 2017 defining the conditions of additional remuneration of electricity produced by electricity production installations using wind mechanical energy with a maximum of 6 wind turbines. Decree of the 9 May 2014 defining purchase and additional remuneration conditions for the electricity produced by installations using mainly biogas produced by methanization of matters resulting from urban or industrial waste water treatment. Decree of the 9 May 2017 defining purchase conditions for electricity produced by installations implanted on building and using photovoltaic solar energy, with an installed power less than or equal to 100 kilowatts as those concerned at the 3. of the article D.314-15 of the Code of Energy, and located in continental metropolitan territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royal, Segolene; Sapin, Michel

    2017-01-01

    This document gathers three legal texts which respectively define and eventually give elements and methods of calculation of conditions of additional remuneration or purchase of electricity produced by limited wind energy installations, by biogas-based electricity production installations, and by photovoltaic installations mounted on buildings

  17. Towards energy-efficient territories: which choices for the territorial organisation? ADeus' Notes Nr 214. Towards territories producing renewable energies. ADeus' Notes Nr 215, November 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Anne; Gendron, Yves; Isenmann, Jean; Masse, Camille; Berlet, Jessica; Mallick, Amandine; Martin, Stephanie; Delahaye, Mathilde; Muller, Lisa

    2016-11-01

    After having outlined that each territory does not possess the same potential in terms of energy efficiency, a first issue of this publication outlines the role of territorial planning to improve performance and efficiency of the built environment, to develop infrastructures and to improve their quality, to organise mobility demand, to put back the car to a right place, to reduce and to optimise goods road transport. It also notices that planning is not enough: individuals must somehow be constrained and encouraged, and changes of practices on the long term must be promoted. A panel of solutions to be adapted to the local context is then proposed for different situations related to mobility and transport. The second issue first outlines how to valorise local energy potentials by promoting energy saving and energy efficiency, by choosing the right energy for the right usage. It shows how to promote interdependency and solidarity between territories as far as energy production and consumption are concerned. It describes how to plan renewable energy sites in town planning documents

  18. Impact of Coulomb potential on peak structures arising in momentum and low-energy photoelectron spectra produced in strong-field ionization of laser-irradiated atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyak, P. E.; Usachenko, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    The phenomenon of pronounced peak structure(s) of longitudinal momentum distributions as well as a spike-like structure of low-energy spectra of photoelectrons emitted from laser-irradiated Ar and Ne atoms in a single ionization process is theoretically studied in the tunneling and multiphoton regimes of ionization. The problem is addressed assuming only the direct above-threshold ionization (ATI) as a physical mechanism underlying the phenomenon under consideration (viz. solely contributing to observed photoelectron momentum distributions (PMD)) and using the Coulomb-Volkov (CV) ansatz within the frame of conventional strong-field approximation (SFA) applied in the length-gauge formulation. The developed CV-SFA approach also incorporates the density functional theory essentially exploited for numerical composition of initial (laser-free) atomic state(s) constructed from atomic orbitals of Gaussian type. Our presented CV-SFA based (and laser focal-volume averaged) calculation results proved to be well reproducing both the pronounced double-peak and/or ATI-like multi-peak structure(s) experimentally observed in longitudinal PMD under conditions of tunneling and/or multiphoton regime, respectively. In addition, our CV-SFA results presented for tunneling regime also suggest and remarkably reproduce a pronounced structure observed in relevant experiments as a ‘spike-like’ enhanced maximum arising in low-energy region (around the value of about 1 eV) of photoelectron spectra. The latter consistency allows to identify and interpret these results as the so-called low-energy structure (LES) since the phenomenon proved to appear as the most prominent if the influence of Coulomb potential on photoelectron continuum states is maximally taken into account under calculations (viz. if the parameter Z in CV’s functions is put equal to 1). Moreover, the calculated LES proved to correspond (viz., established as closely related) to the mentioned double-peak structure arising

  19. Analysis of linear energy transfers and quality factors of charged particles produced by spontaneous fission neutrons from 252Cf and 244Pu in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, A.; Sato, T.

    2013-01-01

    Absorbed doses, linear energy transfers (LETs) and quality factors of secondary charged particles in organs and tissues, generated via the interactions of the spontaneous fission neutrons from. 252 Cf and. 244 Pu within the human body, were studied using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System (PHITS) coupled with the ICRP Reference Phantom. Both the absorbed doses and the quality factors in target organs generally decrease with increasing distance from the source organ. The analysis of LET distributions of secondary charged particles led to the identification of the relationship between LET spectra and target-source organ locations. A comparison between human body-averaged mean quality factors and fluence-averaged radiation weighting factors showed that the current numerical conventions for the radiation weighting factors of neutrons, updated in ICRP103, and the quality factors for internal exposure are valid. (authors)

  20. Inclusive distributions of diffractively produced neutral kaons, lambdas, and antilambdas, and upper limits on Λ/sub c/+ production in high energy γ p interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadra, S.

    1985-01-01

    The author has used a large acceptance spectrometer in a tagged photon beam to study the interactions of real photons with protons in a hydrogen target. In particular, this thesis presents distributions of neutral kaons, lambdas, and antilambdas from diffractive dissociation where the kinematic regions of the target and projectile fragments are clearly distinguished by using events with clean recoiling protons. This data extends the neutral strange particle production rate measurements to higher overall centre-of-mass energies than previous photoproduction experiments. Comparison to pion-induced reactions supports the hypothesis that the photon behaves primarily as a hardon. Finally, upper limits have been set on the Λ/sub c/ + cross section times the branching ratio for decay modes leading to neutral strange particles for a diffractive dissociation process

  1. Longitudinal-momentum distributions for positive particles produced at small angles in proton-proton collisions at a cm energy of 446 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, M G; Bogaerts, A; Bosnjakovic, B; Brooks, J R; Clegg, A B; Erné, F C; Gee, C N P; Kanaris, A D; Locke, D H; Loebinger, F K; Murphy, P G; Rudge, A; Sens, Johannes C; Terwilliger, K M; Van der Veen, F

    1973-01-01

    Longitudinal-momentum spectra are presented for the production of K /sup +/ and pi /sup +/ mesons at the CERN ISR at a transverse momentum of 0.8 GeV/c and a total c.m. energy of 44.6 GeV. Proton spectra for transverse momenta between 0.7 and 1.2 GeV/c are also given. The spectra cover a range of 0.2 to 1.0 in the Feynman variable x=2p/sub L // square root s. The pi /sup +/ spectrum agrees well with scaling when compared with accelerator data, while the K/sup +/ spectrum is consistently above the scaling prediction. The proton spectra have pronounced peaks at x=1, minima near x=0.9 and broad maxima at x=0.6. The data are compared with triple-Regge and diffraction dissociation models. (9 refs).

  2. Notification of the French Energy Regulator the 5 june 2001 on the order fixing the purchase conditions of the electricity produced by installations using the wind energy; Avis de la commission de regulation de l'electricite en date du 5 juin 2001 sur l'arrete fixant les conditions d'achat de l'electricite produite par les installations utilisant l'energie mecanique du vent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This document presents the economic analysis realized by the CRE, French Energy Regulator, to give its opinion on the order concerning the purchase conditions of the electricity produced by wind energy. An operating costs comparison with other energies forms shows that the proposed tariff will lead to a significant increase of the electric power. In consequence, the CRE is opposed to this order. (A.L.B.)

  3. Method of producing molybdenum-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Eric John

    2013-05-28

    Method of producing molybdenum-99, comprising accelerating ions by means of an accelerator; directing the ions onto a metal target so as to generate neutrons having an energy of greater than 10 MeV; directing the neutrons through a converter material comprising techentium-99 to produce a mixture comprising molybdenum-99; and, chemically extracting the molybdenum-99 from the mixture.

  4. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Lost Foam Thin Wall - Feasibility of Producing Lost Foam Castings in Aluminum and Magnesium Based Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasoyinu, Yemi [CanmetMATERIALS; Griffin, John A. [University of Alabama - Birmingham

    2014-03-31

    With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, production of near-net shape components by lost foam casting will make significant inroad into the next-generation of engineering component designs. The lost foam casting process is a cost effective method for producing complex castings using an expandable polystyrene pattern and un-bonded sand. The use of un-bonded molding media in the lost foam process will impose less constraint on the solidifying casting, making hot tearing less prevalent. This is especially true in Al-Mg and Al-Cu alloy systems that are prone to hot tearing when poured in rigid molds partially due to their long freezing range. Some of the unique advantages of using the lost foam casting process are closer dimensional tolerance, higher casting yield, and the elimination of sand cores and binders. Most of the aluminum alloys poured using the lost foam process are based on the Al-Si system. Very limited research work has been performed with Al-Mg and Al-Cu type alloys. With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, and given the high-strength-to-weight-ratio of magnesium, significant weight savings can be achieved by casting thin-wall (≤ 3 mm) engineering components from both aluminum- and magnesium-base alloys.

  5. Electrochemical energy storage behavior of Sn/SnO2 double phase nanocomposite anodes produced on the multiwalled carbon nanotube buckypapers for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaf, Mirac; Akbulut, Hatem

    2014-02-01

    Recent development of electrode materials for Li-ion batteries is driven mainly by hybrid nanocomposite structures consisting of Li storage compounds and CNTs. In this study, tin/tinoxide (Sn/SnO2) films and tin/tinoxide/multi walled carbon nanotube (Sn/SnO2/MWCNT) nanocomposites are produced by a two steps process; thermal evaporation and subsequent plasma oxidation as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. The physical, structural, and electrochemical behaviors of the nanocomposite electrodes containing MWCNTs are discussed. The ratio between metallic tin (Sn) and tinoxide (SnO2) is controlled with plasma oxidation time and effects of the ratio are investigated on the structural and electrochemical properties. The greatly enhanced electrochemical performance is mainly due to the morphological stability and reduced diffusion resistance, which are induced by MWCNT core and deposited Sn/SnO2 double phase shell. The outstanding long-term cycling stability is a result of the two layers Sn and SnO2 phases on MWCNTs. The nanoscale Sn/SnO2/MWCNT network provides good electrical conductivity, and the creation of open spaces that buffer a large volume change during the Li-alloying/de-alloying reaction.

