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  1. Respiratory muscle strength in children with mild bronchial asthma disease

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    Kateřina Neumannová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory muscle strength can be decreased in patients with asthma; however, it is not well-documented whether a mild bronchial asthma disease can affect respiratory muscle strength in children and can be associated with higher presence of breathing difficulties. Objective: The main aim of the present study was to compare respiratory muscle strength between children with asthma and age-matched healthy children. The next aim of this study was to assess the incidence of decreased respiratory muscle strength in children with asthma and healthy children and assess the effect of decreased respiratory muscle strength on the incidence of breathing difficulties. Methods: Children with mild bronchial asthma (n = 167 and age-matched, healthy children (n = 100 were recruited into this study. Pulmonary function tests, maximal inspiratory (PImax and expiratory (PEmax mouth pressures and the incidence of breathing difficulty were evaluated in children with asthma and healthy controls. Results: The inspiratory muscle strength was similar between children with asthma and healthy children. Conversely, the expiratory muscle strength was lower in asthmatic children. There was a statistically significant difference between girls with asthma and healthy girls (PEmax = 81.7 ± 29.8% vs. 100.1 ± 23.7% of predicted, p < .001. PEmax was significantly higher in boys with asthma than in girls with asthma (PEmax = 92.9 ± 26.4 % vs. 81.7 ± 29.8% of predicted, p = .03. A higher incidence of breathing difficulties during physical activity (uphill walking, running, swimming was confirmed in children with asthma with lower respiratory muscle strength. Conclusions: There was a higher prevalence of decreased expiratory muscle strength in children with asthma; therefore, respiratory muscle strength should be tested in these children, especially in those who are symptomatic.

  2. Mild respiratory symptoms in asthmatic patients might not be due to bronchoconstriction

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    Tarig H Merghani

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: About 11% of asthmatic patients with mild respiratory symptoms who attended the respiratory clinic have no evidence of bronchoconstriction. Spirometry is an essential step for evaluation of every asthmatic patient who presents with respiratory symptoms.

  3. Even mild respiratory distress alters tissue oxygenation significantly in preterm infants during neonatal transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaberger, Bernhard; Pichler, Gerhard; Binder, Corinna; Pocivalnik, Mirjam; Urlesberger, Berndt; Avian, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) enables continuous non-invasive measurements of regional oxygen saturation (rSO 2 ). The aim was to evaluate the dynamics of rSO 2 of the brain, preductal and postductal tissues during postnatal transition in preterm infants with and without respiratory support (RS). This single-centre study was designed as an exploratory prospective observational study. Fifty one preterm infants (≥ 30 + 0 and < 37 + 0 weeks) delivered by caesarean section were included. RS using a T-Piece-Resuscitator and supplemental oxygen were given according to guidelines. NIRS measurements were carried out by using Invos Monitor (Covidien; USA) for the first 15 min of life. Three NIRS transducers were attached on the forehead (rSO 2 brain), the right forearm (rSO 2 arm) and the left lower leg (rSO 2 leg). Two groups were compared based on need for RS: normal transition (NT) and RS group. Results: In NT group rSO 2 brain increased over time and was significantly higher than rSO 2 arm, whereas in RS group rSO 2 brain and rSO 2 arm increased without significant differences. Courses of rSO 2 arm and rSO 2 leg increased over time and showed a converging pattern with initially lower values of rSO 2 leg in NT group and a diverging pattern with lower levels of rSO 2 leg in RS group. Overall, rSO 2 levels were higher in NT compared to RS group. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the decreased rSO 2 levels in RS group compared to NT group are not only caused by lower arterial oxygen saturation levels, but also by a compromised perfusion even in infants with only mild respiratory distress. (paper)

  4. Use of radiotelemetry to evaluate respiratory depression produced by chronic methadone administration.

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    Lewanowitsch, Tanya; White, Jason M; Irvine, Rodney J

    2004-01-26

    Illicit and therapeutic opioid administration can result in overdose due to opioid-induced respiratory depression. Research investigating the respiratory depressant effects of opioids has been limited due to difficulties associated with acquiring long-term respiratory data. This study examined the novel use of radiotelemetry to measure respiratory rate, heart rate, locomotor activity and blood pressure in rats treated chronically with methadone. Over 4 days of treatment, respiratory rate decreased, but partial tolerance appeared to develop during active (night) periods. Decreased heart rate was observed during the night periods and tolerance appeared to develop to this effect. Activity and blood pressure did not change with treatment. The effects of naloxone hydrochloride and naloxone methiodide administration on the methadone-treated rats were also examined and both antagonists increased respiratory rate and heart rate, with only naloxone hydrochloride producing significant increases in activity. Radiotelemetry offers a means of evaluating drug effects on respiratory rate continually in ambulatory, unstressed animals.

  5. Respiratory Consequences of Mild-to-Moderate Obesity: Impact on Exercise Performance in Health and in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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    Denis E. O'Donnell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In many parts of the world, the prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate. The association between obesity, multiple comorbidities, and increased mortality is now firmly established in many epidemiological studies. However, the link between obesity and exercise intolerance is less well studied and is the focus of this paper. Although exercise limitation is likely to be multifactorial in obesity, it is widely believed that the respiratory mechanical constraints and the attendant dyspnea are important contributors. In this paper, we examined the evidence that critical ventilatory constraint is a proximate source of exercise limitation in individuals with mild-to-moderate obesity. We first reviewed existing information on exercise performance, including ventilatory and perceptual response patterns, in obese individuals who are otherwise healthy. We then considered the impact of obesity in patients with preexisting respiratory mechanical abnormalities due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, with particular reference to the effect on dyspnea and exercise performance. Our main conclusion, based on the existing and rather sparse literature on the subject, is that abnormalities of dynamic respiratory mechanics are not likely to be the dominant source of dyspnea and exercise intolerance in otherwise healthy individuals or in patients with COPD with mild-to-moderate obesity.

  6. Pressure overload-induced mild cardiac hypertrophy reduces leftventricular transmural differences in mitochondrial respiratory chainactivity and increases oxidative stress

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    Michel eKINDO

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Increased mechanical stress and contractility characterizes normal left ventricular subendocardium (Endo but whether Endo mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activities is reduced as compared to subepicardium (Epi and whether pressure overload-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH might modulate transmural gradients through increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production is unknown. Methods: LVH was induced by 6 weeks abdominal aortic banding and cardiac structure and function were determined with echocardiography and catheterization in sham-operated and LVH rats (n=10 for each group. Mitochondrial respiration rates, coupling, content and ROS production were measured in LV Endo and Epi, using saponin-permeabilised fibres, Amplex Red fluorescence and citrate synthase activity.Results: In sham, a transmural respiratory gradient was observed with decreases in endo maximal oxidative capacity (-36.7%, P<0.01 and complex IV activity (-57.4%, P<0.05. Mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 production was similar in both LV layers.Aortic banding induced mild LVH (+31.7% LV mass, associated with normal LV fractional shortening and end diastolic pressure. LVH reduced maximal oxidative capacity (-23.6 and -33.3%, increased mitochondrial H2O2 production (+86.9 and +73.1%, free radical leak (+27.2% and +36.3% and citrate synthase activity (+27.2% and +36.3% in Endo and Epi, respectively.Transmural mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV activity was reduced in LVH (-57.4 vs –12.2%; P=0.02. Conclusions: Endo mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes activities are reduced compared to LV Epi. Mild LVH impairs mitochondrial oxidative capacity, increases oxidative stress and reduces transmural complex IV activity. Further studies will be helpful to determine whether reduced LV transmural gradient in mitochondrial respiration might be a new marker of a transition from uncomplicated toward complicated LVH.

  7. Respiratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The words "respiratory" and "respiration" refer to the lungs and breathing. ... Boron WF. Organization of the respiratory system. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 26.

  8. Galactomannans from Brazilian seeds: characterization of the oligosaccharides produced by mild acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganter, J L; Heyraud, A; Petkowicz, C L; Rinaudo, M; Reicher, F

    1995-02-01

    Galactomannans with Man:Gal ratios ranging from 1.1:1 to 3:1, obtained from the seeds of Mimosa scabrella, Stryphnodendron barbatiman, Schizolobium parahybum and Schizolobium amazonicum, were submitted to mild acid hydrolysis. The products were fractionated by gel permeation chromatography on BioGel P2 yielding fractions with degrees of polymerization (DP) of 1 to 6. Those with DP 2 to 6 from each species were analysed by ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography and characterized by 13C- and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The distribution of the oligosaccharides of each degree of polymerization was very similar for the products from S. parahybum and S. amazonicum, indicating the same D-galactosyl distribution on the D-mannan backbone, in agreement with the 13C-NMR splitting in the C4 region of the D-mannosyl units in the original polymers. The hydrolytic conditions adopted allowed characterization of compounds that are not generally produced by enzymatic treatments. The results show that the structures of the oligosaccharides, even if there is a preferential hydrolysis of Gal-Man linkages, reflect the composition of the parent polymer.

  9. Upper and lower respiratory tract microbiota in horses: bacterial communities associated with health and mild asthma (inflammatory airway disease) and effects of dexamethasone.

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    Bond, Stephanie L; Timsit, Edouard; Workentine, Matthew; Alexander, Trevor; Léguillette, Renaud

    2017-08-23

    The microbial composition of the equine respiratory tract, and differences due to mild equine asthma (also called Inflammatory Airway Disease (IAD)) have not been reported. The primary treatment for control of IAD in horses are corticosteroids. The objectives were to characterize the upper and lower respiratory tract microbiota associated with respiratory health and IAD, and to investigate the effects of dexamethasone on these bacterial communities using high throughput sequencing. The respiratory microbiota of horses was dominated by four major phyla, Proteobacteria (43.85%), Actinobacteria (21.63%), Firmicutes (16.82%), and Bacteroidetes (13.24%). Fifty genera had a relative abundance > 0.1%, with Sphingomonas and Pantoea being the most abundant. The upper and lower respiratory tract microbiota differed in healthy horses, with a decrease in richness in the lower airways, and 2 OTUs that differed in abundance. There was a separation between bacterial communities in the lower respiratory tract of healthy and IAD horses; 6 OTUs in the tracheal community had different abundance with disease status, with Streptococcus being increased in IAD horses. Treatment with dexamethasone had an effect on the lower respiratory tract microbiota of both heathy and IAD horses, with 8 OTUs increasing in abundance (including Streptococcus) and 1 OTU decreasing. The lower respiratory tract microbiota differed between healthy and IAD horses. Further research on the role of Streptococcus in IAD is warranted. Dexamethasone treatment affected the lower respiratory tract microbiota, which suggests that control of bacterial overgrowth in IAD horses treated with dexamethasone could be part of the treatment strategy.

  10. Mild Social Stress in Mice Produces Opioid-Mediated Analgesia in Visceral but Not Somatic Pain States.

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    Pitcher, Mark H; Gonzalez-Cano, Rafael; Vincent, Kathleen; Lehmann, Michael; Cobos, Enrique J; Coderre, Terence J; Baeyens, José M; Cervero, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    Visceral pain has a greater emotional component than somatic pain. To determine if the stress-induced analgesic response is differentially expressed in visceral versus somatic pain states, we studied the effects of a mild social stressor in either acute visceral or somatic pain states in mice. We show that the presence of an unfamiliar conspecific mouse (stranger) in an adjacent cubicle of a standard transparent observation box produced elevated plasma corticosterone levels compared with mice tested alone, suggesting that the mere presence of a stranger is stressful. We then observed noxious visceral or somatic stimulation-induced nociceptive behavior in mice tested alone or in mildly stressful conditions (ie, beside an unfamiliar stranger). Compared with mice tested alone, the presence of a stranger produced a dramatic opioid-dependent reduction in pain behavior associated with visceral but not somatic pain. This social stress-induced reduction of visceral pain behavior relied on visual but not auditory/olfactory cues. These findings suggest that visceral pain states may provoke heightened responsiveness to mild stressors, an effect that could interfere with testing outcomes during simultaneous behavioral testing of multiple rodents. In mice, mild social stress due to the presence of an unfamiliar conspecific mouse reduces pain behavior associated with noxious visceral but not somatic stimulation, suggesting that stress responsiveness may be enhanced in visceral pain versus somatic pain states. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Molecular Characterization of Viruses from Clinical Respiratory Samples Producing Unidentified Cytopathic Effects in Cell Culture

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    Guy Boivin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The sequence-independent single primer amplification (SISPA method was performed to identify a virus in 17 clinical respiratory samples producing uncharacterized cytopathic effects in LLC-MK2 cells. Sequence analysis of 600-1600 bp amplicons allowed the identification of six viruses (one influenza C, two parechovirus-3 and three cardioviruses. Genomic sequences of the cardioviruses showed similarities with those of the recently-described Saffold virus strain although significant variation was present in the viral surface EF and CD loops. These results demonstrate the usefulness of SISPA for identifying emerging viruses and also known viruses not easily identified by standard virological methods.

  12. A cross-sectional study of lung function and respiratory symptoms among chemical workers producing diacetyl for food flavourings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooy, F.G.; Smit, L.A.; Houba, R.; Zaat, V.A.; Rooijackers, J.M.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Four diacetyl workers were found to have bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Exposures, respiratory symptoms, lung function and exposure-response relationships were investigated. METHODS: 175 workers from a plant producing diacetyl between 1960 and 2003 were investigated. Exposure data

  13. A Field Study on the Respiratory Deposition of the Nano-Sized Fraction of Mild and Stainless Steel Welding Fume Metals.

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    Cena, L G; Chisholm, W P; Keane, M J; Chen, B T

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted to estimate the amount of Cr, Mn, and Ni deposited in the respiratory system of 44 welders in two facilities. Each worker wore a nanoparticle respiratory deposition (NRD) sampler during gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of mild and stainless steel and flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) of mild steel. Several welders also wore side-by-side NRD samplers and closed-face filter cassettes for total particulate samples. The NRD sampler estimates the aerosol's nano-fraction deposited in the respiratory system. Mn concentrations for both welding processes ranged 2.8-199 μg/m3; Ni concentrations ranged 10-51 μg/m3; and Cr concentrations ranged 40-105 μg/m3. Cr(VI) concentrations ranged between 0.5-1.3 μg/m3. For the FCAW process the largest concentrations were reported for welders working in pairs. As a consequence this often resulted in workers being exposed to their own welding fumes and to those generated from the welding partner. Overall no correlation was found between air velocity and exposure (R2 = 0.002). The estimated percentage of the nano-fraction of Mn deposited in a mild-steel-welder's respiratory system ranged between 10 and 56%. For stainless steel welding, the NRD samplers collected 59% of the total Mn, 90% of the total Cr, and 64% of the total Ni. These results indicate that most of the Cr and more than half of the Ni and Mn in the fumes were in the fraction smaller than 300 nm.

  14. Mild hypothermia attenuates changes in respiratory system mechanics and modifies cytokine concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during low lung volume ventilation.

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    Dostál, P; Senkeřík, M; Pařízková, R; Bareš, D; Zivný, P; Zivná, H; Cerný, V

    2010-01-01

    Hypothermia was shown to attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury due to large tidal volumes. It is unclear if the protective effect of hypothermia is maintained under less injurious mechanical ventilation in animals without previous lung injury. Tracheostomized rats were randomly allocated to non-ventilated group (group C) or ventilated groups of normothermia (group N) and mild hypothermia (group H). After two hours of mechanical ventilation with inspiratory fraction of oxygen 1.0, respiratory rate 60 min(-1), tidal volume 10 ml x kg(-1), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 2 cm H2O or immediately after tracheostomy in non-ventilated animals inspiratory pressures were recorded, rats were sacrificed, pressure-volume (PV) curve of respiratory system constructed, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and aortic blood samples obtained. Group N animals exhibited a higher rise in peak inspiratory pressures in comparison to group H animals. Shift of the PV curve to right, higher total protein and interleukin-6 levels in BAL fluid were observed in normothermia animals in comparison with hypothermia animals and non-ventilated controls. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha was lower in the hypothermia group in comparison with normothermia and non-ventilated groups. Mild hypothermia attenuated changes in respiratory system mechanics and modified cytokine concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during low lung volume ventilation in animals without previous lung injury.

  15. Purification and characterization of factors produced by Aspergillus fumigatus which affect human ciliated respiratory epithelium.

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    Amitani, R; Taylor, G; Elezis, E N; Llewellyn-Jones, C; Mitchell, J; Kuze, F; Cole, P J; Wilson, R

    1995-09-01

    The mechanisms by which Aspergillus fumigatus colonizes the respiratory mucosa are unknown. Culture filtrates of eight of nine clinical isolates of A. fumigatus slowed ciliary beat frequency and damaged human respiratory epithelium in vitro. These changes appeared to occur concurrently. Culture filtrates of two clinical isolates of Candida albicans had no effect on ciliated epithelium. We have purified and characterized cilioinhibitory factors of a clinical isolate of A. fumigatus. The cilioinhibitory activity was heat labile, reduced by dialysis, and partially extractable into chloroform. The activity was associated with both high- and low-molecular-weight factors, as determined by gel filtration on Sephadex G-50. A low-molecular-weight cilioinhibitory factor was further purified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and shown by mass spectrometry to be gliotoxin, a known metabolite of A. fumigatus. Gliotoxin significantly slowed ciliary beat frequency in association with epithelial damage at concentrations above 0.2 microgram/ml; other Aspergillus toxins, i.e., fumagillin and helvolic acid, were also cilioinhibitory but at much higher concentrations. High-molecular-weight (> or = 35,000 and 25,000) cilioinhibitory materials had neither elastolytic nor proteolytic activity and remain to be identified. Thus, A. fumigatus produces a number of biologically active substances which slow ciliary beating and damage epithelium and which may influence colonization of the airways.

  16. Mild traumatic brain injury does not produce post-traumatic stress disorder.

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    Sbordone, R J; Liter, J C

    1995-01-01

    It has been widely assumed that patients who sustain mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) or post-concussive syndrome develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to their cognitive difficulties, diminished coping skills, or other losses. This study examined 70 patients who had previously been diagnosed as having either PTSD or MTBI. Each patient was asked to provide a highly detailed chronological history of the events which preceded, followed, and occurred during the traumatic event, to indicate whether they were rendered unconscious or had amnesia for the event, and to describe the various symptoms they developed. All (100.0%) of the PTSD patients were able to provide a highly detailed and emotionally charged recollection of the events which occurred within 15 minutes of the traumatic event in comparison to none (0.0%) of the MTBI patients. None of the MTBI patients reported symptoms such as intrusive recollections of the traumatic event, nightmares, hypervigilance, phobic or startle reactions, or became upset when they were asked to describe the traumatic event or were exposed to stimuli associated with it. These data suggest that PTSD and MTBI are two mutually exclusive disorders, and that it is highly unlikely that MTBI patients develop PTSD symptoms. Furthermore, these findings suggest that clinicians should exercise considerable caution in ruling out PTSD prior to making the diagnosis of MTBI.

  17. Comparison between two different modes of non-invasive ventilatory support in preterm newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome mild to moderate: preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffini, F; Pietrasanta, C; Lavizzari, A; Musumeci, S; Gualdi, C; Sortino, S; Colnaghi, M; Mosca, F

    2014-08-31

    Despite of improved survival of premature infants, the incidence of long term pulmonary complications, mostly associated with ventilation-induced lung injury, remains high. Non invasive ventilation (NIV) is able to reduce the adverse effects of mechanical ventilation. Although nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) is an effective mode of NIV, traumatic nasal complications and intolerance of the nasal interface are common. Recently high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is emerging as a better tolerated form of NIV, allowing better access to the baby's face, which may improve nursing, feeding and bonding. HFNC may be effective in the treatment of some neonatal respiratory conditions while being more user-friendly for care-givers than conventional NCPAP. Limited evidence is available to support the specific role, efficacy and safety of HFNC in newborns and to demonstrate efficacy compared with NCPAP; some studies suggest a potential role for HFNC in respiratory care of the neonate as a distinct non invasive ventilatory support. We present the preliminary data of a randomized clinical trial; the aim of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of HFNC compared to NCPAP in preterm newborns with mild to moderate respiratory distress syndrome (RDS).

  18. Comparison between two different modes of non-invasive ventilatory support in preterm newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome mild to moderate: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ciuffini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite of improved survival of premature infants, the incidence of long term pulmonary complications, mostly associated with ventilation-induced lung injury, remains high. Non invasive ventilation (NIV is able to reduce the adverse effects of mechanical ventilation. Although nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP is an effective mode of NIV, traumatic nasal complications and intolerance of the nasal interface are common. Recently high flow nasal cannula (HFNC is emerging as a better tolerated form of NIV, allowing better access to the baby’s face, which may improve nursing, feeding and bonding. HFNC may be effective in the treatment of some neonatal respiratory conditions while being more user-friendly for care-givers than conventional NCPAP. Limited evidence is available to support the specific role, efficacy and safety of HFNC in newborns and to demonstrate efficacy compared with NCPAP; some studies suggest a potential role for HFNC in respiratory care of the neonate as a distinct non invasive ventilatory support. We present the preliminary data of a randomized clinical trial; the aim of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of HFNC compared to NCPAP in preterm newborns with mild to moderate respiratory distress syndrome (RDS.

  19. Can massive primordial black holes be produced in mild waterfall hybrid inflation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Tada, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    We studied the possibility whether the massive primordial black holes (PBHs) surviving today can be produced in hybrid inflation. Though it is of great interest since such PBHs can be the candidate for dark matter or seeds of the supermassive black holes in galaxies, there have not been quantitatively complete works yet because of the non-perturbative behavior around the critical point of hybrid inflation. Therefore, combining the stochastic and δ N formalism, we numerically calculated the curvature perturbations in a non-perturbative way and found, without any specific assumption of the types of hybrid inflation, PBHs are rather overproduced when the waterfall phase of hybrid inflation continues so long that the PBH scale is well enlarged and the corresponding PBH mass becomes sizable enough.

  20. Survey of the respiratory health of the workers of a talc producing factory.

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, P; Réfrégier, M; Auburtin, G; Carton, B; Moulin, J J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess the effect of an occupational exposure to talc dust on respiratory health. METHODS--166 talc millers from a French factory underwent spirometry and filled in a standardised respiratory questionnaire during their annual medical visit in 1989. A full sized chest radiograph taken in 1987 for the subjects hired before 1982 was also available, for the others a radiograph taken when hired was used. Radiography was repeated in 1992 for all subjects still active at this date (n ...

  1. Hospital Outcomes of Adult Respiratory Tract Infections with Extended-Spectrum B-Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Klebsiella Pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, Li-Cher; Nor Izran Hanim bt Abdul Samad,; Rosdara Masayuni bt Mohd Sani,; Raman, Sree; Thayaparan, Tarmizi; Kumar, Shalini

    2007-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae ranks high as a cause of adult pneumonia requiring hospitalization in Malaysia. To study whether extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL) producing K. pneumoniae was linked to hospital outcomes, we retrospectively studied 441 cases of adult respiratory tract infections with microbial proven K. pneumoniae from an urban-based university teaching hospital between 2003 and 2004. 47 (10.6%) cases had ESBL. Requirement for ventilation and median length of hospital stay, were great...

  2. Changes in rat respiratory system produced by exposure to exhaust gases of combustion of glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Daniel Silveira; Evangelista, Janaína Serra Azul Monteiro; Zin, Walter Araujo; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique; Cavalcante, Francisco Sales Ávila

    2017-08-01

    The combustion of residual glycerol to generate heat in industrial processes has been suggested as a cost-effective solution for disposal of this environmental liability. Thus, we investigated the effects of exposure to the exhaust gases of glycerol combustion in the rat respiratory system. We used 2 rats groups, one exposed to the exhaust gases from glycerol combustion (Glycerol), and the other exposed to ambient air (Control). Exposure occurred 5h a day, 5days a week for 13 weeks. We observed statistically changes in all parameters of respiratory system mechanics in vivo. This results was supported by histological analysis and morphometric data, confirming narrower airways and lung parenchimal changes. Variables related to airway resistance (ΔR N ) and elastic properties of the tissue (ΔH), increased after challenge with methacholine. Finally, analysis of lung tissue micromechanics showed statistically increases in all parameters (R, E and hysteresivity). In conclusion, exhaust gases from glycerol combustion were harmful to the respiratory system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria using antimicrobial-producing biofilms in Three-Mile-Island process water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, R; Ornek, D; Syrett, B C; Green, R M; Hsu, C-H; Mansfeld, F B; Wood, T K

    2004-04-01

    Biofilms were used to produce gramicidin S (a cyclic decapeptide) to inhibit corrosion-causing, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In laboratory studies these biofilms protected mild steel 1010 continuously from corrosion in the aggressive, cooling service water of the AmerGen Three-Mile-Island (TMI) nuclear plant, which was augmented with reference SRB. The growth of both reference SRB (Gram-positive Desulfosporosinus orientis and Gram-negative Desulfovibrio vulgaris) was shown to be inhibited by supernatants of the gramicidin-S-producing bacteria as well as by purified gramicidin S. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and mass loss measurements showed that the protective biofilms decreased the corrosion rate of mild steel by 2- to 10-fold when challenged with the natural SRB of the TMI process water supplemented with D. orientis or D. vulgaris. The relative corrosion inhibition efficiency was 50-90% in continuous reactors, compared to a biofilm control which did not produce the antimicrobial gramicidin S. Scanning electron microscope and reactor images also revealed that SRB attack was thwarted by protective biofilms that secrete gramicidin S. A consortium of beneficial bacteria (GGPST consortium, producing gramicidin S and other antimicrobials) also protected the mild steel.

  4. A Novel Closed-head Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Caused by Primary Overpressure Blast to the Cranium Produces Sustained Emotional Deficits in Mice

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    Scott A Heldt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional disorders are a common outcome from mild traumatic brain injury (TBI in humans, but their pathophysiological basis is poorly understood. We have developed a mouse model of closed-head blast injury using an air pressure wave delivered to a small area on one side of the cranium, which we have used to create mild TBI. We found that 20-psi blasts in 3-month old C57BL/6 male mice yielded no obvious behavioral or histological evidence of brain injury, while 25-40 psi blasts produced transient anxiety in an open field arena but little histological evidence of brain damage. By contrast, 50-60 psi blasts resulted in anxiety-like behavior in an open field arena that became more evident with time after blast. In additional behavioral tests conducted 2-8 weeks after blast, 50-60 psi mice also demonstrated increased acoustic startle, perseverance of learned fear, and enhanced contextual fear, as well as depression-like behavior and diminished prepulse inhibition. We found no evident cerebral pathology, however, and only scattered axonal degeneration in brain sections from 50-60 psi mice 3-8 weeks after blast. Thus, the TBI caused by single 50-60 psi blasts in mice exhibits the minimal neuronal loss coupled to diffuse axonal injury characteristic of human mild TBI. A reduction in the abundance of a subpopulation of excitatory projection neurons in basolateral amygdala enriched in Thy1 was, however, observed. The reported link of this neuronal population to fear suppression suggests their damage by mild TBI may contribute to the heightened anxiety and fearfulness observed after blast in our mice. Our overpressure air blast model of concussion in mice will enable further studies of the mechanisms underlying the diverse emotional deficits seen after mild TBI.

  5. Hospital Outcomes of Adult Respiratory Tract Infections with Extended-Spectrum B-Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Klebsiella Pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Li-Cher; Nor Izran Hanim bt Abdul Samad; Rosdara Masayuni bt Mohd Sani; Raman, Sree; Thayaparan, Tarmizi; Kumar, Shalini

    2007-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae ranks high as a cause of adult pneumonia requiring hospitalization in Malaysia. To study whether extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL) producing K. pneumoniae was linked to hospital outcomes, we retrospectively studied 441 cases of adult respiratory tract infections with microbial proven K. pneumoniae from an urban-based university teaching hospital between 2003 and 2004. 47 (10.6%) cases had ESBL. Requirement for ventilation and median length of hospital stay, were greater in ‘ESBL’ than in ‘non-ESBL’ group [34% vs. 7.4%, p<0.001; 14 days vs. 5 days, p<0.001 respectively] but not crude hospital mortality rate [21.3% vs. 12.4%, p=0.092]. There was a four-fold increased risk of requiring ventilation [4.61 (2.72–7.85)] when ESBL was present. Our findings support the association of ESBL producing K. pneumoniae with adversed hospital outcomes and reiterate the need for vigilance on the part of treating clinicians. PMID:22993489

  6. Respiratory acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory ... Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the airways (such as asthma and COPD ) Diseases of the lung tissue (such as ...

  7. Hypothiocyanite produced by human and rat respiratory epithelial cells inactivates extracellular H1N2 influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Aaron; Pang, Lan; Hanson, Jarod; Dlugolenski, Daniel; Streich, Rebecca; Lafontaine, Eric R; Nagy, Tamás; Tripp, Ralph A; Rada, Balázs

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to study whether an extracellular, oxidative antimicrobial mechanism inherent to tracheal epithelial cells is capable of inactivating influenza H1N2 virus. Epithelial cells were isolated from tracheas of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Both primary human and rat tracheobronchial epithelial cells were differentiated in air-liquid interface cultures. A/swine/Illinois/02860/09 (swH1N2) influenza A virions were added to the apical side of airway cells for 1 h in the presence or absence of lactoperoxidase or thiocyanate. Characterization of rat epithelial cells (morphology, Duox expression) occurred via western blotting, PCR, hydrogen peroxide production measurement and histology. The number of viable virions was determined by plaque assays. Statistical difference of the results was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Our data show that rat tracheobronchial epithelial cells develop a differentiated, polarized monolayer with high transepithelial electrical resistance, mucin production and expression of dual oxidases. Influenza A virions are inactivated by human and rat epithelial cells via a dual oxidase-, lactoperoxidase- and thiocyanate-dependent mechanism. Differentiated air-liquid interface cultures of rat tracheal epithelial cells provide a novel model to study airway epithelium-influenza interactions. The dual oxidase/lactoperoxidase/thiocyanate extracellular oxidative system producing hypothiocyanite is a fast and potent anti-influenza mechanism inactivating H1N2 viruses prior to infection of the epithelium.

  8. Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

  9. Respiratory alkalosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkalosis - respiratory ... leads to shortness of breath can also cause respiratory alkalosis (such as pulmonary embolism and asthma). ... Treatment is aimed at the condition that causes respiratory alkalosis. Breathing into a paper bag -- or using ...

  10. Boosting Blue Growth in a Mild Sea: Analysis of the Synergies Produced by a Multi-Purpose Offshore Installation in the Northern Adriatic, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zanuttigh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the near future, the oceans will be subjected to a massive development of marine infrastructures, including offshore wind, tidal and wave energy farms and constructions for marine aquaculture. The development of these facilities will unavoidably exert environmental pressures on marine ecosystems. It is therefore crucial that the economic costs, the use of marine space and the environmental impacts of these activities remain within acceptable limits. Moreover, the installation of arrays of wave energy devices is still far from being economically feasible due to many combined aspects, such as immature technologies for energy conversion, local energy storage and moorings. Therefore, multi-purpose solutions combining renewable energy from the sea (wind, wave, tide, aquaculture and transportation facilities can be considered as a challenging, yet advantageous, way to boost blue growth. This would be due to the sharing of the costs of installation and using the produced energy locally to feed the different functionalities and optimizing marine spatial planning. This paper focuses on the synergies that may be produced by a multi-purpose offshore installation in a relatively calm sea, i.e., the Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy, and specifically offshore Venice. It analyzes the combination of aquaculture, energy production from wind and waves, and energy storage or transfer. Alternative solutions are evaluated based on specific criteria, including the maturity of the technology, the environmental impact, the induced risks and the costs. Based on expert judgment, the alternatives are ranked and a preliminary layout of the selected multi-purpose installation for the case study is proposed, to further allow the exploitation of the synergies among different functionalities.

  11. Respiratory Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can' ...

  12. Respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  13. Respiratory mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Theodore A

    2016-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory ...

  14. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It ...

  15. Comparison of the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen and the SMMSE in screening for mild cognitive impairment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Caoimh, Rónán

    2012-09-01

    differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal cognition (NC) is difficult. The AB Cognitive Screen (ABCS) 135, sensitive in differentiating MCI from dementia, was modified to improve sensitivity and specificity, producing the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen.

  16. Carbon dioxide induces erratic respiratory responses in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Dean F; Craighead, Brandie; Lorenz, Laura

    2009-01-01

    CO(2) respiration stimulates both anxiety and dyspnea ("air hunger") and has long been used to study panic vulnerability and respiratory control. High comorbidity with panic attacks suggests individuals with bipolar disorder may also mount a heightened anxiety response to CO(2). Moreover, problems in the arousal and modulation of appetites are central to the clinical syndromes of mania and depression; hence CO(2) may arouse an abnormal respiratory response to "air hunger". 72 individuals (34 bipolar I, 25 depressive and bipolar spectrum, 13 with no major affective diagnosis) breathed air and air with 5% CO(2) via facemask for up to 15 min each; subjective and respiratory responses were recorded. Nearly half the subjects diverged from the typical response to a fixed, mildly hypercapneic environment, which is to increase breathing acutely, and then maintain a hyperpneic plateau. The best predictors of an abnormal pattern were bipolar diagnosis and anxiety from air alone. 25 individuals had a panic response; panic responses from CO(2) were more likely in subjects with bipolar I compared to other subjects, however the best predictors of a panic response overall were anxiety from air alone and prior history of panic attacks. Heterogeneous sample, liberal definition of panic attack. Carbon dioxide produces abnormal respiratory and heightened anxiety responses among individuals with bipolar and depressive disorders. These may be due to deficits in emotional conditioning related to fear and appetite. Although preliminary, this work suggests a potentially useful test of a specific functional deficit in bipolar disorder.

  17. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mild Traumatic Brain Injury Resilience Families with Kids Depression Families & Friendships Tobacco Life Stress Spirituality Anger Physical Injury Stigma Health & Wellness Work Adjustment Community Peer-2-Peer Forum ...

  18. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Zammit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia

  19. Intensity cut-points for the Respiratory Distress Observation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Margaret L; Templin, Thomas N

    2015-01-01

    Background The Respiratory Distress Observation Scale© is an innovative solution to assessment when a dyspnea report cannot be elicited. The Respiratory Distress Observation Scale has acceptable reliability and validity psychometrics. Aim To identify distress-intensity cut-points of the Respiratory Distress Observation Scale. Design Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was conducted with inpatients stratified by four levels of respiratory distress—none, mild, moderate, or severe. Patients provided three self-report measures of dyspnea: dichotomous (yes/no); a ranking of none, mild, moderate, or severe; and a numerical rating scale. Respiratory distress was assessed using the Respiratory Distress Observation Scale instrument. Setting/participants Participants were 136 adult inpatients, mean age 61.8 years (standard deviation = 13.18 years), 89.7% African American, and 56.6% female, who were recruited from an urban, tertiary care hospital in the Midwest of the United States. Results In all, 47% (n = 64) self-reported dyspnea (yes/no). Ranking was distributed as follows: none = 36, mild = 35, moderate = 40, and severe = 25. Numerical rating scale scores ranged from 0 to 10, mean = 4.99 (standard deviation = 2.9). Respiratory Distress Observation Scale scores ranged from 0 to 7, median (interquartile range) = 2 (1–3). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis–determined Respiratory Distress Observation Scale score of 0–2 suggests little or no respiratory distress; score ≥3 signified moderate to severe distress. Conclusion A Respiratory Distress Observation Scale score ≥3 signifies a patient’s need for palliation of respiratory distress. An end-point for identifying responsiveness to treatment, in other words, respiratory comfort, is Respiratory Distress Observation Scale <3. Because patients with imminent respiratory failure, as typified by dying patients, were not represented yielding lower than expected Respiratory Distress

  20. Evaluation and treatment of respiratory alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Biff F

    2012-11-01

    Respiratory alkalosis is the most frequent acid-base disturbance encountered in clinical practice. This is particularly true in critically ill patients, for whom the degree of hypocapnia directly correlates with adverse outcomes. Although this acid-base disturbance often is considered benign, evidence suggests that the alkalemia of primary hypocapnia can cause clinically significant decreases in tissue oxygen delivery. Mild respiratory alkalosis often serves as a marker of an underlying disease and may not require therapeutic intervention. In contrast, severe respiratory alkalosis should be approached with a sense of urgency and be aggressively corrected. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Respiratory Home Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Home > Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources ... Teenagers Living With Lung Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at ...

  2. Dysrhythmias of the respiratory oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydarfar, David; Buerkel, Daniel M.

    1995-03-01

    Breathing is regulated by a central neural oscillator that produces rhythmic output to the respiratory muscles. Pathological disturbances in rhythm (dysrhythmias) are observed in the breathing pattern of children and adults with neurological and cardiopulmonary diseases. The mechanisms responsible for genesis of respiratory dysrhythmias are poorly understood. The present studies take a novel approach to this problem. The basic postulate is that the rhythm of the respiratory oscillator can be altered by a variety of stimuli. When the oscillator recovers its rhythm after such perturbations, its phase may be reset relative to the original rhythm. The amount of phase resetting is dependent upon stimulus parameters and the level of respiratory drive. The long-range hypothesis is that respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli that impinge upon or arise within the respiratory oscillator with certain combinations of strength and timing relative to the respiratory cycle. Animal studies were performed in anesthetized or decerebrate preparations. Neural respiratory rhythmicity is represented by phrenic nerve activity, allowing use of open-loop experimental conditions which avoid negative chemical feedback associated with changes in ventilation. In animal experiments, respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli having specific combinations of strength and timing. Newborn animals readily exhibit spontaneous dysrhythmias which become more prominent at lower respiratory drives. In human subjects, swallowing was studied as a physiological perturbation of respiratory rhythm, causing a pattern of phase resetting that is characterized topologically as type 0. Computational studies of the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol (BvP) equations, whose qualitative behavior is representative of many excitable systems, supports a unified interpretation of these experimental findings. Rhythmicity is observed when the BvP model exhibits recurrent periods of excitation alternating with

  3. Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more: Key Types of Dementia , What Is Alzheimer's? , Alzheimer's Risk Factors Symptoms back to top Experts classify Mild cognitive ... in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy 2014 Thor Stein Genetic Risk Factors Underlying Chronic Trauma and Alzheimer's Disease Pathology 2014 Kun Ping Lu Validation of ...

  4. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth / For Parents / Lungs and Respiratory System ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't ...

  5. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... improves slowly after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs ...

  6. Treatment of respiratory failure in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Budweiser

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stephan Budweiser1, Rudolf A Jörres2, Michael Pfeifer1,31Center for Pneumology, Hospital Donaustauf, Donaustauf, Germany; 2Institute and Outpatient Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; 3Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Respirology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, GermanyAbstract: Patients with advanced COPD and acute or chronic respiratory failure are at high risk for death. Beyond pharmacological treatment, supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation are major treatment options. This review describes the physiological concepts underlying respiratory failure and its therapy, as well as important treatment outcomes. The rationale for the controlled supply of oxygen in acute hypoxic respiratory failure is undisputed. There is also a clear survival benefit from long-term oxygen therapy in patients with chronic hypoxia, while in mild, nocturnal, or exercise-induced hypoxemia such long-term benefits appear questionable. Furthermore, much evidence supports the use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. It application reduces intubation and mortality rates, and the duration of intensive care unit or hospital stays, particularly in the presence of mild to moderate respiratory acidosis. COPD with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure became a major indication for domiciliary mechanical ventilation, based on pathophysiological reasoning and on data regarding symptoms and quality of life. Still, however, its relevance for long-term survival has to be substantiated in prospective controlled studies. Such studies might preferentially recruit patients with repeated hypercapnic decompensation or a high risk for death, while ensuring effective ventilation and the patients’ adherence to therapy.Keywords: respiratory failure, COPD, mechanical ventilation, non-invasive ventilation long-term oxygen therapy, chronic

  7. Mild induced hypothermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria E; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik; Bestle, Morten H

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Coagulopathy associates with poor outcome in sepsis. Mild induced hypothermia has been proposed as treatment in sepsis but it is not known whether this intervention worsens functional coagulopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Interim analysis data from an ongoing randomized controlled...... trial; The Cooling And Surviving Septic shock (CASS) study. Patients suffering severe sepsis/septic shock are allocated to either mild induced hypothermia (cooling to 32-34°C for 24hours) or control (uncontrolled temperature). TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01455116. Thrombelastography (TEG) is performed three....... At enrollment, 3%, 38%, and 59% had a hypocoagulable, normocoagulable, and hypercoagulable TEG clot strength (MA), respectively. In the hypothermia group, functional coagulopathy improved during the hypothermia phase, measured by R and MA, in patients with hypercoagulation as well as in patients...

  8. A Quick Reference on Respiratory Alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca A

    2017-03-01

    Respiratory alkalosis, or primary hypocapnia, occurs when alveolar ventilation exceeds that required to eliminate the carbon dioxide produced by tissues. Concurrent decreases in Paco 2 , increases in pH, and compensatory decreases in blood HCO 3 - levels are associated with respiratory alkalosis. Respiratory alkalosis can be acute or chronic, with metabolic compensation initially consisting of cellular uptake of HCO 3 - and buffering by intracellular phosphates and proteins. Chronic respiratory alkalosis results in longer-lasting decreases in renal reabsorption of HCO 3 - ; the arterial pH can approach near-normal values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of toxicity produced by inhalation of trichloroethylene within rat and mice`s respiratory epithelium; Comparazione del danno indotto dall`inalazione di tricloroetilene nell`epitelio nasale e tracheobronchiale del ratto e del topo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancuso, M.T.; Fravolini, M.E.; Parasacchi, P.; Lombardi, C.C.; Giovanetti, A. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Area Energia Ambiente e Salute

    1994-05-01

    The aim of this study was to define the sites of cytotoxicity within the respiratory tract (nasal cavity and tracheobronchial tree) after acute inhalation of trichloroethylene (TCE), an organic solvent requiring metabolic activation by cytochrome P-450 enzymatic system to exert its toxic effects. Two animals species, rats and mice, were exposed to 3500 and 7000 ppm of TCE for 30 minutes. The morphological analysis of the respiratory epithelium has underlined a species-specific difference in the cellular sensitivity after treatment with TCE. This work is a part of ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) INTO program, environmental department, sector of effects on man and ecosystem.

  10. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  11. Severe acute respiratory syndrome: lessons and uncertainties.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kullberg, B.J.; Voss, A.

    2003-01-01

    The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has produced scientific and epidemiological discoveries with unprecedented speed, and this information has been spread instantaneously to the global health community through the internet. Within a few weeks, the coronavirus associated with

  12. Analysis of ORF5 and Full-Length Genome Sequences of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Isolates of Genotypes 1 and 2 Retrieved Worldwide Provides Evidence that Recombination Is a Common Phenomenon and May Produce Mosaic Isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martín-Valls, G. E.; Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Tello, M.

    2014-01-01

    Recombination is currently recognized as a factor for high genetic diversity, but the frequency of such recombination events and the genome segments involved are not well known. In the present study, we initially focused on the detection of recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrom...

  13. Mechanical behaviour of Zn-Fe alloy coated mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulos, C.N.; Georgiou, E.P.; Agathocleous, P.E.; Giannakopoulos, K.I.

    2009-01-01

    Zinc alloy coatings containing various amounts of Fe were deposited by electrodeposition technique on a mild steel substrate. The concentration of Fe in the produced alloy coatings ranged from 0 to 14 wt.%, whereas the thickness of the coatings was about 50 μm. Structural and metallurgical characterization of the produced coatings was performed with the aid of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. This study aims in investigating the mechanical behaviour of Zn-Fe coated mild steel specimens, as no research investigation concerning the tensile behaviour of Zn alloy coated ferrous alloys has been reported in the past. The experimental results indicated that the ultimate tensile strength of the Zn-Fe coated mild steel was lower than the bare mild steel. In addition, the ductility of the Zn-Fe coated mild steel was found to decrease significantly with increasing Fe content in the coating.

  14. Renal tumor leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome – a rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    renal cell carcinoma (RCC). KEY WORDS: ARDS; Renal tumor; Adult respiratory distress syndrome. INTRODUCTIONᴪ. ARDS due to ... unable to maintain saturation in spite of high flow ... Blood investigations showed mild leukocytosis.

  15. Pharmacotherapy for mild hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Diao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with no previous cardiovascular events or cardiovascular disease represent a primary prevention population. The benefits and harms of treating mild hypertension in primary prevention patients are not known at present. This review examines the existing randomized controlled trial (RCT evidence. OBJECTIVE: Primary objective: To quantify the effects of antihypertensive drug therapy on mortality and morbidity in adults with mild hypertension (systolic blood pressure (BP 140-159 mmHg and/or diastolic BP 90-99 mmHg and without cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Search: We searched CENTRAL (2011, Issue 1, MEDLINE (1948 to May 2011, EMBASE (1980 to May 2011 and reference lists of articles. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE were searched for previous reviews and meta-analyses of anti-hypertensive drug treatment compared to placebo or no treatment trials up until the end of 2011. Selection criteria: RCTs of at least 1 year duration. Data collection and analysis: The outcomes assessed were mortality, stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD, total cardiovascular events (CVS, and withdrawals due to adverse effects. MAIN RESULTS: Of 11 RCTs identified 4 were included in this review, with 8,912 participants. Treatment for 4 to 5 years with antihypertensive drugs as compared to placebo did not reduce total mortality (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.63, 1.15. In 7,080 participants treatment with antihypertensive drugs as compared to placebo did not reduce coronary heart disease (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.80, 1.57, stroke (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.24, 1.08, or total cardiovascular events (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.72, 1.32. Withdrawals due to adverse effects were increased by drug therapy (RR 4.80, 95% CI 4.14, 5.57, ARR 9%. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Antihypertensive drugs used in the treatment of adults (primary prevention with mild hypertension (systolic BP 140-159 mmHg and/or diastolic BP 90-99 mmHg have not been

  16. The respiratory microbiome and respiratory infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unger, Stefan A.; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances over the past ten years lower respiratory tract infections still comprise around a fifth of all deaths worldwide in children under five years of age with the majority in low- and middle-income countries. Known risk factors for severe respiratory infections and poor chronic

  17. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Credit: CDC This is the ... the United States. Why Is the Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) a Priority for NIAID? In ...

  18. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSV; Palivizumab; Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin; Bronchiolitis - RSV ... Crowe JE. Respiratory syncytial virus. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ...

  19. Respiratory Issues in OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory Issues in Osteogenesis Imperfecta \\ Introduction The respiratory system’s job is to bring oxygen into the body and remove carbon dioxide, the waste product of breathing. Because oxygen is the fuel ...

  20. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000103.htm Acute respiratory distress syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung ...

  1. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  2. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  3. What Is Respiratory Distress Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Respiratory Distress Syndrome Respiratory Distress Syndrome Also known as What Is Respiratory ... This condition is called apnea (AP-ne-ah). Respiratory Distress Syndrome Complications Depending on the severity of ...

  4. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SARS; Respiratory failure - SARS ... Complications may include: Respiratory failure Liver failure Heart failure ... 366. McIntosh K, Perlman S. Coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). ...

  5. [Viral respiratory co-infections in pediatric patients admitted for acute respiratory infection and their impact on clinical severity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Pamela; Cordero, Jaime; Valverde, Cristián; Unanue, Nancy; Dalmazzo, Roberto; Piemonte, Paula; Vergara, Ivonne; Torres, Juan P

    2012-04-01

    Respiratory viruses are the leading cause of acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) in children. It has been reported that viral respiratory co-infection could be associated with severe clinical course. To describe the frequency of viral co-infection in children admitted for AlRI and evaluate whether this co-infection was associated with more severe clinical course. Prospective, descriptive study in pediatric patients who were hospitalized for ARI, with molecular detection of at least 1 respiratory virus in nasopharyngeal sample studied by PCR-Microarray for 17 respiratory viruses. 110 out of 147 patients with detection of > 1 respiratory virus were included. Viral co-infection was detected in 41/110 (37%). 22/110 children (20%) were classified as moderate to severe clinical course and 88/110 (80%) were classified as mild clinical course. In the group of moderate to severe clinical course, viral respiratory co-infection was detected in 6/22 (27.3%), compared to 35/88 (39.8 %) in the mild clinical course group. No statistically significant difference was found regarding the presence of co-infection between groups (p = 0.33). We detected high rates of viral co-infection in children with ARI. It was not possible to demonstrate that viral co-infections were related with severe clinical course in hospitalized children.

  6. Bacterial aetiology in lower respiratory tract infections : Relevance in outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, J.

    2017-01-01

    Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is one of the leading reasons for consulting in primary care. Today, a general practitioner faces the challenge of distinguishing between patients with a mild self-limiting disease to whom antibiotics would do more harm than good and those who would benefit

  7. Fatal respiratory distress syndrome due to coronavirus infection in a child with severe combined immunodeficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Szczawinska‐Poplonyk, Aleksandra; Jonczyk‐Potoczna, Katarzyna; Breborowicz, Anna; Bartkowska‐Sniatkowska, Alicja; Figlerowicz, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Szczawinska‐Poplonyk et al. (2012) Fatal respiratory distress syndrome due to coronavirus infection in a child with severe combined immunodeficiency. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/irv.12059. Coronaviruses have been demonstrated to contribute substantially to respiratory tract infections among the child population. Though infected children commonly present mild upper airway symptoms, in high‐risk patients with underlying conditions, particularl...

  8. Respiratory analysis system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A system is described for monitoring the respiratory process in which the gas flow rate and the frequency of respiration and expiration cycles can be determined on a real time basis. A face mask is provided with one-way inlet and outlet valves where the gas flow is through independent flowmeters and through a mass spectrometer. The opening and closing of a valve operates an electrical switch, and the combination of the two switches produces a low frequency electrical signal of the respiratory inhalation and exhalation cycles. During the time a switch is operated, the corresponsing flowmeter produces electric pulses representative of the flow rate; the electrical pulses being at a higher frequency than that of the breathing cycle and combined with the low frequency signal. The high frequency pulses are supplied to conventional analyzer computer which also receives temperature and pressure inputs and computes mass flow rate and totalized mass flow of gas. From the mass spectrometer, components of the gas are separately computed as to flow rate. The electrical switches cause operation of up-down inputs of a reversible counter. The respective up and down cycles can be individually monitored and combined for various respiratory measurements.

  9. Neurological Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Rudrappa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus infection in humans is mostly asymptomatic. Less than 1% of neuro-invasive cases show a fatality rate of around 10%. Acute flaccid paralysis of respiratory muscles leading to respiratory failure is the most common cause of death. Although the peripheral nervous system can be involved, isolated phrenic nerve palsy leading to respiratory failure is rare and described in only two cases in the English literature. We present another case of neurological respiratory failure due to West Nile virus-induced phrenic nerve palsy. Our case reiterates the rare, but lethal, consequences of West Nile virus infection, and the increase of its awareness among physicians.

  10. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2012-02-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  11. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2011-03-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  12. Low minute ventilation episodes during anesthesia recovery following intraperitoneal surgery as detected by a non-invasive respiratory volume monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Alexandre N; Martin, Yvette N; Sprung, Juraj; Imsirovic, Jasmin; Weingarten, Toby N

    2017-12-20

    An electrical impedance-based noninvasive respiratory volume monitor (RVM) accurately reports minute volume, tidal volume and respiratory rate. Here we used the RVM to quantify the occurrence of and evaluate the ability of clinical factors to predict respiratory depression in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). RVM generated respiratory data were collected from spontaneously breathing patients following intraperitoneal surgeries under general anesthesia admitted to the PACU. Respiratory depression was defined as low minute ventilation episode (LMVe, respiratory rate (respiratory rate was a poor predictor of LMVe (sensitivity = 11.8%). Other clinical variables (e.g., obstructive sleep apnea) were not found to be predictors of LMVe. Using RVM we identified that mild, clinically nondetectable, respiratory depression prior to opioid administration in the PACU was associated with the development of substantial subsequent respiratory depression during the PACU stay.

