WorldWideScience

Sample records for producing large numbers

  1. Large number discrimination by mosquitofish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Agrillo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that fish display rudimentary numerical abilities similar to those observed in mammals and birds. The mechanisms underlying the discrimination of small quantities (<4 were recently investigated while, to date, no study has examined the discrimination of large numerosities in fish. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects were trained to discriminate between two sets of small geometric figures using social reinforcement. In the first experiment mosquitofish were required to discriminate 4 from 8 objects with or without experimental control of the continuous variables that co-vary with number (area, space, density, total luminance. Results showed that fish can use the sole numerical information to compare quantities but that they preferentially use cumulative surface area as a proxy of the number when this information is available. A second experiment investigated the influence of the total number of elements to discriminate large quantities. Fish proved to be able to discriminate up to 100 vs. 200 objects, without showing any significant decrease in accuracy compared with the 4 vs. 8 discrimination. The third experiment investigated the influence of the ratio between the numerosities. Performance was found to decrease when decreasing the numerical distance. Fish were able to discriminate numbers when ratios were 1:2 or 2:3 but not when the ratio was 3:4. The performance of a sample of undergraduate students, tested non-verbally using the same sets of stimuli, largely overlapped that of fish. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Fish are able to use pure numerical information when discriminating between quantities larger than 4 units. As observed in human and non-human primates, the numerical system of fish appears to have virtually no upper limit while the numerical ratio has a clear effect on performance. These similarities further reinforce the view of a common origin of non-verbal numerical systems in all

  2. Forecasting distribution of numbers of large fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Preisler, Haiganoush K.; Howard, Stephen; Burgan, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Systems to estimate forest fire potential commonly utilize one or more indexes that relate to expected fire behavior; however they indicate neither the chance that a large fire will occur, nor the expected number of large fires. That is, they do not quantify the probabilistic nature of fire danger. In this work we use large fire occurrence information from the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project, and satellite and surface observations of fuel conditions in the form of the Fire Potential Index, to estimate two aspects of fire danger: 1) the probability that a 1 acre ignition will result in a 100+ acre fire, and 2) the probabilities of having at least 1, 2, 3, or 4 large fires within a Predictive Services Area in the forthcoming week. These statistical processes are the main thrust of the paper and are used to produce two daily national forecasts that are available from the U.S. Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation and Science Center and via the Wildland Fire Assessment System. A validation study of our forecasts for the 2013 fire season demonstrated good agreement between observed and forecasted values.

  3. Forecasting distribution of numbers of large fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Jeff Eidenshink; Stephen Howard; Robert E. Burgan

    2015-01-01

    Systems to estimate forest fire potential commonly utilize one or more indexes that relate to expected fire behavior; however they indicate neither the chance that a large fire will occur, nor the expected number of large fires. That is, they do not quantify the probabilistic nature of fire danger. In this work we use large fire occurrence information from the...

  4. Thermal convection for large Prandtl numbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef

    2001-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Bénard theory by Grossmann and Lohse [J. Fluid Mech. 407, 27 (2000)] is extended towards very large Prandtl numbers Pr. The Nusselt number Nu is found here to be independent of Pr. However, for fixed Rayleigh numbers Ra a maximum in the Nu(Pr) dependence is predicted. We moreover offer

  5. Large number discrimination in newborn fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Piffer

    Full Text Available Quantitative abilities have been reported in a wide range of species, including fish. Recent studies have shown that adult guppies (Poecilia reticulata can spontaneously select the larger number of conspecifics. In particular the evidence collected in literature suggest the existence of two distinct systems of number representation: a precise system up to 4 units, and an approximate system for larger numbers. Spontaneous numerical abilities, however, seem to be limited to 4 units at birth and it is currently unclear whether or not the large number system is absent during the first days of life. In the present study, we investigated whether newborn guppies can be trained to discriminate between large quantities. Subjects were required to discriminate between groups of dots with a 0.50 ratio (e.g., 7 vs. 14 in order to obtain a food reward. To dissociate the roles of number and continuous quantities that co-vary with numerical information (such as cumulative surface area, space and density, three different experiments were set up: in Exp. 1 number and continuous quantities were simultaneously available. In Exp. 2 we controlled for continuous quantities and only numerical information was available; in Exp. 3 numerical information was made irrelevant and only continuous quantities were available. Subjects successfully solved the tasks in Exp. 1 and 2, providing the first evidence of large number discrimination in newborn fish. No discrimination was found in experiment 3, meaning that number acuity is better than spatial acuity. A comparison with the onset of numerical abilities observed in shoal-choice tests suggests that training procedures can promote the development of numerical abilities in guppies.

  6. Large numbers hypothesis. II - Electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper develops the theory of electromagnetic radiation in the units covariant formalism incorporating Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (LNH). A direct field-to-particle technique is used to obtain the photon propagation equation which explicitly involves the photon replication rate. This replication rate is fixed uniquely by requiring that the form of a free-photon distribution function be preserved, as required by the 2.7 K cosmic radiation. One finds that with this particular photon replication rate the units covariant formalism developed in Paper I actually predicts that the ratio of photon number to proton number in the universe varies as t to the 1/4, precisely in accord with LNH. The cosmological red-shift law is also derived and it is shown to differ considerably from the standard form of (nu)(R) - const.

  7. Modified large number theory with constant G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.

    1983-01-01

    The inspiring ''numerology'' uncovered by Dirac, Eddington, Weyl, et al. can be explained and derived when it is slightly modified so to connect the ''gravitational world'' (cosmos) with the ''strong world'' (hadron), rather than with the electromagnetic one. The aim of this note is to show the following. In the present approach to the ''Large Number Theory,'' cosmos and hadrons are considered to be (finite) similar systems, so that the ratio R-bar/r-bar of the cosmos typical length R-bar to the hadron typical length r-bar is constant in time (for instance, if both cosmos and hadrons undergo an expansion/contraction cycle: according to the ''cyclical big-bang'' hypothesis: then R-bar and r-bar can be chosen to be the maximum radii, or the average radii). As a consequence, then gravitational constant G results to be independent of time. The present note is based on work done in collaboration with P.Caldirola, G. D. Maccarrone, and M. Pavsic

  8. Hierarchies in Quantum Gravity: Large Numbers, Small Numbers, and Axions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, John Eldon

    Our knowledge of the physical world is mediated by relatively simple, effective descriptions of complex processes. By their very nature, these effective theories obscure any phenomena outside their finite range of validity, discarding information crucial to understanding the full, quantum gravitational theory. However, we may gain enormous insight into the full theory by understanding how effective theories with extreme characteristics--for example, those which realize large-field inflation or have disparate hierarchies of scales--can be naturally realized in consistent theories of quantum gravity. The work in this dissertation focuses on understanding the quantum gravitational constraints on these "extreme" theories in well-controlled corners of string theory. Axion monodromy provides one mechanism for realizing large-field inflation in quantum gravity. These models spontaneously break an axion's discrete shift symmetry and, assuming that the corrections induced by this breaking remain small throughout the excursion, create a long, quasi-flat direction in field space. This weakly-broken shift symmetry has been used to construct a dynamical solution to the Higgs hierarchy problem, dubbed the "relaxion." We study this relaxion mechanism and show that--without major modifications--it can not be naturally embedded within string theory. In particular, we find corrections to the relaxion potential--due to the ten-dimensional backreaction of monodromy charge--that conflict with naive notions of technical naturalness and render the mechanism ineffective. The super-Planckian field displacements necessary for large-field inflation may also be realized via the collective motion of many aligned axions. However, it is not clear that string theory provides the structures necessary for this to occur. We search for these structures by explicitly constructing the leading order potential for C4 axions and computing the maximum possible field displacement in all compactifications of

  9. New feature for an old large number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novello, M.; Oliveira, L.R.A.

    1986-01-01

    A new context for the appearance of the Eddington number (10 39 ), which is due to the examination of elastic scattering of scalar particles (ΠK → ΠK) non-minimally coupled to gravity, is presented. (author) [pt

  10. Gravitational lens produces an odd number of images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Rigorous results are given to the effect that a transparent gravitational lens produces an odd number of images. Suppose that p is an event and T the history of a light source in a globally hyperbolic space-time (M,g). Uhlenbeck's Morse theory of null geodesics is used to show under quite general conditions that if there are at most a finite number n of future-directed null geodesics from T to p, then M is contractible to a point. Moreover, n is odd and 1/2 (n-1) of the images of the source seen by an observer at p have the opposite orientation to the source. An analogous result is noted for Riemannian manifolds with positive definite metric

  11. Do road planners produce more 'honest numbers' than rail planners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Buhl, Søren L.

    2006-01-01

    Based on a review of available data from a database on large-scale transport infrastructure projects, this paper investigates the hypothesis that traffic forecasts for road links in Europe are geographically biased with underestimated traffic volumes in metropolitan areas and overestimated traffic...... volumes in remote regions. The present data do not support this hypothesis. Since previous studies have shown a strong tendency to overestimated forecasts of the number of passengers on new rail projects, it could be speculated that road planners are more skilful and/or honest than rail planners. However......, during the period when the investigated projects were planned (up to the late 1980s), there were hardly any strong incentives for road planners to make biased forecasts in order to place their projects in a more flattering light. Future research might uncover whether the change from the ‘predict...

  12. Thermocapillary Bubble Migration: Thermal Boundary Layers for Large Marangoni Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Subramanian, R. S.

    1996-01-01

    The migration of an isolated gas bubble in an immiscible liquid possessing a temperature gradient is analyzed in the absence of gravity. The driving force for the bubble motion is the shear stress at the interface which is a consequence of the temperature dependence of the surface tension. The analysis is performed under conditions for which the Marangoni number is large, i.e. energy is transferred predominantly by convection. Velocity fields in the limit of both small and large Reynolds numbers are used. The thermal problem is treated by standard boundary layer theory. The outer temperature field is obtained in the vicinity of the bubble. A similarity solution is obtained for the inner temperature field. For both small and large Reynolds numbers, the asymptotic values of the scaled migration velocity of the bubble in the limit of large Marangoni numbers are calculated. The results show that the migration velocity has the same scaling for both low and large Reynolds numbers, but with a different coefficient. Higher order thermal boundary layers are analyzed for the large Reynolds number flow field and the higher order corrections to the migration velocity are obtained. Results are also presented for the momentum boundary layer and the thermal wake behind the bubble, for large Reynolds number conditions.

  13. On a strong law of large numbers for monotone measures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agahi, H.; Mohammadpour, A.; Mesiar, Radko; Ouyang, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 4 (2013), s. 1213-1218 ISSN 0167-7152 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : capacity * Choquet integral * strong law of large numbers Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.531, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/mesiar-on a strong law of large numbers for monotone measures.pdf

  14. A Chain Perspective on Large-scale Number Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    As large-scale number systems gain significance in social and economic life (electronic communication, remote electronic authentication), the correct functioning and the integrity of public number systems take on crucial importance. They are needed to uniquely indicate people, objects or phenomena

  15. The large numbers hypothesis and a relativistic theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Y.K.; Prokhovnik, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    A way to reconcile Dirac's large numbers hypothesis and Einstein's theory of gravitation was recently suggested by Lau (1985). It is characterized by the conjecture of a time-dependent cosmological term and gravitational term in Einstein's field equations. Motivated by this conjecture and the large numbers hypothesis, we formulate here a scalar-tensor theory in terms of an action principle. The cosmological term is required to be spatially dependent as well as time dependent in general. The theory developed is appled to a cosmological model compatible with the large numbers hypothesis. The time-dependent form of the cosmological term and the scalar potential are then deduced. A possible explanation of the smallness of the cosmological term is also given and the possible significance of the scalar field is speculated

  16. Fatal crashes involving large numbers of vehicles and weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liang, Liming; Evans, Leonard

    2017-12-01

    Adverse weather has been recognized as a significant threat to traffic safety. However, relationships between fatal crashes involving large numbers of vehicles and weather are rarely studied according to the low occurrence of crashes involving large numbers of vehicles. By using all 1,513,792 fatal crashes in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data, 1975-2014, we successfully described these relationships. We found: (a) fatal crashes involving more than 35 vehicles are most likely to occur in snow or fog; (b) fatal crashes in rain are three times as likely to involve 10 or more vehicles as fatal crashes in good weather; (c) fatal crashes in snow [or fog] are 24 times [35 times] as likely to involve 10 or more vehicles as fatal crashes in good weather. If the example had used 20 vehicles, the risk ratios would be 6 for rain, 158 for snow, and 171 for fog. To reduce the risk of involvement in fatal crashes with large numbers of vehicles, drivers should slow down more than they currently do under adverse weather conditions. Driver deaths per fatal crash increase slowly with increasing numbers of involved vehicles when it is snowing or raining, but more steeply when clear or foggy. We conclude that in order to reduce risk of involvement in crashes involving large numbers of vehicles, drivers must reduce speed in fog, and in snow or rain, reduce speed by even more than they already do. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Core fueling to produce peaked density profiles in large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; McGuire, K.M.; Schmidt, G.L.; Zweben, S.J.

    1994-06-01

    Peaking the density profile increases the usable bootstrap current and the average fusion power density; this could reduce the current drive power and increase the net output of power producing tokamaks. The use of neutral beams and pellet injection to produce peaked density profiles is assessed. We show that with radially ''hollow'' diffusivity profiles (and no particle pinch) moderately peaked density profiles can be produced by particle source profiles which are peaked off-axis. The fueling penetration requirements can therefore be relaxed and this greatly improves the feasibility of generating peaked density profiles in large tokamaks. In particular, neutral beam fueling does not require MeV particle energy. Even with beam voltages of ∼200 keV, however, exceptionally good particle confinement, τ p much-gt τ E is required to achieve net electrical power generation. In system with no power production requirement (e.g., neutron sources) neutral beam fueling should be capable of producing peaked density profiles in devices as large as ITER. Fueling systems with low energy cost per particle (such as cryogenic pellet injection) must be used in power producing tokamaks when τ p ∼ τ E . Simulations with pellet injection speeds of 7 km/sec show the peaking factor, n eo /left-angle n e right-angle, approaching 2

  18. Core fuelling to produce peaked density profiles in large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; McGuire, K.M.; Schmidt, G.L.; Zweben, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Peaking the density profile increases the usable bootstrap current and the average fusion power density; this could reduce the current drive power and increase the net output of power producing tokamaks. The use of neutral beams and pellet injection to produce peaked density profiles is assessed. It is shown that with radially 'hollow' diffusivity profiles (and no particle pinch) moderately peaked density profiles can be produced by particle source profiles that are peaked off-axis. The fuelling penetration requirements can therefore be relaxed and this greatly improves the feasibility of generating peaked density profiles in large tokamaks. In particular, neutral beam fuelling does not require Megavolt particle energies. Even with beam voltages of ∼ 200 keV, however, exceptionally good particle confinement is needed to achieve net electrical power generation. The required ratio of particle to thermal diffusivities is an order of magnitude outside the range reported for tokamaks. In a system with no power production requirement (e.g., neutron sources) neutral beam fuelling should be capable of producing peaked density profiles in devices as large as ITER. Fuelling systems with low energy cost per particle - such as cryogenic pellet injection - must be used in power producing tokamaks when τ P ∼ τ E . Simulations with pellet injection speeds of 7 km/s show that the peaking factor, n e0 / e >, approaches 2. (author). 65 refs, 8 figs

  19. On Independence for Capacities with Law of Large Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Weihuan

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces new notions of Fubini independence and Exponential independence of random variables under capacities to fit Ellsberg's model, and finds out the relationships between Fubini independence, Exponential independence, MacCheroni and Marinacci's independence and Peng's independence. As an application, we give a weak law of large numbers for capacities under Exponential independence.

  20. Teaching Multiplication of Large Positive Whole Numbers Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the teaching of multiplication of large positive whole numbers using the grating method and the effect of this method on students' performance in junior secondary schools. The study was conducted in Obio Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers state. It was quasi- experimental. Two research ...

  1. Lovelock inflation and the number of large dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrer, Francesc

    2007-01-01

    We discuss an inflationary scenario based on Lovelock terms. These higher order curvature terms can lead to inflation when there are more than three spatial dimensions. Inflation will end if the extra dimensions are stabilised, so that at most three dimensions are free to expand. This relates graceful exit to the number of large dimensions.

  2. A large number of stepping motor network construction by PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Zhang, Kai; Hongqiang, Guo

    2017-11-01

    In the flexible automatic line, the equipment is complex, the control mode is flexible, how to realize the large number of step and servo motor information interaction, the orderly control become a difficult control. Based on the existing flexible production line, this paper makes a comparative study of its network strategy. After research, an Ethernet + PROFIBUSE communication configuration based on PROFINET IO and profibus was proposed, which can effectively improve the data interaction efficiency of the equipment and stable data interaction information.

  3. Fluid Mechanics of Aquatic Locomotion at Large Reynolds Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Govardhan, RN; Arakeri, JH

    2011-01-01

    Abstract | There exist a huge range of fish species besides other aquatic organisms like squids and salps that locomote in water at large Reynolds numbers, a regime of flow where inertial forces dominate viscous forces. In the present review, we discuss the fluid mechanics governing the locomotion of such organisms. Most fishes propel themselves by periodic undulatory motions of the body and tail, and the typical classification of their swimming modes is based on the fraction of their body...

  4. Rotating thermal convection at very large Rayleigh numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Stephan; van Gils, Dennis; Ahlers, Guenter; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2016-11-01

    The large scale thermal convection systems in geo- and astrophysics are usually influenced by Coriolis forces caused by the rotation of their celestial bodies. To better understand the influence of rotation on the convective flow field and the heat transport at these conditions, we study Rayleigh-Bénard convection, using pressurized sulfur hexaflouride (SF6) at up to 19 bars in a cylinder of diameter D=1.12 m and a height of L=2.24 m. The gas is heated from below and cooled from above and the convection cell sits on a rotating table inside a large pressure vessel (the "Uboot of Göttingen"). With this setup Rayleigh numbers of up to Ra =1015 can be reached, while Ekman numbers as low as Ek =10-8 are possible. The Prandtl number in these experiment is kept constant at Pr = 0 . 8 . We report on heat flux measurements (expressed by the Nusselt number Nu) as well as measurements from more than 150 temperature probes inside the flow. We thank the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) for financial support through SFB963: "Astrophysical Flow Instabilities and Turbulence". The work of GA was supported in part by the US National Science Foundation through Grant DMR11-58514.

  5. Lepton number violation in theories with a large number of standard model copies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, Sergey; Schmidt, Ivan; Paes, Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    We examine lepton number violation (LNV) in theories with a saturated black hole bound on a large number of species. Such theories have been advocated recently as a possible solution to the hierarchy problem and an explanation of the smallness of neutrino masses. On the other hand, the violation of the lepton number can be a potential phenomenological problem of this N-copy extension of the standard model as due to the low quantum gravity scale black holes may induce TeV scale LNV operators generating unacceptably large rates of LNV processes. We show, however, that this issue can be avoided by introducing a spontaneously broken U 1(B-L) . Then, due to the existence of a specific compensation mechanism between contributions of different Majorana neutrino states, LNV processes in the standard model copy become extremely suppressed with rates far beyond experimental reach.

  6. Measurement uncertainty of ester number, acid number and patchouli alcohol of patchouli oil produced in Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiningrum, Reni Banowati; Saepuloh, Azis; Jannah, Wirdatul; Aji, Didit Waskito

    2017-03-01

    Yogyakarta is one of patchouli oil distillation center in Indonesia. The quality of patchouli oil greatly affect its market price. Therefore, testing quality of patchouli oil parameters is an important concern, one through determination of the measurement uncertainty. This study will determine the measurement uncertainty of ester number, acid number and content of patchouli alcohol through a bottom up approach. Source contributor to measurement uncertainty of ester number is a mass of the sample, a blank and sample titration volume, the molar mass of KOH, HCl normality, and replication. While the source contributor of the measurement uncertainty of acid number is the mass of the sample, the sample titration volume, the relative mass and normality of KOH, and repetition. Determination of patchouli alcohol by Gas Chromatography considers the sources of measurement uncertainty only from repeatability because reference materials are not available.

  7. Improving CASINO performance for models with large number of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, L.; Alfe, D.; Hood, R.Q.; Tanqueray, D.

    2009-01-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo calculations have at their core algorithms based on statistical ensembles of multidimensional random walkers which are straightforward to use on parallel computers. Nevertheless some computations have reached the limit of the memory resources for models with more than 1000 electrons because of the need to store a large amount of electronic orbitals related data. Besides that, for systems with large number of electrons, it is interesting to study if the evolution of one configuration of random walkers can be done faster in parallel. We present a comparative study of two ways to solve these problems: (1) distributed orbital data done with MPI or Unix inter-process communication tools, (2) second level parallelism for configuration computation

  8. [Dual process in large number estimation under uncertainty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumuro, Miki; Miwa, Kazuhisa; Terai, Hitoshi; Yamada, Kento

    2016-08-01

    According to dual process theory, there are two systems in the mind: an intuitive and automatic System 1 and a logical and effortful System 2. While many previous studies about number estimation have focused on simple heuristics and automatic processes, the deliberative System 2 process has not been sufficiently studied. This study focused on the System 2 process for large number estimation. First, we described an estimation process based on participants’ verbal reports. The task, corresponding to the problem-solving process, consisted of creating subgoals, retrieving values, and applying operations. Second, we investigated the influence of such deliberative process by System 2 on intuitive estimation by System 1, using anchoring effects. The results of the experiment showed that the System 2 process could mitigate anchoring effects.

  9. The large number hypothesis and Einstein's theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun-Kau Lau

    1985-01-01

    In an attempt to reconcile the large number hypothesis (LNH) with Einstein's theory of gravitation, a tentative generalization of Einstein's field equations with time-dependent cosmological and gravitational constants is proposed. A cosmological model consistent with the LNH is deduced. The coupling formula of the cosmological constant with matter is found, and as a consequence, the time-dependent formulae of the cosmological constant and the mean matter density of the Universe at the present epoch are then found. Einstein's theory of gravitation, whether with a zero or nonzero cosmological constant, becomes a limiting case of the new generalized field equations after the early epoch

  10. Combining large number of weak biomarkers based on AUC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Tian, Lili; Liu, Song

    2015-12-20

    Combining multiple biomarkers to improve diagnosis and/or prognosis accuracy is a common practice in clinical medicine. Both parametric and non-parametric methods have been developed for finding the optimal linear combination of biomarkers to maximize the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), primarily focusing on the setting with a small number of well-defined biomarkers. This problem becomes more challenging when the number of observations is not order of magnitude greater than the number of variables, especially when the involved biomarkers are relatively weak. Such settings are not uncommon in certain applied fields. The first aim of this paper is to empirically evaluate the performance of existing linear combination methods under such settings. The second aim is to propose a new combination method, namely, the pairwise approach, to maximize AUC. Our simulation studies demonstrated that the performance of several existing methods can become unsatisfactory as the number of markers becomes large, while the newly proposed pairwise method performs reasonably well. Furthermore, we apply all the combination methods to real datasets used for the development and validation of MammaPrint. The implication of our study for the design of optimal linear combination methods is discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Quasi-isodynamic configuration with large number of periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafranov, V.D.; Isaev, M.Yu.; Mikhailov, M.I.; Subbotin, A.A.; Cooper, W.A.; Kalyuzhnyj, V.N.; Kasilov, S.V.; Nemov, V.V.; Kernbichler, W.; Nuehrenberg, C.; Nuehrenberg, J.; Zille, R.

    2005-01-01

    It has been previously reported that quasi-isodynamic (qi) stellarators with poloidal direction of the contours of B on magnetic surface can exhibit very good fast- particle collisionless confinement. In addition, approaching the quasi-isodynamicity condition leads to diminished neoclassical transport and small bootstrap current. The calculations of local-mode stability show that there is a tendency toward an increasing beta limit with increasing number of periods. The consideration of the quasi-helically symmetric systems has demonstrated that with increasing aspect ratio (and number of periods) the optimized configuration approaches the straight symmetric counterpart, for which the optimal parameters and highest beta values were found by optimization of the boundary magnetic surface cross-section. The qi system considered here with zero net toroidal current do not have a symmetric analogue in the limit of large aspect ratio and finite rotational transform. Thus, it is not clear whether some invariant structure of the configuration period exists in the limit of negligible toroidal effect and what are the best possible parameters for it. In the present paper the results of an optimization of the configuration with N = 12 number of periods are presented. Such properties as fast-particle confinement, effective ripple, structural factor of bootstrap current and MHD stability are considered. It is shown that MHD stability limit here is larger than in configurations with smaller number of periods considered earlier. Nevertheless, the toroidal effect in this configuration is still significant so that a simple increase of the number of periods and proportional growth of aspect ratio do not conserve favourable neoclassical transport and ideal local-mode stability properties. (author)

  12. Automatic trajectory measurement of large numbers of crowded objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Liu, Ye; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2013-06-01

    Complex motion patterns of natural systems, such as fish schools, bird flocks, and cell groups, have attracted great attention from scientists for years. Trajectory measurement of individuals is vital for quantitative and high-throughput study of their collective behaviors. However, such data are rare mainly due to the challenges of detection and tracking of large numbers of objects with similar visual features and frequent occlusions. We present an automatic and effective framework to measure trajectories of large numbers of crowded oval-shaped objects, such as fish and cells. We first use a novel dual ellipse locator to detect the coarse position of each individual and then propose a variance minimization active contour method to obtain the optimal segmentation results. For tracking, cost matrix of assignment between consecutive frames is trainable via a random forest classifier with many spatial, texture, and shape features. The optimal trajectories are found for the whole image sequence by solving two linear assignment problems. We evaluate the proposed method on many challenging data sets.

  13. The large numbers hypothesis and the Einstein theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirac, P.A.M.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the relations between large dimensionless numbers leads to the belief that G, expressed in atomic units, varies with the epoch while the Einstein theory requires G to be constant. These two requirements can be reconciled by supposing that the Einstein theory applies with a metric that differs from the atomic metric. The theory can be developed with conservation of mass by supposing that the continual increase in the mass of the observable universe arises from a continual slowing down of the velocity of recession of the galaxies. This leads to a model of the Universe that was first proposed by Einstein and de Sitter (the E.S. model). The observations of the microwave radiation fit in with this model. The static Schwarzchild metric has to be modified to fit in with the E.S. model for large r. The modification is worked out, and also the motion of planets with the new metric. It is found that there is a difference between ephemeris time and atomic time, and also that there should be an inward spiralling of the planets, referred to atomic units, superposed on the motion given by ordinary gravitational theory. These are effects that can be checked by observation, but there is no conclusive evidence up to the present. (author)

  14. A Characterization of Hypergraphs with Large Domination Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Let H = (V, E be a hypergraph with vertex set V and edge set E. A dominating set in H is a subset of vertices D ⊆ V such that for every vertex v ∈ V \\ D there exists an edge e ∈ E for which v ∈ e and e ∩ D ≠ ∅. The domination number γ(H is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set in H. It is known [Cs. Bujtás, M.A. Henning and Zs. Tuza, Transversals and domination in uniform hypergraphs, European J. Combin. 33 (2012 62-71] that for k ≥ 5, if H is a hypergraph of order n and size m with all edges of size at least k and with no isolated vertex, then γ(H ≤ (n + ⌊(k − 3/2⌋m/(⌊3(k − 1/2⌋. In this paper, we apply a recent result of the authors on hypergraphs with large transversal number [M.A. Henning and C. Löwenstein, A characterization of hypergraphs that achieve equality in the Chvátal-McDiarmid Theorem, Discrete Math. 323 (2014 69-75] to characterize the hypergraphs achieving equality in this bound.

  15. Calculation of large Reynolds number two-dimensional flow using discrete vortices with random walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinazzo, F.; Saffman, P.G.

    1977-01-01

    The numerical calculation of two-dimensional rotational flow at large Reynolds number is considered. The method of replacing a continuous distribution of vorticity by a finite number, N, of discrete vortices is examined, where the vortices move under their mutually induced velocities plus a random component to simulate effects of viscosity. The accuracy of the method is studied by comparison with the exact solution for the decay of a circular vortex. It is found, and analytical arguments are produced in support, that the quantitative error is significant unless N is large compared with a characteristic Reynolds number. The mutually induced velocities are calculated by both direct summation and by the ''cloud in cell'' technique. The latter method is found to produce comparable error and to be much faster

  16. Particle creation and Dirac's large number hypothesis; and Reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, V.; Adams, P.J.; Hsieh, S.H.; Tsiang, E.; Steigman, G.

    1976-01-01

    The claim made by Steigman (Nature; 261:479 (1976)), that the creation of matter as postulated by Dirac (Proc. R. Soc.; A338:439 (1974)) is unnecessary, is here shown to be incorrect. It is stated that Steigman's claim that Dirac's large Number Hypothesis (LNH) does not require particle creation is wrong because he has assumed that which he was seeking to prove, that is that rho does not contain matter creation. Steigman's claim that Dirac's LNH leads to nonsensical results in the very early Universe is superficially correct, but this only supports Dirac's contention that the LNH may not be valid in the very early Universe. In a reply Steigman points out that in Dirac's original cosmology R approximately tsup(1/3) and using this model the results and conclusions of the present author's paper do apply but using a variation chosen by Canuto et al (T approximately t) Dirac's LNH cannot apply. Additionally it is observed that a cosmological theory which only predicts the present epoch is of questionable value. (U.K.)

  17. A modified large number theory with constant G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recami, Erasmo

    1983-03-01

    The inspiring “numerology” uncovered by Dirac, Eddington, Weyl, et al. can be explained and derived when it is slightly modified so to connect the “gravitational world” (cosmos) with the “strong world” (hadron), rather than with the electromagnetic one. The aim of this note is to show the following. In the present approach to the “Large Number Theory,” cosmos and hadrons are considered to be (finite) similar systems, so that the ratio{{bar R} / {{bar R} {bar r}} of the cosmos typical lengthbar R to the hadron typical lengthbar r is constant in time (for instance, if both cosmos and hadrons undergo an expansion/contraction cycle—according to the “cyclical bigbang” hypothesis—thenbar R andbar r can be chosen to be the maximum radii, or the average radii). As a consequence, then gravitational constant G results to be independent of time. The present note is based on work done in collaboration with P. Caldirola, G. D. Maccarrone, and M. Pavšič.

  18. The large lungs of elite swimmers: an increased alveolar number?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J; Donnelly, P M; Bye, P T

    1993-02-01

    In order to obtain further insight into the mechanisms relating to the large lung volumes of swimmers, tests of mechanical lung function, including lung distensibility (K) and elastic recoil, pulmonary diffusion capacity, and respiratory mouth pressures, together with anthropometric data (height, weight, body surface area, chest width, depth and surface area), were compared in eight elite male swimmers, eight elite male long distance athletes and eight control subjects. The differences in training profiles of each group were also examined. There was no significant difference in height between the subjects, but the swimmers were younger than both the runners and controls, and both the swimmers and controls were heavier than the runners. Of all the training variables, only the mean total distance in kilometers covered per week was significantly greater in the runners. Whether based on: (a) adolescent predicted values; or (b) adult male predicted values, swimmers had significantly increased total lung capacity ((a) 145 +/- 22%, (mean +/- SD) (b) 128 +/- 15%); vital capacity ((a) 146 +/- 24%, (b) 124 +/- 15%); and inspiratory capacity ((a) 155 +/- 33%, (b) 138 +/- 29%), but this was not found in the other two groups. Swimmers also had the largest chest surface area and chest width. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was largest in the swimmers ((b) 122 +/- 17%) and FEV1 as a percentage of forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC)% was similar for the three groups. Pulmonary diffusing capacity (DLCO) was also highest in the swimmers (117 +/- 18%). All of the other indices of lung function, including pulmonary distensibility (K), elastic recoil and diffusion coefficient (KCO), were similar. These findings suggest that swimmers may have achieved greater lung volumes than either runners or control subjects, not because of greater inspiratory muscle strength, or differences in height, fat free mass, alveolar distensibility, age at start of training or sternal length or

  19. A NICE approach to managing large numbers of desktop PC's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, David

    1996-01-01

    The problems of managing desktop systems are far from resolved. As we deploy increasing numbers of systems, PC's Mackintoshes and UN*X Workstations. This paper will concentrate on the solution adopted at CERN for the management of the rapidly increasing numbers of desktop PC's in use in all parts of the laboratory. (author)

  20. The Ramsey numbers of large cycles versus small wheels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surahmat,; Baskoro, E.T.; Broersma, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    For two given graphs G and H, the Ramsey number R(G;H) is the smallest positive integer N such that for every graph F of order N the following holds: either F contains G as a subgraph or the complement of F contains H as a subgraph. In this paper, we determine the Ramsey number R(Cn;Wm) for m = 4

  1. Turbulent flows at very large Reynolds numbers: new lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenblatt, G I; Prostokishin, V M; Chorin, A J

    2014-01-01

    The universal (Reynolds-number-independent) von Kármán–Prandtl logarithmic law for the velocity distribution in the basic intermediate region of a turbulent shear flow is generally considered to be one of the fundamental laws of engineering science and is taught universally in fluid mechanics and hydraulics courses. We show here that this law is based on an assumption that cannot be considered to be correct and which does not correspond to experiment. Nor is Landau's derivation of this law quite correct. In this paper, an alternative scaling law explicitly incorporating the influence of the Reynolds number is discussed, as is the corresponding drag law. The study uses the concept of intermediate asymptotics and that of incomplete similarity in the similarity parameter. Yakov Borisovich Zeldovich played an outstanding role in the development of these ideas. This work is a tribute to his glowing memory. (100th anniversary of the birth of ya b zeldovich)

  2. Chaotic scattering: the supersymmetry method for large number of channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, N.; Saher, D.; Sokolov, V.V.; Sommers, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate a model of chaotic resonance scattering based on the random matrix approach. The hermitian part of the effective hamiltonian of resonance states is taken from the GOE whereas the amplitudes of coupling to decay channels are considered both random or fixed. A new version of the supersymmetry method is worked out to determine analytically the distribution of poles of the S-matrix in the complex energy plane as well as the mean value and two-point correlation function of its elements when the number of channels scales with the number of resonance states. Analytical formulae are compared with numerical simulations. All results obtained coincide in both models provided that the ratio m of the numbers of channels and resonances is small enough and remain qualitatively similar for larger values of m. The relation between the pole distribution and the fluctuations in scattering is discussed. It is shown in particular that the clouds of poles of the S-matrix in the complex energy plane are separated from the real axis by a finite gap Γ g which determines the correlation length in the scattering fluctuations and leads to the exponential asymptotics of the decay law of a complicated intermediate state. ((orig.))