  6. Measurement of the energy spectra relative to neutrons produced at very small angle in $\\mathrm{\\sqrt{s} = 13 ~ TeV}$ proton-proton collisions using the LHCf Arm2 detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00533910

    In the last years, several ground-based experiments have measured flux and composition of ultra high energy cosmic rays - i.e. cosmic rays having energies above $10^{18} ~ eV$ - up to the GZK cutoff region. Nevertheless, these analyses suffer of large uncertainties due to the fact that they must rely on hadronic interaction models, that exhibit very different behavior in the forward region due to the lack of high energy calibration data. To provide measurements that can be useful to tune these models is exactly the main aim of the LHC-forward (LHCf) experiment. Thanks to two small sampling calorimeter, Arm1 and Arm2, installed at $\\pm 140 ~ m$ from LHC IP1, LHCf can detect neutral particles produced in the very forward region ($\\eta > 8.4$) by proton-proton and proton-ion high energy collisions (proton-proton interaction at $\\sqrt{s} = 14 ~ TeV$ is equivalent to the collision of a $10^{17} ~ eV$ proton with a proton at rest, hence it is possible to perform measurements at an energy close to the typical one of...

  7. Energy balance of algal biomass production in a 1-ha “Green Wall Panel” plant: How to produce algal biomass in a closed reactor achieving a high Net Energy Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tredici, M.R.; Bassi, N.; Prussi, M.; Biondi, N.; Rodolfi, L.; Chini Zittelli, G.; Sampietro, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Tetraselmis suecica production in a 1-ha GWP plant in Tuscany (Italy) has a NER < 1. • Major energy costs are embodied energy of GWP and mixing. • In a suitable location (North Africa) the NER increases by 40%. • Integration of photovoltaic in the GWP allows to achieve a NER of 1.7. • T. suecica cultivated in a GWP plant can yield up to 30 t of protein ha −1 year −1 . - Abstract: The annual productivity of Tetraselmis suecica in a 1-ha Green Wall Panel-II (GWP-II) plant in Tuscany (Italy) is 36 t (dry weight) ha −1 year −1 , which corresponds to an energy output of 799 GJ ha −1 year −1 . The energy inputs necessary to attain that productivity amount to 1362 GJ ha −1 year −1 , mainly given by the embodied energy of the reactor (about 30%), mixing (about 40%), fertilizers (11%) and harvesting (10%). The Net Energy Ratio (NER) of T. suecica production is thus 0.6. In a more suitable location (North Africa) productivity nearly doubles, reaching 66 t ha −1 year −1 , but the NER increases only by 40% and the gain (difference between output and inputs) remains negative. In a GWP-II integrated with photovoltaics (PV), the NER becomes 1.7 and the gain surpasses 600 GJ ha −1 year −1 . Marine microalgae cultivation in a GWP plant, in a suitable location, can attain high biomass productivities and protein yields 30 times higher than those achievable with traditional crops (soya). When the GWP reactor is integrated with PV, the process attains a positive energy balance, which substantially enhances its sustainability

  8. From consumer to energy producer. Financing of decentral energy production with the participation of citizens as consumer by means of the Consumer Stock Ownership Plans (CSOP); Vom Verbraucher zum Energieproduzenten. Finanzierung dezentraler Energieproduktion unter Beteiligung von Buergern als Konsumenten mittels sog. Consumer Stock Ownership Plans (CSOPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowitzsch, Jens; Goebel, Katarzyna [Europa-Universitaet Viadrina, Frankfurt an der Oder (Germany). Osteuropaeisches Wirtschaftsrecht und Europaeische Rechtspolitik

    2013-06-15

    Sustainable growth? A paradoxical term in order to sell sustainability as a logical consequence of a continuous policy of controlled growth. In the context of sustainable energy today there is a lot of talk about growth. However, sustainability is not continuous growth, but at worst shrinkage and at best intelligent growth. The decentralization of the production of renewable energy with consumers as producers is as a way to sustainability.

  9. High performance liquid chromatographic separation of beryllium from some transition metals produced in high energy proton irradiations of medium mass elements: measurement of (p,7Be) cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, M.; Spellerberg, S.; Qaim, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the separation of 7 Be formed in high energy proton irradiation of medium mass elements like Fe, Cu etc. The bulk of the target material was removed in a preseparation step. Thereafter beryllium was obtained in a high purity within a few minutes elution time using a mixture of 5 mM citric acid and 1.0 mM pyridinedicarboxylic acid as eluent and a SYKAM KO2 analytical cation-exchange column. The effect of Be-carrier on the quality of separation was investigated. The quality of separation deteriorated with the increasing Be-carrier column loading. A certain amount of Be-carrier was, however, necessary in order to quantitate the results. By using low Be-carrier amounts (∝100 μg) and determining the elution yield via a conductometric method, it was possible to obtain quantitative separation results. Besides the analytical column, a semi-preparative column was also used, and the Be separation yield determined gravimetrically. The cross sections for the (p, 7 Be) process on Cu obtained using the two separation columns (analytical and semipreparative) and the two separation yield determination methods agreed within 15%. (orig.)

  10. Anaerobic biogasification of domestic wastes and direct solar energy use to produce biogas, biofertilizer and distilled water in a city - a pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    kumar, R.A.; Pandya, N.H.; Patil, A.M.; Annamalai, M.; Iyer, M.V.; Nirmala, K.A.; Venkatesh, P.; Prasad, C.R.; Subramani, C.

    1982-01-01

    Domestic wastes are a source of gas of high calorific value as well as biofertilizer and distilled water. A pilot project undertaken by the Tata Electric Cos., Bombay on recycling sewage, garbage and garden wastes of a community by converting them into biogas, organic fertilizer and distilled water is described. Techniques used are anaerobic fermentation and Solar drying using Solar stills. A fish pond also can be fed the output slurry as feed material. In this pilot plant, 1 to 2 m/sup 3/ raw sewage and one to two tons of processed garden wastes and garbage would be input daily into the digester. The production is expected to be about 100 m/sup 3/ of gas per day, along with about 1500 litres of slurry from which organic fertilizer of 100 200 Kgs can be bagged and transported as well as distilled water of about 500 to 1000 litres Laboratory studies and studies on an approximate scale model of the plant are described. Scaling up to a pilot plant by about 2000 times would increase the efficiency of the rate of gas production as has been found by other workers. These tests and studies have shown that the project is technically and eonomically viable. Applications of the process on a mass scale would result in increasing replacement of fossil energy intensive processes with negentropic methods of economic and social activities.

  11. Fructose Alters Intermediary Metabolism of Glucose in Human Adipocytes and Diverts Glucose to Serine Oxidation in the One–Carbon Cycle Energy Producing Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi Varma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of sugar and fructose as sweeteners has resulted in the utilization of fructose as an alternative metabolic fuel that may compete with glucose and alter its metabolism. To explore this, human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS preadipocytes were differentiated to adipocytes in the presence of 0, 1, 2.5, 5 or 10 mM of fructose added to a medium containing 5 mM of glucose representing the normal blood glucose concentration. Targeted tracer [1,2-13C2]-d-glucose fate association approach was employed to examine the influence of fructose on the intermediary metabolism of glucose. Increasing concentrations of fructose robustly increased the oxidation of [1,2-13C2]-d-glucose to 13CO2 (p < 0.000001. However, glucose-derived 13CO2 negatively correlated with 13C labeled glutamate, 13C palmitate, and M+1 labeled lactate. These are strong markers of limited tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, fatty acid synthesis, pentose cycle fluxes, substrate turnover and NAD+/NADP+ or ATP production from glucose via complete oxidation, indicating diminished mitochondrial energy metabolism. Contrarily, a positive correlation was observed between glucose-derived 13CO2 formed and 13C oleate and doses of fructose which indicate the elongation and desaturation of palmitate to oleate for storage. Collectively, these results suggest that fructose preferentially drives glucose through serine oxidation glycine cleavage (SOGC pathway one-carbon cycle for NAD+/NADP+ production that is utilized in fructose-induced lipogenesis and storage in adipocytes.

  12. Thermoeconomic and thermodynamics analysis of a sugarcane plant that produces energy surplus for commercialization; Analise termodinamica e termoeconomica de uma usina sucroalcooleira que produz excedente de energia para comercializacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiomari, Marcelo Caldato; Mashiba, Marcos Hideo da Silva; Lima, Rodrigo dos Santos; Maia, Cassio Roberto Macedo; Ramos, Ricardo Alan Verdu [Universidade Estadual Paulista (NUPLEN/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Planejamento Energetico, Geracao e Cogeracao de Energia], e-mail: nuplen@dem.feis.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    In this work, thermodynamic and thermo economic analyses of a plant resulted from an expansion of the Pioneiros Distillery's cogeneration system are carried out, which is constituted basically by a boiler that produces 140 ton/h of steam at high pressure and temperature (6,6 MPa and 530 deg C, respectively), by a condensation-extraction turbine that drives a electrical generator producing 32 MW, being the mechanical drivers realized by electrical engines. By means of thermodynamic analyses it's possible to define some plant's performance indexes as well as evaluate the global use of energy in each component. The thermo economic analysis allows evaluating the costs of capital and fuel reflexes in the composition of the products (steam and electricity) costs. (author)

  13. Search for dark matter particle candidates produced in association with a Z boson in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00399337; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A search for dark matter particle candidates produced in association with a Z boson in proton-proton collisions at the total center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV is presented. The search uses 36.1 inverse femtobarn of data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider in 2015 and 2016. Events with large missing transverse momentum and consistent with the decay of a Z boson into oppositely charged electron or muon pairs were selected in the analysis. Background estimates and corresponding systematic uncertainties are shown. Exclusion limits on the dark matter candidate and mediator masses are reported.

  14. Relating N2O emissions from energy crops to the avoided fossil fuel-derived CO2 – a study on bioethanol and biogas produced from organically managed maize, rye, vetch and grass-clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2010-01-01

    ‐derived CO2, where the N2O emission has been subtracted. This value does not account for farm machinery CO2 emissions and fuel consumption during biofuel production. We obtained the greatest net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by co‐production of bioethanol and biogas or by biogas alone produced from...... fuel‐derived CO2, which is obtained when energy crops are used for biofuel production. The analysis includes five organically managed crops (viz. maize, rye, rye‐vetch, vetch and grass‐clover) and three scenarios for conversion of biomass to biofuel. The scenarios are 1) bioethanol production, 2......) biogas production and 3) co‐production of bioethanol and biogas, where the energy crops are first used for bioethanol fermentation and subsequently the residues from this process are utilized for biogas production. The net reduction in greenhouse gas missions is calculated as the avoided fossil fuel...