  13. Development of mild steel exposure chart for neutron radiography application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafizal Yazid; Rafhayudi Jamro; Hishamuddin Husain; Muhammad Rawi Mohd Zin; Razali Kassim; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Azali Muhammad

    2004-01-01

    A neutron radiography exposure chart for mild steel was developed to facilitate the determination of exposure time when producing neutron radiographs for any given mild steel thickness. A mild steel sample in the form of step wedge (1-10 mm thick) was exposed to thermal neutron using Direct technique. This technique involves exposing x-ray film-Gadolinium converter housed in one film cassette simultaneously to thermal neutron beam. Gadolinium converters with thickness of 0.025 mm and 0.5 mm were used to observe the effect of converter thickness on radiographic density and exposure time. Collected radiographic density data is then calculated based on manufacturer's film characteristic chart and finally exposure chart for mild steel was plotted. This chart could later be used as a guide for estimating exposure time for any given sample thickness providing other conditions are similar (material, film processing, neutron flux, film density and converter thickness). (Author)

  14. Epitope mapping and biological function analysis of antibodies produced by immunization of mice with an inactivated Chinese isolate of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Te-hui W.; Wang, Shixia; Sakhatskyy, Pavlo V.; Mboudoudjeck, Innocent; Lawrence, John M.; Huang Song; Coley, Scott; Yang Baoan; Li Jiaming; Zhu Qingyu; Lu Shan

    2005-01-01

    Inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has been tested as a candidate vaccine against the re-emergence of SARS. In order to understand the efficacy and safety of this approach, it is important to know the antibody specificities generated with inactivated SARS-CoV. In the current study, a panel of twelve monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was established by immunizing Balb/c mice with the inactivated BJ01 strain of SARS-CoV isolated from the lung tissue of a SARS-infected Chinese patient. These mAbs could recognize SARS-CoV-infected cells by immunofluorescence analysis (IFA). Seven of them were mapped to the specific segments of recombinant spike (S) protein: six on S1 subunit (aa 12-798) and one on S2 subunit (aa 797-1192). High neutralizing titers against SARS-CoV were detected with two mAbs (1A5 and 2C5) targeting at a subdomain of S protein (aa 310-535), consistent with the previous report that this segment of S protein contains the major neutralizing domain. Some of these S-specific mAbs were able to recognize cleaved products of S protein in SARS-CoV-infected Vero E6 cells. None of the remaining five mAbs could recognize either of the recombinant S, N, M, or E antigens by ELISA. This study demonstrated that the inactivated SARS-CoV was able to preserve the immunogenicity of S protein including its major neutralizing domain. The relative ease with which these mAbs were generated against SARS-CoV virions further supports that subunit vaccination with S constructs may also be able to protect animals and perhaps humans. It is somewhat unexpected that no N-specific mAbs were identified albeit anti-N IgG was easily identified in SARS-CoV-infected patients. The availability of this panel of mAbs also provided potentially useful agents with applications in therapy, diagnosis, and basic research of SARS-CoV

  15. Realistic respiratory motion margins for external beam partial breast irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Leigh; Quirk, Sarah [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Smith, Wendy L., E-mail: wendy.smith@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: Respiratory margins for partial breast irradiation (PBI) have been largely based on geometric observations, which may overestimate the margin required for dosimetric coverage. In this study, dosimetric population-based respiratory margins and margin formulas for external beam partial breast irradiation are determined. Methods: Volunteer respiratory data and anterior–posterior (AP) dose profiles from clinical treatment plans of 28 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) PBI patient plans were used to determine population-based respiratory margins. The peak-to-peak amplitudes (A) of realistic respiratory motion data from healthy volunteers were scaled from A = 1 to 10 mm to create respiratory motion probability density functions. Dose profiles were convolved with the respiratory probability density functions to produce blurred dose profiles accounting for respiratory motion. The required margins were found by measuring the distance between the simulated treatment and original dose profiles at the 95% isodose level. Results: The symmetric dosimetric respiratory margins to cover 90%, 95%, and 100% of the simulated treatment population were 1.5, 2, and 4 mm, respectively. With patient set up at end exhale, the required margins were larger in the anterior direction than the posterior. For respiratory amplitudes less than 5 mm, the population-based margins can be expressed as a fraction of the extent of respiratory motion. The derived formulas in the anterior/posterior directions for 90%, 95%, and 100% simulated population coverage were 0.45A/0.25A, 0.50A/0.30A, and 0.70A/0.40A. The differences in formulas for different population coverage criteria demonstrate that respiratory trace shape and baseline drift characteristics affect individual respiratory margins even for the same average peak-to-peak amplitude. Conclusions: A methodology for determining population-based respiratory margins using real respiratory motion patterns and dose profiles in the AP direction was

  16. Realistic respiratory motion margins for external beam partial breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, Leigh; Quirk, Sarah; Smith, Wendy L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Respiratory margins for partial breast irradiation (PBI) have been largely based on geometric observations, which may overestimate the margin required for dosimetric coverage. In this study, dosimetric population-based respiratory margins and margin formulas for external beam partial breast irradiation are determined. Methods: Volunteer respiratory data and anterior–posterior (AP) dose profiles from clinical treatment plans of 28 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) PBI patient plans were used to determine population-based respiratory margins. The peak-to-peak amplitudes (A) of realistic respiratory motion data from healthy volunteers were scaled from A = 1 to 10 mm to create respiratory motion probability density functions. Dose profiles were convolved with the respiratory probability density functions to produce blurred dose profiles accounting for respiratory motion. The required margins were found by measuring the distance between the simulated treatment and original dose profiles at the 95% isodose level. Results: The symmetric dosimetric respiratory margins to cover 90%, 95%, and 100% of the simulated treatment population were 1.5, 2, and 4 mm, respectively. With patient set up at end exhale, the required margins were larger in the anterior direction than the posterior. For respiratory amplitudes less than 5 mm, the population-based margins can be expressed as a fraction of the extent of respiratory motion. The derived formulas in the anterior/posterior directions for 90%, 95%, and 100% simulated population coverage were 0.45A/0.25A, 0.50A/0.30A, and 0.70A/0.40A. The differences in formulas for different population coverage criteria demonstrate that respiratory trace shape and baseline drift characteristics affect individual respiratory margins even for the same average peak-to-peak amplitude. Conclusions: A methodology for determining population-based respiratory margins using real respiratory motion patterns and dose profiles in the AP direction was

  17. Respiratory medicine of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Juergen

    2011-05-01

    Noninfectious and infectious causes have been implicated in the development of respiratory tract disease in reptiles. Treatment modalities in reptiles have to account for species differences in response to therapeutic agents as well as interpretation of diagnostic findings. Data on effective drugs and dosages for the treatment of respiratory diseases are often lacking in reptiles. Recently, advances have been made on the application of advanced imaging modalities, especially computed tomography for the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of reptiles. This article describes common infectious and noninfectious causes of respiratory disease in reptiles, including diagnostic and therapeutic regimen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms in occupants of a large office building over a period of moisture damage remediation attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju-Hyeong; Cho, Sook Ja; White, Sandra K; Cox-Ganser, Jean M

    2018-01-01

    There is limited information on the natural history of building occupants' health in relation to attempts to remediate moisture damage. We examined changes in respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms in 1,175 office building occupants over seven years with multiple remediation attempts. During each of four surveys, we categorized participants using a severity score: 0 = asymptomatic; 1 = mild, symptomatic in the last 12 months, but not frequently in the last 4 weeks; 2 = severe, symptomatic at least once weekly in the last 4 weeks. Building-related symptoms were defined as improving away from the building. We used random intercept models adjusted for demographics, smoking, building tenure, and microbial exposures to estimate temporal changes in the odds of building-related symptoms or severity scores independent of the effect of microbial exposures. Trend analyses of combined mild/severe symptoms showed no changes in the odds of respiratory symptoms but significant improvement in non-respiratory symptoms over time. Separate analyses showed increases in the odds of severe respiratory symptoms (odds ratio/year = 1.15‒1.16, p-values<0.05) and severity scores (0.02/year, p-values<0.05) for wheezing and shortness of breath on exertion, due to worsening of participants in the mild symptom group. For non-respiratory symptoms, we found no changes in the odds of severe symptoms but improvement in severity scores (-0.04‒-0.01/year, p-values<0.05) and the odds for mild fever and chills, excessive fatigue, headache, and throat symptoms (0.65-0.79/year, p-values<0.05). Our study suggests that after the onset of respiratory and severe non-respiratory symptoms associated with dampness/mold, remediation efforts might not be effective in improving occupants' health.

  19. Middle East respiratory syndrome: A new global threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Bhatia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS is reported from Saudi Arabia and the Republic of Korea. It is a respiratory disease caused by coronavirus. Camels are considered as a source for MERS transmission in humans, although the exact source is unknown. Human-to-human transmission is reported in the community with droplet and contact spread being the possible modes. Most patients without any underlying diseases remain asymptomatic or develop mild clinical disease, but some patients require critical care for mechanical ventilation, dialysis and other organ support. MERS is a disease with pandemic potential and awareness, and surveillance can prevent such further outbreaks.

  20. Acute respiratory failure induced by bleomycin and hyperoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goad, M.E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Bleomycin, a chemotherapeutic agent, and oxygen at concentrations greater than 20%, induce acute pulmonary damage separately and when administered together. The interaction of 5 U/kg intratracheal bleomycin and 24 hours of exposure to 80% oxygen in hamsters produces delayed onset acute respiratory distress syndrome three days after treatment. As little as 12 hours of 80% O 2 exposure, after intratracheal bleomycin, induces severe pulmonary damage. Lung lesions are characterized as diffuse alveolar damage. Significantly pulmonary edema, measured by iodine-125-bovine serum albumin and technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate, occurs 72 hours after treatment. Lesions progress from focal mild alveolar interstitial and air-space macrophage and granulocyte infiltrates at 24 hours to marked infiltrates and severe interstitial and air space edema with hemorrhages and hyaline membranes at 96 hours. Significant changes measured by electron microscopy morphometry are increases in volume fractions of neutrophils, alveolar tissue and mononuclear leukocytes. Surfactant assay of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid shows a marked decrease in the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio at 72 hours. Proposed mechanisms of bleomycin and hyperoxia synergism include enhanced production of superoxide radicals either directly or indirectly by increasing neutrophil activity or numbers, or by alteration of cell mediators. The pulmonary edema, without evidence of severe morphological changes, may be secondary to alterations of transalveolar transport mechanisms

  1. A REVIEW OF MILD COMBUSTION AND OPEN FURNACE DESIGN CONSIDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Noor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Combustion is still very important to generate energy. Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution (MILD combustion is one of the best new technologies for clean and efficient combustion. MILD combustion has been proven to be a promising combustion technology in industrial applications with decreased energy consumption due to the uniformity of its temperature distribution. It is clean compared to traditional combustion due to producing low NOx and CO emissions. This article provides a review and discussion of recent research and developments in MILD. The issue and applications are summarized, with some suggestions presented on the upgrading and application of MILD in the future. Currently MILD combustion has been successfully applied in closed furnaces. The preheating of supply air is no longer required since the recirculation inside the enclosed furnace already self-preheats the supply air and self-dilutes the oxygen in the combustion chamber. The possibility of using open furnace MILD combustion will be reviewed. The design consideration for open furnace with exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR was discussed.

  2. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  3. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zammit, Christopher; Liddicoat, Helen; Moonsie, Ian; Makker, Himender

    2010-01-01

    Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ produ...

  4. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Confalonieri, Marco; Salton, Francesco; Fabiano, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Since its first description, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been acknowledged to be a major clinical problem in respiratory medicine. From July 2015 to July 2016 almost 300 indexed articles were published on ARDS. This review summarises only eight of them as an arbitrary overview of clinical relevance: definition and epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. A strict application of definition criteria is crucial, but the diverse resource-setting scenarios foste...

  5. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Dudas, Robert A.; Karron, Ruth A.

    1998-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants and children worldwide and causes significant LRI in the elderly and in immunocompromised patients. The goal of RSV vaccination is to prevent serious RSV-associated LRI. There are several obstacles to the development of successful RSV vaccines, including the need to immunize very young infants, who may respond inadequately to vaccination; the existence of two antigenically d...

  6. Consumer attitudes towards hypoallergenic apples that alleviate mild apple allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.; Maas, van der M.P.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Jacobsen, E.; Frewer, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The development of genetically modified (GM) foods with benefits for consumers may be more acceptable than GM foods with benefits that accrue to industry or producers. The Santana apple is a novel hypoallergenic product suitable for many apple allergic consumers with mild symptomology. The Santana

  7. Managing respiratory problems in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, James H; Ansley, Les; Robson-Ansley, Paula; Parsons, Jonathan P

    2012-08-01

    Respiratory problems are common in athletes of all abilities and can significantly impact upon their health and performance. In this article, we provide an overview of respiratory physiology in athletes. We also discuss the assessment and management of common clinical respiratory conditions as they pertain to athletes, including airways disease, respiratory tract infection and pneumothorax. We focus on providing a pragmatic approach and highlight important caveats for the physician treating respiratory conditions in this highly specific population.

  8. [Efficacy and tolerance of fenspiride in adult patients with acute respiratory tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płusa, T; Nawacka, D

    1998-12-01

    Fenspiride is an antiinflammatory drug targeted for the respiratory tract. In our study clinical efficacy and tolerance of drug were evaluated in 392 adult patients with acute respiratory tract infections. According to clinical criteria all observed symptoms were classified as mild, moderate and severe. The most of observed patients were included into moderate symptom score. Cough and nose obturation were dominant symptoms. All noticed changes in the upper respiratory tract were decreased after fenspiride therapy in 7 days trial. In 168 observed patients systemic and in 60 local acting antibiotics were successfully applied. Excellent tolerance of fenspiride was documented in 59% and good tolerance --in 34% of patients. Observed adverse reactions were classified as mild and in 20 patients fenspiride was rejected. Authors suggest that fenspiride therapy is save and successful in patient with acute respiratory tract infection. Good results in patients with bronchitis in decreasing of bronchospasm indicate fenspiride as a good tool in bronchial infection.

  9. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Presenting Respiratory Failure as the Sole Initial Manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyuki Tateno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is rare that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS presents with respiratory failure as the sole initial manifestation. A 72-year-old man with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease developed exertional dyspnea for 13 months. He then progressed to limb weakness that led to the diagnosis of ALS. Although rare, ALS can present with respiratory failure as the sole initial manifestation more than 1 year prior to limb weakness.

  10. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-11-01

    This report is a final brief summary of development of a mild-gasification and char conversion process. Morgantown Energy Technology Center developed a concept called mild gasification. In this concept, devolatilization of coal under nonoxidizing and relatively mild temperature and pressure conditions can yield three marketable products: (1) a high-heating-value gas, (2) a high-aromatic coal liquid, and (3) a high-carbon char. The objective of this program is to develop an advanced, continuous, mild-gasification process to produce products that will make the concept economically and environmentally viable. (VC)

  11. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-11-01

    This report is a final brief summary of development of a mild-gasification and char conversion process. Morgantown Energy Technology Center developed a concept called mild gasification. In this concept, devolatilization of coal under nonoxidizing and relatively mild temperature and pressure conditions can yield three marketable products: (1) a high-heating-value gas, (2) a high-aromatic coal liquid, and (3) a high-carbon char. The objective of this program is to develop an advanced, continuous, mild-gasification process to produce products that will make the concept economically and environmentally viable. (VC)

  12. Respiratory manifestations of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism has been associated with increased pulmonary morbidity and overall mortality. We conducted a systematic review to identify the prevalence and underlying mechanisms of respiratory problems among patients with thyroid insufficiency. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE databases were...... searched for relevant literature from January 1950 through January 2015 with study eligibility criteria: English-language publications; Adult subclinical or overt hypothyroid patients; Intervention, observational or retrospective studies; and respiratory manifestations. We followed the PRISMA statement...... and used the Cochrane's risk of bias tool. RESULTS: A total of 1699 papers were screened by two independent authors for relevant titles. Of 109 relevant abstracts, 28 papers underwent full text analyses, of which 22 were included in the review. We identified possible mechanisms explaining respiratory...

  13. Respiratory care manpower issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Paul; Drumheller, Lois; Carlow, John J

    2006-03-01

    Although respiratory care is a relatively new profession, its practitioners are deeply involved in providing patient care in the critical care. In preparation for writing this article, we sought to explore the respiratory therapy manpower needs and activities designed to fulfill those needs in critical care practice. We began by delineating the historical development of respiratory care as a profession, the development of its education, and the professional credentialing system. We then conducted several literature reviews with few articles generated. We requested and received data from the American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC), The National Board for Respiratory Care (NBRC), and the Committee on Accreditation of Respiratory Care education (CoARC) relative to their membership, number of credentialed individuals, and educational program student and graduate data for 2000 through 2004. We then conducted two electronic surveys. Survey 1 was a six-item survey that examined the use of mandatory overtime in respiratory care departments. We used a convenience sample of 30 hospitals stratified by size (or=500 beds). Survey 2 was a five-item instrument distributed by blast E-mail to the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Respiratory Care Section members and members of the RC_World list serve. This survey elicited 51 usable and non-duplicative responses from geographically and size-varied institutions. We analyzed these data in several ways from distribution analysis to one-way analysis of variance procedure and appropriate post hoc analysis techniques. Where appropriate, a matched-pairs analysis was performed and these were compared across the variables intensive care unit (ICU) beds per actual number of respiratory care practitioners (RCPs) and ICU beds per preferred number of RCPs. The data gathered from the professional organizations indicated a relatively stable attrition rate (35.2%+/-1.7-3.1%), even in the face of varying enrollments (6,231 in 2004 vs. 4

  14. Development of Zn50 Brazing Alloy for Joining Mild Steel to Mild Steel (SAE1018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Nwigbo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has developed new brazing alloys for joining mild steel to mild steel (SAE1018 at a lower temperature. The alloys blends and error analysis were done by experimental design software (Design Expert 8.0.7.1. Design of experiments was done by Scheffe quadratic mixture method. The liquidus temperatures were predicted by calculation of phase diagrams of the alloying metals. The brazing alloys were produced by gravity technique and melted using silicon carbide graphite crucible. The quality of the brazing alloys was analyzed by optical microscopy (OM, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Brazed joints were produced by torch method with a commercial flux. Brazing temperatures (liquidus were tracked by a digital infrared/laser pyrometer. Some mechanical properties studied were tensile strength and hardness. Finally, brazed joints produced from the developed brazing alloys were compared to that produced from muntz brass. Six (6 brazing alloys were successfully developed. Zinc and manganese were the main components, to which were added; 3 to 4 %wt silver and 11 to15 %wt modifying element. The microstructure showed a typical eutectic structure with zinc-rich phase distributed uniformly in the matrix with a combination of different sizes of dendrite, rounded blocks of compounds and hypoeutectic structures. AAS results indicated minimal out-gassing of zinc and FT-IR results indicated very low presence of atmospheric gas. The range of brazing temperature for best results was recorded from 690.90 to 735.10 0C. The joints produced from the developed brazing alloys had acceptable strengths with improved stress-strain behaviour compared to muntz brass.

  15. Respiratory diseases and their effects on respiratory function and exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Erck-Westergren, E; Franklin, S H; Bayly, W M

    2013-05-01

    Given that aerobic metabolism is the predominant energy pathway for most sports, the respiratory system can be a rate-limiting factor in the exercise capacity of fit and healthy horses. Consequently, respiratory diseases, even in mild forms, are potentially deleterious to any athletic performance. The functional impairment associated with a respiratory condition depends on the degree of severity of the disease and the equestrian discipline involved. Respiratory abnormalities generally result in an increase in respiratory impedance and work of breathing and a reduced level of ventilation that can be detected objectively by deterioration in breathing mechanics and arterial blood gas tensions and/or lactataemia. The overall prevalence of airway diseases is comparatively high in equine athletes and may affect the upper airways, lower airways or both. Diseases of the airways have been associated with a wide variety of anatomical and/or inflammatory conditions. In some instances, the diagnosis is challenging because conditions can be subclinical in horses at rest and become clinically relevant only during exercise. In such cases, an exercise test may be warranted in the evaluation of the patient. The design of the exercise test is critical to inducing the clinical signs of the problem and establishing an accurate diagnosis. Additional diagnostic techniques, such as airway sampling, can be valuable in the diagnosis of subclinical lower airway problems that have the capacity to impair performance. As all these techniques become more widely used in practice, they should inevitably enhance veterinarians' diagnostic capabilities and improve their assessment of treatment effectiveness and the long-term management of equine athletes. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  16. The microbiota of the respiratory tract : Gatekeeper to respiratory health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man, Wing Ho; De Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A.A.; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-01-01

    The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts

  17. Adult respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, J.; Jespersen, J.; Skjoedt, T.

    1986-01-01

    Our present-day knowledge concerning the clinico-chemical and radiological findings in adult respiratory distress syndrome are described. Three typical case histories have been selected to illustrate this condition; they were due to multiple trauma or sepsis. It is stressed that radiology is in a key position for making the diagnosis and for observing the course of the illness. (orig) [de

  18. European Respiratory Society statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Dirksen, Asger; Ferrarotti, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    lung disease. A large proportion of individuals affected remain undiagnosed and therefore without access to appropriate care and treatment.The most recent international statement on AATD was published by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society in 2003. Since then there has...

  19. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.

  20. Respiratory problems in foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, J

    1985-04-01

    Despite major advances in our knowledge and ability to treat respiratory diseases in neonatal foals, neonatal respiratory medicine is still in its infancy. It is hoped that this article may serve as a guideline for diagnosis and treatment. Specific antibiotic regimens and emergency procedures are covered in other articles in this symposium. Because management factors play a critical role in the pathogenesis of respiratory disease, education of clients as to their importance would help both prophylactically and therapeutically. The necessity of very careful monitoring of neonates, which is critical to early detection of disease, should be stressed. As respiratory diseases can be fulminant and rapidly fatal, it is imperative not to delay diagnosis and therapy. Thorough examination and implementation of appropriate diagnostic techniques, as well as prompt early referral to a more sophisticated facility when indicated, would prevent many deaths. Although sophisticated support systems are vital for survival of some of these foals, good basic intensive nursing care combined with selection of appropriate drug therapy very early in the course of the disease is all that many foals require and can significantly improve survival rates.

  1. Respiratory Symptoms in Firefighters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, Frans E.; Rooyackers, Jos M.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Heederik, Dick J.

    Background The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with respiratory symptoms in common firefighters in the Netherlands. Methods A total of 1,330 firefighters from the municipal fire brigades of three provinces of the Netherlands were included in the

  2. Textbook of respiratory medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.F.; Nadel, J.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a clinical reference of respiratory medicine. It also details basic science aspects of pulmonary physiology and describes recently developed, sophisticated diagnostic tools and therapeutic methods. It also covers anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology; microbiologic, radiologic, nuclear medicine, and biopsy methods for diagnosis

  3. Emissions of NO and CO from counterflow combustion of CH4 under MILD and oxyfuel conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Kin-Pang; Li, Pengfei; Wang, Feifei; Mi, Jianchun

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the NO and CO emission characteristics of counterflow combustion of methane simulated under MILD or/and oxyfuel conditions. Simulations using CHEMKIN are conducted for various injection conditions of fuel and oxidizer. Note that the terms “oxyfuel”, “MILD-N 2 ” and “MILD-CO 2 ” combustion adopted hereafter represent the conventional oxy-combustion and those MILD combustions diluted by N 2 and CO 2 , respectively. It is observed that the NO emission of MILD-CO 2 combustion is ultra-low for all cases of investigation, even when increasing the combustion temperature up to 2000 K or adding more N 2 (up to 20%) to either the fuel stream (to simulate nitrogen-containing fuels like biomass) or the oxidizer stream (to simulate the air-ingress). A higher temperature allowed under MILD-CO 2 combustion suggests the improvement of energy efficiency for the MILD combustion technology. Moreover, the presence of steam in the oxidant reduces both NO and CO emissions of combustion for all cases. The relative importance analysis reveals that the N 2 O-intermediate mechanism for producing NO prevails in MILD-CO 2 combustion while the prompt and thermal mechanisms predominate MILD-N 2 and oxyfuel combustion, respectively. In addition, the sensitivity analysis identifies those main reactions that play important roles for the NO emission under these combustion conditions. - Highlights: • Assessing the NO and CO emissions from MILD combustion diluted by CO 2 . • Examining the possibility of higher combustion intensity in MILD-CO 2 combustion than in MILD-N 2 combustion. • Differentiating the contributions from each NO mechanism to the total NO emission. • Revealing major NO mechanisms under different combustion conditions. • Better understanding the NO formation mechanisms under MILD combustion.

  4. ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also known as What Is ARDS, or acute respiratory distress syndrome, is a lung condition that leads ... treat ARDS. Other Names Acute lung injury Adult respiratory distress syndrome Increased-permeability pulmonary edema Noncardiac pulmonary ...

  5. Respiratory gating in cardiac PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Martin Lyngby; Rasmussen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory motion due to breathing during cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) results in spatial blurring and erroneous tracer quantification. Respiratory gating might represent a solution by dividing the PET coincidence dataset into smaller respiratory phase subsets. The aim...... of our study was to compare the resulting imaging quality by the use of a time-based respiratory gating system in two groups administered either adenosine or dipyridamole as the pharmacological stress agent. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were randomized to adenosine or dipyridamole cardiac...... stress (82)RB-PET. Respiratory rates and depths were measured by a respiratory gating system in addition to registering actual respiratory rates. Patients undergoing adenosine stress showed a decrease in measured respiratory rate from initial to later scan phase measurements [12.4 (±5.7) vs 5.6 (±4...

  6. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... for Disease Control and Prevention website. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Frequently asked questions and answers. www. ...

  7. Acute respiratory infections at children

    OpenAIRE

    Delyagin, V.

    2009-01-01

    The common signs of virus respiratory diseases, role of pathological inclination to infections, value of immunodeficiency are presented at lecture. Features of most often meeting respiratory virus infections are given.

  8. Climate change and respiratory disease: European Respiratory Society position statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, J G; Forsberg, B; Annesi-Maesano, I; Dey, R; Ebi, K L; Helms, P J; Medina-Ramón, M; Windt, M; Forastiere, F

    2009-08-01

    Climate change will affect individuals with pre-existing respiratory disease, but the extent of the effect remains unclear. The present position statement was developed on behalf of the European Respiratory Society in order to identify areas of concern arising from climate change for individuals with respiratory disease, healthcare workers in the respiratory sector and policy makers. The statement was developed following a 2-day workshop held in Leuven (Belgium) in March 2008. Key areas of concern for the respiratory community arising from climate change are discussed and recommendations made to address gaps in knowledge. The most important recommendation was the development of more accurate predictive models for predicting the impact of climate change on respiratory health. Respiratory healthcare workers also have an advocatory role in persuading governments and the European Union to maintain awareness and appropriate actions with respect to climate change, and these areas are also discussed in the position statement.

  9. Hyperventilation of pregnancy presenting with flaccid quadriparesis due to hypokalaemia secondary to respiratory alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, Gouranga; Paul, Rudrajit; Das, Shubhabrata; Pradhan, Sourav

    2014-06-01

    Hyperventilation in pregnancy is a cause of chronic respiratory alkalosis. Alkalosis either metabolic or respiratory may cause intracellular shift of potassium ions that may lead to hypokalaemia. However, the resultant hypokalaemia in respiratory alkalosis is usually mild and does not cause much clinical features. A five-months-pregnant female of the age 25 years presented with sudden onset flaccid weakness of both lower limbs associated with thigh muscle pain followed by weakness of both upper limbs within three days. Subsequent investigation revealed severe hypokalaemia due to acute exacerbation of chronic respiratory alkalosis secondary to hyperventilation of pregnancy, other causes of hypokalaemia being ruled out. Respiratory alkalosis causes tetany and other clinical manifestations. But hypokalaemia and such weakness is rarely found. Thisis probably the first report of this type from India.

  10. Evaluation of respiratory pattern during respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobashi, Suguru; Mori, Shinichiro

    2014-01-01

    The respiratory cycle is not strictly regular, and generally varies in amplitude and period from one cycle to the next. We evaluated the characteristics of respiratory patterns acquired during respiratory gating treatment in more than 300 patients. A total 331 patients treated with respiratory-gated carbon-ion beam therapy were selected from a group of patients with thoracic and abdominal conditions. Respiratory data were acquired for a total of 3,171 fractions using an external respiratory sensing monitor and evaluated for respiratory cycle, duty cycle, magnitude of baseline drift, and intrafractional/interfractional peak inhalation/exhalation positional variation. Results for the treated anatomical sites and patient positioning were compared. Mean ± SD respiratory cycle averaged over all patients was 4.1 ± 1.3 s. Mean ± SD duty cycle averaged over all patients was 36.5 ± 7.3 %. Two types of baseline drift were seen, the first decremental and the second incremental. For respiratory peak variation, the mean intrafractional variation in peak-inhalation position relative to the amplitude in the first respiratory cycle (15.5 ± 9.3 %) was significantly larger than that in exhalation (7.5 ± 4.6 %). Interfractional variations in inhalation (17.2 ± 18.5 %) were also significantly greater than those in exhalation (9.4 ± 10.0 %). Statistically significant differences were observed between patients in the supine position and those in the prone position in mean respiratory cycle, duty cycle, and intra-/interfractional variations. We quantified the characteristics of the respiratory curve based on a large number of respiratory data obtained during treatment. These results might be useful in improving the accuracy of respiratory-gated treatment.

  11. Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure from Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Secondary to Leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, characterized by hypoxemic respiratory failure, is associated with a mortality of 30–50% and is precipitated by both direct and indirect pulmonary insults. Treatment is largely supportive, consisting of lung protective ventilation and thereby necessitating Intensive Care Unit (ICU admission. The most common precipitant is community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, but other putative pathogens include viruses and fungi. On rare occasions, ARDS can be secondary to tropical disease. Accordingly, a history should include travel to endemic regions. Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease most common in the tropics and typically associated with mild pulmonary complications. We describe a case of a 25-year-old male with undiagnosed leptospirosis, presenting with fever and severe hypoxemic respiratory failure, returning from a Costa Rican holiday. There was no other organ failure. He was intubated and received lung protective ventilation. His condition improved after ampicillin and penicillin G were added empirically. This case illustrates the rare complication of ARDS from leptospirosis, the importance of taking a travel history, and the need for empiric therapy because of diagnostic delay.

  12. Consumer preferences for mild cheddar cheese flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, S L; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2008-11-01

    Flavor is an important factor in consumer selection of cheeses. Mild Cheddar cheese is the classification used to describe Cheddar cheese that is not aged extensively and has a "mild" flavor. However, there is no legal definition or age limit for Cheddar cheese to be labeled mild, medium, or sharp, nor are the flavor profiles or flavor expectations of these cheeses specifically defined. The objectives of this study were to document the distinct flavor profiles among commercially labeled mild Cheddar cheeses, and to characterize if consumer preferences existed for specific mild Cheddar cheese flavors or flavor profiles. Flavor descriptive sensory profiles of a representative array of commercial Cheddar cheeses labeled as mild (n= 22) were determined using a trained sensory panel and an established cheese flavor sensory language. Nine representative Cheddar cheeses were selected for consumer testing. Consumers (n= 215) assessed the cheeses for overall liking and other consumer liking attributes. Internal preference mapping, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis were conducted. Mild Cheddar cheeses were diverse in flavor with many displaying flavors typically associated with more age. Four distinct consumer clusters were identified. The key drivers of liking for mild Cheddar cheese were: color, cooked/milky, whey and brothy flavors, and sour taste. Consumers have distinct flavor and color preferences for mild Cheddar cheese. These results can help manufacturers understand consumer preferences for mild Cheddar cheese.

  13. Successful topical respiratory tract immunization of primates against Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukreyev, Alexander; Rollin, Pierre E; Tate, Mallory K; Yang, Lijuan; Zaki, Sherif R; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Murphy, Brian R; Collins, Peter L; Sanchez, Anthony

    2007-06-01

    Ebola virus causes outbreaks of severe viral hemorrhagic fever with high mortality in humans. The virus is highly contagious and can be transmitted by contact and by the aerosol route. These features make Ebola virus a potential weapon for bioterrorism and biological warfare. Therefore, a vaccine that induces both systemic and local immune responses in the respiratory tract would be highly beneficial. We evaluated a common pediatric respiratory pathogen, human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3), as a vaccine vector against Ebola virus. HPIV3 recombinants expressing the Ebola virus (Zaire species) surface glycoprotein (GP) alone or in combination with the nucleocapsid protein NP or with the cytokine adjuvant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor were administered by the respiratory route to rhesus monkeys--in which HPIV3 infection is mild and asymptomatic--and were evaluated for immunogenicity and protective efficacy against a highly lethal intraperitoneal challenge with Ebola virus. A single immunization with any construct expressing GP was moderately immunogenic against Ebola virus and protected 88% of the animals against severe hemorrhagic fever and death caused by Ebola virus. Two doses were highly immunogenic, and all of the animals survived challenge and were free of signs of disease and of detectable Ebola virus challenge virus. These data illustrate the feasibility of immunization via the respiratory tract against the hemorrhagic fever caused by Ebola virus. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which topical immunization through respiratory tract achieved prevention of a viral hemorrhagic fever infection in a primate model.

  14. Respiratory guiding system for respiratory motion management in respiratory gated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seong Hee; Kim, Dong Su; Kim, Tae Ho; Suh, Tae Suk

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory guiding systems have been shown to improve the respiratory regularity. This, in turn, improves the efficiency of synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy, and it reduces the artifacts caused by irregular breathing in imaging techniques such as four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT), which is used for treatment planning in RGRT. We have previously developed a respiratory guiding system that incorporates an individual-specific guiding waveform, which is easy to follow for each volunteer, to improve the respiratory regularity. The present study evaluates the application of this system to improve the respiratory regularity for respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT). In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of an in-house-developed respiratory guiding system incorporating an individual specific guiding waveform to improve the respiratory regularity for RGRT. Most volunteers showed significantly less residual motion at each phase during guided breathing owing to the improvement in respiratory regularity. Therefore, the respiratory guiding system can clearly reduce the residual, or respiratory, motion in each phase. From the result, the CTV and the PTV margins during RGRT can be reduced by using the respiratory guiding system, which reduces the residual motions, thus improving the accuracy of RGRT

  15. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Plotz, Frans B.; Markhors, Dick G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  16. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneijber, M.C.J.; van Heerde, M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Plotz, F.; Markhorst, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  17. Autonomic and cardio-respiratory responses to exercise in Brugada Syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoyrin Chanavirut, MSc

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Thai BrS patients had a more rapid rate of restoration of the parasympathetic and smaller level of sympathetic activation after exercise. They had mild hyperkalemia which is reduced according to the exercise. Furthermore, they exhibited impaired cardio-respiratory fitness.

  18. The effect of induced hypothermia on respiratory parameters in mechanically ventilated patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslami, Hamid; Binnekade, Jan M.; Horn, Janneke; Huissoon, Sandra; Juffermans, Nicole P.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Mild hypothermia is increasingly applied in the intensive care unit. Knowledge on the effects of hypothermia on respiratory parameters during mechanical ventilation is limited. In this retrospective study, we describe the effect of hypothermia on gas exchange in patients cooled for 24 h after a

  19. Respiratory Constraints in Verbal and Non-verbal Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Włodarczak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we address the old question of respiratory planning in speech production. We recast the problem in terms of speakers' communicative goals and propose that speakers try to minimize respiratory effort in line with the H&H theory. We analyze respiratory cycles coinciding with no speech (i.e., silence, short verbal feedback expressions (SFE's as well as longer vocalizations in terms of parameters of the respiratory cycle and find little evidence for respiratory planning in feedback production. We also investigate timing of speech and SFEs in the exhalation and contrast it with nods. We find that while speech is strongly tied to the exhalation onset, SFEs are distributed much more uniformly throughout the exhalation and are often produced on residual air. Given that nods, which do not have any respiratory constraints, tend to be more frequent toward the end of an exhalation, we propose a mechanism whereby respiratory patterns are determined by the trade-off between speakers' communicative goals and respiratory constraints.

  20. Respiratory Constraints in Verbal and Non-verbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczak, Marcin; Heldner, Mattias

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper we address the old question of respiratory planning in speech production. We recast the problem in terms of speakers' communicative goals and propose that speakers try to minimize respiratory effort in line with the H&H theory. We analyze respiratory cycles coinciding with no speech (i.e., silence), short verbal feedback expressions (SFE's) as well as longer vocalizations in terms of parameters of the respiratory cycle and find little evidence for respiratory planning in feedback production. We also investigate timing of speech and SFEs in the exhalation and contrast it with nods. We find that while speech is strongly tied to the exhalation onset, SFEs are distributed much more uniformly throughout the exhalation and are often produced on residual air. Given that nods, which do not have any respiratory constraints, tend to be more frequent toward the end of an exhalation, we propose a mechanism whereby respiratory patterns are determined by the trade-off between speakers' communicative goals and respiratory constraints.

  1. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-05-29

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task.

  2. Adult respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.H.; Colvin, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Due to improved emergency resuscitation procedures, and with advancing medical technology in the field of critical care, an increasing number of patients survive the acute phase of shock and catastrophic trauma. Patients who previously died of massive sepsis, hypovolemic or hypotensive shock, multiple fractures, aspiration, toxic inhalation, and massive embolism are now surviving long enough to develop previously unsuspected and unrecognized secondary effects. With increasing frequency, clinicians are recognizing the clinical and radiographic manifestations of pathologic changes in the lungs occurring secondary to various types of massive insult. This paper gives a list of diseases that have been shown to precipitate or predispose to diffuse lung damage. Various terms have been used to describe the lung damage and respiratory failure secondary to these conditions. The term adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is applied to several cases of sudden respiratory failure in patients with previously healthy lungs following various types of trauma or shock. Numerous investigations and experiments have studied the pathologic changes in ARDS, and, while there is still no clear indication of why it develops, there is now some correlation of the sequential pathologic developments with the clinical and radiographic changes

  3. Modeling Respiratory Toxicity of Authentic Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Patricia A.; James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    The lunar expeditions of the Apollo operations from the 60 s and early 70 s have generated awareness about lunar dust exposures and their implication towards future lunar explorations. Critical analyses on the reports from the Apollo crew members suggest that lunar dust is a mild respiratory and ocular irritant. Currently, NASA s space toxicology group is functioning with the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to investigate and examine toxic effects to the respiratory system of rats in order to establish permissible exposure levels (PELs) for human exposure to lunar dust. In collaboration with the space toxicology group, LADTAG and NIOSH the goal of the present research is to analyze dose-response curves from rat exposures seven and twenty-eight days after intrapharyngeal instillations, and model the response using BenchMark Dose Software (BMDS) from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Via this analysis, the relative toxicities of three types of Apollo 14 lunar dust samples and two control dust samples, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and quartz will be determined. This will be executed for several toxicity endpoints such as cell counts and biochemical markers in bronchoaveolar lavage fluid (BALF) harvested from the rats.

  4. Mild mental stress in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, P; Mehlsen, J; Sestoft, L

    1985-01-01

    A TV-game of tennis of 20 min duration was used to study the influence of mild mental stress on subcutaneous blood-flow (SBF), blood-pressure and heart rate in nine insulin-dependent diabetics and nine healthy subjects. SBF was measured on the thigh by local clearance of xenon-133. Measurements...... were made before, during and after the period of stress. During stress, SBF increased significantly by 26% in the healthy subjects, while SBF remained unchanged in the diabetics. The difference between the two groups was significant (P less than 0.05). Following stress, SBF returned to pre-stress level...... in the healthy subjects, while a significant decrease of 33% was observed in the diabetics. The pre-stress heart rate level was higher and the stress-induced increase in heart rate was less in the diabetics compared with the healthy subjects (P less than 0.05). During the stress a slight--but insignificant...

  5. Understanding mild persistent asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Szefler, Stanley J

    2005-01-01

    Limitations in asthma prevalence studies and difficulties in diagnosing pediatric asthma lead to uncertainty over the full extent of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents. Although recent surveys have reported that the majority of pediatric patients with asthma in the United States...... and Europe have symptoms consistent with mild disease, these surveys have limitations in design. Thus, the true prevalence of mild asthma remains unknown. It is unclear whether children with mild persistent asthma progress to more severe asthma, but the risk of severe asthma exacerbations seems...... to be unrelated to the symptom severity. Clinical studies restricted to pediatric patients with mild asthma are limited, but available data do suggest substantial morbidity of mild persistent asthma in this population and support inhaled corticosteroid intervention. There is a need for further investigation...

  6. Potential impact of fireworks on respiratory health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouder, Caroline; Montefort, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The world-wide use of fireworks with their consequent detrimental effect on the air quality is widely recognized with elevated ambient air levels of particulate matter and its several metallic components and gases identified in several studies carried out during such events. Exposed individuals may be at risk following inhalation of such produced pollutants. This review focuses on the impact of fireworks on air quality and the potential effect of fireworks on the respiratory system of healthy individuals as well as those suffering from underlying respiratory diseases, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This applies not only to spectators including children but also to pyrotechnicians themselves. An extensive Medline search revealed that a strong evidence of the impact of fireworks on respiratory health is lacking in susceptible as well as healthy individuals with no formal studies on COPD or asthma, other than a few case reports in the latter. The implementation of global strategies to control the use of fireworks and hence improve air quality could possibly reduce their likely detrimental effect on human respiratory health in exposed individuals, but clearly a more targeted research is needed. PMID:25378846

  7. Clinical and radiological analysis of severe acute respiratory syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Long; Li Zhi; Chi Xiaoyu; Huang Shupeng; Sheng Yan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the X-ray features of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Methods: The clinical data and X-ray appearances of 29 cases with SARS were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Epidemic outbreak of SARS has occurred at this area. 29 cases of SARS in this group began with a fever. 15 cases (51.7%) experienced mild respiratory symptoms. In 10 patients (34.5%) the antibacterial medication showed inefficacy before hospitalization. Leucocyte counting was normal in 18 cases (62.1%) and decreased in 11 cases (37.9%). Platelet counting slightly decreased in 7 cases (24.1%). Hepatic function test was abnormal in 16 patients (55.2%), mostly with a decrease of serum enzymology. Obvious abnormalities were seen on the chest films, which were in sharp contrast with the mild clinical respiratory signs. Chest X-ray findings were as follows: Exaggerated and indistinct lung markings with reticular shadow in 7 cases (24.1%), ground-glass opacity in 3 cases (10.4%), small patchy and multi-patchy imaging in 12 cases (41.4%), and large patchy shadow in 7 cases (24.1%). X-ray abnormality was presented later and absorbed slower. Conclusion: SARS carries a variety of X-ray appearances. The combined use of epidemiologic history, clinical situation, laboratory tests, and imaging examinations can make a definite diagnosis

  8. Changes in respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms in occupants of a large office building over a period of moisture damage remediation attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sook Ja; White, Sandra K.; Cox-Ganser, Jean M.

    2018-01-01

    There is limited information on the natural history of building occupants’ health in relation to attempts to remediate moisture damage. We examined changes in respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms in 1,175 office building occupants over seven years with multiple remediation attempts. During each of four surveys, we categorized participants using a severity score: 0 = asymptomatic; 1 = mild, symptomatic in the last 12 months, but not frequently in the last 4 weeks; 2 = severe, symptomatic at least once weekly in the last 4 weeks. Building-related symptoms were defined as improving away from the building. We used random intercept models adjusted for demographics, smoking, building tenure, and microbial exposures to estimate temporal changes in the odds of building-related symptoms or severity scores independent of the effect of microbial exposures. Trend analyses of combined mild/severe symptoms showed no changes in the odds of respiratory symptoms but significant improvement in non-respiratory symptoms over time. Separate analyses showed increases in the odds of severe respiratory symptoms (odds ratio/year = 1.15‒1.16, p-valuesremediation efforts might not be effective in improving occupants’ health. PMID:29324816

  9. Submersion and acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jang Su

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Submersion patients who are hypothermic on arrival of emergency department (ED are risky to respiratory failure and older, more hypothermic, longer hospital stay in suicidal submersion patients.

  10. Management of Postoperative Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Michael S; Berfield, Kathleen S; Abbaszadeh, Ryan V

    2015-11-01

    Despite best efforts, postoperative complications such as postoperative respiratory failure may occur and prompt recognition of the process and management is required. Postoperative respiratory failure, such as postoperative pneumonia, postpneumonectomy pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress-like syndromes, and pulmonary embolism, are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The causes of these complications are multifactorial and depend on preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors, some of which are modifiable. The article identifies some of the risk factors, causes, and treatment strategies for successful management of the patient with postoperative respiratory failure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Respiratory mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostert, J.W. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Anesthesiology)

    1983-06-01

    The high degree of technical perfection of the respiratory mass spectrometer has rendered the instrument feasible for routine monitoring of anesthetized patients. It is proposed that the difference between inspired and expired oxygen tension in mm Hg be equated with whole body oxygen consumption in ml/min/M/sup 2/ body-surface area at STPD, by the expedient of multiplying tension-differences by a factor of 2. Years of experience have confirmed the value of promptly recognizing sudden drops in this l/E tension difference below 50 mm Hg indicative of metabolic injury from hypovolemia or respiratory depression. Rises in l/E tension-differences were associated with shivering as well as voluntary muscle activity. Tension differences of less than 25 mm Hg (equated with a whole-body O/sub 2/ consumption of less than 50 ml O/sub 2//min/M/sup 2/) occurred in a patient in the sitting position for posterior fossa exploration without acidosis, hypoxia or hypotension for several hours prior to irreversible cardiac arrest. The value of clinical monitoring by mass spectrometry is especially impressive in open-heart surgery.

  12. The respiratory mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostert, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The high degree of technical perfection of the respiratory mass spectrometer has rendered the instrument feasible for routine monitoring of anesthetized patients. It is proposed that the difference between inspired and expired oxygen tension in mm Hg be equated with whole body oxygen consumption in ml/min/M 2 body-surface area at STPD, by the expedient of multiplying tension-differences by a factor of 2. Years of experience have confirmed the value of promptly recognizing sudden drops in this l/E tension difference below 50 mm Hg indicative of metabolic injury from hypovolemia or respiratory depression. Rises in l/E tension-differences were associated with shivering as well as voluntary muscle activity. Tension differences of less than 25 mm Hg (equated with a whole-body O 2 consumption of less than 50 ml O 2 /min/M 2 ) occurred in a patient in the sitting position for posterior fossa exploration without acidosis, hypoxia or hypotension for several hours prior to irreversible cardiac arrest. The value of clinical monitoring by mass spectrometry is especially impressive in open-heart surgery

  13. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Valente Barbas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on relevant literature articles and the authors' clinical experience, presents a goal-oriented respiratory management for critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS that can help improve clinicians' ability to care for these patients. Early recognition of ARDS modified risk factors and avoidance of aggravating factors during hospital stay such as nonprotective mechanical ventilation, multiple blood products transfusions, positive fluid balance, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and gastric aspiration can help decrease its incidence. An early extensive clinical, laboratory, and imaging evaluation of “at risk patients” allows a correct diagnosis of ARDS, assessment of comorbidities, and calculation of prognostic indices, so that a careful treatment can be planned. Rapid administration of antibiotics and resuscitative measures in case of sepsis and septic shock associated with protective ventilatory strategies and early short-term paralysis associated with differential ventilatory techniques (recruitment maneuvers with adequate positive end-expiratory pressure titration, prone position, and new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation techniques in severe ARDS can help improve its prognosis. Revaluation of ARDS patients on the third day of evolution (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA, biomarkers and response to infection therapy allows changes in the initial treatment plans and can help decrease ARDS mortality.

  14. Respiratory symptoms of megaesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Di Stefano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Megaesophagus as the end result of achalasia is the consequence of disordered peristalsis and the slow decompensation of the esophageal muscular layer. The main symptoms of achalasia are dysphagia, regurgitation, chest pain and weight loss, but respiratory symptoms, such as coughing, particularly when patients lie in a horizontal position, may also be common due to microaspiration. A 70-year old woman suffered from a nocturnal cough and shortness of breath with stridor. She reported difficulty in swallowing food over the past ten years, but had adapted by eating a semi-liquid diet. Chest X-ray showed right hemithorax patchy opacities projecting from the posterior mediastinum. Chest computed tomography scan showed a marked dilatation of the esophagus with abundant food residues. Endoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of megaesophagus due to esophageal achalasia, excluding other causes of obstruction, such as secondary esophagitis, polyps, leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma. In the elderly population, swallowing difficulties due to esophageal achalasia are often underestimated and less troublesome than the respiratory symptoms that are caused by microaspiration. The diagnosis of esophageal achalasia, although uncommon, should be considered in patients with nocturnal chronic coughs and shortness of breath with stridor when concomitant swallowing difficulties are present.

  15. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Confalonieri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS has been acknowledged to be a major clinical problem in respiratory medicine. From July 2015 to July 2016 almost 300 indexed articles were published on ARDS. This review summarises only eight of them as an arbitrary overview of clinical relevance: definition and epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. A strict application of definition criteria is crucial, but the diverse resource-setting scenarios foster geographic variability and contrasting outcome data. A large international multicentre prospective cohort study including 50 countries across five continents reported that ARDS is underdiagnosed, and there is potential for improvement in its management. Furthermore, epidemiological data from low-income countries suggest that a revision of the current definition of ARDS is needed in order to improve its recognition and global clinical outcome. In addition to the well-known risk-factors for ARDS, exposure to high ozone levels and low vitamin D plasma concentrations were found to be predisposing circumstances. Drug-based preventive strategies remain a major challenge, since two recent trials on aspirin and statins failed to reduce the incidence in at-risk patients. A new disease-modifying therapy is awaited: some recent studies promised to improve the prognosis of ARDS, but mortality and disabling complications are still high in survivors in intensive care.

  16. Elimination of striation in laser cutting of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobih, M; Crouse, P L; Li, L

    2007-01-01

    High-power laser cutting is extensively used in many industrial applications. An important weakness of this process is the formation of striations (regular lines down the cut surface), which affect the quality of the surfaces produced. The elimination of striation formation is of considerable importance, since it could open up a variety of novel high-precision applications. This study presents the results of oxygen-assisted laser cutting of EN43 mild steel sheets, using a high-power fibre laser. Striation-free laser cuts are demonstrated for cutting 1 and 2 mm thick mild steel sheets. The optimal operating windows are presented and a mathematical method is proposed to estimate the critical speed at which striation-free cut can be obtained

  17. Elimination of striation in laser cutting of mild steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobih, M; Crouse, P L; Li, L [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Sackville Street Building, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-21

    High-power laser cutting is extensively used in many industrial applications. An important weakness of this process is the formation of striations (regular lines down the cut surface), which affect the quality of the surfaces produced. The elimination of striation formation is of considerable importance, since it could open up a variety of novel high-precision applications. This study presents the results of oxygen-assisted laser cutting of EN43 mild steel sheets, using a high-power fibre laser. Striation-free laser cuts are demonstrated for cutting 1 and 2 mm thick mild steel sheets. The optimal operating windows are presented and a mathematical method is proposed to estimate the critical speed at which striation-free cut can be obtaine000.

  18. Methane synthesis under mild conditions for decentralized applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, Michael; Roensch, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    It is a central aim of the German government to significantly reduce the emission of greenhouse gases in the next years. One possibility to reach this aim is the substitution of fossil fuels, especially natural gas, by fuels from biogenic sources (Bio-SNG). However, it is a drawback of Bio-SNG that the production costs are considerably higher than those of fossil natural gas. This work provides an approach to reduce the production costs of Bio-SNG. It is the aim to reduce the process parameters of the methane synthesis. At the same time, it has to be ensured that high methane yields are achieved even at those mild conditions. A procedure for the optimization of the methanation catalyst activity will be presented. If the catalyst is as active as possible even at mild conditions, it will be possible to produce Bio-SNG cost efficient even in small, decentralized scale.

  19. 1986 Guidelines for the treatment of mild hypertension: Memorandum from a WHO/ISH Meeting*

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The present guidelines were endorsed by the participants at the Fourth Mild Hypertension Conference, held at Königstein, Federal Republic of Germany, on 4-7 December 1985. They include the definition of mild hypertension, and describe blood pressure measurement, factors influencing the decision to begin treatment, methods of treatment, and follow-up. These guidelines are a revision of those produced in 1982; they are based on the best available scientific evidence, and will be updated in the ...

  20. 10 CFR 850.28 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Respiratory protection. 850.28 Section 850.28 Energy... Respiratory protection. (a) The responsible employer must establish a respiratory protection program that complies with the respiratory protection program requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134, Respiratory Protection...

  1. Hypercapnic Respiratory Acidosis During An In-Flight Oxygen Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurling, Kristofer J; Moonsie, Ian K; Perks, Joseph L

    2016-02-01

    Patients with respiratory disease are at risk of excessive hypoxemia in the hypobaric commercial aircraft cabin environment, and the consensus is that this is easily corrected with supplementary oxygen. However, despite the risks of hypercapnia with increasing inspired oxygen in some patients being well established, this issue is not currently addressed in medical guidelines for air travel. A 76-yr-old woman with chronic type 2 respiratory failure underwent hypoxic challenge testing (HCT) to assess in-flight oxygen requirements. She is stable on home ventilation, and baseline arterial blood gases showed mild hypoxemia (Pao2 9.12 kPa), normal P(a)co(2) (5.64 kPa) and pH (7.36) with 98% S(p)O(2). HCT was performed delivering 15% FIo(2) via a mask, and the patient desaturated to respiratory acidosis (pH 7.25). The patient was advised against flying due to hypoxemia during HCT and the precipitous drop in pH on oxygen. It is possible to hyperoxygenate patients with type 2 respiratory failure in flight with the minimum level of supplementary oxygen available on many aircraft. In these cases P(a)co(2) and pH should be scrutinized during HCT before recommending in-flight oxygen. No current guidelines discuss the risk of hypercapnia from in-flight oxygen; it is therefore recommended that this be addressed in future revisions of medical air travel guidelines, should further research indicate it.

  2. Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome Patients Have Worse Sleep Quality Compared to Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Balester Mello de Godoy

    Full Text Available To compare sleep quality and sustained attention of patients with Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome (UARS, mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA and normal individuals.UARS criteria were presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale-ESS-≥ 10 and/or fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale-MFIS-≥ 38 associated to Apnea/hypopnea index (AHI ≤ 5 and Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI > 5 events/hour of sleep or more than 30% of total sleep time with flow limitation. Mild OSA was considered if the presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS ≥ 10 and/or fatigue (MFIS ≥ 38 associated to AHI ≥ 5 and ≤ 15 events/hour. "Control group" criteria were AHI < 5 events/hour and RDI ≤ 5 events/hour and ESS ≤ 9, without any sleep, clinical, neurological or psychiatric disorder. 115 individuals (34 UARS and 47 mild OSA patients and 34 individuals in "control group", adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI and schooling years, performed sleep questionnaires and sustained attention evaluation. Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT was performed five times (each two hours from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m.UARS patients had worse sleep quality (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire-FOSQ-and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-PSQI: p < 0.05 and more fatigue than mild OSA patients (p = 0.003 and scored significantly higher in both Beck inventories than "control group" (p < 0.02. UARS patients had more lapses early in the morning (in time 1 compared to the results in the afternoon (time 5 than mild OSA (p = 0.02. Mild OSA patients had more lapses in times 2 than in time 5 compared to "control group" (p = 0.04.UARS patients have a worse sleep quality, more fatigue and a worse early morning sustained attention compared to mild OSA. These last had a worse sustained attention than controls.