  3. Chaotic scattering: the supersymmetry method for large number of channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, N. (Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachbereich 7 - Physik); Saher, D. (Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachbereich 7 - Physik); Sokolov, V.V. (Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachbereich 7 - Physik); Sommers, H.J. (Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachbereich 7 - Physik)

    1995-01-23

    We investigate a model of chaotic resonance scattering based on the random matrix approach. The hermitian part of the effective hamiltonian of resonance states is taken from the GOE whereas the amplitudes of coupling to decay channels are considered both random or fixed. A new version of the supersymmetry method is worked out to determine analytically the distribution of poles of the S-matrix in the complex energy plane as well as the mean value and two-point correlation function of its elements when the number of channels scales with the number of resonance states. Analytical formulae are compared with numerical simulations. All results obtained coincide in both models provided that the ratio m of the numbers of channels and resonances is small enough and remain qualitatively similar for larger values of m. The relation between the pole distribution and the fluctuations in scattering is discussed. It is shown in particular that the clouds of poles of the S-matrix in the complex energy plane are separated from the real axis by a finite gap [Gamma][sub g] which determines the correlation length in the scattering fluctuations and leads to the exponential asymptotics of the decay law of a complicated intermediate state. ((orig.))

  4. Gentile statistics with a large maximum occupation number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Wusheng; Xie Mi

    2004-01-01

    In Gentile statistics the maximum occupation number can take on unrestricted integers: 1 1 the Bose-Einstein case is not recovered from Gentile statistics as n goes to N. Attention is also concentrated on the contribution of the ground state which was ignored in related literature. The thermodynamic behavior of a ν-dimensional Gentile ideal gas of particle of dispersion E=p s /2m, where ν and s are arbitrary, is analyzed in detail. Moreover, we provide an alternative derivation of the partition function for Gentile statistics

  5. Modeling the Aerodynamic Lift Produced by Oscillating Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Muhammad Saif Ullah; Akhtar, Imran

    2014-01-01

    For present study, setting Strouhal Number (St) as control parameter, numerical simulations for flow past oscillating NACA-0012 airfoil at 1,000 Reynolds Numbers (Re) are performed. Temporal profiles of unsteady forces; lift and thrust, and their spectral analysis clearly indicate the solution to be a period-1 attractor for low Strouhal numbers. This study reveals that aerodynamic forces produced by plunging airfoil are independent of initial kinematic conditions of airfoil that proves the ex...

  6. A full picture of large lepton number asymmetries of the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, Gabriela [Departament de Física Teòrica and IFIC, Universitat de València-CSIC, C/ Dr. Moliner, 50, Burjassot, E-46100 Spain (Spain); Park, Wan-Il, E-mail: Gabriela.Barenboim@uv.es, E-mail: wipark@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Science Education (Physics), Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Jeonju, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-01

    A large lepton number asymmetry of O(0.1−1) at present Universe might not only be allowed but also necessary for consistency among cosmological data. We show that, if a sizeable lepton number asymmetry were produced before the electroweak phase transition, the requirement for not producing too much baryon number asymmetry through sphalerons processes, forces the high scale lepton number asymmetry to be larger than about 03. Therefore a mild entropy release causing O(10-100) suppression of pre-existing particle density should take place, when the background temperature of the Universe is around T = O(10{sup −2}-10{sup 2}) GeV for a large but experimentally consistent asymmetry to be present today. We also show that such a mild entropy production can be obtained by the late-time decays of the saxion, constraining the parameters of the Peccei-Quinn sector such as the mass and the vacuum expectation value of the saxion field to be m {sub φ} ∼> O(10) TeV and φ{sub 0} ∼> O(10{sup 14}) GeV, respectively.

  7. Study of the number of neutrons produced by fission of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.

    1958-01-01

    Study of the number of neutrons produced by fission of 239 Pu. The counting by coincidence of fissions and neutrons produced by these fissions allows the study of the variation of the mean number of neutrons emitted by ν fission. In the first chapter, it studied the variation of the mean number of neutrons emitted by 239 Pu fission with the energy of the incident neutron. A description of the experiment is given: a spectrometer with a crystal of sodium chloride or beryllium (mounted on a goniometer) is used, a fission chamber containing 10 mg of 239 Pu and the neutron detection system constituted of BF 3 counters which are enriched in 10 B. In the second part, the counting by coincidence of fissions and neutrons produced by the same fission and received by two different groups of counters allow the determination of a relationship between the root mean square and the average of neutron number produced by fission. The variation of the mean number of neutrons emitted by fission of 239 Pu is studied when we change from a thermal spectra of neutrons to a fission spectra of incident neutrons. Finally, when separating in two different part the fission chamber, it is possible to measure the mean number of neutrons emitted from fission of two different sources. It compared the mean number of neutrons emitted by fission of 239 Pu and 233 U. (M.P.)

  8. The numbers game in wildlife conservation: changeability and framing of large mammal numbers in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife conservation in terrestrial ecosystems requires an understanding of processes influencing population sizes. Top-down and bottom-up processes are important in large herbivore population dynamics, with strength of these processes varying spatially and temporally. However, up until

  9. Correlations between vocabulary and phonological acquisition: number of words produced versus acquired consonants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiethan, Fernanda Marafiga; Mota, Helena Bolli; Moraes, Anaelena Bragança de

    2016-01-01

    To verify the probable correlations between the number of word types and the number of consonants in the general phonological system in children with typical language development. Study participants were 186 children aged one year and six months to five years, 11 months and 29 days who were monolingual Brazilian Portuguese speakers with typical language development. Data collection involved speech, language and hearing assessments and spontaneous speech recordings. Phonology was assessed with regard to the number of acquired consonants in the general phonological system, in each syllable structure and in Implicational Model of Feature Complexity (IMFC) levels. Vocabulary was assessed with regard to number of word types produced. These data were compared across age groups. After that, correlations between the word types produced and the variables established for the phonological system were analyzed. The significance level adopted was 5%. All phonological aspects evaluated presented gradual growth. Word types produced showed a similar behavior, though with a small regression at the age of five years. Different positive correlations occurred between the spoken word types and the variables analyzed in the phonological system. Only one negative correlation occurred with respect to the production of complex onset in the last age group analyzed. The phonology and vocabulary of the study participants present similar behaviors. There are many positive correlations between the word types produced and the different aspects of phonology, except regarding complex onset.

  10. Private random numbers produced by entangled ions and certified by Bell's theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David; Matsukevich, Dzmitry; Maunz, Peter; Monroe, Chris; Olmschenk, Steven

    2010-03-01

    It has been shown that entangled particles can be used to generate numbers whose privacy and randomness are guaranteed by the violation of a Bell inequality [1,2]. The authenticity of the bit stream produced is guaranteed when the system used can close the detection loophole and when the entangled particles are non-interacting. We report the use of remotely located trapped ions with near perfect state detection efficiency as a private random number generator. By entangling the ions through photon interference and choosing the measurement settings using a pseudo-random number generator, we measure a CHSH correlation function that is more than seven standard deviations above the classical limit. With a total of 3016 events, we are able to certify the generation of 42 new random numbers with 99% confidence. [1] S. Pironio et al.(submitted to Nature, arXiv:0911.3427) [2] Colbeck, R. PhD Dissertation (2007)

  11. Network connectivity paradigm for the large data produced by weather radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzi, Diego; Bechini, Renzo; Boraso, Rodolfo; Cremonini, Roberto; Fratianni, Simona

    2014-05-01

    The traffic over Internet is constantly increasing; this is due in particular to social networks activities but also to the enormous exchange of data caused especially by the so-called "Internet of Things". With this term we refer to every device that has the capability of exchanging information with other devices on the web. In geoscience (and, in particular, in meteorology and climatology) there is a constantly increasing number of sensors that are used to obtain data from different sources (like weather radars, digital rain gauges, etc.). This information-gathering activity, frequently, must be followed by a complex data analysis phase, especially when we have large data sets that can be very difficult to analyze (very long historical series of large data sets, for example), like the so called big data. These activities are particularly intensive in resource consumption and they lead to new computational models (like cloud computing) and new methods for storing data (like object store, linked open data, NOSQL or NewSQL). The weather radar systems can be seen as one of the sensors mentioned above: it transmit a large amount of raw data over the network (up to 40 megabytes every five minutes), with 24h/24h continuity and in any weather condition. Weather radar are often located in peaks and in wild areas where connectivity is poor. For this reason radar measurements are sometimes processed partially on site and reduced in size to adapt them to the limited bandwidth currently available by data transmission systems. With the aim to preserve the maximum flow of information, an innovative network connectivity paradigm for the large data produced by weather radar system is here presented. The study is focused on the Monte Settepani operational weather radar system, located over a wild peak summit in north-western Italy.

  12. Chaotic advection at large Péclet number: Electromagnetically driven experiments, numerical simulations, and theoretical predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, Aldo; Meunier, Patrice; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Cuevas, Sergio; Ramos, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    We present a combination of experiment, theory, and modelling on laminar mixing at large Péclet number. The flow is produced by oscillating electromagnetic forces in a thin electrolytic fluid layer, leading to oscillating dipoles, quadrupoles, octopoles, and disordered flows. The numerical simulations are based on the Diffusive Strip Method (DSM) which was recently introduced (P. Meunier and E. Villermaux, “The diffusive strip method for scalar mixing in two-dimensions,” J. Fluid Mech. 662, 134–172 (2010)) to solve the advection-diffusion problem by combining Lagrangian techniques and theoretical modelling of the diffusion. Numerical simulations obtained with the DSM are in reasonable agreement with quantitative dye visualization experiments of the scalar fields. A theoretical model based on log-normal Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of stretching factors, characteristic of homogeneous turbulence in the Batchelor regime, allows to predict the PDFs of scalar in agreement with numerical and experimental results. This model also indicates that the PDFs of scalar are asymptotically close to log-normal at late stages, except for the large concentration levels which correspond to low stretching factors

  13. Characterization of General TCP Traffic under a Large Number of Flows Regime

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tinnakornsrisuphap, Peerapol; La, Richard J; Makowski, Armand M

    2002-01-01

    .... Accurate traffic modeling of a large number of short-lived TCP flows is extremely difficult due to the interaction between session, transport, and network layers, and the explosion of the size...

  14. Radioimmunoassay of h-TSH - methodological suggestions for dealing with medium to large numbers of samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstedt, J.

    1977-01-01

    The article deals with practical aspects of establishing a TSH-RIA for patients, with particular regard to predetermined quality criteria. Methodological suggestions are made for medium to large numbers of samples with the target of reducing monotonous precision working steps by means of simple aids. The quality criteria required are well met, while the test procedure is well adapted to the rhythm of work and may be carried out without loss of precision even with large numbers of samples. (orig.) [de

  15. Similarities between 2D and 3D convection for large Prandtl number

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-06-18

    RBC), we perform a compara- tive study of the spectra and fluxes of energy and entropy, and the scaling of large-scale quantities for large and infinite Prandtl numbers in two (2D) and three (3D) dimensions. We observe close ...

  16. Very Large Data Volumes Analysis of Collaborative Systems with Finite Number of States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, Ion; Ciurea, Cristian; Pavel, Sorin

    2010-01-01

    The collaborative system with finite number of states is defined. A very large database is structured. Operations on large databases are identified. Repetitive procedures for collaborative systems operations are derived. The efficiency of such procedures is analyzed. (Contains 6 tables, 5 footnotes and 3 figures.)

  17. Evidence for Knowledge of the Syntax of Large Numbers in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Thevenot, Catherine; Fayol, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide evidence for knowledge of the syntax governing the verbal form of large numbers in preschoolers long before they are able to count up to these numbers. We reasoned that if such knowledge exists, it should facilitate the maintenance in short-term memory of lists of lexical primitives that constitute a number…

  18. Application of backscatter electrons for large area imaging of cavities produced by neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastukhov, V.I. [Joint Stock Company “Institute of Nuclear Materials” (JSC “INM”), Zarechny, Sverdlovsk Region (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University Named After the First President of Russia, B. N. Yeltsyn, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Averin, S.A.; Panchenko, V.L. [Joint Stock Company “Institute of Nuclear Materials” (JSC “INM”), Zarechny, Sverdlovsk Region (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Portnykh, I.A. [Joint Stock Company “Institute of Nuclear Materials” (JSC “INM”), Zarechny, Sverdlovsk Region (Russian Federation); Freyer, P.D. [Westinghouse Electric Company, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Giannuzzi, L.A. [L.A. Giannuzzi & Associates LLC, Fort Myers, FL (United States); Garner, F.A., E-mail: frank.garner@dslextreme.com [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Radiation Effects Consulting LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Texas A& M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-11-15

    It is shown that with proper optimization, backscattered electrons in a scanning electron microscope can produce images of cavity distribution in austenitic steels over a large specimen surface for a depth of ∼500–700 nm, eliminating the need for electropolishing or multiple specimen production. This technique is especially useful for quantifying cavity structures when the specimen is known or suspected to contain very heterogeneous distributions of cavities. Examples are shown for cold-worked EK-164, a very heterogeneously-swelling Russian fast reactor fuel cladding steel and also for AISI 304, a homogeneously-swelling Western steel used for major structural components of light water cooled reactors. This non-destructive overview method of quantifying cavity distribution can be used to direct the location and number of required focused ion beam prepared transmission electron microscopy specimens for examination of either neutron or ion-irradiated specimens. This technique can also be applied in stereo mode to quantify the depth dependence of cavity distributions.

  19. Numerical and analytical approaches to an advection-diffusion problem at small Reynolds number and large Péclet number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Nathaniel J.; Licata, Nicholas A.

    2018-05-01

    Obtaining a detailed understanding of the physical interactions between a cell and its environment often requires information about the flow of fluid surrounding the cell. Cells must be able to effectively absorb and discard material in order to survive. Strategies for nutrient acquisition and toxin disposal, which have been evolutionarily selected for their efficacy, should reflect knowledge of the physics underlying this mass transport problem. Motivated by these considerations, in this paper we discuss the results from an undergraduate research project on the advection-diffusion equation at small Reynolds number and large Péclet number. In particular, we consider the problem of mass transport for a Stokesian spherical swimmer. We approach the problem numerically and analytically through a rescaling of the concentration boundary layer. A biophysically motivated first-passage problem for the absorption of material by the swimming cell demonstrates quantitative agreement between the numerical and analytical approaches. We conclude by discussing the connections between our results and the design of smart toxin disposal systems.

  20. Distribution, Numbers, and Diversity of ESBL-Producing E. coli in the Poultry Farm Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, Hetty; van Hoek, Angela H A M; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A; van der Plaats, Rozemarijn Q J; Kerkhof-de Heer, Lianne; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Schets, Franciska M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to discern the contribution of poultry farms to the contamination of the environment with ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and therewith, potentially to the spread of these bacteria to humans and other animals. ESBL-producing E. coli were detected at all investigated laying hen farms

  1. Secret Sharing Schemes with a large number of players from Toric Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan P.

    A general theory for constructing linear secret sharing schemes over a finite field $\\Fq$ from toric varieties is introduced. The number of players can be as large as $(q-1)^r-1$ for $r\\geq 1$. We present general methods for obtaining the reconstruction and privacy thresholds as well as conditions...... for multiplication on the associated secret sharing schemes. In particular we apply the method on certain toric surfaces. The main results are ideal linear secret sharing schemes where the number of players can be as large as $(q-1)^2-1$. We determine bounds for the reconstruction and privacy thresholds...

  2. Prospectus: towards the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klewicki, J C; Chini, G P; Gibson, J F

    2017-03-13

    Recent and on-going advances in mathematical methods and analysis techniques, coupled with the experimental and computational capacity to capture detailed flow structure at increasingly large Reynolds numbers, afford an unprecedented opportunity to develop realistic models of high Reynolds number turbulent wall-flow dynamics. A distinctive attribute of this new generation of models is their grounding in the Navier-Stokes equations. By adhering to this challenging constraint, high-fidelity models ultimately can be developed that not only predict flow properties at high Reynolds numbers, but that possess a mathematical structure that faithfully captures the underlying flow physics. These first-principles models are needed, for example, to reliably manipulate flow behaviours at extreme Reynolds numbers. This theme issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A provides a selection of contributions from the community of researchers who are working towards the development of such models. Broadly speaking, the research topics represented herein report on dynamical structure, mechanisms and transport; scale interactions and self-similarity; model reductions that restrict nonlinear interactions; and modern asymptotic theories. In this prospectus, the challenges associated with modelling turbulent wall-flows at large Reynolds numbers are briefly outlined, and the connections between the contributing papers are highlighted.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Recreating Raven's: software for systematically generating large numbers of Raven-like matrix problems with normed properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzen, Laura E; Benz, Zachary O; Dixon, Kevin R; Posey, Jamie; Kroger, James K; Speed, Ann E

    2010-05-01

    Raven's Progressive Matrices is a widely used test for assessing intelligence and reasoning ability (Raven, Court, & Raven, 1998). Since the test is nonverbal, it can be applied to many different populations and has been used all over the world (Court & Raven, 1995). However, relatively few matrices are in the sets developed by Raven, which limits their use in experiments requiring large numbers of stimuli. For the present study, we analyzed the types of relations that appear in Raven's original Standard Progressive Matrices (SPMs) and created a software tool that can combine the same types of relations according to parameters chosen by the experimenter, to produce very large numbers of matrix problems with specific properties. We then conducted a norming study in which the matrices we generated were compared with the actual SPMs. This study showed that the generated matrices both covered and expanded on the range of problem difficulties provided by the SPMs.

  4. Obstructions to the realization of distance graphs with large chromatic numbers on spheres of small radii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupavskii, A B; Raigorodskii, A M [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-31

    We investigate in detail some properties of distance graphs constructed on the integer lattice. Such graphs find wide applications in problems of combinatorial geometry, in particular, such graphs were employed to answer Borsuk's question in the negative and to obtain exponential estimates for the chromatic number of the space. This work is devoted to the study of the number of cliques and the chromatic number of such graphs under certain conditions. Constructions of sequences of distance graphs are given, in which the graphs have unit length edges and contain a large number of triangles that lie on a sphere of radius 1/√3 (which is the minimum possible). At the same time, the chromatic numbers of the graphs depend exponentially on their dimension. The results of this work strengthen and generalize some of the results obtained in a series of papers devoted to related issues. Bibliography: 29 titles.

  5. ON AN EXPONENTIAL INEQUALITY AND A STRONG LAW OF LARGE NUMBERS FOR MONOTONE MEASURES

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agahi, H.; Mesiar, Radko

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2014), s. 804-813 ISSN 0023-5954 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Choquet expectation * a strong law of large numbers * exponential inequality * monotone probability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/mesiar-0438052.pdf

  6. Strong Laws of Large Numbers for Arrays of Rowwise NA and LNQD Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some strong laws of large numbers and strong convergence properties for arrays of rowwise negatively associated and linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables are obtained. The results obtained not only generalize the result of Hu and Taylor to negatively associated and linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables, but also improve it.

  7. The lore of large numbers: some historical background to the anthropic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A description is given of how the study of numerological coincidences in physics and cosmology led first to the Large Numbers Hypothesis of Dirac and then to the suggestion of the Anthropic Principle in a variety of forms. The early history of 'coincidences' is discussed together with the work of Weyl, Eddington and Dirac. (author)

  8. The three-large-primes variant of the number field sieve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.H. Cavallar

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe Number Field Sieve (NFS) is the asymptotically fastest known factoringalgorithm for large integers.This method was proposed by John Pollard in 1988. Sincethen several variants have been implemented with the objective of improving thesiever which is the most time consuming part of

  9. SECRET SHARING SCHEMES WITH STRONG MULTIPLICATION AND A LARGE NUMBER OF PLAYERS FROM TORIC VARIETIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder

    2017-01-01

    This article consider Massey's construction for constructing linear secret sharing schemes from toric varieties over a finite field $\\Fq$ with $q$ elements. The number of players can be as large as $(q-1)^r-1$ for $r\\geq 1$. The schemes have strong multiplication, such schemes can be utilized in ...

  10. Real options and a large producer: the case of electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppo, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we extend the real option theory to consider the situation of a large producer and we employ the model to electricity markets. This is important because many producers in these markets affect the market supply and, therefore, also the electricity price. This production price effect influences not only on the assets that the energy company owns but also on its investment opportunities. We show that this production's price effect has to be considered in the investment analysis if the company is not able to hedge the price effect in the financial markets and if there is no competition on the investment opportunity. (author)

  11. Prospectus: towards the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klewicki, J. C.; Chini, G. P.; Gibson, J. F.

    2017-01-01

    Recent and on-going advances in mathematical methods and analysis techniques, coupled with the experimental and computational capacity to capture detailed flow structure at increasingly large Reynolds numbers, afford an unprecedented opportunity to develop realistic models of high Reynolds number turbulent wall-flow dynamics. A distinctive attribute of this new generation of models is their grounding in the Navier–Stokes equations. By adhering to this challenging constraint, high-fidelity models ultimately can be developed that not only predict flow properties at high Reynolds numbers, but that possess a mathematical structure that faithfully captures the underlying flow physics. These first-principles models are needed, for example, to reliably manipulate flow behaviours at extreme Reynolds numbers. This theme issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A provides a selection of contributions from the community of researchers who are working towards the development of such models. Broadly speaking, the research topics represented herein report on dynamical structure, mechanisms and transport; scale interactions and self-similarity; model reductions that restrict nonlinear interactions; and modern asymptotic theories. In this prospectus, the challenges associated with modelling turbulent wall-flows at large Reynolds numbers are briefly outlined, and the connections between the contributing papers are highlighted. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number’. PMID:28167585

  12. Optimal number of coarse-grained sites in different components of large biomolecular complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitskiy, Anton V; Saunders, Marissa G; Voth, Gregory A

    2012-07-26

    The computational study of large biomolecular complexes (molecular machines, cytoskeletal filaments, etc.) is a formidable challenge facing computational biophysics and biology. To achieve biologically relevant length and time scales, coarse-grained (CG) models of such complexes usually must be built and employed. One of the important early stages in this approach is to determine an optimal number of CG sites in different constituents of a complex. This work presents a systematic approach to this problem. First, a universal scaling law is derived and numerically corroborated for the intensity of the intrasite (intradomain) thermal fluctuations as a function of the number of CG sites. Second, this result is used for derivation of the criterion for the optimal number of CG sites in different parts of a large multibiomolecule complex. In the zeroth-order approximation, this approach validates the empirical rule of taking one CG site per fixed number of atoms or residues in each biomolecule, previously widely used for smaller systems (e.g., individual biomolecules). The first-order corrections to this rule are derived and numerically checked by the case studies of the Escherichia coli ribosome and Arp2/3 actin filament junction. In different ribosomal proteins, the optimal number of amino acids per CG site is shown to differ by a factor of 3.5, and an even wider spread may exist in other large biomolecular complexes. Therefore, the method proposed in this paper is valuable for the optimal construction of CG models of such complexes.

  13. Large-Scale Flows and Magnetic Fields Produced by Rotating Convection in a Quasi-Geostrophic Model of Planetary Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guervilly, C.; Cardin, P.

    2017-12-01

    Convection is the main heat transport process in the liquid cores of planets. The convective flows are thought to be turbulent and constrained by rotation (corresponding to high Reynolds numbers Re and low Rossby numbers Ro). Under these conditions, and in the absence of magnetic fields, the convective flows can produce coherent Reynolds stresses that drive persistent large-scale zonal flows. The formation of large-scale flows has crucial implications for the thermal evolution of planets and the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. In this work, we explore this problem with numerical simulations using a quasi-geostrophic approximation to model convective and zonal flows at Re 104 and Ro 10-4 for Prandtl numbers relevant for liquid metals (Pr 0.1). The formation of intense multiple zonal jets strongly affects the convective heat transport, leading to the formation of a mean temperature staircase. We also study the generation of magnetic fields by the quasi-geostrophic flows at low magnetic Prandtl numbers.

  14. Evaluation of simulated-LOCA tests that produced large fuel cladding ballooning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, D.A.; Meyer, R.O.

    1979-02-01

    A description is given of the NRC review and evaluation of simulated-LOCA tests that produced large axially extended ballooing in Zircaloy fuel cladding. Technical summaries are presented on the likelihood of the transient that was used in the tests, the effects of temperature variations on strain localization, and the results of other similar experiments. It is concluded that (a) the large axially extended deformations were an artifact of the experimental technique, (b) current NRC licensing positions are not invalidated by this new information, and (c) no new research programs are needed to study this phenomenon

  15. Evaluation by electronic paramagnetic resonance of the number of free radicals produced in irradiated rat bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marble, G.; Valderas, R.

    1966-01-01

    The number of long half-life free radicals created by gamma irradiation in the bones of the rat has been determined from the electrons paramagnetic resonance spectrum. This number decreases slowly with time (calculated half life: 24 days). It is proportional to the dose of gamma radiation given to the rat. The method could find interesting applications in the field of biological dosimetry. (authors) [fr

  16. Influence of low atomic number plasma component on the formation of laser-produced plasma jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Badziak, J.; Borodziuk, S.; Chodukowski, T.; Gus’kov, S.Yu.; Demchenko, N. N.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Krouský, Eduard; Mašek, Karel; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Pisarczyk, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 11 (2010), s. 114505 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : Composed laser targets * target material * laser produced-plasma jets * PALS laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.320, year: 2010 http://pop.aip.org/ resource /1/phpaen/v17/i11/p114505_s1

  17. Costs of Producing Milk, 1975-84. Agricultural Economic Report Number 569.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Carolyn

    Costs of producing milk rose 53 percent between 1975 and 1984 to $13.57 per hundredweight, whereas cash (out-of-pocket) costs rose 56 percent to $10.64 per hundredweight. Cash receipts, which measure gross production value, peaked in 1981 at $14.94 per hundredweight compared with $9.23 in 1975. Production costs in the Pacific region were more than…

  18. Reconnection During Periods of Large IMF By Producing Shear Instabilities at the Dayside Convection Reversal Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, S.; Clauer, C. R.; Hartinger, M.; Xu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    During periods of large interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By component and small negative Bz (GSM Coordinates), the ionospheric polar electric potential system is distorted so as to produce large east-west convection shears across local noon. Past research has shown examples of ULF waves with periods of approximately 10 - 20 minutes observed at this convection shear by the Greenland west coast chain of magnetometers. Past work has shown examples of these waves and associated them with conditions in the solar wind and IMF, particularly periods of large IMF By component. Here we report the results of a search of several years of solar wind data to identify periods when the IMF By component is large and the magnetometer chains along the 40-degree magnetic meridian (Greenland west coast and conjugate Antarctic chains) are within a few hours of local noon. We test here the hypothesis that large IMF By reconnection leads to large convection shears across local noon that generate ULF waves through, presumably, a shear instability such as Kelvin-Helmholtz.

  19. Break down of the law of large numbers in Josephson junction series arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, D.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    We study underdamped Josephson junction series arrays that are globally coupled through a resistive shunting load and driven by an rf bias current. We find that they can be an experimental realization of many phenomena currently studied in globally coupled logistic maps. We find coherent, ordered, partially ordered and turbulent phases in the IV characteristics of the array. The ordered phase corresponds to giant Shapiro steps. In the turbulent phase there is a saturation of the broad band noise for a large number of junctions. This corresponds to a break down of the law of large numbers as seen in globally coupled maps. Coexisting with this, we find an emergence of novel pseudo-steps in the IV characteristics. This effect can be experimentally distinguished from the true Shapiro steps, which do not have broad band noise emission. (author). 21 refs, 5 figs

  20. Breakdown of the law of large numbers in Josephson junction series arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, D.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    We study underdamped Josephson junction series arrays that are globally coupled through a resistive shunting load and driven by an rf bias current. We find that they can be an experimental realization of many phenomena currently studied in globally coupled logistic maps. We find coherent, ordered, partially ordered and turbulent phases in the IV characteristics of the array. The ordered phase corresponds to giant Shapiro steps. In the turbulent phase there is a saturation of the broad band noise for a large number of junctions. This corresponds to a break down of the law of large numbers as seen in the globally coupled maps. Coexisting with this, we find an emergence of novel pseudo-steps in the IV characteristics. This effect can be experimentally distinguished from the Shapiro steps, which do not have broad band noise emission. (author). 21 refs, 5 figs

  1. The holographic dual of a Riemann problem in a large number of dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Christopher P.; Spillane, Michael [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy,Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Yarom, Amos [Department of Physics, Technion,Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2016-08-22

    We study properties of a non equilibrium steady state generated when two heat baths are initially in contact with one another. The dynamics of the system we study are governed by holographic duality in a large number of dimensions. We discuss the “phase diagram” associated with the steady state, the dual, dynamical, black hole description of this problem, and its relation to the fluid/gravity correspondence.

  2. Phases of a stack of membranes in a large number of dimensions of configuration space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, M. E.; Kleinert, H.

    2001-05-01

    The phase diagram of a stack of tensionless membranes with nonlinear curvature energy and vertical harmonic interaction is calculated exactly in a large number of dimensions of configuration space. At low temperatures, the system forms a lamellar phase with spontaneously broken translational symmetry in the vertical direction. At a critical temperature, the stack disorders vertically in a meltinglike transition. The critical temperature is determined as a function of the interlayer separation l.

  3. Early stage animal hoarders: are these owners of large numbers of adequately cared for cats?

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, D.; da Cruz, N. O.; Ellis, Sarah; Hernandez, J. A. E.; Reche-Junior, A.

    2013-01-01

    Animal hoarding is a spectrum-based condition in which hoarders are often reported to have had normal and appropriate pet-keeping habits in childhood and early adulthood. Historically, research has focused largely on well established clinical animal hoarders with little work targeted towards the onset and development of animal hoarding. This study investigated whether a Brazilian population of owners of what might typically be considered an excessive number (20 or more) of cats were more like...

  4. Distribution, Numbers, and Diversity of ESBL-Producing E. coli in the Poultry Farm Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetty Blaak

    Full Text Available This study aimed to discern the contribution of poultry farms to the contamination of the environment with ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and therewith, potentially to the spread of these bacteria to humans and other animals. ESBL-producing E. coli were detected at all investigated laying hen farms (n = 5 and broiler farms (n = 3 in 65% (46/71 and 81% (57/70 of poultry faeces samples, respectively. They were detected in rinse water and run-off water (21/26; 81%, other farm animals (11/14; 79%, dust (21/35; 60%, surface water adjacent to farms (20/35; 57%, soil (48/87; 55%, on flies (11/73; 15%, and in barn air (2/33; 6%. The highest prevalence and concentrations in the outdoor environment were observed in soil of free-range areas at laying hen farms (100% of samples positive, geometric mean concentration 2.4×10(4 cfu/kg, and surface waters adjacent to broiler farms during, or shortly after, cleaning between production rounds (91% of samples positive, geometric mean concentration 1.9×10(2 cfu/l. The diversity of ESBL-producing E. coli variants with respect to sequence type, phylogenetic group, ESBL-genotype and antibiotic resistance profile was high, especially on broiler farms where on average 16 different variants were detected, and the average Simpson's Indices of diversity (SID; 1-D were 0.93 and 0.94 among flock and environmental isolates respectively. At laying hen farms on average nine variants were detected, with SIDs of 0.63 (flock isolates and 0.77 (environmental isolates. Sixty percent of environmental isolates were identical to flock isolates at the same farm. The highest proportions of 'flock variants' were observed in dust (94%, run-off gullies (82%, and barn air (67%, followed by surface water (57%, soil (56%, flies (50% and other farm animals (35%.The introduction of ESBL-producing E. coli from poultry farms to the environment may pose a health risk if these bacteria reach places where people may become exposed.

  5. Loss of locality in gravitational correlators with a large number of insertions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudip; Raju, Suvrat

    2017-09-01

    We review lessons from the AdS/CFT correspondence that indicate that the emergence of locality in quantum gravity is contingent upon considering observables with a small number of insertions. Correlation functions, where the number of insertions scales with a power of the central charge of the CFT, are sensitive to nonlocal effects in the bulk theory, which arise from a combination of the effects of the bulk Gauss law and a breakdown of perturbation theory. To examine whether a similar effect occurs in flat space, we consider the scattering of massless particles in the bosonic string and the superstring in the limit, where the number of external particles, n, becomes very large. We use estimates of the volume of the Weil-Petersson moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces to argue that string amplitudes grow factorially in this limit. We verify this factorial behavior through an extensive numerical analysis of string amplitudes at large n. Our numerical calculations rely on the observation that, in the large n limit, the string scattering amplitude localizes on the Gross-Mende saddle points, even though individual particle energies are small. This factorial growth implies the breakdown of string perturbation theory for n ˜(M/plE ) d -2 in d dimensions, where E is the typical individual particle energy. We explore the implications of this breakdown for the black hole information paradox. We show that the loss of locality suggested by this breakdown is precisely sufficient to resolve the cloning and strong subadditivity paradoxes.

  6. A methodology for the synthesis of heat exchanger networks having large numbers of uncertain parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak Pintarič, Zorka; Kravanja, Zdravko

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a robust computational methodology for the synthesis and design of flexible HEN (Heat Exchanger Networks) having large numbers of uncertain parameters. This methodology combines several heuristic methods which progressively lead to a flexible HEN design at a specific level of confidence. During the first step, a HEN topology is generated under nominal conditions followed by determining those points critical for flexibility. A significantly reduced multi-scenario model for flexible HEN design is formulated at the nominal point with the flexibility constraints at the critical points. The optimal design obtained is tested by stochastic Monte Carlo optimization and the flexibility index through solving one-scenario problems within a loop. This presented methodology is novel regarding the enormous reduction of scenarios in HEN design problems, and computational effort. Despite several simplifications, the capability of designing flexible HENs with large numbers of uncertain parameters, which are typical throughout industry, is not compromised. An illustrative case study is presented for flexible HEN synthesis comprising 42 uncertain parameters. - Highlights: • Methodology for HEN (Heat Exchanger Network) design under uncertainty is presented. • The main benefit is solving HENs having large numbers of uncertain parameters. • Drastically reduced multi-scenario HEN design problem is formulated through several steps. • Flexibility of HEN is guaranteed at a specific level of confidence.

  7. Monitoring a large number of pesticides and transformation products in water samples from Spain and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousis, Nikolaos I; Bade, Richard; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Zuccato, Ettore; Sancho, Juan V; Hernandez, Felix; Castiglioni, Sara

    2017-07-01

    Assessing the presence of pesticides in environmental waters is particularly challenging because of the huge number of substances used which may end up in the environment. Furthermore, the occurrence of pesticide transformation products (TPs) and/or metabolites makes this task even harder. Most studies dealing with the determination of pesticides in water include only a small number of analytes and in many cases no TPs. The present study applied a screening method for the determination of a large number of pesticides and TPs in wastewater (WW) and surface water (SW) from Spain and Italy. Liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was used to screen a database of 450 pesticides and TPs. Detection and identification were based on specific criteria, i.e. mass accuracy, fragmentation, and comparison of retention times when reference standards were available, or a retention time prediction model when standards were not available. Seventeen pesticides and TPs from different classes (fungicides, herbicides and insecticides) were found in WW in Italy and Spain, and twelve in SW. Generally, in both countries more compounds were detected in effluent WW than in influent WW, and in SW than WW. This might be due to the analytical sensitivity in the different matrices, but also to the presence of multiple sources of pollution. HRMS proved a good screening tool to determine a large number of substances in water and identify some priority compounds for further quantitative analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation of polymer composites using nanostructured carbon produced at large scale by catalytic decomposition of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suelves, I.; Utrilla, R.; Torres, D.; Llobet, S. de; Pinilla, J.L.; Lázaro, M.J.; Moliner, R.