  15. Allisonella histaminiformans gen. nov., sp. nov. A novel bacterium that produces histamine, utilizes histidine as its sole energy source, and could play a role in bovine and equine laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Matthew R; Flint, Joseph F; Russell, James B

    2002-12-01

    When cattle and horses are fed large amounts of grain, histamine can accumulate in the gastrointestinal tract, and this accumulation can cause an acute inflammation of the hooves (laminitis). When ruminal fluid from dairy cattle fed grain supplements was serially diluted in anaerobic MRS medium containing histidine (50 mM), histamine was detected at dilutions as high as 10(-7). The histidine enrichments were then transferred successively in an anaerobic, carbonate-based medium (50 mM histidine) without glucose. The histamine producing bacteria could not be isolated from the rumens of cattle fed hay; however, histamine producing bacteria could be isolated the feces of cattle fed grain and the cecum of a horse. All of the histamine producing isolates had the same ovoid morphology. The cells stained Gram-negative and were resistant to the ionophore, monensin (25 microM). The doubling time was 110 min, and the yield was 1.5 mg cell protein per mmol histidine. The G+C content was 46.8%. Lysine was the only other amino acid used, but lysine did not allow growth if histidine was absent. Because carbohydrate and organic acid utilization was not detected, it appeared that the isolates used histidine decarboxylation as their sole mechanism of energy derivation. 16s rRNA gene sequencing indicated that the isolates were most closely related to low G+C Gram-positive bacteria (firmicutes), but similarities were < or = 94%. Because the most closely related bacteria (Dialister pneumonsintes, Megasphaera elsdenii and Selenomonas ruminantium) did not produce histamine from histidine, we propose that these histamine producing bacteria be assigned to a new genus, Allisonella, as Allisonella histaminiformans gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is MR2 (ATCC BAA610, DSM 15230).

  16. Dossier Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijer, H.; Holwerda, B.; Schrauwers, A.; Van de Graaf, A.; Van Gelder, T.

    2003-01-01

    Several aspects with respect to energy are discussed in a special section of this magazine: the security of energy supply in a liberalized market, saving energy by outsourcing (e.g. compressed air contracting), the profits of a liberalized energy market for businesses, incentives for energy saving projects and innovations, an energy efficiency project at Ineos Silicas (producer of zeolites), and energy efficient electronic equipment [nl

  17. Methodology of hot nucleus calorimetry and thermometry produced by nuclear reactions around Fermi energies; Methodologie de la calorimetrie et de la thermometrie des noyaux chauds formes lors de collisions nucleaires aux energies de Fermi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vient, E

    2006-12-15

    This work deals with the calorimetry and thermometry of hot nuclei produced in collisions Xe + Sn between 25 and 100 MeV/u. The apparatus for hot nucleus physical characterization is the 4{pi} detector array Indra. This study was made by using the event generators Gemini, Simon and Hipse and a data-processing filter simulating the complete operation of the multi-detector. The first chapter presents the different ways of producing hot nuclei. In the second and third chapters, the author presents a critical methodological study of calorimetry and thermometry applied to hot nuclei, different methods are reviewed, their accuracy and application range are assessed. All the calorimetry methods rely on the assumption that we are able to discriminate decay products of the hot nucleus from evaporated particles. In the fourth chapter, the author gives some ways of improving calorimetry characterization of the hot nucleus. An alternative method of calorimetry is proposed in the fifth chapter, this method is based on the experimental determination of an evaporation probability that is deduced from the physical characteristics of the particles present in a restricted domain of the space of velocities.

  18. Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis; Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de residuos solidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose E.; Leao, Alcides L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais], emails: evaristo@fca.unesp.br, alcidesleao@fca.unesp.br; Sartori, Maria M.P. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao], email: msartori@btu.flash.tv.br

    2009-07-01

    The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW). With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above 15% showed large increase in ash content. Therefore, the treatment that fulfilled the requirements for combustion versus ash content and mechanical resistance was of at least 15% of MSW, since the source of the ash is unidentified. Considering the net energy content, the best treatment was 25% of MSW, with 17,175 kJ kg{sup -1}. Nevertheless, it is strongly advised that further studies related to gas emissions are necessary. (author)

  19. Impact of CO2 trade on electricity producers depending on the use of different energy sources in Estonia. CO2 kaubanduse mõju elektritootjatele erinevate energiaallikate kasutamisel Eesti tingimustes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Kleesmaa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the main circumstances related to the Estonian energy sector and economy and the facts which are important for development of the research conducted by the author and for clarification of the main viewpoints. The paper provides the principal facts on the first (2005-2007 and second (2008-2012 period of CO2 (carbon dioxide trade in Estonia; describes electricity production in Estonia on the basis of the electricity development plan effective in the reference year 2007 and proceeding from that – calculations of CO2 emissions by kind of fuel used. The paper will touch upon the main legislative provisions concerning renewable energy support, which essentially influence the development of renewable energy generation and indirectly the CO2 trade. Analogously with the reference year 2007 methods of calculation, CO2 emissions have been calculated for 2020. The electricity production prognosis for the year 2020 is based on the interpretation of the electricity sector development plan. Computation according to the CO2 calculation methodology shows that the CO2 emission amount will be ca 5.7 Mt (million tonnes in 2020. In 2020 compared to 2007, the domestic consumption of electricity is estimated to grow: in 2007 the domestic consumption of electricity was ca 8200 GWh, in 2020 it is estimated to be ca 10480 GWh, i.e. the growth is ca 22%. Decrease in the emission amount of CO2 will be gained due to the expected use of different energy sources, compared to those used in 2007, in the designed power plants based on renewable energy sources or gas. The share of oil shale-based energy production will decrease from 83% to 44% resulting in a further reduction of CO2 emissions from 12 Mt to 4 Mt. In view of the fact that, during consumption, the CO2 emissions comprise nearly 60% of the gross consumption of electricity production, the research reveals that raising consumer awareness of the use of various energy saving

  20. An MHD energy storage system comprising a heavy-water producing electrolysis plant and a H2/O2/CsOH MHD generator/steam turbine combination to provide a means of transferring nuclear reactor energy from the base-load regime into the intermediate-load and peaking regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, S.J.; Koziak, W.W.

    1975-01-01

    The concept is presented of the MHD Energy Storage System, comprising a heavy-water producing electrolysis plant for electricity absorption, hydrogen/oxygen storage and a high-efficiency MHD generator/steam turbine unit for electricity production on demand from the grid. The overall efficiency at 56 to 60 percent is comparable to pumped storage hydro, but at only one-half to two-thirds the capital cost and at considerably greater freedom of location. The MHD Energy Storage System combined with the CANDU nuclear reactor in Canadian use can supply all-nuclear energy to the grid at a unit energy cost lower than when oil or coal fired plants are used in the same grid

  1. Solid electrolyte membranes and the system to produce hydrogen from thermally decomposed water by solar energy; Taiyo energy riyo ni yoru mizu no chokusetsu netsubunkai kara no suiso seizoyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigara, K; Watanabe, K; Kawamura, K; Kawada, T; Mizusaki, J; Ishigame, M [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Research Institute for Scientific Measurements

    1996-10-27

    For conversion of solar heat to transportable energy, hydrogen production by direct thermal decomposition of water using concentrated high-temperature solar heat was studied. Water vapor is injected into the tubular target with high melting point and high oxygen permeability at high temperature while heating the target by concentrated solar heat over 2000K. Oxygen in decomposed gas is discharged through an oxygen permeable membrane to extract hydrogen. Solid electrolyte is used as one of the target materials. Oxygen gas in the high-oxygen partial pressure site changes into oxygen ion by accepting two electrons at the target surface, and returns to neutral oxygen gas in the low-oxygen partial pressure site by discharging two electrons at the surface after permeation through oxygen vacancy. In the case of n-type solid electrolyte, to obtain constant permeation of a large amount of oxygen, flow of a large amount of electrons is indispensable in the opposite direction to oxygen ion. Among [(ZrO2)(1-x)(CeO2)x](0.9)(CaO)(0.1), materials of 0.4-0.5 in x seems to be useful as the target material. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Producing new radionuclides for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Arronax cyclotron, a new particle accelerator dedicated to the production of radionuclides for medicine and research has been commissioned in Nantes (France). Because of its unique features: an energy of 70 MeV and an intensity of 750 μA, Arronax will produce radionuclides that can not be produce in present cyclotrons. Among others it will produce Strontium-82 and Germanium-68 that are the precursors for Rubidium-82 and Gallium-68 respectively. 20 per cent of the research works will be dedicated to other domains like radioactive wastes, the radiation biological damage and the radiation damage on electronic devices. (A.C.)

  3. Geothermal energy

    OpenAIRE

    Manzella A.

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. Fo...

  4. Search for large extra dimensions in final states containing one photon or jet and large missing transverse energy produced in pp collisions at square root[s]=1.96 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzurri, P; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Koay, S A; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Luci, C; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlok, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Tourneur, S; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wagner, W; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Xie, S; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2008-10-31

    We present the results of searches for large extra dimensions in samples of events with large missing transverse energy E_{T} and either a photon or a jet produced in pp[over ] collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab II. For gamma+E_{T} and jet+E_{T} candidate samples corresponding to 2.0 and 1.1 fb;{-1} of integrated luminosity, respectively, we observe good agreement with standard model expectations and obtain a combined lower limit on the fundamental parameter of the large extra dimensions model M_{D} as a function of the number of extra dimensions in the model.

  5. Repurposing Mass-produced Internal Combustion Engines Quantifying the Value and Use of Low-cost Internal Combustion Piston Engines for Modular Applications in Energy and Chemical Engineering Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Heureux, Zara E.

    This thesis proposes that internal combustion piston engines can help clear the way for a transformation in the energy, chemical, and refining industries that is akin to the transition computer technology experienced with the shift from large mainframes to small personal computers and large farms of individually small, modular processing units. This thesis provides a mathematical foundation, multi-dimensional optimizations, experimental results, an engine model, and a techno-economic assessment, all working towards quantifying the value of repurposing internal combustion piston engines for new applications in modular, small-scale technologies, particularly for energy and chemical engineering systems. Many chemical engineering and power generation industries have focused on increasing individual unit sizes and centralizing production. This "bigger is better" concept makes it difficult to evolve and incorporate change. Large systems are often designed with long lifetimes, incorporate innovation slowly, and necessitate high upfront investment costs. Breaking away from this cycle is essential for promoting change, especially change happening quickly in the energy and chemical engineering industries. The ability to evolve during a system's lifetime provides a competitive advantage in a field dominated by large and often very old equipment that cannot respond to technology change. This thesis specifically highlights the value of small, mass-manufactured internal combustion piston engines retrofitted to participate in non-automotive system designs. The applications are unconventional and stem first from the observation that, when normalized by power output, internal combustion engines are one hundred times less expensive than conventional, large power plants. This cost disparity motivated a look at scaling laws to determine if scaling across both individual unit size and number of units produced would predict the two order of magnitude difference seen here. For the first

  6. A Series of Supramolecular Complexes for Solar Energy Conversion via Water Reduction to Produce Hydrogen: An Excited State Kinetic Analysis of Ru(II,Rh(III,Ru(II Photoinitiated Electron Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamindri M. Arachchige

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixed-metal supramolecular complexes have been designed that photochemically absorb solar light, undergo photoinitiated electron collection and reduce water to produce hydrogen fuel using low energy visible light. This manuscript describes these systems with an analysis of the photophysics of a series of six supramolecular complexes, [{(TL2Ru(dpp}2RhX2](PF65 with TL = bpy, phen or Ph2phen with X = Cl or Br. The process of light conversion to a fuel requires a system to perform a number of complicated steps including the absorption of light, the generation of charge separation on a molecular level, the reduction by one and then two electrons and the interaction with the water substrate to produce hydrogen. The manuscript explores the rate of intramolecular electron transfer, rate of quenching of the supramolecules by the DMA electron donor, rate of reduction of the complex by DMA from the 3MLCT excited state, as well as overall rate of reduction of the complex via visible light excitation. Probing a series of complexes in detail exploring the variation of rates of important reactions as a function of sub-unit modification provides insight into the role of each process in the overall efficiency of water reduction to produce hydrogen. The kinetic analysis shows that the complexes display different rates of excited state reactions that vary with TL and halide. The role of the MLCT excited state is elucidated by this kinetic study which shows that the 3MLCT state and not the 3MMCT is likely that key contributor to the photoreduction of these complexes. The kinetic analysis of the excited state dynamics and reactions of the complexes are important as this class of supramolecules behaves as photoinitiated electron collectors and photocatalysts for the reduction of water to hydrogen.