  3. Detection of a group 2 coronavirus in dogs with canine infectious respiratory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erles, Kerstin; Toomey, Crista; Brooks, Harriet W.; Brownlie, Joe

    2003-01-01

    An investigation into the causes of canine infectious respiratory disease was carried out in a large rehoming kennel. Tissue samples taken from the respiratory tract of diseased dogs were tested for the presence of coronaviruses using RT-PCR with conserved primers for the polymerase gene. Sequence analysis of four positive samples showed the presence of a coronavirus with high similarity to both bovine and human coronavirus (strain OC43) in their polymerase and spike genes, whereas there was a low similarity to comparable genes in the enteric canine coronavirus. This canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCV) was detected by RT-PCR in 32/119 tracheal and 20/119 lung samples, with the highest prevalence being detected in dogs with mild clinical symptoms. Serological analysis showed that the presence of antibodies against CRCV on the day of entry into the kennel decreased the risk of developing respiratory disease

  4. Two Mutations in Surfactant Protein C Gene Associated with Neonatal Respiratory Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tarocco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple mutations of surfactant genes causing surfactant dysfunction have been described. Surfactant protein C (SP-C deficiency is associated with variable clinical manifestations ranging from neonatal respiratory distress syndrome to lethal lung disease. We present an extremely low birth weight male infant with an unusual course of respiratory distress syndrome associated with two mutations in the SFTPC gene: C43-7G>A and 12T>A. He required mechanical ventilation for 26 days and was treated with 5 subsequent doses of surfactant with temporary and short-term efficacy. He was discharged at 37 weeks of postconceptional age without any respiratory support. During the first 16 months of life he developed five respiratory infections that did not require hospitalization. Conclusion. This mild course in our patient with two mutations is peculiar because the outcome in patients with a single SFTPC mutation is usually poor.

  5. Cellular defense of the avian respiratory system: effects of Pasteurella multocida on respiratory burst activity of avian respiratory tract phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, D L; Toth, T E; Pyle, R H; Siegel, P B

    1988-12-01

    The respiratory tract of healthy chickens contain few free-residing phagocytic cells. Intratracheal inoculation with Pasteurella multocida stimulated a significant (P less than 0.05) migration of cells to the lungs and air sacs of White Rock chickens within 2 hours after inoculation. We found the maximal number of avian respiratory tract phagocytes (22.9 +/- 14.0 x 10(6] at 8 hours after inoculation. Flow cytometric analysis of these cells revealed 2 populations on the basis of cell-size and cellular granularity. One of these was similar in size and granularity to those of blood heterophils. Only this population was capable of generating oxidative metabolites in response to phorbol myristate acetate. The ability of the heterophils to produce hydrogen peroxide, measured as the oxidation of intracellularly loaded 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein, decreased with time after inoculation. These results suggest that the migration of heterophils, which are capable of high levels of oxidative metabolism, to the lungs and air sacs may be an important defense mechanism of poultry against bacterial infections of the respiratory tract.

  6. Doping and respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, L; Pinchi, G; Puxeddu, E

    2007-03-01

    Historically many different drugs have been used to enhance sporting performances. The magic elixir is still elusive and the drugs are still used despite the heavy adverse effects. The respiratory system is regularly involved in this research probably because of its central location in the body with several connections to the cardiovascular system. Moreover people are aware that O2 consumption and its delivery to mitochondria firstly depend on ventilation and on the respiratory exchanges. The second step consists in the tendency to increase V'O2 max and to prolong its availability with the aim of improving the endurance time and to relieve the fatigue. Many methods and substances had been used in order to gain an artificial success. Additional oxygen, autologous and homologous transfusion and erythropoietin, mainly the synthetic type, have been administered with the aim of increasing the amount of oxygen being delivered to the tissues. Some compounds like stimulants and caffeine are endowed of excitatory activity on the CNS and stimulate pulmonary ventilation. They did not prove to have any real activity in supporting the athletic performances. Beta-adrenergic drugs, particularly clenbuterol, when administered orally or parenterally develop a clear illicit activity on the myosin fibres and on the muscles as a whole. Salbutamol, terbutaline, salmeterol and formoterol are legally admitted when administrated by MDI in the treatment of asthma. The prevalence of asthma and bronchial hyperactivity is higher in athletes than amongst the general population. This implies that clear rules must be provided to set a correct diagnosis of asthma in the athletes and a correct therapy to align with the actual guidelines according to the same rights of the "other" asthmatic patients.

  7. [Definition and clinical characteristics of mild hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saruta, Takao

    2008-08-01

    Mild hypertension is defined as blood pressure level of 140-159 mmHg systolic and/or 90-99 mmHg diastolic. The patients with blood pressure level of mild hypertension occupy about 60% of total hypertensive patients in Japan, and most of them are free of subjective symptoms except elevated blood pressure. However, some of the patients with mild hypertension develop cardiovascular events, since thay have occasionally cardiovascular damages on this level of blood pressure and several risk factors of cardiovascular diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia.

  8. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis or Laryngeal Papillomatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis or Laryngeal Papillomatosis On this page: What ... find additional information about RRP? What is recurrent respiratory papillomatosis? Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a disease ...

  9. Is recurrent respiratory infection associated with allergic respiratory disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Tiago Bittencourt; Klering, Everton Andrei; da Veiga, Ana Beatriz Gorini

    2018-03-13

    Respiratory infections cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aims to estimate the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases with the occurrence of recurrent respiratory infection (RRI) in children and adolescents. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and a questionnaire that provides data on the history of respiratory infections and the use of antibiotics were used to obtain data from patients. The relationship between the presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis and the occurrence of respiratory infections in childhood was analyzed. We interviewed the caregivers of 531 children aged 0 to 15 years. The average age of participants was 7.43 years, with females accounting for 52.2%. This study found significant relationship between: presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis with RRI, with prevalence ratio (PR) of 2.47 (1.51-4.02) and 1.61 (1.34-1.93), respectively; respiratory allergies with use of antibiotics for respiratory problems, with PR of 5.32 (2.17-13.0) for asthma and of 1.64 (1.29-2.09) for allergic rhinitis; asthma and allergic rhinitis with diseases of the lower respiratory airways, with PR of 7.82 (4.63-13.21) and 1.65 (1.38-1.96), respectively. In contrast, no relationship between upper respiratory airway diseases and asthma and allergic rhinitis was observed, with PR of 0.71 (0.35-1.48) and 1.30 (0.87-1.95), respectively. RRI is associated with previous atopic diseases, and these conditions should be considered when treating children.

  10. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Berlin Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, V Marco; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Thompson, B Taylor; Ferguson, Niall D; Caldwell, Ellen; Fan, Eddy; Camporota, Luigi; Slutsky, Arthur S

    2012-06-20

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was defined in 1994 by the American-European Consensus Conference (AECC); since then, issues regarding the reliability and validity of this definition have emerged. Using a consensus process, a panel of experts convened in 2011 (an initiative of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine endorsed by the American Thoracic Society and the Society of Critical Care Medicine) developed the Berlin Definition, focusing on feasibility, reliability, validity, and objective evaluation of its performance. A draft definition proposed 3 mutually exclusive categories of ARDS based on degree of hypoxemia: mild (200 mm Hg < PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 300 mm Hg), moderate (100 mm Hg < PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 200 mm Hg), and severe (PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 100 mm Hg) and 4 ancillary variables for severe ARDS: radiographic severity, respiratory system compliance (≤40 mL/cm H2O), positive end-expiratory pressure (≥10 cm H2O), and corrected expired volume per minute (≥10 L/min). The draft Berlin Definition was empirically evaluated using patient-level meta-analysis of 4188 patients with ARDS from 4 multicenter clinical data sets and 269 patients with ARDS from 3 single-center data sets containing physiologic information. The 4 ancillary variables did not contribute to the predictive validity of severe ARDS for mortality and were removed from the definition. Using the Berlin Definition, stages of mild, moderate, and severe ARDS were associated with increased mortality (27%; 95% CI, 24%-30%; 32%; 95% CI, 29%-34%; and 45%; 95% CI, 42%-48%, respectively; P < .001) and increased median duration of mechanical ventilation in survivors (5 days; interquartile [IQR], 2-11; 7 days; IQR, 4-14; and 9 days; IQR, 5-17, respectively; P < .001). Compared with the AECC definition, the final Berlin Definition had better predictive validity for mortality, with an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.577 (95% CI, 0.561-0.593) vs 0.536 (95% CI, 0.520-0.553; P

  11. Probable mild Opitz trigonocephaly C syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2011-12-11

    Dec 11, 2011 ... brachycephaly shape to the skull, hypoplastic scrotum and bilateral undescended testes, and mild generalised ... It may occur isolated or syndromic involving other abnor- ..... [12] Sargent C, Burn J, Baraitser M, Pembrey ME.

  12. Postpartum Depression After Mild and Severe Preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, Meeke; Berks, Durk; Vogel, Ineke; Franx, Arie; Bangma, Meike; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E.; Visser, Willy; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Habbema, J. Dik F.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Raat, Hein

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms after preeclampsia, to assess the extent to which the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms differs after mild and severe preeclampsia, and to investigate which factors contribute to such differences. Methods: Women

  13. Thermophysiological adaptations to passive mild heat acclimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallubinsky, H; Schellen, L; Kingma, B R M; Dautzenberg, B; van Baak, M A; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D

    Passive mild heat acclimation (PMHA) reflects realistic temperature challenges encountered in everyday life. Active heat acclimation, combining heat exposure and exercise, influences several important thermophysiological parameters; for example, it decreases core temperature and enhances heat

  14. Mild TBI Diagnosis and Management Strategies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Diagnosis and Management Strategies will assist in the study of TBI issues, such as the Influence of Concussion on Persistent...

  15. Producing cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E G

    1923-09-12

    A process and apparatus are described for producing Portland cement in which pulverized shale is successively heated in a series of inclined rotary retorts having internal stirrers and oil gas outlets, which are connected to condensers. The partially treated shale is removed from the lowermost retort by a conveyor, then fed separately or conjointly into pipes and thence into a number of vertically disposed retorts. Each of these retorts may be fitted interiorly with vertical arranged conveyors which elevate the shale and discharge it over a lip, from whence it falls to the bottom of the retorts. The lower end of each casing is furnished with an adjustable discharge door through which the spent shale is fed to a hopper, thence into separate trucks. The oil gases generated in the retorts are exhausted through pipes to condensers. The spent shale is conveyed to a bin and mixed while hot with ground limestone. The admixed materials are then ground and fed to a rotary kiln which is fired by the incondensible gases derived from the oil gases obtained in the previous retorting of the shale. The calcined materials are then delivered from the rotary kiln to rotary coolers. The waste gases from the kiln are utilized for heating the retorts in which the ground shale is heated for the purpose of extracting therefrom the contained hydrocarbon oils and gases.

  16. Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Tina; Windisch, Wolfram

    2018-07-01

    In sarcoidosis, muscle involvement is common, but mostly asymptomatic. Currently, little is known about respiratory muscle and diaphragm involvement and function in patients with sarcoidosis. Reduced inspiratory muscle strength and/or a reduced diaphragm function may contribute to exertional dyspnea, fatigue and reduced health-related quality of life. Previous studies using volitional and non-volitional tests demonstrated a reduced inspiratory muscle strength in sarcoidosis compared to control subjects, and also showed that respiratory muscle function may even be significantly impaired in a subset of patients. Areas covered: This review examines the evidence on respiratory muscle involvement and its implications in sarcoidosis with emphasis on pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of respiratory muscle dysfunction. The presented evidence was identified by a literature search performed in PubMed and Medline for articles about respiratory and skeletal muscle function in sarcoidosis through to January 2018. Expert commentary: Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is an underdiagnosed condition, which may have an important impact on dyspnea and health-related quality of life. Further studies are needed to understand the etiology, pathogenesis and extent of respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

  17. Review of occupational epidemiology of chromium chemicals and respiratory cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, R B

    1988-06-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have investigated the association between cancer risk and employment in chromium producing and using industries. Strong and consistent associations have been found between employment in the primary chemical producing industry and the risk for respiratory cancer. Workers employed in chromate pigment production and possibly spray painters of chromate pigment paints appear to be at excess risk of respiratory cancer. Chrome platers may also be at excess risk, although the evidence is limited. A few studies indicate that chromium alloy welding may also be an exposure source of concern. Some studies of ferrochromium alloy workers have shown an excess risk for respiratory cancer, although the risk may in part be due to concomitant exposures. The evidence indicates that the hexavalent form of chromium is the primary agent of chromium carcinogenesis. Solubility and other characteristics of chromium compounds may also play a role in determining risk.

  18. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (poximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper airway dynamics indicative of the effort to breathe. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of serum Clara cell protein CC16 with respiratory infections and immune response to respiratory pathogens in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowski, Marcin; Jurczyk, Janusz; Jarzębska, Marzanna; Moskwa, Sylwia; Makowska, Joanna S; Krysztofiak, Hubert; Kowalski, Marek L

    2014-04-15

    Respiratory epithelium integrity impairment caused by intensive exercise may lead to exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Clara cell protein (CC16) has anti-inflammatory properties and its serum level reflects changes in epithelium integrity and airway inflammation. This study aimed to investigate serum CC16 in elite athletes and to seek associations of CC16 with asthma or allergy, respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and immune response to respiratory pathogens. The study was performed in 203 Olympic athletes. Control groups comprised 53 healthy subjects and 49 mild allergic asthmatics. Serum levels of CC16 and IgG against respiratory viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were assessed. Allergy questionnaire for athletes was used to determine symptoms and exercise pattern. Current versions of ARIA and GINA guidelines were used when diagnosing allergic rhinitis and asthma, respectively. Asthma was diagnosed in 13.3% athletes, of whom 55.6% had concomitant allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis without asthma was diagnosed in 14.8% of athletes. Mean CC16 concentration was significantly lower in athletes versus healthy controls and mild asthmatics. Athletes reporting frequent RTIs had significantly lower serum CC16 and the risk of frequent RTIs was more than 2-fold higher in athletes with low serum CC16 (defined as equal to or less than 4.99 ng/ml). Athletes had significantly higher anti-adenovirus IgG than healthy controls while only non-atopic athletes had anti-parainfluenza virus IgG significantly lower than controls. In all athletes weak correlation of serum CC16 and anti-parainfluenza virus IgG was present (R = 0.20, p athletes a weak positive correlations of CC16 with IgG specific for respiratory syncytial virus (R = 0.29, p = 0.009), parainfluenza virus (R = 0.31, p = 0.01) and adenovirus (R = 0.27, p = 0.02) were seen as well. Regular high-load exercise is associated with decrease in serum CC16 levels. Athletes with decreased CC16 are

  20. Auscultation of the respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Malay; Madabhavi, Irappa; Niranjan, Narasimhalu; Dogra, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Auscultation of the lung is an important part of the respiratory examination and is helpful in diagnosing various respiratory disorders. Auscultation assesses airflow through the trachea-bronchial tree. It is important to distinguish normal respiratory sounds from abnormal ones for example crackles, wheezes, and pleural rub in order to make correct diagnosis. It is necessary to understand the underlying pathophysiology of various lung sounds generation for better understanding of disease processes. Bedside teaching should be strengthened in order to avoid erosion in this age old procedure in the era of technological explosion. PMID:26229557

  1. Auscultation of the respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Sarkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Auscultation of the lung is an important part of the respiratory examination and is helpful in diagnosing various respiratory disorders. Auscultation assesses airflow through the trachea-bronchial tree. It is important to distinguish normal respiratory sounds from abnormal ones for example crackles, wheezes, and pleural rub in order to make correct diagnosis. It is necessary to understand the underlying pathophysiology of various lung sounds generation for better understanding of disease processes. Bedside teaching should be strengthened in order to avoid erosion in this age old procedure in the era of technological explosion.

  2. Induction of respiratory deficiency in yeast by manganese, copper, cobalt and nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindegren, C C; Nagai, S; Nagai, H

    1958-08-16

    Among the chemical agents which induce respiratory deficiency in yeasts, acriflavine, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride, p-nitrophenol, and propamidine isethionate are especially effective in producing the deficiency in a large fraction of the surviving population. The present work is a survey of the efficacy of various metallic salts in inducing respiratory deficiency.

  3. Striation-free fibre laser cutting of mild steel sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobih, M.; Crouse, P.L.; Li, L. [University of Manchester, Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Sackville Street Building, P.O. Box 88, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-15

    High-power laser cutting is extensively used in many industrial applications. An important weakness of this process is the formation of striations, i.e. regular lines on the cut surface, which lowers the quality of the surfaces produced. The elimination of striation formation is thus of considerable importance, since it could open a variety of novel high-precision applications. This study presents the initial results of a laser cutting study using a 1 kW single-mode fibre laser, a relative newcomer in the field of laser metal cutting. Striation-free laser cuts are demonstrated when cutting 1 mm thick mild steel sheets. (orig.)

  4. Mechanism and Clinical Importance of Respiratory Failure Induced by Anticholinesterases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivosevic Anita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory failure is the predominant cause of death in humans and animals poisoned with anticholinesterases. Organophosphorus and carbamate anticholinesterases inhibit acetylcholinesterase irreversibly and reversibly, respectively. Some of them contain a quaternary atom that makes them lipophobic, limiting their action at the periphery, i.e. outside the central nervous system. They impair respiratory function primarily by inducing a desensitization block of nicotinic receptors in the neuromuscular synapse. Lipophilic anticholinesterases inhibit the acetylcholinesterase both in the brain and in other tissues, including respiratory muscles. Their doses needed for cessation of central respiratory drive are significantly less than doses needed for paralysis of the neuromuscular transmission. Antagonist of muscarinic receptors atropine blocks both the central and peripheral muscarinic receptors and effectively antagonizes the central respiratory depression produced by anticholinesterases. To manage the peripheral nicotinic receptor hyperstimulation phenomena, oximes as acetylcholinesterase reactivators are used. Addition of diazepam is useful for treatment of seizures, since they are cholinergic only in their initial phase and can contribute to the occurrence of central respiratory depression. Possible involvement of central nicotinic receptors as well as the other neurotransmitter systems – glutamatergic, opioidergic – necessitates further research of additional antidotes.

  5. Instantaneous Respiratory Estimation from Thoracic Impedance by Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Tai Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Impedance plethysmography provides a way to measure respiratory activity by sensing the change of thoracic impedance caused by inspiration and expiration. This measurement imposes little pressure on the body and uses the human body as the sensor, thereby reducing the need for adjustments as body position changes and making it suitable for long-term or ambulatory monitoring. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD can decompose a signal into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs that disclose nonstationary components as well as stationary components and, similarly, capture respiratory episodes from thoracic impedance. However, upper-body movements usually produce motion artifacts that are not easily removed by digital filtering. Moreover, large motion artifacts disable the EMD to decompose respiratory components. In this paper, motion artifacts are detected and replaced by the data mirrored from the prior and the posterior before EMD processing. A novel intrinsic respiratory reconstruction index that considers both global and local properties of IMFs is proposed to define respiration-related IMFs for respiration reconstruction and instantaneous respiratory estimation. Based on the experiments performing a series of static and dynamic physical activates, our results showed the proposed method had higher cross correlations between respiratory frequencies estimated from thoracic impedance and those from oronasal airflow based on small window size compared to the Fourier transform-based method.

  6. Instantaneous Respiratory Estimation from Thoracic Impedance by Empirical Mode Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Tai; Chan, Hsiao-Lung; Wang, Chun-Li; Jian, Hung-Ming; Lin, Sheng-Hsiung

    2015-07-07

    Impedance plethysmography provides a way to measure respiratory activity by sensing the change of thoracic impedance caused by inspiration and expiration. This measurement imposes little pressure on the body and uses the human body as the sensor, thereby reducing the need for adjustments as body position changes and making it suitable for long-term or ambulatory monitoring. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) can decompose a signal into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) that disclose nonstationary components as well as stationary components and, similarly, capture respiratory episodes from thoracic impedance. However, upper-body movements usually produce motion artifacts that are not easily removed by digital filtering. Moreover, large motion artifacts disable the EMD to decompose respiratory components. In this paper, motion artifacts are detected and replaced by the data mirrored from the prior and the posterior before EMD processing. A novel intrinsic respiratory reconstruction index that considers both global and local properties of IMFs is proposed to define respiration-related IMFs for respiration reconstruction and instantaneous respiratory estimation. Based on the experiments performing a series of static and dynamic physical activates, our results showed the proposed method had higher cross correlations between respiratory frequencies estimated from thoracic impedance and those from oronasal airflow based on small window size compared to the Fourier transform-based method.

  7. Respiratory Viruses in Febrile Neutropenic Patients with Respiratory Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Meidani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory infections are a frequent cause of fever in neutropenic patients, whereas respiratory viral infections are not frequently considered as a diagnosis, which causes high morbidity and mortality in these patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 36 patients with neutropenia who admitted to hospital were eligible for inclusion with fever (single temperature of >38.3°C or a sustained temperature of >38°C for more than 1 h, upper and lower respiratory symptoms. Sampling was performed from the throat of the patient by the sterile swab. All materials were analyzed by quantitative real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction covering the following viruses; influenza, parainfluenza virus (PIV, rhinovirus (RV, human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. Results: RV was the most frequently detected virus and then RSV was the most. PIV was not present in any of the tested samples. Furthermore, no substantial differences in the distribution of specific viral species were observed based on age, sex, neutropenia duration, hematological disorder, and respiratory tract symptoms and signs (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Our prospective study supports the hypothesis that respiratory viruses play an important role in the development of neutropenic fever, and thus has the potential to individualize infection treatment and to reduce the extensive use of antibiotics in immunocompromised patients with neutropenia.

  8. Craniofacial morphology, head posture, and nasal respiratory resistance in obstructive sleep apnoea : An inter-ethnic comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, M.L.; Sandham, John; Ang, PK; Wong, DC; Tan, WC; Huggare, J

    The aim of this study was to measure craniofacial morphology and nasal respiratory resistance (NRR) in Malay, Indian and Chinese subjects with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The sample consisted of 34 male subjects, 27-52 years of age (Malay n = 11, which included five mild and six moderate-severe

  9. Tannin bark Melalauca cajuputi powell (gelam) as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talib, Nur Atiqah Abu; Zakaria, Sarani; Hua, Chia Chin; Othman, Norinsan Kamil [School of Applied Physic, Faculty Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Tannin was extracted from gelam bark and used to produce corrosion inhibitor for mild steel. Tannin was extracted from gelam bark using 70% aqueous acetone for 6 hour. Tannin powder was characterization using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse chemical component in tannin and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) for tannin physical structure. The tannin effect on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel has been investigated in 1Mol HCl solution for 6 hour followed ASTM. The weight loss method were applied to study the mild steel corrosion behavior in the present and absend of different concentration of tannin (250, 300, 350)ppm. Tannin act good inhibitor as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid medium. Surface morphology of carbon steel with and without inhibitor was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  10. The pathways by which mild hypothermia inhibits neuronal apoptosis following ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated that mild hypothermia exhibits a neuroprotective role and it can inhibit endothelial cell apoptosis following ischemia/reperfusion injury by decreasing casp-ase-3 expression. It is hypothesized that mild hypothermia exhibits neuroprotective effects on neurons exposed to ischemia/reperfusion condition produced by oxygen-glucose deprivation. Mild hypothermia significantly reduced the number of apoptotic neurons, decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax and increased mitochondrial membrane potential, with the peak of anti-apoptotic effect appearing between 6 and 12 hours after the injury. These findings indicate that mild hypothermia inhibits neuronal apoptosis following ischemia/reperfusion injury by protecting the mitochondria and that the effective time window is 6-12 hours after ischemia/reperfusion injury

  11. Nitric oxide in health and disease of the respiratory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricciardolo, Fabio L. M.; Sterk, Peter J.; Gaston, Benjamin; Folkerts, Gert

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade a plethora of studies have unravelled the multiple roles of nitric oxide (NO) in airway physiology and pathophysiology. In the respiratory tract, NO is produced by a wide variety of cell types and is generated via oxidation of l-arginine that is catalyzed by the enzyme NO

  12. Altered Resting and Exercise Respiratory Physiology in Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Akshay

    2009-01-01

    Obesity, particularly severe obesity, affects both resting and exercise-related respiratory physiology. Severe obesity classically produces a restrictive ventilatory abnormality, characterized by reduced expiratory reserve volume. However, obstructive ventilatory abnormality may also be associated with abdominal obesity. Decreased peak work rates are usually seen among obese subjects in a setting of normal or decreased ventilatory reserve and normal cardiovascular response to exercise. Weight...

  13. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the e......Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence...... not extend beyond the end of treatment. Finally, allergen immunotherapy has a poor but improving evidence base (notably on sublingual tablets) and its benefits last after treatment ends. This review identifies needs for deeper physician knowledge on the extent and impact of HDM allergy in respiratory disease...... and therapy of HDM respiratory allergy in practice....

  14. Employee guide to respiratory protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    This employee guide discusses use of respiratory protective equipment for particulates, gases, vapors, supplied air, and self-contained breathing apparatus. It also covers equipment selection medical factors, fitting criteria; care; and employee responsibilities

  15. Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome Patients Have Worse Sleep Quality Compared to Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Luciana Balester Mello; Luz, Gabriela Pontes; Palombini, Luciana Oliveira; E Silva, Luciana Oliveira; Hoshino, Wilson; Guimarães, Thaís Moura; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia; Togeiro, Sonia Maria

    2016-01-01

    To compare sleep quality and sustained attention of patients with Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome (UARS), mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and normal individuals. UARS criteria were presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale-ESS-≥ 10) and/or fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale-MFIS-≥ 38) associated to Apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) ≤ 5 and Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI) > 5 events/hour of sleep or more than 30% of total sleep time with flow limitation. Mild OSA was considered if the presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS ≥ 10) and/or fatigue (MFIS ≥ 38) associated to AHI ≥ 5 and ≤ 15 events/hour. "Control group" criteria were AHI sleep, clinical, neurological or psychiatric disorder. 115 individuals (34 UARS and 47 mild OSA patients and 34 individuals in "control group"), adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and schooling years, performed sleep questionnaires and sustained attention evaluation. Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) was performed five times (each two hours) from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. UARS patients had worse sleep quality (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire-FOSQ-and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-PSQI: p sleep quality, more fatigue and a worse early morning sustained attention compared to mild OSA. These last had a worse sustained attention than controls.

  16. Comparison of the serial position effect in very mild Alzheimer's disease, mild Alzheimer's disease, and amnesia associated with electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, P J; Salmon, D P; Bondi, M W; Bui, B K; Olichney, J; Delis, D C; Thomas, R G; Thal, L J

    2000-03-01

    Individuals given a series of words to memorize normally show better immediate recall for items from the beginning and end of the list than for mid-list items. This phenomenon, known as the serial position effect, is thought to reflect the concurrent contributions of secondary and primary memory, respectively, to recall performance. The present study compared the serial position effects produced on Trial 1 of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) in mildly demented (N = 25; M MMSE = 20.0) and very mildly demented (N = 25; M MMSE = 25.5) patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and age- and education-matched normal control (NC) participants (N = 50). In addition, the serial position effects of the very mildly demented AD patients were compared to those of patients with a transient, circumscribed amnesia arising from a prescribed series of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) treatments for the relief of depressive illness (N = 11). While the NC group exhibited the typical serial position effect, AD patients recalled significantly fewer words than NC participants overall, and exhibited a significantly reduced primacy effect (i.e., recall of the first 2 list items) with a normal recency effect (i.e., recall of the last 2 list items). Patients with circumscribed amnesia due to ECT were as impaired as the very mildly demented AD patients on most standard CVLT measures of learning and memory, but exhibited primacy and recency effects, which were within normal limits. These results suggest that a reduction in the primacy effect, but not the recency effect, is an early and ubiquitous feature of the memory impairment of AD. It is not, however, a necessary feature of all causes of memory impairment.

  17. Six-Digit CPK and Mildly Affected Renal Function in McArdle Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Spyropoulos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy, white 12-year-old girl presented with diffuse body aches and poor perfusion. She developed severe respiratory failure and marked rhabdomyolysis and was mechanically ventilated. Although her CPK peaked at 500,000 IU/L, her renal function was mildly affected and her creatinine did not exceed the 0.8 mg/dL. The rhabdomyolysis was gradually resolved following aggressive fluid hydration. The patient did not require dialysis and made a complete recovery. Genetic studies revealed the diagnosis of McArdle disease.

  18. Climate Change and Respiratory Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Motahari, Hooman; Taghizadeh Khamesi, Mojdeh; Sharifi, Arash; Campos, Michael; Schraufnagel, Dean E

    2016-08-01

    The rate of global warming has accelerated over the past 50 years. Increasing surface temperature is melting glaciers and raising the sea level. More flooding, droughts, hurricanes, and heat waves are being reported. Accelerated changes in climate are already affecting human health, in part by altering the epidemiology of climate-sensitive pathogens. In particular, climate change may alter the incidence and severity of respiratory infections by affecting vectors and host immune responses. Certain respiratory infections, such as avian influenza and coccidioidomycosis, are occurring in locations previously unaffected, apparently because of global warming. Young children and older adults appear to be particularly vulnerable to rapid fluctuations in ambient temperature. For example, an increase in the incidence in childhood pneumonia in Australia has been associated with sharp temperature drops from one day to the next. Extreme weather events, such as heat waves, floods, major storms, drought, and wildfires, are also believed to change the incidence of respiratory infections. An outbreak of aspergillosis among Japanese survivors of the 2011 tsunami is one such well-documented example. Changes in temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, and air pollution influence viral activity and transmission. For example, in early 2000, an outbreak of Hantavirus respiratory disease was linked to a local increase in the rodent population, which in turn was attributed to a two- to threefold increase in rainfall before the outbreak. Climate-sensitive respiratory pathogens present challenges to respiratory health that may be far greater in the foreseeable future.

  19. Respiratory motion correction for PET oncology applications using affine transformation of list mode data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamare, F; Cresson, T; Savean, J; Rest, C Cheze Le; Reader, A J; Visvikis, D

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory motion is a source of artefacts and reduced image quality in PET. Proposed methodology for correction of respiratory effects involves the use of gated frames, which are however of low signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore a method accounting for respiratory motion effects without affecting the statistical quality of the reconstructed images is necessary. We have implemented an affine transformation of list mode data for the correction of respiratory motion over the thorax. The study was performed using datasets of the NCAT phantom at different points throughout the respiratory cycle. List mode data based PET simulated frames were produced by combining the NCAT datasets with a Monte Carlo simulation. Transformation parameters accounting for respiratory motion were estimated according to an affine registration and were subsequently applied on the original list mode data. The corrected and uncorrected list mode datasets were subsequently reconstructed using the one-pass list mode EM (OPL-EM) algorithm. Comparison of corrected and uncorrected respiratory motion average frames suggests that an affine transformation in the list mode data prior to reconstruction can produce significant improvements in accounting for respiratory motion artefacts in the lungs and heart. However, the application of a common set of transformation parameters across the imaging field of view does not significantly correct the respiratory effects on organs such as the stomach, liver or spleen

  20. Model-based respiratory motion compensation for emission tomography image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, M; Malandain, G; Koulibaly, P M; Gonzalez-Ballester, M A; Darcourt, J

    2007-01-01

    In emission tomography imaging, respiratory motion causes artifacts in lungs and cardiac reconstructed images, which lead to misinterpretations, imprecise diagnosis, impairing of fusion with other modalities, etc. Solutions like respiratory gating, correlated dynamic PET techniques, list-mode data based techniques and others have been tested, which lead to improvements over the spatial activity distribution in lungs lesions, but which have the disadvantages of requiring additional instrumentation or the need of discarding part of the projection data used for reconstruction. The objective of this study is to incorporate respiratory motion compensation directly into the image reconstruction process, without any additional acquisition protocol consideration. To this end, we propose an extension to the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) algorithm that includes a respiratory motion model, which takes into account the displacements and volume deformations produced by the respiratory motion during the data acquisition process. We present results from synthetic simulations incorporating real respiratory motion as well as from phantom and patient data

  1. 33 CFR 142.39 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 142.39... Respiratory protection. (a) Personnel in an atmosphere specified under ANSI Z88.2, requiring the use of respiratory protection equipment shall wear the type of respiratory protection equipment specified in ANSI Z88...

  2. Mild Primary Hyperparathyroidism: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applewhite, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    The biochemical profile of classic primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) consists of both elevated calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. The standard of care is parathyroidectomy unless prohibited by medical comorbidities. Because more patients are undergoing routine bone density evaluation and neck imaging studies for other purposes, there is a subset of people identified with a biochemically mild form of the pHPT that expresses itself as either elevated calcium or parathyroid hormone levels. These patients often do not fall into the criteria for operation based on the National Institutes of Health consensus guidelines, and they can present a challenge of diagnosis and management. The purpose of this paper is to review the available literature on mild pHPT in an effort to better characterize this patient population and to determine whether patients benefit from parathyroidectomy. Evidence suggests that there are patients with mild pHPT who have overt symptoms that are found to improve after parathyroidectomy. There is also a group of patients with biochemically mild pHPT who are found to progress to classic pHPT over time; however, it is not predictable which group of patients this will be. Early intervention for this group with mild pHPT may prevent progression of bone, psychiatric, and renal complications, and parathyroidectomy has proven safe in appropriately selected patients at high volume centers. PMID:25063228

  3. [Inpatients days in patients with respiratory diseases and periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Plata, Rosario; Olmedo-Torres, Daniel; Martínez-Briseño, David; González-Cruz, Herminia; Casa-Medina, Guillermo; García-Sancho, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory gingival process that has been associated with the severity of respiratory diseases. In Mexico a prevalence of 78% was found in population with social security and > 60 years old. The aim of this study is to establish the association between periodontal disease and respiratory diseases according to the inpatient days. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to December 2011. We included hospitalized patients, ≥ 18 years of age, without sedation or intubated. A dentist classified patients into two groups according to the severity of the periodontal disease: mild-to-moderate and severe. We estimated medians of inpatient days by disease and severity. Negative binomial models were adjusted to estimate incidence rate ratios and predicted inpatient days. 3,059 patients were enrolled. The median of observed and predicted inpatient days was higher in the group of severe periodontal disease (p disease, tuberculosis, and influenza had the highest incidence rates ratios of periodontal disease (p periodontal disease is positively -associated with inpatient days of patients with respiratory diseases.

  4. Respiratory care management information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Richard M

    2004-04-01

    Hospital-wide computerized information systems evolved from the need to capture patient information and perform billing and other financial functions. These systems, however, have fallen short of meeting the needs of respiratory care departments regarding work load assessment, productivity management, and the level of outcome reporting required to support programs such as patient-driven protocols. The respiratory care management information systems (RCMIS) of today offer many advantages over paper-based systems and hospital-wide computer systems. RCMIS are designed to facilitate functions specific to respiratory care, including assessing work demand, assigning and tracking resources, charting, billing, and reporting results. RCMIS incorporate mobile, point-of-care charting and are highly configurable to meet the specific needs of individual respiratory care departments. Important and substantial benefits can be realized with an RCMIS and mobile, wireless charting devices. The initial and ongoing costs of an RCMIS are justified by increased charge capture and reduced costs, by way of improved productivity and efficiency. It is not unusual to recover the total cost of an RCMIS within the first year of its operation. In addition, such systems can facilitate and monitor patient-care protocols and help to efficiently manage the vast amounts of information encountered during the practitioner's workday. Respiratory care departments that invest in RCMIS have an advantage in the provision of quality care and in reducing expenses. A centralized respiratory therapy department with an RCMIS is the most efficient and cost-effective way to monitor work demand and manage the hospital-wide allocation of respiratory care services.

  5. Prediction of acute respiratory disease in current and former smokers with and without COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Russell P; Kim, Victor; Regan, Elizabeth; Williams, André A A; Santorico, Stephanie A; Make, Barry J; Lynch, David A; Hokanson, John E; Washko, George R; Bercz, Peter; Soler, Xavier; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Criner, Gerard J; Ramsdell, Joe; Han, MeiLan K; Demeo, Dawn; Anzueto, Antonio; Comellas, Alejandro; Crapo, James D; Dransfield, Mark; Wells, J Michael; Hersh, Craig P; MacIntyre, Neil; Martinez, Fernando; Nath, Hrudaya P; Niewoehner, Dennis; Sciurba, Frank; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Silverman, Edwin K; van Beek, Edwin J R; Wilson, Carla; Wendt, Christine; Wise, Robert A

    2014-10-01

    The risk factors for acute episodes of respiratory disease in current and former smokers who do not have COPD are unknown. Eight thousand two hundred forty-six non-Hispanic white and black current and former smokers in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cohort had longitudinal follow-up (LFU) every 6 months to determine acute respiratory episodes requiring antibiotics or systemic corticosteroids, an ED visit, or hospitalization. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the factors associated with acute respiratory episodes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for time to first episode and an acute episode of respiratory disease risk score. At enrollment, 4,442 subjects did not have COPD, 658 had mild COPD, and 3,146 had moderate or worse COPD. Nine thousand three hundred three acute episodes of respiratory disease and 2,707 hospitalizations were reported in LFU (3,044 acute episodes of respiratory disease and 827 hospitalizations in those without COPD). Major predictors included acute episodes of respiratory disease in year prior to enrollment (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15-1.24 per exacerbation), airflow obstruction (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.96 per 10% change in % predicted FEV1), and poor health-related quality of life (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06-1.08 for each 4-unit increase in St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score). Risks were similar for those with and without COPD. Although acute episode of respiratory disease rates are higher in subjects with COPD, risk factors are similar, and at a population level, there are more episodes in smokers without COPD.

  6. Prediction of Acute Respiratory Disease in Current and Former Smokers With and Without COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Victor; Regan, Elizabeth; Williams, André A. A.; Santorico, Stephanie A.; Make, Barry J.; Lynch, David A.; Hokanson, John E.; Washko, George R.; Bercz, Peter; Soler, Xavier; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Criner, Gerard J.; Ramsdell, Joe; Han, MeiLan K.; Demeo, Dawn; Anzueto, Antonio; Comellas, Alejandro; Crapo, James D.; Dransfield, Mark; Wells, J. Michael; Hersh, Craig P.; MacIntyre, Neil; Martinez, Fernando; Nath, Hrudaya P.; Niewoehner, Dennis; Sciurba, Frank; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Silverman, Edwin K.; van Beek, Edwin J. R.; Wilson, Carla; Wendt, Christine; Wise, Robert A.; Curtis, Jeffrey; Kazerooni, Ella; Hanania, Nicola; Alapat, Philip; Bandi, Venkata; Guntupalli, Kalpalatha; Guy, Elizabeth; Lunn, William; Mallampalli, Antara; Trinh, Charles; Atik, Mustafa; DeMeo, Dawn; Hersh, Craig; Jacobson, Francine; Graham Barr, R.; Thomashow, Byron; Austin, John; MacIntyre, Neil; Washington, Lacey; Page McAdams, H.; Rosiello, Richard; Bresnahan, Timothy; McEvoy, Charlene; Tashjian, Joseph; Wise, Robert; Hansel, Nadia; Brown, Robert; Casaburi, Richard; Porszasz, Janos; Fischer, Hans; Budoff, Matt; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Niewoehner, Dennis; Allen, Tadashi; Rice, Kathryn; Foreman, Marilyn; Westney, Gloria; Berkowitz, Eugene; Bowler, Russell; Friedlander, Adam; Meoni, Eleonora; Criner, Gerard; Kim, Victor; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Satti, Aditi; James Mamary, A.; Steiner, Robert; Dass, Chandra; Bailey, William; Dransfield, Mark; Gerald, Lynn; Nath, Hrudaya; Ramsdell, Joe; Ferguson, Paul; Friedman, Paul; McLennan, Geoffrey; van Beek, Edwin JR; Martinez, Fernando; Han, MeiLan; Thompson, Deborah; Kazerooni, Ella; Wendt, Christine; Allen, Tadashi; Sciurba, Frank; Weissfeld, Joel; Fuhrman, Carl; Bon, Jessica; Anzueto, Antonio; Adams, Sandra; Orozco, Carlos; Santiago Restrepo, C.; Mumbower, Amy; Crapo, James; Silverman, Edwin; Make, Barry; Regan, Elizabeth; Samet, Jonathan; Willis, Amy; Stinson, Douglas; Beaty, Terri; Klanderman, Barbara; Laird, Nan; Lange, Christoph; Ionita, Iuliana; Santorico, Stephanie; Silverman, Edwin; Lynch, David; Schroeder, Joyce; Newell, John; Reilly, John; Coxson, Harvey; Judy, Philip; Hoffman, Eric; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Washko, George; Leek, Rebecca; Zach, Jordan; Kluiber, Alex; Rodionova, Anastasia; Mann, Tanya; Crapo, Robert; Jensen, Robert; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Murphy, James; Everett, Douglas; Wilson, Carla; Hokanson, John

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk factors for acute episodes of respiratory disease in current and former smokers who do not have COPD are unknown. METHODS: Eight thousand two hundred forty-six non-Hispanic white and black current and former smokers in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cohort had longitudinal follow-up (LFU) every 6 months to determine acute respiratory episodes requiring antibiotics or systemic corticosteroids, an ED visit, or hospitalization. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the factors associated with acute respiratory episodes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for time to first episode and an acute episode of respiratory disease risk score. RESULTS: At enrollment, 4,442 subjects did not have COPD, 658 had mild COPD, and 3,146 had moderate or worse COPD. Nine thousand three hundred three acute episodes of respiratory disease and 2,707 hospitalizations were reported in LFU (3,044 acute episodes of respiratory disease and 827 hospitalizations in those without COPD). Major predictors included acute episodes of respiratory disease in year prior to enrollment (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15-1.24 per exacerbation), airflow obstruction (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.96 per 10% change in % predicted FEV1), and poor health-related quality of life (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06-1.08 for each 4-unit increase in St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire score). Risks were similar for those with and without COPD. CONCLUSIONS: Although acute episode of respiratory disease rates are higher in subjects with COPD, risk factors are similar, and at a population level, there are more episodes in smokers without COPD. PMID:24945159

  7. Neuropsychological function following mild exposure to pentaborane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.P.; Silverman, J.J.; Garrettson, L.K.; Schulz, C.; Hamer, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests and self-report personality inventories were administered to 14 workers and rescue squad personnel approximately 2 months following mild exposure to pentaborane, a highly toxic volatile liquid boron hydride. Performance decrements were evident on 5 of 11 neuropsychological tests, including Block Design and measures of sustained attention and recent memory. Neuropsychological deficits were not related to emotional changes reported on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist nor to the presence of CT scan abnormality. These results indicate mild residual brain dysfunction following pentaborane intoxication, including possible dysfunction in subcortical regions mediating memory processes and in cortical areas mediating visuo-spatial abilities

  8. Phytotherapy of Acute Respiratory Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Ershova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays phytotherapy is increasingly being implemented into medical practice, especially for the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Acute respiratory viral infections are most common in childhood and in adults. Acute rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, nasopharyngitis and acute laryngitis refer to diseases of the upper respiratory tract. The main reason for respiratory diseases in recurrent respiratory infection child is disorders of mucociliary and immune protection. The therapeutic value of medicinal plants is determined by their biologically active substances. The method of application of phytotherpy is an integral part of traditional medicine. Herbal medicine can be used at home and does not require special equipment. The main indications for the herbal medicine use in pediatrics are the initial stage of the disease as a primary method of treatment due to mild and low toxicity; as a supporting treatment for enhancing the protective forces of the child’s body during the disease deterioration. During the recovery period herbal medicine again occupies a leading position, especially in case of chronic diseases because it can be used for a long time and is well combined with synthetic drugs. The terms of appointment of herbs for children: prescription of medicinal plants for children must be individual according to indications, taking into account the child’s age; it is recommended to take into account the form and nature of the course of the main disease and comorbidities as well; at the initial stage of the treatment it is better to use some medicinal plants or species consisting of 2–3 plants and in the future a more complex composition; therapy with medicinal plants requires a long period to be used use, especially in chronic diseases; in the treatment of chronic diseases a good effect preventive courses of herbal medicine was revealed, which are appointed during seasonal exacerbations; in case of intolerance

  9. Reduction of cervical and respiratory muscle strength in patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain and having moderate to severe disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; Sollano-Vallez, Ernesto; Del Corral, Tamara

    2017-06-11

    To investigate whether patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain and having moderate to severe disability have a greater cervical motor function impairment and respiratory disturbances compared with patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain having mild disability and asymptomatic subjects; and the association between these outcomes in patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain and healthy controls. Cross-sectional study, 44 patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain and 31 healthy subjects participated. The neck disability index was used to divide the patients into 2 groups: 1) mild disability group (scores between 5 and 14 points); and 2) moderate to severe disability group (scores >14 points). Cervical motor function was measured by cervical range of motion, forward head posture, neck flexor, and extensor muscle strength. Respiratory function and maximum respiratory pressures were also measured. Statistically differences were found between the patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain having a moderate to severe disability and the asymptomatic subjects for cervical and respiratory muscle strength. Comparisons between chronic nonspecific neck pain and the asymptomatic groups showed differences for all the variables, except for forward head posture. The regression model determined that strength of cervical flexion explained 36.4 and 45.6% of the variance of maximum inspiratory pressures and maximum expiratory pressures, respectively. Only the chronic nonspecific neck pain group with moderate to severe disability showed differences compared with the healthy subjects. Neck muscle strength could be a good predictor of respiratory muscle function. Implications for rehabilitation Neck pain severity could be closely associated with decreased respiratory pressure in patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain. These findings suggest a new therapeutic approach for patients with moderate to severe disability, such as respiratory muscle training. The regression

  10. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  11. Do we over treat mild hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetti, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    The important question whether 'mild' hypertension should or should not be treated by drugs is difficult to answer, because the only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating this question were conducted when the definition of 'mild' hypertension was based on diastolic blood pressure only, whereas the present definition of grade 1 hypertension includes both systolic and diastolic values (SBP/DBP), and the concept of 'mild' hypertension also includes that of low-moderate cardiovascular risk (hypertension only on the basis of expert opinion. However, recent meta-analyses have provided some support to drug treatment intervention in low-moderate risk grade 1 hypertensives and have shown that, when treatment is deferred until organ damage or cardiovascular disease occur, absolute residual risk (events occurring despite treatment) markedly increases. Although evidence favoring therapeutic intervention in mild hypertension is nowadays stronger than expert opinion, meta-analyses are not substitutes for specific RCTs, and the wide BP spans defining grade 1 hypertension as well as the span defining low-moderate risk leave a wide space for individualized or personalized decisions.

  12. The association between asymptomatic and mild neurocognitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-12

    Apr 12, 2018 ... antiretroviral therapy among people living with human .... larger than 0.05.26 This is as shown below: = +. −. 1. 1 ..... HAND in general, and did not focus on the mild forms of .... Poster exhibition: Sydney – IAS 2007: Abstract no.

  13. Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    and covered with dental acrylic . Isoflurane was discontinued; rats were connected to the trauma device and subjected to a mild 1.0-atm fluid-percussion...thought to play roles in the regulation of extracellular concentrations of water, potassium and other ions, and glutamate and other transmitters and

  14. Learning Strategies for Adolescents with Mild Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderman, Greg; Koman, Kara; Schibelka, Mary; Higgin, Karen; Cooper, Cody; Butler, Jordyn

    2013-01-01

    Learning strategy instruction is an evidence-based practice for teaching adolescents with mild disabilities. However, researchers have not developed strategies for every content area or skill. Therefore, teachers need to be able develop strategies based on the needs of their students. This article reviews the process for developing and teaching…

  15. Mild disintegration of green microalgae and macroalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Richard

    2016-01-01

    An increased worldwide protein demand for food and feed and the necessity to release the water soluble proteins in the first stage of the cascade biorefinery require the development of mild protein extraction technologies. Cell disintegration is the first hurdle and is considered as one of the

  16. Reducing Truancy in Students with Mild Handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Albert M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Contingency contracting and group counseling were provided to 26 mildly to moderately handicapped middle school students with high rates of truancy. Subjects exhibited attendance gains after treatment; gains were not maintained at followup but attendance rates were still higher than the rates of control students. Measures of academic performance…

  17. SHORT COMMUNICATION CONVENIENT AND MILD SYNTHESIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    *Corresponding author. E-mail: naeimi@kashanu.ac.ir. SHORT COMMUNICATION. CONVENIENT AND MILD SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISATION OF. SOME NEW SCHIFF BASES. Hossein Naeimi* and Zahra Sadat Nazifi. Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan,. Kashan, 87317 ...

  18. Retrospective respiratory triggering renal perfusion MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attenberger, Ulrike I.; Michaely, Henrik J.; Schoenberg, Stefan O. (Dept. of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Mannheim, Univ. of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany)), e-mail: ulrike.attenberger@medma.uni-heidelberg.de; Sourbron, Steven P. (Div. of Medical Physics, Univ. of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)); Reiser, Maximilian F. (Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. Hospitals Munich, Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Munich (Germany))

    2010-12-15

    Background: Artifacts of respiratory motion are one of the well-known limitations of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) of the kidney. Purpose: To propose and evaluate a retrospective triggering approach to minimize the effect of respiratory motion in DCE-MRI of the kidney. Material and Methods: Nine consecutive patients underwent renal perfusion measurements. Data were acquired with a 2D saturation-recovery TurboFLASH sequence. In order to test the dependence of the results on size and location of the manually drawn triggering regions of interest (ROIs), three widely differing triggering regions were defined by one observer. Mean value, standard deviation, and variability of the renal function parameters plasma flow (FP), plasma volume (VP), plasma transit time (TP), tubular flow (FT), tubular volume (VT), and tubular transit time (TT) were calculated on a per-patient basis. Results: The results show that triggered data have adequate temporal resolution to measure blood flow. The overall average values of the function parameters were: 152.77 (FP), 15.18 (VP), 6,73 (TP), 18.50 (FT), 35.36 (VT), and 117.67 (TT). The variability (calculated in % SD from the mean value) for three different respiratory triggering regions defined on a per-patient basis was between 0.81% and 9.87% for FP, 1.45% and 8.19% for VP, 0% and 9.63% for TP, 2.15% and 12.23% for TF, 0.8% and 17.28% for VT, and 1.97% and 12.87% for TT. Conclusion: Triggering reduces the oscillations in the signal curves and produces sharper parametric maps. In contrast to numerically challenging approaches like registration and segmentation it can be applied in clinical routine, but a (semi)-automatic approach to select the triggering ROI is desirable to reduce user dependence.

  19. [Respiratory treatments in neuromuscular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Carrasco, C; Cols Roig, M; Salcedo Posadas, A; Sardon Prado, O; Asensio de la Cruz, O; Torrent Vernetta, A

    2014-10-01

    In a previous article, a review was presented of the respiratory pathophysiology of the patient with neuromuscular disease, as well as their clinical evaluation and the major complications causing pulmonary deterioration. This article presents the respiratory treatments required to preserve lung function in neuromuscular disease as long as possible, as well as in special situations (respiratory infections, spinal curvature surgery, etc.). Special emphasis is made on the use of non-invasive ventilation, which is changing the natural history of many of these diseases. The increase in survival and life expectancy of these children means that they can continue their clinical care in adult units. The transition from pediatric care must be an active, timely and progressive process. It may be slightly stressful for the patient before the adaptation to this new environment, with multidisciplinary care always being maintained. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimisation of quantitative lung SPECT applied to mild COPD: a software phantom simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Pernilla; Olsson, Anna; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun; Sandborg, Michael; Gustafsson, Agnetha

    2015-01-01

    The amount of inhomogeneities in a (99m)Tc Technegas single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) lung image, caused by reduced ventilation in lung regions affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is correlated to disease advancement. A quantitative analysis method, the CVT method, measuring these inhomogeneities was proposed in earlier work. To detect mild COPD, which is a difficult task, optimised parameter values are needed. In this work, the CVT method was optimised with respect to the parameter values of acquisition, reconstruction and analysis. The ordered subset expectation maximisation (OSEM) algorithm was used for reconstructing the lung SPECT images. As a first step towards clinical application of the CVT method in detecting mild COPD, this study was based on simulated SPECT images of an advanced anthropomorphic lung software phantom including respiratory and cardiac motion, where the mild COPD lung had an overall ventilation reduction of 5%. The best separation between healthy and mild COPD lung images as determined using the CVT measure of ventilation inhomogeneity and 125 MBq (99m)Tc was obtained using a low-energy high-resolution collimator (LEHR) and a power 6 Butterworth post-filter with a cutoff frequency of 0.6 to 0.7 cm(-1). Sixty-four reconstruction updates and a small kernel size should be used when the whole lung is analysed, and for the reduced lung a greater number of updates and a larger kernel size are needed. A LEHR collimator and 125 (99m)Tc MBq together with an optimal combination of cutoff frequency, number of updates and kernel size, gave the best result. Suboptimal selections of either cutoff frequency, number of updates and kernel size will reduce the imaging system's ability to detect mild COPD in the lung phantom.

  1. Clinical characteristics and risk factors of pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic respiratory diseases: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonghua; Liu, Chunli; Lu, Wenju; Li, Mengxi; Hadadi, Cyrus; Wang, Elizabeth Wenqian; Yang, Kai; Lai, Ning; Huang, Junyi; Li, Shiyue; Zhong, Nanshan; Zhang, Nuofu; Wang, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Chronic respiratory disease-associated pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an important subtype of PH, which lacks clinical epidemiological data in China. Six hundred and ninety three patients hospitalized from 2010 to 2013 were classified by echocardiography according to pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP): mild (36≤ PASP increase of N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and right ventricular (RV) diameter (>20 mm) were associated with moderate-to-severe PH, while RV [odds ratio (OR) =3.53, 95% CI, 2.17-5.74], NT-proBNP (OR=2.44, 95% CI, 1.51-3.95), HCT (OR=1.03, 95% CI, 1.00-1.07) and PaCO2 (OR=1.01, 95% CI, 1.00-1.03) were independent risk factors. PH related to respiratory diseases is mostly mild to moderate, and the severity is associated with the category of respiratory disease. Increased HCT can be an independent risk factor for PH related to chronic respiratory diseases.

  2. Indoor air pollution and respiratory health of children in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandasena, Sumal; Wickremasinghe, Ananda Rajitha; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2013-05-08

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) is a key contributor to the global burden of disease mainly in developing countries. The use of solid fuel for cooking and heating is the main source of IAP in developing countries, accounting for an estimated 3.5 million deaths and 4.5% of Disability-Adjusted Life Years in 2010. Other sources of IAP include indoor smoking, infiltration of pollutants from outdoor sources and substances emitted from an array of human utilities and biological materials. Children are among the most vulnerable groups for adverse effects of IAP. The respiratory system is a primary target of air pollutants resulting in a wide range of acute and chronic effects. The spectrum of respiratory adverse effects ranges from mild subclinical changes and mild symptoms to life threatening conditions and even death. However, IAP is a modifiable risk factor having potential mitigating interventions. Possible interventions range from simple behavior change to structural changes and from shifting of unclean cooking fuel to clean cooking fuel. Shifting from use of solid fuel to clean fuel invariably reduces household air pollution in developing countries, but such a change is challenging. This review aims to summarize the available information on IAP exposure during childhood and its effects on respiratory health in developing countries. It specifically discusses the common sources of IAP, susceptibility of children to air pollution, mechanisms of action, common respiratory conditions, preventive and mitigating strategies.