    2013-01-01

    Polymer-based composites were prepared using different concentrations of nanostructured carbons (NCs), produced by catalytic decomposition of methane (CDM). Four carbonaceous nanostructures were produced using different catalysts (with Ni and Fe as active phases) in a rotary bed reactor capable of producing up to 20 g of carbon per hour. The effect of nanostructured carbon on the thermal and electrical behaviour of epoxy-based composites is studied. An increase in the thermal stability and the decrease of electrical resistivity were observed for the composites at carbon contents as low as 1 wt%. The highest reduction of the electrical resistivity was obtained using multi-walled carbon nanotubes obtained with the Fe based catalysts. This effect could be related to the high degree of structural order of these materials. The results were compared with those obtained using a commercial carbon nanofibre, showing that the use of carbon nanostructures from CDM can be a valid alternative to the commercial nanofibres. -- Highlights: ► Preparation of polymer nanocomposites with enhanced thermal and electrical properties. ► Formation of nanostructured carbon materials with different textural and structural properties at large scale. ► Catalytic decomposition of methane to simultaneously produce hydrogen and carbon materials.

  9. GAMSOURCE - WRS system module number 38474 for calculating gamma-ray sources produced by neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimstone, M.J.

    1978-06-01

    The WRS Modular Programming System has been developed as a means by which programmes may be more efficiently constructed, maintained and modified. In this system a module is a self-contained unit typically composed of one or more Fortran routines, and a programme is constructed from a number of such modules. This report describes one WRS module, the function of which is to calculate the source strength of gamma-rays arising from neutron capture in a system represented in one-dimensional geometry. The information given in this manual is of use both to the programmer wishing to incorporate the module in a programme, and to the user of such a programme. (author)

  10. Thickness determination of large-area films of yttria-stabilized zirconia produced by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryds, N. [Materials Research Department, Riso National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)]. E-mail: nini.pryds@risoe.dk; Toftmann, B. [Department of Optics and Plasma Research, Riso National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Bilde-Sorensen, J.B. [Materials Research Department, Riso National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Schou, J. [Department of Optics and Plasma Research, Riso National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Linderoth, S. [Materials Research Department, Riso National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-04-30

    Films of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) on a polished silicon substrate of diameter up to 125 mm have been produced in a large-area pulsed laser deposition (PLD) setup under typical PLD conditions. The film thickness over the full film area has been determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with use of a method similar to one described by Bishop and Poole. The attenuation of the electron-induced X-rays from the Si wafer by the film was monitored at a number of points along a diameter and the thickness was determined by Monte Carlo simulations of the attenuation for various values of film thickness with the program CASINO. These results have been compared with direct measurements in the SEM of the film thickness on a cross-section on one of the wafers. The results of these measurements demonstrate the ability of this technique to accurately determine the thickness of a large film, i.e. up to diameters of 125 mm, in a relatively short time, without destroying the substrate, without the need of a standard sample and without the need of a flat substrate. We have also demonstrated that by controlling the deposition parameters large-area YSZ films with uniform thickness can be produced.

  11. Thickness determination of large-area films of yttria-stabilized zirconia produced by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryds, N.; Toftmann, B.; Bilde-Sorensen, J.B.; Schou, J.; Linderoth, S.

    2006-01-01

    Films of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) on a polished silicon substrate of diameter up to 125 mm have been produced in a large-area pulsed laser deposition (PLD) setup under typical PLD conditions. The film thickness over the full film area has been determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with use of a method similar to one described by Bishop and Poole. The attenuation of the electron-induced X-rays from the Si wafer by the film was monitored at a number of points along a diameter and the thickness was determined by Monte Carlo simulations of the attenuation for various values of film thickness with the program CASINO. These results have been compared with direct measurements in the SEM of the film thickness on a cross-section on one of the wafers. The results of these measurements demonstrate the ability of this technique to accurately determine the thickness of a large film, i.e. up to diameters of 125 mm, in a relatively short time, without destroying the substrate, without the need of a standard sample and without the need of a flat substrate. We have also demonstrated that by controlling the deposition parameters large-area YSZ films with uniform thickness can be produced

  12. A rationale for large inertial fusion plants producing hydrogen for powering low emission vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) has been identified in the 1991 National Energy Strategy, along with Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE), as one of only three inexhaustible energy sources for long term energy supply (past 2025), the other alternatives being fission and solar energy. Fusion plants, using electrolysis, could also produce hydrogen to power low emission vehicles in a potentially huge future US market: > 500 GWe would be needed for example, to replace all foreign oil imports with equal-energy hydrogen, assuming 70%-efficient electrolysis. Any inexhaustible source of electricity, including IFE and MFE reactors, can thus provide a long term renewable source of hydrogen as well as solar, wind and biomass sources. Hydrogen production by both high temperature thermochemical cycles and by electrolysis has been studied for MFE, but avoiding trace tritium contamination of the hydrogen product would best be assured using electrolysis cells well separated from any fusion coolant loops. The motivations to consider IFE or MFE producing renewable hydrogen are: (1) reducing US dependence on foreign oil imports and the associated trade deficient; (2) a hydrogen-based transportation system could greatly mitigate future air pollution and greenhouse gases; (3) investments in hydrogen pipelines, storage, and distribution systems could be used for a variety of hydrogen sources; (4) a hydrogen pipeline system could access and buffer sufficiently large markets that temporary outages of large (>> 1 GWe size) fusion hydrogen units could be tolerated

  13. Large mammal burrows in late Miocene calcic paleosols from central Argentina: paleoenvironment, taphonomy and producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Cardonatto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Large cylindrical sediment-filled structures interpreted as mammal burrows occur within the loess-paleosol sequence of the late Miocene Cerro Azul Formation of central Argentina. A total of 115 burrow fills from three localities were measured. They are typically shallowly dipping, subcylindrical, unbranched structures with rounded ends and lacking enlargements. The horizontal diameter of the burrows range between 0.15 and 1.50 m, with most of the burrows in the interval of 0.39 to 0.98 m. Geometric morphometric analysis of transverse cross-sections support their distinct subcircular and elliptical (horizontally flattened shapes. Burrow fills are typically laminated in the lower part and massive in the upper part. The laminated intervals reflect pulses of flowing water entering the abandoned burrow during moderate rains, whereas massive intervals reflect mass flow input of dense sediment-water mixtures during heavy rains that produced sheet floods. Approximately 1% of the burrows contained fragmentary, disarticulated and weathered mammal bones that were introduced in the open burrow by currents along with other sedimentary particles. Analysis of the tetrapod burrow fossil record suggests that Miocene burrows, including those studied herein, reflect a remarkable increase in the average size of the fossorial fauna. We conclude that large late Miocene mammals dug burrows essentially as a shelter against environmental extremes and to escape predation. The simple architecture of the burrows suggests that the producers essentially foraged aboveground. Several mammal groups acquired fossorial habits in response to cold and seasonally dry climatic conditions that prevailed during the late Miocene in southern South America. The considerable range of horizontal diameters of the studied burrows can be attributed to a variety of producers, including dasypodids, the notoungulate Paedotherium minor, Glyptodontidae and Proscelidodon sp.

  14. Impact factors for Reggeon-gluon transition in N=4 SYM with large number of colours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadin, V.S., E-mail: fadin@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of SD RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Fiore, R., E-mail: roberto.fiore@cs.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Arcavacata di Rende, I-87036 Cosenza (Italy)

    2014-06-27

    We calculate impact factors for Reggeon-gluon transition in supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory with four supercharges at large number of colours N{sub c}. In the next-to-leading order impact factors are not uniquely defined and must accord with BFKL kernels and energy scales. We obtain the impact factor corresponding to the kernel and the energy evolution parameter, which is invariant under Möbius transformation in momentum space, and show that it is also Möbius invariant up to terms taken into account in the BDS ansatz.

  15. Do neutron stars disprove multiplicative creation in Dirac's large number hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.; Mufti, A.A.

    1980-07-01

    Dirac's cosmology, based on his large number hypothesis, took the gravitational coupling to be decreasing with time and matter to be created as the square of time. Since the effects predicted by Dirac's theory are very small, it is difficult to find a ''clean'' test for it. Here we show that the observed radiation from pulsars is inconsistent with Dirac's multiplicative creation model, in which the matter created is proportional to the density of matter already present. Of course, this discussion makes no comment on the ''additive creation'' model, or on the revised version of Dirac's theory. (author)

  16. Law of large numbers and central limit theorem for randomly forced PDE's

    CERN Document Server

    Shirikyan, A

    2004-01-01

    We consider a class of dissipative PDE's perturbed by an external random force. Under the condition that the distribution of perturbation is sufficiently non-degenerate, a strong law of large numbers (SLLN) and a central limit theorem (CLT) for solutions are established and the corresponding rates of convergence are estimated. It is also shown that the estimates obtained are close to being optimal. The proofs are based on the property of exponential mixing for the problem in question and some abstract SLLN and CLT for mixing-type Markov processes.

  17. On the Convergence and Law of Large Numbers for the Non-Euclidean Lp -Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Livadiotis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and proves two important theorems that compose the Law of Large Numbers for the non-Euclidean L p -means, known to be true for the Euclidean L 2 -means: Let the L p -mean estimator, which constitutes the specific functional that estimates the L p -mean of N independent and identically distributed random variables; then, (i the expectation value of the L p -mean estimator equals the mean of the distributions of the random variables; and (ii the limit N → ∞ of the L p -mean estimator also equals the mean of the distributions.

  18. Superposition of elliptic functions as solutions for a large number of nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, Avinash; Saxena, Avadh

    2014-01-01

    For a large number of nonlinear equations, both discrete and continuum, we demonstrate a kind of linear superposition. We show that whenever a nonlinear equation admits solutions in terms of both Jacobi elliptic functions cn(x, m) and dn(x, m) with modulus m, then it also admits solutions in terms of their sum as well as difference. We have checked this in the case of several nonlinear equations such as the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, MKdV, a mixed KdV-MKdV system, a mixed quadratic-cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the Ablowitz-Ladik equation, the saturable nonlinear Schrödinger equation, λϕ 4 , the discrete MKdV as well as for several coupled field equations. Further, for a large number of nonlinear equations, we show that whenever a nonlinear equation admits a periodic solution in terms of dn 2 (x, m), it also admits solutions in terms of dn 2 (x,m)±√(m) cn (x,m) dn (x,m), even though cn(x, m)dn(x, m) is not a solution of these nonlinear equations. Finally, we also obtain superposed solutions of various forms for several coupled nonlinear equations

  19. Law of Large Numbers: the Theory, Applications and Technology-based Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinov, Ivo D; Christou, Nicolas; Gould, Robert

    2009-03-01

    Modern approaches for technology-based blended education utilize a variety of recently developed novel pedagogical, computational and network resources. Such attempts employ technology to deliver integrated, dynamically-linked, interactive-content and heterogeneous learning environments, which may improve student comprehension and information retention. In this paper, we describe one such innovative effort of using technological tools to expose students in probability and statistics courses to the theory, practice and usability of the Law of Large Numbers (LLN). We base our approach on integrating pedagogical instruments with the computational libraries developed by the Statistics Online Computational Resource (www.SOCR.ucla.edu). To achieve this merger we designed a new interactive Java applet and a corresponding demonstration activity that illustrate the concept and the applications of the LLN. The LLN applet and activity have common goals - to provide graphical representation of the LLN principle, build lasting student intuition and present the common misconceptions about the law of large numbers. Both the SOCR LLN applet and activity are freely available online to the community to test, validate and extend (Applet: http://socr.ucla.edu/htmls/exp/Coin_Toss_LLN_Experiment.html, and Activity: http://wiki.stat.ucla.edu/socr/index.php/SOCR_EduMaterials_Activities_LLN).

  20. Wall modeled large eddy simulations of complex high Reynolds number flows with synthetic inlet turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Sunil; Tafti, Danesh

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Large eddy simulation. ► Wall layer modeling. ► Synthetic inlet turbulence. ► Swirl flows. - Abstract: Large eddy simulations of complex high Reynolds number flows are carried out with the near wall region being modeled with a zonal two layer model. A novel formulation for solving the turbulent boundary layer equation for the effective tangential velocity in a generalized co-ordinate system is presented and applied in the near wall zonal treatment. This formulation reduces the computational time in the inner layer significantly compared to the conventional two layer formulations present in the literature and is most suitable for complex geometries involving body fitted structured and unstructured meshes. The cost effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed wall model, used with the synthetic eddy method (SEM) to generate inlet turbulence, is investigated in turbulent channel flow, flow over a backward facing step, and confined swirling flows at moderately high Reynolds numbers. Predictions are compared with available DNS, experimental LDV data, as well as wall resolved LES. In all cases, there is at least an order of magnitude reduction in computational cost with no significant loss in prediction accuracy.

  1. Conformal window in QCD for large numbers of colors and flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2014-01-01

    We conjecture that the phase transitions in QCD at large number of colors N≫1 is triggered by the drastic change in the instanton density. As a result of it, all physical observables also experience some sharp modification in the θ behavior. This conjecture is motivated by the holographic model of QCD where confinement–deconfinement phase transition indeed happens precisely at temperature T=T c where θ-dependence of the vacuum energy experiences a sudden change in behavior: from N 2 cos(θ/N) at T c to cosθexp(−N) at T>T c . This conjecture is also supported by recent lattice studies. We employ this conjecture to study a possible phase transition as a function of κ≡N f /N from confinement to conformal phase in the Veneziano limit N f ∼N when number of flavors and colors are large, but the ratio κ is finite. Technically, we consider an operator which gets its expectation value solely from non-perturbative instanton effects. When κ exceeds some critical value κ>κ c the integral over instanton size is dominated by small-size instantons, making the instanton computations reliable with expected exp(−N) behavior. However, when κ c , the integral over instanton size is dominated by large-size instantons, and the instanton expansion breaks down. This regime with κ c corresponds to the confinement phase. We also compute the variation of the critical κ c (T,μ) when the temperature and chemical potential T,μ≪Λ QCD slightly vary. We also discuss the scaling (x i −x j ) −γ det in the conformal phase

  2. Vicious random walkers in the limit of a large number of walkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The vicious random walker problem on a line is studied in the limit of a large number of walkers. The multidimensional integral representing the probability that the p walkers will survive a time t (denoted P t (p) ) is shown to be analogous to the partition function of a particular one-component Coulomb gas. By assuming the existence of the thermodynamic limit for the Coulomb gas, one can deduce asymptotic formulas for P t (p) in the large-p, large-t limit. A straightforward analysis gives rigorous asymptotic formulas for the probability that after a time t the walkers are in their initial configuration (this event is termed a reunion). Consequently, asymptotic formulas for the conditional probability of a reunion, given that all walkers survive, are derived. Also, an asymptotic formula for the conditional probability density that any walker will arrive at a particular point in time t, given that all p walkers survive, is calculated in the limit t >> p

  3. Automated flow cytometric analysis across large numbers of samples and cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyi; Hasan, Milena; Libri, Valentina; Urrutia, Alejandra; Beitz, Benoît; Rouilly, Vincent; Duffy, Darragh; Patin, Étienne; Chalmond, Bernard; Rogge, Lars; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Albert, Matthew L; Schwikowski, Benno

    2015-04-01

    Multi-parametric flow cytometry is a key technology for characterization of immune cell phenotypes. However, robust high-dimensional post-analytic strategies for automated data analysis in large numbers of donors are still lacking. Here, we report a computational pipeline, called FlowGM, which minimizes operator input, is insensitive to compensation settings, and can be adapted to different analytic panels. A Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM)-based approach was utilized for initial clustering, with the number of clusters determined using Bayesian Information Criterion. Meta-clustering in a reference donor permitted automated identification of 24 cell types across four panels. Cluster labels were integrated into FCS files, thus permitting comparisons to manual gating. Cell numbers and coefficient of variation (CV) were similar between FlowGM and conventional gating for lymphocyte populations, but notably FlowGM provided improved discrimination of "hard-to-gate" monocyte and dendritic cell (DC) subsets. FlowGM thus provides rapid high-dimensional analysis of cell phenotypes and is amenable to cohort studies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Analysis of road traffic crash injuries - a technique producing large un-decalcified histological sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Gregersen, Markil Ebbe Gregers; Vesterby, Annie

    Introduction:The lower cervical spine facet joints are important structures in cases of chronic pain syndromes following road traffic crashes. Pathophysiological segmental kinematics may occur, particularly during rear-impact collisions, which may cause injury to these joints. Detailed anatomical...... that prepares large un-frozen un-decalcified cervical spine specimens for analysis. Materials and Methods:The cervical spine segments from C4 to C7 are removed en bloc during autopsy. The specimen is fixed throughout in 70% increasing to 99% ethanol and embedded un-decalcified in hardening methyl methacrylate......-duty microtome followed by relevant staining.Results:The described method produces fine detail histological sections that may visualise normal anatomical structures as well as discrete pathoanatomical lesions in the lower cervical spine facet joints.Discussion:The cervical spine facet joints can be analysed...

  5. On numerical simulation of the global distribution of sulfate aerosol produced by a large volcanic eruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pudykiewicz, J.A.; Dastoor, A.P. [Atmospheric Environment Service, Quebec (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Volcanic eruptions play an important role in the global sulfur cycle of the Earth`s atmosphere and can significantly perturb the global atmospheric chemistry. The large amount of sulfate aerosol produced by the oxidation of SO{sub 2} injected into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions also has a relatively big influence on the radiative equilibrium of the Earth`s climatic system. The submicron particles of the sulfate aerosol reflect solar radiation more effectively than they trap radiation in the infrared range. The effect of this is observed as cooling of the Earth`s surface. The modification of the global radiation budget following volcanic eruption can subsequently cause significant fluctuations of atmospheric variables on a subclimatic scale. The resulting perturbation of weather patterns has been observed and well documented since the eruptions of Mt. Krakatau and Mt. Tambora. The impact of the sulfate aerosol from volcanic eruptions on the radiative equilibrium of the Earth`s atmosphere was also confirmed by the studies done with Global Circulation Models designed to simulate climate. The objective of the present paper is to present a simple and effective method to estimate the global distribution of the sulfate aerosol produced as a consequence of volcanic eruptions. In this study we will present results of the simulation of global distribution of sulfate aerosol from the eruption of Mt Pinatubo.

  6. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Methods and Mechanisms for Producing Ions from Large Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Ens, Werner

    1991-01-01

    A NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Methods and Mechanisms for Producing Ions from Large Molecules was held at Minaki Lodge, Minaki, Ontario, Canada, from 24 to 28 June 1990. The workshop was hosted by the time-of-flight group of the Department of Physics at the University of Manitoba, and was attended by 64 invited participants from around the world. Twenty-nine invited talks were given and 19 papers were presented as posters. Of the 48 contributions, 38 are included in these proceedings. The conference was organized to study the rapidly changing field of mass spectrometry of biomolecules. Particle-induced desorption (especially with MeV particles) has been the most effective method of producing molecular ions from biomolecules. An important part of the workshop was devoted to recent developments in this field, particularly to progress in understanding the fundamentals of the desorption process. In this respect, the meeting was similar to previous conferences in Marburg, FRG (1978); Paris, F (1980); Uppsala...

  7. Thermal requirements and estimated number of generations of Neopamera bilobata (Say in strawberry-producing regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana Melissa de Azevedo Kuhn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The thermal threshold and thermal requirements of Neopamera bilobata were determined, and the number of generations that this species may produce in the main strawberry-producing regions of Brazil was estimated. In a climate chamber (70±10% RH and 12h photophase at 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, or 30±1°C, the development of 120 eggs was monitored until the adult stage, at each temperature. Nymphs were maintained in individual cages and fed on strawberry fruits of the cultivar Aromas. The mean duration and viability of the egg and nymph stages were calculated by estimating the lower and upper developmental thresholds and the thermal constant, and this information was used to estimate the number of generations per year in different strawberry-producing regions of Brazil. The egg-to-adult duration decreased as temperatures increased, up to 28°C (93.4, 83.2, 43.9, and 31.4 days at 19, 22, 25, and 28°C, respectively. Viability of nymphs was highest between 22 and 28°C. At 30°C, the egg-to-adult duration increased (36 days, while the viability decreased (11.11%. The lower egg-to-adult developmental threshold was 15.2°C and the thermal constant was 418.4 degree-days. Calculating the number of generations indicated that the largest number (5.1 generations yr-1 was obtained for the municipality of Jaboti, Paraná, and the smallest for Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul (1.9 generations yr-1. Our findings demonstrated that important strawberry-producing regions in Brazil are suitable for the development of N. bilobata.

  8. Properties of sound attenuation around a two-dimensional underwater vehicle with a large cavitation number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Peng-Cheng; Pan Guang

    2015-01-01

    Due to the high speed of underwater vehicles, cavitation is generated inevitably along with the sound attenuation when the sound signal traverses through the cavity region around the underwater vehicle. The linear wave propagation is studied to obtain the influence of bubbly liquid on the acoustic wave propagation in the cavity region. The sound attenuation coefficient and the sound speed formula of the bubbly liquid are presented. Based on the sound attenuation coefficients with various vapor volume fractions, the attenuation of sound intensity is calculated under large cavitation number conditions. The result shows that the sound intensity attenuation is fairly small in a certain condition. Consequently, the intensity attenuation can be neglected in engineering. (paper)

  9. Random number generators for large-scale parallel Monte Carlo simulations on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Wang, F.; Liu, B.

    2018-05-01

    Through parallelization, field programmable gate array (FPGA) can achieve unprecedented speeds in large-scale parallel Monte Carlo (LPMC) simulations. FPGA presents both new constraints and new opportunities for the implementations of random number generators (RNGs), which are key elements of any Monte Carlo (MC) simulation system. Using empirical and application based tests, this study evaluates all of the four RNGs used in previous FPGA based MC studies and newly proposed FPGA implementations for two well-known high-quality RNGs that are suitable for LPMC studies on FPGA. One of the newly proposed FPGA implementations: a parallel version of additive lagged Fibonacci generator (Parallel ALFG) is found to be the best among the evaluated RNGs in fulfilling the needs of LPMC simulations on FPGA.

  10. Large-Eddy Simulation of a High Reynolds Number Flow Around a Cylinder Including Aeroacoustic Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyropoulos, Evangelos T.; Holmes, Bayard S.

    1997-01-01

    The dynamic subgrid-scale model is employed in large-eddy simulations of flow over a cylinder at a Reynolds number, based on the diameter of the cylinder, of 90,000. The Centric SPECTRUM(trademark) finite element solver is used for the analysis. The far field sound pressure is calculated from Lighthill-Curle's equation using the computed fluctuating pressure at the surface of the cylinder. The sound pressure level at a location 35 diameters away from the cylinder and at an angle of 90 deg with respect to the wake's downstream axis was found to have a peak value of approximately 110 db. Slightly smaller peak values were predicted at the 60 deg and 120 deg locations. A grid refinement study suggests that the dynamic model demands mesh refinement beyond that used here.

  11. System for high-voltage control detectors with large number photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donskov, S.V.; Kachanov, V.A.; Mikhajlov, Yu.V.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive on-line system for hihg-voltage control which is designed for detectors with a large number of photomultipliers is developed and manufactured. It has been developed for the GAMC type hodoscopic electromagnetic calorimeters, comprising up to 4 thousand photomultipliers. High voltage variation is performed by a high-speed potentiometer which is rotated by a microengine. Block-diagrams of computer control electronics are presented. The high-voltage control system has been used for five years in the IHEP and CERN accelerator experiments. The operation experience has shown that it is quite simple and convenient in operation. In case of about 6 thousand controlled channels in both experiments no potentiometer and microengines failures were observed

  12. CrossRef Large numbers of cold positronium atoms created in laser-selected Rydberg states using resonant charge exchange

    CERN Document Server

    McConnell, R; Kolthammer, WS; Richerme, P; Müllers, A; Walz, J; Grzonka, D; Zielinski, M; Fitzakerley, D; George, MC; Hessels, EA; Storry, CH; Weel, M

    2016-01-01

    Lasers are used to control the production of highly excited positronium atoms (Ps*). The laser light excites Cs atoms to Rydberg states that have a large cross section for resonant charge-exchange collisions with cold trapped positrons. For each trial with 30 million trapped positrons, more than 700 000 of the created Ps* have trajectories near the axis of the apparatus, and are detected using Stark ionization. This number of Ps* is 500 times higher than realized in an earlier proof-of-principle demonstration (2004 Phys. Lett. B 597 257). A second charge exchange of these near-axis Ps* with trapped antiprotons could be used to produce cold antihydrogen, and this antihydrogen production is expected to be increased by a similar factor.

  13. Decision process in MCDM with large number of criteria and heterogeneous risk preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    Full Text Available A new decision process is proposed to address the challenge that a large number criteria in the multi-criteria decision making (MCDM problem and the decision makers with heterogeneous risk preferences. First, from the perspective of objective data, the effective criteria are extracted based on the similarity relations between criterion values and the criteria are weighted, respectively. Second, the corresponding types of theoretic model of risk preferences expectations will be built, based on the possibility and similarity between criterion values to solve the problem for different interval numbers with the same expectation. Then, the risk preferences (Risk-seeking, risk-neutral and risk-aversion will be embedded in the decision process. Later, the optimal decision object is selected according to the risk preferences of decision makers based on the corresponding theoretic model. Finally, a new algorithm of information aggregation model is proposed based on fairness maximization of decision results for the group decision, considering the coexistence of decision makers with heterogeneous risk preferences. The scientific rationality verification of this new method is given through the analysis of real case. Keywords: Heterogeneous, Risk preferences, Fairness, Decision process, Group decision

  14. New approaches to phylogenetic tree search and their application to large numbers of protein alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Simon

    2007-10-01

    Phylogenetic tree estimation plays a critical role in a wide variety of molecular studies, including molecular systematics, phylogenetics, and comparative genomics. Finding the optimal tree relating a set of sequences using score-based (optimality criterion) methods, such as maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony, may require all possible trees to be considered, which is not feasible even for modest numbers of sequences. In practice, trees are estimated using heuristics that represent a trade-off between topological accuracy and speed. I present a series of novel algorithms suitable for score-based phylogenetic tree reconstruction that demonstrably improve the accuracy of tree estimates while maintaining high computational speeds. The heuristics function by allowing the efficient exploration of large numbers of trees through novel hill-climbing and resampling strategies. These heuristics, and other computational approximations, are implemented for maximum likelihood estimation of trees in the program Leaphy, and its performance is compared to other popular phylogenetic programs. Trees are estimated from 4059 different protein alignments using a selection of phylogenetic programs and the likelihoods of the tree estimates are compared. Trees estimated using Leaphy are found to have equal to or better likelihoods than trees estimated using other phylogenetic programs in 4004 (98.6%) families and provide a unique best tree that no other program found in 1102 (27.1%) families. The improvement is particularly marked for larger families (80 to 100 sequences), where Leaphy finds a unique best tree in 81.7% of families.

  15. CRISPR transcript processing: a mechanism for generating a large number of small interfering RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordjevic Marko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CRISPR/Cas (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR associated sequences is a recently discovered prokaryotic defense system against foreign DNA, including viruses and plasmids. CRISPR cassette is transcribed as a continuous transcript (pre-crRNA, which is processed by Cas proteins into small RNA molecules (crRNAs that are responsible for defense against invading viruses. Experiments in E. coli report that overexpression of cas genes generates a large number of crRNAs, from only few pre-crRNAs. Results We here develop a minimal model of CRISPR processing, which we parameterize based on available experimental data. From the model, we show that the system can generate a large amount of crRNAs, based on only a small decrease in the amount of pre-crRNAs. The relationship between the decrease of pre-crRNAs and the increase of crRNAs corresponds to strong linear amplification. Interestingly, this strong amplification crucially depends on fast non-specific degradation of pre-crRNA by an unidentified nuclease. We show that overexpression of cas genes above a certain level does not result in further increase of crRNA, but that this saturation can be relieved if the rate of CRISPR transcription is increased. We furthermore show that a small increase of CRISPR transcription rate can substantially decrease the extent of cas gene activation necessary to achieve a desired amount of crRNA. Conclusions The simple mathematical model developed here is able to explain existing experimental observations on CRISPR transcript processing in Escherichia coli. The model shows that a competition between specific pre-crRNA processing and non-specific degradation determines the steady-state levels of crRNA and is responsible for strong linear amplification of crRNAs when cas genes are overexpressed. The model further shows how disappearance of only a few pre-crRNA molecules normally present in the cell can lead to a large (two

  16. Profile Control by Biased Electrodes in Large Diameter RF Produced Pl asma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Shunjiro; Matsuoka, Norikazu; Yoshinaka, Toshiro

    1998-10-01

    Control of the plasma profile has been carried out, using the voltage biasing method in the large diameter (45 cm) RF (radio frequency) produced plasma in the presence of the uniform magnetic field (less than 1200 G). Under the low filling pressure condition of 0.16 mTorr, changing the biasing voltages to the three individual end plates with concentric circular ring shapes, the radial electron density (about 10^10 cm-3) profile could be changed from the hollow to the peaked one. On the contrary, the nearly flat electron temperature (several eV) profile did not change appreciably. The azimuthal rotation velocity measured by the Mach probe, i.e. directional probe, showed the different radial profiles (but nearly uniform along the axis) depending on the biasing voltage. This velocity became slower with the low magnetic field (less than 200 G) or in the higher pressure regime up to 20 mTorr with the higher electron density. The experimental results by other biasing methods will also be presented.

  17. Space Situational Awareness of Large Numbers of Payloads From a Single Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerman, A.; Byers, J.; Emmert, J.; Nicholas, A.

    2014-09-01

    The nearly simultaneous deployment of a large number of payloads from a single vehicle presents a new challenge for space object catalog maintenance and space situational awareness (SSA). Following two cubesat deployments last November, it took five weeks to catalog the resulting 64 orbits. The upcoming Kicksat mission will present an even greater SSA challenge, with its deployment of 128 chip-sized picosats. Although all of these deployments are in short-lived orbits, future deployments will inevitably occur at higher altitudes, with a longer term threat of collision with active spacecraft. With such deployments, individual scientific payload operators require rapid precise knowledge of their satellites' locations. Following the first November launch, the cataloguing did not initially associate a payload with each orbit, leaving this to the satellite operators. For short duration missions, the time required to identify an experiment's specific orbit may easily be a large fraction of the spacecraft's lifetime. For a Kicksat-type deployment, present tracking cannot collect enough observations to catalog each small object. The current approach is to treat the chip cloud as a single catalog object. However, the cloud dissipates into multiple subclouds and, ultimately, tiny groups of untrackable chips. One response to this challenge may be to mandate installation of a transponder on each spacecraft. Directional transponder transmission detections could be used as angle observations for orbit cataloguing. Of course, such an approach would only be employable with cooperative spacecraft. In other cases, a probabilistic association approach may be useful, with the goal being to establish the probability of an element being at a given point in space. This would permit more reliable assessment of the probability of collision of active spacecraft with any cloud element. This paper surveys the cataloguing challenges presented by large scale deployments of small spacecraft

  18. Droplet Breakup in Asymmetric T-Junctions at Intermediate to Large Capillary Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, Reza; Cheng, Way Lee

    2017-11-01

    Splitting of a parent droplet into multiple daughter droplets of desired sizes is usually desired to enhance production and investigational efficiency in microfluidic devices. This can be done in an active or passive mode depending on whether an external power sources is used or not. In this study, three-dimensional simulations were done using the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method to analyze droplet splitting in asymmetric T-junctions with different outlet lengths. The parent droplet is divided into two uneven portions the volumetric ratio of the daughter droplets, in theory, depends on the length ratios of the outlet branches. The study identified various breakup modes such as primary, transition, bubble and non-breakup under various flow conditions and the configuration of the T-junctions. In addition, an analysis with the primary breakup regimes were conducted to study the breakup mechanisms. The results show that the way the droplet splits in an asymmetric T-junction is different than the process in a symmetric T-junction. A model for the asymmetric breakup criteria at intermediate or large Capillary number is presented. The proposed model is an expanded version to a theoretically derived model for the symmetric droplet breakup under similar flow conditions.

  19. Growth of equilibrium structures built from a large number of distinct component types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Lester O; Mannige, Ranjan V; Whitelam, Stephen

    2014-09-14

    We use simple analytic arguments and lattice-based computer simulations to study the growth of structures made from a large number of distinct component types. Components possess 'designed' interactions, chosen to stabilize an equilibrium target structure in which each component type has a defined spatial position, as well as 'undesigned' interactions that allow components to bind in a compositionally-disordered way. We find that high-fidelity growth of the equilibrium target structure can happen in the presence of substantial attractive undesigned interactions, as long as the energy scale of the set of designed interactions is chosen appropriately. This observation may help explain why equilibrium DNA 'brick' structures self-assemble even if undesigned interactions are not suppressed [Ke et al. Science, 338, 1177, (2012)]. We also find that high-fidelity growth of the target structure is most probable when designed interactions are drawn from a distribution that is as narrow as possible. We use this result to suggest how to choose complementary DNA sequences in order to maximize the fidelity of multicomponent self-assembly mediated by DNA. We also comment on the prospect of growing macroscopic structures in this manner.

  20. Source of vacuum electromagnetic zero-point energy and Dirac's large numbers hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simaciu, I.; Dumitrescu, G.

    1993-01-01

    The stochastic electrodynamics states that zero-point fluctuation of the vacuum (ZPF) is an electromagnetic zero-point radiation with spectral density ρ(ω)=ℎω 3 / 2π 2 C 3 . Protons, free electrons and atoms are sources for this radiation. Each of them absorbs and emits energy by interacting with ZPF. At equilibrium ZPF radiation is scattered by dipoles.Scattered radiation spectral density is ρ(ω,r) ρ(ω).c.σ(ω) / 4πr 2 . Radiation of dipole spectral density of Universe is ρ ∫ 0 R nρ(ω,r)4πr 2 dr. But if σ atom P e σ=σ T then ρ ρ(ω)σ T R.n. Moreover if ρ=ρ(ω) then σ T Rn = 1. With R = G M/c 2 and σ T ≅(e 2 /m e c 2 ) 2 ∝ r e 2 then σ T .Rn 1 is equivalent to R/r e = e 2 /Gm p m e i.e. the cosmological coincidence discussed in the context of Dirac's large-numbers hypothesis. (Author)

  1. Detection of large numbers of novel sequences in the metatranscriptomes of complex marine microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jack A; Field, Dawn; Huang, Ying; Edwards, Rob; Li, Weizhong; Gilna, Paul; Joint, Ian

    2008-08-22

    Sequencing the expressed genetic information of an ecosystem (metatranscriptome) can provide information about the response of organisms to varying environmental conditions. Until recently, metatranscriptomics has been limited to microarray technology and random cloning methodologies. The application of high-throughput sequencing technology is now enabling access to both known and previously unknown transcripts in natural communities. We present a study of a complex marine metatranscriptome obtained from random whole-community mRNA using the GS-FLX Pyrosequencing technology. Eight samples, four DNA and four mRNA, were processed from two time points in a controlled coastal ocean mesocosm study (Bergen, Norway) involving an induced phytoplankton bloom producing a total of 323,161,989 base pairs. Our study confirms the finding of the first published metatranscriptomic studies of marine and soil environments that metatranscriptomics targets highly expressed sequences which are frequently novel. Our alternative methodology increases the range of experimental options available for conducting such studies and is characterized by an exceptional enrichment of mRNA (99.92%) versus ribosomal RNA. Analysis of corresponding metagenomes confirms much higher levels of assembly in the metatranscriptomic samples and a far higher yield of large gene families with >100 members, approximately 91% of which were novel. This study provides further evidence that metatranscriptomic studies of natural microbial communities are not only feasible, but when paired with metagenomic data sets, offer an unprecedented opportunity to explore both structure and function of microbial communities--if we can overcome the challenges of elucidating the functions of so many never-seen-before gene families.