  7. Study on the energy performance of an energy producing and saving house. Part 3. Measurement results of the connecting system to the power grid and prediction of the PV system electric generation residence in Kyushu; So sho energy seino ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Gyakuchoryu keito renkei system no nenkan jisseki to Kyushu ni okeru jutaku deno hatsudenryo yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, O.; Sakai, K.; Hirakawa, M. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    Two-year study of an energy-producing/-saving house equipped with a 5kWp photovoltaic power generation system is described, in which the track records of this system capable of back-flow and system interconnection and inverter performance are analyzed, and the power expected to be obtained when photovoltaic power generation systems are installed in some residential houses in the Kyushu area is predicted. In the analysis of the yearly variance in the demand/supply of electric power, it turns out that more is generated in spring than in summer, which is thanks to the good weather in spring, typhoons in summer, and power generation efficiency degraded due to temperature rise in the modules. The amount of photovoltaic cell module-generated power is estimated by performing a multiple regression analysis involving the amount of insolation, outside air temperature, and wind speeds. Furthermore, available power is calculated using a relational expression involving inverter performance. On the assumption of 3kW-capacity photovoltaic power generation systems installed at residential houses at various locations across Kyushu, the expected amount of power to be generated is calculated, which proves to be approximately 3000kWh a year, confirming the effectiveness of the photovoltaic power generation system. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. The computational psychiatry of reward: Broken brains or misguided minds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eMoutoussis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research into the biological basis of emotional and motivational disorders is in danger of riding roughshod over a patient-centred psychiatry and falling into the dualist errors of the past, i.e. by treating mind and brain as conceptually distinct. We argue that a psychiatry informed by computational neuroscience, computational psychiatry, can obviate this danger. Through a focus on the reasoning processes by which humans attempt to maximise reward (and minimise punishment, and how such reasoning is expressed neurally, computational psychiatry can render obsolete the polarity between biological and psychosocial conceptions of illness. Here, the term 'psychological' comes to refer to information processing performed by biological agents, seen in light of underlying goals. We reflect on the implications of this perspective for a definition of mental disorder, including what is entailed in asserting that a particular disorder is ‘biological’ or ‘psychological’ in origin. We propose that a computational approach assists in understanding the topography of mental disorder, while cautioning that the point at which eccentric reasoning constitutes disorder often remains a matter of cultural judgement.

  9. Misguided U.S. Food Policy Toward North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bubia, Donald

    1999-01-01

    .... The United States, apparently caught unaware, paused for many months to consider the political and security ramifications of donating significant food, medicines, and funds to the effort. Given previous U.S...

  10. Misguided U.S. Food Policy Toward North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bubia, Donald

    1999-01-01

    In 1995, the United Nations' World Food Program published an urgent plea for nations to donate food and medicines to relieve a complex food emergency in the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK or North Korea...

  11. Petroleum term markets and OPEC producers countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensarsa, F.

    1994-01-01

    The situation of petroleum producers countries in front of term markets is described. With an economics liberalization, policy configuration changing the energetic balance (increasing of american imports, of asiatic demand and developing countries; decreasing of russian production), a more efficient technology, a right management of energetic resources with energy economy, renewable energies and non polluting energies, it is difficult for producers countries to resist at the pressure of financing tools, more and more modern and efficient as they are term markets

  12. Energies; Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  13. New purchase conditions by EDF, of the electrical power produced by the energy valorization installations of domestic wastes and assimilated; Nouvelles conditions d'achat par EDF de l'electricite produite par les installations de valorisation energetique des dechets managers et assimiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The State Secretary for the Industry, C. Pierret, approved the new purchase conditions by EDF, concerning the electric power, produced by the installations of domestic wastes energy valorization. This action is in agreement with the energy policy. The purchase conditions are presented and commented. (A.L.B.)

  14. Power Producer Production Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kněžek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing developments in the electricity market, in particular the establishment of the Prague Energy Exchange (PXE and the associated transfer from campaign-driven sale to continuous trading, represent a significant change for power companies.  Power producing companies can now optimize the sale of their production capacities with the objective of maximizing profit from wholesale electricity and supporting services. The Trading Departments measure the success rate of trading activities by the gross margin (GM, calculated by subtracting the realized sales prices from the realized purchase prices and the production cost, and indicate the profit & loss (P&L to be subsequently calculated by the Control Department. The risk management process is set up on the basis of a business strategy defining the volumes of electricity that have to be sold one year and one month before the commencement of delivery. At the same time, this process defines the volume of electricity to remain available for spot trading (trading limits. 

  15. Apparatus for producing laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarboe, T.R.; Baker, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    This patent relates to an apparatus and method for producing deuterium targets or pellets of 25u to 75u diameter. The pellets are sliced from a continuously spun solid deuterium thread at a rate of up to 10 pellets/second. The pellets after being sliced from the continuous thread of deuterium are collimated and directed to a point of use, such as a laser activated combustion or explosion chamber wherein the pellets are imploded by laser energy or laser produced target plasmas for neutral beam injection

  16. Measurement of sin2θefflept using e+e- pairs from γ*/Z bosons produced in p p ¯ collisions at a center-of-momentum energy of 1.96 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; D'Errico, M.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; Donati, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Farrington, S.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Galloni, C.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucà, A.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Marchese, L.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Pranko, A.; Prokoshin, F.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Song, H.; Sorin, V.; St. Denis, R.; Stancari, M.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Waters, D.; Wester, W. C.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Zanetti, A. M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Zucchelli, S.; CDF Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    At the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton (p p ¯) collider, Drell-Yan lepton pairs are produced in the process p p ¯→e+e-+X through an intermediate γ*/Z boson. The forward-backward asymmetry in the polar-angle distribution of the e- as a function of the e+e--pair mass is used to obtain sin2θefflept, the effective leptonic determination of the electroweak-mixing parameter sin2θW. The measurement sample, recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF), corresponds to 9.4 fb-1 of integrated luminosity from p p ¯ collisions at a center-of-momentum energy of 1.96 TeV, and is the full CDF Run II data set. The value of sin2θefflept is found to be 0.23248 ±0.00053 . The combination with the previous CDF measurement based on μ+μ- pairs yields sin2θefflept=0.23221±0.00046 . This result, when interpreted within the specified context of the standard model assuming sin2θW=1 - MW2/MZ2 and that the W - and Z -boson masses are on-shell, yields sin2θW=0.22400 ±0.00045 , or equivalently a W -boson mass of 80.328 ±0.024 GeV /c2 .

  17. Energy accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, G.A. de.

    1981-01-01

    G.A. de Boer reacts to recently published criticism of his contribution to a report entitled 'Commentaar op het boek 'Tussen Kernenergie en Kolen. Een Analyse' van ir. J.W. Storm van Leeuwen' (Commentary on the book 'Nuclear Energy versus Coal. An Analysis by ir. J.W. Storm van Leeuwen), published by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. The contribution (Appendix B) deals with energy analyses. He justifies his arguments for using energy accountancy for assessing different methods of producing electricity, and explains that it is simply an alternative to purely economic methods. The energy conversion yield (ratio of energy produced to energy required) is tabulated for different sources. De Boer emphasises that his article purposely discusses among other things, definitions, forms of energy, the limits of the systems, the conversion of money into energy and the definition of the energy yield at length, in order to prevent misunderstandings. (C.F.)

  18. Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)—positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis—produces commercially...

  19. Energies; Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotard, E.

    2002-02-01

    A review is made about the consequences of the European directive on energy that entered into application in august 2000. It appears that most countries are opening their electricity and gas markets at a faster pace than required by the E.U. directive. European gas imports reached 480 Gm{sup 3} in 2000 and are expected to be over 700 Gm{sup 3} in 2015, so the question of the reliability of the gas suppliers has to be answered at the European level. The current time is marked by an increase of the complexity of the energy market that is due to different factors: 1) the delay in the implementation of European energy directives in France, 2) new arrangement is occurring in United-Kingdom in the energy sector, 3) the lack of a regulating authority in Germany, and 4) the difficulty of inter-connecting the different European energy networks. This transitory period may generate some economic imbalances and competition disturbances by allowing some enterprises to benefit from lower energy prices before others. (A.C.)

  20. Producing charcoal from wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental works to use wood wastes for producing charcoal are examined, which are being conducted in the Sverdlovsk assembly and adjustment administration of Soyuzorglestekhmontazh. A wasteless prototype installation for producing fine charcoal is described, along with its subsequent briqueting, which is made on the basis of units which are series produced by the factories of the country. The installation includes subassemblies for preparing and drying the raw material and for producing the charcoal briquets. In the opinion of specialists, the charcoal produced from the wastes may be effectively used in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and in the production of pipes.

  1. Relationship between Statistical and Dynamical properties of fragments produced at Fermi Energy in Heavy ion collisions: ng; Liens entre les proprietes statistiques et dynamiques des fragments produits lors des collisions d'ions lourds autour de l'energie de Fermi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehaut, G.