  3. Respiratory acidosis in adolescents with anorexia nervosa hospitalized for medical stabilization: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerem, Nogah C; Riskin, Arieh; Averin, Elvira; Srugo, Isaac; Kugelman, Amir

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effect of malnutrition due to anorexia nervosa (AN) on venous blood gases of adolescents with AN hospitalized for medical stabilization. This retrospective study included 45 adolescents with recent onset (respiratory acidosis (pH 45 mm Hg) was observed in 78% of the patients on admission and only in 35% at discharge (p = .0003). Positive correlations were found between % of weight loss and pCO(2) on admission and between BMI on admission and the delta pCO(2) during hospitalization. Mild respiratory acidosis is common in adolescents with recently diagnosed AN, hospitalized for medical stabilization. Respiratory acidosis improves with bed rest and refeeding. The clinical significance of these findings should be further evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Severe Plasmodium ovale malaria complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome in a young Caucasian man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abramo, Alessandra; Gebremeskel Tekle, Saba; Iannetta, Marco; Scorzolini, Laura; Oliva, Alessandra; Paglia, Maria Grazia; Corpolongo, Angela; Nicastri, Emanuele

    2018-04-02

    Although Plasmodium ovale is considered the cause of only mild malaria, a case of severe malaria due to P. ovale with acute respiratory distress syndrome is reported. A 37-year old Caucasian man returning home from Angola was admitted for ovale malaria to the National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani in Rome, Italy. Two days after initiation of oral chloroquine treatment, an acute respiratory distress syndrome was diagnosed through chest X-ray and chest CT scan with intravenous contrast. Intravenous artesunate and oral doxycycline were started and he made a full recovery. Ovale malaria is usually considered a tropical infectious disease associated with low morbidity and mortality. However, severe disease and death have occasionally been reported. In this case clinical failure of oral chloroquine treatment with clinical progression towards acute respiratory distress syndrome is described.

  5. Severe acute respiratory syndrome in a doctor working at the Prince of Wales Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, R S M

    2003-06-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome is a new disease that is highly contagious and is spreading in the local community and worldwide. This report is of a hospital medical officer with severe acute respiratory syndrome. He presented with sudden onset of fever, chills, myalgia, headache, and dizziness in early March 2003. He developed progressive respiratory symptoms and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates during the second week of his illness. Blood tests showed lymphopenia, mild thrombocytopenia, and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time with normal d-dimer level. His chest condition gradually responded to ribavirin and corticosteroids, and serial chest X-ray showed resolving pulmonary infiltrates. The importance of early diagnosis lies in the potential for early treatment, leading to better response.

  6. Light, Low, Mild, and Similar Terms: What Retailers Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast helps raise retailers' and manufacturers' awareness of the new federal tobacco regulations. Under the new regulations, manufacturers can not produce any tobacco products labeled or advertised as "light," "low," or "mild." As of July 21, 2010, manufacturers may no longer distribute these products.

  7. Respiratory muscle weakness and respiratory muscle training in severely disabled multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselink, R; Kovacs, L; Ketelaer, P; Carton, H; Decramer, M

    2000-06-01

    To evaluate the contribution of respiratory muscle weakness (part 1) and respiratory muscle training (part 2) to pulmonary function, cough efficacy, and functional status in patients with advanced multiple sclerosis (MS). Survey (part 1) and randomized controlled trial (part 2). Rehabilitation center for MS. Twenty-eight bedridden or wheelchair-bound MS patients (part 1); 18 patients were randomly assigned to a training group (n = 9) or a control group (n = 9) (part 2). The training group (part 2) performed three series of 15 contractions against an expiratory resistance (60% maximum expiratory pressure [PEmax]) two times a day, whereas the control group performed breathing exercises to enhance maximal inspirations. Forced vital capacity (FVC), inspiratory, and expiratory muscle strength (PImax and PEmax), neck flexion force (NFF), cough efficacy by means of the Pulmonary Index (PI), and functional status by means of the Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Part 1 revealed a significantly reduced FVC (43% +/- 26% predicted), PEmax (18% +/- 8% predicted), and PImax (27% +/- 11% predicted), whereas NFF was only mildly reduced (93% +/- 26% predicted). The PI (median score, 10) and EDSS (median score, 8.5) were severely reduced. PEmax was significantly correlated to FVC, EDSS, and PI (r = .77, -.79, and -.47, respectively). In stepwise multiple regression analysis. PEmax was the only factor contributing to the explained variance in FVC (R2 = .60), whereas body weight (R2 = .41) was the only factor for the PI. In part 2, changes in PImax and PEmax tended to be higher in the training group (p = .06 and p = .07, respectively). The PI was significantly improved after 3 months of training compared with the control group (p functional status. Expiratory muscle training tended to enhance inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength. In addition, subjectively and objectively rated cough efficacy improved significantly and lasted for 3 months after training cessation.

  8. Respiratory tract infection during Hajj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzeer Abdulaziz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infection during Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca is a common illness, and it is responsible for most of the hospital admissions. Influenza virus is the leading cause of upper respiratory tract infection during Hajj, and pneumonia can be serious. Taking into account the close contacts among the pilgrims, as well as the crowding, the potential for transmission of M. tuberculosis is expected to be high. These pilgrims can be a source for spreading infection on their return home. Although vaccination program for influenza is implemented, its efficacy is uncertain in this religious season. Future studies should concentrate on prevention and mitigation of these infections.

  9. Respiratory correlated cone beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Zijp, Lambert; Remeijer, Peter; Herk, Marcel van

    2005-01-01

    A cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanner integrated with a linear accelerator is a powerful tool for image guided radiotherapy. Respiratory motion, however, induces artifacts in CBCT, while the respiratory correlated procedures, developed to reduce motion artifacts in axial and helical CT are not suitable for such CBCT scanners. We have developed an alternative respiratory correlated procedure for CBCT and evaluated its performance. This respiratory correlated CBCT procedure consists of retrospective sorting in projection space, yielding subsets of projections that each corresponds to a certain breathing phase. Subsequently, these subsets are reconstructed into a four-dimensional (4D) CBCT dataset. The breathing signal, required for respiratory correlation, was directly extracted from the 2D projection data, removing the need for an additional respiratory monitor system. Due to the reduced number of projections per phase, the contrast-to-noise ratio in a 4D scan reduced by a factor 2.6-3.7 compared to a 3D scan based on all projections. Projection data of a spherical phantom moving with a 3 and 5 s period with and without simulated breathing irregularities were acquired and reconstructed into 3D and 4D CBCT datasets. The positional deviations of the phantoms center of gravity between 4D CBCT and fluoroscopy were small: 0.13±0.09 mm for the regular motion and 0.39±0.24 mm for the irregular motion. Motion artifacts, clearly present in the 3D CBCT datasets, were substantially reduced in the 4D datasets, even in the presence of breathing irregularities, such that the shape of the moving structures could be identified more accurately. Moreover, the 4D CBCT dataset provided information on the 3D trajectory of the moving structures, absent in the 3D data. Considerable breathing irregularities, however, substantially reduces the image quality. Data presented for three different lung cancer patients were in line with the results obtained from the phantom study. In

  10. Thresholds in chemical respiratory sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Stella A; Arts, Josje H E; Ehnes, Colin; Hindle, Stuart; Hollnagel, Heli M; Poole, Alan; Suto, Hidenori; Kimber, Ian

    2015-07-03

    There is a continuing interest in determining whether it is possible to identify thresholds for chemical allergy. Here allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract by chemicals is considered in this context. This is an important occupational health problem, being associated with rhinitis and asthma, and in addition provides toxicologists and risk assessors with a number of challenges. In common with all forms of allergic disease chemical respiratory allergy develops in two phases. In the first (induction) phase exposure to a chemical allergen (by an appropriate route of exposure) causes immunological priming and sensitisation of the respiratory tract. The second (elicitation) phase is triggered if a sensitised subject is exposed subsequently to the same chemical allergen via inhalation. A secondary immune response will be provoked in the respiratory tract resulting in inflammation and the signs and symptoms of a respiratory hypersensitivity reaction. In this article attention has focused on the identification of threshold values during the acquisition of sensitisation. Current mechanistic understanding of allergy is such that it can be assumed that the development of sensitisation (and also the elicitation of an allergic reaction) is a threshold phenomenon; there will be levels of exposure below which sensitisation will not be acquired. That is, all immune responses, including allergic sensitisation, have threshold requirement for the availability of antigen/allergen, below which a response will fail to develop. The issue addressed here is whether there are methods available or clinical/epidemiological data that permit the identification of such thresholds. This document reviews briefly relevant human studies of occupational asthma, and experimental models that have been developed (or are being developed) for the identification and characterisation of chemical respiratory allergens. The main conclusion drawn is that although there is evidence that the

  11. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Investigacao]. E-mail: prmrocco@biof.ufrj.br

    2008-12-15

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  12. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  13. Activation of respiratory muscles during respiratory muscle training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterspacher, Stephan; Pietsch, Fabian; Walker, David Johannes; Röcker, Kai; Kabitz, Hans-Joachim

    2018-01-01

    It is unknown which respiratory muscles are mainly activated by respiratory muscle training. This study evaluated Inspiratory Pressure Threshold Loading (IPTL), Inspiratory Flow Resistive Loading (IFRL) and Voluntary Isocapnic Hyperpnea (VIH) with regard to electromyographic (EMG) activation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM), parasternal muscles (PARA) and the diaphragm (DIA) in randomized order. Surface EMG were analyzed at the end of each training session and normalized using the peak EMG recorded during maximum inspiratory maneuvers (Sniff nasal pressure: SnPna, maximal inspiratory mouth occlusion pressure: PImax). 41 healthy participants were included. Maximal activation was achieved for SCM by SnPna; the PImax activated predominantly PARA and DIA. Activations of SCM and PARA were higher in IPTL and VIH than for IFRL (p<0.05). DIA was higher applying IPTL compared to IFRL or VIH (p<0.05). IPTL, IFRL and VIH differ in activation of inspiratory respiratory muscles. Whereas all methods mainly stimulate accessory respiratory muscles, diaphragm activation was predominant in IPTL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sub-nucleocapsid nanoparticles: a nasal vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Roux

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV in infants less than two years old is a growing public health concern worldwide, and there is currently no safe and effective vaccine. A major component of RSV nucleocapsid, the nucleoprotein (N, has been so far poorly explored as a potential vaccine antigen, even though it is a target of protective anti-viral T cell responses and is remarkably conserved between human RSV A and B serotypes. We recently reported a method to produce recombinant N assembling in homogenous rings composed of 10-11 N subunits enclosing a bacterial RNA. These nanoparticles were named sub-nucleocapsid ring structure (N SRS. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The vaccine potential of N SRS was evaluated in a well-characterized and widely acknowledged mouse model of RSV infection. BALB/c adult mice were immunized intranasally with N SRS adjuvanted with the detoxified E. coli enterotoxin LT(R192G. Upon RSV challenge, vaccinated mice were largely protected against virus replication in the lungs, with a mild inflammatory lymphocytic and neutrophilic reaction in their airways. Mucosal immunization with N SRS elicited strong local and systemic immunity characterized by high titers of IgG1, IgG2a and IgA anti-N antibodies, antigen-specific CD8(+ T cells and IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+ T cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of using nanoparticles formed by the recombinant nucleocapsid protein as an efficient and safe intra-nasal vaccine against RSV.

  15. Cynomolgus macaque as an animal model for severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James V Lawler

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS in 2002 and 2003 affected global health and caused major economic disruption. Adequate animal models are required to study the underlying pathogenesis of SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV infection and to develop effective vaccines and therapeutics. We report the first findings of measurable clinical disease in nonhuman primates (NHPs infected with SARS-CoV.In order to characterize clinically relevant parameters of SARS-CoV infection in NHPs, we infected cynomolgus macaques with SARS-CoV in three groups: Group I was infected in the nares and bronchus, group II in the nares and conjunctiva, and group III intravenously. Nonhuman primates in groups I and II developed mild to moderate symptomatic illness. All NHPs demonstrated evidence of viral replication and developed neutralizing antibodies. Chest radiographs from several animals in groups I and II revealed unifocal or multifocal pneumonia that peaked between days 8 and 10 postinfection. Clinical laboratory tests were not significantly changed. Overall, inoculation by a mucosal route produced more prominent disease than did intravenous inoculation. Half of the group I animals were infected with a recombinant infectious clone SARS-CoV derived from the SARS-CoV Urbani strain. This infectious clone produced disease indistinguishable from wild-type Urbani strain.SARS-CoV infection of cynomolgus macaques did not reproduce the severe illness seen in the majority of adult human cases of SARS; however, our results suggest similarities to the milder syndrome of SARS-CoV infection characteristically seen in young children.

  16. [Cannabis use and impairment of respiratory function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G; Meurice, J-C

    2013-04-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in many countries including France. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but in our country it is mainly smoked in the form of cannabis resin mixed with tobacco. The technique of inhaling cannabis differs from that of tobacco, increasing the time that the smoke spends in contact with the bronchial mucosal and its impact on respiratory function. One cigarette composed of cannabis and tobacco is much more harmful than a cigarette containing only tobacco. In cannabis smokers there is an increased incidence of respiratory symptoms and episodes of acute bronchitis. Cannabis produces a rapid bronchodilator effect; chronic use provokes a reduction in specific conductance and increase in airways resistance. Studies on the decline of Forced Expiratory Volume are discordant. Cannabis smoke and tetrahydrocannabinol irritate the bronchial tree. They bring about histological signs of airways inflammation and alter the fungicidal and antibacterial activity of alveolar macrophages. Inhalation of cannabis smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Stopping smoking cannabis will bring about important benefits for lung function. This should encourage clinicians to offer patients support in quitting smoking. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Respiratory Virus Detection and Clinical Diagnosis in Children Attending Day Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Moe

    Full Text Available Respiratory viruses often have been studied in children with respiratory tract infection (RTI, but less knowledge exists about viruses in asymptomatic children. We have studied the occurrence of a broad panel of respiratory viruses in apparently healthy children attending day care, taking into account the influence of possible confounding factors, such as age, clinical signs of respiratory tract infection (RTI, location (day-care section and season.We have studied 161 children in two day-care centers, each with separate sections for younger and older children, during four autumn and winter visits over a two-year period. A total of 355 clinical examinations were performed, and 343 nasopharyngeal samples (NPS were analyzed by semi-quantitative, real-time, polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests for 19 respiratory pathogens.Forty-three percent of all NPS were PCR-positive for ≥ 1 of 13 virus species, with high species variation during visits. Rhinovirus 26% (88/343 NPS, enterovirus 12% (40/343 and parechovirus 9% (30/343 were detected in every visit, and the rates varied in relation to age, day-care section and season. Ten other viruses were detected in ≤ 3% of the NPS. Generally, viruses occurred together in the NPS. In 24% (79/331 of the clinical examinations with available NPS, the children had clear signs of RTI, while in 41% (135/331 they had mild signs, and in 35% (117/331 the children had no signs of RTI. Moreover, viruses were found in 70% (55/79 of children with clear signs of RTI, in 41% (55/135 with mild signs and in 30% (35/117 without any signs of RTI (p < 0.001.Positive PCR tests for respiratory viruses, particularly picornaviruses, were frequently detected in apparently healthy children attending day care. Virus detection rates were related to age, presence of clinical signs of RTI, location in day care and season.

  18. inhibition performance of mild ste thiophene ac rmance of mild steel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    d Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Science, Bayero University, Kan. P. M. B. 3011 ..... chemical studies on the inhibition potentials of some ... Efficiency of Thiophene Derivatives on. Mild Steel : A QSAR Model. International. Journal.

  19. Randomized Comparison of Helmet CPAP Versus High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen in Pediatric Respiratory Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaliti, Giovanna; Vitaliti, Maria Concetta; Finocchiaro, Maria Carla; Di Stefano, Vita Antonella; Pavone, Piero; Matin, Nassim; Motamed-Gorji, Nazgol; Lubrano, Riccardo; Falsaperla, Raffaele

    2017-08-01

    The current study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of 2 noninvasive respiratory support methods, which included helmet CPAP and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in children with respiratory distress admitted to a pediatric intermediate care unit. This study was a prospective observational study conducted on children with respiratory distress (age 1-24 months) who were admitted to our acute and emergency operative unit. All included subjects were randomly treated with helmet CPAP or HFNC in a 1:1 fashion until their clinical picture, oxygen saturation, and arterial blood gas (ABG) parameters resolved. The efficiencies of helmet CPAP and HFNC were evaluated by breathing frequency, S pO 2 , ABG pH, ABG P aCO 2 , ABG P aO 2 , and P aO 2 /F IO 2 , recorded once at baseline and then after 1 and 6 h of treatment. Both noninvasive respiratory support modalities were compared with a control group of subjects with respiratory distress under standard therapeutic pharmaceutical protocols. We found that both helmet CPAP and HFNC were efficient in improving the clinical conditions of subjects with mild-to-moderate respiratory distress, although clinical response to helmet CPAP was more efficient and rapid compared with HFNC. Children who received respiratory support had a better clinical course in terms of hospitalization, days of intravenous rehydration therapy, and days of drug administration compared with the control group ( P CPAP and HFNC in respiratory distress resolution in a pediatric intermediate care setting. It aims to identify the most efficient treatment to avoid pediatric ICU admissions and endotracheal intubation and reduce the administration of drugs and days of hospitalization. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  20. Climate change and respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Daniel A; Kellerman, Roy A

    2014-10-01

    To discuss the nature of climate change and both its immediate and long-term effects on human respiratory health. This review is based on information from a presentation of the American College of Chest Physicians course on Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease held in Toronto, Canada, June 2013. It is supplemented by a PubMed search for climate change, global warming, respiratory tract diseases, and respiratory health. It is also supplemented by a search of Web sites including the Environmental Protection Agency, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, World Meteorological Association, National Snow and Ice Data Center, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change, and the World Health Organization. Health effects of climate change include an increase in the prevalence of certain respiratory diseases, exacerbations of chronic lung disease, premature mortality, allergic responses, and declines in lung function. Climate change, mediated by greenhouse gases, causes adverse health effects to the most vulnerable patient populations-the elderly, children, and those in distressed socioeconomic strata.

  1. [Undernutrition in chronic respiratory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Tadeusz M; Hadzik-Błaszczyk, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory diseases such as asthma, COPD, lung cancer, infections, including also tuberculosis constitute the most frequent diseases in the word. Undernutrition frequently accompanies these diseases. Early diagnosis of malnutrition and implementation of appropriate treatment is very important. A nutritional interview and anthropometric examinations, such as body mass index, fat free mass and fat mass are used to diagnose it. Nutritional therapy affects the course and prognosis of these diseases. Diet should be individually adjusted to the calculated caloric intake that increases during exacerbation of disease, because of increased respiratory effort. Too large supply of energy can cause increase metabolism, higher oxygen consumption and PaCO2 increase each dangerous for patients with respiratory insufficiency. Main source of carbohydrates for these patients should be products with low glycemic index and with high dietary fiber contents. Large meals should be avoided since they cause rapid satiety, abdominal discomfort and have negative impact on the work of the respiratory muscles, especially of the diaphragm. Dietary supplements can be used in case of ineffectiveness of diet or for the patients with severe undernutrition.

  2. Respiratory effects of borax dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabrant, D H; Bernstein, L; Peters, J M; Smith, T J; Wright, W E

    1985-12-01

    The relation of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, and abnormalities of chest radiographs to estimated exposures of borax dust has been investigated in a cross sectional study of 629 actively employed borax workers. Ninety three per cent of the eligible workers participated in the study and exposures ranged from 1.1 mg/m3 to 14.6 mg/m3. Symptoms of acute respiratory irritation such as dryness of the mouth, nose, or throat, dry cough, nose bleeds, sore throat, productive cough, shortness of breath, and chest tightness were related to exposures of 4.0 mg/m3 or more, and were infrequent at exposures of 1.1 mg/m3. Symptoms of persistent respiratory irritation meeting the definition of chronic simple bronchitis were related to exposure among non-smokers. Decrements in the FEV1 as a percentage of predicted were seen among smokers who had heavy cumulative borax exposures (greater than or equal to 80 mg/m3 years) but were not seen among less exposed smokers or among non-smokers. Radiographic abnormalities were uncommon and were not related to dust exposure. Borax dust appears to act as a simple respiratory irritant and perhaps causes small changes in the FEV1 among smokers who are heavily exposed.

  3. Guide to industrial respiratory protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, J.A.

    1977-03-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 has increased the emphasis on proper selection and use of respirators in situations where engineering controls are not feasible or are being implemented. Although a great deal of information on respiratory protection has been published, most of it is more technical than necessary for the average user faced with day-to-day problems of respiratory protection in industrial environments. This Guide is to provide the industrial user a single reference source containing enough information for establishing and maintaining a respirator program that meets the OSHA requirements outlined in 29 CFR Part 1910.134. It includes chapters on respirator selection, use, maintenance, and inspection, a complete description of all types of respirators and their advantages and limitations, and chapters on respirator fitting and wearer training, respiratory physiology, respiratory hazards, and physiological and psychological limitations. Also included are samples of the decision logic used in respirator selection, guidance on setting up an adequate respirator program through formulation of written standard operating procedures, and discussion of the meaning of the approved respirator

  4. [Respiratory diseases in metallurgy production workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shliapnikov, D M; Vlasova, E M; Ponomareva, T A

    2012-01-01

    The authors identified features of respiratory diseases in workers of various metallurgy workshops. Cause-effect relationships are defined between occupational risk factors and respiratory diseases, with determining the affection level.

  5. Assessment of respiratory involvement in children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) are classified into seven clinical types based on eleven known lysosomal enzyme deficiencies of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) metabolism. Respiratory involvement seen in most MPS types includes recurrent respiratory infections, upper and lower airway obstruction, tracheomalacia ...

  6. Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COAL WORKERS' HEALTH SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases Coal mining-related respiratory ...

  7. Respiratory physiology during early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, J

    1999-08-01

    Despite the rapid adaptation to extrauterine life, the respiratory system of an infant is not simply a miniaturized version of that of an adult, since the rapid somatic growth that occurs during the first year of life is accompanied by major developmental changes in respiratory physiology. The highly compliant chest wall of the infant results in relatively low transpulmonary pressures at end expiration with increased tendency of the small peripheral airways to close during tidal breathing. This not only impairs gas exchange and ventilation-perfusion balance, particularly in dependent parts of the lung, but, together with the small absolute size of the airways, renders the infant and young child particularly susceptible to airway obstruction. Premature airways are highly compliant structures compared with those of mature newborns or adults. This increased compliance can cause airway collapse, resulting in increased airways resistance, flow limitation, poor gas exchange and increased work of breathing. Although there is clear evidence that airway reactivity is present from birth, its role in wheezing lower respiratory tract illnesses in young infants may be overshadowed by pre-existing abnormalities of airway geometry and lung mechanics, or by pathological changes such as airway oedema and mucus hypersecretion. Attempts to assess age-related changes in airway reactivity or response to aerosol therapy in the very young is confounded by changes in breathing patterns and the fact that infants are preferential nose breathers. There is increasing evidence that pre-existing abnormalities of respiratory function, associated with adverse events during foetal life (including maternal smoking during pregnancy), and familial predisposition to wheezing are important determinants of wheezing illnesses during the first years of life. This emphasizes the need to identify and minimize any factors that threaten the normal development of the lung during this critical period if

  8. Respiratory symptoms in insect breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Roberts, J; Fishwick, D; Tate, P; Rawbone, R; Stagg, S; Barber, C M; Adisesh, A

    2011-08-01

    A number of specialist food suppliers in the UK breed and distribute insects and insect larvae as food for exotic pets, such as reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates. To investigate the extent of work-related (WR) symptoms and workplace-specific serum IgE in workers potentially exposed to a variety of biological contaminants, including insect and insect larvae allergens, endotoxin and cereal allergens at a UK specialist insect breeding facility. We undertook a study of respiratory symptoms and exposures at the facility, with subsequent detailed clinical assessment of one worker. All 32 workers were assessed clinically using a respiratory questionnaire and lung function. Eighteen workers consented to provide serum for determination of specific IgE to workplace allergens. Thirty-four per cent (11/32) of insect workers reported WR respiratory symptoms. Sensitization, as judged by specific IgE, was found in 29% (4/14) of currently exposed workers. Total inhalable dust levels ranged from 1.2 to 17.9 mg/m(3) [mean 4.3 mg/m(3) (SD 4.4 mg/m(3)), median 2.0 mg/m(3)] and endotoxin levels of up to 29435 EU/m(3) were recorded. Exposure to organic dusts below the levels for which there are UK workplace exposure limits can result in respiratory symptoms and sensitization. The results should alert those responsible for the health of similarly exposed workers to the potential for respiratory ill-health and the need to provide a suitable health surveillance programme.

  9. Dosimetry of the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.

    1996-01-01

    A new dosimetric model of the human respiratory tract has been recently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, in ICRP Publication 66. This model was intended to update the previous lung model of the Task Group on Lung Dynamics that was adopted by ICRP in Publication 30. With this aim, extensive reviews of the available knowledge were made for anatomy and physiology of the respiratory tract and for deposition, clearance and biological effects of inhaled radionuclides. Finally, expanded dosimetry requirements resulted in a widely different approach from the former model. The main features of the new model are the followings: instead of calculating the average dose to the total mass of blood filled lung, the model takes account of differences in radiosensitivity of the venous respiratory tract tissues. It applies not only to adult workers but also to all members of the population, and provides reference values for children aged 3 months, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years, and adults. Deposition modelling of airborne gases and aerosols associates age dependent breathing rates, airway dimensions and physical activity, to particle size, density and chemical form of inhaled material. Clearance results of competition between mechanical transport clearance and absorption to blood. At each step of the calculation, adjustment guidance is provided to account for use of exact values of particle sizes and specific dissolution rates of inhaled material in order to calculate their own parameter of retention in the airways, and to assess accurately doses to the respiratory tract. Possible influence of smoking, of respiratory tract diseases and of eventual exposure to airborne toxicants is also addressed. (author)

  10. Reproducibility of image quality for moving objects using respiratory-gated computed tomography. A study using a phantom model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Ishida, Masaya; Terunuma, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the reproducibility of computed tomography (CT) imaging quality in respiratory-gated radiation treatment planning is essential in radiotherapy of movable tumors. Seven series of regular and six series of irregular respiratory motions were performed using a thorax dynamic phantom. For the regular respiratory motions, the respiratory cycle was changed from 2.5 to 4 s and the amplitude was changed from 4 to 10 mm. For the irregular respiratory motions, a cycle of 2.5 to 4 or an amplitude of 4 to 10 mm was added to the base data (id est (i.e.) 3.5-s cycle, 6-mm amplitude) every three cycles. Images of the object were acquired six times using respiratory-gated data acquisition. The volume of the object was calculated and the reproducibility of the volume was decided based on the variety. The registered image of the object was added and the reproducibility of the shape was decided based on the degree of overlap of objects. The variety in the volumes and shapes differed significantly as the respiratory cycle changed according to regular respiratory motions. In irregular respiratory motion, shape reproducibility was further inferior, and the percentage of overlap among the six images was 35.26% in the 2.5- and 3.5-s cycle mixed group. Amplitude changes did not produce significant differences in the variety of the volumes and shapes. Respiratory cycle changes reduced the reproducibility of the image quality in respiratory-gated CT. (author)

  11. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M

    2000-01-01

    Comparative epidemiologic studies in areas with low and high iodine intake and controlled studies of iodine supplementation have demonstrated that the major consequence of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency for the health of the population is an extraordinarily high occurrence of hyperthyroidism...... endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine...... deficiency should be corrected. However, there is evidence that a high iodine intake may be associated with more autoimmune hypothyroidism, and that Graves' disease may manifest at a younger age and be more difficult to treat. Hence, the iodine intake should be brought to a level at which iodine deficiency...

  12. Applications of irradiation in horticultural produce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Beirne, David

    1985-01-01

    In the case of horticultural produce, the usefulness of irradiation is selective and irradiation may be most beneficial when used in conjunction with other preservative treatments such as mild refrigeration. Big benefits may be derived from energy saving in the degree of chilling required, in extended shelf-life and in quality retention with particular reference to mushrooms and strawberries. Research in the Irish context is urgently required

  13. Method of producing radioactive carbon powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon powder, placed in a hermetically closed apparatus under vacuum together with radium ore, adsorbs radon gas emanating from the radium ore thus producing a radioactive carbonaceous material, the radioactivity of which is due to the presence of adsorbed radon. The radioactive carbon powder thus obtained has excellent therapeutical efficacy and is suitable for a variety of applications because of the mild radioactivity of radon. Radium ore permits substantially limitlessly repeated production of the radioactive carbon powder

  14. A mild form of Proteus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauer, M.P.; Allmann, K.H.; Langer, M. [Abteilung Roentgendiagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg (Germany); Uhl, M. [Sektion Kinderradiologie, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet (Germany); Darge, K. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Abteilung Kinderradiologie, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany)

    1998-05-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital hamartomatous syndrome. We report on the clinical and radiological appearances of a boy in order to illustrate the typical signs which include subcutaneous masses, in mild forms partial gigantism of hands and feet, hemihypertrophy, and bony abnormalities. We discuss how to make the definitive diagnosis on the basis of using a known rating scale, important aspects of differential diagnosis and clinical features, and diagnostic management. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs.

  15. Prevention of Respiratory Distress After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Dolina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a comparative study of different methods for preventing respiratory distress after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It shows the advantages of use of noninvasive assisted ventilation that ensures excessive positive pressure in the respiratory contour, its impact on external respiratory function, arterial blood gases, oxygen transport and uptake. A scheme for the prevention of respiratory diseases applying noninvasive assisted ventilation is given.

  16. Developmental Exposure to Mild Variable Stress: Adult ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In utero exposure to mild variable stress has been reported to influence learning and memory formation in offspring. Our research aims to examine whether nonchemical environmental stressors will exacerbate effects to chemical exposure. This study utilized a varying stress paradigm to simulate human psychosocial stress incurred during and after pregnancy to identify phenotypic learning changes in adult offspring that are potential stress markers. We additionally wanted to compare these behavioral outcomes to rat performance induced by perinatal exposure to manganese (Mn), a neurotoxic environmental element, at 2 or 5 g/l in drinking water throughout gestation and lactation. Pregnant Long Evans rats were exposed to an unpredictable series of mild stressful events which had previously been shown to increase maternal corticosterone levels. Nonchemical stressors were presented from GD 13 through GD 21 and included varying noise, light, housing, and confinement during both sleep and wake cycles. A subgroup of offspring was also exposed to periods of maternal separation. Starting at PND 97 offspring were trained with a trace fear conditioning protocol whereby rats were exposed to a compound cue (light and tone) followed by 30 seconds (trace period) and a mild foot shock (1mA, 0.5 seconds). Five paired training sessions occurred on the first day. The following day, context and cue learning were assessed by measuring motor activity. Preliminary data suggests adu

  17. Development of a decision-making tool for reporting drivers with mild dementia and mild cognitive impairment to transportation administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Duncan H; Zucchero Sarracini, Carla; Rozmovits, Linda; Naglie, Gary; Herrmann, Nathan; Molnar, Frank; Jordan, John; Byszewski, Anna; Tang-Wai, David; Dow, Jamie; Frank, Christopher; Henry, Blair; Pimlott, Nicholas; Seitz, Dallas; Vrkljan, Brenda; Taylor, Rebecca; Masellis, Mario; Rapoport, Mark J

    2017-09-01

    Driving in persons with dementia poses risks that must be counterbalanced with the importance of the care for autonomy and mobility. Physicians often find substantial challenges in the assessment and reporting of driving safety for persons with dementia. This paper describes a driving in dementia decision tool (DD-DT) developed to aid physicians in deciding when to report older drivers with either mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment to local transportation administrators. A multi-faceted, computerized decision support tool was developed, using a systematic literature and guideline review, expert opinion from an earlier Delphi study, as well as qualitative interviews and focus groups with physicians, caregivers of former drivers with dementia, and transportation administrators. The tool integrates inputs from the physician-user about the patient's clinical and driving history as well as cognitive findings, and it produces a recommendation for reporting to transportation administrators. This recommendation is translated into a customized reporting form for the transportation authority, if applicable, and additional resources are provided for the patient and caregiver. An innovative approach was needed to develop the DD-DT. The literature and guideline review confirmed the algorithm derived from the earlier Delphi study, and barriers identified in the qualitative research were incorporated into the design of the tool.

  18. Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzky, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Relates alterations in respiratory system functions occurring with aging to changes in respiratory system structure during the course of life. Main alterations noted include loss of alveolar elastic recoil, alteration in chest wall structure and decreased respiratory muscle strength, and loss of surface area and changes in pulmonary circulation.…

  19. 46 CFR 154.1405 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 154.1405 Section 154.1405... Equipment § 154.1405 Respiratory protection. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have: (a) Respiratory protection equipment for each person on board that protects the...

  20. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 197.550 Section 197.550 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators in... section that is appropriate for the exposure. Table 197.550(b)—Respiratory Protection for Benzene Airborne...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered by...

  2. 33 CFR 127.1209 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 127.1209... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1209 Respiratory protection. Each waterfront facility handling LHG must provide equipment for respiratory protection for each employee of the...

  3. Mild obstructive sleep apnoea: clinical relevance and approaches to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholas, Walter T; Bonsignore, Maria R; Lévy, Patrick; Ryan, Silke

    2016-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is highly prevalent in the general population worldwide, especially in its mild form. Clinical manifestations correlate poorly with disease severity measured by the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI), which complicates diagnosis. Full polysomnography might be more appropriate to assess suspected mild cases because limited ambulatory diagnostic systems are least accurate in mild disease. Treatment options in mild obstructive sleep apnoea include continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and oral appliance therapy, in addition to positional therapy and weight reduction when appropriate. The superior efficacy of CPAP in reducing AHI is offset by greater tolerance of oral appliances, especially in mild disease. Although severe obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with adverse health consequences, including cardiometabolic comorbidities, the association with mild disease is unclear, and reports differ regarding the clinical relevance of mild obstructive sleep apnoea. Improved diagnostic techniques and evidence-based approaches to management in mild obstructive sleep apnoea require further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mild Cognitive Impairment and Progession to Dementia: New Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Mild cognitive impairment and progression to dementia New findings John C.S. ... exami- nations showed that 534 persons had mild cognitive impairment, or MCI (see About MCI, following sec- tion). ...

  5. Impact of Mild versus Moderate Intensity Aerobic Walking Exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... Objective: To compare the effects of mild and moderate intensity treadmill walking exercises on markers of bone ... second group (B) received mild intensity aerobic exercise training. ..... Using functional loading to influence.

  6. Partnering for optimal respiratory home care: physicians working with respiratory therapists to optimally meet respiratory home care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, G; Petty, T L

    2001-05-01

    The need for respiratory care services continues to increase, reimbursement for those services has decreased, and cost-containment measures have increased the frequency of home health care. Respiratory therapists are well qualified to provide home respiratory care, reduce misallocation of respiratory services, assess patient respiratory status, identify problems and needs, evaluate the effect of the home setting, educate the patient on proper equipment use, monitor patient response to and complications of therapy, monitor equipment functioning, monitor for appropriate infection control procedures, make recommendations for changes to therapy regimen, and adjust therapy under the direction of the physician. Teamwork benefits all parties and offers cost and time savings, improved data collection and communication, higher job satisfaction, and better patient monitoring, education, and quality of life. Respiratory therapists are positioned to optimize treatment efficacy, maximize patient compliance, and minimize hospitalizations among patients receiving respiratory home care.

  7. The occurrence of respiratory events in young subjects with a frequent rhythmic masticatory muscle activity: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujisaka, Akiko; Haraki, Shingo; Nonoue, Shigeru; Mikami, Akira; Adachi, Hiroyoshi; Mizumori, Takahiro; Yatani, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Atsushi; Kato, Takafumi

    2018-02-21

    Concomitant occurrence of respiratory events can be often overlooked in the clinical practice of SB. This study assessed physiological characteristics of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) and concomitant respiratory events in young SB subjects asymptomatic to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Twenty-two subjects (age: 24.1±1.9years; F 8: M 14; BMI: 20.2±1.9kg/m 2 ) were polysomnographically diagnosed as moderate-severe SB. Sleep architecture, oromotor (RMMA and non-specific masseter activity [NSMA]) and apnea/hypopnea events were scored. All subjects showed normal sleep architecture whereas 6 exhibited respiratory events at a mild level of OSA. In all subjects, RMMA predominantly occurred in Stage N1+N2 while NSMA occurred in Stage N1+N2 (approximately 60 %) and in Stage R (up to 30 %). Up to 50% of respiratory events were scored in Stage R. RMMA occurred more frequently in close association (e.g., within 10s) with respiratory events in 6 subjects with OSA than those without. The percentage of RMMA occurring closely to respiratory events was positively correlated with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in Stage N1+N2 only while that of NSMA was positively correlated with AHI in Stage N1+N2 and Stage R. A sub-analysis in 6 subjects with OSA, RMMA after respiratory events was followed to arousals while those before respiratory events were mostly associated with central apnea. A subpopulation of young SB subjects can show concomitant respiratory events. Further large sample studies are needed to demonstrate that the occurrence of subclinical respiratory events represents a clinical subtype of SB. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Forensic applications of cerebral single photon emission computed tomography in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortzel, Hal S; Filley, Christopher M; Anderson, C Alan; Oster, Timothy; Arciniegas, David B

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a substantial source of mortality and morbidity world wide. Although most such injuries are relatively mild, accurate diagnosis and prognostication after mild TBI are challenging. These problems are complicated further when considered in medicolegal contexts, particularly civil litigation. Cerebral single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) may contribute to the evaluation and treatment of persons with mild TBI. Cerebral SPECT is relatively sensitive to the metabolic changes produced by TBI. However, such changes are not specific to this condition, and their presence on cerebral SPECT imaging does not confirm a diagnosis of mild TBI. Conversely, the absence of abnormalities on cerebral SPECT imaging does not exclude a diagnosis of mild TBI, although such findings may be of prognostic value. The literature does not demonstrate consistent relationships between SPECT images and neuropsychological testing or neuropsychiatric symptoms. Using the rules of evidence shaped by Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and its progeny to analyze the suitability of SPECT for forensic purposes, we suggest that expert testimony regarding SPECT findings should be admissible only as evidence to support clinical history, neuropsychological test results, and structural brain imaging findings and not as stand-alone diagnostic data.

  9. Writing Impairments in Japanese Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and with Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Hayashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD. To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji. Methods: A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wrote in response to a picture story task. Analysis of variance was used to test the subject group effects on the scores in the above writing tasks. Results: For the written Kanji words, the mild AD group performed worse than the aMCI group and the controls, but there was no difference between the aMCI group and the controls. For the picture story writing task, the mild AD and aMCI groups performed worse than the controls, but the difference between the AD and the aMCI groups was not significant. Conclusions: The mild AD group showed defects in writing Kanji characters, and the aMCI group showed impairments in narrative writing. Our study suggests that narrative writing, which demands complex integration of multiple cognitive functions, can be used to detect the subtle writing deficits in aMCI patients.

  10. Writing Impairments in Japanese Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and with Mild Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Atsuko; Nomura, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Ruriko; Ohnuma, Ayumu; Kimpara, Teiko; Suzuki, Kyoko; Mori, Etsuro

    2015-01-01

    We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji). A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wrote in response to a picture story task. Analysis of variance was used to test the subject group effects on the scores in the above writing tasks. For the written Kanji words, the mild AD group performed worse than the aMCI group and the controls, but there was no difference between the aMCI group and the controls. For the picture story writing task, the mild AD and aMCI groups performed worse than the controls, but the difference between the AD and the aMCI groups was not significant. The mild AD group showed defects in writing Kanji characters, and the aMCI group showed impairments in narrative writing. Our study suggests that narrative writing, which demands complex integration of multiple cognitive functions, can be used to detect the subtle writing deficits in aMCI patients.

  11. Molecular surveillance of traditional and emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Larocca, Vittorio; Losurdo, Michele; Lanave, Gianvito; Lucente, Maria Stella; Corrente, Marialaura; Catella, Cristiana; Bo, Stefano; Elia, Gabriella; Torre, Giorgio; Grandolfo, Erika; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2016-08-30

    A molecular survey for traditional and emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) was conducted in Italy between 2011 and 2013 on a total of 138 dogs, including 78 early acute clinically ill CIRD animals, 22 non-clinical but exposed to clinically ill CIRD dogs and 38 CIRD convalescent dogs. The results showed that canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV) was the most commonly detected CIRD pathogen, followed by canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma cynos, Mycoplasma canis and canine pneumovirus (CnPnV). Some classical CIRD agents, such as canine adenoviruses, canine distemper virus and canid herpesvirus 1, were not detected at all, as were not other emerging respiratory viruses (canine influenza virus, canine hepacivirus) and bacteria (Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus). Most severe forms of respiratory disease were observed in the presence of CPIV, CRCoV and M. cynos alone or in combination with other pathogens, whereas single CnPnV or M. canis infections were detected in dogs with no or very mild respiratory signs. Interestingly, only the association of M. cynos (alone or in combination with either CRCoV or M. canis) with severe clinical forms was statistically significant. The study, while confirming CPIV as the main responsible for CIRD occurrence, highlights the increasing role of recently discovered viruses, such as CRCoV and CnPnV, for which effective vaccines are not available in the market. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of respiratory disorders in Thoroughbred racehorses training at the Brazilian Jockey Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Rebouças Pires

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Athletic horses need to maintain healthy airways for optimal performance. This study investigated the presence of respiratory problems in apparently healthy Thoroughbred racehorses in training. According to the Revised Consensus Statement on Inflammatory Airway Diseases of Horses (2016, determining the prevalence of respiratory disorders in different equine populations is fundamental for understanding these diseases. In total, 72 clinically sound Thoroughbred racehorses, in training at the Brazilian Jockey Club (JCB, were initially examined using interpleural pressure measurement by ventigraphy and respiratory endoscopy. When secretions were present in the airways, transendoscopic tracheal aspiration was performed, and the sample was sent for cytology. The main findings included a combination of bronchospasm and tracheal secretions with 61% of the cytology slides showing neutrophil counts ≥20%. Overall, a significant number of the horses displayed signs suggestive of inflammatory airway disease (mild equine asthma, including 47% with increased DPplmax, 11% with tracheal mucus accumulation [mucus score (MS ≥2] and 18% with carina edema. This was more pronounced in 2-year-old horses within the population studied. These findings are consistent with the literature and reinforce the importance of routine respiratory examination of athletic horses. There is a high incidence of subclinical respiratory disorders in Thoroughbred racehorses in training at the JCB and a significant association between tracheal MS≥2, carina edema, and elevated DPplmax.

  13. A Quick Reference on Respiratory Acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca A

    2017-03-01

    Respiratory acidosis, or primary hypercapnia, occurs when carbon dioxide production exceeds elimination via the lung and is mainly owing to alveolar hypoventilation. Concurrent increases in Paco 2 , decreases in pH and compensatory increases in blood HCO 3 - concentration are associated with respiratory acidosis. Respiratory acidosis can be acute or chronic, with initial metabolic compensation to increase HCO 3 - concentrations by intracellular buffering. Chronic respiratory acidosis results in longer lasting increases in renal reabsorption of HCO 3 - . Alveolar hypoventilation and resulting respiratory acidosis may also be associated with hypoxemia, especially evident when patients are inspiring room air (20.9% O 2 ). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Respiratory challenge MRI: Practical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona C. Moreton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory challenge MRI is the modification of arterial oxygen (PaO2 and/or carbon dioxide (PaCO2 concentration to induce a change in cerebral function or metabolism which is then measured by MRI. Alterations in arterial gas concentrations can lead to profound changes in cerebral haemodynamics which can be studied using a variety of MRI sequences. Whilst such experiments may provide a wealth of information, conducting them can be complex and challenging. In this paper we review the rationale for respiratory challenge MRI including the effects of oxygen and carbon dioxide on the cerebral circulation. We also discuss the planning, equipment, monitoring and techniques that have been used to undertake these experiments. We finally propose some recommendations in this evolving area for conducting these experiments to enhance data quality and comparison between techniques.

  15. Hypnosis in paediatric respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Joshua J; Vlieger, Arine M; Anbar, Ran D

    2014-03-01

    Hypnotherapy is an often misunderstood yet effective therapy. It has been reported to be useful within the field of paediatric respiratory medicine as both a primary and an adjunctive therapy. This article gives a brief overview of how hypnotherapy is performed followed by a review of its applications in paediatric patients with asthma, cystic fibrosis, dyspnea, habit cough, vocal cord dysfunction, and those requiring non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. As the available literature is comprised mostly of case series, retrospective studies, and only a single small randomized study, the field would be strengthened by additional randomized, controlled trials in order to better establish the effectiveness of hypnosis as a treatment, and to identify the processes leading to hypnosis-induced physiologic changes. As examples of the utility of hypnosis and how it can be taught to children with respiratory disease, the article includes videos that demonstrate its use for patients with cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vitamin D and respiratory disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Hushmand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The active form of vitamin D is synthesized in some body organs following sun exposure and dietary intake. Vitamin D exhibits its major and critical effects not only through regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism but also by influencing on respiratory and immune system. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D below the optimum limit lead to vitamin D insufficiency or maybe deficiency. These inappropriate concentrations of vitamin D lead to different types of pulmonary diseases such as viral and bacterial respiratory infection, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. In this review we described the association between vitamin D deficiency and severe therapy resistant asthma. We also reviewed the underlying molecular mechanism of vitamin D deficiency in children with severe- therapy resistant asthma. Based on current information, future clinical trial are needed to study the role of vitamin D supplementation on different groups of patients with severe asthma including infants, children of school age, and ethnic minorities.

  17. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea. PMID:27090537

  18. Recurrent Respiratory Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yurochko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers a problem of recurrent respiratory infections (RRI in children. Their description, risk factors, diagnostic algorithm have been dwelt. A special attention is paid to the treatment. An optimal antibiotic in RRI of bacterial genesis is a high-dose amoxicillin/clavulanate (registered as Augmentin™ ES in Ukraine, the efficacy of which is 94.6–96.3 % according to different data.

  19. Acute respiratory failure in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Soubra Said; Guntupalli Kalapalatha

    2005-01-01

    Although asthma is a condition that is managed in the outpatient setting in most patients, the poorly controlled and severe cases pose a major challenge to the health-care team. Recognition of the more common insidious and the less common rapid onset "acute asphyxic" asthma are important. The intensivist needs to be familiar with the factors that denote severity of the exacerbation. The management of respiratory failure in asthma, including pharmacologic and mechanical ventilation, are discus...

  20. Zonography in acute respiratory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druzhinina, V.S.; Fetisova, V.M.; Kozorez, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radiography was performed in 94 patients whose initial condition was assessed as acute respiratory disease. Radioscopy with x-ray image amplifier, roentgenography and zonography were used. Pulmonary changes were found in 61 persons. In 45 of them acute pneumonia was revealed, in 16 changes in the pulmonary pattern assessed as residual manifestations of pneumonia. Changes in 30 patients with pneumonia and 16 patients with residual manifestations were detected by zonography only

  1. Respiratory failure due to tracheobronchomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, P.; Freitag, L.; Reynaert, M. S.; Rodenstein, D. O.; Francis, C.

    1996-01-01

    A case is described of tracheobronchomegaly progressing to extensive tracheomalacia, complicated by episodic choking, recurrent pulmonary infections, and irreversible hypercapnic respiratory failure. A Y-shaped tracheobronchial stent was placed endoscopically to splint the trachea open, with excellent clinical and physiological improvement. New stent designs may provide long term palliation in selected cases of diffuse tracheal collapse or stenosis, and offer an alternative to surgical repair. PMID:8711665

  2. Respiratory failure due to tracheobronchomalacia.

    OpenAIRE

    Collard, P.; Freitag, L.; Reynaert, M. S.; Rodenstein, D. O.; Francis, C.

    1996-01-01

    A case is described of tracheobronchomegaly progressing to extensive tracheomalacia, complicated by episodic choking, recurrent pulmonary infections, and irreversible hypercapnic respiratory failure. A Y-shaped tracheobronchial stent was placed endoscopically to splint the trachea open, with excellent clinical and physiological improvement. New stent designs may provide long term palliation in selected cases of diffuse tracheal collapse or stenosis, and offer an alternative to surgical repair.

  3. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases

    OpenAIRE

    LENCU, CODRU?A; ALEXESCU, TEODORA; PETRULEA, MIRELA; LENCU, MONICA

    2016-01-01

    The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary ? cortical, and involuntary ? metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthy...

  4. Respiratory effects of kynurenic acid microinjected into the ventromedullary surface of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Tolentino-Silva

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies demonstrate that, within the ventral medullary surface (VMS, excitatory amino acids are necessary components of the neural circuits involved in the tonic and reflex control of respiration and circulation. In the present study we investigated the cardiorespiratory effects of unilateral microinjections of the broad spectrum glutamate antagonist kynurenic acid (2 nmol/200 nl along the VMS of urethane-anesthetized rats. Within the VMS only one region was responsive to this drug. This area includes most of the intermediate respiratory area, partially overlapping the rostral ventrolateral medulla (IA/RVL. When microinjected into the IA/RVL, kynurenic acid produced a respiratory depression, without changes in mean arterial pressure or heart rate. The respiratory depression observed was characterized by a decrease in ventilation, tidal volume and mean inspiratory flow and an increase in respiratory frequency. Therefore, the observed respiratory depression was entirely due to a reduction in the inspiratory drive. Microinjections of vehicle (200 nl of saline into this area produced no significant changes in breathing pattern, blood pressure or heart rate. Respiratory depression in response to the blockade of glutamatergic receptors inside the rostral VMS suggests that neurons at this site have an endogenous glutamatergic input controlling the respiratory cycle duration and the inspiratory drive transmission.

  5. Pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery in patients with mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim TH

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tae Hoon Kim, Jae Seung Lee, Sei Won Lee, Yeon-Mok Oh Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Abstract: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs are one of the most important causes of postoperative morbidity and mortality after abdominal surgery. Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has been considered a risk factor for PPCs, it remains unclear whether mild-to-moderate COPD is a risk factor. This retrospective cohort study included 387 subjects who underwent abdominal surgery with general anesthesia in a tertiary referral hospital. PPCs included pneumonia, pulmonary edema, pulmonary thromboembolism, atelectasis, and acute exacerbation of COPD. Among the 387 subjects, PPCs developed in 14 (12.0% of 117 patients with mild-to-moderate COPD and in 13 (15.1% of 86 control patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that mild-to-moderate COPD was not a significant risk factor for PPCs (odds ratio [OR] =0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.31–2.03; P=0.628. However, previous hospitalization for respiratory problems (OR =4.20; 95% CI =1.52–11.59, emergency surgery (OR =3.93; 95% CI =1.75–8.82, increased amount of red blood cell (RBC transfusion (OR =1.09; 95% CI =1.05–1.14 for one pack increase of RBC transfusion, and laparoscopic surgery (OR =0.41; 95% CI =0.18–0.93 were independent predictors of PPCs. These findings suggested that mild-to-moderate COPD may not be a significant risk factor for PPCs after abdominal surgery.Keywords: postoperative pulmonary complications, spirometry, risk factor, abdominal surgery, postoperative complications, postoperative care

  6. A Review on Human Respiratory Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafarian, Pardis; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Input impedance of the respiratory system is measured by forced oscillation technique (FOT). Multiple prior studies have attempted to match the electromechanical models of the respiratory system to impedance data. Since the mechanical behavior of airways and the respiratory system as a whole are similar to an electrical circuit in a combination of series and parallel formats some theories were introduced according to this issue. It should be noted that, the number of elements used in these models might be less than those required due to the complexity of the pulmonary-chest wall anatomy. Various respiratory models have been proposed based on this idea in order to demonstrate and assess the different parts of respiratory system related to children and adults data. With regard to our knowledge, some of famous respiratory models in related to obstructive, restrictive diseases and also Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) are reviewed in this article.

  7. Sulfur mustard and respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Feng Ru; Loke, Weng Keong

    2012-09-01

    Victims exposed to sulfur mustard (HD) in World War I and Iran-Iraq war, and those suffered occupational or accidental exposure have endured discomfort in the respiratory system at early stages after exposure, and marked general physical deterioration at late stages due to pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans or lung cancer. At molecule levels, significant changes of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum, and of selectins (in particular sE-selectin) and soluble Fas ligand in the serum have been reported in recent studies of patients exposed to HD in Iran-Iraq war, suggesting that these molecules may be associated with the pathophysiological development of pulmonary diseases. Experimental studies in rodents have revealed that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their product peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), nitric oxide synthase, glutathione, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, activating protein-1 signaling pathway are promising drug targets for preventing HD-induced toxicity, whereas N-acetyl cysteine, tocopherols, melatonin, aprotinin and many other molecules have been proved to be effective in prevention of HD-induced damage to the respiratory system in different animal models. In this paper, we will systemically review clinical and pathophysiological changes of respiratory system in victims exposed to HD in the last century, update clinicians and researchers on the mechanism of HD-induced acute and chronic lung damages, and on the relevant drug targets for future development of antidotes for HD. Further research directions will also be proposed.