  2. On the chromatic number of triangle-free graphs of large minimum degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    We prove that, for each. fixed real number c > 1/3, the triangle-free graphs of minimum degree at least cn (where n is the number of vertices) have bounded chromatic number. This problem was raised by Erdos and Simonovits in 1973 who pointed out that there is no such result for c <1/3.......We prove that, for each. fixed real number c > 1/3, the triangle-free graphs of minimum degree at least cn (where n is the number of vertices) have bounded chromatic number. This problem was raised by Erdos and Simonovits in 1973 who pointed out that there is no such result for c

  3. The Application Law of Large Numbers That Predicts The Amount of Actual Loss in Insurance of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinungki, Georgina Maria

    2018-03-01

    The law of large numbers is a statistical concept that calculates the average number of events or risks in a sample or population to predict something. The larger the population is calculated, the more accurate predictions. In the field of insurance, the Law of Large Numbers is used to predict the risk of loss or claims of some participants so that the premium can be calculated appropriately. For example there is an average that of every 100 insurance participants, there is one participant who filed an accident claim, then the premium of 100 participants should be able to provide Sum Assured to at least 1 accident claim. The larger the insurance participant is calculated, the more precise the prediction of the calendar and the calculation of the premium. Life insurance, as a tool for risk spread, can only work if a life insurance company is able to bear the same risk in large numbers. Here apply what is called the law of large number. The law of large numbers states that if the amount of exposure to losses increases, then the predicted loss will be closer to the actual loss. The use of the law of large numbers allows the number of losses to be predicted better.

  4. On the chromatic number of pentagon-free graphs of large minimum degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    We prove that, for each fixed real number c > 0, the pentagon-free graphs of minimum degree at least cn (where n is the number of vertices) have bounded chromatic number. This problem was raised by Erdős and Simonovits in 1973. A similar result holds for any other fixed odd cycle, except the tria...

  5. On the Behavior of ECN/RED Gateways Under a Large Number of TCP Flows: Limit Theorems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tinnakornsrisuphap, Peerapol; Makowski, Armand M

    2005-01-01

    .... As the number of competing flows becomes large, the asymptotic queue behavior at the gateway can be described by a simple recursion and the throughput behavior of individual TCP flows becomes asymptotically independent...

  6. The genus Drosophila is characterized by a large number of sibling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-12-07

    Dec 7, 2016 ... the laboratory and produce fully fertile hybrids. Thus, there ... (vii) D. yakuba, endemic to Africa. All the species .... to the production of hybrids. Males are ...... of male genitalia: environmental and genetic factors affect genital.

  7. Numerical analysis of jet impingement heat transfer at high jet Reynolds number and large temperature difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Vincent; Walther, Jens Honore

    2013-01-01

    was investigated at a jet Reynolds number of 1.66 × 105 and a temperature difference between jet inlet and wall of 1600 K. The focus was on the convective heat transfer contribution as thermal radiation was not included in the investigation. A considerable influence of the turbulence intensity at the jet inlet...... to about 100% were observed. Furthermore, the variation in stagnation point heat transfer was examined for jet Reynolds numbers in the range from 1.10 × 105 to 6.64 × 105. Based on the investigations, a correlation is suggested between the stagnation point Nusselt number, the jet Reynolds number......, and the turbulence intensity at the jet inlet for impinging jet flows at high jet Reynolds numbers. Copyright © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC....

  8. Large Eddy Simulation study of the development of finite-channel lock-release currents at high Grashof numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Seng-Keat

    2005-11-01

    Lock-exchange gravity current flows produced by the instantaneous release of a heavy fluid are investigated using 3-D well resolved Large Eddy Simulation simulations at Grashof numbers up to 8*10^9. It is found the 3-D simulations correctly predict a constant front velocity over the initial slumping phase and a front speed decrease proportional to t-1/3 (the time t is measured from the release) over the inviscid phase, in agreement with theory. The evolution of the current in the simulations is found to be similar to that observed experimentally by Hacker et al. (1996). The effect of the dynamic LES model on the solutions is discussed. The energy budget of the current is discussed and the contribution of the turbulent dissipation to the total dissipation is analyzed. The limitations of less expensive 2D simulations are discussed; in particular their failure to correctly predict the spatio-temporal distributions of the bed shear stresses which is important in determining the amount of sediment the gravity current can entrain in the case in advances of a loose bed.

  9. Arbitrarily large numbers of kink internal modes in inhomogeneous sine-Gordon equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, J.A., E-mail: jalbertgonz@yahoo.es [Department of Physics, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Department of Natural Sciences, Miami Dade College, 627 SW 27th Ave., Miami, FL 33135 (United States); Bellorín, A., E-mail: alberto.bellorin@ucv.ve [Escuela de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado Postal 47586, Caracas 1041-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); García-Ñustes, M.A., E-mail: monica.garcia@pucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059 (Chile); Guerrero, L.E., E-mail: lguerre@usb.ve [Departamento de Física, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Jiménez, S., E-mail: s.jimenez@upm.es [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada a las TT.II., E.T.S.I. Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Vázquez, L., E-mail: lvazquez@fdi.ucm.es [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada, Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    2017-06-28

    We prove analytically the existence of an infinite number of internal (shape) modes of sine-Gordon solitons in the presence of some inhomogeneous long-range forces, provided some conditions are satisfied. - Highlights: • We have found exact kink solutions to the perturbed sine-Gordon equation. • We have been able to study analytically the kink stability problem. • A kink equilibrated by an exponentially-localized perturbation has a finite number of oscillation modes. • A sufficiently broad equilibrating perturbation supports an infinite number of soliton internal modes.

  10. Large-volume excitation of air, argon, nitrogen and combustible mixtures by thermal jets produced by nanosecond spark discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Sergey; Hayashi, Jun; Salmon, Arthur; Stancu, Gabi D.; Laux, Christophe O.

    2017-04-01

    This work presents experimental observations of strong expanding thermal jets following the application of nanosecond spark discharges. These jets propagate in a toroidal shape perpendicular to the interelectrode axis, with high velocities of up to 30 m s-1 and over distances of the order of a cm. Their propagation length is much larger than the thermal expansion region produced by the conventional millisecond sparks used in car engine ignition, thus greatly improving the volumetric excitation of gas mixtures. The shape and velocity of the jets is found to be fairly insensitive to the shape of the electrodes. In addition, their spatial extent is found to increase with the number of nanosecond sparks and with the discharge voltage, and to decrease slightly with the pressure between 1 and 7 atm at constant applied voltage. Finally, this thermal jet phenomenon is observed in experiments conducted with many types of gas mixtures, including air, nitrogen, argon, and combustible CH4/air mixtures. This makes nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges particularly attractive for aerodynamic flow control or plasma-assisted combustion because of their ability to excite large volumes of gas, typically about 100 times the volume of the discharge.

  11. Large-eddy simulation of flow over a grooved cylinder up to transcritical Reynolds numbers

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, W.

    2017-11-27

    We report wall-resolved large-eddy simulation (LES) of flow over a grooved cylinder up to the transcritical regime. The stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model is embedded in a general fourth-order finite-difference code discretization on a curvilinear mesh. In the present study grooves are equally distributed around the circumference of the cylinder, each of sinusoidal shape with height , invariant in the spanwise direction. Based on the two parameters, and the Reynolds number where is the free-stream velocity, the diameter of the cylinder and the kinematic viscosity, two main sets of simulations are described. The first set varies from to while fixing . We study the flow deviation from the smooth-cylinder case, with emphasis on several important statistics such as the length of the mean-flow recirculation bubble , the pressure coefficient , the skin-friction coefficient and the non-dimensional pressure gradient parameter . It is found that, with increasing at fixed , some properties of the mean flow behave somewhat similarly to changes in the smooth-cylinder flow when is increased. This includes shrinking and nearly constant minimum pressure coefficient. In contrast, while the non-dimensional pressure gradient parameter remains nearly constant for the front part of the smooth cylinder flow, shows an oscillatory variation for the grooved-cylinder case. The second main set of LES varies from to with fixed . It is found that this range spans the subcritical and supercritical regimes and reaches the beginning of the transcritical flow regime. Mean-flow properties are diagnosed and compared with available experimental data including and the drag coefficient . The timewise variation of the lift and drag coefficients are also studied to elucidate the transition among three regimes. Instantaneous images of the surface, skin-friction vector field and also of the three-dimensional Q-criterion field are utilized to further understand the dynamics of the near-surface flow

  12. Large numbers of seabirds are killed each year by long- line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    member nations to produce “Plans of Action for ... Percy FitzPatrick Institute, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa. ... Marine & Coastal Management, Private Bag X2, Rogge Bay 8012, Cape Town, ... Affairs and Tourism, were placed aboard tuna long- ... a South African port once, making it difficult to de-.

  13. Screening and characterization of Lactobacillus strains producing large amounts of exopolysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geel-Schutten, G.H. van; Flesch, F.; Brink, B. ten; Smith, M.R.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1998-01-01

    A total of 182 Lactobacillus strains were screened for production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) by a new method: growth in liquid media with high sugar concentrations. Sixty EPS-positive strains were identified; 17 strains produced more than 100 mg/l soluble EPS. Sucrose was an excellent

  14. Large Eddy Simulation of an SD7003 Airfoil: Effects of Reynolds number and Subgrid-scale modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarlak Chivaee, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results of a series of numerical simulations in order to study aerodynamic characteristics of the low Reynolds number Selig-Donovan airfoil, SD7003. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique is used for all computations at chord-based Reynolds numbers 10,000, 24,000 and 60...... the Reynolds number, and the effect is visible even at a relatively low chord-Reynolds number of 60,000. Among the tested models, the dynamic Smagorinsky gives the poorest predictions of the flow, with overprediction of lift and a larger separation on airfoils suction side. Among various models, the implicit...

  15. A large-scale survey of genetic copy number variations among Han Chinese residing in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jer-Yuarn

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copy number variations (CNVs have recently been recognized as important structural variations in the human genome. CNVs can affect gene expression and thus may contribute to phenotypic differences. The copy number inferring tool (CNIT is an effective hidden Markov model-based algorithm for estimating allele-specific copy number and predicting chromosomal alterations from single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays. The CNIT algorithm, which was constructed using data from 270 HapMap multi-ethnic individuals, was applied to identify CNVs from 300 unrelated Han Chinese individuals in Taiwan. Results Using stringent selection criteria, 230 regions with variable copy numbers were identified in the Han Chinese population; 133 (57.83% had been reported previously, 64 displayed greater than 1% CNV allele frequency. The average size of the CNV regions was 322 kb (ranging from 1.48 kb to 5.68 Mb and covered a total of 2.47% of the human genome. A total of 196 of the CNV regions were simple deletions and 27 were simple amplifications. There were 449 genes and 5 microRNAs within these CNV regions; some of these genes are known to be associated with diseases. Conclusion The identified CNVs are characteristic of the Han Chinese population and should be considered when genetic studies are conducted. The CNV distribution in the human genome is still poorly characterized, and there is much diversity among different ethnic populations.

  16. Diversity, metabolism and microbial ecology of butyrate-producing bacteria from the human large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J

    2009-05-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria play a key role in colonic health in humans. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the diversity, metabolism and microbial ecology of this functionally important group of bacteria. Human colonic butyrate producers are Gram-positive firmicutes, but are phylogenetically diverse, with the two most abundant groups related to Eubacterium rectale/Roseburia spp. and to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Five different arrangements have been identified for the genes of the central pathway involved in butyrate synthesis, while in most cases butyryl-CoA : acetate CoA-transferase, rather than butyrate kinase, appears to perform the final step in butyrate synthesis. Mechanisms have been proposed recently in non-gut Clostridium spp. whereby butyrate synthesis can result in energy generation via both substrate-level phosphorylation and proton gradients. Here we suggest that these mechanisms also apply to the majority of butyrate producers from the human colon. The roles of these bacteria in the gut community and their influence on health are now being uncovered, taking advantage of the availability of cultured isolates and molecular methodologies. Populations of F. prausnitzii are reported to be decreased in Crohn's disease, for example, while populations of Roseburia relatives appear to be particularly sensitive to the diet composition in human volunteer studies.

  17. High numbers of IL-2-producing CD8+ T cells during viral infection: correlation with stable memory development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nanna Ny; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2002-01-01

    that IL-2-producing cells appear slightly delayed compared with the majority of IFN-gamma producing cells, and the relative frequency of the IL-2-producing subset increases with transition into the memory phase. In contrast to acute immunizing infection, few IL-2-producing cells are generated during...... chronic LCMV infection. Furthermore, in MHC class II-deficient mice, which only transiently control LCMV infection, IL-2-producing CD8+ T cells are initially generated, but by 4 weeks after infection this subset has nearly disappeared. Eventually the capacity to produce IFN-gamma also becomes impaired...

  18. The spatial thickness distribution of metal films produced by large area pulsed laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini; Schou, Jørgen; Linderoth, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Thin films of metals have been deposited in the large-area Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) Facility at Riso National Laboratory. Thin films of Ag and Ni were deposited with laser pulses from an excimer laser at 248 nm with a rectangular beam spot at a fluence of 10 J/cm(2) on glass substrates of 127...

  19. Q-factorial Gorenstein toric Fano varieties with large Picard number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nill, Benjamin; Øbro, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    In dimension $d$, ${\\boldsymbol Q}$-factorial Gorenstein toric Fano varieties with Picard number $\\rho_X$ correspond to simplicial reflexive polytopes with $\\rho_X + d$ vertices. Casagrande showed that any $d$-dimensional simplicial reflexive polytope has at most $3 d$ and $3d-1$ vertices if $d......$ is even and odd, respectively. Moreover, for $d$ even there is up to unimodular equivalence only one such polytope with $3 d$ vertices, corresponding to the product of $d/2$ copies of a del Pezzo surface of degree six. In this paper we completely classify all $d$-dimensional simplicial reflexive polytopes...... having $3d-1$ vertices, corresponding to $d$-dimensional ${\\boldsymbol Q}$-factorial Gorenstein toric Fano varieties with Picard number $2d-1$. For $d$ even, there exist three such varieties, with two being singular, while for $d > 1$ odd there exist precisely two, both being nonsingular toric fiber...

  20. A comment on "bats killed in large numbers at United States wind energy facilities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huso, Manuela M.P.; Dalthorp, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Widespread reports of bat fatalities caused by wind turbines have raised concerns about the impacts of wind power development. Reliable estimates of the total number killed and the potential effects on populations are needed, but it is crucial that they be based on sound data. In a recent BioScience article, Hayes (2013) estimated that over 600,000 bats were killed at wind turbines in the United States in 2012. The scientific errors in the analysis are numerous, with the two most serious being that the included sites constituted a convenience sample, not a representative sample, and that the individual site estimates are derived from such different methodologies that they are inherently not comparable. This estimate is almost certainly inaccurate, but whether the actual number is much smaller, much larger, or about the same is uncertain. An accurate estimate of total bat fatality is not currently possible, given the shortcomings of the available data.

  1. Cellular and molecular deviations in bovine in vitro-produced embryos are related to the large offspring syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazzari, G.; Wrenzycki, C.; Herrmann, D.; Duchi, R.; Kruip, T.; Niemann, H.; Galli, C.

    2002-01-01

    The large offspring syndrome (LOS) is observed in bovine and ovine offspring following transfer of in vitro-produced (IVP) or cloned embryos and is characterized by a multitude of pathologic changes, of which extended gestation length and increased birthweight are predominant features. In the

  2. Large scale Direct Numerical Simulation of premixed turbulent jet flames at high Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attili, Antonio; Luca, Stefano; Lo Schiavo, Ermanno; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Creta, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    A set of direct numerical simulations of turbulent premixed jet flames at different Reynolds and Karlovitz numbers is presented. The simulations feature finite rate chemistry with 16 species and 73 reactions and up to 22 Billion grid points. The jet consists of a methane/air mixture with equivalence ratio ϕ = 0 . 7 and temperature varying between 500 and 800 K. The temperature and species concentrations in the coflow correspond to the equilibrium state of the burnt mixture. All the simulations are performed at 4 atm. The flame length, normalized by the jet width, decreases significantly as the Reynolds number increases. This is consistent with an increase of the turbulent flame speed due to the increased integral scale of turbulence. This behavior is typical of flames in the thin-reaction zone regime, which are affected by turbulent transport in the preheat layer. Fractal dimension and topology of the flame surface, statistics of temperature gradients, and flame structure are investigated and the dependence of these quantities on the Reynolds number is assessed.

  3. Efficient high speed communications over electrical powerlines for a large number of users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.; Tripathi, K.; Latchman, H.A. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Affordable broadband Internet communication is currently available for residential use via cable modem and other forms of digital subscriber lines (DSL). Powerline communication (PLC) systems were never considered seriously for communications due to their low speed and high development cost. However, due to technological advances PLCs are now spreading to local area networks and broadband over power line systems. This paper presented a newly proposed modification to the standard HomePlug 1.0 MAC protocol to make it a constant contention window-based scheme. The HomePlug 1.0 was developed based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA). It is currently the most commonly used technology of power line communications, supporting a transmission rate of up to 14 Mbps on the power line. However, the throughput performance of this original scheme becomes critical when the number of users increases. For that reason, a constant contention window based medium access control protocol algorithm of HomePlug 1.0 was proposed under the assumption that the number of active stations is known. An analytical framework based on Markov Chains was developed in order to model this modified protocol under saturation conditions. Modeling results accurately matched the actual performance of the system. This paper revealed that the performance can be improved significantly if the variables were parameterized in terms of the number of active stations. 15 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  4. Detailed Measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing at Large and Small Atwood Numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, J.; Andrews, Ph.D.

    2004-01-01

    This project has two major tasks: Task 1. The construction of a new air/helium facility to collect detailed measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing at high Atwood number, and the distribution of these data to LLNL, LANL, and Alliance members for code validation and design purposes. Task 2. The collection of initial condition data from the new Air/Helium facility, for use with validation of RT simulation codes at LLNL and LANL. Also, studies of multi-layer mixing with the existing water channel facility. Over the last twelve (12) months there has been excellent progress, detailed in this report, with both tasks. As of December 10, 2004, the air/helium facility is now complete and extensive testing and validation of diagnostics has been performed. Currently experiments with air/helium up to Atwood numbers of 0.25 (the maximum is 0.75, but the highest Reynolds numbers are at 0.25) are being performed. The progress matches the project plan, as does the budget, and we expect this to continue for 2005. With interest expressed from LLNL we have continued with initial condition studies using the water channel. This work has also progressed well, with one of the graduate Research Assistants (Mr. Nick Mueschke) visiting LLNL the past two summers to work with Dr. O. Schilling. Several journal papers are in preparation that describe the work. Two MSc.'s have been completed (Mr. Nick Mueschke, and Mr. Wayne Kraft, 12/1/03). Nick and Wayne are both pursuing Ph.D.s' funded by this DOE Alliances project. Presently three (3) Ph.D. graduate Research Assistants are supported on the project, and two (2) undergraduate Research Assistants. During the year two (2) journal papers and two (2) conference papers have been published, ten (10) presentations made at conferences, and three (3) invited presentations

  5. Mapping Ad Hoc Communications Network of a Large Number Fixed-Wing UAV Swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    shows like "Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D". Inspiration can come from the imaginative minds of people or from the world around us. Swarms have demonstrated a...high degree of success. Bees , ants, termites, and naked mole rats maintain large groups that distribute tasks among individuals in order to achieve...the application layer and not the transport layer. Real- world vehicle-to-vehicle packet delivery rates for the 50-UAV swarm event were de- scribed in

  6. Analyzing the Large Number of Variables in Biomedical and Satellite Imagery

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Phillip I

    2011-01-01

    This book grew out of an online interactive offered through statcourse.com, and it soon became apparent to the author that the course was too limited in terms of time and length in light of the broad backgrounds of the enrolled students. The statisticians who took the course needed to be brought up to speed both on the biological context as well as on the specialized statistical methods needed to handle large arrays. Biologists and physicians, even though fully knowledgeable concerning the procedures used to generate microaarrays, EEGs, or MRIs, needed a full introduction to the resampling met

  7. Linear optics and projective measurements alone suffice to create large-photon-number path entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwang; Kok, Pieter; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a method for preparing maximal path entanglement with a definite photon-number N, larger than two, using projective measurements. In contrast with the previously known schemes, our method uses only linear optics. Specifically, we exhibit a way of generating four-photon, path-entangled states of the form vertical bar 4,0>+ vertical bar 0,4>, using only four beam splitters and two detectors. These states are of major interest as a resource for quantum interferometric sensors as well as for optical quantum lithography and quantum holography

  8. Laboratory Study of Magnetorotational Instability and Hydrodynamic Stability at Large Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, H.; Burin, M.; Schartman, E.; Goodman, J.; Liu, W.

    2006-01-01

    Two plausible mechanisms have been proposed to explain rapid angular momentum transport during accretion processes in astrophysical disks: nonlinear hydrodynamic instabilities and magnetorotational instability (MRI). A laboratory experiment in a short Taylor-Couette flow geometry has been constructed in Princeton to study both mechanisms, with novel features for better controls of the boundary-driven secondary flows (Ekman circulation). Initial results on hydrodynamic stability have shown negligible angular momentum transport in Keplerian-like flows with Reynolds numbers approaching one million, casting strong doubt on the viability of nonlinear hydrodynamic instability as a source for accretion disk turbulence.

  9. Dam risk reduction study for a number of large tailings dams in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, N. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Small, A. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada); Martin, T. [AMEC Earth and Environmental, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Cacciotti, D. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Sudbury, ON (Canada); Ross, T. [Vale Inco Ltd., Sudbury, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed a risk reduction study conducted for 10 large tailings dams located at a central tailings facility in Ontario. Located near large industrial and urban developments, the tailings dams were built using an upstream method of construction that did not involve beach compaction or the provision of under-drainage. The study provided a historical background for the dam and presented results from investigations and instrumentation data. The methods used to develop the dam configurations were discussed, and remedial measures and risk assessment measures used on the dams were reviewed. The aim of the study was to address key sources of risk, which include the presence of high pore pressures and hydraulic gradients; the potential for liquefaction; slope instability; and the potential for overtopping. A borehole investigation was conducted and piezocone probes were used to obtain continuous data and determine soil and groundwater conditions. The study identified that the lower portion of the dam slopes were of concern. Erosion gullies could lead to larger scale failures, and elevated pore pressures could lead to the risk of seepage breakouts. It was concluded that remedial measures are now being conducted to ensure slope stability. 6 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  10. EUPAN enables pan-genome studies of a large number of eukaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiqiang; Sun, Chen; Lu, Kuang-Chen; Chu, Xixia; Zhao, Yue; Lu, Jinyuan; Shi, Jianxin; Wei, Chaochun

    2017-08-01

    Pan-genome analyses are routinely carried out for bacteria to interpret the within-species gene presence/absence variations (PAVs). However, pan-genome analyses are rare for eukaryotes due to the large sizes and higher complexities of their genomes. Here we proposed EUPAN, a eukaryotic pan-genome analysis toolkit, enabling automatic large-scale eukaryotic pan-genome analyses and detection of gene PAVs at a relatively low sequencing depth. In the previous studies, we demonstrated the effectiveness and high accuracy of EUPAN in the pan-genome analysis of 453 rice genomes, in which we also revealed widespread gene PAVs among individual rice genomes. Moreover, EUPAN can be directly applied to the current re-sequencing projects primarily focusing on single nucleotide polymorphisms. EUPAN is implemented in Perl, R and C ++. It is supported under Linux and preferred for a computer cluster with LSF and SLURM job scheduling system. EUPAN together with its standard operating procedure (SOP) is freely available for non-commercial use (CC BY-NC 4.0) at http://cgm.sjtu.edu.cn/eupan/index.html . ccwei@sjtu.edu.cn or jianxin.shi@sjtu.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Number of deaths due to lung diseases: How large is the problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagener, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of lung disease as an indicator of environmentally induced adverse health effects has been recognized by inclusion among the Health Objectives for the Nation. The 1990 Health Objectives for the Nation (US Department of Health and Human Services, 1986) includes an objective that there should be virtually no new cases among newly exposed workers for four preventable occupational lung diseases-asbestosis, byssinosis, silicosis, and coal workers' pneumoconiosis. This brief communication describes two types of cause-of-death statistics- underlying and multiple cause-and demonstrates the differences between the two statistics using lung disease deaths among adult men. The choice of statistic has a large impact on estimated lung disease mortality rates. The choice of statistics also may have large effect on the estimated mortality rates due to other chromic diseases thought to be environmentally mediated. Issues of comorbidity and the way causes of death are reported become important in the interpretation of these statistics. The choice of which statistic to use when comparing data from a study population with national statistics may greatly affect the interpretations of the study findings

  12. Formation of free round jets with long laminar regions at large Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayko, Julia; Teplovodskii, Sergey; Chicherina, Anastasia; Vedeneev, Vasily; Reshmin, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    The paper describes a new, simple method for the formation of free round jets with long laminar regions by a jet-forming device of ˜1.5 jet diameters in size. Submerged jets of 0.12 m diameter at Reynolds numbers of 2000-12 560 are experimentally studied. It is shown that for the optimal regime, the laminar region length reaches 5.5 diameters for Reynolds number ˜10 000 which is not achievable for other methods of laminar jet formation. To explain the existence of the optimal regime, a steady flow calculation in the forming unit and a stability analysis of outcoming jet velocity profiles are conducted. The shortening of the laminar regions, compared with the optimal regime, is explained by the higher incoming turbulence level for lower velocities and by the increase of perturbation growth rates for larger velocities. The initial laminar regions of free jets can be used for organising air curtains for the protection of objects in medicine and technologies by creating the air field with desired properties not mixed with ambient air. Free jets with long laminar regions can also be used for detailed studies of perturbation growth and transition to turbulence in round jets.

  13. Application of Evolution Strategies to the Design of Tracking Filters with a Large Number of Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús García Herrero

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of evolution strategies to the design of interacting multiple model (IMM tracking filters in order to fulfill a large table of performance specifications. These specifications define the desired filter performance in a thorough set of selected test scenarios, for different figures of merit and input conditions, imposing hundreds of performance goals. The design problem is stated as a numeric search in the filter parameters space to attain all specifications or at least minimize, in a compromise, the excess over some specifications as much as possible, applying global optimization techniques coming from evolutionary computation field. Besides, a new methodology is proposed to integrate specifications in a fitness function able to effectively guide the search to suitable solutions. The method has been applied to the design of an IMM tracker for a real-world civil air traffic control application: the accomplishment of specifications defined for the future European ARTAS system.

  14. Jet Impingement Heat Transfer at High Reynolds Numbers and Large Density Variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Vincent; Walther, Jens Honore

    2010-01-01

    Jet impingement heat transfer from a round gas jet to a flat wall has been investigated numerically in a configuration with H/D=2, where H is the distance from the jet inlet to the wall and D is the jet diameter. The jet Reynolds number was 361000 and the density ratio across the wall boundary...... layer was 3.3 due to a substantial temperature difference of 1600K between jet and wall. Results are presented which indicate very high heat flux levels and it is demonstrated that the jet inlet turbulence intensity significantly influences the heat transfer results, especially in the stagnation region....... The results also show a noticeable difference in the heat transfer predictions when applying different turbulence models. Furthermore calculations were performed to study the effect of applying temperature dependent thermophysical properties versus constant properties and the effect of calculating the gas...

  15. On the strong law of large numbers for $\\varphi$-subgaussian random variables

    OpenAIRE

    Zajkowski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    For $p\\ge 1$ let $\\varphi_p(x)=x^2/2$ if $|x|\\le 1$ and $\\varphi_p(x)=1/p|x|^p-1/p+1/2$ if $|x|>1$. For a random variable $\\xi$ let $\\tau_{\\varphi_p}(\\xi)$ denote $\\inf\\{a\\ge 0:\\;\\forall_{\\lambda\\in\\mathbb{R}}\\; \\ln\\mathbb{E}\\exp(\\lambda\\xi)\\le\\varphi_p(a\\lambda)\\}$; $\\tau_{\\varphi_p}$ is a norm in a space $Sub_{\\varphi_p}=\\{\\xi:\\;\\tau_{\\varphi_p}(\\xi)1$) there exist positive constants $c$ and $\\alpha$ such that for every natural number $n$ the following inequality $\\tau_{\\varphi_p}(\\sum_{i=1...

  16. Large boson number IBM calculations and their relationship to the Bohr model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiamova, G.; Rowe, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the SO(5) Clebsch-Gordan (CG) coefficients up to the seniority v max =40 were computed in floating point arithmetic (T.A. Welsh, unpublished (2008)); and, in exact arithmetic, as square roots of rational numbers (M.A. Caprio et al., to be published in Comput. Phys. Commun.). It is shown in this paper that extending the QQQ model calculations set up in the work by D.J. Rowe and G. Thiamova (Nucl. Phys. A 760, 59 (2005)) to N=v max =40 is sufficient to obtain the IBM results converged to its Bohr contraction limit. This will be done by comparing some important matrix elements in both models, by looking at the seniority decomposition of low-lying states and at the behavior of the energy and B(E2) transition strengths ratios with increasing seniority. (orig.)

  17. A comparison of three approaches to compute the effective Reynolds number of the implicit large-eddy simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ye [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thornber, Ben [The Univ. of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2016-04-12

    Here, the implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) has been utilized as an effective approach for calculating many complex flows at high Reynolds number flows. Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) induced flow can be viewed as a homogeneous decaying turbulence (HDT) after the passage of the shock. In this article, a critical evaluation of three methods for estimating the effective Reynolds number and the effective kinematic viscosity is undertaken utilizing high-resolution ILES data. Effective Reynolds numbers based on the vorticity and dissipation rate, or the integral and inner-viscous length scales, are found to be the most self-consistent when compared to the expected phenomenology and wind tunnel experiments.

  18. Extensive young silicic volcanism produces large deep submarine lava flows in the NE Lau Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embley, Robert W.; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2018-04-01

    New field observations reveal that extensive (up to 402 km2) aphyric, glassy dacite lavas were erupted at multiple sites in the recent past in the NE Lau basin, located about 200 km southwest of Samoa. This discovery of volumetrically significant and widespread submarine dacite lava flows extends the domain for siliceous effusive volcanism into the deep seafloor. Although several lava flow fields were discovered on the flank of a large silicic seamount, Niuatahi, two of the largest lava fields and several smaller ones ("northern lava flow fields") were found well north of the seamount. The most distal portion of the northernmost of these fields is 60 km north of the center of Niuatahi caldera. We estimate that lava flow lengths from probable eruptive vents to the distal ends of flows range from a few km to more than 10 km. Camera tows on the shallower, near-vent areas show complex lava morphology that includes anastomosing tube-like pillow flows and ropey surfaces, endogenous domes and/or ridges, some with "crease-like" extrusion ridges, and inflated lobes with extrusion structures. A 2 × 1.5 km, 30-m deep depression could be an eruption center for one of the lava flow fields. The Lau lava flow fields appear to have erupted at presumptive high effusion rates and possibly reduced viscosity induced by presumptive high magmatic water content and/or a high eruption temperature, consistent with both erupted composition ( 66% SiO2) and glassy low crystallinity groundmass textures. The large areal extent (236 km2) and relatively small range of compositional variation ( σ = 0.60 for wt% Si02%) within the northern lava flow fields imply the existence of large, eruptible batches of differentiated melt in the upper mantle or lower crust of the NE Lau basin. At this site, the volcanism could be controlled by deep crustal fractures caused by the long-term extension in this rear-arc region. Submarine dacite flows exhibiting similar morphology have been described in ancient

  19. Slepian simulation of distributions of plastic displacements of earthquake excited shear frames with a large number of stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Ditlevsen, Ove

    2005-01-01

    The object of study is a stationary Gaussian white noise excited plane multistory shear frame with a large number of rigid traverses. All the traverse-connecting columns have finite symmetrical yield limits except the columns in one or more of the bottom floors. The columns behave linearly elasti...

  20. Introduction to the spectral distribution method. Application example to the subspaces with a large number of quasi particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvieu, R.

    The assumptions and principles of the spectral distribution method are reviewed. The object of the method is to deduce information on the nuclear spectra by constructing a frequency function which has the same first few moments, as the exact frequency function, these moments being then exactly calculated. The method is applied to subspaces containing a large number of quasi particles [fr

  1. Strong Law of Large Numbers for Hidden Markov Chains Indexed by an Infinite Tree with Uniformly Bounded Degrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilin Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study strong limit theorems for hidden Markov chains fields indexed by an infinite tree with uniformly bounded degrees. We mainly establish the strong law of large numbers for hidden Markov chains fields indexed by an infinite tree with uniformly bounded degrees and give the strong limit law of the conditional sample entropy rate.

  2. The challenge for genetic epidemiologists: how to analyze large numbers of SNPs in relation to complex diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidema, A.G.; Boer, J.M.A.; Nagelkerke, N.; Mariman, E.C.M.; A, van der D.L.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Genetic epidemiologists have taken the challenge to identify genetic polymorphisms involved in the development of diseases. Many have collected data on large numbers of genetic markers but are not familiar with available methods to assess their association with complex diseases. Statistical methods

  3. Clinical Trials With Large Numbers of Variables: Important Advantages of Canonical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleophas, Ton J

    2016-01-01

    Canonical analysis assesses the combined effects of a set of predictor variables on a set of outcome variables, but it is little used in clinical trials despite the omnipresence of multiple variables. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of canonical analysis as compared with traditional multivariate methods using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). As an example, a simulated data file with 12 gene expression levels and 4 drug efficacy scores was used. The correlation coefficient between the 12 predictor and 4 outcome variables was 0.87 (P = 0.0001) meaning that 76% of the variability in the outcome variables was explained by the 12 covariates. Repeated testing after the removal of 5 unimportant predictor and 1 outcome variable produced virtually the same overall result. The MANCOVA identified identical unimportant variables, but it was unable to provide overall statistics. (1) Canonical analysis is remarkable, because it can handle many more variables than traditional multivariate methods such as MANCOVA can. (2) At the same time, it accounts for the relative importance of the separate variables, their interactions and differences in units. (3) Canonical analysis provides overall statistics of the effects of sets of variables, whereas traditional multivariate methods only provide the statistics of the separate variables. (4) Unlike other methods for combining the effects of multiple variables such as factor analysis/partial least squares, canonical analysis is scientifically entirely rigorous. (5) Limitations include that it is less flexible than factor analysis/partial least squares, because only 2 sets of variables are used and because multiple solutions instead of one is offered. We do hope that this article will stimulate clinical investigators to start using this remarkable method.