    2009-10-15

    The properties of the fragments produced in heavy-ion collisions around the Fermi energy have been studied through the isospin degree of freedom. First, a theoretical approach based on a lattice gas model with two types of particles (neutron,proton) interacting by an isospin dependent and Coulomb interactions was developed. The study of the phase diagram shows that this system presents three different phases (liquid, gas, fission). In the liquid and gas phases, the energy of the system was described by a density functional, where the temperature dependence acts only on the density. The symmetry term of this functional was related to the isotopic content of the biggest fragment via an iso-scaling analysis. Secondly a systematic study of the stopping power of the nuclear matter and isospin equilibration of light particles in the most violent collisions was carried out using the experimental data taken by the INDRA multidetector at GANIL and GSI. Two stopping power regimes appear; at low energy (< 40 MeV/A) the stopping power decreases with increasing beam energy, whereas at high energy the stopping power is governed by the quantity of matter along the beam direction. An other study has been focused on the Xe+Sn reaction at 32 and 45 MeV/A with different isospin systems. The separation of three different reaction mechanisms by use of a principal component analysis allowed us to observe that the isospin content of light particles seems to be independent on the mechanism, but depends on the violence of the collision (i.e. impact parameter). (author)

  2. Energy - Sandia National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Energy Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Menu Stationary Power solar Energy Conversion Efficiency Increasing the amount of electricity produced from a given thermal energy input. Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2

  3. Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Gonçalves

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O incentivo ao consumo e à produção em grande quantidade na sociedade atual gera, exageros de resíduos sólidos urbanos que, em alguns casos, podem ser utilizados para a geração de energia. Neste sentido e visando reduzir os resíduos dos aterros municipais e gerar energia, buscou-se produzir briquetes com mistura de rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RRSU e resíduos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Os briquetes foram fabricados com 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25% de RRSU na mistura com resíduos madeireiros contendo 12% de umidade. Os parâmetros analisados para a escolha da melhor mistura, foram: análise de combustibilidade x cinzas, resistência e energia utilizável. Os briquetes com até 10% de RRSU se mostraram com baixa resistência e os acima de 15% apresentaram grande aumento no teor de cinzas; portanto, os que melhor atenderam aos requisitos combustibilidade x cinzas e resistência mecânica, foram aqueles com 15% de RRSU, pois não se conhece a procedência das cinzas. Considerando-se a energia utilizável, o briquete com 25% de RRSU é o que apresenta maior poder calorífico útil na ordem de 17.175 kJ kg-1 motivo pelo qual se indica a produção de briquetes com adição RRSU; ressalta-se, porém, a necessidade de estudos sobre a emissão de gases.The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW. With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above

  4. Dictionary of the energy-producing industry. Nuclear and non-nuclear energy sources. Vol. 2. Fachwoerterbuch zur Energiewirtschaft. Nukleare und nichtnukleare Energietraeger. - Dictionnaire technique de l'economie energetique. Sources d'energie nucleaire et autre que nucleaire. Bd. 2. Allemand-Francais/Francais-Allemand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannhardt, K H

    1981-01-01

    This technical dictionary, compiled in everyday practice, gives an outline of the terminology and phraseology of a modern field of engineering. Users should have some basic knowledge of the French language and also of engineering as well as access to standard-language dictionaries. Core subjects of the dictionary are nuclear power, reactor engineering, fusion technology, solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, radiation protection, nuclear safety, coal gasification and coal liquefaction, cooperative agreements and managerial problems.

  5. Human body may produce bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerian, Alen J

    2017-06-01

    "Human body may produce bacteria" proposes that human body may produce bacteria and represent an independent source of infections contrary to the current paradigm of infectious disorders proposed by Louis Pasteur in 1880. The following observations are consistent with this hypothesis: A. Bidirectional transformations of both living and nonliving things have been commonly observed in nature. B. Complex multicellular organisms harbor the necessary properties to produce bacteria (water, nitrogen and oxygen). C. Physical laws suggest any previously observed phenomenon or action will occur again (life began on earth; a non living thing). D. Animal muscle cells may generate energy (fermentation). E. Sterilized food products (i.e. boiled eggs), may produce bacteria and fungus under special conditions and without any exposure to foreign living cells. "Human body may produce bacteria" may challenge the current medical paradigm that views human infectious disorders as the exclusive causative byproducts of invading foreign cells. It may also introduce new avenues to treat infectious disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The study of quasi-projectiles produced in Ni+Ni and Ni+Au collisions: excitation energy and spin; Etude des quasi-projectiles produits dans les collisions Ni+Ni et Ni+Au: energie d'excitation et spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buta, A

    2003-02-01

    During the collision between the projectile and the target nuclei in the intermediate energy regime (E < 100 MeV/nucleon) two excited nuclei are mainly observed in the exit channel, the quasi projectile (QP) and the quasi target. They disintegrate by particle emission. However, this binary picture is perturbed by the emission of particles and light fragments with velocities intermediate between the projectile velocity and the target one, all along the interaction (midrapidity component). This work aim to determine the excitation energy and the intrinsic angular momentum (or spin) of quasi-projectiles produced in the Ni+Ni and Ni+Au collisions at 52 and 90 MeV/nucleon. The excitation energy is deduced from the kinematical characteristics of particles emitted by the quasi-projectile. They have to be separated from midrapidity particles. Three different scenarios have been used for this purpose. The spin of the quasi-projectile has been extracted from the experimental data by mean of proton and alpha particles multiplicities emitted by the QP in the Ni+Au at 52 MeV/nucleon reaction. The results have been compared to the predictions of a theoretical model based on nucleon transfers. Their evolution is qualitatively reproduced as a function of the violence of the collision. (author)

  7. Theoretical and numerical study of the expansion of a laser-produced plasma: high energy ion acceleration; Etude theorique et numerique de l'expansion d'un plasma cree par laser: acceleration d'ions a haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grismayer, T

    2006-12-15

    This work is a theoretical and numerical study on the high energy ion acceleration in laser created plasma expansion. The ion beams produced on the rear side of an irradiated foil reveal some characteristics (low divergence, wide spectra) which distinguish them from the ones coming from the front side. The discovery of these beams has renewed speculation for applications such as proton-therapy or proton radiography. The ion acceleration is performed via a self-consistent electrostatic field due to the charge separation between ions and hot electrons. In the first part of this dissertation, we present the fluid theoretical model and the hybrid code which simulates the plasma expansion. The numerical simulation of a recent experience on the dynamic of the electric field by proton radiography validates the theoretical model. The second part deals with the influence of an initial ion density gradient on the acceleration efficiency. We establish a model which relates the plasma dynamic and more precisely the wave breaking of the ion flow. The numerical results which predict a strong decrease of the ion maximum energy for large gradient length are in agreement with the experimental data. The Boltzmann equilibrium for the electron assumed in the first part has been thrown back into doubt in the third part. We adopt a kinetic description for the electron. The new version of the code can measure the Boltzmann law deviation which does not strongly modify the maximum energy that can reach the ions. (author)

  8. Radiation produced biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    radiation technique. Immobilization of biologically active species in hydrogel matrices, their use as drug delivery systems and enzyme traps as well as modification of material surfaces to improve their biocompatibility and ability to bond antigens and antibodies have been the main subject of their investigations. The rising interest in the field of application of radiation to bioengineering was also recognized by the International Atoimc Energy Agency, which has initiated the international programs relating to those studies. In these lectures some directions of investigations on the formation of hydrogels and their applications for biomedical purposes have been specified. Also, some examples of commercialized products being produced by means of radiation technique have been presented

  9. Biologically produced sulfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are

  10. Consumers and Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Maira (Elisa)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the last few decades, advances in information and communication technology have dramatically changed the way consumers and producers interact in the marketplace. The Internet and social media have torn down the information barrier between producers and consumers, leading to

  11. Producers and oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, W.

    1993-01-01

    This article attempts an assessment of the potential use of futures by the Middle East oil producers. It focuses on Saudi Arabia since the sheer size of Saudi Arabian sales poses problems, but the basic issues discussed are similar for the other Middle East producers. (Author)

  12. Deliberation Nr 2017-047. Deliberation of the Commission for regulation of energy on the 16 March 2017 bearing opinion on the decree project defining purchase conditions for the electricity produced by installations mounted on building and using photovoltaic solar energy, with a peak power less than or equal to 100 kilowatts such as those defined in the 3. of the article D. 314-15 of the Code of Energy, and located in continental metropolitan France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carenco, Jean-Francois; Chauvet, Christine; Edwige, Catherine; Gassin, Helene; Padova, Yann; Sotura, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the context, of the referral, and of the CRE (commission for the regulation of energy) ability, this document proposes an overview of the decree project in terms of concerned installations, and of payment conditions. These conditions are addressed in terms of levels, of evolution, of premium in relationship with integration to the building, of tariff indexing. The next part proposes a profitability analysis. It addresses various calculation hypotheses used to model business plans (total sale, installations for self-consumption), and analyses initial payment levels for a total sale and for sale of surplus. Additional remarks are made regarding the energy production level, guarantee deposit, certificate of compliance, communication between producer and network manager, rules to define the limits of a site, purchase contract duration, the E coefficient, and possible criteria for photovoltaic modules. The document ends with the statement of the CRE opinion on this decree project

  13. Energy infrastructure: hydrogen energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veziroglu, T N

    1979-02-01

    In a hydrogen system, hydrogen is not a primary source of energy, but an intermediary, an energy carrier between the primary energy sources and the user. The new unconventional energy sources, such as nuclear breeder reactors, fusion reactors, direct solar radiation, wind energy, ocean thermal energy, and geothermal energy have their shortcomings. These shortcomings of the new sources point out to the need for an intermediary energy system to form the link between the primary energy sources and the user. In such a system, the intermediary energy form must be transportable and storable; economical to produce; and if possible renewable and pollution-free. The above prerequisites are best met by hydrogen. Hydrogen is plentiful in the form of water. It is the cheapest synthetic fuel to manufacture per unit of energy stored in it. It is the least polluting of all of the fuels, and is the lightest and recyclable. In the proposed system, hydrogen would be produced in large plants located away from the consumption centers at the sites where primary new energy sources and water are available. Hydrogen would then be transported to energy consumption centers where it would be used in every application where fossil fuels are being used today. Once such a system is established, it will never be necessary to change to any other energy system.

  14. Elephants produce their electricity by themselves. Wilhelma an integrated energy efficiency concept of Stuttgart (SEE); Elefanten machen ihren Strom selbst. Die Wilhelma als integriertes Energieeffizienzkonzept der Stadt Stuttgart (SEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilse, Annika; Leix, Carmen; Fischer, Klaus; Kranert, Martin [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserbau, Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft

    2013-10-01

    As a part of the overall project Stuttgart city with energy efficiency - SEE an integrated bioenergy concept Wilhelma at the Institute for Sanitary Engineering, Water Quality and Waste Management (ISWA) in cooperation with the Institute of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (IER) is created. The biomass potential analysis was recently completed; a differentiated analysis of energy demand is still pending. The Stuttgart Zoo Wilhelma has a significant biomass potential. With about 340 acres of gardens and parks which fall Wilhelma to care and the residue biomass of around 9000 zoo animals, offers the Stuttgart Zoo and Garden Wilhelma, together with the urban green space a high biomass potential, which is currently unused. For energy recovery through anaerobic digestion in a biogas plant are suitable 3900 t/a of biomass, which are 87% of the total exploitable biomass. For energy recovery by incineration are suitable 600 t/a of biomass, equivalent to the remaining 13% of recoverable biomass. This could be a total energy potential of about 6219 MWh/year are covered if the biomass is fully developed. Of these, 64% come from the fermentation and 36% from burning. About the determined biomass potential can be expected to be covered the electricity and heat demand of up to 16% (integrated bio-energy concept). To fully cover the energy requirements possibility of further use of renewable energy sources (e.g. solar panels on the roofs) must be examined and evaluated. (orig.)