  8. Synchrony - Cyberknife Respiratory Compensation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozhasoglu, Cihat; Saw, Cheng B.; Chen Hungcheng; Burton, Steven; Komanduri, Krishna; Yue, Ning J.; Huq, Saiful M.; Heron, Dwight E.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of organs in the thorax and abdomen have shown that these organs can move as much as 40 mm due to respiratory motion. Without compensation for this motion during the course of external beam radiation therapy, the dose coverage to target may be compromised. On the other hand, if compensation of this motion is by expansion of the margin around the target, a significant volume of normal tissue may be unnecessarily irradiated. In hypofractionated regimens, the issue of respiratory compensation becomes an important factor and is critical in single-fraction extracranial radiosurgery applications. CyberKnife is an image-guided radiosurgery system that consists of a 6-MV LINAC mounted to a robotic arm coupled through a control loop to a digital diagnostic x-ray imaging system. The robotic arm can point the beam anywhere in space with 6 degrees of freedom, without being constrained to a conventional isocenter. The CyberKnife has been recently upgraded with a real-time respiratory tracking and compensation system called Synchrony. Using external markers in conjunction with diagnostic x-ray images, Synchrony helps guide the robotic arm to move the radiation beam in real time such that the beam always remains aligned with the target. With the aid of Synchrony, the tumor motion can be tracked in three-dimensional space, and the motion-induced dosimetric change to target can be minimized with a limited margin. The working principles, advantages, limitations, and our clinical experience with this new technology will be discussed

  9. Sequential MRI, SPECT and PET in respiratory syncytial virus encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, K.; Sakazaki, Hiromi; Murakami, Seiko; Yonezawa, Sumiko; Fujimoto, Keiji; Seto, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Katsuji; Hattori, Hideji; Matsuoka, Osamu; Murata, Ryosuke

    1999-01-01

    We report on a 3-year-old girl with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) encephalitis manifested by disturbance of consciousness, conjugate eye deviation, anuria, truncal ataxia and intention tremor. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hyperintense areas in the cerebellar cortex. No lesion was detected in the cerebral cortex, pons or spinal cord. The hyperintense areas in the cerebellar cortex diminished with recovery from the clinical manifestations and had resolved 2 months after onset. The MRI lesions in the cerebellum were considered to be due to oedema. SPECT and positron emission tomography (PET), performed 3 months after onset, disclosed areas of hypoperfusion and hypometabolism at the same sites. One year after onset, MRI showed mild atrophy of the cerebellum. Hypoperfusion on SPECT and hypometabolism on PET remained. Neuroimaging showed that ataxia and tremor in this case were the result of cerebellitis. The patient has no neurological deficit except for mild truncal ataxia. This patient is a rare example of RSV encephalitis. (orig.)

  10. Optimizing 4DCBCT projection allocation to respiratory bins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Brien, Ricky T; Kipritidis, John; Shieh, Chun-Chien; Keall, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    4D cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) is an emerging image guidance strategy used in radiotherapy where projections acquired during a scan are sorted into respiratory bins based on the respiratory phase or displacement. 4DCBCT reduces the motion blur caused by respiratory motion but increases streaking artefacts due to projection under-sampling as a result of the irregular nature of patient breathing and the binning algorithms used. For displacement binning the streak artefacts are so severe that displacement binning is rarely used clinically. The purpose of this study is to investigate if sharing projections between respiratory bins and adjusting the location of respiratory bins in an optimal manner can reduce or eliminate streak artefacts in 4DCBCT images. We introduce a mathematical optimization framework and a heuristic solution method, which we will call the optimized projection allocation algorithm, to determine where to position the respiratory bins and which projections to source from neighbouring respiratory bins. Five 4DCBCT datasets from three patients were used to reconstruct 4DCBCT images. Projections were sorted into respiratory bins using equispaced, equal density and optimized projection allocation. The standard deviation of the angular separation between projections was used to assess streaking and the consistency of the segmented volume of a fiducial gold marker was used to assess motion blur. The standard deviation of the angular separation between projections using displacement binning and optimized projection allocation was 30%–50% smaller than conventional phase based binning and 59%–76% smaller than conventional displacement binning indicating more uniformly spaced projections and fewer streaking artefacts. The standard deviation in the marker volume was 20%–90% smaller when using optimized projection allocation than using conventional phase based binning suggesting more uniform marker segmentation and less motion blur. Images

  11. Mosaic Evolution of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinides, John; Guttman, David S.

    2004-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a deadly form of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus, a viral family responsible for mild respiratory tract infections in a wide variety of animals including humans, pigs, cows, mice, cats, and birds. Analyses to date have been unable to identify the precise origin of the SARS coronavirus. We used Bayesian, neighbor-joining, and split decomposition phylogenetic techniques on the SARS virus replicase, surface spike, matrix, and nucleocapsid proteins to reveal the evolutionary origin of this recently emerging infectious agent. The analyses support a mammalian-like origin for the replicase protein, an avian-like origin for the matrix and nucleocapsid proteins, and a mammalian-avian mosaic origin for the host-determining spike protein. A bootscan recombination analysis of the spike gene revealed high nucleotide identity between the SARS virus and a feline infectious peritonitis virus throughout the gene, except for a 200- base-pair region of high identity to an avian sequence. These data support the phylogenetic analyses and suggest a possible past recombination event between mammalian-like and avian-like parent viruses. This event occurred near a region that has been implicated to be the human receptor binding site and may have been directly responsible for the switch of host of the SARS coronavirus from animals to humans. PMID:14671089

  12. The effect of combining manual therapy with exercise for mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Roger M; Wearing, Jaxson; Gonski, Peter; Vemulpad, Subramanyam

    2017-06-17

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of disability and hospital admission. Current management strategies have not been successful in altering the loss of lung function typically seen as the disease progresses. A recent systematic review into the use of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) in the management of COPD concluded that there was low level evidence to support the view that a combination of SMT and exercise had the potential to improve lung function more than exercise alone in people with moderate to severe COPD. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the combination of exercise and manual therapy (MT) that includes SMT produces sustainable improvements in lung function and exercise capacity in people with mild COPD. The study is a randomised controlled trial of 202 people with stable mild COPD. The cohort will be divided into two equal groups matched at baseline. The first group will receive a standardised exercise program. The second group will receive MT that includes SMT plus the same standardised exercise program. Exercise will be administered a total of 36 times over an 18-week period, while MT will be administered in conjunction with exercise a total of 15 times over a 6-week period. The primary outcome measure is lung function (forced expiratory volume in the 1 st second: FEV 1 and forced vital capacity: FVC). The secondary outcome measures are the 6-minute walking test (6MWT), quality of life questionnaire (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire: SGRQ), anxiety and depression levels (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: HADS), frequency of exacerbations, chest wall expansion measurements (tape measurements) and systemic inflammatory biomarker levels. Outcome measurements will be taken by blinded assessors on seven occasions over a 48-week period. Adverse event data will also be gathered at the beginning of each intervention session. This randomised controlled trial is designed to investigate whether the combination

  13. Mild trigonocephaly. Report of 300 operative cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoji, Takeyoshi; Yamashiro, Katsumi; Nagamine, Tomoaki; Kawakubo, Junichi; Shimoji, Kazuaki

    2009-01-01

    Since 1999, we have reported mild trigonocephaly with symptoms mainly accompanied with developmental delays. We would like to report the operative results of 300 patients. All patients had some kind of clinical symptoms. The diagnosis made recognizing ridge of the fused metopic suture by palpation and a three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT). Most patients (287 among 300) could not be diagnosed because of the mild changes of their facial features and their natural development as infants. They suffered from symptoms such as mental retardation, delayed language development, hyperactivity, autistic tendencies, panic and irritability, motor dysfunctions, self-mutilation and sleeping disturbances. Two hundred thirteen patients were recorded intracranial pressure (ICP). Developmental quotients (D.Q) were also measured. Two hundred fifteen (73.6%) of 292 patients with delays of language development were improved within a year after surgery. Other symptoms also improved: 91.6% in hyperactivity, 76.5% in autistic tendencies, 92% in panic, 90.4% in motor dysfunctions, 88.6% in self-mutilation and 93% in sleeping disturbances. The chronological scores in D.Q maintained parallel in most patients. Measurements of ICP resulted in 10 cases (5%) under mean 10 mmHg, 33 cases (15%) between 11 to 15 mmHg and 170 cases (80%) over 16 mmHg. The mean pulse pressure calculated around 9 mmHg in each group. Decompressive cranioplasty was applied to all patients. Patients with mild trigonocephaly may have a possibility to show clinical symptoms. Since the ICP seems to be high, decompressive cranioplasty may be a reasonable treatment for these patients. (author)

  14. Influenza A (H10N7 Virus Causes Respiratory Tract Disease in Harbor Seals and Ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith M A van den Brand

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses sporadically cross the species barrier to mammals, including humans, in which they may cause epidemic disease. Recently such an epidemic occurred due to the emergence of avian influenza virus of the subtype H10N7 (Seal/H10N7 in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina. This epidemic caused high mortality in seals along the north-west coast of Europe and represented a potential risk for human health. To characterize the spectrum of lesions and to identify the target cells and viral distribution, findings in 16 harbor seals spontaneously infected with Seal/H10N7 are described. The seals had respiratory tract inflammation extending from the nasal cavity to bronchi associated with intralesional virus antigen in respiratory epithelial cells. Virus infection was restricted to the respiratory tract. The fatal outcome of the viral infection in seals was most likely caused by secondary bacterial infections. To investigate the pathogenic potential of H10N7 infection for humans, we inoculated the seal virus intratracheally into six ferrets and performed pathological and virological analyses at 3 and 7 days post inoculation. These experimentally inoculated ferrets displayed mild clinical signs, virus excretion from the pharynx and respiratory tract inflammation extending from bronchi to alveoli that was associated with virus antigen expression exclusively in the respiratory epithelium. Virus was isolated only from the respiratory tract. In conclusion, Seal/H10N7 infection in naturally infected harbor seals and experimentally infected ferrets shows that respiratory epithelial cells are the permissive cells for viral replication. Fatal outcome in seals was caused by secondary bacterial pneumonia similar to that in fatal human cases during influenza pandemics. Productive infection of ferrets indicates that seal/H10N7 may possess a zoonotic potential. This outbreak of LPAI from wild birds to seals demonstrates the risk of such occasions for mammals

  15. Climate Change Effects on Respiratory Health: Implications for Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Maureen; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie; Matura, Lea Ann

    2017-11-01

    Greenhouse gases are driving climate change. This article explores the adverse health effects of climate change on a particularly vulnerable population: children and adults with respiratory conditions. This review provides a general overview of the effects of increasing temperatures, extreme weather, desertification, and flooding on asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, and respiratory infections. We offer suggestions for future research to better understand climate change hazards, policies to support prevention and mitigation efforts targeting climate change, and clinical actions to reduce individual risk. Climate change produces a number of changes to the natural and built environments that may potentially increase respiratory disease prevalence, morbidity, and mortality. Nurses might consider focusing their research efforts on reducing the effects of greenhouse gases and in directing policy to mitigate the harmful effects of climate change. Nurses can also continue to direct educational and clinical actions to reduce risks for all populations, but most importantly, for our most vulnerable groups. While advancements have been made in understanding the impact of climate change on respiratory health, nurses can play an important role in reducing the deleterious effects of climate change. This will require a multipronged approach of research, policy, and clinical action. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  16. Neonatal respiratory syncytial virus infection: role of transplacentally and breast milk-acquired antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, D T; Ogra, P L

    1986-01-01

    The effect of transplacentally and breast milk-acquired antibodies on respiratory syncytial virus infection was studied in neonatal and 2-month-old cotton rats. Adult female rats infected intranasally with live virus regularly produced virus-specific antibodies in the serum, colostrum, and breast milk. By using foster feeding techniques, we showed that both transplacentally and breast milk-acquired antibodies were effective in reducing the replication of respiratory syncytial virus in the lun...

  17. The relationship between host factors of allergic nature and respiratory symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepts, L; Minette, A

    1977-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms and personal history of allergy were examined in 1659 children, including the entire elementary school population of four villages of the Belgian Ardennes. Levels of atmospheric pollution were monitored during the survey and proved to be very low. It is suggested that socio-economic factors produce a small increase in respiratory symptoms, particularly in cough symptoms. A personal history of eczema and of hay fever was highly associated with dyspnea and wheezing.

  18. Mild Cognitive Impairment Status and Mobility Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mette; Holt, Nicole E; Grande, Laura

    2014-01-01

    : An analysis was conducted on baseline data from the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study in the Elderly study, a cohort study of 430 primary care patients aged 65 or older. Neuropsychological tests identified participants with MCI and further subclassified those with impairment in memory domains (a......BACKGROUND: The prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mobility limitations is high among older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MCI status and both performance-based and self-report measures of mobility in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS...

  19. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M

    2000-01-01

    in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately...... endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine...

  20. Factors controlling nitrate cracking of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Nitrite and hydroxide ions inhibit the growth of nitrate stress corrosion cracks in mild steel. Crack growth measurements showed that sufficient concentrations of nitrite and hydroxide ions can prevent crack growth; however, insufficient concentrations of these ions did not influence the Stage II growth rate or the threshold stress intensity, but extended the initiation time. Stage III growth was discontinuous. Oxide formed in the grain boundaries ahead of the crack tip and oxide dissolution (Stage II) and fracture (Stage III) are the proposed mechanisms of nitrate stress corrosion crack growth

  1. Eddy current inspection of mildly ferromagnetic tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, W.R.; Carter, J.R.

    1984-02-01

    The past decade has seen the development of eddy current probes for inspection of the mildly ferro-magnetic alloy Monel 400. Due to the rapid advances in permanent magnet technology similar probes have been upgraded to magnetically saturate, and hence inspect, the duplex stainless steel Sandvik 3RE60, which has saturation induction more than twice that of Monel 400. Prototypes of these probes have been tested in three ways: saturation capability, quality of typical eddy current data, and ability to eliminate permeability induced signals. Successful laboratory testing, potential applications, and limitations of these type probes are discussed

  2. Serial position effects in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howieson, Diane B; Mattek, Nora; Seeyle, Adriana M; Dodge, Hiroko H; Wasserman, Dara; Zitzelberger, Tracy; Jeffrey, Kaye

    2011-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often associated with the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Special scoring of word-list recall data for serial position has been suggested to improve discrimination of normal aging from dementia. We examined serial position effects in word-list recall for MCI participants compared to Alzheimer patients and controls. Individuals with MCI, like Alzheimer patients, had a diminished primacy effect in recalling words from a list. No alternative scoring system was better than standard scoring of word-list recall in distinguishing MCI patients from controls. Retention weighted scoring improved the discrimination of MCI and AD groups.

  3. IKLAN DALAM WACANA POSTMODERN STUDI KASUS IKLAN ROKOK A-MILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy H. Istanto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available During the uncertain situation of politics%2C social%2C economic and culture in Indonesia recently%2C there is a new phenomenon%2C that is the existence of thousands ads of A-Mild cigarette%2C which brings various questions. The ads of this cigarette do not show a relationship between the underlying messages with the products. It is%2C indeed a strange mode in the advertisement world. The performance of A-Mild ads in this article is analyzed by the linguistic approach%2C namely semiotic theory; a theory which comes from the language theory. The message of this ads (both text and images can be read as a sign or group of signs. Between signifier and the signified of A-Mild ads there is no ideologic and stable relationship%2C but in fact they look ironic and represent "what I please idea". The performance of A-Mild ads show the growing aspects of life at that time%2C so the text (the postmodern work does not only produce a single meaning%2C but also a multidimensional space in which various problems interact and get mixed with each other. The ads also indicate the use of one of postmodern aesthetic language%2C namely parody. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Didalam situasi politik%2C ekonomi%2C sosial dan budaya yang tidak menentu di Indonesia saat ini%2C hadir fenomena baru yakni munculnya ribuan iklan rokok A-Mild; yang dalam penampilannya mengundang beragam pertanyaan. Sajian iklan yang dihadirkan%2C tidak memperlihatkan adanya hubungan antara pesan-pesan yang disampaikan dengan produk yang dipasarkan%2C sesuatu yang terlihat janggal dalam dunia iklan pada umumnya. Tampilan iklan A-Mild%2C dalam kertas kerja ini dikaji dengan pendekatan linguistik%2C yaitu teori semiotik%2C suatu teori yang berasal dari teori kebahasaan. Pesan dalam iklan (baik teks maupun gambar dapat dibaca sebagai tanda atau sekumpulan tanda. Antara penanda (bentuk dan petanda (makna dalam tampilan iklan A-Mild terlihat tidak terlihat hubungan yang ideologis dan mapan%2C namun

  4. Epidemiology and outcomes of acute respiratory distress syndrome in children according to the Berlin definition: a multicenter prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Eliane R; Munoz, Gabriela O C; Cavalheiro, Priscilla O; Suzuki, Adriana S; Degaspare, Natalia V; Shieh, Huei H; Martines, João A D S; Ferreira, Juliana C; Lane, Christianne; Carvalho, Werther B; Gilio, Alfredo E; Precioso, Alexander R

    2015-05-01

    In 2012, a new acute respiratory distress syndrome definition was proposed for adult patients. It was later validated for infants and toddlers. Our objective was to evaluate the prevalence, outcomes, and risk factors associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome in children up to 15 years according to the Berlin definition. A prospective, multicenter observational study from March to September 2013. Seventy-seven PICU beds in eight centers: two private hospitals and six public academic hospitals in Brazil. All children aged 1 month to 15 years admitted to the participating PICUs in the study period. None. All children admitted to the PICUs were daily evaluated for the presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome according to the American-European Consensus Conference and Berlin definitions. Of the 562 patients included, acute respiratory distress syndrome developed in 57 patients (10%) and 58 patients (10.3%) according to the Berlin definition and the American-European Consensus Conference definition, respectively. Among patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome according to the Berlin definition, nine patients (16%) were mild, 21 (37%) were moderate, and 27 (47%) were severe. Compared with patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome, patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome had significantly higher severity scores, longer PICU and hospital length of stay, longer duration of mechanical ventilation, and higher mortality (p < 0.001). The presence of two or more comorbidities and admission for medical reasons were associated with development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Comparisons across the three the Berlin categories showed significant differences in the number of ventilator-free days (21, 20, and 5 d, p = 0.001) and mortality for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (41%) in comparison with mild (0) and moderate (15%) acute respiratory distress syndrome(p = 0.02). No differences in PICU or hospital stay were

  5. Surfactant Protein D in Respiratory and Non-Respiratory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Grith L.

    2018-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a multimeric collectin that is involved in innate immune defense and expressed in pulmonary, as well as non-pulmonary, epithelia. SP-D exerts antimicrobial effects and dampens inflammation through direct microbial interactions and modulation of host cell responses via a series of cellular receptors. However, low protein concentrations, genetic variation, biochemical modification, and proteolytic breakdown can induce decomposition of multimeric SP-D into low-molecular weight forms, which may induce pro-inflammatory SP-D signaling. Multimeric SP-D can decompose into trimeric SP-D, and this process, and total SP-D levels, are partly determined by variation within the SP-D gene, SFTPD. SP-D has been implicated in the development of respiratory diseases including respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, allergic asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Disease-induced breakdown or modifications of SP-D facilitate its systemic leakage from the lung, and circulatory SP-D is a promising biomarker for lung injury. Moreover, studies in preclinical animal models have demonstrated that local pulmonary treatment with recombinant SP-D is beneficial in these diseases. In recent years, SP-D has been shown to exert antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects in various non-pulmonary organs and to have effects on lipid metabolism and pro-inflammatory effects in vessel walls, which enhance the risk of atherosclerosis. A common SFTPD polymorphism is associated with atherosclerosis and diabetes, and SP-D has been associated with metabolic disorders because of its effects in the endothelium and adipocytes and its obesity-dampening properties. This review summarizes and discusses the reported genetic associations of SP-D with disease and the clinical utility of circulating SP-D for respiratory disease prognosis. Moreover, basic research on the mechanistic links between SP-D and respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases

  6. Air pollution and multiple acute respiratory outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustini, Annunziata; Stafoggia, Massimo; Colais, Paola; Berti, Giovanna; Bisanti, Luigi; Cadum, Ennio; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Scarnato, Corrado; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-08-01

    Short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory mortality and morbidity have been consistently reported but usually studied separately. To more completely assess air pollution effects, we studied hospitalisations for respiratory diseases together with out-of-hospital respiratory deaths. A time-stratified case-crossover study was carried out in six Italian cities from 2001 to 2005. Daily particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm (PM10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) associations with hospitalisations for respiratory diseases (n = 100 690), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38 577), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among COPD patients (n = 9886) and out-of-hospital respiratory deaths (n = 5490) were estimated for residents aged ≥35 years. For an increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, we found an immediate 0.59% (lag 0-1 days) increase in hospitalisations for respiratory diseases and a 0.67% increase for COPD; the 1.91% increase in LRTI hospitalisations lasted longer (lag 0-3 days) and the 3.95% increase in respiratory mortality lasted 6 days. Effects of NO2 were stronger and lasted longer (lag 0-5 days). Age, sex and previous ischaemic heart disease acted as effect modifiers for different outcomes. Analysing multiple rather than single respiratory events shows stronger air pollution effects. The temporal relationship between the pollutant increases and hospitalisations or mortality for respiratory diseases differs.

  7. Enhancement of immunological activity after mild hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Takeo; Takahashi, Tohru

    2002-01-01

    At present, hyperthermia is clinically very important as interdisciplinary therapeutic method, and studies are being performed on combined effects with surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and gene therapy for the treatment of malignant tumors. We evaluated the effects of hyperthermia under temperature of 42.5C and demonstrated that the activation of immunological response is increased and anti-tumor effect cabn be obtained in this studies. We used animals were C3H mice (male,7W) bearing SCC-VII tumor on femur skin. Then, the mice were divided to 10 mice in each group, and only femur region was immersed in warm water for thermal treatment. Also we measured the tumor growth, changes of blood cell fraction and NK cell activity. The results of the present study confirmed: (1) Anti-tumor effect can be given by thermal treatment at relatively mild temperature (mild temperature at 39C-42C); (2) The increase of neutrophils is dependent on the quantity of heat added; (3) Immunological response of monocytes and lymphocytes is associated with it; (4) Activity of the immunological potency as a whole such as activation of NK cells was also confirmed

  8. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M; Hreidarsson, A B; Andersen, S; Bülow Pedersen, I; Knudsen, N; Perrild, H; Jørgensen, T; Ovesen, L

    2000-11-01

    Comparative epidemiologic studies in areas with low and high iodine intake and controlled studies of iodine supplementation have demonstrated that the major consequence of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency for the health of the population is an extraordinarily high occurrence of hyperthyroidism in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency should be corrected. However, there is evidence that a high iodine intake may be associated with more autoimmune hypothyroidism, and that Graves' disease may manifest at a younger age and be more difficult to treat. Hence, the iodine intake should be brought to a level at which iodine deficiency disorders are avoided but not higher. Iodine supplementation programs should aim at relatively uniform iodine intake, avoiding deficient or excessive iodine intake in subpopulations. To adopt such a strategy, surveillance programs are needed.

  9. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF MILD COMBUSTION BURNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Noor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the design and development of the Moderate and Intense Low oxygen Dilution (MILD combustion burner using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations. The CFD commercial package was used to simulate preliminary designs for the burner before the final design was sent to the workshop for fabrication. The burner is required to be a non-premixed and open burner. To capture and use the exhaust gas, the burner was enclosed within a large circular shaped wall with an opening at the top. An external EGR pipe was used to transport the exhaust gas which was mixed with the fresh oxidant. To control the EGR and exhaust flow, butterfly valves were installed at the top opening as a damper to close the exhaust gas flow at a certain ratio for EGR and exhaust out to the atmosphere. High temperature fused silica glass windows were installed to view and capture images of the flame and analyze the flame propagation. The burner simulation shows that MILD combustion was achieved for the oxygen mole fraction of 3-13%. The final design of the burner was fabricated and ready for the experimental validation.

  10. The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-03-15

    This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL{reg_sign} Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL{reg_sign} was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL{reg_sign} was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of $90,664,000. ENCOAL{reg_sign} operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC{trademark}) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF{trademark}) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL{trademark}). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall

  11. The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-01-01

    This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL(reg s ign) Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL(reg s ign) Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL(reg s ign) mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL(reg s ign) was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL(reg s ign) was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of$90,664,000. ENCOAL(reg s ign) operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC(trademark)) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF(trademark)) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL(trademark)). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall

  12. Unrepaired Tetralogy of Fallot with Absent Pulmonary Valve in a Mildly Symptomatic 16-Year-Old Boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogalis-Kim, Diana E; Reemtsen, Brian L; Reardon, Leigh Christopher

    2016-12-01

    Absent pulmonary valve is a rare and severe variant seen in only 3% to 6% of patients with tetralogy of Fallot. Fetuses with this combined condition who survive through birth typically need intervention in infancy or early childhood because of respiratory distress, heart failure, or failure to thrive. We describe the unusual case of a mildly symptomatic 16-year-old boy with these conditions who underwent successful primary repair. Our search of the medical literature yielded fewer than 5 cases of tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve (or variants with an absent left pulmonary artery) and survival without repair into later adolescence or adulthood.

  13. Urban air pollution and respiratory health among children with respiratory symptoms in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekkanen, J; Timonen, K L; Salonen, R O; Alm, S; Reponen, A; Jantunen, M; Vahteristo, M [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland); Ruuskanen, J [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Paerjaelae, E [City of Kuopio (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Many recent studies suggest that urban air pollution, especially thoracic particles (PM{sub 10}), are associated with increased respiratory, mortality and morbidity at lower levels than what has previously been known. During the Finnish winter, the dust formed from asphalt ware by studded auto tyres, street sanding and combustion processes is accumulated on the snow. In the spring, when the snow melts from the streets, part of this dust is resuspended by traffic and wind. This creates spring dust episodes, during which TSP and PM{sub 10} levels exceed air quality guidelines in most Finnish cities. The mechanisms through which PM{sub 10} produces its health effects are largely unknown. It has been suggested that the number of particles, especially that of very small particles in the nanometer range, would be as important as the mass or the chemical composition of the particles. In most previous studies, the particles measured have mostly composed of combustion products. There are only sparse data on the size distribution of particles in the Finnish spring dust episode and no studies on it`s possible health effects. The aim of the PEACE project was to develop a common protocol for research on the short-term relationship between respiratory health and changes in air pollution levels. The present report describes the design and preliminary results of Finnish field work of the PEACE study that was carried out in Kuopio, Eastern Finland. (author)

  14. Urban air pollution and respiratory health among children with respiratory symptoms in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekkanen, J.; Timonen, K.L.; Salonen, R.O.; Alm, S.; Reponen, A.; Jantunen, M.; Vahteristo, M. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland); Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Paerjaelae, E. [City of Kuopio (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Many recent studies suggest that urban air pollution, especially thoracic particles (PM{sub 10}), are associated with increased respiratory, mortality and morbidity at lower levels than what has previously been known. During the Finnish winter, the dust formed from asphalt ware by studded auto tyres, street sanding and combustion processes is accumulated on the snow. In the spring, when the snow melts from the streets, part of this dust is resuspended by traffic and wind. This creates spring dust episodes, during which TSP and PM{sub 10} levels exceed air quality guidelines in most Finnish cities. The mechanisms through which PM{sub 10} produces its health effects are largely unknown. It has been suggested that the number of particles, especially that of very small particles in the nanometer range, would be as important as the mass or the chemical composition of the particles. In most previous studies, the particles measured have mostly composed of combustion products. There are only sparse data on the size distribution of particles in the Finnish spring dust episode and no studies on it`s possible health effects. The aim of the PEACE project was to develop a common protocol for research on the short-term relationship between respiratory health and changes in air pollution levels. The present report describes the design and preliminary results of Finnish field work of the PEACE study that was carried out in Kuopio, Eastern Finland. (author)

  15. Respiratory disease associated with occupational inhalation to hop (Humulus lupulus) during harvest and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Bonauto, David K

    2014-11-01

    There is little published evidence for occupational respiratory disease caused by hop dust inhalation. In the United States, hops are commercially produced in the Pacific Northwest region. To describe occupational respiratory disease in hop workers. Washington State workers' compensation claims filed by hop workers for respiratory disease were systematically identified and reviewed. Incidence rates of respiratory disease in hop workers were compared with rates in field vegetable crop farm workers. Fifty-seven cases of respiratory disease associated with hop dust inhalation were reported from 1995 to 2011. Most cases (61%) were diagnosed by the attending health care practitioner as having work-related asthma. Seven percent of cases were diagnosed as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the remaining cases were diagnosed as allergic respiratory disorders (eg, allergic rhinitis) or asthma-associated symptoms (eg, dyspnea). Cases were associated with hop harvesting, secondary hop processing, and indirect exposure. The incidence rate of respiratory disease in hop workers was 15 cases per 10,000 full-time workers, which was 30 times greater than the incidence rate for field vegetable crop workers. A strong temporal association between hop dust exposure and respiratory symptoms and a clear association between an increase in hop dust concentrations and the clinical onset of symptoms were apparent in 3 cases. Occupational exposure to hop dust is associated with respiratory disease. Respiratory disease rates were higher in hop workers than in a comparison group of agricultural workers. Additional research is needed before hop dust can be confirmed as a causative agent for occupational asthma. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. DiapHRaGM: A mnemonic to describe the work of breathing in patients with respiratory failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman Tulaimat

    Full Text Available The assessment of the work of breathing in the definitions of respiratory failure is vague and variable.Identify a parsimonious set of signs to describe the work of breathing in hypoxemic, acutely ill patients.We examined consecutive medical ICU patients receiving oxygen with a mask, non-invasive ventilation, or T-piece. A physician inspected each patient for 10 seconds, rated the level of respiratory distress, and then examined the patient for vital signs and 17 other physical signs. We used the rating of distress as a surrogate for measuring the work of breathing, constructed three multivariate models to identify the one with the smallest number of signs and largest explained variance, and validated it with bootstrap analysis.We performed 402 observations on 240 patients. Respiratory distress was absent in 78, mild in 157, moderate in 107, and severe in 60. Respiratory rate, hypoxia, heart rate, and frequency of most signs increased as distress increased. Respiratory rate and hypoxia explained 43% of the variance in respiratory distress. Diaphoresis, gasping, and contraction of the sternomastoid explained an additional 28%. Heart rate, blood pressure, alertness, agitation, body posture, nasal flaring, audible breathing, cyanosis, tracheal tug, retractions, paradox, scalene or abdominal muscles contraction did not increase the explained variance in respiratory distress.Most of the variance is respiratory distress can be explained by five signs summarized by the mnemonic DiapHRaGM (diaphoresis, hypoxia, respiratory rate, gasping, accessory muscle. This set of signs may allow for efficient, standardized assessments of the work of breathing of hypoxic patients.

  17. Model-based investigation of intracellular processes determining antibody Fc-glycosylation under mild hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sou, Si Nga; Jedrzejewski, Philip M; Lee, Ken; Sellick, Christopher; Polizzi, Karen M; Kontoravdi, Cleo

    2017-07-01

    Despite the positive effects of mild hypothermic conditions on monoclonal antibody (mAb) productivity (q mAb ) during mammalian cell culture, the impact of reduced culture temperature on mAb Fc-glycosylation and the mechanism behind changes in the glycan composition are not fully established. The lack of knowledge about the regulation of dynamic intracellular processes under mild hypothermia restricts bioprocess optimization. To address this issue, a mathematical model that quantitatively describes Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell behavior and metabolism, mAb synthesis and mAb N-linked glycosylation profile before and after the induction of mild hypothermia is constructed. Results from this study show that the model is capable of representing experimental results well in all of the aspects mentioned above, including the N-linked glycosylation profile of mAb produced under mild hypothermia. Most importantly, comparison between model simulation results for different culture temperatures suggests the reduced rates of nucleotide sugar donor production and galactosyltransferase (GalT) expression to be critical contributing factors that determine the variation in Fc-glycan profiles between physiological and mild hypothermic conditions in stable CHO transfectants. This is then confirmed using experimental measurements of GalT expression levels, thereby closing the loop between the experimental and the computational system. The identification of bottlenecks within CHO cell metabolism under mild hypothermic conditions will aid bioprocess optimization, for example, by tailoring feeding strategies to improve NSD production, or manipulating the expression of specific glycosyltransferases through cell line engineering. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1570-1582. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  18. Visual aided pacing in respiratory maneuvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambaudi, L R [Laboratorio de Biofisica y Fisiologia ' Antonio Sadi Frumento' (Argentina); Rossi, E [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina); Mantaras, M C [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina); Perrone, M S [Laboratorio de Biofisica y Fisiologia ' Antonio Sadi Frumento' (Argentina); Siri, L Nicola [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    A visual aid to pace self-controlled respiratory cycles in humans is presented. Respiratory manoeuvres need to be accomplished in several clinic and research procedures, among others, the studies on Heart Rate Variability. Free running respiration turns to be difficult to correlate with other physiologic variables. Because of this fact, voluntary self-control is asked from the individuals under study. Currently, an acoustic metronome is used to pace respiratory frequency, its main limitation being the impossibility to induce predetermined timing in the stages within the respiratory cycle. In the present work, visual driven self-control was provided, with separate timing for the four stages of a normal respiratory cycle. This visual metronome (ViMet) was based on a microcontroller which power-ON and -OFF an eight-LED bar, in a four-stage respiratory cycle time series handset by the operator. The precise timing is also exhibited on an alphanumeric display.

  19. Visual aided pacing in respiratory maneuvers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambaudi, L R; Rossi, E; Mantaras, M C; Perrone, M S; Siri, L Nicola

    2007-01-01

    A visual aid to pace self-controlled respiratory cycles in humans is presented. Respiratory manoeuvres need to be accomplished in several clinic and research procedures, among others, the studies on Heart Rate Variability. Free running respiration turns to be difficult to correlate with other physiologic variables. Because of this fact, voluntary self-control is asked from the individuals under study. Currently, an acoustic metronome is used to pace respiratory frequency, its main limitation being the impossibility to induce predetermined timing in the stages within the respiratory cycle. In the present work, visual driven self-control was provided, with separate timing for the four stages of a normal respiratory cycle. This visual metronome (ViMet) was based on a microcontroller which power-ON and -OFF an eight-LED bar, in a four-stage respiratory cycle time series handset by the operator. The precise timing is also exhibited on an alphanumeric display

  20. Swimming and Persons with Mild Persistant Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Arandelovic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of recreational swimming on lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR in patients with mild persistent asthma. This study included 65 patients with mild persistent asthma, who were divided into two groups: experimental group A (n = 45 and control group B (n = 20. Patients from both groups were treated with low doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and short-acting β2 agonists salbutamol as needed. Our program for patients in group A was combined asthma education with swimming (twice a week on a 1-h basis for the following 6 months. At the end of the study, in Group A, we found a statistically significant increase of lung function parameters FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (3.55 vs. 3.65 (p < 0.01, FVC (forced vital capacity (4.27 vs. 4.37 (p < 0.05, PEF (peak expiratory flow (7.08 vs. 7.46 (p < 0.01, and statistically significant decrease of BHR (PD20 0.58 vs. 2.01 (p < 0.001. In Group B, there was a statistically significant improvement of FEV1 3.29 vs. 3.33 (p < 0.05 and although FVC, FEV1/FVC, and PEF were improved, it was not significant. When Groups A and B were compared at the end of the study, there was a statistically significant difference of FVC (4.01 vs. 4.37, FEV1 (3.33 vs. 3.55, PEF (6.79 vs.7.46, and variability (p <0.001, and statistically significantly decreased BHR in Group A (2.01 vs. 1.75 (p < 0.001. Engagement of patients with mild persistent asthma in recreational swimming in nonchlorinated pools, combined with regular medical treatment and education, leads to better improvement of their parameters of lung function and also to more significant decrease of their airway hyperresponsiveness compared to patients treated with traditional medicine

  1. Expert Statement on the Single-Agent Use of Inhaled Bronchodilator in the Treatment of Stable Mild-Moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Alcázar, Bernardino; Alfageme, Inmaculada; Casanova, Ciro; Celli, Bartolomé; de-Torres, Juan P; Jiménez Ruiz, Carlos A

    2017-10-01

    To describe the evidence- and experience-based expert consensus on the use of single-agent bronchodilators in patients with stable mild-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using Delphi methodology, a panel of 7 respiratory medicine experts was established, who, in the first nominal group meeting defined the scope, users, and document sections. The panel drew up 14 questions on the use of single-agent bronchodilators in patients with mild-moderate stable COPD to be answered with a systematic review of the literature. The results of the review were discussed in a second nominal group meeting and 17 statements were generated. Agreement/disagreement with the statements was tested among16 different experts including respiratory medicine experts and primary care physicians. Statements were scored from1 (total disagreement) to10 (total agreement). Agreement was considered if at least 70% voted ≥7. The level of evidence and grade of recommendation of the systematic literature review was assessed using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine levels. A total of 12 of the 17 statements were selected. Specific statements were generated on different profiles of patients with stable mild-moderate COPD in whom single-agent bronchodilators could be prescribed. These statements on the use of single-agent bronchodilators might improve the outcomes and prognosis of patients with stable mild-moderate COPD. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Year in Review 2015: Neonatal Respiratory Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Sherry E

    2016-04-01

    Neonatal respiratory care practices have changed with breathtaking speed in the past few years. It is critical for the respiratory therapist and others caring for neonates to be up to date with current recommendations and evolving care practices. The purpose of this article is to review papers of particular note that were published in 2015 and address important aspects of newborn respiratory care. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  3. Measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters.

    OpenAIRE

    White, M C; Baker, E L

    1988-01-01

    The prevalence of different measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters was examined and the relation between respiratory illness and employment as a painter assessed in a cross sectional study of current male members of two local affiliates of a large international union of painters. Respiratory illness was measured by questionnaire and spirometry. Longer employment as a painter was associated with increased prevalence of chronic obstructive disease and an interactive eff...

  4. ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDIES FOR CORROSION INHIBITION OF MILD STEEL BY CHRYSOPHYLLUM ALBIDUM EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Akoma Chigozie S.; Osarolube Eziaku; Abumere O. E.

    2018-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of mild steel in carbonated drinks produced by Nigerian Breweries (Fanta, Sprite and Coke) was studied in the presence and absence of an eco-friendly inhibitor, Chrysophyllum albidum using Potentiodynamic polarization technique at 25 °C. Results showed that Chrysophyllum albidum reduced the current density (icorr), which in turn means that the corrosion rate was reduced significantly. The inhibition efficiency was found to be 93%, 78.6% and 87.5% for Fanta, Sprite and C...

  5. Light, Low, Mild, and Similar Terms: What Retailers Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-07-21

    This podcast helps raise retailers' and manufacturers' awareness of the new federal tobacco regulations. Under the new regulations, manufacturers can not produce any tobacco products labeled or advertised as "light," "low," or "mild." As of July 21, 2010, manufacturers may no longer distribute these products.  Created: 7/21/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 7/21/2010.

  6. Respiratory disease mortality among uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.; Gillam, J.D.; Wagoner, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    A mortality analysis of a group of white and Indian uranium miners was done by a life-table method. A significant excess of respiratory cancer among both whites and Indians was found. Nonmalignant respiratory disease deaths among the whites are approaching cancer in importance as a cause of death, probably as a result of diffuse parenchymal radiation damage. Exposure-response curves for nonsmokers are linear for both respiratory cancer and ''other respiratory disease''. Cigaret smoking elevates and distorts that curve. Light cigaret smokers appear to be most vulnerable to lung parenchymal damage. The predominant histologic cancer among nonsmokers is small-cell undifferentiated, just as it is among cigaret smokers

  7. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  8. Respiratory monitoring with an acceleration sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Tomohiro; Takegawa, Hideki; Ageishi, Tatsuya; Takashina, Masaaki; Numasaki, Hodaka; Matsumoto, Masao; Teshima, Teruki

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory gating radiotherapy is used to irradiate a local area and to reduce normal tissue toxicity. There are certain methods for the detection of tumor motions, for example, using internal markers or an external respiration signal. However, because some of these respiratory monitoring systems require special or expensive equipment, respiratory monitoring can usually be performed only in limited facilities. In this study, the feasibility of using an acceleration sensor for respiratory monitoring was evaluated. The respiratory motion was represented by means of a platform and measured five times with the iPod touch (registered) at 3, 4 and 5 s periods of five breathing cycles. For these three periods of the reference waveform, the absolute means ± standard deviation (SD) of displacement were 0.45 ± 0.34 mm, 0.33 ± 0.24 mm and 0.31 ± 0.23 mm, respectively. On the other hand, the corresponding absolute means ± SD for the periods were 0.04 ± 0.09 s, 0.04 ± 0.02 s and 0.06 ± 0.04 s. The accuracy of respiratory monitoring using the acceleration sensor was satisfactory in terms of the absolute means ± SD. Using the iPod touch (registered) for respiratory monitoring does not need special equipment and makes respiratory monitoring easier. For these reasons, this system is a viable alternative to other respiratory monitoring systems.

  9. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva; Fernando Rosado Spilki; Adriana Gut Lopes Riccetto; Emilio Elias Baracat; Clarice Weis Arns

    2009-01-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV) are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI). The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in...

  10. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus: first serological evidence in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M; García, L; Yunus, A S; Rockemann, D D; Samal, S K; Cristina, J

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is a major cause of respiratory disease in calves resulting in a substantial economic loss for the cattle industry worldwide. In order to determine the presence of BRSV in Uruguay, an immunoenzymatic test was set up, using a recombinant BRSV nucleocapsid (N) protein as the antigen. The N protein was produced in Sf9 insect cells by a recombinant baculovirus expressing the N protein. Serum samples collected from one hundred cattle from four different geographic regions of Uruguay were analyzed. Antibodies against the N protein of BRSV were detected in 95% of the serum samples analyzed. These results show for the first time the presence of BRSV antibodies and suggest a widespread BRSV infection in the cattle population of Uruguay.

  11. Delayed epidural hematoma after mild head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Danilo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Traumatic delayed epidural hematoma (DEH can be defined as insignificant or not seen on the initial CT scan performed after a trauma but seen on the subsequent CT scan as a “massive” epidural bleeding. Case report. We presented two cases of traumatic DEH after mild head injury. Both patients were conscious and without neurological deficit on the admission. Initial CT scan did not reveal intracranial hematoma. Repeated CT scan, that was performed after neurological deterioration, revealed epidural hematoma in both cases. The patients were operated with a favorable surgical outcome. Conclusion. Traumatic DEH could occur in the patients with head injuries who were conscious on the admission with a normal initial CT scan finding. Early detection of DEH and an urgent surgical evacuation were essential for a good outcome.

  12. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gismelseed, Abbasher, E-mail: abbasher@squ.edu.om; Al-Harthi, S. H.; Elzain, M.; Al-Rawas, A. D.; Yousif, A.; Al-Saadi, S.; Al-Omari, I.; Widatallah, H.; Bouziane, K. [College of Science, Department of Physics (Oman)

    2006-01-15

    A systematic study has been made of the initial corrosion products which form on mild steel capons exposed near the coastal region of Oman and at some industrial areas. The phases and compositions of the products formed at different periods of exposure were examined by using Moessbauer spectroscopy (295 and 78 K) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results show that lepidocorcite and maghemite are early corrosion products and goethite starts to form after 2 months of metal exposure to the atmosphere. Akaganeite is an early corrosion product but it forms in marine environments only, which reflects the role of chlorine effect in the atmosphere. The 12 months coupons showed the presence of goethite, lepidocorcite and maghemite, but no akaganeite being seen in the products of one of the studied areas.

  13. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gismelseed, Abbasher; Al-Harthi, S. H.; Elzain, M.; Al-Rawas, A. D.; Yousif, A.; Al-Saadi, S.; Al-Omari, I.; Widatallah, H.; Bouziane, K.

    2006-01-01

    A systematic study has been made of the initial corrosion products which form on mild steel capons exposed near the coastal region of Oman and at some industrial areas. The phases and compositions of the products formed at different periods of exposure were examined by using Moessbauer spectroscopy (295 and 78 K) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results show that lepidocorcite and maghemite are early corrosion products and goethite starts to form after 2 months of metal exposure to the atmosphere. Akaganeite is an early corrosion product but it forms in marine environments only, which reflects the role of chlorine effect in the atmosphere. The 12 months coupons showed the presence of goethite, lepidocorcite and maghemite, but no akaganeite being seen in the products of one of the studied areas.

  14. Functional Hubs in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Adrián; Papo, David; Boccaletti, Stefano; Del-Pozo, F.; Bajo, Ricardo; Maestú, Fernando; Martínez, J. H.; Gil, Pablo; Sendiña-Nadal, Irene; Buldú, Javier M.

    We investigate how hubs of functional brain networks are modified as a result of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a condition causing a slight but noticeable decline in cognitive abilities, which sometimes precedes the onset of Alzheimer's disease. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate the functional brain networks of a group of patients suffering from MCI and a control group of healthy subjects, during the execution of a short-term memory task. Couplings between brain sites were evaluated using synchronization likelihood, from which a network of functional interdependencies was constructed and the centrality, i.e. importance, of their nodes was quantified. The results showed that, with respect to healthy controls, MCI patients were associated with decreases and increases in hub centrality respectively in occipital and central scalp regions, supporting the hypothesis that MCI modifies functional brain network topology, leading to more random structures.

  15. A mild Grave's ophthalmopathy during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbouda, Alessandro; Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Bruscolini, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid ophthalmopathy is a complication most commonly associated with Grave's disease. The disease course ranges from mild to severe, with severe cases resulting in major visual impairment. A complete ophthalmic examination in a 35-year-old secundigravida to 14 weeks of gestation presented to the hospital for a routine ophthalmological examination with eyelid retraction in the right eye was made. We studied the course of ocular disease through the gestation with orbit ecography and a 3T MRI. A diagnosis of Grave's Ophthalmopathy was made. This case presents an unusual course of the GD during pregnancy and a normal post-partum relapse, according to the Th1/Th2 balance. The frequent follow-up and the use of MRI allowed a prompt identification and complete control of the disease.

  16. Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a mild immunocompromised host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byung Ha; Oh, Youngmin; Kang, Eun Seok; Hong, Yong Joo; Jeong, Hye Won; Lee, Ok-Jun; Chang, You-Jin; Choe, Kang Hyeon; Lee, Ki Man; An, Jin-Young

    2014-11-01

    Aspergillus tracheobronchitis is a form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in which the Aspergillus infection is limited predominantly to the tracheobronchial tree. It occurs primarily in severely immunocompromised patients such as lung transplant recipients. Here, we report a case of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a 42-year-old man with diabetes mellitus, who presented with intractable cough, lack of expectoration of sputum, and chest discomfort. The patient did not respond to conventional treatment with antibiotics and antitussive agents, and he underwent bronchoscopy that showed multiple, discrete, gelatinous whitish plaques mainly involving the trachea and the left bronchus. On the basis of the bronchoscopic and microbiologic findings, we made the diagnosis of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis and initiated antifungal therapy. He showed gradual improvement in his symptoms and continued taking oral itraconazole for 6 months. Physicians should consider Aspergillus tracheobronchitis as a probable diagnosis in immunocompromised patients presenting with atypical respiratory symptoms and should try to establish a prompt diagnosis.

  17. Postperfusion lung syndrome: Respiratory mechanics, respiratory indices and biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Postperfusion lung syndrome is rare but lethal. Secondary inflammatory response was the popularly accepted theory for the underlying etiology. Respiratory index (RI and arterial oxygen tension/fractional inspired oxygen can be reliable indices for the diagnosis of this syndrome as X-ray appearance is always insignificant at the early stage of the onset. Evaluations of extravascular lung water content and pulmonary compliance are also helpful in the definite diagnosis. Multiorgan failure and triple acid-base disturbances that might develop secondary to postperfusion lung syndrome are responsible for the poor prognosis and increased mortality rather than postperfusion lung syndrome itself. Mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume (TV and proper positive end-expiratory pressure can be an effective treatment strategy. Use of ulinastatin and propofol may benefit the patients through different mechanisms.

  18. Pulmonary fibrosis secondary to siderosis causing symptomatic respiratory disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Liam M; Goddard, Martin; Mahadeva, Ravi

    2008-08-05

    Pulmonary siderosis secondary to the inhalation of iron compounds is a rare condition which, despite striking radiological and histopathological features, has not traditionally been associated with symptoms or functional impairment. Although not the first of its kind, we present an unusual case of pulmonary siderosis with symptomatic respiratory disease, most likely secondary to associated fibrosis. A 66-year-old Caucasian man was referred to the outpatient clinic with a 2-year history of exertional breathlessness. He had worked as an engineer for 20 years where he did a significant amount of welding but always wore a face shield. Clinical, radiological and histological features were consistent with a diagnosis of pulmonary siderosis, with associated fibrosis, most likely related to his occupational welding history. Our report illustrates that symptomatic respiratory disease due to mild peribronchiolar fibrosis can occur with pulmonary siderosis despite wearing a mask. Furthermore, it reinforces the need for all clinicians to compile a detailed occupational history in individuals presenting with breathlessness.

  19. Disease spectrum and management of children admitted with acute respiratory infection in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T K P; Nguyen, D V; Truong, T N H; Tran, M D; Graham, S M; Marais, B J

    2017-06-01

    To assess the acute respiratory infection (ARI) disease spectrum, duration of hospitalisation and outcome in children hospitalised with an ARI in Viet Nam. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of ARI admissions to primary (Hoa Vang District Hospital), secondary (Da Nang Hospital for Women and Children) and tertiary (National Hospital of Paediatrics in Ha Noi) level hospitals in Viet Nam over 12 months (01/09/2015 to 31/08/2016). Acute respiratory infections accounted for 27.9% (37 436/134 061) of all paediatric admissions; nearly half (47.6%) of all children admitted to Hoa Vang District Hospital. Most (64.6%) of children hospitalised with an ARI were Viet Nam, characterised by prolonged hospitalisation for relatively mild disease. There is huge potential to reduce unnecessary hospital admission and cost. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Sleep apnoea during upper respiratory infection and metabolic alkalosis in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu e Silva, F A; MacFadyen, U M; Williams, A; Simpson, H

    1986-01-01

    Three to four hour polygraphic sleep studies were carried out in 10 infants, five with upper respiratory infection and five with metabolic alkalosis secondary to vomiting during and after recovery from illness. During upper respiratory infection, the main abnormality detected was brief (greater than 3 less than 6 seconds) or prolonged (greater than 6 seconds) attacks of obstructive apnoea. Other indices of apnoea were similar to recovery data. Gross body movements were also increased. In infants with metabolic alkalosis indices of central apnoea were significantly increased when compared with recovery or case control data. Prolonged (greater than 15 seconds) attacks of central apnoea and obstructive apnoea (greater than 6 seconds) were only observed during illness. Gross body movements and periodic breathing were also increased. These findings suggest that the functional consequences of apparently 'mild' illnesses in young infants may be greater than is generally suspected and perhaps relevant to mechanism(s) of death in sudden infant death syndrome. PMID:3789786

  1. Respiratory innate immune proteins differentially modulate the neutrophil respiratory burst response to influenza A virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Mitchell R; Crouch, Erika; Vesona, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    of IAV with SP-D in vitro strongly increases neutrophil respiratory burst responses to the virus. Several factors are shown to modify this apparent proinflammatory effect of SP-D. Although multimeric forms of SP-D show dose-dependent augmentation of respiratory burst responses, trimeric, single-arm forms...... of IAV while reducing the respiratory burst response to virus....

  2. Quantitation of respiratory viruses in relation to clinical course in children with acute respiratory tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Rogier R.; Schinkel, Janke; dek, Irene; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; Visser, Caroline E.; de Jong, Menno D.; Molenkamp, Richard; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2010-01-01

    Quantitation of respiratory viruses by PCR could potentially aid in clinical interpretation of PCR results. We conducted a study in children admitted with acute respiratory tract infections to study correlations between the clinical course of illness and semiquantitative detection of 14 respiratory

  3. Extraction of the respiratory signal from small-animal CT projections for a retrospective gating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ChavarrIas, C; Vaquero, J J; Sisniega, A; RodrIguez-Ruano, A; Soto-Montenegro, M L; GarcIa-Barreno, P; Desco, M

    2008-01-01

    We propose a retrospective respiratory gating algorithm to generate dynamic CT studies. To this end, we compared three different methods of extracting the respiratory signal from the projections of small-animal cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners. Given a set of frames acquired from a certain axial angle, subtraction of their average image from each individual frame produces a set of difference images. Pixels in these images have positive or negative values (according to the respiratory phase) in those areas where there is lung movement. The respiratory signals were extracted by analysing the shape of the histogram of these difference images: we calculated the first four central and non-central moments. However, only odd-order moments produced the desired breathing signal, as the even-order moments lacked information about the phase. Each of these curves was compared to a reference signal recorded by means of a pneumatic pillow. Given the similar correlation coefficients yielded by all of them, we selected the mean to implement our retrospective protocol. Respiratory phase bins were separated, reconstructed independently and included in a dynamic sequence, suitable for cine playback. We validated our method in five adult rat studies by comparing profiles drawn across the diaphragm dome, with and without retrospective respiratory gating. Results showed a sharper transition in the gated reconstruction, with an average slope improvement of 60.7%

  4. Extraction of the respiratory signal from small-animal CT projections for a retrospective gating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ChavarrIas, C; Vaquero, J J; Sisniega, A; RodrIguez-Ruano, A; Soto-Montenegro, M L; GarcIa-Barreno, P; Desco, M [Unidad de Medicina y CirugIa Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Anexo PsiquiatrIa, 1 Planta. C/Ibiza, 43. Madrid 28007 (Spain)

    2008-09-07

    We propose a retrospective respiratory gating algorithm to generate dynamic CT studies. To this end, we compared three different methods of extracting the respiratory signal from the projections of small-animal cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners. Given a set of frames acquired from a certain axial angle, subtraction of their average image from each individual frame produces a set of difference images. Pixels in these images have positive or negative values (according to the respiratory phase) in those areas where there is lung movement. The respiratory signals were extracted by analysing the shape of the histogram of these difference images: we calculated the first four central and non-central moments. However, only odd-order moments produced the desired breathing signal, as the even-order moments lacked information about the phase. Each of these curves was compared to a reference signal recorded by means of a pneumatic pillow. Given the similar correlation coefficients yielded by all of them, we selected the mean to implement our retrospective protocol. Respiratory phase bins were separated, reconstructed independently and included in a dynamic sequence, suitable for cine playback. We validated our method in five adult rat studies by comparing profiles drawn across the diaphragm dome, with and without retrospective respiratory gating. Results showed a sharper transition in the gated reconstruction, with an average slope improvement of 60.7%.