  4. Hydrodynamic interaction on large-Reynolds-number aligned bubbles: Drag effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Munoz, J.; Salinas-Rodriguez, E.; Soria, A.; Gama-Goicochea, A.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → The hydrodynamic interaction of a pair aligned equal-sized bubbles is analyzed. → The leading bubble wake decreases the drag on the trailing bubble. → A new semi-analytical model for the trailing bubble's drag is presented. → The equilibrium distance between bubbles is predicted. - Abstract: The hydrodynamic interaction of two equal-sized spherical gas bubbles rising along a vertical line with a Reynolds number (Re) between 50 and 200 is analyzed. An approach to estimate the trailing bubble drag based on the search of a proper reference fluid velocity is proposed. Our main result is a new, simple semi-analytical model for the trailing bubble drag. Additionally, the equilibrium separation distance between bubbles is predicted. The proposed models agree quantitatively up to small distances between bubbles, with reported data for 50 ≤ Re ≤ 200. The relative average error for the trailing bubble drag, Er, is found to be in the range 1.1 ≤ Er ≤ 1.7, i.e., it is of the same order of the analytical predictions in the literature.

  5. Hydrodynamic interaction on large-Reynolds-number aligned bubbles: Drag effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Munoz, J., E-mail: jrm@correo.azc.uam.mx [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa Tamaulipas, 02200 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Centro de Investigacion en Polimeros, Marcos Achar Lobaton No. 2, Tepexpan, 55885 Acolman, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Salinas-Rodriguez, E.; Soria, A. [Departamento de IPH, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gama-Goicochea, A. [Centro de Investigacion en Polimeros, Marcos Achar Lobaton No. 2, Tepexpan, 55885 Acolman, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > The hydrodynamic interaction of a pair aligned equal-sized bubbles is analyzed. > The leading bubble wake decreases the drag on the trailing bubble. > A new semi-analytical model for the trailing bubble's drag is presented. > The equilibrium distance between bubbles is predicted. - Abstract: The hydrodynamic interaction of two equal-sized spherical gas bubbles rising along a vertical line with a Reynolds number (Re) between 50 and 200 is analyzed. An approach to estimate the trailing bubble drag based on the search of a proper reference fluid velocity is proposed. Our main result is a new, simple semi-analytical model for the trailing bubble drag. Additionally, the equilibrium separation distance between bubbles is predicted. The proposed models agree quantitatively up to small distances between bubbles, with reported data for 50 {<=} Re {<=} 200. The relative average error for the trailing bubble drag, Er, is found to be in the range 1.1 {<=} Er {<=} 1.7, i.e., it is of the same order of the analytical predictions in the literature.

  6. KISCH / UL AND DURABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGIONS THAT HAVE A LARGE NUMBER OF RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANTA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We live in a world of contemporary kitsch, a world that merges authentic and false, good taste and meets often with bad taste. This phenomenon is găseseşte everywhere: in art, in literature cheap in media productions, shows, dialogues streets, in homes, in politics, in other words, in everyday life. Ksch site came directly in tourism, being identified in all forms of tourism worldwide, but especially religious tourism, pilgrimage with unexpected success in recent years. This paper makes an analysis of progressive evolution tourist traffic religion on the ability of the destination of religious tourism to remain competitive against all the problems, to attract visitors for their loyalty, to remain unique in terms of cultural and be a permanent balance with the environment, taking into account the environment religious phenomenon invaded Kisch, it disgraceful mixing dangerously with authentic spirituality. How trade, and rather Kisch's commercial components affect the environment, reflected in terms of religious tourism offer representatives highlighted based on a survey of major monastic ensembles in North Oltenia. Research objectives achieved in work followed, on the one hand the contributions and effects of the high number of visitors on the regions that hold religious sites, and on the other hand weighting and effects of commercial activity carried out in or near monastic establishments, be it genuine or kisck the respective regions. The study conducted took into account the northern region of Oltenia, and where demand for tourism is predominantly oriented exclusively practicing religious tourism

  7. Secondary organic aerosol formation from a large number of reactive man-made organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derwent, Richard G., E-mail: r.derwent@btopenworld.com [rdscientific, Newbury, Berkshire (United Kingdom); Jenkin, Michael E. [Atmospheric Chemistry Services, Okehampton, Devon (United Kingdom); Utembe, Steven R.; Shallcross, Dudley E. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Murrells, Tim P.; Passant, Neil R. [AEA Environment and Energy, Harwell International Business Centre, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    A photochemical trajectory model has been used to examine the relative propensities of a wide variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by human activities to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) under one set of highly idealised conditions representing northwest Europe. This study applied a detailed speciated VOC emission inventory and the Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.1 (MCM v3.1) gas phase chemistry, coupled with an optimised representation of gas-aerosol absorptive partitioning of 365 oxygenated chemical reaction product species. In all, SOA formation was estimated from the atmospheric oxidation of 113 emitted VOCs. A number of aromatic compounds, together with some alkanes and terpenes, showed significant propensities to form SOA. When these propensities were folded into a detailed speciated emission inventory, 15 organic compounds together accounted for 97% of the SOA formation potential of UK man made VOC emissions and 30 emission source categories accounted for 87% of this potential. After road transport and the chemical industry, SOA formation was dominated by the solvents sector which accounted for 28% of the SOA formation potential.

  8. Normal zone detectors for a large number of inductively coupled coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    In order to protect a set of inductively coupled superconducting magnets, it is necessary to locate and measure normal zone voltages that are small compared with the mutual and self-induced voltages. The method described in this paper uses two sets of voltage measurements to locate and measure one or more normal zones in any number of coupled coils. One set of voltages is the outputs of bridges that balance out the self-induced voltages. The other set of voltages can be the voltages across the coils, although alternatives are possible. The two sets of equations form a single combined set of equations. Each normal zone location or combination of normal zones has a set of these combined equations associated with it. It is demonstrated that the normal zone can be located and the correct set chosen, allowing determination of the size of the normal zone. Only a few operations take place in a working detector: multiplication of a constant, addition, and simple decision-making. In many cases the detector for each coil, although weakly linked to the other detectors, can be considered to be independent

  9. The Love of Large Numbers: A Popularity Bias in Consumer Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Derek; Yu, Jingqi; DeWolf, Melissa; Holyoak, Keith J

    2017-10-01

    Social learning-the ability to learn from observing the decisions of other people and the outcomes of those decisions-is fundamental to human evolutionary and cultural success. The Internet now provides social evidence on an unprecedented scale. However, properly utilizing this evidence requires a capacity for statistical inference. We examined how people's interpretation of online review scores is influenced by the numbers of reviews-a potential indicator both of an item's popularity and of the precision of the average review score. Our task was designed to pit statistical information against social information. We modeled the behavior of an "intuitive statistician" using empirical prior information from millions of reviews posted on Amazon.com and then compared the model's predictions with the behavior of experimental participants. Under certain conditions, people preferred a product with more reviews to one with fewer reviews even though the statistical model indicated that the latter was likely to be of higher quality than the former. Overall, participants' judgments suggested that they failed to make meaningful statistical inferences.

  10. Normal zone detectors for a large number of inductively coupled coils. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    In order to protect a set of inductively coupled superconducting magnets, it is necessary to locate and measure normal zone voltages that are small compared with the mutual and self-induced voltages. The method described in this paper uses two sets of voltage measurements to locate and measure one or more normal zones in any number of coupled coils. One set of voltages is the outputs of bridges that balance out the self-induced voltages. The other set of voltages can be the voltages across the coils, although alternatives are possible. The two sets of equations form a single combined set of equations. Each normal zone location or combination of normal zones has a set of these combined equations associated with it. It is demonstrated that the normal zone can be located and the correct set chosen, allowing determination of the size of the normal zone. Only a few operations take place in a working detector: multiplication of a constant, addition, and simple decision-making. In many cases the detector for each coil, although weakly linked to the other detectors, can be considered to be independent. The effect on accuracy of changes in the system parameters is discussed

  11. Normal zone detectors for a large number of inductively coupled coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    In order to protect a set of inductively coupled superconducting magnets, it is necessary to locate and measure normal zone voltages that are small compared with the mutual and self-induced voltages. The method described in this report uses two sets of voltage measurements to locate and measure one or more normal zones in any number of coupled coils. One set of voltages is the outputs of bridges that balance out the self-induced voltages The other set of voltages can be the voltages across the coils, although alternatives are possible. The two sets of equations form a single combined set of equations. Each normal zone location or combination of normal zones has a set of these combined equations associated with it. It is demonstrated that the normal zone can be located and the correct set chosen, allowing determination of the size of the normal zone. Only a few operations take plae in a working detector: multiplication of a constant, addition, and simple decision-making. In many cases the detector for each coil, although weakly linked to the other detectors, can be considered to be independent. An example of the detector design is given for four coils with realistic parameters. The effect on accuracy of changes in the system parameters is discussed

  12. Confinement characteristics of high-energy ions produced by ICRF heating in the large helical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumazawa, R; Saito, K; Torii, Y; Mutoh, T; Seki, T; Watari, T; Osakabe, M; Murakami, S; Sasao, M; Watanabe, T; Yamamoto, T; Notake, T; Takeuchi, N; Saida, T; Shimpo, F; Nomura, G; Yokota, M; Kato, A; Zao, Y; Okada, H; Isobe, M; Ozaki, T; Narihara, K; Nagayama, Y; Inagaki, S; Morita, S; Krasilnikov, A V; Idei, H; Kubo, S; Ohkubo, K; Sato, M; Shimozuma, T; Yoshimura, Y; Ikeda, K; Nagaoka, K; Oka, Y; Takeiri, Y; Tsumori, K; Ashikawa, N; Emoto, M; Funaba, H; Goto, M; Ida, K; Kobuchi, T; Liang, Y; Masuzaki, S; Minami, T; Miyazawa, J; Morisaki, T; Muto, S; Nakamura, Y; Nakanishi, H; Nishimura, K; Noda, N; Ohdachi, S; Peterson, B J; Sagara, A; Sakakibara, S; Sakamoto, R; Sato, K; Shoji, M; Suzuki, H; Tanaka, K; Toi, K; Tokuzawa, T; Watanabe, K Y; Yamada, I; Yamamoto, S; Yoshinuma, M; Yokoyama, M; Watanabe, K-Y; Kaneko, O; Kawahata, K; Komori, A; Ohyabu, N; Yamada, H; Yamazaki, K; Sudo, S; Matsuoka, K; Hamada, Y; Motojima, O; Fujiwara, M

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of high-energy ions accelerated by an ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) electric field in the large helical device (LHD) is discussed. A better confinement performance of high-energy ions in the inward-shifted magnetic axis configuration was experimentally verified by measuring their energy spectrum and comparing it with the effective temperature determined by an electron slowing down process. In the standard magnetic axis configuration a saturation of the measured tail temperature was observed as the effective temperature was increased. The ratio between these two quantities is a measure of the quality of transfer efficiency from high-energy ions to a bulk plasma; when this efficiency was compared with Monte Carlo simulations the results agreed fairly well. The ratio of the stored energy of the high-energy ions to that of the bulk plasma was measured using an ICRF heating power modulation method; it was deduced from phase differences between total and bulk plasma stored energies and the modulated ICRF heating power. The measured high energy fraction agreed with that calculated using the injected ICRF heating power, the transfer efficiency determined in the experiment and the confinement scaling of the LHD plasma

  13. Beating the numbers through strategic intervention materials (SIMs): Innovative science teaching for large classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alboruto, Venus M.

    2017-05-01

    The study aimed to find out the effectiveness of using Strategic Intervention Materials (SIMs) as an innovative teaching practice in managing large Grade Eight Science classes to raise the performance of the students in terms of science process skills development and mastery of science concepts. Utilizing experimental research design with two groups of participants, which were purposefully chosen, it was obtained that there existed a significant difference in the performance of the experimental and control groups based on actual class observation and written tests on science process skills with a p-value of 0.0360 in favor of the experimental class. Further, results of written pre-test and post-test on science concepts showed that the experimental group with the mean of 24.325 (SD =3.82) performed better than the control group with the mean of 20.58 (SD =4.94), with a registered p-value of 0.00039. Therefore, the use of SIMs significantly contributed to the mastery of science concepts and the development of science process skills. Based on the findings, the following recommendations are offered: 1. that grade eight science teachers should use or adopt the SIMs used in this study to improve their students' performance; 2. training-workshop on developing SIMs must be conducted to help teachers develop SIMs to be used in their classes; 3. school administrators must allocate funds for the development and reproduction of SIMs to be used by the students in their school; and 4. every division should have a repository of SIMs for easy access of the teachers in the entire division.

  14. Tracking of large-scale structures in turbulent channel with direct numerical simulation of low Prandtl number passive scalar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiselj, Iztok

    2014-12-01

    Channel flow DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation) at friction Reynolds number 180 and with passive scalars of Prandtl numbers 1 and 0.01 was performed in various computational domains. The "normal" size domain was ˜2300 wall units long and ˜750 wall units wide; size taken from the similar DNS of Moser et al. The "large" computational domain, which is supposed to be sufficient to describe the largest structures of the turbulent flows was 3 times longer and 3 times wider than the "normal" domain. The "very large" domain was 6 times longer and 6 times wider than the "normal" domain. All simulations were performed with the same spatial and temporal resolution. Comparison of the standard and large computational domains shows the velocity field statistics (mean velocity, root-mean-square (RMS) fluctuations, and turbulent Reynolds stresses) that are within 1%-2%. Similar agreement is observed for Pr = 1 temperature fields and can be observed also for the mean temperature profiles at Pr = 0.01. These differences can be attributed to the statistical uncertainties of the DNS. However, second-order moments, i.e., RMS temperature fluctuations of standard and large computational domains at Pr = 0.01 show significant differences of up to 20%. Stronger temperature fluctuations in the "large" and "very large" domains confirm the existence of the large-scale structures. Their influence is more or less invisible in the main velocity field statistics or in the statistics of the temperature fields at Prandtl numbers around 1. However, these structures play visible role in the temperature fluctuations at low Prandtl number, where high temperature diffusivity effectively smears the small-scale structures in the thermal field and enhances the relative contribution of large-scales. These large thermal structures represent some kind of an echo of the large scale velocity structures: the highest temperature-velocity correlations are not observed between the instantaneous temperatures and

  15. Process for producing curved surface of membrane rings for large containers, particulary for prestressed concrete pressure vessels of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpf, H.

    1977-01-01

    Membrane rings for large pressure vessels, particularly for prestressed-concrete pressure vessels, often have curved surfaces. The invention describes a process of producing these at site, which is particularly advantageous as the forming and installation of the vessel component coincide. According to the invention, the originally flat membrane ring is set in a predetermined position, is then pressed in sections by a forming tool (with a preformed support ring as opposite tool), and shaped. After this, the shaped parts are welded to the ring-shaped wall parts of the large vessel. The manufacture of single and double membrane rings arrangements is described. (HP) [de

  16. What caused a large number of fatalities in the Tohoku earthquake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, M.; Ishida, M.; Nishikawa, Y.; Mizuki, C.; Hayashi, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The Mw9.0 earthquake caused 20,000 deaths and missing persons in northeastern Japan. 115 years prior to this event, there were three historical tsunamis that struck the region, one of which is a "tsunami earthquake" resulted with a death toll of 22,000. Since then, numerous breakwaters were constructed along the entire northeastern coasts and tsunami evacuation drills were carried out and hazard maps were distributed to local residents on numerous communities. However, despite the constructions and preparedness efforts, the March 11 Tohoku earthquake caused numerous fatalities. The strong shaking lasted three minutes or longer, thus all residents recognized that this is the strongest and longest earthquake that they had been ever experienced in their lives. The tsunami inundated an enormous area at about 560km2 over 35 cities along the coast of northeast Japan. To find out the reasons behind the high number of fatalities due to the March 11 tsunami, we interviewed 150 tsunami survivors at public evacuation shelters in 7 cities mainly in Iwate prefecture in mid-April and early June 2011. Interviews were done for about 30min or longer focused on their evacuation behaviors and those that they had observed. On the basis of the interviews, we found that residents' decisions not to evacuate immediately were partly due to or influenced by earthquake science results. Below are some of the factors that affected residents' decisions. 1. Earthquake hazard assessments turned out to be incorrect. Expected earthquake magnitudes and resultant hazards in northeastern Japan assessed and publicized by the government were significantly smaller than the actual Tohoku earthquake. 2. Many residents did not receive accurate tsunami warnings. The first tsunami warning were too small compared with the actual tsunami heights. 3. The previous frequent warnings with overestimated tsunami height influenced the behavior of the residents. 4. Many local residents above 55 years old experienced

  17. The challenge for genetic epidemiologists: how to analyze large numbers of SNPs in relation to complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidema, A Geert; Boer, Jolanda M A; Nagelkerke, Nico; Mariman, Edwin C M; van der A, Daphne L; Feskens, Edith J M

    2006-04-21

    Genetic epidemiologists have taken the challenge to identify genetic polymorphisms involved in the development of diseases. Many have collected data on large numbers of genetic markers but are not familiar with available methods to assess their association with complex diseases. Statistical methods have been developed for analyzing the relation between large numbers of genetic and environmental predictors to disease or disease-related variables in genetic association studies. In this commentary we discuss logistic regression analysis, neural networks, including the parameter decreasing method (PDM) and genetic programming optimized neural networks (GPNN) and several non-parametric methods, which include the set association approach, combinatorial partitioning method (CPM), restricted partitioning method (RPM), multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method and the random forests approach. The relative strengths and weaknesses of these methods are highlighted. Logistic regression and neural networks can handle only a limited number of predictor variables, depending on the number of observations in the dataset. Therefore, they are less useful than the non-parametric methods to approach association studies with large numbers of predictor variables. GPNN on the other hand may be a useful approach to select and model important predictors, but its performance to select the important effects in the presence of large numbers of predictors needs to be examined. Both the set association approach and random forests approach are able to handle a large number of predictors and are useful in reducing these predictors to a subset of predictors with an important contribution to disease. The combinatorial methods give more insight in combination patterns for sets of genetic and/or environmental predictor variables that may be related to the outcome variable. As the non-parametric methods have different strengths and weaknesses we conclude that to approach genetic association

  18. Modelling high Reynolds number wall-turbulence interactions in laboratory experiments using large-scale free-stream turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Eda; Hearst, R Jason; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2017-03-13

    A turbulent boundary layer subjected to free-stream turbulence is investigated in order to ascertain the scale interactions that dominate the near-wall region. The results are discussed in relation to a canonical high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer because previous studies have reported considerable similarities between these two flows. Measurements were acquired simultaneously from four hot wires mounted to a rake which was traversed through the boundary layer. Particular focus is given to two main features of both canonical high Reynolds number boundary layers and boundary layers subjected to free-stream turbulence: (i) the footprint of the large scales in the logarithmic region on the near-wall small scales, specifically the modulating interaction between these scales, and (ii) the phase difference in amplitude modulation. The potential for a turbulent boundary layer subjected to free-stream turbulence to 'simulate' high Reynolds number wall-turbulence interactions is discussed. The results of this study have encouraging implications for future investigations of the fundamental scale interactions that take place in high Reynolds number flows as it demonstrates that these can be achieved at typical laboratory scales.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Search for large extra dimensions in final states containing one photon or jet and large missing transverse energy produced in pp collisions at square root[s]=1.96 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzurri, P; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Koay, S A; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Luci, C; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlok, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Tourneur, S; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wagner, W; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Xie, S; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2008-10-31

    We present the results of searches for large extra dimensions in samples of events with large missing transverse energy E_{T} and either a photon or a jet produced in pp[over ] collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab II. For gamma+E_{T} and jet+E_{T} candidate samples corresponding to 2.0 and 1.1 fb;{-1} of integrated luminosity, respectively, we observe good agreement with standard model expectations and obtain a combined lower limit on the fundamental parameter of the large extra dimensions model M_{D} as a function of the number of extra dimensions in the model.

  20. Strong Law of Large Numbers for Countable Markov Chains Indexed by an Infinite Tree with Uniformly Bounded Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the strong law of large numbers for the frequencies of occurrence of states and ordered couples of states for countable Markov chains indexed by an infinite tree with uniformly bounded degree, which extends the corresponding results of countable Markov chains indexed by a Cayley tree and generalizes the relative results of finite Markov chains indexed by a uniformly bounded tree.

  1. Study of the number of neutrons produced by fission of {sup 239}Pu; Etude du nombre de neutrons produits par la fission de {sup 239}Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Study of the number of neutrons produced by fission of {sup 239}Pu. The counting by coincidence of fissions and neutrons produced by these fissions allows the study of the variation of the mean number of neutrons emitted by {nu} fission. In the first chapter, it studied the variation of the mean number of neutrons emitted by {sup 239}Pu fission with the energy of the incident neutron. A description of the experiment is given: a spectrometer with a crystal of sodium chloride or beryllium (mounted on a goniometer) is used, a fission chamber containing 10 mg of {sup 239}Pu and the neutron detection system constituted of BF{sub 3} counters which are enriched in {sup 10}B. In the second part, the counting by coincidence of fissions and neutrons produced by the same fission and received by two different groups of counters allow the determination of a relationship between the root mean square and the average of neutron number produced by fission. The variation of the mean number of neutrons emitted by fission of {sup 239}Pu is studied when we change from a thermal spectra of neutrons to a fission spectra of incident neutrons. Finally, when separating in two different part the fission chamber, it is possible to measure the mean number of neutrons emitted from fission of two different sources. It compared the mean number of neutrons emitted by fission of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 233}U. (M.P.)

  2. On the Required Number of Antennas in a Point-to-Point Large-but-Finite MIMO System

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz; Svensson, Tommy; Eriksson, Thomas; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of the point-to-point multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems in the presence of a large but finite numbers of antennas at the transmitters and/or receivers. Considering the cases with and without hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) feedback, we determine the minimum numbers of the transmit/receive antennas which are required to satisfy different outage probability constraints. We study the effect of the spatial correlation between the antennas on the system performance. Also, the required number of antennas are obtained for different fading conditions. Our results show that different outage requirements can be satisfied with relatively few transmit/receive antennas. © 2015 IEEE.

  3. On the Required Number of Antennas in a Point-to-Point Large-but-Finite MIMO System

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2015-11-12

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of the point-to-point multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems in the presence of a large but finite numbers of antennas at the transmitters and/or receivers. Considering the cases with and without hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) feedback, we determine the minimum numbers of the transmit/receive antennas which are required to satisfy different outage probability constraints. We study the effect of the spatial correlation between the antennas on the system performance. Also, the required number of antennas are obtained for different fading conditions. Our results show that different outage requirements can be satisfied with relatively few transmit/receive antennas. © 2015 IEEE.

  4. Direct and large eddy simulation of turbulent heat transfer at very low Prandtl number: Application to lead–bismuth flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricteux, L.; Duponcheel, M.; Winckelmans, G.; Tiselj, I.; Bartosiewicz, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We perform direct and hybrid-large eddy simulations of high Reynolds and low Prandtl turbulent wall-bounded flows with heat transfer. ► We use a state-of-the-art numerical methods with low energy dissipation and low dispersion. ► We use recent multiscalesubgrid scale models. ► Important results concerning the establishment of near wall modeling strategy in RANS are provided. ► The turbulent Prandtl number that is predicted by our simulation is different than that proposed by some correlations of the literature. - Abstract: This paper deals with the issue of modeling convective turbulent heat transfer of a liquid metal with a Prandtl number down to 0.01, which is the order of magnitude of lead–bismuth eutectic in a liquid metal reactor. This work presents a DNS (direct numerical simulation) and a LES (large eddy simulation) of a channel flow at two different Reynolds numbers, and the results are analyzed in the frame of best practice guidelines for RANS (Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes) computations used in industrial applications. They primarily show that the turbulent Prandtl number concept should be used with care and that even recent proposed correlations may not be sufficient.

  5. Diurnal fluctuation in the number of hypocretin/orexin and histamine producing: Implication for understanding and treating neuronal loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald McGregor

    Full Text Available The loss of specific neuronal phenotypes, as determined by immunohistochemistry, has become a powerful tool for identifying the nature and cause of neurological diseases. Here we show that the number of neurons identified and quantified using this method misses a substantial percentage of extant neurons in a phenotype specific manner. In mice, 24% more hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt neurons are seen in the night compared to the day, and an additional 17% are seen after inhibiting microtubule polymerization with colchicine. We see no such difference between the number of MCH (melanin concentrating hormone neurons in dark, light or colchicine conditions, despite MCH and Hcrt both being hypothalamic peptide transmitters. Although the size of Hcrt neurons did not differ between light and dark, the size of MCH neurons was increased by 15% in the light phase. The number of neurons containing histidine decarboxylase (HDC, the histamine synthesizing enzyme, was 34% greater in the dark than in the light, but, like Hcrt, cell size did not differ. We did not find a significant difference in the number or the size of neurons expressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, in the horizontal diagonal band (HBD during the dark and light conditions. As expected, colchicine treatment did not increase the number of these neurons. Understanding the function and dynamics of transmitter production within "non-visible" phenotypically defined cells has fundamental implications for our understanding of brain plasticity.

  6. Diurnal fluctuation in the number of hypocretin/orexin and histamine producing: Implication for understanding and treating neuronal loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Ronald; Shan, Ling; Wu, Ming-Fung; Siegel, Jerome M

    2017-01-01

    The loss of specific neuronal phenotypes, as determined by immunohistochemistry, has become a powerful tool for identifying the nature and cause of neurological diseases. Here we show that the number of neurons identified and quantified using this method misses a substantial percentage of extant neurons in a phenotype specific manner. In mice, 24% more hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) neurons are seen in the night compared to the day, and an additional 17% are seen after inhibiting microtubule polymerization with colchicine. We see no such difference between the number of MCH (melanin concentrating hormone) neurons in dark, light or colchicine conditions, despite MCH and Hcrt both being hypothalamic peptide transmitters. Although the size of Hcrt neurons did not differ between light and dark, the size of MCH neurons was increased by 15% in the light phase. The number of neurons containing histidine decarboxylase (HDC), the histamine synthesizing enzyme, was 34% greater in the dark than in the light, but, like Hcrt, cell size did not differ. We did not find a significant difference in the number or the size of neurons expressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, in the horizontal diagonal band (HBD) during the dark and light conditions. As expected, colchicine treatment did not increase the number of these neurons. Understanding the function and dynamics of transmitter production within "non-visible" phenotypically defined cells has fundamental implications for our understanding of brain plasticity.

  7. Anodic biofilms in microbial fuel cells harbor low numbers of higher-power-producing bacteria than abundant genera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Patrick D.; Call, Douglas F.; Yates, Matthew D.; Regan, John M.; Logan, Bruce E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-09-15

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) anode communities often reveal just a few genera, but it is not known to what extent less abundant bacteria could be important for improving performance. We examined the microbial community in an MFC fed with formic acid for more than 1 year and determined using 16S rRNA gene cloning and fluorescent in situ hybridization that members of the Paracoccus genus comprised most ({proportional_to}30%) of the anode community. A Paracoccus isolate obtained from this biofilm (Paracoccus denitrificans strain PS-1) produced only 5.6 mW/m{sup 2}, whereas the original mixed culture produced up to 10 mW/m{sup 2}. Despite the absence of any Shewanella species in the clone library, we isolated a strain of Shewanella putrefaciens (strain PS-2) from the same biofilm capable of producing a higher-power density (17.4 mW/m{sup 2}) than the mixed culture, although voltage generation was variable. Our results suggest that the numerical abundance of microorganisms in biofilms cannot be assumed a priori to correlate to capacities of these predominant species for high-power production. Detailed screening of bacterial biofilms may therefore be needed to identify important strains capable of high-power generation for specific substrates. (orig.)

  8. Anodic biofilms in microbial fuel cells harbor low numbers of higher-power-producing bacteria than abundant genera

    KAUST Repository

    Kiely, Patrick D.; Call, Douglas F.; Yates, Matthew D.; Regan, John M.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) anode communities often reveal just a few genera, but it is not known to what extent less abundant bacteria could be important for improving performance. We examined the microbial community in an MFC fed with formic acid for more than 1 year and determined using 16S rRNA gene cloning and fluorescent in situ hybridization that members of the Paracoccus genus comprised most (~30%) of the anode community. A Paracoccus isolate obtained from this biofilm (Paracoccus denitrificans strain PS-1) produced only 5.6 mW/m 2, whereas the original mixed culture produced up to 10 mW/m 2. Despite the absence of any Shewanella species in the clone library, we isolated a strain of Shewanella putrefaciens (strain PS-2) from the same biofilm capable of producing a higher-power density (17.4 mW/m2) than the mixed culture, although voltage generation was variable. Our results suggest that the numerical abundance of microorganisms in biofilms cannot be assumed a priori to correlate to capacities of these predominant species for high-power production. Detailed screening of bacterial biofilms may therefore be needed to identify important strains capable of high-power generation for specific substrates. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Anodic biofilms in microbial fuel cells harbor low numbers of higher-power-producing bacteria than abundant genera

    KAUST Repository

    Kiely, Patrick D.

    2010-07-15

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) anode communities often reveal just a few genera, but it is not known to what extent less abundant bacteria could be important for improving performance. We examined the microbial community in an MFC fed with formic acid for more than 1 year and determined using 16S rRNA gene cloning and fluorescent in situ hybridization that members of the Paracoccus genus comprised most (~30%) of the anode community. A Paracoccus isolate obtained from this biofilm (Paracoccus denitrificans strain PS-1) produced only 5.6 mW/m 2, whereas the original mixed culture produced up to 10 mW/m 2. Despite the absence of any Shewanella species in the clone library, we isolated a strain of Shewanella putrefaciens (strain PS-2) from the same biofilm capable of producing a higher-power density (17.4 mW/m2) than the mixed culture, although voltage generation was variable. Our results suggest that the numerical abundance of microorganisms in biofilms cannot be assumed a priori to correlate to capacities of these predominant species for high-power production. Detailed screening of bacterial biofilms may therefore be needed to identify important strains capable of high-power generation for specific substrates. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Preservation of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) by Coagulin L1208, a novel bacteriocin produced by Bacillus coagulans L1208.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Linglin; Wang, Chong; Ruan, Xinming; Li, Gang; Zhao, Yu; Wang, Yanbo

    2018-02-02

    Large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) is a cultivated fish of great economic importance and abundant nutritional value. However, due to its high protein and water contents, it is susceptible to decomposition, leading to considerable economic loss and adverse effects on consumer health. Here, we assessed the function of the bacterial strain Bacillus coagulans L1208 (Bcoa) in preserving large yellow croaker during storage at 4°C and found that Bcoa elongates the shelf-life significantly. Further investigations showed that Bcoa prolongs the storage time mainly by suppressing the growth of spoilage bacteria. Moreover, a novel bacteriocin, designated as Coagulin L1208 and produced by Bcoa, was purified and identified by N-terminal sequencing. Finally, the activity of Coagulin L1208 for suppressing spoilage bacteria during the preservation of large yellow croaker was assessed. Our results reveal the mechanism by which Bcoa aids the preservation of large yellow croaker and identify Coagulin L1208 as a potential novel antiseptic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Origin Ensemble algorithm for image reconstruction for pixelated solid-state detectors with large number of channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstein, M.; De Lorenzo, G.; Mikhaylova, E.; Chmeissani, M.; Ariño, G.; Calderón, Y.; Ozsahin, I.; Uzun, D.

    2013-04-01

    The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) Pathfinder project intends to show the advantages of using pixelated solid-state technology for nuclear medicine applications. It proposes designs for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) and Compton gamma camera detectors with a large number of signal channels (of the order of 106). For PET scanners, conventional algorithms like Filtered Back-Projection (FBP) and Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OSEM) are straightforward to use and give good results. However, FBP presents difficulties for detectors with limited angular coverage like PEM and Compton gamma cameras, whereas OSEM has an impractically large time and memory consumption for a Compton gamma camera with a large number of channels. In this article, the Origin Ensemble (OE) algorithm is evaluated as an alternative algorithm for image reconstruction. Monte Carlo simulations of the PET design are used to compare the performance of OE, FBP and OSEM in terms of the bias, variance and average mean squared error (MSE) image quality metrics. For the PEM and Compton camera designs, results obtained with OE are presented.

  12. A Multilayer Secure Biomedical Data Management System for Remotely Managing a Very Large Number of Diverse Personal Healthcare Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KeeHyun Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multilayer secure biomedical data management system for managing a very large number of diverse personal health devices is proposed. The system has the following characteristics: the system supports international standard communication protocols to achieve interoperability. The system is integrated in the sense that both a PHD communication system and a remote PHD management system work together as a single system. Finally, the system proposed in this paper provides user/message authentication processes to securely transmit biomedical data measured by PHDs based on the concept of a biomedical signature. Some experiments, including the stress test, have been conducted to show that the system proposed/constructed in this study performs very well even when a very large number of PHDs are used. For a stress test, up to 1,200 threads are made to represent the same number of PHD agents. The loss ratio of the ISO/IEEE 11073 messages in the normal system is as high as 14% when 1,200 PHD agents are connected. On the other hand, no message loss occurs in the multilayered system proposed in this study, which demonstrates the superiority of the multilayered system to the normal system with regard to heavy traffic.

  13. Slepian simulation of distributions of plastic displacements of earthquake excited shear frames with a large number of stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Ditlevsen, Ove

    2005-01-01

    The object of study is a stationary Gaussian white noise excited plane multistory shear frame with a large number of rigid traverses. All the traverse-connecting columns have finite symmetrical yield limits except the columns in one or more of the bottom floors. The columns behave linearly elastic...... within the yield limits and ideally plastic outside these without accumulating eigenstresses. Within the elastic domain the frame is modeled as a linearly damped oscillator. The white noise excitation acts on the mass of the first floor making the movement of the elastic bottom floors simulate a ground...

  14. Atomic Number Dependence of Hadron Production at Large Transverse Momentum in 300 GeV Proton--Nucleus Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, J. W.; Frisch, H. J.; Shochet, M. J.; Boymond, J. P.; Mermod, R.; Piroue, P. A.; Sumner, R. L.

    1974-07-15

    In an experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory we have compared the production of large transverse momentum hadrons from targets of W, Ti, and Be bombarded by 300 GeV protons. The hadron yields were measured at 90 degrees in the proton-nucleon c.m. system with a magnetic spectrometer equipped with 2 Cerenkov counters and a hadron calorimeter. The production cross-sections have a dependence on the atomic number A that grows with P{sub 1}, eventually leveling off proportional to A{sup 1.1}.