  15. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE STANDARD SAMPLE FOR ACCURATE ESTIMATION OF THE CONCENTRATION OF NET ENERGY FOR LACTATION IN FEEDS ON THE BASIS OF GAS PRODUCED DURING THE INCUBATION OF SAMPLES WITH RUMEN LIQUOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T ŽNIDARŠIČ

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine the necessity of using the standard sample at the Hohenheim gas test. During a three year period, 24 runs of forage samples were incubated with rumen liquor in vitro. Beside the forage samples also the standard hay sample provided by the Hohenheim University (HFT-99 was included in the experiment. Half of the runs were incubated with rumen liquor of cattle and half with the rumen liquor of sheep. Gas produced during the 24 h incubation of standard sample was measured and compared to a declared value of sample HFT-99. Beside HFT-99, 25 test samples with known digestibility coefficients determined in vivo were included in the experiment. Based on the gas production of HFT-99, it was found that donor animal (cattle or sheep did not significantly affect the activity of rumen liquor (41.4 vs. 42.2 ml of gas per 200 mg dry matter, P>0.1. Neither differences between years (41.9, 41.2 and 42.3 ml of gas per 200 mg dry matter, P>0.1 were significant. However, a variability of about 10% (from 38.9 to 43.7 ml of gas per 200 mg dry matter was observed between runs. In the present experiment, the gas production in HFT-99 was about 6% lower than the value obtained by the Hohenheim University (41.8 vs. 44.43 ml per 200 mg dry matter. This indicates a systematic error between the laboratories. In the case of twenty-five test samples, correction on the basis of the standard sample reduced the average difference of the in vitro estimates of net energy for lactation (NEL from the in vivo determined values. It was concluded that, due to variation between runs and systematical differences in rumen liquor activity between two laboratories, the results of Hohenheim gas test have to be corrected on the basis of standard sample.

  16. FY 2000 report on the results of the project for measures for rationalization of the international energy utilization - the model project for the heightening of efficiency of the international energy consumption. 1/2. Model project for facilities for effective utilization of by-producing exhaust gases from chemical plant, etc.; 2000 nendo kokusai energy shohi koritsuka tou moderu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kagaku kojo fukusei haigasu tou yuko riyo setsubi moderu jigyo (1/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to the reduction in the energy consumption in China and the stable energy supply in Japan by heightening efficiency of the energy utilization in the petrochemical industry which is an industry of much energy consumption in China, a model project for facilities for effective utilization of by-producing gases from chemical plant, etc. was carried out, and the FY 2000 results were reported. Concretely, the combustion incinerator and combustion exhaust gas recovery facilities for waste water and gas were to be installed at acrylonitrile plant of petrochemical plant in China to recover the combustion exhaust gas as process gas used in plant for effective utilization. The plant at installation site has been run since 1995, having a production capacity of 50,000-60,000 tons. In this fiscal year, the detailed design and supply of electric instrumentation equipment and manufacture of boiler facilities were carried out according to the basic design made in the previous fiscal year. Further, the equipment manufactured in the previous year and this fiscal year were transported and inspected. The paper also reviewed drawings of the design of the facilities for part of which China takes responsibility. (NEDO)

  17. FY 2000 report on the results of the project for measures for rationalization of the international energy utilization - the model project for the heightening of efficiency of the international energy consumption. 2/2. Model project for facilities for effective utilization of by-producing exhaust gases from chemical plant, etc.; 2000 nendo kokusai energy shohi koritsuka tou moderu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kagaku kojo fukusei haigasu tou yuko riyo setsubi moderu jigyo (2/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to the reduction in the energy consumption in China and the stable energy supply in Japan by heightening efficiency of the energy utilization in the petrochemical industry which is an industry of much energy consumption in China, a model project for facilities for effective utilization of by-producing gases from chemical plant, etc. was carried out, and the FY 2000 results were reported. Concretely, the combustion incinerator and combustion exhaust gas recovery facilities for waste water and gas were to be installed at acrylonitrile plant of petrochemical plant in China to recover the combustion exhaust gas as process gas used in plant for effective utilization. In this fiscal year, the detailed design and supply of electric instrumentation equipment and manufacture of boiler facilities were carried out according to the basic design made in the previous fiscal year. Further, the equipment manufactured in the previous year and this fiscal year were transported and inspected. The paper also reviewed drawings of the design of the facilities for part of which China takes responsibility. The separate volume (2/2) included drawings of valve, fire detector, orifice, thermocouple, motor control equipment, etc. (NEDO)

  18. Producing the Spielberg Brand

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter looks at the manufacture of Spielberg’s brand, and the limits of its usage. Spielberg’s directorial work is well known, but Spielberg’s identity has also been established in other ways, and I focus particularly on his work as a producer. At the time of writing, Spielberg had produced (or executive produced) 148 movies and television series across a range of genres that takes in high budget blockbusters and low budget documentaries, with many more to come. In these texts, Spielber...

  19. Energy-Water Nexus | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nexus Energy-Water Nexus Water is required to produce energy. Energy is required to pump, treat , and transport water. The energy-water nexus examines the interactions between these two inextricably linked sectors. A cartoon showing the nexus of water and energy using red and blue arrows to indicate the

  20. Producing Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2009-01-01

    There is a potential crisis looming related to the world's need for energy. On the one hand, energy demands are growing every day, and could double by 2050. On the other hand, burning of traditional fossil fuels to generate electricity is contributing to the increase in greenhouse gases. Would it be advisable to increase the number of nuclear…

  1. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  2. Geant4 simulations of the absorption of photons in CsI and NaI produced by electrons with energies up to 4 MeV and their application to precision measurements of the β-energy spectrum with a calorimetric technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyan, X.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Voytas, P.; Chandavar, S.; Hughes, M.; Minamisono, K.; Paulauskas, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The yield of photons produced by electrons slowing down in CsI and NaI was studied with four electromagnetic physics constructors included in the Geant4 toolkit. The subsequent absorption of photons in detector geometries used for measurements of the β spectrum shape was also studied with a focus on the determination of the absorption fraction. For electrons with energies in the range 0.5-4 MeV, the relative photon yields determined with the four Geant4 constructors differ at the level of 10-2 in amplitude and the relative absorption fractions differ at the level of 10-4 in amplitude. The differences among constructors enabled the estimation of the sensitivity to Geant4 simulations for the measurement of the β energy spectrum shape in 6He decay using a calorimetric technique with ions implanted in the active volume of detectors. The size of the effect associated with photons escaping the detectors was quantified in terms of a slope which, on average, is respectively - 5 . 4 %/MeV and - 4 . 8 %/MeV for the CsI and NaI geometries. The corresponding relative uncertainties as determined from the spread of results obtained with the four Geant4 constructors are 0.0067 and 0.0058.

  3. Methods for producing diterpenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention discloses that by combining different di TPS enzymes of class I and class II different diterpenes may be produced including diterpenes not identified in nature. Surprisingly it is revealed that a di TPS enzyme of class I of one species may be combined with a di TPS enzyme...... of class II from a different species, resulting in a high diversity of diterpenes, which can be produced....

  4. Polysaccharide-producing microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braud, J.P.; Chaumont, D.; Gudin, C.; Thepenier, C.; Chassin, P.; Lemaire, C.

    1982-11-01

    The production of extracellular polysaccharides is studied with Nostoc sp (cyanophycus), Porphiridium cruentum, Rhodosorus marinus, Rhodella maculata (rhodophyci) and Chlamydomonas mexicana (chlorophycus). The polysaccharides produced are separated by centrifugation of the culture then precipitation with alcohol. Their chemical structure was studied by infrared spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. By their rheological properties and especially their insensitivity to temperatrure and pH variations the polysaccharides produced by Porphryridium cruentum and Rhodella maculata appear as suitable candidates for industrial applications.

  5. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wethe, Per Ivar

    2009-01-01

    Today we know two forms of nuclear energy: fission and fusion. Fission is the decomposition of heavy nuclei, while fusion is the melting together of light nuclei. Both processes create a large surplus of energy. Technologically, we can currently only use fission to produce energy in today's nuclear power plants, but there is intense research worldwide in order to realize a controlled fusion process. In a practical context, today's nuclear energy is a sustained source of energy since the resource base is virtually unlimited. When fusion technology is realized, the resource supply will be a marginal problem. (AG)

  6. Program evaluation and incentives for administrators of energy efficiency programs: can evaluation solve the principal/agent problem?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumstein, Carl (Univ. of California, Energy Institute (United States))

    2009-07-01

    This paper addresses the nexus between the evaluation of energy-efficiency programs and incentive payments based on performance for program administrators in California. The paper describes problems that arise when evaluators are asked to measure program performance by answering the counterfactual question, what would have happened in the absence of the program? Then some ways of addressing these problems are examined. Key conclusions are that 1) program evaluation cannot precisely and accurately determine the counterfactual, there will always be substantial uncertainty, 2) given the current state of knowledge, the decision to tie all of the incentive to program outcomes is misguided, and 3) incentive programs should be regularly reviewed and revised so that they can be adapted to new conditions.

  7. Program evaluation and incentives for administrators of energy-efficiency programs: Can evaluation solve the principal/agent problem?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumstein, Carl, E-mail: blumstei@berkeley.ed [University of California Energy Institute, 2547 Channing Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    This paper addresses the nexus between evaluation of energy-efficiency programs and incentive payments based on performance for program administrators in California. The paper describes the problems that arise when evaluators are asked to measure program performance by answering the counterfactual question-what would have happened in the absence of the program? Then the paper examines some ways of addressing these problems. Key conclusions are (1) program evaluation cannot precisely and accurately determine the counterfactual, there will always be substantial uncertainty, (2) given the current state of knowledge, the decision to tie all incentives to program outcomes is misguided, and (3) incentive programs should be regularly reviewed and revised so that they can be adapted to new conditions.