  5. Short-term respiratory effects of e-cigarettes in healthy individuals and smokers with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappas, Andreas S; Tzortzi, Anna S; Konstantinidi, Efstathia M; Teloniatis, Stephanie I; Tzavara, Chara K; Gennimata, Sofia A; Koulouris, Nikolaos G; Behrakis, Panagiotis K

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the duration of immediate respiratory effects of e-cigarette smoking (ECS) and tested the hypothesis that ECS has more prominent effects in asthmatics compared with healthy smokers (HS). Fifty-four smokers, 27 healthy (HS group) and 27 with intermittent asthma (mild asthma (MA) group) underwent a control session (no liquid, no resistor coil inside e-cigarette cartridge) and an experimental session of ECS using standardized puffing settings. Impulse oscillometry impedance (Z), resistance (R), reactance (X) and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) were measured before and 0, 15 and 30 min after control and experimental sessions. Control session revealed no significant changes. In the experimental session, immediately post-ECS, both groups exhibited a significant increase in respiratory system total impedance at 5 Hz (Z5) (P < 0.001), respiratory system resistance at 5 Hz (R5) (P < 0.001), respiratory system resistance at 10 Hz (R10) (P < 0.001), respiratory system resistance at 20 Hz (R20) (P < 0.05), resonant frequency (P < 0.001) and reactance area (P < 0.05). MA exhibited higher baseline values and a more prominent effect immediately after ECS compared with HS for Z5 (P = 0.022), R5 (P = 0.010) and R10 (P = 0.013). FeNO decreased significantly in both groups (P < 0.001); HS returned to baseline values in ≤15 min while the MA maintained significantly lower values for an additional 15 min (P < 0.05) and returned to baseline values at 30 min post-ECS. A single session of ECS had respiratory mechanical and inflammatory effects, which were more prominent in smokers with asthma. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  6. Ginger extract as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidrusli, A.; Suryanto; Mahmood, M.

    2018-01-01

    Ginger extract as corrosion inhibitor from natural resources was studied to prevent corrosion of mild steel in acid media. Ginger rhizome was extracted to produce green corrosion inhibitor (G-1) while ginger powder bought at supermarket was also extract to form green corrosion inhibitor (G-2). Effectiveness of inhibitor in preventing corrosion process of mild steel was studied in 1.0 M of hydrochloric acid. The experiment of weight loss method and polarization technique were conducted to measure corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency of mild steel in solution containing 1.0 M of hydrochloric acid with various concentration of inhibitor at room temperature. The results showed that, the rate of corrosion dropped from 8.09 mmpy in solution containing no inhibitor to 0.72 mmpy in solution containing 150g/l inhibitor while inhibition efficiency up to 91% was obtained. The polarization curve in polarization experiments shows that the inhibition efficiency is 86% with high concentration of inhibitor. The adsorption of ginger extract on the surface of mild steel was observed by using optical microscope and the characterization analysis was done by using pH measurement method. When high concentration of green inhibitor in the acid solution is used, the pH at the surface of steel is increasing.

  7. Is There a Link between Mitochondrial Reserve Respiratory Capacity and Aging?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Lau; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Madsen, Claus Desler

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative phosphorylation is an indispensable resource of ATP in tissues with high requirement of energy. If the ATP demand is not met, studies suggest that this will lead to senescence and cell death in the affected tissue. The term reserve respiratory capacity or spare respiratory capacity...... is used to describe the amount of extra ATP that can be produced by oxidative phosphorylation in case of a sudden increase in energy demand. Depletion of the reserve respiratory capacity has been related to a range of pathologies affecting high energy requiring tissues. During aging of an organism......, and as a result of mitochondrial dysfunctions, the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation declines. Based on examples from the energy requiring tissues such as brain, heart, and skeletal muscle, we propose that the age-related decline of oxidative phosphorylation decreases the reserve respiratory capacity...

  8. Gill remodelling during terrestrial acclimation reduces aquatic respiratory function of the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turko, Andy J; Cooper, Chris A; Wright, Patricia A

    2012-11-15

    The skin-breathing amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus experiences rapid environmental changes when moving between water- and air-breathing, but remodelling of respiratory morphology is slower (~1 week). We tested the hypotheses that (1) there is a trade-off in respiratory function of gills displaying aquatic versus terrestrial morphologies and (2) rapidly increased gill ventilation is a mechanism to compensate for reduced aquatic respiratory function. Gill surface area, which varied inversely to the height of the interlamellar cell mass, was increased by acclimating fish for 1 week to air or low ion water, or decreased by acclimating fish for 1 week to hypoxia (~20% dissolved oxygen saturation). Fish were subsequently challenged with acute hypoxia, and gill ventilation or oxygen uptake was measured. Fish with reduced gill surface area increased ventilation at higher dissolved oxygen levels, showed an increased critical partial pressure of oxygen and suffered impaired recovery compared with brackish water control fish. These results indicate that hyperventilation, a rapid compensatory mechanism, was only able to maintain oxygen uptake during moderate hypoxia in fish that had remodelled their gills for land. Thus, fish moving between aquatic and terrestrial habitats may benefit from cutaneously breathing oxygen-rich air, but upon return to water must compensate for a less efficient branchial morphology (mild hypoxia) or suffer impaired respiratory function (severe hypoxia).

  9. Instrumentation for the analysis of respiratory system disorders during sleep: Design and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Pedro Lopes; de Andrade Lemes, Lucas Neves

    2002-11-01

    Sleep breathing disorders are estimated to be present in 2%-4% of middle-aged adults. Serious adverse consequences, such as systemic arterial hypertension, myocardial infraction, and cerebrovascular disease, can be related to these conditions. Intellectual deficits associated with attention, memory, and problem-solving have also been associated with a poor quality of sleep. The main causes of these disorders are obstructions resulting from repetitive narrowing and closure of the pharyngeal airway, which have been monitored by indirect measurements of temperature, displacement, and other highly invasive procedures. The measurement of mechanical impedance of the respiratory system by the forced oscillation technique (FOT) has recently been suggested to quantify the respiratory obstruction during sleep. It is claimed that the noninvasive and dynamic characteristics of this technique would allow a noninvasive and accurate analysis of these events. In spite of this high scientific and clinical potential, there is no detailed description of a complete instrumentation system to implement this promising technique in sleep studies. In this context, the purpose of this study was twofold: (1) describe the development of a new computer-based system for identification of the mechanical impedance of the respiratory system during sleep by the FOT and (2) evaluate the performance of this device in the description of respiratory events in conditions including no, mild, serious disease, and therapeutic procedures. These evaluations confirmed the desirable features achieved in laboratory tests and the high scientific and clinical potential of this system.

  10. Comparing Cognitive Profiles of Licensed Drivers with Mild Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Yamin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Alzheimer’s disease (AD and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB constitute two of the most common forms of dementia in North America. Driving is a primary means of mobility among older adults and the risk of dementia increases with advanced age. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cognitive profile of licensed drivers with mild AD and mild DLB. Method. Licensed drivers with mild AD, mild DLB, and healthy controls completed neuropsychological tests measuring general cognition, attention, visuospatial/perception, language, and cognitive fluctuations. Results. The results showed differences between healthy controls and demented participants on almost all neuropsychological measures. Participants with early DLB were found to perform significantly worse on some measures of attention and visuospatial functioning in comparison with early AD. Discussion. Future research should examine the relationship between neuropsychological measures and driving outcomes among individuals with mild AD and mild DLB.

  11. Clinical and socioeconomic impact of moderate-to-severe versus mild influenza in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, T; Silvennoinen, H; Heinonen, S; Vuorinen, T

    2016-07-01

    Some studies have assessed the efficacy of influenza vaccination in children separately for moderate-to-severe and any influenza, but the definition used for identifying children with moderate-to-severe illness has not been validated. We analyzed clinical and socioeconomic data from two prospective cohort studies of respiratory infections among children aged ≤13 years (four influenza seasons, 3,416 child-seasons of follow-up). We categorized children with laboratory-confirmed influenza into two mutually exclusive groups of moderate-to-severe and mild influenza using the previously proposed criteria. We obtained the data for the analyses from structured medical records filled out by the study physicians and from daily symptom cards filled out by the parents. Of 434 cases of influenza, 217 (50 %) were classified as moderate-to-severe and 217 (50 %) as mild. The mean duration of fever was 4.0 days in children with moderate-to-severe influenza and 3.1 days in those with milder illness (P socioeconomic impact of influenza is highest. Illness severity should be considered when assessing influenza vaccine effectiveness in children.

  12. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Duthie, R.G. [Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  13. Memory complaints in subjective cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Sang Bong; Kim, Tae Woo; Lee, Taek Jun

    2016-12-01

    Memory complaints are a frequent phenomenon in elderly individuals and can lead to opportunistic help-seeking behavior. The aim of this study was to compare different aspects of memory complaints (i.e., prospective versus retrospective complaints) in individuals with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study included a total of 115 participants (mean age: 68.82 ± 8.83 years) with SCI (n = 34), aMCI (n = 46), and mild AD (n = 35). Memory complaints were assessed using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ), which consists of 16 items that describe everyday memory failure of both prospective memory (PM) and retrospective memory (RM). For aMCI and AD subjects, informants also completed an informant-rating of the PRMQ. All participants completed detailed neuropsychological tests. Results show that PM complaints were equivalent among the three groups. However, RM complaints differed. Specifically, RM complaints in aMCI were higher than SCI, but similar to AD. Informant-reported memory complaints were higher for AD than aMCI. Our study suggests that RM complaints of memory complaints may be helpful in discriminating between SCI and aMCI, but both PM and RM complaints are of limited value in differentiating aMCI from AD.

  14. Respiratory muscle training in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodillo, E; Noble-Jamieson, C M; Aber, V; Heckmatt, J Z; Muntoni, F; Dubowitz, V

    1989-01-01

    Twenty two boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were entered into a randomised double blind crossover trial to compare respiratory muscle training with a Triflow II inspirometer and 'placebo' training with a mini peak flow meter. Supine posture was associated with significantly impaired lung function, but respiratory muscle training showed no benefit.

  15. Housing and respiratory health at older ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, E; Blane, D; de Vries, Robert

    2013-03-01

    A large proportion of the population of England live in substandard housing. Previous research has suggested that poor-quality housing, particularly in terms of cold temperatures, mould, and damp, poses a health risk, particularly for older people. The present study aimed to examine the association between housing conditions and objectively measured respiratory health in a large general population sample of older people in England. Data on housing conditions, respiratory health and relevant covariates were obtained from the second wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Multivariate regression methods were used to test the association between contemporary housing conditions and respiratory health while accounting for the potential effect of other factors; including social class, previous life-course housing conditions and childhood respiratory health. Older people who were in fuel poverty or who did not live in a home they owned had significantly worse respiratory health as measured by peak expiratory flow rates. After accounting for covariates, these factors had no effect on any other measures of respiratory health. Self-reported housing problems were not consistently associated with respiratory health. The housing conditions of older people in England, particularly those associated with fuel poverty and living in rented accommodation, may be harmful to some aspects of respiratory health. This has implications for upcoming UK government housing and energy policy decisions.

  16. Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharpaiman, S; Saburi, A; Waters, Karen A

    2013-12-01

    Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia are thought to underlie the increased risk for sudden infant death and neuropsychological deficits seen in this condition. This review evaluates literature regarding respiratory dysfunctions and their sequelae in patients with achondroplasia. The limited number of prospective studies of respiratory disease in achondroplasia means that observational studies and case series provide a large proportion of the data regarding the spectrum of respiratory diseases in achondroplasia and their treatments. Amongst clinical respiratory problems described, snoring is the commonest observed abnormality, but the reported incidence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) shows wide variance (10% to 75%). Reported treatments of OSA include adenotonsillectomy, the use of CPAP, and surgical improvement of the airway, including mid-face advancement. Otolaryngologic manifestations are also common. Respiratory failure due to small thoracic volumes is reported, but uncommon. Mortality rate at all ages was 2.27 (CI: 1.7-3.0) with age-specific mortality increased at all ages. Sudden death was most common in infants and children. Cardiovascular events are the main cause of mortality in adults. Despite earlier recognition and treatment of respiratory complications of achondroplasia, increased mortality rates and other complications remain high. Future and ongoing evaluation of the prevalence and impact of respiratory disorders, particularly OSA, in achondroplasia is recommended. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nanotechnology: Advancing the translational respiratory research

    OpenAIRE

    Dua, Kamal; Shukla, Shakti Dhar; de Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha; Hansbro, Philip Michael

    2017-01-01

    Considering the various limitations associated with the conventional dosage forms, nanotechnology is gaining increased attention in drug delivery particularly in respiratory medicine and research because of its advantages like targeting effects, improved pharmacotherapy, and patient compliance. This paper provides a quick snapshot about the recent trends and applications of nanotechnology to various translational and formulation scientists working on various respiratory diseases, which can he...

  18. Fabry disease, respiratory symptoms, and airway limitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Camilla Kara; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    . The remaining 27 articles were relevant for this review. RESULTS: The current literature concerning lung manifestations describes various respiratory symptoms such as dyspnoea or shortness of breath, wheezing, and dry cough. These symptoms are often related to cardiac involvement in Fabry disease as respiratory...

  19. Respiratory bacterial infections in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Hansen, Christine R; Høiby, Niels

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bacterial respiratory infections are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains the main pathogen in adults, but other Gram-negative bacteria such as Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia...... respiratory tract (nasal sampling) should be investigated and both infection sites should be treated....

  20. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    This PhD thesis presents the diversity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome viruses (PRRSV) circulating in the Danish pig population. PRRS is a disease in pigs caused by the PRRS virus resulting in reproductive failures in sows and gilts and respiratory diseases in pigs . Due to genetic...

  1. 29 CFR 1917.92 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1917.92 Section 1917.92 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.92 Respiratory protection. (See § 1917.1(a)(2)(x...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.103 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1926.103 Section 1926.103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.103 Respiratory protection. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this...

  3. 29 CFR 1918.102 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1918.102 Section 1918.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Respiratory protection. (See § 1918.1(b)(8)). [65 FR 40946, June 30, 2000] ...

  4. Perceived Competence and Comfort in Respiratory Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara J.; Novak, Debra; Burns, Candace M.; Byrd, Annette; Carpenter, Holly; Gruden, MaryAnn; Lachat, Ann; Taormina, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In response to the Institute of Medicine (2011) report Occupational Health Nurses and Respiratory Protection: Improving Education and Training, a nationwide survey was conducted in May 2012 to assess occupational health nurses’ educational preparation, roles, responsibilities, and training needs in respiratory protection. More than 2,000 occupational health nurses responded; 83% perceived themselves as competent, proficient, or expert in respiratory protection, reporting moderate comfort with 12 respiratory program elements. If occupational health nurses had primary responsibility for the respiratory protection program, they were more likely to perceive higher competence and more comfort in respiratory protection, after controlling for occupational health nursing experience, highest education, occupational health nursing certification, industry sector, Association of Occupational Health Professionals in Healthcare membership, taking a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health spirometry course in the prior 5 years, and perceiving a positive safety culture at work. These survey results document high perceived competence and comfort in respiratory protection. These findings support the development of targeted educational programs and interprofessional competencies for respiratory protection. PMID:23429638

  5. Ketose induced respiratory inhibition in isolated hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, P; Carrascosa, J M; Núñez de Castro, I

    1987-06-01

    The addition of 10 mM fructose or 10 mM tagatose to a suspension of hepatocytes caused respiratory inhibition, whereas no change in oxygen uptake was observed following the addition of glucose. However, incubations in the presence of fructose showed a high, aerobic glycolytic activity. Tagatose is phosphorylated to tagatose 1-phosphate but is not further metabolized by cell free liver extract. Moreover, the addition of fructose to glucagon treated cells also caused the Crabtree-like effect. The concentration of adenine nucleotides and inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the mitochondrial and cytosolic compartments during incubation (time 30 min) was determined by the digitonin fractionation procedure. In the presence of 10 mM fructose or tagatose, the total adenine nucleotide pools decreased by 40%; however, glucose produced no change. The addition of ketoses diminished the asymmetric distribution of extramitochondrial (ATP/ADP)e ratio and intramitochondrial (ATP/ADP)i ratio. At the same time the total mitochondrial Pi fell from 17 mM to 6-7 mM. The mitochondrial membrane potential (-161 mV) in the presence of fructose showed no changes during the 30 min experimental period. An increase in the NADH/NAD+ ratio was observed. These results suggest that in hepatocytes the inhibition of respiration is not necessarily linked with the enhanced aerobic glycolysis, by competition for common substrates.

  6. Extracting a respiratory signal from raw dynamic PET data that contain tracer kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, P J; Thielemans, K; Marsden, P K

    2014-08-07

    Data driven gating (DDG) methods provide an alternative to hardware based respiratory gating for PET imaging. Several existing DDG approaches obtain a respiratory signal by observing the change in PET-counts within specific regions of acquired PET data. Currently, these methods do not allow for tracer kinetics which can interfere with the respiratory signal and introduce error. In this work, we produced a DDG method for dynamic PET studies that exhibit tracer kinetics. Our method is based on an existing approach that uses frequency-domain analysis to locate regions within raw PET data that are subject to respiratory motion. In the new approach, an optimised non-stationary short-time Fourier transform was used to create a time-varying 4D map of motion affected regions. Additional processing was required to ensure that the relationship between the sign of the respiratory signal and the physical direction of movement remained consistent for each temporal segment of the 4D map. The change in PET-counts within the 4D map during the PET acquisition was then used to generate a respiratory curve. Using 26 min dynamic cardiac NH3 PET acquisitions which included a hardware derived respiratory measurement, we show that tracer kinetics can severely degrade the respiratory signal generated by the original DDG method. In some cases, the transition of tracer from the liver to the lungs caused the respiratory signal to invert. The new approach successfully compensated for tracer kinetics and improved the correlation between the data-driven and hardware based signals. On average, good correlation was maintained throughout the PET acquisitions.

  7. Extracting a respiratory signal from raw dynamic PET data that contain tracer kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleyer, P J; Thielemans, K; Marsden, P K

    2014-01-01

    Data driven gating (DDG) methods provide an alternative to hardware based respiratory gating for PET imaging. Several existing DDG approaches obtain a respiratory signal by observing the change in PET-counts within specific regions of acquired PET data. Currently, these methods do not allow for tracer kinetics which can interfere with the respiratory signal and introduce error. In this work, we produced a DDG method for dynamic PET studies that exhibit tracer kinetics. Our method is based on an existing approach that uses frequency-domain analysis to locate regions within raw PET data that are subject to respiratory motion. In the new approach, an optimised non-stationary short-time Fourier transform was used to create a time-varying 4D map of motion affected regions. Additional processing was required to ensure that the relationship between the sign of the respiratory signal and the physical direction of movement remained consistent for each temporal segment of the 4D map. The change in PET-counts within the 4D map during the PET acquisition was then used to generate a respiratory curve. Using 26 min dynamic cardiac NH 3 PET acquisitions which included a hardware derived respiratory measurement, we show that tracer kinetics can severely degrade the respiratory signal generated by the original DDG method. In some cases, the transition of tracer from the liver to the lungs caused the respiratory signal to invert. The new approach successfully compensated for tracer kinetics and improved the correlation between the data-driven and hardware based signals. On average, good correlation was maintained throughout the PET acquisitions. (paper)

  8. Air pollution and respiratory illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indra, G. [DIET, Uttamasolapuram, Salem (India)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation provides an overview of air pollution and impacts on public health. It provides a definition of pollution according to the Oxford English dictionary and categorizes the different types of pollution according to air, water, land and noise. It discusses air pollution and its pollutants (gaseous and particulate pollutants) as well as the diameter of the pollutant (dust, smoke, and gas). The paper also illustrates the formation of acid rain and discusses the amount of pollutants in the atmosphere per year. It presents occupational diseases, discusses radio active pollutants, respiratory illnesses as well as pollution prevention and control. The paper concluded that more research is needed to obtain information on ways to reduce the quantity of pollutants being discharged from special processes. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Perioperative modifications of respiratory function.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duggan, Michelle

    2012-01-31

    Postoperative pulmonary complications contribute considerably to morbidity and mortality, especially after major thoracic or abdominal surgery. Clinically relevant pulmonary complications include the exacerbation of underlying chronic lung disease, bronchospasm, atelectasis, pneumonia and respiratory failure with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications include patient-related risk factors (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tobacco smoking and increasing age) as well as procedure-related risk factors (e.g., site of surgery, duration of surgery and general vs. regional anaesthesia). Careful history taking and a thorough physical examination may be the most sensitive ways to identify at-risk patients. Pulmonary function tests are not suitable as a general screen to assess risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. Strategies to reduce the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications include smoking cessation, inspiratory muscle training, optimising nutritional status and intra-operative strategies. Postoperative care should include lung expansion manoeuvres and adequate pain control.

  10. The respiratory system in equations

    CERN Document Server

    Maury, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    The book proposes an introduction to the mathematical modeling of the respiratory system. A detailed introduction on the physiological aspects makes it accessible to a large audience without any prior knowledge on the lung. Different levels of description are proposed, from the lumped models with a small number of parameters (Ordinary Differential Equations), up to infinite dimensional models based on Partial Differential Equations. Besides these two types of differential equations, two chapters are dedicated to resistive networks, and to the way they can be used to investigate the dependence of the resistance of the lung upon geometrical characteristics. The theoretical analysis of the various models is provided, together with state-of-the-art techniques to compute approximate solutions, allowing comparisons with experimental measurements. The book contains several exercises, most of which are accessible to advanced undergraduate students.

  11. Prevention of Nosocomial Respiratory Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Karpun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of an extended package of preventive measures on the incidence of nosocomial respiratory infections in surgical patients at an intensive care unit (ICU. Subjects and methods. The study included 809 patients aged 35 to 80 years. A study group comprised 494 patients in whom an extended package of preventive measures was implemented during 7 months (March-September. A control group consisted of 315 patients treated in 2004 in the same period of time (March-September. The groups were stratified by age, gender, underlying diseases, and APACHE-2 and SOFA scores. The extended package of anti-infectious measures involved a high air purification in ICUs («Flow-M» technology, routine use of ventilatory filters, closed aspiration systems with a built-in antibacterial filter under artificial ventilation for over 2 days. Results. The proposed technologies could reduce the frequency of tracheobronchitis and ventilator-associated pneumonias in the groups of patients at high risk for nosocomial infections substantially (by more than twice. Conclusion. The findings have led to the conclusion that the extended package of preventive measures is effective in preventing respiratory infections in ICU patients. Of special note is the proper prevention of upper airway contamination with pathogenic microorganisms, by employing the closed aspiration systems with a built-in antibacterial filter. The routine use of high-tech consumables in the intensive care of surgical patients causes a considerable decrease in the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and purulent tracheobronchitis and a reduction in the number of microbiological studies. Key words: ventilator-associated pneumonia, prevention of nosocomial infections, closed aspiration system.

  12. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Carvalho Abreu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases.As células-tronco têm uma infinidade de implicações clínicas no pulmão. Este artigo é uma revisão crítica que inclui estudos clínicos e experimentais advindos do banco de dados do MEDLINE e SciElo nos últimos 10 anos, onde foram destacados os efeitos da terapia celular na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo ou doenças mais crônicas, como fibrose pulmonar e enfisema. Apesar de muitos estudos demonstrarem os efeitos benéficos das células-tronco no desenvolvimento, reparo e remodelamento pulmonar; algumas questões ainda precisam ser respondidas para um melhor entendimento dos mecanismos que controlam a divisão celular e diferenciação, permitindo o uso da terapia celular nas doenças respiratórias.

  13. Respiratory neuroplasticity - Overview, significance and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, David D; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2017-01-01

    Neuroplasticity is an important property of the neural system controlling breathing. However, our appreciation for its importance is still relatively new, and we have much to learn concerning different forms of plasticity, their underlying mechanisms, and their biological and clinical significance. In this brief review, we discuss several well-studied models of respiratory plasticity, including plasticity initiated by inactivity in the respiratory system, intermittent and sustained hypoxia, and traumatic injury to the spinal cord. Other aspects of respiratory plasticity are considered in other contributions to this special edition of Experimental Neurology on respiratory plasticity. Finally, we conclude with discussions concerning the biological and clinical significance of respiratory motor plasticity, and areas in need of future research effort. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Serum Metabonomics of Mild Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongmin; Zhang, Lei; Kang, Huan; Zhang, Jiandong; Liu, Jie; Liu, Shuye

    2016-11-01

    Mild acute pancreatitis (MAP) is a common acute abdominal disease, and exhibits rising incidence in recent decades. As an important component of systemic biology, metabonomics is a new discipline developed following genomics and proteomics. In this study, the objective was to analyze the serum metabonomics of patients with MAP, aiming to screen metabolic markers with potential diagnostic values. An analysis platform with ultra performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to screen the difference metabolites related to MAP diagnosis and disease course monitoring. A total of 432 endogenous metabolites were screened out from 122 serum samples, and 49 difference metabolites were verified, among which 12 difference metabolites were identified by nonparametric test. After material identification, eight metabolites exhibited reliable results, and their levels in MAP serum were higher than those in healthy serum. Four metabolites exhibited gradual downward trend with treatment process going on, and the differences were statistically significant (P Metabonomic analysis has revealed eight metabolites with potential diagnostic values toward MAP, among which four metabolites can be used to monitor the disease course. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Long duration mild temperature hyperthermia and brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, E P; Raaphorst, G P

    2004-03-01

    Combining long duration mild temperature hyperthermia (LDMH) and low dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy to enhance therapeutic killing of cancer cells was proposed many years ago. The cellular and tumour research that supports this hypothesis is presented in this review. Research describing LDMH interaction with pulsed brachytherapy and high dose-rate brachytherapy using clinically relevant parameters are compared with LDMH/LDR brachytherapy. The mechanism by which LDMH sensitizes LDR has been established as the inhibition of sublethal damage repair. The molecular mechanisms have been shown to involve DNA repair enzymes, but the exact nature of these processes is still under investigation. The relative differences between LDMH interactions with human and rodent cells are presented to help in the understanding of possible roles of LDMH in clinical application. The role of LDMH in modifying tumour blood flow and its possible role in LDR sensitization of tumours is also presented. The positive aspects of LDMH-brachytherapy for clinical application are sixfold; (1) the thermal goals (temperature, time and volume) are achievable with currently available technology, (2) the hyperthermia by itself has no detectable toxic effects, (3) thermotolerance appears to play a minor if any role in radiation sensitization, (4) TER of around 2 can be expected, (5) hypoxic fraction may be decreased due to blood flow modification and (6) simultaneous chemotherapy may also be sensitized. Combined LDMH and brachytherapy is a cancer therapy that has established biological rationale and sufficient technical and clinical advancements to be appropriately applied. This modality is ripe for clinical testing.

  16. A sibship with a mild variant of Zellweger syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, P. G.; Schutgens, R. B.; Wanders, R. J.; Heymans, H. S.; Moser, A. E.; Moser, H. W.; Bleeker-Wagemakers, E. M.; Jansonius-Schultheiss, K.; Derix, M.; Nelck, G. F.

    1987-01-01

    A mild variant of Zellweger (cerebro-hepato-renal) syndrome was diagnosed in male and female siblings aged 7 and 2 years. They had mild facial dysmorphia, moderate psychomotor retardation, tapetoretinal degeneration, sensorineural deafness and hepatomegaly. Ultrastructural examination of a liver

  17. Mild Aphasia: Is This the Place for an Argument?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Fox, Sarah; Wilkinson, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with mild aphasia often report significant disruption to their communication despite seemingly minor impairment. This study explored this phenomenon through examining conversations of a person with mild aphasia engaging in argumentation--a skill she felt had significantly deteriorated after her stroke. Method: A person with…

  18. Efficacy of psychosocial intervention in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, F B; Buss, D V; Eckermann, A

    2012-01-01

    To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers.......To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers....

  19. Digit Symbol Performance in Mild Dementia and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert P.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Patients with mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT), patients with major depression, and normal control subjects completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Digit Symbol test of incidental memory. Though mild DAT and depressed patients had equivalent deficits in psychomotor speed, DAT patients recalled fewer digit-symbol items.…

  20. Heterogeneity in executive impairment in patients with very mild Alzheimer's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, J.; Gade, Anders; Vogel, A.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of executive impairment in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) has primarily been demonstrated by means of group comparison. Whether executive dysfunction is a common feature of mild AD or only present in a subgroup of patients remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe...

  1. Anticorrosion potential of hydralazine for corrosion of mild steel in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anticorrosion potential of mild steel by Hydralazine as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1M hydrochloric acid was investigated by chemical and electrochemical measurements at 303-333 K temperature. The maximum inhibition efficiency of inhibitor by Weight loss method is around 90%, Tafel polarization method is ...

  2. Reliability and performance evaluation of stainless and mild steel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reliability and performance of stainless and mild steel products in methanolic and aqueous sodium chloride media have been investigated. Weight-loss and pre-exposure methods were used. There was a higher rate of weight-loss of mild steels and stainless steels in 1% HCl methanolic solution than in aqueous NaCl ...

  3. [Screening methods for mild cognitive impairment in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Pérez, Alberto

    2017-06-01

    Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is always clinical and screening methods only indicate that the patient has a higher risk of this condition. In MCI, there is a slight decline in some cognitive abilities that does not affect activities of daily living and therefore does not produce social or occupational disability. The definitive diagnosis of MCI requires a considerable time investment that is very rarely possible to provide in primary care (PC) consultations. Hence the need for PC physicians to employ rapid and simple screening methods (brief cognitive assessment -BCA-) that allow objective identification of patients likely to have MCI in a few minutes. This article reviews the BCA tools that can truly be applied in less than 10 minutes. The phototest is a brief screening tool that is easy to use and interpret by physicians and is well accepted by patients. Consequently, it is one of the most useful tests in PC for screening of both MCI and dementia. In addition to BCA, instrumental activities of daily living scales should also be applied to differentiate MCI from dementia. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Radithor and the era of mild radium therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklis, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of radium, a school of practitioners arose who were interested primarily in the physiological rather than the tumoricidal powers of this new radioactive element. This treatment philosophy was called mild radium therapy and involved the oral or parenteral administration of microgram quantities of radium and its daughter isotopes, often as cures for rheumatic diseases, hypertension, and metabolic disorders. Manufacturers of patent medicines responded to this market by producing a variety of over-the-counter radioactive preparations including pills, elixirs, and salves. One such nostrum was Radithor, a popular and expensive mixture of radium 226 and radium 228 in distilled water. Radithor was advertised as an effective treatment for over 150 endocrinologic diseases, especially lassitude and sexual impotence. Over 400,000 bottles, each containing over 2 muCi (74 kBq) of radium, were apparently marketed and sold worldwide between 1925 and 1930. The death of the Pittsburgh millionaire sportsman Eben M. Byers, who was an avid Radithor user, by radium poisoning in 1932 brought an end to this era and prompted the development of regulatory controls for all radiopharmaceuticals

  5. Absorption of DTPA from the respiratory tracts of Beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, R.E.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Cuddihy, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) from the nasopharyngeal (NP), tracheobronchial (TB) and pulmonary (P) regions of Beagle dogs was determined because of the current interest in aerosolized DTPA as a method for removal of internally deposited radionuclides. Radiolabeled DTPA was instilled into the NP, TB and P regions of Beagle dogs and its subsequent translocation was followed for 48 hours. Results revealed that 16, 48 and 90% of the instilled DTPA was absorbed into the circulatory system from the NP, TB and P regions, respectively. A comparison was also made between NP absorption of aerosolized DTPA and DTPA instilled into the nasopharynx. Nasopharyngeal absorption of aerosolized DTPA, 23%, was slightly higher than that of instilled DTPA. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid deposited in the respiratory tract remained in the body longer than intravenously injected DTPA. These findings indicate that substantial absorption of DTPA occurs from all regions of the respiratory tract and that DTPA need not be deposited deep within the respiratory tract to produce systemic absorption of DTPA for the removal of internally deposited radioactive isotopes

  6. On the respiratory flow in the cuttlefish sepia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Q; Brown, E; Travers, G

    1994-09-01

    The respiratory flow of water over the gills of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis at rest is produced by the alternate activity of the radial muscles of the mantle and the musculature of the collar flaps; mantle circular muscle fibres are not involved. Inspiration takes place as the radial fibres contract, thinning the mantle and expanding the mantle cavity. The rise in mantle cavity pressure (up to 0.15 kPa), expelling water via the siphon during expiration, is brought about by inward movement of the collar flaps and (probably) mainly by elastic recoil of the mantle connective tissue network 'wound up' by radial fibre contraction during inspiration. Sepia also shows a second respiratory pattern, in which mantle cavity pressures during expiration are greater (up to 0.25 kPa). Here, the mantle circular fibres are involved, as they are during the large pressure transients (up to 10 kPa) seen during escape jetting. Active contraction of the muscles of the collar flaps is seen in all three patterns of expulsion of water from the mantle cavity, electrical activity increasing with increasing mantle cavity pressures. Respiratory expiration in the resting squid Loligo vulgaris is probably driven as in Sepia, whereas in the resting octopus Eledone cirrhosa, the mantle circular musculature is active during expiration. The significance of these observations is discussed.

  7. Respiratory repercussions of gastroesophageal reflux and Cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemeteau, C.; Saudubray, F. (Hopital des Enfants, 33 - Bordeaux (France)); Guillet, J. (Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France))

    1985-04-01

    Asthma and recurrent bronchopneumopathies in children are often associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Cine-esogastroscintigraphy is proposed for demonstrating reflux and establishing its direct or indirect responsibility in respiratory disease. 133 patients aged 5 months to 16 years were studied. Reflux was found in 65.5% of cases, either severe (44.4% of cases) or minor (21.1%). Episodes of reflux produced respiratory manifestations in 7% of patients. Inhalation of refluxed material was proved in 3% by demonstration of pulmonary contamination. Sensitivity of cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy is comparable to that of esophageal pH measurement for detection of reflux. It does not require positioning of a probe in the esophageal lumen. It provides quantitative parameters on esophageal transit, reflux and gastric voiding, and demonstrates pulmonary contamination. It is easy to perform and can be readily included in an outpatient clinic workup. Its sensitivity and reliability make it a useful tool for evaluation of therapeutic efficiency. The interlocking of various physiopathologic factors contributes to the polymorphism of respiratory manifestations of reflux.

  8. Respiratory repercussions of gastroesophageal reflux and cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemeteau, C.; Saudubray, F. (Hopital des Enfants, 33 - Bordeaux (France)); Guillet, J. (Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France))

    1984-10-01

    Asthma and recurrent bronchopneumopathies in children are often associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy is proposed for demonstrating reflux and establishing its direct or indirect responsibility in respiratory disease. 133 patients aged 5 months to 16 years were studied. Reflux was found in 65.5% of cases, either severe (44.4% of cases) or minor (21.1%). Episodes of reflux produced respiratory manifestations in 7% of patients. Inhalation of refluxed material was proved in 3% by demonstration of pulmonary contamination. Sensitivity of cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy is comparable to that of esophageal pH measurement for detection of reflux. It does not require positioning of a probe in the esophageal lumen. It provides quantitative parameters on esophageal transit, reflux and gastric voiding, and demonstrates pulmonary contamination. It is easy to perform and can be readily included in an outpatient clinic workup. Its sensitivity and reliability make it a useful tool for evaluation of therapeutic efficiency. The interlocking of various physiopathologic factors contributes to the polymorphism of respiratory manifestations of reflux.

  9. The effects of carbon monoxide on respiratory chemoreflexes in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, A.E.; Somogyi, R.B.; Sasano, Hiroshi; Sasano, Nobuko; Fisher, J.A.; Duffin, James

    2004-01-01

    As protection against low-oxygen and high-carbon-dioxide environments, the respiratory chemoreceptors reflexly increase breathing. Since CO is also frequently present in such environments, it is important to know whether CO affects the respiratory chemoreflexes responsiveness. Although the peripheral chemoreceptors fail to detect hypoxia produced by CO poisoning, whether CO affects the respiratory chemoreflex responsiveness to carbon dioxide is unknown. The responsiveness of 10 healthy male volunteers were assessed before and after inhalation of ∼1200 ppm CO in air using two iso-oxic rebreathing tests; hypoxic, to emphasize the peripheral chemoreflex, and hyperoxic, to emphasize the central chemoreflex. Although mean (SEM) COHb values of 10.2 (0.2)% were achieved, no statistically significant effects of CO were observed. The average differences between pre- and post-CO values for ventilation response threshold and sensitivity were -0.5 (0.9) mmHg and 0.8 (0.3) L/min/mmHg, respectively, for hyperoxia, and 0.7 (1.1) mmHg and 1.2 (0.8) L/min/mmHg, respectively, for hypoxia. The 95% confidence intervals for the effect of CO were small. We conclude that environments with low levels of CO do not have a clinically significant effect acutely on either the central or the peripheral chemoreflex responsiveness to carbon dioxide

  10. Respiratory repercussions of gastroesophageal reflux and cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemeteau, C.; Saudubray, F.; Guillet, J.

    1984-01-01

    Asthma and recurrent bronchopneumopathies in children are often associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Cine-esogastroscintigraphy is proposed for demonstrating reflux and establishing its direct or indirect responsibility in respiratory disease. 133 patients aged 5 months to 16 years were studied. Reflux was found in 65.5% of cases, either severe (44.4% of cases) or minor (21.1%). Episodes of reflux produced respiratory manifestations in 7% of patients. Inhalation of refluxed material was proved in 3% by demonstration of pulmonary contamination. Sensitivity of cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy is comparable to that of esophageal pH measurement for detection of reflux. It does not require positioning of a probe in the esophageal lumen. It provides quantitative parameters on esophageal transit, reflux and gastric voiding, and demonstrates pulmonary contamination. It is easy to perform and can be readily included in an outpatient clinic workup. Its sensitivity and reliability make it a useful tool for evaluation of therapeutic efficiency. The interlocking of various physiopathologic factors contributes to the polymorphism of respiratory manifestations of reflux [fr

  11. Respiratory repercussions of gastroesophageal reflux and cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemeteau, C.; Saudubray, F.; Guillet, J.

    1985-01-01

    Asthma and recurrent bronchopneumopathies in children are often associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Cine-esogastroscintigraphy is proposed for demonstrating reflux and establishing its direct or indirect responsibility in respiratory disease. 133 patients aged 5 months to 16 years were studied. Reflux was found in 65.5% of cases, either severe (44.4% of cases) or minor (21.1%). Episodes of reflux produced respiratory manifestations in 7% of patients. Inhalation of refluxed material was proved in 3% by demonstration of pulmonary contamination. Sensitivity of cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy is comparable to that of esophageal pH measurement for detection of reflux. It does not require positioning of a probe in the esophageal lumen. It provides quantitative parameters on esophageal transit, reflux and gastric voiding, and demonstrates pulmonary contamination. It is easy to perform and can be readily included in an outpatient clinic workup. Its sensitivity and reliability make it a useful tool for evaluation of therapeutic efficiency. The interlocking of various physiopathologic factors contributes to the polymorphism of respiratory manifestations of reflux [fr

  12. Identification of contact and respiratory sensitizers using flow cytometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutet, Michele; Pepin, Elsa; Langonne, Isabelle; Huguet, Nelly; Ban, Masarin

    2005-01-01

    Identification of the chemicals responsible for respiratory and contact allergies in the industrial area is an important occupational safety issue. This study was conducted in mice to determine whether flow cytometry is an appropriate method to analyze and differentiate the specific immune responses to the respiratory sensitizer trimellitic anhydride (TMA) and to the contact sensitizer dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) used at concentrations with comparable immunogenic potential. Mice were exposed twice on the flanks (days 0, 5) to 10% TMA or 1% DNCB and challenged three times on the ears (days 10, 11, 12) with 2.5% TMA or 0.25% DNCB. Flow cytometry analyses were conducted on draining lymph node cells harvested on days 13 and 18. Comparing TMA and DNCB immune responses on day 13, we found obvious differences that persisted for most of them on day 18. An increased proportion of IgE+ cells correlated to total serum IgE level and an enhancement of MHC II molecule expression were observed in the lymph node B lymphocytes from TMA-treated mice. The percentage of IL-4-producing CD4+ lymphocytes and the IL-4 receptor expression were clearly higher following TMA exposure. In contrast, higher proportions of IL-2-producing cells were detected in CD4+ and CD8+ cells from DNCB-treated mice. Both chemicals induced a significant increase in the percentage of IFN-γ-producing cells among CD8+ lymphocytes but to a greater proportion following TMA treatment. In conclusion, this study encourages the use of flow cytometry to discriminate between contact and respiratory sensitizers by identifying divergent expression of immune response parameters

  13. Industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the best available conditions, in terms of market volumes and prices, for the products from a mild gasification facility. A process feasibility study will then have to determine the cost of building and operating a facility to make those products. The study is presented as a summary of the options available to a coal producer for creating added product value. For this reason, three specific coal mines owned by AMAX Inc. were chosen, and the options were analyzed from the viewpoint of increasing the total revenue derived from those coals. No specific mild gasification, or mild devolatilization technology was assumed during the assessment. The analysis considers only product prices, volumes, and specifications. It does not assign any intangible value or national benefit to substituting coal for oil or to producing a cleaner fuel. Although it would be desirable to conceive of a product slate which would be immune from energy price fluctuations, such a goal is probably unattainable and no particular emphasis was placed on it. 76 figs., 75 tabs.

  14. Population calcium imaging of spontaneous respiratory and novel motor activity in the facial nucleus and ventral brainstem in newborn mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Karin; Rekling, Jens C

    2011-01-01

    The brainstem contains rhythm and pattern forming circuits, which drive cranial and spinal motor pools to produce respiratory and other motor patterns. Here we used calcium imaging combined with nerve recordings in newborn mice to reveal spontaneous population activity in the ventral brainstem...... and in the facial nucleus. In Fluo-8AM loaded brainstem-spinal cord preparations, respiratory activity on cervical nerves was synchronized with calcium signals at the ventrolateral brainstem surface. Individual ventrolateral neurons at the level of the parafacial respiratory group showed perfect or partial...... synchrony with respiratory nerve bursts. In brainstem-spinal cord preparations, cut at the level of the mid-facial nucleus, calcium signals were recorded in the dorsal, lateral and medial facial subnuclei during respiratory activity. Strong activity initiated in the dorsal subnucleus, followed by activity...

  15. Ozone exposure increases respiratory epithelial permeability in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehrl, H.R.; Vincent, L.M.; Kowalsky, R.J.; Horstman, D.H.; O'Neil, J.J.; McCartney, W.H.; Bromberg, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Ozone is a respiratory irritant that has been shown to cause an increase in the permeability of the respiratory epithelium in animals. We used inhaled aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-labeled diethylene triamine pentacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) to investigate whether human respiratory epithelial permeability is similarly affected by exposure to ozone. In a randomized, crossover double-blinded study, 8 healthy, nonsmoking young men were exposed for 2 h to purified air and 0.4 ppm ozone while performing intermittent high intensity treadmill exercise (minute ventilation = 66.8 L/min). SRaw and FVC were measured before and at the end of exposures. Seventy-five minutes after the exposures, the pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was measured by sequential posterior lung imaging with a computer-assisted gamma camera. Ozone exposure caused respiratory symptoms in all 8 subjects and was associated with a 14 +/- 2.8% (mean +/- SEM) decrement in FVC (p less than 0.001) and a 71 +/- 22% increase in SRaw (p = 0.04). Compared with the air exposure day, 7 of the 8 subjects showed increased /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance after the ozone exposure, with the mean value increasing from 0.59 +/- 0.08 to 1.75 +/- 0.43%/min (p = 0.03). These data show that ozone exposure sufficient to produce decrements in the pulmonary function of human subjects also causes an increase in /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

  16. Vena Cava Responsiveness to Controlled Isovolumetric Respiratory Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folino, Anna; Benzo, Marco; Pasquero, Paolo; Laguzzi, Andrea; Mesin, Luca; Messere, Alessandro; Porta, Massimo; Roatta, Silvestro

    2017-10-01

    Respirophasic variation of inferior vena cava (IVC) size is affected by large variability with spontaneous breathing. This study aims at characterizing the dependence of IVC size on controlled changes in intrathoracic pressure. Ten healthy subjects, in supine position, performed controlled isovolumetric respiratory efforts at functional residual capacity, attaining positive (5, 10, and 15 mmHg) and negative (-5, -10, and -15 mmHg) alveolar pressure levels. The isovolumetric constraint implies that equivalent changes are exhibited by alveolar and intrathoracic pressures during respiratory tasks. The IVC cross-sectional area equal to 2.88 ± 0.43 cm 2 at baseline (alveolar pressure = 0 mmHg) was progressively decreased by both expiratory and inspiratory efforts of increasing strength, with diaphragmatic efforts producing larger effects than thoracic ones: -55 ± 15% decrease, at +15 mmHg of alveolar pressure (P < .01), -80 ± 33 ± 12% at -15 mmHg diaphragmatic (P < .01), -33 ± 12% at -15 mmHg thoracic. Significant IVC changes in size (P < .01) and pulsatility (P < .05), along with non significant reduction in the response to respiratory efforts, were also observed during the first 30 minutes of supine rest, detecting an increase in vascular filling, and taking place after switching from the standing to the supine position. This study quantified the dependence of the IVC cross-sectional area on controlled intrathoracic pressure changes and evidenced the stronger influence of diaphragmatic over thoracic activity. Individual variability in thoracic/diaphragmatic respiratory pattern should be considered in the interpretation of the respirophasic modulations of IVC size. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  17. SMART phones and the acute respiratory patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, L

    2012-05-01

    Definition of Respiratory Failure using PaO2 alone is confounded when patients are commenced on oxygen therapy prior to arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. Furthermore, classification of Respiratory Failure as Type 1 or Type 2 using PaCO2 alone can give an inaccurate account of events as both types can co-exist. 100 consecutive presentations of acute respiratory distress were assessed initially using PaO2, and subsequently PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio, to diagnose Respiratory Failure. Respiratory Failure cases were classified as Type 1 or Type 2 initially using PaCO2, and subsequently alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient. Any resultant change in management was documented. Of 100 presentations, an additional 16 cases were diagnosed as Respiratory Failure using PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio in place of PaO2 alone (p = 0.0338). Of 57 cases of Respiratory Failure, 22 cases classified as Type 2 using PaCO2 alone were reclassified as Type 1 using A-a gradient (p < 0.001). Of these 22 cases, management changed in 18.

  18. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI. The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in lower respiratory tract. Recently, a new human pathogen belonging to the subfamily Pneumovirinae was identified, the human metapneumovirus (hMPV, which is structurally similar to the hRSV, in genomic organization, viral structure, antigenicity and clinical symptoms.  The subfamily Pneumovirinae contains two genera: genus Pneumovirus contains hRSV, the bovine (bRSV, as well as the ovine and caprine respiratory syncytial virus and pneumonia virus of mice, the second genus Metapneumovirus, consists of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV. In this work, we present a brief narrative review of the literature on important aspects of the biology, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of infections by two respiratory viruses.

  19. Systemic dermatitis and obstructive respiratory syndrome following occupational sensitization to trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raşcu, Agripina; Bucur, Letiţia; Naghi, Eugenia; Drăghici, B

    2003-01-01

    We present a derma-respiratory syndrome in a patient occupationally exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE). At the beginning of its industrial use trichloroethylene was considered harmless. But, in time it showed a high noxious capacity. It produces an important and various pathology, which evolves as acute or chronic disease. The case we present shows that trichloroethylene can induce cutaneous pathology that excels contact dermatitis. It also proves that trichloroethylene can produce systemic effects (obstructive respiratory syndrome). The particularity of the case is based on the succession of the events, first the cutaneous and then the respiratory effects. A long period of time was necessary for the installation of the symptoms (for cutaneous and bronchial sensitization to take place). The case presented is the proof that trichloroethylene's great toxicity cannot be doubted and that the clinical forms due to sensitization to trichloroethylene can be dramatic.

  20. Methane synthesis under mild conditions for decentralized applications; Methansynthese unter milden Bedingungen fuer dezentrale Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, Michael [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Roensch, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    It is a central aim of the German government to significantly reduce the emission of greenhouse gases in the next years. One possibility to reach this aim is the substitution of fossil fuels, especially natural gas, by fuels from biogenic sources (Bio-SNG). However, it is a drawback of Bio-SNG that the production costs are considerably higher than those of fossil natural gas. This work provides an approach to reduce the production costs of Bio-SNG. It is the aim to reduce the process parameters of the methane synthesis. At the same time, it has to be ensured that high methane yields are achieved even at those mild conditions. A procedure for the optimization of the methanation catalyst activity will be presented. If the catalyst is as active as possible even at mild conditions, it will be possible to produce Bio-SNG cost efficient even in small, decentralized scale.

  1. [Unpredictable chronic mild stress effects on antidepressants activities in forced swim test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, N V; Kalinina, T S; Voronina, T A

    2015-02-01

    The experiments has been designed to study unpredictable chronic mild stress effect on anti-depressive activities of amitriptyline (10 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) in forced swim test in male outbred mice. It is shown that acute treatment with fluoxetine does not produce any antidepressant effects in mice following stress of 14 days while the sub-chronic injections of fluoxetine result in more deep depressive-like behavior. In 28 daily stressed mice, antidepressant effect of fluoxetine is observed independently of the injection rates. Amitriptyline demonstrates the antidepressant activity regardless of the duration of stress or administration scheduling, but at the same time the severity of anti-immobilization effect of amitriptyline in stressed mice is weaker in compare to non-stressed trails. Thus, the injection rates and duration of unpredictable mild chronic stress are the parameters that determine the efficiency of antidepressants in the mouse forced swimming test.

  2. Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)—positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis—produces commercially...

  3. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow during Wakeful Rest in Older Subjects with Mild to Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Andrée-Ann; Gagnon, Katia; Arbour, Caroline; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Montplaisir, Jacques; Gagnon, Jean-François; Gosselin, Nadia

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during wakeful rest in older subjects with mild to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and healthy controls, and to identify markers of OSA severity that predict altered rCBF. High-resolution (99m)Tc-HMPAO SPECT imaging during wakeful rest. Research sleep laboratory affiliated with a University hospital. Fifty untreated OSA patients aged between 55 and 85 years, divided into mild, moderate, and severe OSA, and 20 age-matched healthy controls. N/A. Using statistical parametric mapping, rCBF was compared between groups and correlated with clinical, respiratory, and sleep variables. Whereas no rCBF change was observed in mild and moderate groups, participants with severe OSA had reduced rCBF compared to controls in the left parietal lobules, left precentral gyrus, bilateral postcentral gyri, and right precuneus. Reduced rCBF in these regions and in areas of the bilateral frontal and left temporal cortex was associated with more hypopneas, snoring, hypoxemia, and sleepiness. Higher apnea, microarousal, and body mass indexes were correlated to increased rCBF in the basal ganglia, insula, and limbic system. While older individuals with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) had hypoperfusion in the sensorimotor and parietal areas, respiratory variables and subjective sleepiness were correlated with extended regions of hypoperfusion in the lateral cortex. Interestingly, OSA severity, sleep fragmentation, and obesity correlated with increased perfusion in subcortical and medial cortical regions. Anomalies with such a distribution could result in cognitive deficits and reflect impaired vascular regulation, altered neuronal integrity, and/or undergoing neurodegenerative processes. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. Neuropathology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Shigeo; Saito, Yuko

    2007-01-01

    Described are retrospective pathological studies on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) of brain specimens in the brain bank of authors' institute and current clinical studies of outpatients for screening of MCI based on those pathological findings. The study projects, aided by Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) from 2003 and from 2007, have aimed to develop the optimal way for prophylaxis of dementia. In the former autopsy, about 10% of the elderly dead registered in the institute are found to have pathological changes of the clinical dementia rating 0.5, in whom the early Alzheimer disease (AD), Lewy body dementia, argentaffin granular disease and neurofibrillary tangle dominant disease are involved in a similar ratio to each other. Clinically, new patients with memory complaint are first screened by neurological tests involving CT, and then those with suspicious dementia undergo the second screening (2-day hospitalization) involving MRI with VSRAD (Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for AD), ECD single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with eZis (easy Z-score imaging system), myocardial scintigraphy with homovanillic acid (HVA)/m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), and if necessary, PET with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), PIB (Pittsburgh Compound B, an amyloid prove) and/or 11 C-CFT and 11 C-raclopride. Further, new patients with suspicious Parkinson disease undergo the screening (3-day) of various tests involving MRI with voxel-based morphometry and VSRAD, cerebral blood flow ECD SPECT with eZis and MIBG myocardial scintigraphy. It is concluded that AD is the most important subject in MCI and systemic diseases can also affect the cognitive ability as well. (R.T.)