  15. Summary of experience from a large number of construction inspections; Wind power plant projects; Erfarenhetsaaterfoering fraan entreprenadbesiktningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Bertil; Holmberg, Rikard

    2010-08-15

    This report presents a summary of experience from a large number of construction inspections of wind power projects. The working method is based on the collection of construction experience in form of questionnaires. The questionnaires were supplemented by a number of in-depth interviews to understand more in detail what is perceived to be a problem and if there were suggestions for improvements. The results in this report is based on inspection protocols from 174 wind turbines, which corresponds to about one-third of the power plants built in the time period. In total the questionnaires included 4683 inspection remarks as well as about one hundred free text comments. 52 of the 174 inspected power stations were rejected, corresponding to 30%. It has not been possible to identify any over represented type of remark as a main cause of rejection, but the rejection is usually based on a total number of remarks that is too large. The average number of remarks for a power plant is 27. Most power stations have between 20 and 35 remarks. The most common remarks concern shortcomings in marking and documentation. These are easily adjusted, and may be regarded as less serious. There are, however, a number of remarks which are recurrent and quite serious, mainly regarding gearbox, education and lightning protection. Usually these are also easily adjusted, but the consequences if not corrected can be very large. The consequences may be either shortened life of expensive components, e.g. oil problems in gear boxes, or increased probability of serious accidents, e.g. maladjusted lightning protection. In the report, comparison between power stations with various construction period, size, supplier, geography and topography is also presented. The general conclusion is that the differences are small. The results of the evaluation of questionnaires correspond well with the result of the in-depth interviews with clients. The problem that clients agreed upon as the greatest is the lack

  16. On the Use of Educational Numbers: Comparative Constructions of Hierarchies by Means of Large-Scale Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pettersson

    2016-01-01

    later the growing importance of transnational agencies and international, regional and national assessments. How to reference this article Pettersson, D., Popkewitz, T. S., & Lindblad, S. (2016. On the Use of Educational Numbers: Comparative Constructions of Hierarchies by Means of Large-Scale Assessments. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 3(1, 177-202. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2016.003.001.10

  17. A Genome-Wide Association Study in Large White and Landrace Pig Populations for Number Piglets Born Alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfelder-Drüing, Sarah; Grosse-Brinkhaus, Christine; Lind, Bianca; Erbe, Malena; Schellander, Karl; Simianer, Henner; Tholen, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    The number of piglets born alive (NBA) per litter is one of the most important traits in pig breeding due to its influence on production efficiency. It is difficult to improve NBA because the heritability of the trait is low and it is governed by a high number of loci with low to moderate effects. To clarify the biological and genetic background of NBA, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were performed using 4,012 Large White and Landrace pigs from herdbook and commercial breeding companies in Germany (3), Austria (1) and Switzerland (1). The animals were genotyped with the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. Because of population stratifications within and between breeds, clusters were formed using the genetic distances between the populations. Five clusters for each breed were formed and analysed by GWAS approaches. In total, 17 different significant markers affecting NBA were found in regions with known effects on female reproduction. No overlapping significant chromosome areas or QTL between Large White and Landrace breed were detected. PMID:25781935

  18. A genome-wide association study in large white and landrace pig populations for number piglets born alive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bergfelder-Drüing

    Full Text Available The number of piglets born alive (NBA per litter is one of the most important traits in pig breeding due to its influence on production efficiency. It is difficult to improve NBA because the heritability of the trait is low and it is governed by a high number of loci with low to moderate effects. To clarify the biological and genetic background of NBA, genome-wide association studies (GWAS were performed using 4,012 Large White and Landrace pigs from herdbook and commercial breeding companies in Germany (3, Austria (1 and Switzerland (1. The animals were genotyped with the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. Because of population stratifications within and between breeds, clusters were formed using the genetic distances between the populations. Five clusters for each breed were formed and analysed by GWAS approaches. In total, 17 different significant markers affecting NBA were found in regions with known effects on female reproduction. No overlapping significant chromosome areas or QTL between Large White and Landrace breed were detected.

  19. Factors associated with self-reported number of teeth in a large national cohort of Thai adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiengprugsawan Vasoontara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health in later life results from individual's lifelong accumulation of experiences at the personal, community and societal levels. There is little information relating the oral health outcomes to risk factors in Asian middle-income settings such as Thailand today. Methods Data derived from a cohort of 87,134 adults enrolled in Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University who completed self-administered questionnaires in 2005. Cohort members are aged between 15 and 87 years and resided throughout Thailand. This is a large study of self-reported number of teeth among Thai adults. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyse factors associated with self-reported number of teeth. Results After adjusting for covariates, being female (OR = 1.28, older age (OR = 10.6, having low income (OR = 1.45, having lower education (OR = 1.33, and being a lifetime urban resident (OR = 1.37 were statistically associated (p Conclusions This study addresses the gap in knowledge on factors associated with self-reported number of teeth. The promotion of healthy childhoods and adult lifestyles are important public health interventions to increase tooth retention in middle and older age.

  20. Large-scale manufacture and characterization of a lentiviral vector produced for clinical ex vivo gene therapy application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Otto-Wilhelm; Charrier, Sabine; Laroudie, Nicolas; Fauchille, Sylvain; Dugué, Céline; Jenny, Christine; Audit, Muriel; Zanta-Boussif, Maria-Antonietta; Chautard, Hélène; Radrizzani, Marina; Vallanti, Giuliana; Naldini, Luigi; Noguiez-Hellin, Patricia; Galy, Anne

    2011-03-01

    From the perspective of a pilot clinical gene therapy trial for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), we implemented a process to produce a lentiviral vector under good manufacturing practices (GMP). The process is based on the transient transfection of 293T cells in Cell Factory stacks, scaled up to harvest 50 liters of viral stock per batch, followed by purification of the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein-pseudotyped particles through several membrane-based and chromatographic steps. The process leads to a 200-fold volume concentration and an approximately 3-log reduction in protein and DNA contaminants. An average yield of 13% of infectious particles was obtained in six full-scale preparations. The final product contained low levels of contaminants such as simian virus 40 large T antigen or E1A sequences originating from producer cells. Titers as high as 2 × 10(9) infectious particles per milliliter were obtained, generating up to 6 × 10(11) infectious particles per batch. The purified WAS vector was biologically active, efficiently expressing the genetic insert in WAS protein-deficient B cell lines and transducing CD34(+) cells. The vector introduced 0.3-1 vector copy per cell on average in CD34(+) cells when used at the concentration of 10(8) infectious particles per milliliter, which is comparable to preclinical preparations. There was no evidence of cellular toxicity. These results show the implementation of large-scale GMP production, purification, and control of advanced HIV-1-derived lentiviral technology. Results obtained with the WAS vector provide the initial manufacturing and quality control benchmarking that should be helpful to further development and clinical applications.

  1. Analysis of a large number of clinical studies for breast cancer radiotherapy: estimation of radiobiological parameters for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, M; Li, X Allen

    2003-01-01

    Numerous studies of early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conserving surgery (BCS) and radiotherapy (RT) have been published in recent years. Both external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and/or brachytherapy (BT) with different fractionation schemes are currently used. The present RT practice is largely based on empirical experience and it lacks a reliable modelling tool to compare different RT modalities or to design new treatment strategies. The purpose of this work is to derive a plausible set of radiobiological parameters that can be used for RT treatment planning. The derivation is based on existing clinical data and is consistent with the analysis of a large number of published clinical studies on early-stage breast cancer. A large number of published clinical studies on the treatment of early breast cancer with BCS plus RT (including whole breast EBRT with or without a boost to the tumour bed, whole breast EBRT alone, brachytherapy alone) and RT alone are compiled and analysed. The linear quadratic (LQ) model is used in the analysis. Three of these clinical studies are selected to derive a plausible set of LQ parameters. The potential doubling time is set a priori in the derivation according to in vitro measurements from the literature. The impact of considering lower or higher T pot is investigated. The effects of inhomogeneous dose distributions are considered using clinically representative dose volume histograms. The derived LQ parameters are used to compare a large number of clinical studies using different regimes (e.g., RT modality and/or different fractionation schemes with different prescribed dose) in order to validate their applicability. The values of the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and biologically effective dose (BED) are used as a common metric to compare the biological effectiveness of each treatment regime. We have obtained a plausible set of radiobiological parameters for breast cancer. This set of parameters is consistent with in vitro

  2. K$^{-}$ over K$^{+}$ multiplicity ratio for kaons produced in DIS with a large fraction of the virtual-photon energy

    CERN Document Server

    Akhunzyanov, R.; The COMPASS collaboration; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anfimov, N.V.; Anosov, V.; Antoshkin, A.; Augsten, K.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, M.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bodlak, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtsev, V.E.; Capozza, L.; Chang, W.-C.; Chatterjee, C.; Chiosso, M.; Chumakov, A.G.; Chung, S.-U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Dreisbach, Ch.; Dünnweber, W.; Dusaev, R.R.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; jr., M.Finger; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giarra, J.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grasso, A.; Gridin, A.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Guskov, A.; Hahne, D.; Hamar, G.; von Harrach, D.; Heitz, R.; Herrmann, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jary, V.; Joosten, R.; Jörg, P.; Kabuß, E.; Kerbizi, A.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.M.; Kral, Z.; Krämer, M.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kulinich, Y.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Kuznetsov, I.I.; Kveton, A.; Lednev, A.A.; Levchenko, E.A.; Levorato, S.; Lian, Y.-S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Lyubovitskij, V.E.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Mamon, S.A.; Marchand, C.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matoušek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.V.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, W.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Mitrofanov, E.; Mitrofanov, N.; Miyachi, Y.; Moretti, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nový, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, F.; Pesaro, G.; Pešek, M.; Pešková, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Pierre, N.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rybnikov, A.; Rychter, A.; Salac, R.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sawada, T.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmieden, H.; Seder, E.; Selyunin, A.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Smolik, J.; Srnka, A.; Steffen, D.; Stolarski, M.; Subrt, O.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thiel, A.; Tomsa, J.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Vasilishin, B.I.; Vauth, A.; Veit, B.M.; Veloso, J.; Vidon, A.; Virius, M.; Wallner, S.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Zaremba, K.; Zavada, P.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N.; Ziembicki, M.

    2018-01-01

    The K$^{-}$ over K$^{+}$ multiplicity ratio is measured in deep-inelastic scattering, for the first time for kaons carrying a large fraction $z$ of the virtual-photon energy. The data were obtained by the COMPASS collaboration using a 160 GeV muon beam and an isoscalar $^6$LiD target. The regime of deep-inelastic scattering is ensured by requiring $Q^2>1$ (GeV/$c)^2$ for the photon virtuality and $W>5$ GeV/$c^2$ for the invariant mass of the produced hadronic system. Kaons are identified in the momentum range from 12 GeV/$c$ to 40 GeV/$c$, thereby restricting the range in Bjorken-$x$ to $0.010.75$. For very large values of $z$, $i.e.$ $z>0.8$, the results contradict expectations obtained using the formalism of (next-to-)leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics. This may imply that cross-section factorisation or/and universality of (kaon) fragmentation functions do not hold. Our studies suggest that within this formalism an additional correction may be required, which takes into account th...

  3. Progress of organic matter degradation and maturity of compost produced in a large-scale composting facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Marui, Taketoshi

    2011-06-01

    To monitor the progress of organic matter degradation in a large-scale composting facility, the percentage of organic matter degradation was determined by measuring CO(2) evolution during recomposting of compost samples withdrawn from the facility. The percentage of organic matter degradation was calculated as the ratio of the amount of CO(2) evolved from compost raw material to that evolved from each sample during recomposting in the laboratory composting apparatus. It was assumed that the difference in the cumulative emission of CO(2) between the compost raw material and a sample corresponds to the amount of CO( 2) evolved from the sample in the composting facility. Using this method, the changes in organic matter degradation during composting in practical large-scale composting facilities were estimated and it was found that the percentage of organic matter degradation increased more vigorously in the earlier stages than in the later stages of composting. The percentage of organic matter degradation finally reached 78 and 55% for the compost produced from garbage-animal manure mixture and distillery waste (shochu residue), respectively. It was thus ascertained that organic matter degradation progressed well in both composting facilities. Furthermore, by performing a plant growth assay, it was observed that the compost products of both the facilities did not inhibit seed germination and thus were useful in promoting plant growth.

  4. Small genomes and large seeds: chromosome numbers, genome size and seed mass in diploid Aesculus species (Sapindaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahulcová, Anna; Trávnícek, Pavel; Krahulec, František; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2017-04-01

    Aesculus L. (horse chestnut, buckeye) is a genus of 12-19 extant woody species native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. This genus is known for unusually large seeds among angiosperms. While chromosome counts are available for many Aesculus species, only one has had its genome size measured. The aim of this study is to provide more genome size data and analyse the relationship between genome size and seed mass in this genus. Chromosome numbers in root tip cuttings were confirmed for four species and reported for the first time for three additional species. Flow cytometric measurements of 2C nuclear DNA values were conducted on eight species, and mean seed mass values were estimated for the same taxa. The same chromosome number, 2 n = 40, was determined in all investigated taxa. Original measurements of 2C values for seven Aesculus species (eight taxa), added to just one reliable datum for A. hippocastanum , confirmed the notion that the genome size in this genus with relatively large seeds is surprisingly low, ranging from 0·955 pg 2C -1 in A. parviflora to 1·275 pg 2C -1 in A. glabra var. glabra. The chromosome number of 2 n = 40 seems to be conclusively the universal 2 n number for non-hybrid species in this genus. Aesculus genome sizes are relatively small, not only within its own family, Sapindaceae, but also within woody angiosperms. The genome sizes seem to be distinct and non-overlapping among the four major Aesculus clades. These results provide an extra support for the most recent reconstruction of Aesculus phylogeny. The correlation between the 2C values and seed masses in examined Aesculus species is slightly negative and not significant. However, when the four major clades are treated separately, there is consistent positive association between larger genome size and larger seed mass within individual lineages. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For

  5. Evaluation of two sweeping methods for estimating the number of immature Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae in large containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Regina Dibo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Here, we evaluated sweeping methods used to estimate the number of immature Aedes aegypti in large containers. Methods III/IV instars and pupae at a 9:1 ratio were placed in three types of containers with, each one with three different water levels. Two sweeping methods were tested: water-surface sweeping and five-sweep netting. The data were analyzed using linear regression. Results The five-sweep netting technique was more suitable for drums and water-tanks, while the water-surface sweeping method provided the best results for swimming pools. Conclusions Both sweeping methods are useful tools in epidemiological surveillance programs for the control of Aedes aegypti.

  6. Production of large number of water-cooled excitation coils with improved techniques for multipole magnets of INDUS -2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmarkar, M.G.; Sreeramulu, K.; Kulshreshta, P.K.

    2003-01-01

    Accelerator multipole magnets are characterized by high field gradients powered with relatively high current excitation coils. Due to space limitations in the magnet core/poles, compact coil geometry is also necessary. The coils are made of several insulated turns using hollow copper conductor. High current densities in these require cooling with low conductivity water. Additionally during operation, these are subjected to thermal fatigue stresses. A large number of coils ( Qty: 650 nos.) having different geometries were required for all multipole magnets like quadrupole (QP), sextupole (SP). Improved techniques for winding, insulation and epoxy consolidation were developed in-house at M D Lab and all coils have been successfully made. Improved technology, production techniques adopted for magnet coils and their inspection are briefly discussed in this paper. (author)

  7. Product-selective blot: a technique for measuring enzyme activities in large numbers of samples and in native electrophoresis gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.A.; Davies, H.M.; McDonald, N.

    1985-01-01

    A method termed product-selective blotting has been developed for screening large numbers of samples for enzyme activity. The technique is particularly well suited to detection of enzymes in native electrophoresis gels. The principle of the method was demonstrated by blotting samples from glutaminase or glutamate synthase reactions into an agarose gel embedded with ion-exchange resin under conditions favoring binding of product (glutamate) over substrates and other substances in the reaction mixture. After washes to remove these unbound substances, the product was measured using either fluorometric staining or radiometric techniques. Glutaminase activity in native electrophoresis gels was visualized by a related procedure in which substrates and products from reactions run in the electrophoresis gel were blotted directly into a resin-containing image gel. Considering the selective-binding materials available for use in the image gel, along with the possible detection systems, this method has potentially broad application

  8. Method of producing a diesel fuel blend having a pre-determined flash-point and pre-determined increase in cetane number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Francis Joseph; Quinn, Robert

    2004-07-06

    The present invention relates to a method of producing a diesel fuel blend having a pre-determined flash-point and a pre-determined increase in cetane number over the stock diesel fuel. Upon establishing the desired flash-point and increase in cetane number, an amount of a first oxygenate with a flash-point less than the flash-point of the stock diesel fuel and a cetane number equal to or greater than the cetane number of the stock diesel fuel is added to the stock diesel fuel in an amount sufficient to achieve the pre-determined increase in cetane number. Thereafter, an amount of a second oxygenate with a flash-point equal to or greater than the flash-point of the stock diesel fuel and a cetane number greater than the cetane number of the stock diesel fuel is added to the stock diesel fuel in an amount sufficient to achieve the pre-determined increase in cetane number.

  9. A Theory of Evolving Natural Constants Based on the Unification of General Theory of Relativity and Dirac's Large Number Hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Huanwu

    2005-01-01

    Taking Dirac's large number hypothesis as true, we have shown [Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703] the inconsistency of applying Einstein's theory of general relativity with fixed gravitation constant G to cosmology, and a modified theory for varying G is found, which reduces to Einstein's theory outside the gravitating body for phenomena of short duration in small distances, thereby agrees with all the crucial tests formerly supporting Einstein's theory. The modified theory, when applied to the usual homogeneous cosmological model, gives rise to a variable cosmological tensor term determined by the derivatives of G, in place of the cosmological constant term usually introduced ad hoc. Without any free parameter the theoretical Hubble's relation obtained from the modified theory seems not in contradiction to observations, as Dr. Wang's preliminary analysis of the recent data indicates [Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703]. As a complement to Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703 we shall study in this paper the modification of electromagnetism due to Dirac's large number hypothesis in more detail to show that the approximation of geometric optics still leads to null geodesics for the path of light, and that the general relation between the luminosity distance and the proper geometric distance is still valid in our theory as in Einstein's theory, and give the equations for homogeneous cosmological model involving matter plus electromagnetic radiation. Finally we consider the impact of the modification to quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics, and arrive at a systematic theory of evolving natural constants including Planck's h-bar as well as Boltzmann's k B by finding out their cosmologically combined counterparts with factors of appropriate powers of G that may remain truly constant to cosmologically long time.

  10. A very large number of GABAergic neurons are activated in the tuberal hypothalamus during paradoxical (REM sleep hypersomnia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Sapin

    Full Text Available We recently discovered, using Fos immunostaining, that the tuberal and mammillary hypothalamus contain a massive population of neurons specifically activated during paradoxical sleep (PS hypersomnia. We further showed that some of the activated neurons of the tuberal hypothalamus express the melanin concentrating hormone (MCH neuropeptide and that icv injection of MCH induces a strong increase in PS quantity. However, the chemical nature of the majority of the neurons activated during PS had not been characterized. To determine whether these neurons are GABAergic, we combined in situ hybridization of GAD(67 mRNA with immunohistochemical detection of Fos in control, PS deprived and PS hypersomniac rats. We found that 74% of the very large population of Fos-labeled neurons located in the tuberal hypothalamus after PS hypersomnia were GAD-positive. We further demonstrated combining MCH immunohistochemistry and GAD(67in situ hybridization that 85% of the MCH neurons were also GAD-positive. Finally, based on the number of Fos-ir/GAD(+, Fos-ir/MCH(+, and GAD(+/MCH(+ double-labeled neurons counted from three sets of double-staining, we uncovered that around 80% of the large number of the Fos-ir/GAD(+ neurons located in the tuberal hypothalamus after PS hypersomnia do not contain MCH. Based on these and previous results, we propose that the non-MCH Fos/GABAergic neuronal population could be involved in PS induction and maintenance while the Fos/MCH/GABAergic neurons could be involved in the homeostatic regulation of PS. Further investigations will be needed to corroborate this original hypothesis.

  11. Eosinophils may play regionally disparate roles in influencing IgA(+) plasma cell numbers during large and small intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Ruth; Bramhall, Michael; Logunova, Larisa; Svensson-Frej, Marcus; Cruickshank, Sheena M; Else, Kathryn J

    2016-05-31

    Eosinophils are innate immune cells present in the intestine during steady state conditions. An intestinal eosinophilia is a hallmark of many infections and an accumulation of eosinophils is also observed in the intestine during inflammatory disorders. Classically the function of eosinophils has been associated with tissue destruction, due to the release of cytotoxic granule contents. However, recent evidence has demonstrated that the eosinophil plays a more diverse role in the immune system than previously acknowledged, including shaping adaptive immune responses and providing plasma cell survival factors during the steady state. Importantly, it is known that there are regional differences in the underlying immunology of the small and large intestine, but whether there are differences in context of the intestinal eosinophil in the steady state or inflammation is not known. Our data demonstrates that there are fewer IgA(+) plasma cells in the small intestine of eosinophil-deficient ΔdblGATA-1 mice compared to eosinophil-sufficient wild-type mice, with the difference becoming significant post-infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Remarkably, and in complete contrast, the absence of eosinophils in the inflamed large intestine does not impact on IgA(+) cell numbers during steady state, and is associated with a significant increase in IgA(+) cells post-infection with Trichuris muris compared to wild-type mice. Thus, the intestinal eosinophil appears to be less important in sustaining the IgA(+) cell pool in the large intestine compared to the small intestine, and in fact, our data suggests eosinophils play an inhibitory role. The dichotomy in the influence of the eosinophil over small and large intestinal IgA(+) cells did not depend on differences in plasma cell growth factors, recruitment potential or proliferation within the different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). We demonstrate for the first time that there are regional differences in the requirement of

  12. Investigating the Variability in Cumulus Cloud Number as a Function of Subdomain Size and Organization using large-domain LES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neggers, R.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in supercomputing have introduced a "grey zone" in the representation of cumulus convection in general circulation models, in which this process is partially resolved. Cumulus parameterizations need to be made scale-aware and scale-adaptive to be able to conceptually and practically deal with this situation. A potential way forward are schemes formulated in terms of discretized Cloud Size Densities, or CSDs. Advantages include i) the introduction of scale-awareness at the foundation of the scheme, and ii) the possibility to apply size-filtering of parameterized convective transport and clouds. The CSD is a new variable that requires closure; this concerns its shape, its range, but also variability in cloud number that can appear due to i) subsampling effects and ii) organization in a cloud field. The goal of this study is to gain insight by means of sub-domain analyses of various large-domain LES realizations of cumulus cloud populations. For a series of three-dimensional snapshots, each with a different degree of organization, the cloud size distribution is calculated in all subdomains, for a range of subdomain sizes. The standard deviation of the number of clouds of a certain size is found to decrease with the subdomain size, following a powerlaw scaling corresponding to an inverse-linear dependence. Cloud number variability also increases with cloud size; this reflects that subsampling affects the largest clouds first, due to their typically larger neighbor spacing. Rewriting this dependence in terms of two dimensionless groups, by dividing by cloud number and cloud size respectively, yields a data collapse. Organization in the cloud field is found to act on top of this primary dependence, by enhancing the cloud number variability at the smaller sizes. This behavior reflects that small clouds start to "live" on top of larger structures such as cold pools, favoring or inhibiting their formation (as illustrated by the attached figure of cloud mask

  13. The necessity of and policy suggestions for implementing a limited number of large scale, fully integrated CCS demonstrations in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zheng; Zhang Dongjie; Ma Linwei; West, Logan; Ni Weidou

    2011-01-01

    CCS is seen as an important and strategic technology option for China to reduce its CO 2 emission, and has received tremendous attention both around the world and in China. Scholars are divided on the role CCS should play, making the future of CCS in China highly uncertain. This paper presents the overall circumstances for CCS development in China, including the threats and opportunities for large scale deployment of CCS, the initial barriers and advantages that China currently possesses, as well as the current progress of CCS demonstration in China. The paper proposes the implementation of a limited number of larger scale, fully integrated CCS demonstration projects and explains the potential benefits that could be garnered. The problems with China's current CCS demonstration work are analyzed, and some targeted policies are proposed based on those observations. These policy suggestions can effectively solve these problems, help China gain the benefits with CCS demonstration soon, and make great contributions to China's big CO 2 reduction mission. - Highlights: → We analyze the overall circumstances for CCS development in China in detail. → China can garner multiple benefits by conducting several large, integrated CCS demos. → We present the current progress in CCS demonstration in China in detail. → Some problems exist with China's current CCS demonstration work. → Some focused policies are suggested to improve CCS demonstration in China.

  14. Fluctuations of nuclear cross sections in the region of strong overlapping resonances and at large number of open channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, S.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of the symmetrized Simonius representation of the S matrix statistical properties of its fluctuating component in the presence of direct reactions are investigated. The case is considered where the resonance levels are strongly overlapping and there is a lot of open channels, assuming that compound-nucleus cross sections which couple different channels are equal. It is shown that using the averaged unitarity condition on the real energy axis one can eliminate both resonance-resonance and channel-channel correlations from partial r transition amplitudes. As a result, we derive the basic points of the Epicson fluctuation theory of nuclear cross sections, independently of the relation between the resonance overlapping and the number of open channels, and the validity of the Hauser-Feshbach model is established. If the number of open channels is large, the time of uniform population of compound-nucleus configurations, for an open excited nuclear system, is much smaller than the Poincare time. The life time of compound nucleus is discussed

  15. Law of large numbers for the SIR model with random vertex weights on Erdős-Rényi graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiaofeng

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we are concerned with the SIR model with random vertex weights on Erdős-Rényi graph G(n , p) . The Erdős-Rényi graph G(n , p) is generated from the complete graph Cn with n vertices through independently deleting each edge with probability (1 - p) . We assign i. i. d. copies of a positive r. v. ρ on each vertex as the vertex weights. For the SIR model, each vertex is in one of the three states 'susceptible', 'infective' and 'removed'. An infective vertex infects a given susceptible neighbor at rate proportional to the production of the weights of these two vertices. An infective vertex becomes removed at a constant rate. A removed vertex will never be infected again. We assume that at t = 0 there is no removed vertex and the number of infective vertices follows a Bernoulli distribution B(n , θ) . Our main result is a law of large numbers of the model. We give two deterministic functions HS(ψt) ,HV(ψt) for t ≥ 0 and show that for any t ≥ 0, HS(ψt) is the limit proportion of susceptible vertices and HV(ψt) is the limit of the mean capability of an infective vertex to infect a given susceptible neighbor at moment t as n grows to infinity.

  16. Explaining the large numbers by a hierarchy of ''universes'': a unified theory of strong and gravitational interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldirola, P.; Recami, E.

    1978-01-01

    By assuming covariance of physical laws under (discrete) dilatations, strong and gravitational interactions have been described in a unified way. In terms of the (additional, discrete) ''dilatational'' degree of freedom, our cosmos as well as hadrons can be considered as different states of the same system, or rather as similar systems. Moreover, a discrete hierarchy can be defined of ''universes'' which are governed by force fields with strengths inversely proportional to the ''universe'' radii. Inside each ''universe'' an equivalence principle holds, so that its characteristic field can be geometrized there. It is thus easy to derive a whole ''numerology'', i.e. relations among numbers analogous to the so-called Weyl-Eddington-Dirac ''large numbers''. For instance, the ''Planck mass'' happens to be nothing but the (average) magnitude of the strong charge of the hadron quarks. However, our ''numerology'' connects the (gravitational) macrocosmos with the (strong) microcosmos, rather than with the electromagnetic ones (as, e.g., in Dirac's version). Einstein-type scaled equations (with ''cosmological'' term) are suggested for the hadron interior, which - incidentally - yield a (classical) quark confinement in a very natural way and are compatible with the ''asymptotic freedom''. At last, within a ''bi-scale'' theory, further equations are proposed that provide a priori a classical field theory of strong interactions (between different hadrons). The relevant sections are 5.2, 7 and 8. (author)

  17. Modification of the large-scale features of high Reynolds number wall turbulence by passive surface obtrusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monty, J.P.; Lien, K.; Chong, M.S. [University of Melbourne, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Allen, J.J. [New Mexico State University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    2011-12-15

    A high Reynolds number boundary-layer wind-tunnel facility at New Mexico State University was fitted with a regularly distributed braille surface. The surface was such that braille dots were closely packed in the streamwise direction and sparsely spaced in the spanwise direction. This novel surface had an unexpected influence on the flow: the energy of the very large-scale features of wall turbulence (approximately six-times the boundary-layer thickness in length) became significantly attenuated, even into the logarithmic region. To the author's knowledge, this is the first experimental study to report a modification of 'superstructures' in a rough-wall turbulent boundary layer. The result gives rise to the possibility that flow control through very small, passive surface roughness may be possible at high Reynolds numbers, without the prohibitive drag penalty anticipated heretofore. Evidence was also found for the uninhibited existence of the near-wall cycle, well known to smooth-wall-turbulence researchers, in the spanwise space between roughness elements. (orig.)

  18. Determinants of Buying Behavior of Grain Producers: A Multiple Case Study with Mid and Large Size Producers in the State of Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fava Scare

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Brazilian agribusiness has demanded for inputs, capital goods, financial services and technology. In addition, there have been changes in the size of the properties, as well as in risk management and commercialization practices, and level of education and posture of those responsible for the decision making of agricultural enterprises. It is fundamental for companies that supply inputs and services to farmers to understand some variables in such changing environment, considering that they influence the business model and the buying behavior of rural producers. The purpose of this study is to develop knowledge and familiarity with the buying behavior of grain farmers in the State of Mato Grosso, with the intent of understanding how this behavior can be influenced by theproducer's profile and the farm features, as well as the risk and business management practices, the decision making, the sources of information, and the products and suppliers. In order to achieve such a goal,a multiple case study was developed by interviewing, face to face, three grain producers, from the State of Mato Grosso. The results demonstrate that the most influential determinants on the buying behavior of the interviewed producers were their level of involvement in the decision making process, the benefit they expect from each type of product, the size of their farming operation, the kind of yield production, and the crop rotation and its relation to productivity. Additionally, the ownership or not of the land, the business profitability, credit restrictions and risk management, they all influence the level of the producer's capitalization and consequently his choices of channels for acquiring inputs and capital goods. Last, though not less important, the sources of information and their reliability have an impact on the producer's loyalty to a brand, or to a local distributor or to a salesperson.

  19. Development and application of an optogenetic platform for controlling and imaging a large number of individual neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ali Ibrahim Ali

    The understanding and treatment of brain disorders as well as the development of intelligent machines is hampered by the lack of knowledge of how the brain fundamentally functions. Over the past century, we have learned much about how individual neurons and neural networks behave, however new tools are critically needed to interrogate how neural networks give rise to complex brain processes and disease conditions. Recent innovations in molecular techniques, such as optogenetics, have enabled neuroscientists unprecedented precision to excite, inhibit and record defined neurons. The impressive sensitivity of currently available optogenetic sensors and actuators has now enabled the possibility of analyzing a large number of individual neurons in the brains of behaving animals. To promote the use of these optogenetic tools, this thesis integrates cutting edge optogenetic molecular sensors which is ultrasensitive for imaging neuronal activity with custom wide field optical microscope to analyze a large number of individual neurons in living brains. Wide-field microscopy provides a large field of view and better spatial resolution approaching the Abbe diffraction limit of fluorescent microscope. To demonstrate the advantages of this optical platform, we imaged a deep brain structure, the Hippocampus, and tracked hundreds of neurons over time while mouse was performing a memory task to investigate how those individual neurons related to behavior. In addition, we tested our optical platform in investigating transient neural network changes upon mechanical perturbation related to blast injuries. In this experiment, all blasted mice show a consistent change in neural network. A small portion of neurons showed a sustained calcium increase for an extended period of time, whereas the majority lost their activities. Finally, using optogenetic silencer to control selective motor cortex neurons, we examined their contributions to the network pathology of basal ganglia related to

  20. A method for producing uniform dose distributions in the junction regions of large hinge angle electrol fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavgorodni, S.F.; Beckham, W.A.; Roos, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    The planning problems presented by abutting electron fields are well recognised. Junctioning electron fields with large hinge angle compounds the problems because of the creation of closely situated 'hot' and 'cold' spots. The technique involving a compensated superficial x-ray (SXR) field to treat the junction region between electron fields was developed and used in a particular clinical case (treatment of a squamous cell carcinoma of the forehead/scalp). The SXR beam parameters were chosen and the compensator was designed to make the SXR field complementary to the electron fields. Application of a compensated SXR field eliminated 'cold' spots in the junction region and minimised 'hot' spots to (110%). In the clinical case discusses the 'hot' spots due to the SXR field would not appear because of increased attenuation of the soft x-rays in bone. The technique proposed produces uniform dose distribution up to 3 cm deep and can be considered as an additional tool for dealing with electron fields junctioning problems. (author)

  1. Individual differences influence two-digit number processing, but not their analog magnitude processing: a large-scale online study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Stefan; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich; Soltanlou, Mojtaba

    2017-12-23

    Symbolic magnitude comparison is one of the most well-studied cognitive processes in research on numerical cognition. However, while the cognitive mechanisms of symbolic magnitude processing have been intensively studied, previous studies have paid less attention to individual differences influencing symbolic magnitude comparison. Employing a two-digit number comparison task in an online setting, we replicated previous effects, including the distance effect, the unit-decade compatibility effect, and the effect of cognitive control on the adaptation to filler items, in a large-scale study in 452 adults. Additionally, we observed that the most influential individual differences were participants' first language, time spent playing computer games and gender, followed by reported alcohol consumption, age and mathematical ability. Participants who used a first language with a left-to-right reading/writing direction were faster than those who read and wrote in the right-to-left direction. Reported playing time for computer games was correlated with faster reaction times. Female participants showed slower reaction times and a larger unit-decade compatibility effect than male participants. Participants who reported never consuming alcohol showed overall slower response times than others. Older participants were slower, but more accurate. Finally, higher grades in mathematics were associated with faster reaction times. We conclude that typical experiments on numerical cognition that employ a keyboard as an input device can also be run in an online setting. Moreover, while individual differences have no influence on domain-specific magnitude processing-apart from age, which increases the decade distance effect-they generally influence performance on a two-digit number comparison task.