  8. Program evaluation and incentives for administrators of energy-efficiency programs. Can evaluation solve the principal/agent problem?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumstein, Carl [University of California Energy Institute, 2547 Channing Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    This paper addresses the nexus between evaluation of energy-efficiency programs and incentive payments based on performance for program administrators in California. The paper describes the problems that arise when evaluators are asked to measure program performance by answering the counterfactual question - what would have happened in the absence of the program? Then the paper examines some ways of addressing these problems. Key conclusions are (1) program evaluation cannot precisely and accurately determine the counterfactual, there will always be substantial uncertainty, (2) given the current state of knowledge, the decision to tie all incentives to program outcomes is misguided, and (3) incentive programs should be regularly reviewed and revised so that they can be adapted to new conditions. (author)

  9. Program evaluation and incentives for administrators of energy-efficiency programs: Can evaluation solve the principal/agent problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumstein, Carl

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the nexus between evaluation of energy-efficiency programs and incentive payments based on performance for program administrators in California. The paper describes the problems that arise when evaluators are asked to measure program performance by answering the counterfactual question-what would have happened in the absence of the program? Then the paper examines some ways of addressing these problems. Key conclusions are (1) program evaluation cannot precisely and accurately determine the counterfactual, there will always be substantial uncertainty, (2) given the current state of knowledge, the decision to tie all incentives to program outcomes is misguided, and (3) incentive programs should be regularly reviewed and revised so that they can be adapted to new conditions.

  10. Physicists produce first antiatom

    CERN Multimedia

    Watson, A

    1996-01-01

    Researchers at the European Center for Particle Physics (CERN) created 11 atoms of antihydrogen using the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring. Physicists forecast that the creation of the first antiatoms will aid in the understanding of antimatter.

  11. Distribution of isotopes produced in superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x and ferroelectric PbZr0.54Ti0.46O3 under irradiation by high-energy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didik, V.A.; Malkovich, R.Sh.; Skoryatina, E.A.; Kozlovskij, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration profiles of transmutation radioactive isotopes, formed in the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x superconductor and PbZr 0.54 Ti 0.46 O 3 ferroelectric under high-energy proton radiation (with 10 and 15 MeV energy), deuterons (4 MeV), the 3 He and 4 He nuclei (20 MeV), are studied. Two types of the concentration profiles: monotonous ones and profiles with the maximum are identified. It is shown that the isotope profile is determined by the character of energy dependence of the nuclear reaction cross section, leading to formation of the given isotope

  12. Producing metallurgic coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, T.; Isida, K.; Vada, Y.

    1982-11-18

    A mixture of power producing coals with coal briquets of varying composition is proposed for coking in horizontal chamber furnaces. The briquets are produced from petroleum coke, coal fines or semicoke, which make up less than 27 percent of the mixture to be briquetted and coals with a standard coking output of volatile substances and coals with high maximal Gizeler fluidity. The ratio of these coals in the mixture is 0.6 to 2.1 or 18 to 32 percent, respectively. Noncaking or poorly caking coals are used as the power producing coals. The hardness of the obtained coke is DJ15-30 = 90.5 to 92.7 percent.

  13. The use of dendrimers as high-performance shells for round-trip energy transfer: efficient trans-cis photoisomerization from an excited triplet state produced within a dendrimer shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yousuke; Momotake, Atsuya; Takeuchi, Keiichirou; Arai, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    A series of stilbene-cored poly(benzyl ether) dendrimers with benzophenone peripheries were synthesized and their photophysical and photochemical properties were studied. Fluorescence studies revealed that singlet-singlet energy transfer (SSET) from the stilbene core to the benzophenone units took place efficiently in dendrimers of all generations. Similarly, phosphorescence and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements indicated efficient triplet-triplet energy transfer (TTET) from the benzophenone periphery to the stilbene core. Upon excitation at 310 nm, the stilbene core isomerizes via an energy round trip within the dendrimer shell. The quantum yields for the energy round trip (Φ(ERT)), defined as the product of the quantum yields of SSET, intersystem crossing, and TTET (Φ(ERT) = Φ(SS)Φ(isc)Φ(TT)), were extremely high for all generations--99%, 95% and 94% for G1, G2, and G3, respectively--which means that the excitation energy of the dendrimer core was transferred to the dendrimer periphery and back to the core almost quantitatively. The quantum yield for photoisomerization of G1-G3 via an energy round trip was higher than for other stilbene-cored dendrimers, which mainly isomerize from the excited singlet state. Photostability in the dendrimers was also demonstrated and discussed.

  14. Energy catastrophes and energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of energy catastrophes in the production of energy serves to make estimation of the true social costs of energy production difficult. As a result, there is a distinct possibility that the private marginal cost curve of energy producers lies to the left or right of the true cost curve. If so, social welfare will not be maximized, and underconsumption or overconsumption of fuels will exist. The occurrence of energy catastrophes and observance of the market reaction to these occurrences indicates that overconsumption of energy has been the case in the past. Postulations as to market reactions to further energy catastrophes lead to the presumption that energy consumption levels remain above those that are socially optimal

  15. Standards and producers' liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmer, F.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses the liability of producers and the diligence required, which has to come up to technical standards and the latest state of technology. The consequences of this requirement with regard to claims for damages are outlined and proposals for reforms are pointed out. (HSCH) [de

  16. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic–inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie–Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol–gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie–Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating. (paper)

  17. Efficient utilization of xylanase and lipase producing thermophilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficient utilization of xylanase and lipase producing thermophilic marine actinomycetes ( Streptomyces albus and Streptomyces hygroscopicus ) in the production of ecofriendly alternative energy from waste.

  18. USA coal producer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porco, J. [Alpha Natural Resources, Latrobe, PA (US). Alpha Energy Global Marketing

    2004-07-01

    The focus is on the Central Appalachian coal industry. Alpha Natural Resources was formed in 2002 from Pittston Coal's Virginia and Coastal operations. AMCI's U.S. operations and Mears Enterprises in Pennsylvania were acquired later. The company produces 20-21 million tonnes per year and sells 20 million tonnes of steam coal and 10 million tonnes of exports, including some coal that is brokered. Foundry coke is a major product. Capital investment has resulted in increased productivity. Central Appalachia is expected to continue as a significant coal-producing region for supplying metallurgical coke. Production is expected to stabilize, but not increase; so the mines will have a longer life. 31 slides/overheads are included.

  19. Dimuons produced by antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenuti, A.; Cline, D.; Ford, W.T.; Imlay, R.; Ling, T.Y.; Mann, A.K.; Orr, R.; Reeder, D.D.; Rubbia, C.; Stefanski, R.; Sulak, L.; Wanderer, P.

    1975-01-01

    In a run with a predominantly phi-bar beam we have observed seven dimuon events which show clearly that dimuons are produced by phi-bar as well as by phi. Using the signature of those events we tentatively identify twelve dimuon events from earlier runs as phi-bar-induced. The characteristics of the total sample support the explanation that dimuons arise from new hadron production

  20. The consumption of electric power produced from renewable energy sources in France. Report about the national indicative goals at the 2010 vista; La consommation d'electricite produite a partir de sources d'energie renouvelable en France. Rapport sur les objectifs indicatifs nationaux a l'horizon 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    The European directive 2001/77/CE relative to the promotion of the electric power produced from renewable energy sources and devoted to the domestic power market was enforced on September 27, 2001. It fixes indicative goals for each country and aims at increasing from 14% to 22% the share of electric power of renewable origin in the European power consumption. For France, the goal is to change from 15% in 1997 to 21% by 2010. The directive foresees that each member state makes a presentation of its annual objectives of power consumption of renewable origin and of the measures implemented or foreseen to reach these objectives in October 2002. The transcription of the directive must be achieved by October 2003. This report presents the French indicative goals elaborated in the framework of a power consumption and power production investment planing made at the 2010 vista. These goals are ambitious and require the rational exploitation of all French renewable resources. France must increase its hydroelectric power resources and develop new sources, in particular the wind power and biomass ones. The legal and regulatory measures that have been, or that will be, implemented, should allow to increase the power production of renewable origin with a sustained rate. In parallel, actions of power demand mastery are necessary to ensure a mastered evolution of the overall power demand. (J.S.)

  1. Power station for producing hydrogen and oxygen under pressure by electrolysis of water at great depth, then transformation into energy by propulsion of the two gases and combustion of their mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imberteche, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of water distillation and electric power accumulation systems. First, by modifying the gas exhaust orifice of the reactor, the steam emerging from it is recovered, transformed into water and its properties used. Second, the power station's possibility of accumulating energy and releasing it as desired is employed [fr

  2. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  3. Geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, A.

    2017-07-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  4. CERN: Producing radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Accelerating radioactive beams has long been of interest at CERN's ISOLDE on-line isotope separator - the possibility was discussed at a CERN Workshop on intermediate energy physics as early as 1977. Meanwhile, as was highlighted in the 1991 report of the Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee, widespread scientific interest in these beams has developed and a range of projects are proposed, under construction or operational throughout the world

  5. Electron acceleration using laser produced plasmas

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Landua, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    Low density plasmas have long been of interest as a potential medium for particle acceleration since relativistic plasma waves are capable of supporting electric fields greater than 100 GeV/m. The physics of particle acceleration using plasmas will be reviewed, and new results will be discussed which have demonstrated that relatively narrow energy spread (<3%) beams having energies greater than 100 MeV can be produced from femtosecond laser plasma interactions. Future experiments and potential applications will also be discussed.

  6. Weather-power station. Solar energy, wind energy, water energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatta, M

    1975-10-02

    A combined power station is described, which enables one to convert solar energy and wind energy into other forms of energy. The plant consists of a water-filled boiler, in which solar energy heats the water by concentration, solar cells, and finally wind rotors, which transform wind energy into electrical energy. The transformed energy is partly available as steam heat, partly as mechanical or electrical energy. The plant can be used for supplying heating systems or electrolysis equipment. Finally, by incorporating suitable motors, a mobile version of the system can be produced.

  7. Producing quality radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullinan, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book gives an overview of physics, equipment, imaging, and quality assurance in the radiology department. The chapters are laid out with generous use of subheads to allow for quick reference, Points are illustrated with clear, uncluttered line diagrams and well-produced images. The accompanying explanations are miniature lessons by themselves. Inserted at various points throughout the text are important notes that highlight key concepts. The chapter ''Image Evaluation and Application of Radiographic Principles'' present a systematic approach to evaluating radiographs and contains several sample radiographs to illustrate the points made

  8. Engineering microbes to produce biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackett, Lawrence P

    2011-06-01

    The current biofuels landscape is chaotic. It is controlled by the rules imposed by economic forces and driven by the necessity of finding new sources of energy, particularly motor fuels. The need is bringing forth great creativity in uncovering new candidate fuel molecules that can be made via metabolic engineering. These next generation fuels include long-chain alcohols, terpenoid hydrocarbons, and diesel-length alkanes. Renewable fuels contain carbon derived from carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is derived directly by a photosynthetic fuel-producing organism(s) or via intermediary biomass polymers that were previously derived from carbon dioxide. To use the latter economically, biomass depolymerization processes must improve and this is a very active area of research. There are competitive approaches with some groups using enzyme based methods and others using chemical catalysts. With the former, feedstock and end-product toxicity loom as major problems. Advances chiefly rest on the ability to manipulate biological systems. Computational and modular construction approaches are key. For example, novel metabolic networks have been constructed to make long-chain alcohols and hydrocarbons that have superior fuel properties over ethanol. A particularly exciting approach is to implement a direct utilization of solar energy to make a usable fuel. A number of approaches use the components of current biological systems, but re-engineer them for more direct, efficient production of fuels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Musselwhite partnership produces results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larmour, A.