  5. Respiratory Depression Caused by Heroin Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Hakan Cansiz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Heroin is a semisynthetic narcotic analgesic and heroin abuse is common due to its pleasure-inducing effect. For the last 30 years heroin abuse has become an important worldwide public health problem. Heroin can be administered in many different ways as preferred. Heroin affects many systems including respiratory system, cardiovascular system and particulary the central nervous system. Overdose use of heroin intravenously can be fatal due to respiratory depression. In this letter, we wanted to engage attention to respiratory depression caused by heroin abuse and potential benefits of using naloxone. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 248-250

  6. HOSPITALIZATIONS DUE TO RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS DURING DIWALI FESTIVAL IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The burning of firecrackers during Diwali festival produces an adverse respiratory outcome. However, there are no published articles on the impact of fireworks on hospital admission due to acute respiratory issues, hospital stay, and respiratory mortality during Diwali in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a prospective, open label, observational study. It was conducted in patients admitted to the pulmonary emergency unit with respiratory symptoms 15 days before and after Diwali. It was conducted after the approval of ethics committee and written informed consent. RESULTS The number of admissions post-Diwali were significantly more compared to pre-Diwali from both rural and urban locations (p<0.001. The mean duration of hospital stay was significantly less pre-Diwali (7.59±0.74 days compared to post-Diwali (9.46±0.44 days. Also, significantly increased number of patients required ventilator support post Diwali. CONCLUSION The findings from the present study validate the deterioration of respiratory health during Diwali festival in India. There should be more awareness campaigns about the harmful effects of fire-crackers. Patients suffering from respiratory problems should be advised to avoid heavy exposure to fireworks

  7. Chaotic dynamics of respiratory sounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, C.; Johansson, A.; Hult, P.; Ask, P.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing interest in nonlinear analysis of respiratory sounds (RS), but little has been done to justify the use of nonlinear tools on such data. The aim of this paper is to investigate the stationarity, linearity and chaotic dynamics of recorded RS. Two independent data sets from 8 + 8 healthy subjects were recorded and investigated. The first set consisted of lung sounds (LS) recorded with an electronic stethoscope and the other of tracheal sounds (TS) recorded with a contact accelerometer. Recurrence plot analysis revealed that both LS and TS are quasistationary, with the parts corresponding to inspiratory and expiratory flow plateaus being stationary. Surrogate data tests could not provide statistically sufficient evidence regarding the nonlinearity of the data. The null hypothesis could not be rejected in 4 out of 32 LS cases and in 15 out of 32 TS cases. However, the Lyapunov spectra, the correlation dimension (D 2 ) and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension (D KY ) all indicate chaotic behavior. The Lyapunov analysis showed that the sum of the exponents was negative in all cases and that the largest exponent was found to be positive. The results are partly ambiguous, but provide some evidence of chaotic dynamics of RS, both concerning LS and TS. The results motivate continuous use of nonlinear tools for analysing RS data

  8. Chaotic dynamics of respiratory sounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden) and Biomedical Engineering, Orebro University Hospital, S-70185 Orebro (Sweden)]. E-mail: christer@imt.liu.se; Johansson, A. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Hult, P. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Biomedical Engineering, Orebro University Hospital, S-70185 Orebro (Sweden); Ask, P. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Biomedical Engineering, Orebro University Hospital, S-70185 Orebro (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    There is a growing interest in nonlinear analysis of respiratory sounds (RS), but little has been done to justify the use of nonlinear tools on such data. The aim of this paper is to investigate the stationarity, linearity and chaotic dynamics of recorded RS. Two independent data sets from 8 + 8 healthy subjects were recorded and investigated. The first set consisted of lung sounds (LS) recorded with an electronic stethoscope and the other of tracheal sounds (TS) recorded with a contact accelerometer. Recurrence plot analysis revealed that both LS and TS are quasistationary, with the parts corresponding to inspiratory and expiratory flow plateaus being stationary. Surrogate data tests could not provide statistically sufficient evidence regarding the nonlinearity of the data. The null hypothesis could not be rejected in 4 out of 32 LS cases and in 15 out of 32 TS cases. However, the Lyapunov spectra, the correlation dimension (D {sub 2}) and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension (D {sub KY}) all indicate chaotic behavior. The Lyapunov analysis showed that the sum of the exponents was negative in all cases and that the largest exponent was found to be positive. The results are partly ambiguous, but provide some evidence of chaotic dynamics of RS, both concerning LS and TS. The results motivate continuous use of nonlinear tools for analysing RS data.

  9. Metformin-associated respiratory alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Sean M; Cumpston, Kirk; Lipsky, Martin S; Patel, Nirali; Leikin, Jerrold B

    2004-01-01

    We present an 84-year-old man with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, glaucoma, and bladder cancer who presented to the emergency department after the police found him disoriented and confused. Metformin therapy began 3 days before, and he denied any overdose or suicidal ideation. Other daily medications included glipizide, fluticasone, prednisone, aspirin, furosemide, insulin, and potassium supplements. In the emergency department, his vital signs were significant for hypertension (168/90), tachycardia (120 bpm), and Kussmaul respirations at 24 breaths per minute. Oxygen saturation was 99% on room air, and a fingerstick glucose was 307 mg/dL. He was disoriented to time and answered questions slowly. Metformin was discontinued, and by day 3, the patient's vital signs and laboratory test results normalized. He has been asymptomatic at subsequent follow-up visits. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis is a well-known phenomenon. Respiratory alkalosis may be an early adverse event induced by metformin prior to the development of lactic acidosis.

  10. Regional, age and respiratory-secretion-specific prevalence of respiratory viruses associated with asthma exacerbation: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xue-Yan; Xu, Yan-Jun; Guan, Wei-Jie; Lin, Li-Feng

    2018-04-01

    Despite increased understanding of how viral infection is involved in asthma exacerbations, it is less clear which viruses are involved and to what extent they contribute to asthma exacerbations. Here, we sought to determine the prevalence of different respiratory viruses during asthma exacerbations. Systematic computerized searches of the literature up to June 2017 without language limitation were performed. The primary focus was on the prevalence of respiratory viruses, including AdV (adenovirus), BoV (bocavirus), CoV (coronavirus), CMV (cytomegalovirus), EnV (enterovirus), HSV (herpes simplex virus), IfV (influenza virus), MpV (metapneumovirus), PiV (parainfluenzavirus), RV (rhinovirus) and RSV (respiratory syncytial virus) during asthma exacerbations. We also examined the prevalence of viral infection stratified by age, geographic region, type of respiratory secretion, and detection method. Sixty articles were included in the final analysis. During asthma exacerbations, the mean prevalence of AdV, BoV, CoV, CMV, EnV, HSV, IfV, MpV, PiV, RV and RSV was 3.8%, 6.9%, 8.4%, 7.2%, 10.1%, 12.3%, 10.0%, 5.3%, 5.6%, 42.1% and 13.6%, respectively. EnV, MPV, RV and RSV were more prevalent in children, whereas AdV, BoV, CoV, IfV and PiV were more frequently present in adults. RV was the major virus detected globally, except in Africa. RV could be detected in both the upper and lower airway. Polymerase chain reaction was the most sensitive method for detecting viral infection. Our findings indicate the need to develop prophylactic polyvalent or polyvirus (including RV, EnV, IfV and RSV) vaccines that produce herd immunity and reduce the healthcare burden associated with virus-induced asthma exacerbations.

  11. Infection of the upper respiratory tract with seasonal influenza A(H3N2) virus induces protective immunity in ferrets against infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus after intranasal, but not intratracheal, inoculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bodewes (Rogier); J.H.C.M. Kreijtz (Joost); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M.L.B. Hillaire (Marine); S.E. Vogelzang-van Trierum (Stella ); N. Nieuwkoop; P. van Run (Peter); T. Kuiken (Thijs); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe clinical symptoms caused by infection with influenza A virusvary widely and depend on the strain causing the infection, the dose and route of inoculation, and the presence of preexisting immunity. In most cases, seasonal influenza A viruses cause relatively mild upper respiratory

  12. [Analysis of serious respiratory complications in PICU in children with measles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Danqun; Ding, Jie; Sun, Jingmin; Tong, Wenjia

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the characteristics of the serious complications of 17 cases with measles in ICU. Seventeen cases with measles with serious complications in ICU in Anhui Provincial Children's Hospital were recruited from May 2012 to May 2013. Clinical characteristics, image finding, and prognosis were analyzed retrospectively. IgM antibody was positive in all the 17 cases, which included 9 male cases, 8 female cases, and their age was from 2 months to 10 years. All the 17 patients received mechanical ventilation because of severe respiratory distress within 1 week of onset, of which 14 cases were complicated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (acute ARDS), 6 cases of tension pneumothorax, 3 cases were complicated with bronchitis, laryngeal obstruction III degrees, and totally 7 cases died. The survived 10 patients were followed up for 1 year, 1 patient with localized pneumothorax, bronchopleural fistula, 1 case of mild pulmonary fibrosis, 1 case of acute laryngitis with persistent hoarseness, and mild inspiratory dyspnea were found. The remaining 7 cases fully recovered. Fourteen cases failed to inoculate measles vaccine. A higher risk of death and poor prognosis were found in children with measles who needed to be treated in PICU, especially for ARDS with pneumothorax. Laryngitis needed long time to cure and had weaning difficulties, and the case associated with pleural effusion or bronchopleural fistula must be treated with surgery, and the patients easily develop secondary bacterial infection.

  13. Respiratory signal analysis of liver cancer patients with respiratory-gated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Im; Jung, Sang Hoon; Kim, Chul Jong; Park, Hee Chul; Choi, Byung Ki

    2015-01-01

    External markers respiratory movement measuring device (RPM; Real-time Position Management, Varian Medical System, USA) Liver Cancer Radiation Therapy Respiratory gated with respiratory signal with irradiation time and the actual research by analyzing the respiratory phase with the breathing motion measurement device respiratory tuning evaluate the accuracy of radiation therapy May-September 2014 Novalis Tx. (Varian Medical System, USA) and liver cancer radiotherapy using respiratory gated RPM (Duty Cycle 20%, Gating window 40%-60%) of 16 patients who underwent total when recording the analyzed respiratory movement. After the breathing motion of the external markers recorded on the RPM was reconstructed by breathing through the acts phase analysis, for Beam-on Time and Duty Cycle recorded by using the reconstructed phase breathing breathing with RPM gated the prediction accuracy of the radiation treatment analysis and analyzed the correlation between prediction accuracy and Duty Cycle in accordance with the reproducibility of the respiratory movement. Treatment of 16 patients with respiratory cycle during the actual treatment plan was analyzed with an average difference -0.03 seconds (range -0.50 seconds to 0.09 seconds) could not be confirmed statistically significant difference between the two breathing (p = 0.472). The average respiratory period when treatment is 4.02 sec (0.71 sec), the average value of the respiratory cycle of the treatment was characterized by a standard deviation 7.43% (range 2.57 to 19.20%). Duty Cycle is that the actual average 16.05% (range 13.78 to 17.41%), average 56.05 got through the acts of the show and then analyzed% (range 39.23 to 75.10%) is planned in respiratory research phase (40% to 60%) in was confirmed. The investigation on the correlation between the ratio Duty Cycle and planned respiratory phase and the standard deviation of the respiratory cycle was analyzed in each -0.156 (p = 0.282) and -0.385 (p = 0.070). This study is

  14. Producing charcoal from wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental works to use wood wastes for producing charcoal are examined, which are being conducted in the Sverdlovsk assembly and adjustment administration of Soyuzorglestekhmontazh. A wasteless prototype installation for producing fine charcoal is described, along with its subsequent briqueting, which is made on the basis of units which are series produced by the factories of the country. The installation includes subassemblies for preparing and drying the raw material and for producing the charcoal briquets. In the opinion of specialists, the charcoal produced from the wastes may be effectively used in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and in the production of pipes.

  15. Impact of repeated daily exposure to intermittent hypoxia and mild sustained hypercapnia on apnea severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokhana, Sanar S; Gerst, David G; Lee, Dorothy S; Badr, M Safwan; Qureshi, Tabarak; Mateika, Jason H

    2012-02-01

    We examined whether exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH) during wakefulness impacted on the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) during sleep in individuals with sleep apnea. Participants were exposed to twelve 4-min episodes of hypoxia in the presence of sustained mild hypercapnia each day for 10 days. A control group was exposed to sustained mild hypercapnia for a similar duration. The intermittent hypoxia protocol was completed in the evening on day 1 and 10 and was followed by a sleep study. During all sleep studies, the change in esophageal pressure (ΔPes) from the beginning to the end of an apnea and the tidal volume immediately following apneic events were used to measure respiratory drive. Following exposure to IH on day 1 and 10, the AHI increased above baseline measures (day 1: 1.95 ± 0.42 fraction of baseline, P ≤ 0.01, vs. day 10: 1.53 ± 0.24 fraction of baseline, P < 0.06). The indexes were correlated to the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) measured during the IH protocol but were not correlated to the magnitude of ventilatory long-term facilitation (vLTF). Likewise, ΔPes and tidal volume measures were greater on day 1 and 10 compared with baseline (ΔPes: -8.37 ± 0.84 vs. -5.90 ± 1.30 cmH(2)0, P ≤ 0.04; tidal volume: 1,193.36 ± 101.85 vs. 1,015.14 ± 119.83 ml, P ≤ 0.01). This was not the case in the control group. Interestingly, the AHI on day 10 (0.78 ± 0.13 fraction of baseline, P ≤ 0.01) was significantly less than measures obtained during baseline and day 1 in the mild hypercapnia control group. We conclude that enhancement of the HVR initiated by exposure to IH may lead to increases in the AHI during sleep and that initiation of vLTF did not appear to impact on breathing stability. Lastly, our results suggest that repeated daily exposure to mild sustained hypercapnia may lead to a decrease in breathing events.

  16. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC ANATOMY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPIRATORY ASPERGILLOSIS IN JUVENILE WHOOPING CRANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Tobias; Kelley, Cristin; Pinkerton, Marie E; Hartup, Barry K

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in captivity reared, endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana). Objectives of this retrospective, case series, cross-sectional study were to describe computed tomography (CT) respiratory anatomy in a juvenile whooping crane without respiratory disease, compare CT characteristics with gross pathologic characteristics in a group of juvenile whooping cranes with respiratory aspergillosis, and test associations between the number of CT tracheal bends and bird sex and age. A total of 10 juvenile whooping cranes (one control, nine affected) were included. Seven affected cranes had CT characteristics of unilateral extrapulmonary bronchial occlusion or wall thickening, and seven cranes had luminal occlusion of the intrapulmonary primary or secondary bronchi. Air sac membrane thickening was observed in three cranes in the cranial and caudal thoracic air sacs, and air sac diverticulum opacification was observed in four cranes. Necropsy lesions consisted of severe, subacute to chronic, focally extensive granulomatous pathology of the trachea, primary bronchi, lungs, or air sacs. No false positive CT scan results were documented. Seven instances of false negative CT scan results occurred; six of these consisted of subtle, mild air sacculitis including membrane opacification or thickening, or the presence of small plaques found at necropsy. The number of CT tracheal bends was associated with bird age but not sex. Findings supported the use of CT as a diagnostic test for avian species with respiratory disease and tracheal coiling or elongated tracheae where endoscopic evaluation is impractical. © 2015 The Authors. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  17. Contact tracing the first Middle East respiratory syndrome case in the Philippines, February 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl Racelis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS is an illness caused by a coronavirus in which infected persons develop severe acute respiratory illness. A person can be infected through close contacts. This is an outbreak investigation report of the first confirmed MERS case in the Philippines and the subsequent contact tracing activities. Methods: Review of patient records and interviews with health-care personnel were done. Patient and close contacts were tested for MERS-coronavirus (CoV by real time-polymerase chain reaction. Close contacts were identified and categorized. All traced contacts were monitored daily for appearance of illness for 14 days starting from the date of last known exposure to the confirmed case. A standard log sheet was used for symptom monitoring. Results: The case was a 31-year-old female who was a health-care worker in Saudi Arabia. She had mild acute respiratory illness five days before travelling to the Philippines. On 1 February, she travelled with her husband to the Philippines while she had a fever. On 2 February, she attended a health facility in the Philippines. On 8 February, respiratory samples were tested for MERS-CoV and yielded positive results. A total of 449 close contacts were identified, and 297 (66% were traced. Of those traced, 15 developed respiratory symptoms. All of them tested negative for MERS. Discussion: In this outbreak investigation, the participation of health-care personnel in conducting vigorous contact tracing may have reduced the risk of transmission. However, being overly cautious to include more contacts for the outbreak response should be further reconsidered.

  18. SPECT acquisition using dynamic projections: a novel approach for data-driven respiratory gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, B.F.; Hatton, R.L.; Yip, N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Movement of the heart due to respiration has been previously demonstrated to produce potentially serious artefacts. On-line respiratory gating is difficult, as it requires a high level of patient cooperation. We demonstrate that use of dynamic acquisition of projections permits identification of the respiratory dynamics, allowing retrospective selection of data corresponding to a fixed point in the respiratory cycle. To demonstrate the feasibility of the technique a dynamic study was acquired just prior to myocardial per-fusion SPECT acquisition, using 5 frames/sec for 20 seconds (64*64 matrix) in anterior and lateral projections (using a dual-head right-angled configuration). The dynamic was processed a) by compressing frames in the transverse direction so as to illustrate time dependence, b) by plotting the centre of mass in the axial direction as a function of time. Respiratory motion was enhanced by use of temporal smoothing and intensity thresholding. In ten patients studied the cyclic pattern of motion due to respiratory dynamics was clearly visible in nine. Respiration typically resulted in around 1cm axial translation but in some individuals, movements as large as 3 cm were identified. The respiration rate ranged from 12-18 /min in agreement with independent observation of the patient's breathing pattern. These results suggest that retrospective respiratory gating is feasible without the need for any external respiratory monitoring device, provide that dynamic acquisition of SPECT projections is implemented. Correction for respiratory motion may also be feasible using this technique. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  19. Respiratory potential in sapwood of old versus young ponderosa pine trees in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruyn, Michele L; Gartner, Barbara L; Harmon, Mark E

    2002-02-01

    Our primary objective was to present and test a new technique for in vitro estimation of respiration of cores taken from old trees to determine respiratory trends in sapwood. Our secondary objective was to quantify effects of tree age and stem position on respiratory potential (rate of CO2 production of woody tissue under standardized laboratory conditions). We extracted cores from one to four vertical positions in boles of +200-, +50- and +15-year-old Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. trees. Cores were divided into five segments corresponding to radial depths of inner bark; outer, middle and inner sapwood; and heartwood. Data suggested that core segment CO2 production was an indicator of its respiratory activity, and that potential artifacts caused by wounding and extraction were minimal. On a dry mass basis, respiratory potential of inner bark was 3-15 times greater than that of sapwood at all heights for all ages (P sapwood at all heights and in all ages of trees, outer sapwood had a 30-60% higher respiratory potential than middle or inner sapwood (P sapwood. For all ages of trees, sapwood rings produced in the same calendar year released over 50% more CO2 at treetops than at bases (P sapwood volume basis, sapwood of younger trees had higher respiratory potential than sapwood of older trees. In contrast, the trend was reversed when using the outer-bark surface area of stems as a basis for comparing respiratory potential. The differences observed in respiratory potential calculated on a core dry mass, sapwood volume, or outer-bark surface area basis clearly demonstrate that the resulting trends within and among trees are determined by the way in which the data are expressed. Although these data are based on core segments rather than in vivo measurements, we conclude that the relative differences are probably valid even if the absolute differences are not.

  20. Effect of transoral tracheal wash on respiratory mechanics in dogs with respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Meghan E; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; deLaforcade, Armelle M

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a transoral tracheal wash (TOTW) on respiratory mechanics in dogs and to describe the use of a critical care ventilator (CCV) to determine respiratory mechanics. Fourteen client-owned dogs with respiratory diseases were enrolled. Respiratory mechanics, including static compliance (C stat ) and static resistance (R stat ), were determined before and after TOTW. Pre- and post-wash results were compared, with a P -value of mechanics, as observed by a reduction in C stat , presumably due to airway flooding and collapse. While no long-lasting effects were noted in these clinical patients, this effect should be considered when performing TOTW on dogs with respiratory diseases. Respiratory mechanics testing using a CCV was feasible and may be a useful clinical testing approach.

  1. Daily changes of peak expiratory flow and respiratory symptom occurrence around a soy processing factory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heederik, Dick; Doekes, Gert; van Strien, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate sensitization and acute respiratory health effects in inhabitants living in the vicinity of a factory producing soy oil. Methods. Two panels of potential responders were created on the basis of a response to a short screening questionnaire sent to random samples of 1,000

  2. Distinct molecular signatures of mild extrinsic and intrinsic atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Britta Cathrina; Litman, Thomas; Hald, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with underlying defects in epidermal function and immune responses. In this study, we used microarray analysis to investigate differences in gene expression in lesional skin from patients with mild extrinsic or intrinsic AD compared...... with mild extrinsic and intrinsic AD similar to previous reports for severe AD. Interestingly, expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses in intrinsic AD resembled that of psoriasis more than that of extrinsic AD. Overall, differences in expression of inflammation-associated genes found among...... patients with mild intrinsic and extrinsic AD correlated with previous findings for patients with severe intrinsic and extrinsic AD....

  3. Corrosion inhibition of mild steel by Capsicum annuum fruit paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan M. Reddy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The anti-corrosive property of Capsicum annuum fruit paste (CFP on mild steel was investigated. Weight loss and SEM analysis showed that the aqueous and ethanolic solutions of CFP exhibits excellent corrosion inhibition in 2 M HCl. Contact angle, surface atomic composition and FTIR studies verified the presence of an organic film on the mild steel surface. The FTIR spectra also indicated the formation of active compound-Fe complex. CFP thus shows potential as an inexpensive environment friendly corrosion inhibitor for mild steel.

  4. Farmakologisk behandling af mild ukompliceret hypertension i almen praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Maja Skov; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-01-01

    pressure 90-99 mmHg; no diabetes or cardiovascular disease) did not reduce mortality or morbidity. The evidence for pharmacotherapy in patients having mild/uncomplicated hypertension is weak. However, current Danish guidelines have taken this into consideration in their recommendations of pharmacotherapy......Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In Denmark, patients with hypertension are primarily managed in primary care. A recent Cochrane review concluded that pharmacotherapy of patients with mild hypertension (systolic blood pressure 140-159 mmHg; diastolic blood...... to patients with mild/uncomplicated hypertension....

  5. Effects of global warming on respiratory diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abe Olugbenga

    and tuberculosis), parasitic lung diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ... Methods: A literature search on global warming and respiratory diseases was carried out through the internet .... (COPD) The main factor to consider here is.

  6. Respiratory muscle training for multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietberg, Marc B.; Veerbeek, Janne M.; Gosselink, Rik; Kwakkel, Gert; van Wegen, Erwin E.H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system, affecting approximately 2.5 million people worldwide. People with MS may experience limitations in muscular strength and endurance - including the respiratory muscles, affecting functional performance and

  7. Respiratory function in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohlgemuth, M.; Horlings, G.C.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Gilhuis, H.J.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Maarel, S.M. van der; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Heijdra, Y.F.; Padberg, G.W.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that wheelchair dependency and (kypho-)scoliosis are risk factors for developing respiratory insufficiency in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, we examined 81 patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 1 of varying degrees of severity ranging from ambulatory

  8. Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report concludes that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), commonly known as secondhand smoke, is responsible for approximately 3,000 lung cancer deaths each year in nonsmoking adults and impairs respiratory health.

  9. Investigations of respiratory control systems simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    The Grodins' respiratory control model was investigated and it was determined that the following modifications were necessary before the model would be adaptable for current research efforts: (1) the controller equation must be modified to allow for integration of the respiratory system model with other physiological systems; (2) the system must be more closely correlated to the salient physiological functionings; (3) the respiratory frequency and the heart rate should be expanded to illustrate other physiological relationships and dependencies; and (4) the model should be adapted to particular individuals through a better defined set of initial parameter values in addition to relating these parameter values to the desired environmental conditions. Several of Milhorn's respiratory control models were also investigated in hopes of using some of their features as modifications for Grodins' model.

  10. Automated respiratory support in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claure, Nelson; Bancalari, Eduardo

    2009-02-01

    A considerable proportion of premature infants requires mechanical ventilatory support and supplemental oxygen. Due to their immaturity, exposure to these forms of respiratory support contributes to the development of lung injury, oxidative stress and abnormal retinal development. These conditions are associated with poor long-term respiratory and neurological outcome. Mechanically ventilated preterm infants present with frequent fluctuations in ventilation and gas exchange. Currently available ventilatory modes and manual adjustment to the ventilator or supplemental oxygen cannot effectively adapt to these recurrent fluctuations. Moreover, the respiratory support often exceeds the infant's real needs. Techniques that adapt the mechanical ventilatory support and supplemental oxygen to the changing needs of preterm infants are being developed in order to improve stability of gas exchange, to minimise respiratory support and to reduce personnel workload. This article describes the preliminary evidence on the application of these new techniques in preterm infants and animal models.

  11. Respiratory Disorders Among Workers in Slaughterhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasali Kasaeinasab

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of respiratory disorders was significantly higher among workers in slaughterhouses. Thus, the significant reduction in the percentage predicted lung function among workers in slaughterhouses might be associated with exposure to bioaerosols in their work environment.

  12. CAUSES OF RESPIRATORY DISTRESS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Karambin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nThere is a lack of large, prospective epidemiologic studies concerning acute lung injury (ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in pediatric population. To determine the different causes of respiratory distress in children, we prepared a retrospective study and included the whole 567 children with respiratory distress referred to 17-Shahrivar Hospital, Rasht, Guilan. Using their medical files, data including age, sex, and causes of respiratory distress were collected. SPSS 13.0 (statistical software applied for statistical analysis. Pneumonia, asthma, and croup were the major causes of ARDS in children with a rate of 38.4, 19.04, and 16.5 percent, respectively. It seems that infectious factors are at the top of the list of ARDS causing factors which can be helpful to approach and manage such patients. We suggest vaccinating these at risk groups against common infectious factors such as H. Influenza and RSV which can cause either pneumonia or inducing asthma.

  13. Learn about Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Planet and Lung Health by Reducing Air Pollution Blog: JUUL: A Wolf in Sheep's Clothing '; } else { ... while processing XML file."); } }); } } --> Blank Section Header Lung Disease Lookup RSV Learn About Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) RSV Symptoms, Causes & Risk Factors ...

  14. Effects of air pollution on respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bayram

    2015-01-01

    In conclusion, air pollutants can induce respiratory mortality and morbidity by leading to airway and lung inflammation and impairing the airway defence system against noxious agents and microorganisms such as mycobacteria TB.

  15. Time estimation in mild Alzheimer's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichelli Paolo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time information processing relies on memory, which greatly supports the operations of hypothetical internal timekeepers. Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET postulates the existence of a memory component that is functionally separated from an internal clock and other processing stages. SET has devised several experimental procedures to map these cognitive stages onto cerebral regions and neurotransmitter systems. One of these, the time bisection procedure, has provided support for a dissociation between the clock stage, controlled by dopaminergic systems, and the memory stage, mainly supported by cholinergic neuronal networks. This study aimed at linking the specific memory processes predicted by SET to brain mechanisms, by submitting time bisection tasks to patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD, that are known to present substantial degeneration of the fronto-temporal regions underpinning memory. Methods Twelve mild AD patients were required to make temporal judgments about intervals either ranging from 100 to 600 ms (short time bisection task or from 1000 to 3000 ms (long time bisection task. Their performance was compared with that of a group of aged-matched control participants and a group of young control subjects. Results Long time bisection scores of AD patients were not significantly different from those of the two control groups. In contrast, AD patients showed increased variability (as indexed by increased WR values in timing millisecond durations and a generalized inconsistency of responses over the same interval in both the short and long bisection tasks. A similar, though milder, decreased millisecond interval sensitivity was found for elderly subjects. Conclusion The present results, that are consistent with those of previous timing studies in AD, are interpreted within the SET framework as not selectively dependent on working or reference memory disruptions but as possibly due to distortions in different

  16. Obesity and common respiratory diseases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulos, Melissa; Tapia, Ignacio E

    2017-06-01

    Obesity has become an important public health problem worldwide that disproportionally affects the underserved. Obesity has been associated with many diseases and unfortunately has not spared the respiratory system. Specifically, the prevalence of common respiratory problems, such as asthma and obstructive sleep apnoea, is higher in obese children. Further, the treatment outcomes of these frequent conditions is also worse in obese children compared to lean controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in immunocompromised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azoulay, Elie; Pickkers, Peter; Soares, Marcio

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In immunocompromised patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (ARF), initial management aims primarily to avoid invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). METHODS: To assess the impact of initial management on IMV and mortality rates, we performed a multinational observational.......54-0.87), day-1 SOFA excluding respiratory score (1.12/point, 1.08-1.16), PaO2/FiO2

  18. [Immunomodulators in Therapy of Respiratory Infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakov, V A; Isakov, D V

    2014-01-01

    Viral infections provoke dysbalance in the interferon system and inhibition of the cellular and phagocytic responses of the host. Long-term persistence of pathogenic viruses and bacteria induce atopy and could aggravate chronic respiratory diseases. The up-to-date classification of immunomodulators is described. High efficacy of interferon inductors, such as cycloferon and some others as auxiliary means in therapy or prophylaxis (immunorehabilitation) of viral respiratory infections in adults and children was shown.

  19. The obligate respiratory supercomplex from Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Wei-Chun; Kleinschroth, Thomas; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Baymann, Frauke; Neehaul, Yashvin; Hellwig, Petra; Richers, Sebastian; Vonck, Janet; Bott, Michael; Hunte, Carola

    2016-10-01

    Actinobacteria are closely linked to human life as industrial producers of bioactive molecules and as human pathogens. Respiratory cytochrome bcc complex and cytochrome aa3 oxidase are key components of their aerobic energy metabolism. They form a supercomplex in the actinobacterial species Corynebacterium glutamicum. With comprehensive bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis we show that genes for cyt bcc-aa3 supercomplex are characteristic for Actinobacteria (Actinobacteria and Acidimicrobiia, except the anaerobic orders Actinomycetales and Bifidobacteriales). An obligatory supercomplex is likely, due to the lack of genes encoding alternative electron transfer partners such as mono-heme cyt c. Instead, subunit QcrC of bcc complex, here classified as short di-heme cyt c, will provide the exclusive electron transfer link between the complexes as in C. glutamicum. Purified to high homogeneity, the C. glutamicum bcc-aa3 supercomplex contained all subunits and cofactors as analyzed by SDS-PAGE, BN-PAGE, absorption and EPR spectroscopy. Highly uniform supercomplex particles in electron microscopy analysis support a distinct structural composition. The supercomplex possesses a dimeric stoichiometry with a ratio of a-type, b-type and c-type hemes close to 1:1:1. Redox titrations revealed a low potential bcc complex (Em(ISP)=+160mV, Em(bL)=-291mV, Em(bH)=-163mV, Em(cc)=+100mV) fined-tuned for oxidation of menaquinol and a mixed potential aa3 oxidase (Em(CuA)=+150mV, Em(a/a3)=+143/+317mV) mediating between low and high redox potential to accomplish dioxygen reduction. The generated molecular model supports a stable assembled supercomplex with defined architecture which permits energetically efficient coupling of menaquinol oxidation and dioxygen reduction in one supramolecular entity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of Influenza C Viruses Among Outpatients and Patients Hospitalized for Severe Acute Respiratory Infection, Minnesota, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, Beth K; Friedlander, Hannah; Bistodeau, Sarah; Shu, Bo; Lynch, Brian; Martin, Karen; Bye, Erica; Como-Sabetti, Kathryn; Boxrud, David; Strain, Anna K; Chaves, Sandra S; Steffens, Andrea; Fowlkes, Ashley L; Lindstrom, Stephen; Lynfield, Ruth

    2018-03-19

    Existing literature suggests that influenza C typically causes mild respiratory tract disease. However, clinical and epidemiological data are limited. Four outpatient clinics and 3 hospitals submitted clinical data and respiratory specimens through a surveillance network for acute respiratory infection (ARI) from May 2013 through December 2016. Specimens were tested using multitarget nucleic acid amplification for 19-22 respiratory pathogens, including influenza C. Influenza C virus was detected among 59 of 10 202 (0.58%) hospitalized severe ARI cases and 11 of 2282 (0.48%) outpatients. Most detections occurred from December to March, 73% during the 2014-2015 season. Influenza C detections occurred among patients of all ages, with rates being similar between inpatients and outpatients. The highest rate of detection occurred among children aged 6-24 months (1.2%). Among hospitalized cases, 7 required intensive care. Medical comorbidities were reported in 58% of hospitalized cases and all who required intensive care. At least 1 other respiratory pathogen was detected in 40 (66%) cases, most commonly rhinovirus/enterovirus (25%) and respiratory syncytial virus (20%). The hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion gene was sequenced in 37 specimens, and both C/Kanagawa and C/Sao Paulo lineages were detected in inpatients and outpatients. We found seasonal circulation of influenza C with year-to-year variability. Detection was most frequent among young children but occurred in all ages. Some cases that were positive for influenza C, particularly those with comorbid conditions, had severe disease, suggesting a need for further study of the role of influenza C virus in the pathogenesis of respiratory disease.

  1. Decline in air pollution and change in prevalence in respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schikowski, Tamara; Ranft, Ulrich; Sugiri, Dorothee; Vierkötter, Andrea; Brüning, Thomas; Harth, Volker; Krämer, Ursula

    2010-08-22

    While adverse effects of exposure to air pollutants on respiratory health are well studied, little is known about the effect of a reduction in air pollutants on chronic respiratory symptoms and diseases. We investigated whether different declines in air pollution levels in industrialised and rural areas in Germany were associated with changes in respiratory health over a period of about 20 years. We used data from the SALIA cohort study in Germany (Study on the influence of Air pollution on Lung function, Inflammation and Aging) to assess the association between the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic respiratory symptoms and the decline in air pollution exposure. In 1985-1994, 4874 women aged 55-years took part in the baseline investigation. Of these, 2116 participated in a questionnaire follow-up in 2006 and in a subgroup of 402 women lung function was tested in 2008-2009. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to estimate the effect of a reduction in air pollution on respiratory symptoms and diseases. Ambient air concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic size respiratory symptoms and COPD. Among women who never smoked, the prevalence of chronic cough with phlegm and mild COPD was estimated at 21.4% and 39.5%, respectively, if no air pollution reduction was assumed, and at 13.3% and 17.5%, respectively, if air pollution reduction was assumed. We concluded that parallel to the decline of ambient air pollution over the last 20 years in the Ruhr area the age-related increase in chronic respiratory diseases and symptoms appears to attenuate in the population of elderly women.

  2. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Henrik Larsen, Hans; Koch, Anders

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p respiratory support. hMPV is present in young...

  3. Incidence of respiratory viruses in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Cornejo-Tapia, Angela; Weilg, Pablo; Verne, Eduardo; Nazario-Fuertes, Ronald; Ugarte, Claudia; del Valle, Luis J; Pumarola, Tomás

    2015-06-01

    Acute respiratory infections are responsible for high morbi-mortality in Peruvian children. However, the etiological agents are poorly identified. This study, conducted during the pandemic outbreak of H1N1 influenza in 2009, aims to determine the main etiological agents responsible for acute respiratory infections in children from Lima, Peru. Nasopharyngeal swabs collected from 717 children with acute respiratory infections between January 2009 and December 2010 were analyzed by multiplex RT-PCR for 13 respiratory viruses: influenza A, B, and C virus; parainfluenza virus (PIV) 1, 2, 3, and 4; and human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A and B, among others. Samples were also tested with direct fluorescent-antibodies (DFA) for six respiratory viruses. RT-PCR and DFA detected respiratory viruses in 240 (33.5%) and 85 (11.9%) cases, respectively. The most common etiological agents were RSV-A (15.3%), followed by influenza A (4.6%), PIV-1 (3.6%), and PIV-2 (1.8%). The viruses identified by DFA corresponded to RSV (5.9%) and influenza A (1.8%). Therefore, respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV) were found to be the most common etiology of acute respiratory infections. The authors suggest that active surveillance be conducted to identify the causative agents and improve clinical management, especially in the context of possible circulation of pandemic viruses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Respiratory and metabolic acidosis differentially affect the respiratory neuronal network in the ventral medulla of neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yasumasa; Masumiya, Haruko; Tamura, Yoshiyasu; Oku, Yoshitaka

    2007-11-01

    Two respiratory-related areas, the para-facial respiratory group/retrotrapezoid nucleus (pFRG/RTN) and the pre-Bötzinger complex/ventral respiratory group (preBötC/VRG), are thought to play key roles in respiratory rhythm. Because respiratory output patterns in response to respiratory and metabolic acidosis differ, we hypothesized that the responses of the medullary respiratory neuronal network to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are different. To test these hypotheses, we analysed respiratory-related activity in the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG of the neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord in vitro by optical imaging using a voltage-sensitive dye, and compared the effects of respiratory and metabolic acidosis on these two populations. We found that the spatiotemporal responses of respiratory-related regional activities to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are fundamentally different, although both acidosis similarly augmented respiratory output by increasing respiratory frequency. PreBötC/VRG activity, which is mainly inspiratory, was augmented by respiratory acidosis. Respiratory-modulated pixels increased in the preBötC/VRG area in response to respiratory acidosis. Metabolic acidosis shifted the respiratory phase in the pFRG/RTN; the pre-inspiratory dominant pattern shifted to inspiratory dominant. The responses of the pFRG/RTN activity to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are complex, and involve either augmentation or reduction in the size of respiratory-related areas. Furthermore, the activation pattern in the pFRG/RTN switched bi-directionally between pre-inspiratory/inspiratory and post-inspiratory. Electrophysiological study supported the results of our optical imaging study. We conclude that respiratory and metabolic acidosis differentially affect activities of the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG, inducing switching and shifts of the respiratory phase. We suggest that they differently influence the coupling states between the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG.

  5. The effect of aging on respiratory synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweon, Migyoung; Son, Sung Min; Kwon, Yong Hyun

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on respiratory synergy, through the comparison of an elderly group and a young group, to help further understanding of postural control in the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] Ten community-dwelling elderly subjects and ten young subjects performed standing under two different respiratory conditions: quiet breathing and apnea. Center of foot pressure displacement and joint angular movements of the head, trunk, pelvis, hips, knees and ankles were measured. [Results] The results of this study showed that the elderly group had a respiratory synergy different from that of the young group. The elderly group in quiet stance used significantly more hip and pelvis movements when compensating for respiratory disturbance than standing with apnea, while the young group used significantly more whole body segments. There were no differences in angular displacements in the quiet stance between the elderly and the young groups. [Conclusion] The elderly group demonstrated a respiratory synergy pattern different from that of the young group. The findings indicate that aging changes the respiratory synergy pattern and this change is not due to decreased functioning of the ankle joint alone.

  6. Respiratory processes in non-photosynthetic plastids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renato, Marta; Boronat, Albert; Azcón-Bieto, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Chlororespiration is a respiratory process located in chloroplast thylakoids which consists in an electron transport chain from NAD(P)H to oxygen. This respiratory chain involves the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex, the plastoquinone pool and the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX), and it probably acts as a safety valve to prevent the over-reduction of the photosynthetic machinery in stress conditions. The existence of a similar respiratory activity in non-photosynthetic plastids has been less studied. Recently, it has been reported that tomato fruit chromoplasts present an oxygen consumption activity linked to ATP synthesis. Etioplasts and amyloplasts contain several electron carriers and some subunits of the ATP synthase, so they could harbor a similar respiratory process. This review provides an update on the study about respiratory processes in chromoplasts, identifying the major gaps that need to be addressed in future research. It also reviews the proteomic data of etioplasts and amyloplasts, which suggest the presence of a respiratory electron transport chain in these plastids. PMID:26236317

  7. Respiratory processes in non-photosynthetic plastids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eRenato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlororespiration is a respiratory process located in chloroplast thylakoids which consists in an electron transport chain from NAD(PH to oxygen. This respiratory chain involves the NAD(PH dehydrogenase complex, the plastoquinone pool and the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX, and it probably acts as a safety valve to prevent the over-reduction of the photosynthetic machinery in stress conditions. The existence of a similar respiratory activity in non-photosynthetic plastids has been less studied. Recently, it has been reported that tomato fruit chromoplasts present an oxygen consumption activity linked to ATP synthesis. Etioplasts and amyloplasts contain several electron carriers and some subunits of the ATP synthase, so they could harbor a similar respiratory process. This review provides an update on the study about respiratory processes in chromoplasts, identifying the major gaps that need to be addressed in future research. It also reviews the proteomic data of etioplasts and amyloplasts, which suggest the presence of a respiratory electron transport chain in these plastids.

  8. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7–10 years was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides.

  9. Biology of human respiratory syncytial virus: a review | Aliyu | Bayero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute lower respiratory tract infection is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in young children worldwide. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the single most important viral cause of lower respiratory tract infection during infancy and early childhood worldwide. Respiratory syncytial virus belongs to the ...

  10. [Respiratory viral infections in a cohort of children during the first year of life and their role in the development of wheezing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Cristina; Aguado, Isabel; García-García, María Luz; Ruiz-Chercoles, Esther; Díaz-Martinez, Eloisa; Albañil, Rosa María; Campelo, Olga; Olivas, Antonio; Muñóz-Gonzalez, Luisa; Pozo, Francisco; Fernandez-Arroyo, Rosa; Fernandez-Rincón, Adelaida; Calderon, Ana; Casas, Inmaculada

    2017-08-01

    It is known that infants with viral respiratory infections severe enough to require hospital admission have a high risk of developing recurrent wheezing. Few data have been published on unselected populations. The main aim of this study was to analyse symptomatic and asymptomatic respiratory viral infections during the first year of life in a cohort of infants, recruited at birth, and the development of recurrent wheezing. A total of 302 newborns were recruited. A nasopharyngeal aspirate was taken when the patients had a respiratory infection, as well as in the visits for vaccination at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months. RT-nested PCR assays were performed to detect 16 viruses. A total of 1,293 samples were analysed (1,005 healthy controls and 288 respiratory infections). Samples taken during routine check-ups were positive in 30.8% of cases, while those with respiratory infection were positive in 77.8%, P<.001 (OR: 3, 95% CI: 2.4-3.8). A total of 239 (79%) infants had at least 1 positive respiratory viral infection detected. The most frequent virus (71%) was rhinovirus (RV). Recurrent wheezing was found in 27 (11%) children during their first year of life (1.2 episodes, SD 2.9). Recurrent wheezing was present in 58.3% of patients admitted to hospital during their first viral infection, vs. 8.6% of infants when the first infection was mild or who had asymptomatic viral detection, P<.001 (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.05-4.5). In our series, severe respiratory infections leading to hospitalisation in the first months of life are risk factors for developing wheezing, but not in the case of mild RV infections. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Steel fiber replacement of mild steel in prestressed concrete beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    In traditional prestressed concrete beams, longitudinal prestressed tendons serve to resist bending moment and : transverse mild steel bars (or stirrups) are used to carry shear forces. However, traditional prestressed concrete I-beams : exhibit earl...

  12. Cognitive Profile of Elderly Patients with Mild Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Gramstad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A pattern characterizing cognitive deficits in mild stroke could help in differential diagnosis and rehabilitation planning. Methods: Fifty patients with mild stroke (modified Rankin scale ≤2 at discharge aged >60 years were given the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R and the Stroop test. Results: On HVLT-R, significant impairments were found in learning and recall, but not in delayed recall. The Stroop test revealed significant impairments in reading speed, but not in color-word interference. Using the MMSE, significant deficits were only found in the youngest age group. Conclusion: Elderly patients with mild stroke show deficits in verbal learning/recall and in reading speed, but not in the MMSE, delayed recall or color-word interference. The deficits are consistent with a mild-to-moderate brain dysfunction, with relative sparing of medial brain structures.

  13. ALMOST AUTOMORPHIC MILD SOLUTIONS TO SOME FRACTIONAL DELAY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,a new and general existence and uniqueness theorem of almost automorphic mild solutions is obtained for some fractional delay differential equations,using sectorial operators and the Banach contraction principle.

  14. Reflections on "Multisensory Mathematics for Children with Mild Disabilities."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kristin S.

    1993-01-01

    The author of EC 606 784 describes the background of her research, noting her experience with the "TOUCH MATH" manipulative materials to help students with mild disabilities acquire math facts and computational skills. (DB)

  15. Recent neuroimaging techniques in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Heather G; Vanderploeg, Rodney D; Curtiss, Glenn; Warden, Deborah L

    2007-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by acute physiological changes that result in at least some acute cognitive difficulties and typically resolve by 3 months postinjury. Because the majority of mild TBI patients have normal structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography (CT) scans, there is increasing attention directed at finding objective physiological correlates of persistent cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms through experimental neuroimaging techniques. The authors review studies utilizing these techniques in patients with mild TBI; these techniques may provide more sensitive assessment of structural and functional abnormalities following mild TBI. Particular promise is evident with fMRI, PET, and SPECT scanning, as demonstrated by associations between brain activation and clinical outcomes.

  16. Preliminary questions before studying mild traumatic brain injury outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, P; Carrière, H; Habonimana, D; Dumond, J-J

    2009-07-01

    To point out from the literature the issues in mild traumatic brain injury outcome. METHODOLOGY-RESULTS: The literature review allows to point out several different factors involved in the difficulty to study mild traumatic brain injury: mild traumatic brain injury definition, postconcussional syndrome definition, diagnosis threshold, severity and functional symptoms outcome, neuropsychological tests, unspecific syndrome feature, individual factors, confounding factors and treatment interventions. The mild traumatic brain injury outcome study is complicated by the definitions issues and especially their practical use and by the multiplicity and the intricate interrelationships among involved factors. The individual outcome and social cost weight is widely emphasized for an event still considered as medically trivial. The well-ordered preventive interventions necessity and the targeted treatment programs need for the persisting postconcussive symptoms complete our critical review.

  17. Simulation of MILD combustion using Perfectly Stirred Reactor model

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Z.; Vanteru, Mahendra Reddy; Ruan, S.; Doan, N. A K; Roberts, William L.; Swaminathan, N.

    2016-01-01

    A simple model based on a Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) is proposed for moderate or intense low-oxygen dilution (MILD) combustion. The PSR calculation is performed covering the entire flammability range and the tabulated chemistry approach is used

  18. Steel fiber replacement of mild steel in prestressed concrete beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In traditional prestressed concrete beams, longitudinal prestressed tendons serve to resist bending moment and transverse mild : steel bars (or stirrups) are used to carry shear forces. However, traditional prestressed concrete I-beams exhibit early-...

  19. Evaluating and comparing algorithms for respiratory motion prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, F; Dürichen, R; Schlaefer, A; Schweikard, A

    2013-01-01

    In robotic radiosurgery, it is necessary to compensate for systematic latencies arising from target tracking and mechanical constraints. This compensation is usually achieved by means of an algorithm which computes the future target position. In most scientific works on respiratory motion prediction, only one or two algorithms are evaluated on a limited amount of very short motion traces. The purpose of this work is to gain more insight into the real world capabilities of respiratory motion prediction methods by evaluating many algorithms on an unprecedented amount of data. We have evaluated six algorithms, the normalized least mean squares (nLMS), recursive least squares (RLS), multi-step linear methods (MULIN), wavelet-based multiscale autoregression (wLMS), extended Kalman filtering, and ε-support vector regression (SVRpred) methods, on an extensive database of 304 respiratory motion traces. The traces were collected during treatment with the CyberKnife (Accuray, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA) and feature an average length of 71 min. Evaluation was done using a graphical prediction toolkit, which is available to the general public, as is the data we used. The experiments show that the nLMS algorithm—which is one of the algorithms currently used in the CyberKnife—is outperformed by all other methods. This is especially true in the case of the wLMS, the SVRpred, and the MULIN algorithms, which perform much better. The nLMS algorithm produces a relative root mean square (RMS) error of 75% or less (i.e., a reduction in error of 25% or more when compared to not doing prediction) in only 38% of the test cases, whereas the MULIN and SVRpred methods reach this level in more than 77%, the wLMS algorithm in more than 84% of the test cases. Our work shows that the wLMS algorithm is the most accurate algorithm and does not require parameter tuning, making it an ideal candidate for clinical implementation. Additionally, we have seen that the structure of a patient

  20. Perioperative corticosteroids for intermittent and mild persistent asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroto Matsuse; Terufumi Shimoda; Ikuko Machida; Yuki Kondo; Tetsuya Kawano; Sachiko Saeki; Shinya Tomari; Kazuko Mitsuta; Chizu Fukushima; Yasushi Obase; Shigeru Kohno

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Asthmatics are considered to be at high risk for pulmonary complications during general anesthesia with tracheal intubation. The purpose of the present study was to determine the usefulness of perioperative corticosteroids for mild asthmatics in preventing perioperative exacerbation of asthma. Methods: Airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine was determined in patients with intermittent (n = 27) and mild persistent (n = 48) asthma before general anesthesia who underwe...

  1. Ventilatory sensitivity to mild asphyxia: prone versus supine sleep position

    OpenAIRE

    Galland, B; Bolton, D; Taylor, B; Sayers, R; Williams, S

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To compare the effects of prone and supine sleep position on the main physiological responses to mild asphyxia: increase in ventilation and arousal.
METHODS—Ventilatory and arousal responses to mild asphyxia (hypercapnia/hypoxia) were measured in 53 healthy infants at newborn and 3 months of age, during quiet sleep (QS) and active sleep (AS), and in supine and prone sleep positions. The asphyxial test mimicked face down rebreathing by slowly altering the inspired air: C...

  2. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    OpenAIRE

    Paunović, Dragana; Šolević-Knudsen, Tatjana; Krivokapić, Mirjana; Zlatković, Branislav; Antić, Mališa

    2012-01-01

    Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetonitrile. The most a...

  3. Evaluation of the Usefulness of the Respiratory Guidance System in the Respiratory Gating Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Cheol; Kim, Sun Myung; Do, Gyeong Min; Park, Geun Yong; Kim, Gun Oh; Kim, Young Bum [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Guro Hospital, Korea Univeristy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The respiration is one of the most important factors in respiratory gating radiation therapy (RGRT). We have developed an unique respiratory guidance system using an audio-visual system in order to support and stabilize individual patient's respiration and evaluated the usefulness of this system. Seven patients received the RGRT at our clinic from June 2011 to April 2012. After breathing exercise standard deviations by the superficial contents of respiratory cycles and functions, and analyzed them to examine changes in their breathing before and with the audio-visual system, we measured their spontaneous respiration and their respiration with the audio-visual system respectively. With the measured data, we yielded after the therapy. The PTP (peak to peak) of the standard deviations of the free breathing, the audio guidance system, and the respiratory guidance system were 0.343, 0.148, and 0.078 respectively. The respiratory cycles were 0.645, 0.345, and 0.171 respectively and the superficial contents of the respiratory functions were 2.591, 1.008, and 0.877 respectively. The average values of the differences in the standard deviations among the whole patients at the CT room and therapy room were 0.425 for the PTP, 1.566 for the respiratory cycles, and 3.671 for the respiratory superficial contents. As for the standard deviations before and after the application of the PTP respiratory guidance system, that of the PTP was 0.265, that of the respiratory cycles was 0.474, and that of the respiratory superficial contents. The results of t-test of the values before and after free breathing and the audio-visual guidance system showed that the P-value of the PTP was 0.035, that of the cycles 0.009, and that of the respiratory superficial contents 0.010. The respiratory control could be one of the most important factors in the RGRT which determines the success or failure of a treatment. We were able to get more stable breathing with the audio-visual respiratory

  4. Evaluation of the Usefulness of the Respiratory Guidance System in the Respiratory Gating Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeong Cheol; Kim, Sun Myung; Do, Gyeong Min; Park, Geun Yong; Kim, Gun Oh; Kim, Young Bum

    2012-01-01

    The respiration is one of the most important factors in respiratory gating radiation therapy (RGRT). We have developed an unique respiratory guidance system using an audio-visual system in order to support and stabilize individual patient's respiration and evaluated the usefulness of this system. Seven patients received the RGRT at our clinic from June 2011 to April 2012. After breathing exercise standard deviations by the superficial contents of respiratory cycles and functions, and analyzed them to examine changes in their breathing before and with the audio-visual system, we measured their spontaneous respiration and their respiration with the audio-visual system respectively. With the measured data, we yielded after the therapy. The PTP (peak to peak) of the standard deviations of the free breathing, the audio guidance system, and the respiratory guidance system were 0.343, 0.148, and 0.078 respectively. The respiratory cycles were 0.645, 0.345, and 0.171 respectively and the superficial contents of the respiratory functions were 2.591, 1.008, and 0.877 respectively. The average values of the differences in the standard deviations among the whole patients at the CT room and therapy room were 0.425 for the PTP, 1.566 for the respiratory cycles, and 3.671 for the respiratory superficial contents. As for the standard deviations before and after the application of the PTP respiratory guidance system, that of the PTP was 0.265, that of the respiratory cycles was 0.474, and that of the respiratory superficial contents. The results of t-test of the values before and after free breathing and the audio-visual guidance system showed that the P-value of the PTP was 0.035, that of the cycles 0.009, and that of the respiratory superficial contents 0.010. The respiratory control could be one of the most important factors in the RGRT which determines the success or failure of a treatment. We were able to get more stable breathing with the audio-visual respiratory guidance

  5. Updating the mild encephalitis hypothesis of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechter, K

    2013-04-05

    Schizophrenia seems to be a heterogeneous disorder. Emerging evidence indicates that low level neuroinflammation (LLNI) may not occur infrequently. Many infectious agents with low overall pathogenicity are risk factors for psychoses including schizophrenia and for autoimmune disorders. According to the mild encephalitis (ME) hypothesis, LLNI represents the core pathogenetic mechanism in a schizophrenia subgroup that has syndromal overlap with other psychiatric disorders. ME may be triggered by infections, autoimmunity, toxicity, or trauma. A 'late hit' and gene-environment interaction are required to explain major findings about schizophrenia, and both aspects would be consistent with the ME hypothesis. Schizophrenia risk genes stay rather constant within populations despite a resulting low number of progeny; this may result from advantages associated with risk genes, e.g., an improved immune response, which may act protectively within changing environments, although they are associated with the disadvantage of increased susceptibility to psychotic disorders. Specific schizophrenic symptoms may arise with instances of LLNI when certain brain functional systems are involved, in addition to being shaped by pre-existing liability factors. Prodrome phase and the transition to a diseased status may be related to LLNI processes emerging and varying over time. The variability in the course of schizophrenia resembles the varying courses of autoimmune disorders, which result from three required factors: genes, the environment, and the immune system. Preliminary criteria for subgrouping neurodevelopmental, genetic, ME, and other types of schizophrenias are provided. A rare example of ME schizophrenia may be observed in Borna disease virus infection. Neurodevelopmental schizophrenia due to early infections has been estimated by others to explain approximately 30% of cases, but the underlying pathomechanisms of transition to disease remain in question. LLNI (e.g. from

  6. Detection of Mild Emphysema by Computed Tomography Density Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikgren, J.; Friman, O.; Borga, M.; Boijsen, M.; Gustavsson, S.; Bake, B.; Tylen, U.; Ekberg-Jansson, A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the ability of a conventional density mask method to detect mild emphysema by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT); to analyze factors influencing quantification of mild emphysema; and to validate a new algorithm for detection of mild emphysema. Material and Methods: Fifty-five healthy male smokers and 34 never-smokers, 61-62 years of age, were examined. Emphysema was evaluated visually, by the conventional density mask method, and by a new algorithm compensating for the effects of gravity and artifacts due to motion and the reconstruction algorithm. Effects of the reconstruction algorithm, slice thickness, and various threshold levels on the outcome of the density mask area were evaluated. Results: Forty-nine percent of the smokers had mild emphysema. The density mask area was higher the thinner the slice irrespective of the reconstruction algorithm and threshold level. The sharp algorithm resulted in increased density mask area. The new reconstruction algorithm could discriminate between smokers with and those without mild emphysema, whereas the density mask method could not. The diagnostic ability of the new algorithm was dependent on lung level. At about 90% specificity, sensitivity was 65-100% in the apical levels, but low in the rest of the lung. Conclusion: The conventional density mask method is inadequate for detecting mild emphysema, while the new algorithm improves the diagnostic ability but is nevertheless still imperfect

  7. Respiratory mechanics during sevoflurane anesthesia in children with and without asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habre, W; Scalfaro, P; Sims, C; Tiller, K; Sly, P D

    1999-11-01

    We studied lung function in children with and without asthma receiving anesthesia with sevoflurane. Fifty-two children had anesthesia induced with sevoflurane (up to 8%) in a mixture of 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen and then maintained at 3% with children breathing spontaneously via face mask and Jackson-Rees modification of the T-piece. Airway opening pressure and flow were then measured. After insertion of an oral endotracheal tube under 5% sevoflurane, measurements were repeated at 3%, as well as after increasing to 4.2%. Respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and compliance during expiration were calculated using multilinear regression analysis of airway opening pressure and flow, assuming a single-compartment model. Data from 44 children were analyzed (22 asthmatics and 22 normal children). The two groups were comparable with respect to age, weight, ventilation variables, and baseline respiratory mechanics. Intubation was associated with a significant increase in Rrs in asthmatics (17% +/- 49%), whereas in normal children, Rrs slightly decreased (-4% +/- 39%). At 4.2%, Rrs decreased slightly in both groups with almost no change in compliance system resistance. We concluded that in children with mild to moderate asthma, endotracheal intubation during sevoflurane anesthesia was associated with increase in Rrs that was not seen in nonasthmatic children. Tracheal intubation using sevoflurane as sole anesthetic is possible and its frequency is increasing. When comparing children with and without asthma, tracheal intubation under sevoflurane was associated with an increase in respiratory system resistance in asthmatic children. However, no apparent clinical adverse event was observed.