  2. Computational domain length and Reynolds number effects on large-scale coherent motions in turbulent pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Daniel; Bauer, Christian; Wagner, Claus

    2018-03-01

    We present results from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent pipe flow at shear Reynolds numbers up to Reτ = 1500 using different computational domains with lengths up to ?. The objectives are to analyse the effect of the finite size of the periodic pipe domain on large flow structures in dependency of Reτ and to assess a minimum ? required for relevant turbulent scales to be captured and a minimum Reτ for very large-scale motions (VLSM) to be analysed. Analysing one-point statistics revealed that the mean velocity profile is invariant for ?. The wall-normal location at which deviations occur in shorter domains changes strongly with increasing Reτ from the near-wall region to the outer layer, where VLSM are believed to live. The root mean square velocity profiles exhibit domain length dependencies for pipes shorter than 14R and 7R depending on Reτ. For all Reτ, the higher-order statistical moments show only weak dependencies and only for the shortest domain considered here. However, the analysis of one- and two-dimensional pre-multiplied energy spectra revealed that even for larger ?, not all physically relevant scales are fully captured, even though the aforementioned statistics are in good agreement with the literature. We found ? to be sufficiently large to capture VLSM-relevant turbulent scales in the considered range of Reτ based on our definition of an integral energy threshold of 10%. The requirement to capture at least 1/10 of the global maximum energy level is justified by a 14% increase of the streamwise turbulence intensity in the outer region between Reτ = 720 and 1500, which can be related to VLSM-relevant length scales. Based on this scaling anomaly, we found Reτ⪆1500 to be a necessary minimum requirement to investigate VLSM-related effects in pipe flow, even though the streamwise energy spectra does not yet indicate sufficient scale separation between the most energetic and the very long motions.

  3. Catering for large numbers of tourists: the McDonaldization of casual dining in Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Sanette L.A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2002 Kruger National Park (KNP has subjected to a commercialisation strategy. Regarding income generation, SANParks (1 sees KNP as the goose that lays the golden eggs. As part of SANParks’ commercialisation strategy and in response to providing services that are efficient, predictable and calculable for a large number of tourists, SANParks has allowed well-known branded restaurants to be established in certain rest camps in KNP. This innovation has raised a range of different concerns and opinions among the public. This paper investigates the what and the where of casual dining experiences in KNP; describes how the catering services have evolved over the last 70 years; and evaluates current visitor perceptions of the introduction of franchised restaurants in the park. The main research instrument was a questionnaire survey. Survey findings confirmed that restaurant managers, park managers and visitors recognise franchised restaurants as positive contributors to the unique KNP experience. Park managers appraised the franchised restaurants as mechanisms for funding conservation.

  4. Meta-ethnography 25 years on: challenges and insights for synthesising a large number of qualitative studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Studies that systematically search for and synthesise qualitative research are becoming more evident in health care, and they can make an important contribution to patient care. Our team was funded to complete a meta-ethnography of patients’ experience of chronic musculoskeletal pain. It has been 25 years since Noblit and Hare published their core text on meta-ethnography, and the current health research environment brings additional challenges to researchers aiming to synthesise qualitative research. Noblit and Hare propose seven stages of meta-ethnography which take the researcher from formulating a research idea to expressing the findings. These stages are not discrete but form part of an iterative research process. We aimed to build on the methods of Noblit and Hare and explore the challenges of including a large number of qualitative studies into a qualitative systematic review. These challenges hinge upon epistemological and practical issues to be considered alongside expectations about what determines high quality research. This paper describes our method and explores these challenges. Central to our method was the process of collaborative interpretation of concepts and the decision to exclude original material where we could not decipher a concept. We use excerpts from our research team’s reflexive statements to illustrate the development of our methods. PMID:24951054

  5. Meta-ethnography 25 years on: challenges and insights for synthesising a large number of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toye, Francine; Seers, Kate; Allcock, Nick; Briggs, Michelle; Carr, Eloise; Barker, Karen

    2014-06-21

    Studies that systematically search for and synthesise qualitative research are becoming more evident in health care, and they can make an important contribution to patient care. Our team was funded to complete a meta-ethnography of patients' experience of chronic musculoskeletal pain. It has been 25 years since Noblit and Hare published their core text on meta-ethnography, and the current health research environment brings additional challenges to researchers aiming to synthesise qualitative research. Noblit and Hare propose seven stages of meta-ethnography which take the researcher from formulating a research idea to expressing the findings. These stages are not discrete but form part of an iterative research process. We aimed to build on the methods of Noblit and Hare and explore the challenges of including a large number of qualitative studies into a qualitative systematic review. These challenges hinge upon epistemological and practical issues to be considered alongside expectations about what determines high quality research. This paper describes our method and explores these challenges. Central to our method was the process of collaborative interpretation of concepts and the decision to exclude original material where we could not decipher a concept. We use excerpts from our research team's reflexive statements to illustrate the development of our methods.

  6. Attenuation of contaminant plumes in homogeneous aquifers: Sensitivity to source function at moderate to large peclet numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selander, W.N.; Lane, F.E.; Rowat, J.H.

    1995-05-01

    A groundwater mass transfer calculation is an essential part of the performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal facilities. AECL's IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) facility, which is designed for the near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), is to be situated in the sandy overburden at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories. Flow in the sandy aquifers at the proposed IRUS site is relatively homogeneous and advection-dominated (large Peclet numbers). Mass transfer along the mean direction of flow from the IRUS site may be described using the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation, for which a Green's function representation of downstream radionuclide flux is convenient. This report shows that in advection-dominated aquifers, dispersive attenuation of initial contaminant releases depends principally on two time scales: the source duration and the pulse breakthrough time. Numerical investigation shows further that the maximum downstream flux or concentration depends on these time scales in a simple characteristic way that is minimally sensitive to the shape of the initial source pulse. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  7. Exploration of large, rare copy number variants associated with psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in individuals with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Zeynep; Szatkiewicz, Jin P; Crowley, James J; Ancalade, NaEshia; Brandys, Marek K; van Elburg, Annemarie; de Kovel, Carolien G F; Adan, Roger A H; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes; Gratacos, Monica; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Escaramis, Georgia; Gonzalez, Juan R; Estivill, Xavier; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Sullivan, Patrick F; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-08-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious and heritable psychiatric disorder. To date, studies of copy number variants (CNVs) have been limited and inconclusive because of small sample sizes. We conducted a case-only genome-wide CNV survey in 1983 female AN cases included in the Genetic Consortium for Anorexia Nervosa. Following stringent quality control procedures, we investigated whether pathogenic CNVs in regions previously implicated in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders were present in AN cases. We observed two instances of the well-established pathogenic CNVs in AN cases. In addition, one case had a deletion in the 13q12 region, overlapping with a deletion reported previously in two AN cases. As a secondary aim, we also examined our sample for CNVs over 1 Mbp in size. Out of the 40 instances of such large CNVs that were not implicated previously for AN or neuropsychiatric phenotypes, two of them contained genes with previous neuropsychiatric associations, and only five of them had no associated reports in public CNV databases. Although ours is the largest study of its kind in AN, larger datasets are needed to comprehensively assess the role of CNVs in the etiology of AN.

  8. Large-amplitude traveling ionospheric distrubance produced by the May 18, 1980, explosion of Mount St. Helens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, D.H.; Klobuchar, J.A.; Fougere, P.F.; Hendrickson, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    A remarkable long-lived, large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID), excited by the May 18, 1980, explosion of Mount St. Helens, has been detected in total electron content monitor data. Oscillatory perturbations in the electron column density of the ionosphere with amplitudes about 10% of the nominal daytime content were detected at three stations whose ionospheric penetration points lie between 1610 and 1890 km from Mount St. Helens. Smaller perturbations were detected at five of six additional stations between 3760 and 4950 km away. The period of the TID increased linearly with great-circle distance from Mount St. Helens, ranging from roughly-equal37 min at the nearest station to roughly-equal116 min at the most distant one. The TID persisted for at least four cycles at the three close stations and three cycles at the more distant stations and was qualitatively similar to TID's produced by the low-altitude thermonuclear detonations of the 1960's. The disturbance front of this TID accelerated from an average velocity of roughly-equal350 m/s between Mt. St. Helens and the close stations to an average velocity of roughly-equal550 m/s to the more distant ones.A model based on the free wave response of an isothermal atmosphere to a point disturbance provides a good fit to the data at the three closest stations, but no such model can account for all of the data. Modeling of the long-distance behavior of the Mount St. Helens TID in terms of upper-atmosphere guided gravity waves is complicated by the requirement of exciting them by a ground-level explosion. There was no evidence for a strong supersonic shock wave in the ionosphere. As a result, the Mount St. Helens disturbance may prove to be a cleaner test of detailed theories of the point excitation and propagation of gravity waves in a realistic atmosphere than were TID's excited by thermonuclear weapons

  9. Email-Based Informed Consent: Innovative Method for Reaching Large Numbers of Subjects for Data Mining Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lesley R.; Mason, Sara S.; Babiak-Vazquez, Adriana; Ray, Stacie L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Since the 2010 NASA authorization to make the Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA) and Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) data archives more accessible by the research and operational communities, demand for data has greatly increased. Correspondingly, both the number and scope of requests have increased, from 142 requests fulfilled in 2011 to 224 in 2014, and with some datasets comprising up to 1 million data points. To meet the demand, the LSAH and LSDA Repositories project was launched, which allows active and retired astronauts to authorize full, partial, or no access to their data for research without individual, study-specific informed consent. A one-on-one personal informed consent briefing is required to fully communicate the implications of the several tiers of consent. Due to the need for personal contact to conduct Repositories consent meetings, the rate of consenting has not kept up with demand for individualized, possibly attributable data. As a result, other methods had to be implemented to allow the release of large datasets, such as release of only de-identified data. However the compilation of large, de-identified data sets places a significant resource burden on LSAH and LSDA and may result in diminished scientific usefulness of the dataset. As a result, LSAH and LSDA worked with the JSC Institutional Review Board Chair, Astronaut Office physicians, and NASA Office of General Counsel personnel to develop a "Remote Consenting" process for retrospective data mining studies. This is particularly useful since the majority of the astronaut cohort is retired from the agency and living outside the Houston area. Originally planned as a method to send informed consent briefing slides and consent forms only by mail, Remote Consenting has evolved into a means to accept crewmember decisions on individual studies via their method of choice: email or paper copy by mail. To date, 100 emails have been sent to request participation in eight HRP

  10. Small on the Left, Large on the Right: Numbers Orient Visual Attention onto Space in Preverbal Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulf, Hermann; de Hevia, Maria Dolores; Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2016-01-01

    Numbers are represented as ordered magnitudes along a spatially oriented number line. While culture and formal education modulate the direction of this number-space mapping, it is a matter of debate whether its emergence is entirely driven by cultural experience. By registering 8-9-month-old infants' eye movements, this study shows that numerical…

  11. Retrieval of very large numbers of items in the Web of Science: an exercise to develop accurate search strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arencibia-Jorge, R.; Leydesdorff, L.; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z.; Rousseau, R.; Paris, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    The Web of Science interface counts at most 100,000 retrieved items from a single query. If the query results in a dataset containing more than 100,000 items the number of retrieved items is indicated as >100,000. The problem studied here is how to find the exact number of items in a query that

  12. Experimental observation of pulsating instability under acoustic field in downward-propagating flames at large Lewis number

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Sung Hwan

    2017-10-12

    According to previous theory, pulsating propagation in a premixed flame only appears when the reduced Lewis number, β(Le-1), is larger than a critical value (Sivashinsky criterion: 4(1 +3) ≈ 11), where β represents the Zel\\'dovich number (for general premixed flames, β ≈ 10), which requires Lewis number Le > 2.1. However, few experimental observation have been reported because the critical reduced Lewis number for the onset of pulsating instability is beyond what can be reached in experiments. Furthermore, the coupling with the unavoidable hydrodynamic instability limits the observation of pure pulsating instabilities in flames. Here, we describe a novel method to observe the pulsating instability. We utilize a thermoacoustic field caused by interaction between heat release and acoustic pressure fluctuations of the downward-propagating premixed flames in a tube to enhance conductive heat loss at the tube wall and radiative heat loss at the open end of the tube due to extended flame residence time by diminished flame surface area, i.e., flat flame. The thermoacoustic field allowed pure observation of the pulsating motion since the primary acoustic force suppressed the intrinsic hydrodynamic instability resulting from thermal expansion. By employing this method, we have provided new experimental observations of the pulsating instability for premixed flames. The Lewis number (i.e., Le ≈ 1.86) was less than the critical value suggested previously.

  13. Does Decision Quality (Always) Increase with the Size of Information Samples? Some Vicissitudes in Applying the Law of Large Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Klaus; Kareev, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive decision making requires that contingencies between decision options and their relative assets be assessed accurately and quickly. The present research addresses the challenging notion that contingencies may be more visible from small than from large samples of observations. An algorithmic account for such a seemingly paradoxical effect…

  14. The Limits and Possibilities of International Large-Scale Assessments. Education Policy Brief. Volume 9, Number 2, Spring 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, David J.; Prusinski, Ellen L.

    2011-01-01

    The staff of the Center for Evaluation & Education Policy (CEEP) at Indiana University is often asked about how international large-scale assessments influence U.S. educational policy. This policy brief is designed to provide answers to some of the most frequently asked questions encountered by CEEP researchers concerning the three most popular…

  15. Exploration of large, rare copy number variants associated with psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in individuals with anorexia nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yilmaz, Zeynep; Szatkiewicz, Jin P; Crowley, James J; Ancalade, NaEshia; Brandys, Marek K; van Elburg, Annemarie; de Kovel, Carolien G F; Adan, Roger A H; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes; Gratacos, Monica; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Escaramis, Georgia; Gonzalez, Juan R; Estivill, Xavier; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Sullivan, Patrick F; Bulik, Cynthia M; Genetic Consortium for Anorexia Nervosa, Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 3

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious and heritable psychiatric disorder. To date, studies of copy number variants (CNVs) have been limited and inconclusive because of small sample sizes. We conducted a case-only genome-wide CNV survey in 1983 female AN cases included in the Genetic Consortium for

  16. Investigation into impacts of large numbers of visitors on the collection environment at Our Lord in the Attic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maekawa, S.; Ankersmit, Bart; Neuhaus, E.; Schellen, H.L.; Beltran, V.; Boersma, F.; Padfield, T.; Borchersen, K.

    2007-01-01

    Our Lord in the Attic is a historic house museum located in the historic center of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. It is a typical 17th century Dutch canal house, with a hidden Church in the attic. The Church was used regularly until 1887 when the house became a museum. The annual total number of

  17. A Few Large Roads or Many Small Ones? How to Accommodate Growth in Vehicle Numbers to Minimise Impacts on Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jonathan R.; Lunney, Daniel; Callaghan, John; McAlpine, Clive A.

    2014-01-01

    Roads and vehicular traffic are among the most pervasive of threats to biodiversity because they fragmenting habitat, increasing mortality and opening up new areas for the exploitation of natural resources. However, the number of vehicles on roads is increasing rapidly and this is likely to continue into the future, putting increased pressure on wildlife populations. Consequently, a major challenge is the planning of road networks to accommodate increased numbers of vehicles, while minimising impacts on wildlife. Nonetheless, we currently have few principles for guiding decisions on road network planning to reduce impacts on wildlife in real landscapes. We addressed this issue by developing an approach for quantifying the impact on wildlife mortality of two alternative mechanisms for accommodating growth in vehicle numbers: (1) increasing the number of roads, and (2) increasing traffic volumes on existing roads. We applied this approach to a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population in eastern Australia and quantified the relative impact of each strategy on mortality. We show that, in most cases, accommodating growth in traffic through increases in volumes on existing roads has a lower impact than building new roads. An exception is where the existing road network has very low road density, but very high traffic volumes on each road. These findings have important implications for how we design road networks to reduce their impacts on biodiversity. PMID:24646891

  18. A few large roads or many small ones? How to accommodate growth in vehicle numbers to minimise impacts on wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Rhodes

    Full Text Available Roads and vehicular traffic are among the most pervasive of threats to biodiversity because they fragmenting habitat, increasing mortality and opening up new areas for the exploitation of natural resources. However, the number of vehicles on roads is increasing rapidly and this is likely to continue into the future, putting increased pressure on wildlife populations. Consequently, a major challenge is the planning of road networks to accommodate increased numbers of vehicles, while minimising impacts on wildlife. Nonetheless, we currently have few principles for guiding decisions on road network planning to reduce impacts on wildlife in real landscapes. We addressed this issue by developing an approach for quantifying the impact on wildlife mortality of two alternative mechanisms for accommodating growth in vehicle numbers: (1 increasing the number of roads, and (2 increasing traffic volumes on existing roads. We applied this approach to a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus population in eastern Australia and quantified the relative impact of each strategy on mortality. We show that, in most cases, accommodating growth in traffic through increases in volumes on existing roads has a lower impact than building new roads. An exception is where the existing road network has very low road density, but very high traffic volumes on each road. These findings have important implications for how we design road networks to reduce their impacts on biodiversity.

  19. A few large roads or many small ones? How to accommodate growth in vehicle numbers to minimise impacts on wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jonathan R; Lunney, Daniel; Callaghan, John; McAlpine, Clive A

    2014-01-01

    Roads and vehicular traffic are among the most pervasive of threats to biodiversity because they fragmenting habitat, increasing mortality and opening up new areas for the exploitation of natural resources. However, the number of vehicles on roads is increasing rapidly and this is likely to continue into the future, putting increased pressure on wildlife populations. Consequently, a major challenge is the planning of road networks to accommodate increased numbers of vehicles, while minimising impacts on wildlife. Nonetheless, we currently have few principles for guiding decisions on road network planning to reduce impacts on wildlife in real landscapes. We addressed this issue by developing an approach for quantifying the impact on wildlife mortality of two alternative mechanisms for accommodating growth in vehicle numbers: (1) increasing the number of roads, and (2) increasing traffic volumes on existing roads. We applied this approach to a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population in eastern Australia and quantified the relative impact of each strategy on mortality. We show that, in most cases, accommodating growth in traffic through increases in volumes on existing roads has a lower impact than building new roads. An exception is where the existing road network has very low road density, but very high traffic volumes on each road. These findings have important implications for how we design road networks to reduce their impacts on biodiversity.

  20. Small genomes and large seeds: chromosome numbers, genome size and seed mass in diploid Aesculus species (Sapindaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna; Trávníček, Pavel; Krahulec, František; Rejmánek, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 6 (2017), s. 957-964 ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Aesculus * chromosome number * genome size * phylogeny * seed mass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.041, year: 2016

  1. Isolation and characterization of large spectrum and multiple bacteriocin-producing Enterococcus faecium strain from raw bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaaloul, N; ben Braiek, O; Hani, K; Volski, A; Chikindas, M L; Ghrairi, T

    2015-02-01

    To assess the antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria from Tunisian raw bovine milk. A bacteriocin-producing Enterococcus faecium strain was isolated from raw cow milk with activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Antimicrobial substances produced by this strain were sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and were thermostable and resistant to a broad range of pH (2-10). Mode of action of antimicrobial substances was determined as bactericidal. Maximum activity was reached at the end of the exponential growth phase when checked against Listeria ivanovii BUG 496 (2366.62 AU ml(-1)). However, maximum antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 28753 was recorded at the beginning of the exponential growth phase. Enterococcus faecium GGN7 was characterized as free from virulence factors and was susceptible to tested antibiotics. PCR analysis of the micro-organism's genome revealed the presence of genes coding for enterocins A and B. Mass spectrometry analysis of RP-HPLC active fractions showed molecular masses corresponding to enterocins A (4835.77 Da) and B (5471.56 Da), and a peptide with a molecular mass of 3215.5 Da active only against Gram-negative indicator strains. The latter was unique in the databases. Enterococcus faecium GGN7 produces three bacteriocins with different inhibitory spectra. Based on its antimicrobial properties and safety, Ent. faecium GGN7 is potentially useful for food biopreservation. The results suggest the bacteriocins from GGN7 strain could be useful for food biopreservation. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Extracting the top-quark running mass using t anti t+1-jet events produced at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuster, J.; Vos, M. [Valencia Univ. and CSIC, Paterna (Spain). IFIC; Irles, A. [Paris-Sud XI Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France). Lab. de l' Accelerateur Lineaire; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Melini, D. [Valencia Univ. and CSIC, Paterna (Spain). IFIC; Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos; Uwer, P. [Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany)

    2017-04-04

    We present the calculation of the next-to-leading order QCD corrections for top quark pair production in association with an additional jet at hadron colliders, using the modified minimal subtraction scheme to renormalize the top-quark mass. The results are compared to measurements at the Large Hadron Collider run I. In particular, we determine the top-quark running mass from a fit of the theoretical results presented here to the LHC data.

  3. Extracting the top-quark running mass using t anti t + 1-jet events produced at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuster, J.; Vos, M. [IFIC, Universitat de Valencia y CSIC, Paterna (Spain); Irles, A. [Universite de Paris-Sud XI, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, Orsay (France); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Melini, D. [IFIC, Universitat de Valencia y CSIC, Paterna (Spain); Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Granada (Spain); Uwer, P. [Humboldt-Universitaet Berlin (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    We present the calculation of the next-to-leading order QCD corrections for top-quark pair production in association with an additional jet at hadron colliders, using the modified minimal subtraction scheme to renormalize the top-quark mass. The results are compared to measurements at the Large Hadron Collider run I. In particular, we determine the top-quark running mass from a fit of the theoretical results presented here to the LHC data. (orig.)

  4. The environmental agreement may lead to large losses for the oil producers. The Kyoto mechanisms are very important to Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The article presents an economic model study of the implications of an climatic agreement. Two main scenarios are presented: 1) The Kyoto protocol is extended to 2020. 2) All counties ratify a climatic agreement. The conclusions are that the Kyoto protocol may have great effects on the oil and gas markets and large economic consequences for Norway. It is therefore mandatory to extensively use the Kyoto mechanisms such as trade with quotas, common implementation and the green development mechanism

  5. Mesoderm Lineage 3D Tissue Constructs Are Produced at Large-Scale in a 3D Stem Cell Bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae Min; Mantalaris, Athanasios; Jung, Sunyoung; Ji, Yurim; Bang, Oh Young; Bae, Hojae

    2017-09-01

    Various studies have presented different approaches to direct pluripotent stem cell differentiation such as applying defined sets of exogenous biochemical signals and genetic/epigenetic modifications. Although differentiation to target lineages can be successfully regulated, such conventional methods are often complicated, laborious, and not cost-effective to be employed to the large-scale production of 3D stem cell-based tissue constructs. A 3D-culture platform that could realize the large-scale production of mesoderm lineage tissue constructs from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is developed. ESCs are cultured using our previously established 3D-bioprocess platform which is amenable to mass-production of 3D ESC-based tissue constructs. Hepatocarcinoma cell line conditioned medium is introduced to the large-scale 3D culture to provide a specific biomolecular microenvironment to mimic in vivo mesoderm formation process. After 5 days of spontaneous differentiation period, the resulting 3D tissue constructs are composed of multipotent mesodermal progenitor cells verified by gene and molecular expression profiles. Subsequently the optimal time points to trigger terminal differentiation towards cardiomyogenesis or osteogenesis from the mesodermal tissue constructs is found. A simple and affordable 3D ESC-bioprocess that can reach the scalable production of mesoderm origin tissues with significantly improved correspondent tissue properties is demonstrated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Precise large deviations of aggregate claims in a size-dependent renewal risk model with stopping time claim-number process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we consider a size-dependent renewal risk model with stopping time claim-number process. In this model, we do not make any assumption on the dependence structure of claim sizes and inter-arrival times. We study large deviations of the aggregate amount of claims. For the subexponential heavy-tailed case, we obtain a precise large-deviation formula; our method substantially relies on a martingale for the structure of our models.

  7. Hungarian Marfan family with large FBN1 deletion calls attention to copy number variation detection in the current NGS era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ágg, Bence; Meienberg, Janine; Kopps, Anna M.; Fattorini, Nathalie; Stengl, Roland; Daradics, Noémi; Pólos, Miklós; Bors, András; Radovits, Tamás; Merkely, Béla; De Backer, Julie; Szabolcs, Zoltán; Mátyás, Gábor

    2018-01-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) comprise about 10% of reported disease-causing mutations in Mendelian disorders. Nevertheless, pathogenic CNVs may have been under-detected due to the lack or insufficient use of appropriate detection methods. In this report, on the example of the diagnostic odyssey of a patient with Marfan syndrome (MFS) harboring a hitherto unreported 32-kb FBN1 deletion, we highlight the need for and the feasibility of testing for CNVs (>1 kb) in Mendelian disorders in the current next-generation sequencing (NGS) era. PMID:29850152

  8. Numerical simulation of nonstationary dissipative structures in 3D double-diffusive convection at large Rayleigh numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozitskiy, Sergey

    2018-05-01

    Numerical simulation of nonstationary dissipative structures in 3D double-diffusive convection has been performed by using the previously derived system of complex Ginzburg-Landau type amplitude equations, valid in a neighborhood of Hopf bifurcation points. Simulation has shown that the state of spatiotemporal chaos develops in the system. It has the form of nonstationary structures that depend on the parameters of the system. The shape of structures does not depend on the initial conditions, and a limited number of spectral components participate in their formation.

  9. A Novel Approach to Data Collection for Difficult Structures: Data Management for Large Numbers of Crystals with the BLEND Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Mylona

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes how to use the computer program BLEND to help assemble complete datasets for the solution of macromolecular structures, starting from partial or complete datasets, derived from data collection from multiple crystals. The program is demonstrated on more than two hundred X-ray diffraction datasets obtained from 50 crystals of a complex formed between the SRF transcription factor, its cognate DNA, and a peptide from the SRF cofactor MRTF-A. This structure is currently in the process of being fully solved. While full details of the structure are not yet available, the repeated application of BLEND on data from this structure, as they have become available, has made it possible to produce electron density maps clear enough to visualise the potential location of MRTF sequences.

  10. A Novel Approach to Data Collection for Difficult Structures: Data Management for Large Numbers of Crystals with the BLEND Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylona, Anastasia; Carr, Stephen; Aller, Pierre; Moraes, Isabel; Treisman, Richard; Evans, Gwyndaf; Foadi, James

    2017-08-04

    The present article describes how to use the computer program BLEND to help assemble complete datasets for the solution of macromolecular structures, starting from partial or complete datasets, derived from data collection from multiple crystals. The program is demonstrated on more than two hundred X-ray diffraction datasets obtained from 50 crystals of a complex formed between the SRF transcription factor, its cognate DNA, and a peptide from the SRF cofactor MRTF-A. This structure is currently in the process of being fully solved. While full details of the structure are not yet available, the repeated application of BLEND on data from this structure, as they have become available, has made it possible to produce electron density maps clear enough to visualise the potential location of MRTF sequences.

  11. Large subgaleal hematoma producing turban head in 10 year boy with cerebral palsy: rare case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Praveen Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Subgaleal hematomas (SGHs are not uncommon. Because the subgaleal space has no anatomical boundaries, SGHs usually involve a large space and are typically limited to the parietal region. Cases of SGHs involving whole of head are relatively rare. In this study we report a rare case of massive enlargement of head after SGH causing severe pain and giving an appearance of turban. A 10 year old, male patient with cerebral palsy presented with progressive enlargement of head attaining a size of turban due to habitual head banging and self-punching overhead. SGH drainage and hematoma aspiration were performed and the patient’s head size was restored.

  12. Simulation of droplet impact onto a deep pool for large Froude numbers in different open-source codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchagova, V. N.; Kraposhin, M. V.; Marchevsky, I. K.; Smirnova, E. V.

    2017-11-01

    A droplet impact on a deep pool can induce macro-scale or micro-scale effects like a crown splash, a high-speed jet, formation of secondary droplets or thin liquid films, etc. It depends on the diameter and velocity of the droplet, liquid properties, effects of external forces and other factors that a ratio of dimensionless criteria can account for. In the present research, we considered the droplet and the pool consist of the same viscous incompressible liquid. We took surface tension into account but neglected gravity forces. We used two open-source codes (OpenFOAM and Gerris) for our computations. We review the possibility of using these codes for simulation of processes in free-surface flows that may take place after a droplet impact on the pool. Both codes simulated several modes of droplet impact. We estimated the effect of liquid properties with respect to the Reynolds number and Weber number. Numerical simulation enabled us to find boundaries between different modes of droplet impact on a deep pool and to plot corresponding mode maps. The ratio of liquid density to that of the surrounding gas induces several changes in mode maps. Increasing this density ratio suppresses the crown splash.

  13. Characterizing large river sounds: Providing context for understanding the environmental effects of noise produced by hydrokinetic turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelhimer, Mark S; Deng, Z Daniel; Scherelis, Constantin

    2016-01-01

    Underwater noise associated with the installation and operation of hydrokinetic turbines in rivers and tidal zones presents a potential environmental concern for fish and marine mammals. Comparing the spectral quality of sounds emitted by hydrokinetic turbines to natural and other anthropogenic sound sources is an initial step at understanding potential environmental impacts. Underwater recordings were obtained from passing vessels and natural underwater sound sources in static and flowing waters. Static water measurements were taken in a lake with minimal background noise. Flowing water measurements were taken at a previously proposed deployment site for hydrokinetic turbines on the Mississippi River, where sounds created by flowing water are part of all measurements, both natural ambient and anthropogenic sources. Vessel sizes ranged from a small fishing boat with 60 hp outboard motor to an 18-unit barge train being pushed upstream by tugboat. As expected, large vessels with large engines created the highest sound levels, which were, on average, 40 dB greater than the sound created by an operating hydrokinetic turbine. A comparison of sound levels from the same sources at different distances using both spherical and cylindrical sound attenuation functions suggests that spherical model results more closely approximate observed sound attenuation.

  14. TO BE OR NOT TO BE: AN INFORMATIVE NON-SYMBOLIC NUMERICAL MAGNITUDE PROCESSING STUDY ABOUT SMALL VERSUS LARGE NUMBERS IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies CEULEMANS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many studies tested the association between numerical magnitude processing and mathematical achievement with conflicting findings reported for individuals with mathematical learning disorders. Some of the inconsistencies might be explained by the number of non-symbolic stimuli or dot collections used in studies. It has been hypothesized that there is an object-file system for ‘small’ and an analogue magnitude system for ‘large’ numbers. This two-system account has been supported by the set size limit of the object-file system (three items. A boundary was defined, accordingly, categorizing numbers below four as ‘small’ and from four and above as ‘large’. However, data on ‘small’ number processing and on the ‘boundary’ between small and large numbers are missing. In this contribution we provide data from infants discriminating between the number sets 4 vs. 8 and 1 vs. 4, both containing the number four combined with a small and a large number respectively. Participants were 25 and 26 full term 9-month-olds for 4 vs. 8 and 1 vs. 4 respectively. The stimuli (dots were controlled for continuous variables. Eye-tracking was combined with the habituation paradigm. The results showed that the infants were successful in discriminating 1 from 4, but failed to discriminate 4 from 8 dots. This finding supports the assumption of the number four as a ‘small’ number and enlarges the object-file system’s limit. This study might help to explain inconsistencies in studies. Moreover, the information may be useful in answering parent’s questions about challenges that vulnerable children with number processing problems, such as children with mathematical learning disorders, might encounter. In addition, the study might give some information on the stimuli that can be used to effectively foster children’s magnitude processing skills.

  15. Longitudinal study of two Irish dairy herds: Low numbers of of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and O26 super-shedders identified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Patricia Murphy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A 12-month longitudinal study was undertaken on two dairy herds to ascertain the Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC O157 and O26 shedding status of the animals and its impact (if any on raw milk. Cattle are a recognised reservoir for these organisms with associated public health and environmental implications. Animals shedding E. coli O157 at >10,000 CFU/g of faeces have been deemed super-shedders. There is a gap in the knowledge regarding super-shedding of other STEC serogroups. A cohort of 40 lactating cows from herds previously identified as positive for VTEC in a national surveillance project were sampled every second month between August, 2013 and July, 2014. Metadata on any potential super-shedders was documented including e.g. age of the animal, number of lactations and days in lactation, nutritional condition, somatic cell count and content of protein in milk to assess if any were associated with risk factors for super-shedding. Recto-anal mucosal swabs, raw milk, milk filters and water samples were procured for each herd. The swabs were examined for E. coli O157 and O26 using a quantitative real time PCR method. Counts (CFU swab-1 were obtained from a standard calibration curve that related real-time PCR cycle threshold (Ct values against the initial concentration of O157 or O26 in the samples. Results from Farm A: 305 animals were analysed; 15 E. coli O157 (5% were recovered, 13 were denoted STEC encoding either stx1 and/or stx2 virulence genes and 5 (2% STEC O26 were recovered. One super-shedder was identified shedding STEC O26 (stx1&2. Farm B: 224 animals were analysed; eight E. coli O157 (3.5% were recovered (seven were STEC and 9 (4% STEC O26 were recovered. Three super-shedders were identified, one was shedding STEC O157 (stx2 and two STEC O26 (stx2. Three encoded the adhering and effacement gene (eae and one isolate additionally encoded the haemolysin gene (hlyA. The results of this study show, low numbers of super

  16. Method for the radioimmunoassay of large numbers of samples using quantitative autoradiography of multiple-well plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luner, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    A double antibody assay for thyroxine using 125 I as label was carried out on 10-μl samples in Microtiter V-plates. After an additional centrifugation to compact the precipitates the plates were placed in contact with x-ray film overnight and the spots were scanned. In the 20 to 160 ng/ml range the average coefficient of variation for thyroxine concentration determined on the basis of film spot optical density was 11 percent compared to 4.8 percent obtained using a standard gamma counter. Eliminating the need for each sample to spend on the order of 1 min in a crystal well detector makes the method convenient for large-scale applications involving more than 3000 samples per day

  17. How to implement a quantum algorithm on a large number of qubits by controlling one central qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagoskin, Alexander; Ashhab, Sahel; Johansson, J. R.; Nori, Franco

    2010-03-01

    It is desirable to minimize the number of control parameters needed to perform a quantum algorithm. We show that, under certain conditions, an entire quantum algorithm can be efficiently implemented by controlling a single central qubit in a quantum computer. We also show that the different system parameters do not need to be designed accurately during fabrication. They can be determined through the response of the central qubit to external driving. Our proposal is well suited for hybrid architectures that combine microscopic and macroscopic qubits. More details can be found in: A.M. Zagoskin, S. Ashhab, J.R. Johansson, F. Nori, Quantum two-level systems in Josephson junctions as naturally formed qubits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 077001 (2006); and S. Ashhab, J.R. Johansson, F. Nori, Rabi oscillations in a qubit coupled to a quantum two-level system, New J. Phys. 8, 103 (2006).

  18. DISCOVERY OF A LARGE NUMBER OF CANDIDATE PROTOCLUSTERS TRACED BY ∼15 Mpc-SCALE GALAXY OVERDENSITIES IN COSMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Yi-Kuan; Gebhardt, Karl; Overzier, Roderik

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of studying the epoch of massive galaxy cluster formation in a more systematic manner using current and future galaxy surveys, we report the discovery of a large sample of protocluster candidates in the 1.62 deg 2 COSMOS/UltraVISTA field traced by optical/infrared selected galaxies using photometric redshifts. By comparing properly smoothed three-dimensional galaxy density maps of the observations and a set of matched simulations incorporating the dominant observational effects (galaxy selection and photometric redshift uncertainties), we first confirm that the observed ∼15 comoving Mpc-scale galaxy clustering is consistent with ΛCDM models. Using further the relation between high-z overdensity and the present day cluster mass calibrated in these matched simulations, we found 36 candidate structures at 1.6 < z < 3.1, showing overdensities consistent with the progenitors of M z = 0 ∼ 10 15 M ☉ clusters. Taking into account the significant upward scattering of lower mass structures, the probabilities for the candidates to have at least M z= 0 ∼ 10 14 M ☉ are ∼70%. For each structure, about 15%-40% of photometric galaxy candidates are expected to be true protocluster members that will merge into a cluster-scale halo by z = 0. With solely photometric redshifts, we successfully rediscover two spectroscopically confirmed structures in this field, suggesting that our algorithm is robust. This work generates a large sample of uniformly selected protocluster candidates, providing rich targets for spectroscopic follow-up and subsequent studies of cluster formation. Meanwhile, it demonstrates the potential for probing early cluster formation with upcoming redshift surveys such as the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment and the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph survey

  19. Instability and associated roll structure of Marangoni convection in high Prandtl number liquid bridge with large aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, T.; Nishino, K.; Kawamura, H.; Ueno, I.; Matsumoto, S.