    2009-12-01

    Hydro One will install transmission lines between Nipigon and Pickle Lake as one of 20 projects in Ontario's ambitious $2.3 billion green-energy makeover. The electrical power grid will be extended to the region at the request of a group of northwestern Ontario First Nation communities and representatives from Goldcorp Inc.'s Musselwhite Mine, who wanted a reliable source of energy in this remote area. The partnership between Goldcorp and the First Nation communities began in the late 1980s. The Musselwhite Agreement was one of the first Impact Benefit Agreements negotiated in Ontario. Initially signed in 1996, the 5-year deal was renewed in 2001 and 2006. One of the communities at North Caribou Lake has a population of 780 and is located approximately 320 kilometres north of Sioux Lookout. It is one of 4 First Nation communities and 2 tribal councils that have negotiated the sharing of resources from the Musselwhite gold mine, originally owned and operated by Placer Dome. This article discussed some of the best practices in building relationships with community leaders and members. Industry needs to understand the governance of a First Nation community and how they are set up in their decision-making process. Other negotiated aspects within the agreement are revenue sharing and employment. A target of 30 per cent First Nation employment was set for the signatory and affiliate communities. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, J.M.; Kimman, R.; Schweickardt, H.E.

    2001-05-01

    This document brings together 18 testimonies of experts about energy trading: 1 - the energy trading experience on European deregulated markets: structure of deregulated energy markets in Europe, case study: a two years experience of a power exchange in western Europe, case study: European energy exchanges (experience of spot and future trading), case study: risk management on energy deregulated markets; 2 - the trading activity environment and realities in France: the French electrical law and the purchase for resale, experience feedback: status after 3 months of trading in France (the first experience of a French producer), the access to the power transportation network, which legal constraints for trading in France, the access of eligible clients to the French power market, conditions of implementation of a power exchange market in France, which real trading possibilities in France for producers and self-producers in the legal frame, case study: the role of trading in the company (main part or link to process), convergence of gas and electricity markets, gas-electricity trading: which pricing models; 3 - risk management and use of new technologies potentiality, the results outside the French borders: case study: what differences between the European and US markets, prices volatility and commodity risk management: towards the on-line trading, role and developments of E-business in energy trading, how to simplify trade in a liberalized market. (J.S.)

  11. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes...... and social cohesion, as well as a provider of welfare services from a welfare state in dire straits. However, such a view upholds a sharp distinction between the three sectors and their distinct logic. This article claims that the separation of spheres is a fundamental part of our ‘social imaginary......’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...

  12. Origin of microbial life hypothesis: a gel cytoplasm lacking a bilayer membrane, with infrared radiation producing exclusion zone (EZ) water, hydrogen as an energy source and thermosynthesis for bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, J T; Pollack, G H

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis is proposed that pre-biotic bacterial cell(s) and the first cells capable of growth/division did not require a cytoplasmic membrane. A gel-like microscopic structure less than a cubic micrometer may have had a dual role as both an ancient pre-cytoplasm and a boundary layer to the higher-entropy external environment. The gel pre-cytoplasm exposed to radiant energy, especially in the infrared (IR) region of the EM spectrum resulted in the production of an exclusion zone (EZ) with a charge differential (-100 to -200 mV) and boundary that may have been a possible location for the latter organization of the first cytoplasmic membrane. Pre-biotic cells and then-living cells may have used hydrogen as the universal energy source, and thermosynthesis in their bioenergetic processes. These components will be discussed as to how they are interconnected, and their hypothesized roles in the origin of life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy from biomass. Energie uit biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaa, J H

    1990-11-01

    In view of the disadvantages of the use of fossil fuels in producing energy it is worth-while to reconsider the possibilities of biomass to produce energy. Therefore it is necessary to pay attention to production methods, production costs and the consequences of the use of biomass energy for the consumer. Also agreements have to be formulated by governments to control the production and the prices of biomass. Some possibilities to develop biomass production techniques in the Netherlands are mentioned. The results of these developments can be used by developing countries to produce energy from biomass in a more effective and cheaper way than is the case now. 16 refs., 2 ills.

  14. Ocean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    There are 5 different ways of harnessing ocean energy: tides, swells, currents, osmotic pressure and deep water thermal gradients. The tidal power sector is the most mature. A single French site - The Rance tidal power station (240 MW) which was commissioned in 1966 produces 90% of the world's ocean energy. Smaller scale power stations operate around the world, 10 are operating in the European Union and 5 are being tested. Underwater generators and wave energy converters are expanding. In France a 1 km 2 sea test platform is planned for 2010. (A.C.)

  15. SU-E-T-381: Evaluation of Calculated Dose Accuracy for Organs-At-Risk Located at Out-Of-Field in a Commercial Treatment Planning System for High Energy Photon Beams Produced From TrueBeam Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L; Ding, G

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Dose calculation accuracy for the out-of-field dose is important for predicting the dose to the organs-at-risk when they are located outside primary beams. The investigations on evaluating the calculation accuracy of treatment planning systems (TPS) on out-of-field dose in existing publications have focused on low energy (6MV) photon. This study evaluates out-of-field dose calculation accuracy of AAA algorithm for 15MV high energy photon beams. Methods: We used the EGSnrc Monte Carlo (MC) codes to evaluate the AAA algorithm in Varian Eclipse TPS (v.11). The incident beams start with validated Varian phase-space sources for a TrueBeam linac equipped with Millennium 120 MLC. Dose comparisons between using AAA and MC for CT based realistic patient treatment plans using VMAT techniques for prostate and lung were performed and uncertainties of organ dose predicted by AAA at out-of-field location were evaluated. Results: The results show that AAA calculations under-estimate doses at the dose level of 1% (or less) of prescribed dose for CT based patient treatment plans using VMAT techniques. In regions where dose is only 1% of prescribed dose, although AAA under-estimates the out-of-field dose by 30% relative to the local dose, it is only about 0.3% of prescribed dose. For example, the uncertainties of calculated organ dose to liver or kidney that is located out-of-field is <0.3% of prescribed dose. Conclusion: For 15MV high energy photon beams, very good agreements (<1%) in calculating dose distributions were obtained between AAA and MC. The uncertainty of out-of-field dose calculations predicted by the AAA algorithm for realistic patient VMAT plans is <0.3% of prescribed dose in regions where the dose relative to the prescribed dose is <1%, although the uncertainties can be much larger relative to local doses. For organs-at-risk located at out-of-field, the error of dose predicted by Eclipse using AAA is negligible. This work was conducted in part using the

  16. Pricing Electricity in Pools With Wind Producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, A. J.; Kai Liu

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers an electricity pool that includes a significant number of wind producers and is cleared through a network-constrained auction, one day in advance and on an hourly basis. The hourly auction is formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming problem, where the first stage...... represents the clearing of the market and the second stage models the system operation under a number of plausible wind production realizations. This formulation co-optimizes energy and reserve, and allows deriving both pool energy prices and balancing energy prices. These prices result in both cost recovery...... for producers and revenue reconciliation. A case study of realistic size is used to illustrate the functioning of the proposed pricing scheme....

  17. Radioisotopes produced by neutron irradiation of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, S; Seviour, R

    2016-04-01

    The use of neutrons for cargo interrogation has the potential to drastically improve threat detection. Previous research has focussed on the production of (24)Na, based on the isotopes produced in pharmaceuticals and medical devices. For both the total activity and the ingestion dose we show that a variety of isotopes contribute and that (24)Na is only dominant under certain conditions. The composition of the foods has a strong influence on the resulting activity and ingestion dose suggesting that the pharmaceuticals and medical devices considered initially are not a viable analogue for foodstuffs. There is an energy dependence to the isotopes produced due to the cross-sections of different reactions varying with neutron energy. We show that this results in different isotopes dominating the ingestion dose at different energies, which has not been considered in the previous literature. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Antibiotics produced by Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, Rudi Emerson de Lima; Silva, Ingrid Reis da; Martins, Mayra Kassawara; Azevedo, João Lúcio de; Araújo, Janete Magali de

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria that grows in various environments, and its shape resembles filamentous fungi. The morphological differentiation of Streptomyces involves the formation of a layer of hyphae that can differentiate into a chain of spores. The most interesting property of Streptomyces is the ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites, such as antifungals, antivirals, antitumorals, anti-hypertensives, immunosuppressants, and especially antibiotics. The production of most antibiotics is species specific, and these secondary metabolites are important for Streptomyces species in order to compete with other microorganisms that come in contact, even within the same genre. Despite the success of the discovery of antibiotics, and advances in the techniques of their production, infectious diseases still remain the second leading cause of death worldwide, and bacterial infections cause approximately 17 million deaths annually, affecting mainly children and the elderly. Self-medication and overuse of antibiotics is another important factor that contributes to resistance, reducing the lifetime of the antibiotic, thus causing the constant need for research and development of new antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Cyclotron produced radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopicka, K.; Fiser, M.; Hradilek, P.; Hanc, P.; Lebeda, O.

    2003-01-01

    Some of the cyclotron-produced radionuclides may serve as important materials for the production of radiopharmaceuticals. This lecture deals with basic information relating to various aspects of these compounds. In comparison with radionuclides /compounds used for non-medical purposes, radiopharmaceuticals are subject to a broader scale of regulations, both from the safety and efficacy point of view; besides that, there are both radioactive and medical aspects that must be taken into account for any radiopharmaceutical. According to the regulations and in compliance with general rules of work with radioactivity, radiopharmaceuticals should only be prepared/manufactured under special conditions, using special areas and special equipment and applying special procedures (e.g. sterilisation, disinfection, aseptic work). Also, there are special procedures for cleaning and maintenance. Sometimes the requirements for the product safety clash with those for the safety of the personnel; several examples of solutions pertaining to these cases are given in the lecture. Also, the specific role of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals is discussed. (author)

  20. Energy Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrichenko, Ksenia; Farrell, Timothy Clifford; Thorsch Krader, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This report was commissioned by REN21 and produced in collaboration with a global network of research partners. Financing was provided by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), the Government...