  8. Hypersensitivity Reaction and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Pyrethroid Poisoning and Role of Steroid Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisa George

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyrethroids are generally of low toxicity to humans, but in suicidal poisonings which are usually associated with ingestion of high doses, they lead to severe systemic effects. Case Report: A 30-year old woman presented to emergency department with a history of intentional ingestion of about 15 mL of prallethrin around 3 days earlier. She complained of shortness of breath along with chest pain for the last 2 days. She reported no vomiting or stomach pain prior to presentation to hospital. On chest auscultation, breath sounds were mildly decreased in bilateral infrascapular areas with generalized crepitation. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed respiratory alkalosis. Chest X ray and computed tomography of thorax revealed widespread confluent areas of consolidation with interlobular septal thickening involving bilateral parahilar regions suggestive of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. The patient did not respond to broad spectrum antibiotic coverage, diuretics and oxygen inhalation. Intravenous methylprednisolone (2 mg/kg/day divided 6 hourly was started and slowly tapered off during the next days. The patient discharged after 3 weeks in good health. Discussion: As pyrethroids can affect sodium channels, the osmotic gradient of alveolar epithelium probably disrupts and therefore, alveolar infiltrations gradually spread over lungs. In addition, there is a possibility of hypersensitivity reactions to pyrethroids, which can cause progressive inflammation and involve respiratory tract in severe cases. Conclusion: Pyrethroid poisoning can lead to ARDS. Steroid therapy may help such patients tide over the pulmonary crisis.

  9. Rapid improvement of respiratory quality in asthmatic children after "assisted drainage" therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background  Whilst current asthma management is well-developed, there are still 5-10% uncontrolled asthma patients with unknown etiologies. However, its connection with oral focal infection is still uncertain. Therefore, a collaborated research for asthma management was conducted by pediatricians and dental practitioners. Within minutes after the "assisted drainage" therapy, a modification of healing root planning procedure, there is rapid improvement of respiratory function, ie., forced expiratory-volume one second (FEV1 in asthmatic children. This quick response usually achieved by oral inhalation. Objective To investigate the effectiveness of the assisted drainage therapy in the improvement of respiratory quality. Methods Fifteen asthmatic children were subjected to a longitudinal study for two weeks. In tbe first week they were instructed for al lergen avoidance only and the fOllowing one week was combined with tbe assisted drainage therapy, followed by  mental health education and dental plaque control therapy. Each s'ubject was af'sef'sed for respiratory quality with a computerized spirometer and blood sampling test. Paired t-test analysis was used for statistical analysis. Results Assisted drainage therapy was performed, within minutes FEV1 increased significantly (P= 0.001. Additionally, there were significant differences serum histamine (P= 0,001 pre and post treatment. Conclusions The assisted drainage therapy is effective as an adjuvant therapy for mild persistent asthma in children.

  10. Respiratory Failure due to Severe Obesity and Kyphoscoliosis in a 24-Year-Old Male with Molecularly Confirmed Prader-Willi Syndrome in Tertiary Hospital in Northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elichilia R. Shao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, mild intellectual disability, hypotonia, poor sucking, cryptorchidism in males, hypogonadism, and kyphoscoliosis are common features of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS. We report a case who had severe respiratory complications due to extreme obesity and kyphoscoliosis, which are important causes of morbidity and mortality, and discuss management. Furthermore, this is the first molecularly confirmed PWS case in Sub-Saharan Africa outside South Africa.

  11. Biologically produced sulfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are

  12. Consumers and Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Maira (Elisa)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the last few decades, advances in information and communication technology have dramatically changed the way consumers and producers interact in the marketplace. The Internet and social media have torn down the information barrier between producers and consumers, leading to

  13. Producers and oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, W.

    1993-01-01

    This article attempts an assessment of the potential use of futures by the Middle East oil producers. It focuses on Saudi Arabia since the sheer size of Saudi Arabian sales poses problems, but the basic issues discussed are similar for the other Middle East producers. (Author)

  14. SU-D-17A-07: Development and Evaluation of a Prototype Ultrasonography Respiratory Monitoring System for 4DCT Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, P; Cheng, S; Chao, C; Jain, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Respiratory motion artifacts are commonly seen in the abdominal and thoracic CT images. A Real-time Position Management (RPM) system is integrated with CT simulator using abdominal surface as a surrogate for tracking the patient respiratory motion. The respiratory-correlated four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) is then reconstructed by GE advantage software. However, there are still artifacts due to inaccurate respiratory motion detecting and sorting methods. We developed an Ultrasonography Respiration Monitoring (URM) system which can directly monitor diaphragm motion to detect respiratory cycles. We also developed a new 4DCT sorting and motion estimation method to reduce the respiratory motion artifacts. The new 4DCT system was compared with RPM and the GE 4DCT system. Methods: Imaging from a GE CT scanner was simultaneously correlated with both the RPM and URM to detect respiratory motion. A radiation detector, Blackcat GM-10, recorded the X-ray on/off and synchronized with URM. The diaphragm images were acquired with Ultrasonix RP system. The respiratory wave was derived from diaphragm images and synchronized with CT scanner. A more precise peaks and valleys detection tool was developed and compared with RPM. The motion is estimated for the slices which are not in the predefined respiratory phases by using block matching and optical flow method. The CT slices were then sorted into different phases and reconstructed, compared with the images reconstructed from GE Advantage software using respiratory wave produced from RPM system. Results: The 4DCT images were reconstructed for eight patients. The discontinuity at the diaphragm level due to an inaccurate identification of phases by the RPM was significantly improved by URM system. Conclusion: Our URM 4DCT system was evaluated and compared with RPM and GE 4DCT system. The new system is user friendly and able to reduce motion artifacts. It also has the potential to monitor organ motion during

  15. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dustin K; Seales, Sajeewane; Budzik, Carol

    2017-01-15

    Bronchiolitis is a common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of this infection. RSV is transmitted through contact with respiratory droplets either directly from an infected person or self-inoculation by contaminated secretions on surfaces. Patients with RSV bronchiolitis usually present with two to four days of upper respiratory tract symptoms such as fever, rhinorrhea, and congestion, followed by lower respiratory tract symptoms such as increasing cough, wheezing, and increased respiratory effort. In 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics updated its clinical practice guideline for diagnosis and management of RSV bronchiolitis to minimize unnecessary diagnostic testing and interventions. Bronchiolitis remains a clinical diagnosis, and diagnostic testing is not routinely recommended. Treatment of RSV infection is mainly supportive, and modalities such as bronchodilators, epinephrine, corticosteroids, hypertonic saline, and antibiotics are generally not useful. Evidence supports using supplemental oxygen to maintain adequate oxygen saturation; however, continuous pulse oximetry is no longer required. The other mainstay of therapy is intravenous or nasogastric administration of fluids for infants who cannot maintain their hydration status with oral fluid intake. Educating parents on reducing the risk of infection is one of the most important things a physician can do to help prevent RSV infection, especially early in life. Children at risk of severe lower respiratory tract infection should receive immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, in up to five monthly doses. Prophylaxis guidelines are restricted to infants born before 29 weeks' gestation, infants with chronic lung disease of prematurity, and infants and children with hemodynamically significant heart disease.

  16. A new disease? Persistent isolated beta.hydroxybutyrate ketosis and mild congenital hyperinsulinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Brusgaard, Klaus; Ditkovskaya, L

    A new disease? Persistent isolated beta.hydroxybutyrate ketosis and mild congenital hyperinsulinism.......A new disease? Persistent isolated beta.hydroxybutyrate ketosis and mild congenital hyperinsulinism....

  17. Seasonality of long term wheezing following respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, L.; Steijn, M.; van Aalderen, W. M. C.; Brus, F.; Th Draaisma, J. M.; van Diemen-Steenvoorde, R. A. A. M.; Pekelharing-Berghuis, M.; Kimpen, J. L. L.

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is well known that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is associated with subsequent wheezing episodes, but the precise natural course of wheezing following RSV LRTI is not known. This study aimed to determine the continuous development of

  18. Seasonality of long term wheezing following respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, L; Steijn, M; van Aalderen, WMC; Brus, F; Draaisma, JMT; Van Diemen-Steenvoorde, RAAM; Pekelharing-Berghuis, M; Kimpen, JLL

    Background: It is well known that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is associated with subsequent wheezing episodes, but the precise natural course of wheezing following RSV LRTI is not known. This study aimed to determine the continuous development of

  19. Prediction of tonic parasympathetic cardiac control using respiratory sinus arrhythmia: the need for respiratory control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GROSSMAN, P.; Karemaker, J.; Wieling, W.

    1991-01-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has received much attention in recent years due to the large body of evidence indicating that variations in this phenomenon represent alterations in parasympathetic cardiac control. Although it appears that respiratory sinus arrhythmia is mediated by vagal

  20. Human herpesviruses respiratory infections in patients with acute respiratory distress (ARDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonizzoli, Manuela; Arvia, Rosaria; di Valvasone, Simona; Liotta, Francesco; Zakrzewska, Krystyna; Azzi, Alberta; Peris, Adriano

    2016-08-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is today a leading cause of hospitalization in intensive care unit (ICU). ARDS and pneumonia are closely related to critically ill patients; however, the etiologic agent is not always identified. The presence of human herpes simplex virus 1, human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus in respiratory samples of critically ill patients is increasingly reported even without canonical immunosuppression. The main aim of this study was to better understand the significance of herpesviruses finding in lower respiratory tract of ARDS patients hospitalized in ICU. The presence of this group of herpesviruses, in addition to the research of influenza viruses and other common respiratory viruses, was investigated in respiratory samples from 54 patients hospitalized in ICU, without a known microbiological causative agent. Moreover, the immunophenotype of each patient was analyzed. Herpesviruses DNA presence in the lower respiratory tract seemed not attributable to an impaired immunophenotype, whereas a significant correlation was observed between herpesviruses positivity and influenza virus infection. A higher ICU mortality was significantly related to the presence of herpesvirus infection in the lower respiratory tract as well as to impaired immunophenotype, as patients with poor outcome showed severe lymphopenia, affecting in particular T (CD3+) cells, since the first days of ICU hospitalization. In conclusion, these results indicate that herpesviruses lower respiratory tract infection, which occurs more frequently following influenza virus infection, can be a negative prognostic marker. An independent risk factor for ICU patients with ARDS is an impaired immunophenotype.

  1. Evaluation of exercise-respiratory system modifications and preliminary respiratory-circulatory system integration scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The respiratory control system, functioning as an independent system, is presented with modifications of the exercise subroutine. These modifications illustrate an improved control of ventilation rates and arterial and compartmental gas tensions. A very elementary approach to describing the interactions of the respiratory and circulatory system is presented.

  2. Lower respiratory tract infection caused by respiratory syncytial virus : current management and new therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazur, Natalie; Martinon-Torres, Federico; Baraldi, Eugenio; Fauroux, Brigitte; Greenough, Anne; Heikkinen, Terho; Manzoni, Paolo; Mejias, Asuncion; Nair, Harish; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Polack, Fernando P.; Ramilo, Octavio; Sharland, Mike; Stein, Renato; Madhi, Shabir A.; Bont, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age. Evidence-based management guidelines suggest that there is no effective treatment for RSV lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and that supportive care, ie, hydration and

  3. Regional analysis of the magnetization transfer ratio of the brain in mild Alzheimer disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascalchi, M; Ginestroni, A; Bessi, V; Toschi, N; Padiglioni, S; Ciulli, S; Tessa, C; Giannelli, M; Bracco, L; Diciotti, S

    2013-01-01

    Manually drawn VOI-based analysis shows a decrease in magnetization transfer ratio in the hippocampus of patients with Alzheimer disease. We investigated with whole-brain voxelwise analysis the regional changes of the magnetization transfer ratio in patients with mild Alzheimer disease and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Twenty patients with mild Alzheimer disease, 27 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and 30 healthy elderly control subjects were examined with high-resolution T1WI and 3-mm-thick magnetization transfer images. Whole-brain voxelwise analysis of magnetization transfer ratio maps was performed by use of Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 software and was supplemented by the analysis of the magnetization transfer ratio in FreeSurfer parcellation-derived VOIs. Voxelwise analysis showed 2 clusters of significantly decreased magnetization transfer ratio in the left hippocampus and amygdala and in the left posterior mesial temporal cortex (fusiform gyrus) of patients with Alzheimer disease as compared with control subjects but no difference between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and either patients with Alzheimer disease or control subjects. VOI analysis showed that the magnetization transfer ratio in the hippocampus and amygdala was significantly lower (bilaterally) in patients with Alzheimer disease when compared with control subjects (ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, at P ratio values in the hippocampus and amygdala in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment were between those of healthy control subjects and those of patients with mild Alzheimer disease. Support vector machine-based classification demonstrated improved classification performance after inclusion of magnetization transfer ratio-related features, especially between patients with Alzheimer disease versus healthy subjects. Bilateral but asymmetric decrease of magnetization transfer ratio reflecting microstructural changes of the

  4. Gait, dual task and history of falls in elderly with preserved cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and mild Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ansai, Juliana H.; Andrade, Larissa P.; Rossi, Paulo G.; Takahashi, Anielle C.M.; Vale, Francisco A.C.; Rebelatto, Jos? R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Studies with functional and applicable methods and new cognitive demands involving executive function are needed to improve screening, prevention and rehabilitation of cognitive impairment and falls. Objective to identify differences in gait, dual task performances, and history of falls between elderly people with preserved cognition, mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample consisted of 40 community-dwelling o...

  5. Molecular imaging of serotonin degeneration in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gwenn S; Barrett, Frederick S; Joo, Jin Hui; Nassery, Najlla; Savonenko, Alena; Sodums, Devin J; Marano, Christopher M; Munro, Cynthia A; Brandt, Jason; Kraut, Michael A; Zhou, Yun; Wong, Dean F; Workman, Clifford I

    2017-09-01

    Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have consistently demonstrated degeneration of monoamine systems, especially the serotonin system, in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. The evidence for degeneration of the serotonin system in mild cognitive impairment is limited. Thus, the goal of the present study was to measure the serotonin transporter in vivo in mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls. The serotonin transporter is a selective marker of serotonin terminals and of the integrity of serotonin projections to cortical, subcortical and limbic regions and is found in high concentrations in the serotonergic cell bodies of origin of these projections (raphe nuclei). Twenty-eight participants with mild cognitive impairment (age 66.6±6.9, 16 males) and 28 healthy, cognitively normal, demographically matched controls (age 66.2±7.1, 15 males) underwent magnetic resonance imaging for measurement of grey matter volumes and high-resolution positron emission tomography with well-established radiotracers for the serotonin transporter and regional cerebral blood flow. Beta-amyloid imaging was performed to evaluate, in combination with the neuropsychological testing, the likelihood of subsequent cognitive decline in the participants with mild cognitive impairment. The following hypotheses were tested: 1) the serotonin transporter would be lower in mild cognitive impairment compared to controls in cortical and limbic regions, 2) in mild cognitive impairment relative to controls, the serotonin transporter would be lower to a greater extent and observed in a more widespread pattern than lower grey matter volumes or lower regional cerebral blood flow and 3) lower cortical and limbic serotonin transporters would be correlated with greater deficits in auditory-verbal and visual-spatial memory in mild cognitive impairment, not in controls. Reduced serotonin transporter availability was observed in mild cognitive impairment compared to controls in cortical and limbic

  6. Interoceptive fear learning to mild breathlessness as a laboratory model for unexpected panic attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike ePappens

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fear learning is thought to play an important role in panic disorder. Benign interoceptive sensations can become predictors (conditioned stimuli - CSs of massive fear when experienced in the context of an initial panic attack (unconditioned stimulus – US. The mere encounter of these CSs on a later moment can induce anxiety and fear, and precipitate a new panic attack. It has been suggested that fear learning to interoceptive cues would result in unpredictable panic. The present study aimed to investigate whether fear learning to an interoceptive CS is possible without declarative knowledge of the CS-US contingency. The CS consisted of mild breathlessness (or: dyspnea, the US was a suffocation experience. During acquisition, the experimental group received 6 presentations of mild breathlessness immediately followed by suffocation; for the control group both experiences were always separated by an intertrial interval. In the subsequent extinction phase, participants received 6 unreinforced presentations of the CS. Expectancy of the US was rated continuously and startle eyeblink EMG, skin conductance and respiration were measured. Declarative knowledge of the CS-US relationship was also assessed with a post-experimental questionnaire. At the end of acquisition, both groups displayed the same levels of US expectancy and skin conductance in response to the CS, but the experimental group showed a fear potentiated startle eyeblink and a different respiratory response to the CS compared to the control group. Further analyses on a subgroup of CS-US unaware participants confirmed the presence of startle eyeblink conditioning in the experimental group but not in the control group. Our findings suggest that interoceptive fear learning is not dependent on declarative knowledge of the CS-US relationship. The present interoceptive fear conditioning paradigm may serve as an ecologically valid laboratory model for unexpected panic attacks.

  7. Mild traumatic brain injury is associated with reduced cortical thickness in those at risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jasmeet P; Logue, Mark W; Sadeh, Naomi; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Verfaellie, Mieke; Hayes, Scott M; Reagan, Andrew; Salat, David H; Wolf, Erika J; McGlinchey, Regina E; Milberg, William P; Stone, Annjanette; Schichman, Steven A; Miller, Mark W

    2017-03-01

    in individuals at genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease, with the caveat that the order of causal effects cannot be inferred from cross-sectional studies. These results underscore the importance of documenting head injuries even within the mild range as they may interact with genetic risk to produce negative long-term health consequences such as neurodegenerative disease. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  8. RELATION BETWEEN BETA-LACTAMASE-PRODUCING BACTERIA AND PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS IN CHROMIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY-DISEASE (COPD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPORTEL, JH; KOETER, GH; VANALTENA, R; LOWENBERG, A; BOERSMA, WG

    Background - In addition to bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory therapy, exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are often treated with antibiotics. Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, two important respiratory pathogens, may produce

  9. [Respiratory symptoms and atmospheric pollution and respiratory symptoms in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, I; Charpin, D

    2010-06-01

    Epidemiological studies on air pollution have mainly been interested in the effects of short- or long-term exposure on patients suffering from respiratory illnesses. Fewer studies have addressed the acute effects of air pollution on respiratory symptoms in the general population. We conducted a review of the literature over the last 16years that has addressed the impact of atmospheric pollution on respiratory symptoms in the general population to estimate the magnitude of effect. The majority of studies demonstrated a significant association between exposure to air pollutants and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms, without any threshold. Although a link between atmospheric pollution and respiratory symptoms has been demonstrated, knowledge of the effects of specific air pollutants and the effect of pollution on particular vulnerable groups (infants, young children, the elderly) is still limited. There is a need for further studies in this area. Copyright 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Respiratory muscle training for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Nathan; Solis-Moya, Arturo

    2018-05-24

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common autosomal recessive disease in white populations, and causes respiratory dysfunction in the majority of individuals. Numerous types of respiratory muscle training to improve respiratory function and health-related quality of life in people with cystic fibrosis have been reported in the literature. Hence a systematic review of the literature is needed to establish the effectiveness of respiratory muscle training (either inspiratory or expiratory muscle training) on clinical outcomes in cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published review. To determine the effectiveness of respiratory muscle training on clinical outcomes in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials register comprising of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of most recent search: 17 April 2018.A hand search of the Journal of Cystic Fibrosis and Pediatric Pulmonology was performed, along with an electronic search of online trial databases up until 07 May 2018. Randomised controlled studies comparing respiratory muscle training with a control group in people with cystic fibrosis. Review authors independently selected articles for inclusion, evaluated the methodological quality of the studies, and extracted data. Additional information was sought from trial authors where necessary. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE system MAIN RESULTS: Authors identified 19 studies, of which nine studies with 202 participants met the review's inclusion criteria. There was wide variation in the methodological and written quality of the included studies. Four of the nine included studies were published as abstracts only and lacking concise details, thus limiting the information available. Seven studies were parallel studies and two of a cross-over design. Respiratory

  11. Producing the Spielberg Brand

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter looks at the manufacture of Spielberg’s brand, and the limits of its usage. Spielberg’s directorial work is well known, but Spielberg’s identity has also been established in other ways, and I focus particularly on his work as a producer. At the time of writing, Spielberg had produced (or executive produced) 148 movies and television series across a range of genres that takes in high budget blockbusters and low budget documentaries, with many more to come. In these texts, Spielber...

  12. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  13. [Late respiratory function complications following burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernesto, S; Marduel, Y; Freymond, N; Pacheco, Y; Devouassoux, G

    2008-03-01

    Twenty five per cent of thermal injuries are associated with secondary respiratory events linked to several mechanisms. In the acute phase of the accident oedema of the airways, the fume inhalation syndrome and ARDS are the most common causes responsible for death in 60% of cases. Late respiratory complications are little known and neglected. They comprise obstructive ventilatory defects due to the inhalation syndrome and restrictive defects secondary to ARDS or to dermal injury. We report the case of a female patient, extensively burnt 2 years previously, admitted to hospital with severe acute respiratory failure complicating COPD. The presence of both restrictive and obstructive defects led to the suggestion of alternative underlying mechanisms such as the pulmonary consequences of ARDS and extensive dermal scars. The latter were responsible for an armour like thickening of the skin of the thorax compatible with the restrictive defect. These functional abnormalities and the potential severity of acute respiratory failure are indications for regular pulmonary follow-up of patients with severe circumferential scarring of the thorax who are at high risk for respiratory complications.

  14. Respiratory adaptations in different types of sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazovic, B; Mazic, S; Suzic-Lazic, J; Djelic, M; Djordjevic-Saranovic, S; Durmic, T; Zikic, D; Zugic, V

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that current European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society spirometric reference equations, used in general population, may not be applicable in population of elite athletes. Althought it is well known that physical activity may affect lung volumes, the effect of sporting activity on pulmonary function testing indices was never examined. The aim of this study was to examine the differences in functional respiratory parameters in various types of sports by measuring lung volumes and to extend the existing factors as well as sport disciplines which affect respiratory function the most. A total of 1639 elite male athletes, aged 18-35 years were divided in 4 groups according to the predominant characteristics of training: skill, power, mixed and endurance athletes. They performed basic anthropometric measurements and spirometry. Groups were compared, and Pearson's simple correlation was performed to test the relation between anthropometric and spirometric characteristics of athletes. All anthropometric characteristics significantly differed among groups and correlate with respiratory parameters. The highest correlation was found for body height and weight. Sports participation is associated with respiratory adaptation, and the extent of adaptation depends on type of activity. Endurance sports athletes have higher lung volumes in comparison with skill, mixed and power group of sport.

  15. Dynamics of human respiratory system mycoflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Biedunkiewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at determing the prevalence of individual species of fungi in the respiratory systems of women and men, analysis of the dynamics of the fungi in individual sections of the respiratory system as concerns their quantity and identification of phenology of the isolated fungi coupled with an attempt at identifying their possible preferences for appearing during specific seasons of thc year. During 10 years of studies (1989- 1998. 29 species of fungi belonging: Candida, Geolrichum, Saccharomyces, Saccharomycopsis, Schizosaccharomyces, Torulopsis, Trichosporon and Aspergillus were isolated from the ontocenoses of the respiratory systems of patients at the Independent Public Center for Pulmonology and Oncology in Olsztyn. Candida albicans was a clearly dominating fungus. Individual species appeared individually, in twos or threes in a single patient, they were isolated more frequently in the spring and autumn, less frequently during the winter and summer. The largest number of fungi species were isolated from sputum (29 species, bronchoscopic material (23 species and pharyngeal swabs (15 species. Sacchoromycopsis capsularis and Trichosporon beigelii should be treated as new for the respiratory system. Biodiversity of fungi, their numbers and continous fluctuations in frequency indicate that the respiratory system ontocenose offers the optimum conditions for growth and development of the majority of the majority of yeasts - like fungi.

  16. Inhaled Antibiotic Therapy in Chronic Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego J. Maselli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of patients with chronic respiratory diseases affected by difficult to treat infections has become a challenge in clinical practice. Conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF and non-CF bronchiectasis require extensive treatment strategies to deal with multidrug resistant pathogens that include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia species and non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM. These challenges prompted scientists to deliver antimicrobial agents through the pulmonary system by using inhaled, aerosolized or nebulized antibiotics. Subsequent research advances focused on the development of antibiotic agents able to achieve high tissue concentrations capable of reducing the bacterial load of difficult-to-treat organisms in hosts with chronic respiratory conditions. In this review, we focus on the evidence regarding the use of antibiotic therapies administered through the respiratory system via inhalation, nebulization or aerosolization, specifically in patients with chronic respiratory diseases that include CF, non-CF bronchiectasis and NTM. However, further research is required to address the potential benefits, mechanisms of action and applications of inhaled antibiotics for the management of difficult-to-treat infections in patients with chronic respiratory diseases.

  17. Respiratory exercise in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Susana; Swash, Michael; de Carvalho, Mamede

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated the potential role of respiratory exercise by implementing specific inspiratory muscle training in a selected population of early-affected amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We studied 26 patients with ALS with normal respiratory function using two groups of patients in a parallel, control-group, randomized, delayed-start design. Patients in the first group (G1) started the active inspiratory exercise programme at entry and were followed for eight months, while the second group (G2) of patients followed a placebo exercise programme for the first four months and then active exercise for the second four-month period. The primary outcome measure was the ALSFRS. Respiratory tests, neurophysiological measurements, fatigue and quality of life scales were secondary outcomes. Analysis of covariance was used to compare changes between and within groups. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two patient groups. Within-group analysis suggested that inspiratory exercise promotes a transient improvement in the respiratory subscore and in the maximal voluntary ventilation, peak expiratory flow, and sniff inspiratory pressure. In conclusion, there was no clear positive or negative outcome of the respiratory exercise protocol we have proposed, but we cannot rule out a minor positive effect. Exercise regimes merit more detailed clinical evaluation in ALS.

  18. Viral respiratory diseases: vaccines and antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennette, E H

    1981-01-01

    Acute respiratory diseases, most of which are generally attributed to viruses, account for about 6% of all deaths and for about 60% of the deaths associated with all respiratory disease. The huge cost attributable to viral respiratory infections as a result of absenteeism and the disruption of business and the burden of medical care makes control of these diseases an important objective. The viruses that infect the respiratory tract fall taxonomically into five viral families. Although immunoprophylaxis would appear to be the logical approach, the development of suitable vaccines has been confronted with numerous obstacles, including antigenic drift and shift in the influenzaviruses, the large number of antigenically distinct immunotypes among rhinoviruses, the occurrence after immunization of rare cases of a severe form of the disease following subsequent natural infection with respiratory syncytial virus, and the risk of oncogenicity of adenoviruses for man. Considerable expenditure on the development of new antiviral drugs has so far resulted in only three compounds that are at present officially approved and licensed for use in the USA. Efforts to improve the tools available for control should continue and imaginative and inventive approaches are called for. However, creativity and ingenuity must operate within the constraints imposed by economic, political, ethical, and legal considerations.

  19. Spinal Metaplasticity in Respiratory Motor Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon S Mitchell

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark feature of the neural system controlling breathing is its ability to exhibit plasticity. Less appreciated is the ability to exhibit metaplasticity, a change in the capacity to express plasticity (ie. plastic plasticity. Recent advances in our understanding of cellular mechanisms giving rise to respiratory motor plasticity lay the groundwork for (ongoing investigations of metaplasticity. This detailed understanding of respiratory metaplasticity will be essential as we harness metaplasticity to restore breathing capacity in clinical disorders that compromise breathing, such as cervical spinal injury, motor neuron disease and other neuromuscular diseases. In this brief review, we discuss key examples of metaplasticity in respiratory motor control, and our current understanding of mechanisms giving rise to spinal plasticity and metaplasticity in phrenic motor output; particularly after pre-conditioning with intermittent hypoxia. Progress in this area has led to the realization that similar mechanisms are operative in other spinal motor networks, including those governing limb movement. Further, these mechanisms can be harnessed to restore respiratory and non-respiratory motor function after spinal injury.

  20. [Efficacy and safety of tulobuterol patch versus oral salbutamol sulfate in children with mild or moderate acute attack of bronchial asthma: a comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qian; Liu, Quan-Hua; Bao, Yi-Xiao

    2013-06-01

    To compare tulobuterol patch and oral salbutamol sulfate in terms of efficacy and safety in children with mild or moderate acute attack of bronchial asthma. A total of 92 children with mild and moderate acute asthmatic attack were randomly divided into salbutamol group (n=46) and tulobuterol group (n=46). Both groups received routine treatment with antihistamine, selective leukotriene receptor antagonist and glucocorticoid. In addition, the salbutamol group was given slow-release capsules of salbutamol sulfate, and the tulobuterol group was treated with tulobuterol patch. The two groups were compared with respect to symptom scores of cough, wheeze, respiratory rate, wheezing sound, three depression sign and peak expiratory flow, as well as adverse events. As the treatment proceeded, symptom scores decreased in both groups; on the third day of treatment, all symptom scores except cough score showed a significant decrease in both groups (Pattack.

  1. Metagenomic analysis of viral diversity in respiratory samples from patients with respiratory tract infections in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madi, Nada; Al-Nakib, Widad; Mustafa, Abu Salim; Habibi, Nazima

    2018-03-01

    A metagenomic approach based on target independent next-generation sequencing has become a known method for the detection of both known and novel viruses in clinical samples. This study aimed to use the metagenomic sequencing approach to characterize the viral diversity in respiratory samples from patients with respiratory tract infections. We have investigated 86 respiratory samples received from various hospitals in Kuwait between 2015 and 2016 for the diagnosis of respiratory tract infections. A metagenomic approach using the next-generation sequencer to characterize viruses was used. According to the metagenomic analysis, an average of 145, 019 reads were identified, and 2% of these reads were of viral origin. Also, metagenomic analysis of the viral sequences revealed many known respiratory viruses, which were detected in 30.2% of the clinical samples. Also, sequences of non-respiratory viruses were detected in 14% of the clinical samples, while sequences of non-human viruses were detected in 55.8% of the clinical samples. The average genome coverage of the viruses was 12% with the highest genome coverage of 99.2% for respiratory syncytial virus, and the lowest was 1% for torque teno midi virus 2. Our results showed 47.7% agreement between multiplex Real-Time PCR and metagenomics sequencing in the detection of respiratory viruses in the clinical samples. Though there are some difficulties in using this method to clinical samples such as specimen quality, these observations are indicative of the promising utility of the metagenomic sequencing approach for the identification of respiratory viruses in patients with respiratory tract infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Respiratory trace feature analysis for the prediction of respiratory-gated PET quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouyi; Bowen, Stephen R.; Chaovalitwongse, W. Art; Sandison, George A.; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2014-02-01

    The benefits of respiratory gating in quantitative PET/CT vary tremendously between individual patients. Respiratory pattern is among many patient-specific characteristics that are thought to play an important role in gating-induced imaging improvements. However, the quantitative relationship between patient-specific characteristics of respiratory pattern and improvements in quantitative accuracy from respiratory-gated PET/CT has not been well established. If such a relationship could be estimated, then patient-specific respiratory patterns could be used to prospectively select appropriate motion compensation during image acquisition on a per-patient basis. This study was undertaken to develop a novel statistical model that predicts quantitative changes in PET/CT imaging due to respiratory gating. Free-breathing static FDG-PET images without gating and respiratory-gated FDG-PET images were collected from 22 lung and liver cancer patients on a PET/CT scanner. PET imaging quality was quantified with peak standardized uptake value (SUVpeak) over lesions of interest. Relative differences in SUVpeak between static and gated PET images were calculated to indicate quantitative imaging changes due to gating. A comprehensive multidimensional extraction of the morphological and statistical characteristics of respiratory patterns was conducted, resulting in 16 features that characterize representative patterns of a single respiratory trace. The six most informative features were subsequently extracted using a stepwise feature selection approach. The multiple-regression model was trained and tested based on a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation. The predicted quantitative improvements in PET imaging achieved an accuracy higher than 90% using a criterion with a dynamic error-tolerance range for SUVpeak values. The results of this study suggest that our prediction framework could be applied to determine which patients would likely benefit from respiratory motion compensation

  3. Respiratory trace feature analysis for the prediction of respiratory-gated PET quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shouyi; Chaovalitwongse, W Art; Bowen, Stephen R; Kinahan, Paul E; Sandison, George A; Grabowski, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of respiratory gating in quantitative PET/CT vary tremendously between individual patients. Respiratory pattern is among many patient-specific characteristics that are thought to play an important role in gating-induced imaging improvements. However, the quantitative relationship between patient-specific characteristics of respiratory pattern and improvements in quantitative accuracy from respiratory-gated PET/CT has not been well established. If such a relationship could be estimated, then patient-specific respiratory patterns could be used to prospectively select appropriate motion compensation during image acquisition on a per-patient basis. This study was undertaken to develop a novel statistical model that predicts quantitative changes in PET/CT imaging due to respiratory gating. Free-breathing static FDG-PET images without gating and respiratory-gated FDG-PET images were collected from 22 lung and liver cancer patients on a PET/CT scanner. PET imaging quality was quantified with peak standardized uptake value (SUV peak ) over lesions of interest. Relative differences in SUV peak between static and gated PET images were calculated to indicate quantitative imaging changes due to gating. A comprehensive multidimensional extraction of the morphological and statistical characteristics of respiratory patterns was conducted, resulting in 16 features that characterize representative patterns of a single respiratory trace. The six most informative features were subsequently extracted using a stepwise feature selection approach. The multiple-regression model was trained and tested based on a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation. The predicted quantitative improvements in PET imaging achieved an accuracy higher than 90% using a criterion with a dynamic error-tolerance range for SUV peak values. The results of this study suggest that our prediction framework could be applied to determine which patients would likely benefit from respiratory motion

  4. Contribution of respiratory muscle blood flow to exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue in trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Athanasopoulos, Dimitris; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether the greater degree of exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue previously reported in highly trained athletes in hypoxia (compared with normoxia) could have a contribution from limited respiratory muscle blood flow. Seven trained cyclists completed three constant load 5 min...... exercise tests at inspired O(2) fractions (FIO2) of 0.13, 0.21 and 1.00 in balanced order. Work rates were selected to produce the same tidal volume, breathing frequency and respiratory muscle load at each FIO2 (63 +/- 1, 78 +/- 1 and 87 +/- 1% of normoxic maximal work rate, respectively). Intercostals......(-1) and 95.1 +/- 7.8 ml (100 ml)(-1) min(-1), respectively). Neither IMBF was different across hypoxia, normoxia and hyperoxia (53.6 +/- 8.5, 49.9 +/- 5.9 and 52.9 +/- 5.9 ml (100 ml)(-1) min(-1), respectively). We conclude that when respiratory muscle energy requirement is not different between...

  5. Increased biomass yield of Lactococcus lactis during energetically limited growth and respiratory conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Købmann, Brian Jensen; Blank, Lars Mathias; Solem, Christian

    2008-01-01

    (glucose/mannose-specific phosphotransferase system). Amino acid catabolism could be excluded as the source of the additional ATP. Since mutants without a functional H+-ATPase produced less ATP under sugar starvation and respiratory conditions, the additional ATP yield appears to come partly from energy......Lactococcus lactis is known to be capable of respiration under aerobic conditions in the presence of haemin. In the present study the effect of respiration on ATP production during growth on different sugars was examined. With glucose as the sole carbon source, respiratory conditions in L. lactis...... MG1363 resulted in only a minor increase, 21%, in biomass yield. Since ATP production through substrate-level phosphorylation was essentially identical with and without respiration, the increased biomass yield was a result of energy-saving under respiratory conditions estimated to be 0.4 mol of ATP...

  6. [Analogies between heart and respiratory muscle failure. Importance to clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, D

    2009-01-01

    Heart failure is an established diagnosis. Respiratory muscle or ventilatory pump failure, however, is less well known. The latter becomes obvious through hypercapnia, caused by hypoventilation. The respiratory centre tunes into hypercapnea in order to prevent the danger of respiratory muscle overload (hypercapnic ventilatory failure). Hypoventilation will consecutively cause hypoxemia but this will not be responsible for performance limitation. One therefore has to distinguish primary hypoxemia evolving from diseases in the lung parenchyma. Here hypoxemia is the key feature and compensatory hyperventilation usually decreases PaCO2 levels. The cardiac as well as the respiratory pump adapt to an inevitable burden caused by chronic disease. In either case organ muscle mass will increase. If the burden exceeds the range of possible physiological adaptation, compensatory mechanisms will set in that are similar in both instances. During periods of overload either muscle system is mainly fueled by muscular glycogen. In the recovery phase (e. g. during sleep) stores are replenished, which can be recognized by down-regulation of the blood pressure in case of the cardiac pumb or by augmentation of hypercapnia through hypoventilation in case of the respiratory pump. The main function of cardiac and respiratory pump is maintenance of oxygen transport. The human body has developed certain compensatory mechanisms to adapt to insufficient oxygen supply especially during periods of overload. These mechanisms include shift of the oxygen binding curve, expression of respiratory chain isoenzymes capable of producing ATP at lower partial pressures of oxygen and the development of polyglobulia. Medically or pharmacologically the cardiac pump can be unloaded with beta blockers, the respiratory pump by application of inspired oxygen. Newer forms of therapy augment the process of recovery. The heart can be supported through bypass surgery or intravascular pump systems, while respiratory

  7. Distinct molecular signatures of mild extrinsic and intrinsic atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Britta C; Litman, Thomas; Hald, Andreas; Norsgaard, Hanne; Lovato, Paola; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice; Skov, Lone; Thestrup-Pedersen, Kristian; Skov, Søren; Skak, Kresten; Poulsen, Lars K

    2016-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with underlying defects in epidermal function and immune responses. In this study, we used microarray analysis to investigate differences in gene expression in lesional skin from patients with mild extrinsic or intrinsic AD compared to skin from healthy controls and from lesional psoriasis skin. The primary aim was to identify differentially expressed genes involved in skin barrier formation and inflammation, and to compare our results with those reported for patients with moderate and severe AD. In contrast to severe AD, expression of the majority of genes associated with skin barrier formation was unchanged or upregulated in patients with mild AD compared to normal healthy skin. Among these, no significant differences in the expression of filaggrin (FLG) and loricrin at both mRNA and protein level were found in lesional skin from patients with mild AD, despite the presence of heterozygous FLG mutations in the majority of patients with mild extrinsic AD. Several inflammation-associated genes such as S100A9, MMP12, CXCL10 and CCL18 were highly expressed in lesional skin from patients with mild psoriasis and were also increased in patients with mild extrinsic and intrinsic AD similar to previous reports for severe AD. Interestingly, expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses in intrinsic AD resembled that of psoriasis more than that of extrinsic AD. Overall, differences in expression of inflammation-associated genes found among patients with mild intrinsic and extrinsic AD correlated with previous findings for patients with severe intrinsic and extrinsic AD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [Effect of high blood levels of bile acid on respiratory functions of New Zealand rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhao, Cong; Tian, Yinghong; Yin, Yanru

    2013-08-01

    To compare the patterns of respiratory function variations resulting from the classical reflex of blood pressure fall and high blood levels of bile acid, so as to provide evidence for the regulation of respiratory function via bile acids. Seventy New Zealand male Rabbits, under general anesthesia with 20% urethane, were subjected to tracheal intubations and carotid artery cannulations via median incisions of the neck. Using a biological signal acquisition system, the changes in the breathing and blood pressure were observed in response to stimulation of the pneumogastric nerves or to ear vein injections of diluted bile acids or the water solutions of 5 dissociated bile acids. Stimulation of the pneumogastric nerves and injections of diluted bile acids both lowered the blood pressure without significant differences in the total reaction time (T). However, the total respiratory reaction time of bile acids, RT(bile acids), was 9-10 times longer than the total reaction time of blood pressure T(bile acids) (Pacids) were higher than that RR(pneumogastric nerves)resulting from the classical reflex (Pacids), the values of RR(bile acids) were significantly higher than those of RR(bile acids) in RT2(bile acids) interval. UDCA produced no significant influence on blood pressure or respiratory function (Pacid reagents did (Pacids not only act through reflex factors but also have direct effects on respiratory function regulation. Under our experimental conditions, UDCA has no effect on blood pressure or respiratory function, but the other 4 dissociated bile acid reagents can all dose-dependently lower blood pressure and significantly affect respiratory function.

  9. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  10. Feasibility and safety of low-flow extracorporeal CO2 removal managed with a renal replacement platform to enhance lung-protective ventilation of patients with mild-to-moderate ARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Matthieu; Jaber, Samir; Zogheib, Elie; Godet, Thomas; Capellier, Gilles; Combes, Alain

    2018-05-10

    Extracorporeal carbon-dioxide removal (ECCO 2 R) might allow ultraprotective mechanical ventilation with lower tidal volume (VT) (ventilator-induced lung injury. This study was undertaken to assess the feasibility and safety of ECCO 2 R managed with a renal replacement therapy (RRT) platform to enable very low tidal volume ventilation of patients with mild-to-moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Twenty patients with mild (n = 8) or moderate (n = 12) ARDS were included. VT was gradually lowered from 6 to 5, 4.5, and 4 ml/kg, and PEEP adjusted to reach 23 ≤ P plat  ≤ 25 cmH 2 O. Standalone ECCO 2 R (no hemofilter associated with the RRT platform) was initiated when arterial PaCO 2 increased by > 20% from its initial value. Ventilation parameters (VT, respiratory rate, PEEP), respiratory system compliance, P plat and driving pressure, arterial blood gases, and ECCO 2 R-system operational characteristics were collected during at least 24 h of very low tidal volume ventilation. Complications, day-28 mortality, need for adjuvant therapies, and data on weaning off ECCO 2 R and mechanical ventilation were also recorded. While VT was reduced from 6 to 4 ml/kg and P plat kept ventilation with moderate increase in PaCO 2 in patients with mild-to-moderate ARDS. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02606240. Registered on 17 November 2015.

  11. Methods for producing diterpenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention discloses that by combining different di TPS enzymes of class I and class II different diterpenes may be produced including diterpenes not identified in nature. Surprisingly it is revealed that a di TPS enzyme of class I of one species may be combined with a di TPS enzyme...... of class II from a different species, resulting in a high diversity of diterpenes, which can be produced....

  12. Polysaccharide-producing microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braud, J.P.; Chaumont, D.; Gudin, C.; Thepenier, C.; Chassin, P.; Lemaire, C.

    1982-11-01

    The production of extracellular polysaccharides is studied with Nostoc sp (cyanophycus), Porphiridium cruentum, Rhodosorus marinus, Rhodella maculata (rhodophyci) and Chlamydomonas mexicana (chlorophycus). The polysaccharides produced are separated by centrifugation of the culture then precipitation with alcohol. Their chemical structure was studied by infrared spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. By their rheological properties and especially their insensitivity to temperatrure and pH variations the polysaccharides produced by Porphryridium cruentum and Rhodella maculata appear as suitable candidates for industrial applications.

  13. Frequency of respiratory virus infections and next-generation analysis of influenza A/H1N1pdm09 dynamics in the lower respiratory tract of patients admitted to the ICU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Piralla

    Full Text Available Recent molecular diagnostic methods have significantly improved the diagnosis of viral pneumonia in intensive care units (ICUs. It has been observed that 222G/N changes in the HA gene of H1N1pdm09 are associated with increased lower respiratory tract (LRT replication and worse clinical outcome. In the present study, the frequency of respiratory viruses was assessed in respiratory samples from 88 patients admitted to 16 ICUs during the 2014-2015 winter-spring season in Lombardy. Sixty-nine out of 88 (78.4% patients were positive for a respiratory viral infection at admission. Of these, 57/69 (82.6% were positive for influenza A (41 A/H1N1pdm09 and 15 A/H3N2, 8/69 (11.6% for HRV, 2/69 (2.9% for RSV and 2/69 (2.9% for influenza B. Phylogenetic analysis of influenza A/H1N1pdm09 strains from 28/41 ICU-patients and 21 patients with mild respiratory syndrome not requiring hospitalization, showed the clear predominance of subgroup 6B strains. The median influenza A load in LRT samples of ICU patients was higher than that observed in the upper respiratory tract (URT (p<0.05. Overall, a greater number of H1N1pdm09 virus variants were observed using next generation sequencing on partial HA sequences (codons 180-286 in clinical samples from the LRT as compared to URT. In addition, 222G/N/A mutations were observed in 30% of LRT samples from ICU patients. Finally, intra-host evolution analysis showed the presence of different dynamics of viral population in LRT of patients hospitalized in ICU with a severe influenza infection.

  14. Respiratory Morbidity among Rice Mill Workers in an Urban Area of Burdwan District, West Bengal: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Madhab Ch; Naskar, Somnath; Roy, Ramaprasad; Das, Dilip Kr; Das, Soumya

    2018-01-01

    Rice mill workers constitute a special group from the perspective of occupational health. Unprotected dust exposure among them adversely affects their respiratory health, which needs to be evaluated. Adequate evidence is still lacking in many parts of India including West Bengal. Burdwan is one of the main rice-producing districts in the state with abundant rice mills. The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence and pattern of respiratory morbidity and associated background characteristics of rice mill workers. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Burdwan municipality area during July-December 2016. Considering 44.2% prevalence, 95% confidence interval, 15% allowable error, 10% non-response, a sample of 252 directly engaged rice mill workers were selected through multistage random sampling. With prior consent, the subjects were interviewed, clinically examined, and underwent spirometry; relevant records were also reviewed using a pre-designed schedule. Any abnormal spirometry finding was considered as respiratory morbidity. Ethical approval was obtained from institutional ethics committee. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. Prevalence of respiratory morbidity was 40.73% with obstructive and restrictive respiratory morbidity being 24.60% and 16.13%, respectively. Non-use of any protective measure, duration (years) of working in rice mill and average daily working hours were significant predictors of respiratory morbidity. Respiratory morbidity is quite high in the area. Proper health education and provision of personal protective equipments need to be provided.

  15. History of respiratory mechanics prior to World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2012-01-01

    The history of respiratory mechanics is reviewed over a period of some 2,500 years from the ancient Greeks to World War II. A cardinal early figure was Galen (130-199 AD) who made remarkably perceptive statements on the diaphragm and the anatomy of the phrenic nerves. The polymath Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) contributed observations on pulmonary mechanics including the pleural space and bronchial airflow that still make good reading. Vesalius (1514-1564) produced magnificent illustrations of the lung, ribcage, and diaphragm. In the 17th century, the Oxford School including Boyle, Hooke, Lower, and Mayow were responsible for many contributions on mechanical functions including the intercostal muscles and the pleura. Hales (1677-1761) calculated the size and surface area of the alveoli, the time spent by the blood in the pulmonary capillaries, and intrathoracic pressures. Poiseuille (1799-1869) carried out classical studies of fluid mechanics including one of the first demonstrations of flow limitation in collapsible vessels. The culmination of the pre-World War II period was the outstanding contributions of Rohrer (1888-1926) and his two Swiss countrymen, Wirz (1896-1978) and von Neergaard (1887-1947). Rohrer developed the first comprehensive, quantitative treatment of respiratory mechanics in the space of 10 years including an analysis of flow in airways, and the pressure-volume behavior of the respiratory system. von Neergaard performed landmark studies on the effects of surface tension on pressure-volume behavior. Progress over the 2,500 years was slow and erratic at times, but by 1940 the stage was set for the spectacular developments of the next 70 years. © 2012 American Physiological Society

  16. Composition and variation of respiratory microbiota in healthy military personnel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hang

    Full Text Available Certain occupational and geographical exposures have been associated with an increased risk of lung disease. As a baseline for future studies, we sought to characterize the upper respiratory microbiomes of healthy military personnel in a garrison environment. Nasal, oropharyngeal, and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 50 healthy active duty volunteers eight times over the course of one year (1107 swabs, completion rate = 92.25% and subjected to pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of 16S rDNA. Respiratory bacterial taxa were characterized at the genus level, using QIIME 1.8 and the Ribosomal Database Project classifier. High levels of Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, and Propionibacterium were observed among both nasal and nasopharyngeal microbiota, comprising more than 75% of all operational taxonomical units (OTUs. In contrast, Streptococcus was the sole dominant bacterial genus (approximately 50% of all OTUs in the oropharynx. The average bacterial diversity was greater in the oropharynx than in the nasal or nasopharyngeal region at all time points. Diversity analysis indicated a significant overlap between nasal and nasopharyngeal samples, whereas oropharyngeal samples formed a cluster distinct from these two regions. The study produced a large set of pyrosequencing data on the V1-V3 region of bacterial 16S rDNA for the respiratory microbiomes of healthy active duty Service Members. Pre-processing of sequencing reads showed good data quality. The derived microbiome profiles were consistent both internally and with previous reports, suggesting their utility for further analyses and association studies based on sequence and demographic data.

  17. How best to capture the respiratory consequences of prematurity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffini, Francesca; Robertson, Colin F; Tingay, David G

    2018-03-31

    Chronic respiratory morbidity is a common complication of premature birth, generally defined by the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, both clinically and in trials of respiratory therapies. However, recent data have highlighted that bronchopulmonary dysplasia does not correlate with chronic respiratory morbidity in older children born preterm. Longitudinally evaluating pulmonary morbidity from early life through to childhood provides a more rational method of defining the continuum of chronic respiratory morbidity of prematurity, and offers new insights into the efficacy of neonatal respiratory interventions. The changing nature of preterm lung disease suggests that a multimodal approach using dynamic lung function assessment will be needed to assess the efficacy of a neonatal respiratory therapy and predict the long-term respiratory consequences of premature birth. Our aim is to review the literature regarding the long-term respiratory outcomes of neonatal respiratory strategies, the difficulties of assessing dynamic lung function in infants, and potential new solutions. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  18. Airway Reflux, Cough and Respiratory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, Ian D.; Morice, Alyn H.

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly accepted that the effects of gastro-oesophageal reflux are not limited to the gastrointestinal tract. The adjacent respiratory structures are also at risk from material ejected from the proximal oesophagus as a result of the failure of anatomical and physiological barriers. There is evidence of the influence of reflux on several respiratory and otorhinological conditions and although in many cases the precise mechanism has yet to be elucidated, the association alone opens potential novel avenues of therapy to clinicians struggling to treat patients with apparently intractable respiratory complaints. This review provides a description of the airway reflux syndrome, its effects on the lung and current and future therapeutic options. PMID:23251752

  19. Measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M C; Baker, E L

    1988-08-01

    The prevalence of different measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters was examined and the relation between respiratory illness and employment as a painter assessed in a cross sectional study of current male members of two local affiliates of a large international union of painters. Respiratory illness was measured by questionnaire and spirometry. Longer employment as a painter was associated with increased prevalence of chronic obstructive disease and an interactive effect was observed for smoking and duration of employment as a painter. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between years worked as a painter and a decrement in FEV1 equal to about 11 ml for each year worked. This association was larger among painters who had smoked. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was significantly associated with increased use of spray application methods.

  20. Extracorporeal respiratory support in adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Gomes Romano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In patients with severe respiratory failure, either hypoxemic or hypercapnic, life support with mechanical ventilation alone can be insufficient to meet their needs, especially if one tries to avoid ventilator settings that can cause injury to the lungs. In those patients, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, which is also very effective in removing carbon dioxide from the blood, can provide life support, allowing the application of protective lung ventilation. In this review article, we aim to explore some of the most relevant aspects of using ECMO for respiratory support. We discuss the history of respiratory support using ECMO in adults, as well as the clinical evidence; costs; indications; installation of the equipment; ventilator settings; daily care of the patient and the system; common troubleshooting; weaning; and discontinuation.