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports the experimental results on the instability and associated roll structures (RSs) of Marangoni convection in liquid bridges formed under the microgravity environment on the International Space Station. The geometry of interest is high aspect ratio (AR = height/diameter ≥ 1.0) liquid bridges of high Prandtl number fluids (Pr = 67 and 207) suspended between coaxial disks heated differentially. The unsteady flow field and associated RSs were revealed with the three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry. It is found that the flow field after the onset of instability exhibits oscillations with azimuthal mode number m = 1 and associated RSs traveling in the axial direction. The RSs travel in the same direction as the surface flow (co-flow direction) for 1.00 ≤ AR ≤ 1.25 while they travel in the opposite direction (counter-flow direction) for AR ≥ 1.50, thus showing the change of traveling directions with AR. This traveling direction for AR ≥ 1.50 is reversed to the co-flow direction when the temperature difference between the disks is increased to the condition far beyond the critical one. This change of traveling directions is accompanied by the increase of the oscillation frequency. The characteristics of the RSs for AR ≥ 1.50, such as the azimuthal mode of oscillation, the dimensionless oscillation frequency, and the traveling direction, are in reasonable agreement with those of the previous sounding rocket experiment for AR = 2.50 and those of the linear stability analysis of an infinite liquid bridge.

  20. Determination of average fission fraction produced by 14 MeV neutrons in assemblies with large volume of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dalun; Li Benci; Wang Xiuchun; Li Yijun; Zhang Shaohua; He Yongwu

    1991-07-01

    The average fission fraction of 238 U caused by 14 MeV neutrons in assemblies with large volume depleted uranium has been determined. The measured value of p f 238U (R ∞ depleted ) 14 was 0.897 ± 0.036. Measurements were also completed for neutron flux distribution and average fission fraction of 235 U isotope in depleted uranium sphere. Values of p f 238U (R depleted ) have been obtained by using a series of uranium spheres. For a sphere with Φ 600 the p f 23 '8 U (R 300 depleted ) is 0.823 ± 0.041, the density of depleted uranium assembly is 18.8g/cm 3 and total weight of assembly is about 2.8t

  1. Temporal trends for dioxins-related agrochemicals in sediments in a large-scale rice-producing area, Niigata, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Mizuki; Hideo, Kajihara [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Science and Technology; Hiroaki, Muto; Yukio, Takahashi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2004-09-15

    Japanese people have historically eaten rice as the main grain constituent in their diet. In the past 50 years, a larger amount of agrochemicals have been applied to Japanese rice fields to increase rice production. Masunaga et al. reported that common Japanese agrochemicals such as pentachlorophenol (PCP) and chloronitrophen (CNP) used in rice fields in the past contain dioxins as impurities. Since Niigata Plain is the largest rice-producing area in Japan, the soil and/or sediment in the lower basin in Niigata Plain could be highly polluted. In the previous study, we measured the age of a sediment core and the amount of dioxins (PCDD/DFs) in Toyano Lagoon and estimated the historical trend and the sources of dioxin. Most of the sources of dioxin in Toyano Lagoon sediment were PCP and CNP. The aims of this work are to quantify the extent, clarify the historical trends of CNP and PCP pollution in the Toyano Lagoon sediment and consider the interrelation between them.

  2. A LARGE NUMBER OF z > 6 GALAXIES AROUND A QSO AT z = 6.43: EVIDENCE FOR A PROTOCLUSTER?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, Yousuke; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Goto, Tomotsugu; Furusawa, Hisanori; Overzier, Roderik

    2010-01-01

    QSOs have been thought to be important for tracing highly biased regions in the early universe, from which the present-day massive galaxies and galaxy clusters formed. While overdensities of star-forming galaxies have been found around QSOs at 2 6 is less clear. Previous studies with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have reported the detection of small excesses of faint dropout galaxies in some QSO fields, but these surveys probed a relatively small region surrounding the QSOs. To overcome this problem, we have observed the most distant QSO at z = 6.4 using the large field of view of the Suprime-Cam (34' x 27'). Newly installed red-sensitive fully depleted CCDs allowed us to select Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z ∼ 6.4 more efficiently. We found seven LBGs in the QSO field, whereas only one exists in a comparison field. The significance of this apparent excess is difficult to quantify without spectroscopic confirmation and additional control fields. The Poisson probability to find seven objects when one expects four is ∼10%, while the probability to find seven objects in one field and only one in the other is less than 0.4%, suggesting that the QSO field is significantly overdense relative to the control field. These conclusions are supported by a comparison with a cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation which includes the higher order clustering of galaxies. We find some evidence that the LBGs are distributed in a ring-like shape centered on the QSO with a radius of ∼3 Mpc. There are no candidate LBGs within 2 Mpc from the QSO, i.e., galaxies are clustered around the QSO but appear to avoid the very center. These results suggest that the QSO is embedded in an overdense region when defined on a sufficiently large scale (i.e., larger than an HST/ACS pointing). This suggests that the QSO was indeed born in a massive halo. The central deficit of galaxies may indicate that (1) the strong UV radiation from the QSO suppressed galaxy formation in

  3. A dynamic response model for pressure sensors in continuum and high Knudsen number flows with large temperature gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Petersen, Brian J.; Scott, David D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic model for pressure sensors in continuum and rarefied flows with longitudinal temperature gradients. The model was developed from the unsteady Navier-Stokes momentum, energy, and continuity equations and was linearized using small perturbations. The energy equation was decoupled from momentum and continuity assuming a polytropic flow process. Rarefied flow conditions were accounted for using a slip flow boundary condition at the tubing wall. The equations were radially averaged and solved assuming gas properties remain constant along a small tubing element. This fundamental solution was used as a building block for arbitrary geometries where fluid properties may also vary longitudinally in the tube. The problem was solved recursively starting at the transducer and working upstream in the tube. Dynamic frequency response tests were performed for continuum flow conditions in the presence of temperature gradients. These tests validated the recursive formulation of the model. Model steady-state behavior was analyzed using the final value theorem. Tests were performed for rarefied flow conditions and compared to the model steady-state response to evaluate the regime of applicability. Model comparisons were excellent for Knudsen numbers up to 0.6. Beyond this point, molecular affects caused model analyses to become inaccurate.

  4. Effect of the Hartmann number on phase separation controlled by magnetic field for binary mixture system with large component ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heping, Wang; Xiaoguang, Li; Duyang, Zang; Rui, Hu; Xingguo, Geng

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents an exploration for phase separation in a magnetic field using a coupled lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The left vertical wall was kept at a constant magnetic field. Simulations were conducted by the strong magnetic field to enhance phase separation and increase the size of separated phases. The focus was on the effect of magnetic intensity by defining the Hartmann number (Ha) on the phase separation properties. The numerical investigation was carried out for different governing parameters, namely Ha and the component ratio of the mixed liquid. The effective morphological evolutions of phase separation in different magnetic fields were demonstrated. The patterns showed that the slant elliptical phases were created by increasing Ha, due to the formation and increase of magnetic torque and force. The dataset was rearranged for growth kinetics of magnetic phase separation in a plot by spherically averaged structure factor and the ratio of separated phases and total system. The results indicate that the increase in Ha can increase the average size of separated phases and accelerate the spinodal decomposition and domain growth stages. Specially for the larger component ratio of mixed phases, the separation degree was also significantly improved by increasing magnetic intensity. These numerical results provide guidance for setting the optimum condition for the phase separation induced by magnetic field.

  5. Thermoelectric and Structural Properties of Zr-/Hf-Based Half-Heusler Compounds Produced at a Large Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillmann, D.; Waag, A.; Peiner, E.; Feyand, M.-H.; Wolyniec, A.

    2018-02-01

    The half-Heusler (HH) systems are promising candidates for thermoelectric (TE) applications since they have shown high figures of merit ( zT) of ˜ 1, which are directly related to the energy conversion efficiency. To use HH compounds for TE devices, the materials must be phase-stable at operating temperatures up to 600°C. Currently, only a few HH compositions are available in large quantities. Hence, we focus on the TE and structural properties of three commercially available Zr-/Hf-based HH compounds in this publication. In particular, we evaluate the thermal conductivities and the figures of merit and critically discuss uncertainties and propagation error in the measurements. We find thermal conductivities of less than 6.0 W K^{-1}m^{-1} for all investigated materials and notably high figures of merit of 0.93 and 0.60 for n- and p-type compounds, respectively, at 600°C. Additionally, our investigations reveal that the grain structures of all materials also contain secondary phases like HfO2, Sn-Ni and Ti-Zr-Sn rich phases while an additional SnO_2 phase was found following several hours of harsh heat treatment at 800°C.

  6. Technology interactions among low-carbon energy technologies: What can we learn from a large number of scenarios?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McJeon, Haewon C.; Clarke, Leon; Kyle, Page; Wise, Marshall; Hackbarth, Andrew; Bryant, Benjamin P.; Lempert, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced low-carbon energy technologies can substantially reduce the cost of stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Understanding the interactions between these technologies and their impact on the costs of stabilization can help inform energy policy decisions. Many previous studies have addressed this challenge by exploring a small number of representative scenarios that represent particular combinations of future technology developments. This paper uses a combinatorial approach in which scenarios are created for all combinations of the technology development assumptions that underlie a smaller, representative set of scenarios. We estimate stabilization costs for 768 runs of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), based on 384 different combinations of assumptions about the future performance of technologies and two stabilization goals. Graphical depiction of the distribution of stabilization costs provides first-order insights about the full data set and individual technologies. We apply a formal scenario discovery method to obtain more nuanced insights about the combinations of technology assumptions most strongly associated with high-cost outcomes. Many of the fundamental insights from traditional representative scenario analysis still hold under this comprehensive combinatorial analysis. For example, the importance of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and the substitution effect among supply technologies are consistently demonstrated. The results also provide more clarity regarding insights not easily demonstrated through representative scenario analysis. For example, they show more clearly how certain supply technologies can provide a hedge against high stabilization costs, and that aggregate end-use efficiency improvements deliver relatively consistent stabilization cost reductions. Furthermore, the results indicate that a lack of CCS options combined with lower technological advances in the buildings sector or the transportation sector is

  7. Method of producing the arched surfaces of diaphragm rings for large containers, especially for prestressed-concrete pressure vessels of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpf, H.

    1976-01-01

    In producing arched surfaces of diaphragm rings for large containers, especially for prestressed-concrete pressure vessels for nuclear power plants, it is of advantage to manufacture these directly on the construction site. According to the invention the, at first level, diaphragm ring is put on the predetermined place, sectionally pressed against and shaped by a shaping tool - with a profiled supporting ring as a counter-acting tool - and afterwards welded together with the annular wall sections of the large container along the shaped parts. The manufacture of single and double configurations of diaphragm rings is described. It is of advantage if shaping and mounting position coincide. (UWI) [de

  8. SVA retrotransposon insertion-associated deletion represents a novel mutational mechanism underlying large genomic copy number changes with non-recurrent breakpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Genomic disorders are caused by copy number changes that may exhibit recurrent breakpoints processed by nonallelic homologous recombination. However, region-specific disease-associated copy number changes have also been observed which exhibit non-recurrent breakpoints. The mechanisms underlying these non-recurrent copy number changes have not yet been fully elucidated. Results We analyze large NF1 deletions with non-recurrent breakpoints as a model to investigate the full spectrum of causative mechanisms, and observe that they are mediated by various DNA double strand break repair mechanisms, as well as aberrant replication. Further, two of the 17 NF1 deletions with non-recurrent breakpoints, identified in unrelated patients, occur in association with the concomitant insertion of SINE/variable number of tandem repeats/Alu (SVA) retrotransposons at the deletion breakpoints. The respective breakpoints are refractory to analysis by standard breakpoint-spanning PCRs and are only identified by means of optimized PCR protocols designed to amplify across GC-rich sequences. The SVA elements are integrated within SUZ12P intron 8 in both patients, and were mediated by target-primed reverse transcription of SVA mRNA intermediates derived from retrotranspositionally active source elements. Both SVA insertions occurred during early postzygotic development and are uniquely associated with large deletions of 1 Mb and 867 kb, respectively, at the insertion sites. Conclusions Since active SVA elements are abundant in the human genome and the retrotranspositional activity of many SVA source elements is high, SVA insertion-associated large genomic deletions encompassing many hundreds of kilobases could constitute a novel and as yet under-appreciated mechanism underlying large-scale copy number changes in the human genome. PMID:24958239

  9. Escape from washing out of baryon number in a two-zero-texture general Zee model compatible with the large mixing angle MSW solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, K.; Lim, C.S.; Ogure, K.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a two-zero-texture general Zee model, compatible with the large mixing angle Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution. The washing out of the baryon number does not occur in this model for an adequate parameter range. We check the consistency of a model with the constraints coming from flavor changing neutral current processes, the recent cosmic microwave background observation, and the Z-burst scenario

  10. Escape from washing out of baryon number in a two-zero-texture general Zee model compatible with the large mixing angle MSW solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, K.; Lim, C. S.; Ogure, K.

    2003-09-01

    We propose a two-zero-texture general Zee model, compatible with the large mixing angle Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution. The washing out of the baryon number does not occur in this model for an adequate parameter range. We check the consistency of a model with the constraints coming from flavor changing neutral current processes, the recent cosmic microwave background observation, and the Z-burst scenario.

  11. Escape from washing out of baryon number in a two-zero-texture general Zee model compatible with the large mixing angle MSW solution

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, K.; Lim, C. S.; Ogure, K.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a two-zero-texture general Zee model, compatible with the large mixing angle Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution. The washing out of the baryon number does not occur in this model for an adequate parameter range. We check the consistency of a model with the constraints coming from flavor changing neutral current processes, the recent cosmic microwave background observation, and the Z-burst scenario.

  12. Utilisation of ISA Reverse Genetics and Large-Scale Random Codon Re-Encoding to Produce Attenuated Strains of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus within Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fabritus, Lauriane; Nougairède, Antoine; Aubry, Fabien; Gould, Ernest A; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale codon re-encoding is a new method of attenuating RNA viruses. However, the use of infectious clones to generate attenuated viruses has inherent technical problems. We previously developed a bacterium-free reverse genetics protocol, designated ISA, and now combined it with large-scale random codon-re-encoding method to produce attenuated tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a pathogenic flavivirus which causes febrile illness and encephalitis in humans. We produced wild-type (WT) and two re-encoded TBEVs, containing 273 or 273+284 synonymous mutations in the NS5 and NS5+NS3 coding regions respectively. Both re-encoded viruses were attenuated when compared with WT virus using a laboratory mouse model and the relative level of attenuation increased with the degree of re-encoding. Moreover, all infected animals produced neutralizing antibodies. This novel, rapid and efficient approach to engineering attenuated viruses could potentially expedite the development of safe and effective new-generation live attenuated vaccines.

  13. Producing Distribution Maps for a Spatially-Explicit Ecosystem Model Using Large Monitoring and Environmental Databases and a Combination of Interpolation and Extrapolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Grüss

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To be able to simulate spatial patterns of predator-prey interactions, many spatially-explicit ecosystem modeling platforms, including Atlantis, need to be provided with distribution maps defining the annual or seasonal spatial distributions of functional groups and life stages. We developed a methodology combining extrapolation and interpolation of the predictions made by statistical habitat models to produce distribution maps for the fish and invertebrates represented in the Atlantis model of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM Large Marine Ecosystem (LME (“Atlantis-GOM”. This methodology consists of: (1 compiling a large monitoring database, gathering all the fisheries-independent and fisheries-dependent data collected in the northern (U.S. GOM since 2000; (2 compiling a large environmental database, storing all the environmental parameters known to influence the spatial distribution patterns of fish and invertebrates of the GOM; (3 fitting binomial generalized additive models (GAMs to the large monitoring and environmental databases, and geostatistical binomial generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs to the large monitoring database; and (4 employing GAM predictions to infer spatial distributions in the southern GOM, and GLMM predictions to infer spatial distributions in the U.S. GOM. Thus, our methodology allows for reasonable extrapolation in the southern GOM based on a large amount of monitoring and environmental data, and for interpolation in the U.S. GOM accurately reflecting the probability of encountering fish and invertebrates in that region. We used an iterative cross-validation procedure to validate GAMs. When a GAM did not pass the validation test, we employed a GAM for a related functional group/life stage to generate distribution maps for the southern GOM. In addition, no geostatistical GLMMs were fit for the functional groups and life stages whose depth, longitudinal and latitudinal ranges within the U.S. GOM are not entirely covered by

  14. Identification and safety evaluation of Bacillus species occurring in high numbers during spontaneous fermentations to produce Gergoush, a traditional Sudanese bread snack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Abdelgadir, Warda S.; Rønsbo, Mie Hvillum

    2011-01-01

    Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200°C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed at a trad......Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200°C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed...

  15. How much can the number of jabiru stork (Ciconiidae nests vary due to change of flood extension in a large Neotropical floodplain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Mourão

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The jabiru stork, Jabiru mycteria (Lichtenstein, 1819, a large, long-legged wading bird occurring in lowland wetlands from southern Mexico to northern Argentina, is considered endangered in a large portion of its distribution range. We conducted aerial surveys to estimate the number of jabiru active nests in the Brazilian Pantanal (140,000 km² in September of 1991-1993, 1998, 2000-2002, and 2004. Corrected densities of active nests were regressed against the annual hydrologic index (AHI, an index of flood extension in the Pantanal based on the water level of the Paraguay River. Annual nest density was a non-linear function of the AHI, modeled by the equation 6.5 · 10-8 · AHI1.99 (corrected r² = 0.72, n = 7. We applied this model to the AHI between 1900 and 2004. The results indicate that the number of jabiru nests may have varied from about 220 in 1971 to more than 23,000 in the nesting season of 1921, and the estimates for our study period (1991 to 2004 averaged about 12,400 nests. Our model indicates that the inter-annual variations in flooding extent can determine dramatic changes in the number of active jabiru nests. Since the jabiru stork responds negatively to drier conditions in the Pantanal, direct human-induced changes in the hydrological patterns, as well as the effects of global climate change, may strongly jeopardize the population in the region.

  16. Modelling of natural convection flows with large temperature differences: a benchmark problem for low Mach number solvers. Part. 1 reference solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Quere, P.; Weisman, C.; Paillere, H.; Vierendeels, J.; Dick, E.; Becker, R.; Braack, M.; Locke, J.

    2005-01-01

    Heat transfer by natural convection and conduction in enclosures occurs in numerous practical situations including the cooling of nuclear reactors. For large temperature difference, the flow becomes compressible with a strong coupling between the continuity, the momentum and the energy equations through the equation of state, and its properties (viscosity, heat conductivity) also vary with the temperature, making the Boussinesq flow approximation inappropriate and inaccurate. There are very few reference solutions in the literature on non-Boussinesq natural convection flows. We propose here a test case problem which extends the well-known De Vahl Davis differentially heated square cavity problem to the case of large temperature differences for which the Boussinesq approximation is no longer valid. The paper is split in two parts: in this first part, we propose as yet unpublished reference solutions for cases characterized by a non-dimensional temperature difference of 0.6, Ra 10 6 (constant property and variable property cases) and Ra = 10 7 (variable property case). These reference solutions were produced after a first international workshop organized by Cea and LIMSI in January 2000, in which the above authors volunteered to produce accurate numerical solutions from which the present reference solutions could be established. (authors)

  17. Aerodynamic Effects of High Turbulence Intensity on a Variable-Speed Power-Turbine Blade With Large Incidence and Reynolds Number Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of high inlet turbulence intensity on the aerodynamic performance of a variable speed power turbine blade are examined over large incidence and Reynolds number ranges. These results are compared to previous measurements made in a low turbulence environment. Both high and low turbulence studies were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The purpose of the low inlet turbulence study was to examine the transitional flow effects that are anticipated at cruise Reynolds numbers. The current study extends this to LPT-relevant turbulence levels while perhaps sacrificing transitional flow effects. Assessing the effects of turbulence at these large incidence and Reynolds number variations complements the existing database. Downstream total pressure and exit angle data were acquired for 10 incidence angles ranging from +15.8deg to -51.0deg. For each incidence angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with the exit Reynolds number ranging from 2.12×10(exp 5) to 2.12×10(exp 6) and at a design exit Mach number of 0.72. In order to achieve the lowest Reynolds number, the exit Mach number was reduced to 0.35 due to facility constraints. The inlet turbulence intensity, Tu, was measured using a single-wire hotwire located 0.415 axial-chord upstream of the blade row. The inlet turbulence levels ranged from 8 to 15 percent for the current study. Tu measurements were also made farther upstream so that turbulence decay rates could be calculated as needed for computational inlet boundary conditions. Downstream flow field measurements were obtained using a pneumatic five-hole pitch/yaw probe located in a survey plane 7 percent axial chord aft of the blade trailing edge and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressures were acquired for each flow condition as well. The blade loading data show that the suction surface separation that was evident at many of the low Tu conditions has been eliminated. At

  18. Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for incompressible miscible flow with large viscosity ratio and high Péclet number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xuhui; Guo, Zhaoli

    2015-10-01

    A lattice Boltzmann model with a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operator is proposed for incompressible miscible flow with a large viscosity ratio as well as a high Péclet number in this paper. The equilibria in the present model are motivated by the lattice kinetic scheme previously developed by Inamuro et al. [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 360, 477 (2002), 10.1098/rsta.2001.0942]. The fluid viscosity and diffusion coefficient depend on both the corresponding relaxation times and additional adjustable parameters in this model. As a result, the corresponding relaxation times can be adjusted in proper ranges to enhance the performance of the model. Numerical validations of the Poiseuille flow and a diffusion-reaction problem demonstrate that the proposed model has second-order accuracy in space. Thereafter, the model is used to simulate flow through a porous medium, and the results show that the proposed model has the advantage to obtain a viscosity-independent permeability, which makes it a robust method for simulating flow in porous media. Finally, a set of simulations are conducted on the viscous miscible displacement between two parallel plates. The results reveal that the present model can be used to simulate, to a high level of accuracy, flows with large viscosity ratios and/or high Péclet numbers. Moreover, the present model is shown to provide superior stability in the limit of high kinematic viscosity. In summary, the numerical results indicate that the present lattice Boltzmann model is an ideal numerical tool for simulating flow with a large viscosity ratio and/or a high Péclet number.

  19. Influence of Extrinsic Information Scaling Coefficient on Double-Iterative Decoding Algorithm for Space-Time Turbo Codes with Large Number of Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIFINA, L.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the extrinsic information scaling coefficient influence on double-iterative decoding algorithm for space-time turbo codes with large number of antennas. The max-log-APP algorithm is used, scaling both the extrinsic information in the turbo decoder and the one used at the input of the interference-canceling block. Scaling coefficients of 0.7 or 0.75 lead to a 0.5 dB coding gain compared to the no-scaling case, for one or more iterations to cancel the spatial interferences.

  20. Dogs Have the Most Neurons, Though Not the Largest Brain: Trade-Off between Body Mass and Number of Neurons in the Cerebral Cortex of Large Carnivoran Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Jardim-Messeder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Carnivorans are a diverse group of mammals that includes carnivorous, omnivorous and herbivorous, domesticated and wild species, with a large range of brain sizes. Carnivory is one of several factors expected to be cognitively demanding for carnivorans due to a requirement to outsmart larger prey. On the other hand, large carnivoran species have high hunting costs and unreliable feeding patterns, which, given the high metabolic cost of brain neurons, might put them at risk of metabolic constraints regarding how many brain neurons they can afford, especially in the cerebral cortex. For a given cortical size, do carnivoran species have more cortical neurons than the herbivorous species they prey upon? We find they do not; carnivorans (cat, mongoose, dog, hyena, lion share with non-primates, including artiodactyls (the typical prey of large carnivorans, roughly the same relationship between cortical mass and number of neurons, which suggests that carnivorans are subject to the same evolutionary scaling rules as other non-primate clades. However, there are a few important exceptions. Carnivorans stand out in that the usual relationship between larger body, larger cortical mass and larger number of cortical neurons only applies to small and medium-sized species, and not beyond dogs: we find that the golden retriever dog has more cortical neurons than the striped hyena, African lion and even brown bear, even though the latter species have up to three times larger cortices than dogs. Remarkably, the brown bear cerebral cortex, the largest examined, only has as many neurons as the ten times smaller cat cerebral cortex, although it does have the expected ten times as many non-neuronal cells in the cerebral cortex compared to the cat. We also find that raccoons have dog-like numbers of neurons in their cat-sized brain, which makes them comparable to primates in neuronal density. Comparison of domestic and wild species suggests that the neuronal

  1. Enhancement of phase space density by increasing trap anisotropy in a magneto-optical trap with a large number of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengalattore, M.; Conroy, R.S.; Prentiss, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    The phase space density of dense, cylindrical clouds of atoms in a 2D magneto-optic trap is investigated. For a large number of trapped atoms (>10 8 ), the density of a spherical cloud is limited by photon reabsorption. However, as the atom cloud is deformed to reduce the radial optical density, the temperature of the atoms decreases due to the suppression of multiple scattering leading to an increase in the phase space density. A density of 2x10 -4 has been achieved in a magneto-optic trap containing 2x10 8 atoms

  2. Timoides agassizii Bigelow, 1904, little-known hydromedusa (Cnidaria), appears briefly in large numbers off Oman, March 2011, with additional notes about species of the genus Timoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushothaman, Jasmine; Kharusi, Lubna Al; Mills, Claudia E; Ghielani, Hamed; Marzouki, Mohammad Al

    2013-12-11

    A bloom of the hydromedusan jellyfish, Timoides agassizii, occurred in February 2011 off the coast of Sohar, Al Batinah, Sultanate of Oman, in the Gulf of Oman. This species was first observed in 1902 in great numbers off Haddummati Atoll in the Maldive Islands in the Indian Ocean and has rarely been seen since. The species appeared briefly in large numbers off Oman in 2011 and subsequent observation of our 2009 samples of zooplankton from Sohar revealed that it was also present in low numbers (two collected) in one sample in 2009; these are the first records in the Indian Ocean north of the Maldives. Medusae collected off Oman were almost identical to those recorded previously from the Maldive Islands, Papua New Guinea, the Marshall Islands, Guam, the South China Sea, and Okinawa. T. agassizii is a species that likely lives for several months. It was present in our plankton samples together with large numbers of the oceanic siphonophore Physalia physalis only during a single month's samples, suggesting that the temporary bloom off Oman was likely due to the arrival of mature, open ocean medusae into nearshore waters. We see no evidence that T. agassizii has established a new population along Oman, since if so, it would likely have been present in more than one sample period. We are unable to deduce further details of the life cycle of this species from blooms of many mature individuals nearshore, about a century apart. Examination of a single damaged T. agassizii medusa from Guam, calls into question the existence of its congener, T. latistyla, known only from a single specimen.

  3. Detachable strong cation exchange monolith, integrated with capillary zone electrophoresis and coupled with pH gradient elution, produces improved sensitivity and numbers of peptide identifications during bottom-up analysis of complex proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenbin; Yan, Xiaojing; Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Dovichi, Norman J

    2015-04-21

    A detachable sulfonate-silica hybrid strong cation-exchange monolith was synthesized in a fused silica capillary, and used for solid phase extraction with online pH gradient elution during capillary zone electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CZE-MS/MS) proteomic analysis. Tryptic digests were prepared in 50 mM formic acid and loaded onto the strong cation-exchange monolith. Fractions were eluted using a series of buffers with lower concentration but higher pH values than the 50 mM formic acid background electrolyte. This combination of elution and background electrolytes results in both sample stacking and formation of a dynamic pH junction and allows use of relatively large elution buffer volumes while maintaining reasonable peak efficiency and resolution. A series of five pH bumps were applied to elute E. coli tryptic peptides from the monolith, followed by analysis using CZE coupled to an LTQ-Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer; 799 protein groups and 3381 peptides were identified from 50 ng of the digest in a 2.5 h analysis, which approaches the identification rate for this organism that was obtained with an Orbitrap Fusion. We attribute the improved numbers of peptide and protein identifications to the efficient fractionation by the online pH gradient elution, which decreased the complexity of the sample in each elution step and improved the signal intensity of low abundance peptides. We also performed a comparative analysis using a nanoACQUITY UltraPerformance LCH system. Similar numbers of protein and peptide identifications were produced by the two methods. Protein identifications showed significant overlap between the two methods, whereas peptide identifications were complementary.

  4. SU-E-T-230: Creating a Large Number of Focused Beams with Variable Patient Head Tilt to Improve Dose Fall-Off for Brain Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, J; Ma, L [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a treatment delivery and planning strategy by increasing the number of beams to minimize dose to brain tissue surrounding a target, while maximizing dose coverage to the target. Methods: We analyzed 14 different treatment plans via Leksell PFX and 4C. For standardization, single tumor cases were chosen. Original treatment plans were compared with two optimized plans. The number of beams was increased in treatment plans by varying tilt angles of the patient head, while maintaining original isocenter and the beam positions in the x-, y- and z-axes, collimator size, and beam blocking. PFX optimized plans increased beam numbers with three pre-set tilt angles, 70, 90, 110, and 4C optimized plans increased beam numbers with tilt angles increasing arbitrarily from range of 30 to 150 degrees. Optimized treatment plans were compared dosimetrically with original treatment plans. Results: Comparing total normal tissue isodose volumes between original and optimized plans, the low-level percentage isodose volumes decreased in all plans. Despite the addition of multiple beams up to a factor of 25, beam-on times for 1 tilt angle versus 3 or more tilt angles were comparable (<1 min.). In 64% (9/14) of the studied cases, the volume percentage decrease by >5%, with the highest value reaching 19%. The addition of more tilt angles correlates to a greater decrease in normal brain irradiated volume. Selectivity and coverage for original and optimized plans remained comparable. Conclusion: Adding large number of additional focused beams with variable patient head tilt shows improvement for dose fall-off for brain radiosurgery. The study demonstrates technical feasibility of adding beams to decrease target volume.

  5. SU-E-T-230: Creating a Large Number of Focused Beams with Variable Patient Head Tilt to Improve Dose Fall-Off for Brain Radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, J; Ma, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a treatment delivery and planning strategy by increasing the number of beams to minimize dose to brain tissue surrounding a target, while maximizing dose coverage to the target. Methods: We analyzed 14 different treatment plans via Leksell PFX and 4C. For standardization, single tumor cases were chosen. Original treatment plans were compared with two optimized plans. The number of beams was increased in treatment plans by varying tilt angles of the patient head, while maintaining original isocenter and the beam positions in the x-, y- and z-axes, collimator size, and beam blocking. PFX optimized plans increased beam numbers with three pre-set tilt angles, 70, 90, 110, and 4C optimized plans increased beam numbers with tilt angles increasing arbitrarily from range of 30 to 150 degrees. Optimized treatment plans were compared dosimetrically with original treatment plans. Results: Comparing total normal tissue isodose volumes between original and optimized plans, the low-level percentage isodose volumes decreased in all plans. Despite the addition of multiple beams up to a factor of 25, beam-on times for 1 tilt angle versus 3 or more tilt angles were comparable (<1 min.). In 64% (9/14) of the studied cases, the volume percentage decrease by >5%, with the highest value reaching 19%. The addition of more tilt angles correlates to a greater decrease in normal brain irradiated volume. Selectivity and coverage for original and optimized plans remained comparable. Conclusion: Adding large number of additional focused beams with variable patient head tilt shows improvement for dose fall-off for brain radiosurgery. The study demonstrates technical feasibility of adding beams to decrease target volume

  6. Global repeat discovery and estimation of genomic copy number in a large, complex genome using a high-throughput 454 sequence survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varala Kranthi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive computational and database tools are available to mine genomic and genetic databases for model organisms, but little genomic data is available for many species of ecological or agricultural significance, especially those with large genomes. Genome surveys using conventional sequencing techniques are powerful, particularly for detecting sequences present in many copies per genome. However these methods are time-consuming and have potential drawbacks. High throughput 454 sequencing provides an alternative method by which much information can be gained quickly and cheaply from high-coverage surveys of genomic DNA. Results We sequenced 78 million base-pairs of randomly sheared soybean DNA which passed our quality criteria. Computational analysis of the survey sequences provided global information on the abundant repetitive sequences in soybean. The sequence was used to determine the copy number across regions of large genomic clones or contigs and discover higher-order structures within satellite repeats. We have created an annotated, online database of sequences present in multiple copies in the soybean genome. The low bias of pyrosequencing against repeat sequences is demonstrated by the overall composition of the survey data, which matches well with past estimates of repetitive DNA content obtained by DNA re-association kinetics (Cot analysis. Conclusion This approach provides a potential aid to conventional or shotgun genome assembly, by allowing rapid assessment of copy number in any clone or clone-end sequence. In addition, we show that partial sequencing can provide access to partial protein-coding sequences.

  7. Use of Two-Body Correlated Basis Functions with van der Waals Interaction to Study the Shape-Independent Approximation for a Large Number of Trapped Interacting Bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekala, M. L.; Chakrabarti, B.; Das, T. K.; Rampho, G. J.; Sofianos, S. A.; Adam, R. M.; Haldar, S. K.

    2017-05-01

    We study the ground-state and the low-lying excitations of a trapped Bose gas in an isotropic harmonic potential for very small (˜ 3) to very large (˜ 10^7) particle numbers. We use the two-body correlated basis functions and the shape-dependent van der Waals interaction in our many-body calculations. We present an exhaustive study of the effect of inter-atomic correlations and the accuracy of the mean-field equations considering a wide range of particle numbers. We calculate the ground-state energy and the one-body density for different values of the van der Waals parameter C6. We compare our results with those of the modified Gross-Pitaevskii results, the correlated Hartree hypernetted-chain equations (which also utilize the two-body correlated basis functions), as well as of the diffusion Monte Carlo for hard sphere interactions. We observe the effect of the attractive tail of the van der Waals potential in the calculations of the one-body density over the truly repulsive zero-range potential as used in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and discuss the finite-size effects. We also present the low-lying collective excitations which are well described by a hydrodynamic model in the large particle limit.

  8. Evaluation of list-mode ordered subset expectation maximization image reconstruction for pixelated solid-state compton gamma camera with large number of channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstein, M.; De Lorenzo, G.; Chmeissani, M.

    2014-04-01

    The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) Pathfinder project intends to show the advantages of using pixelated solid-state technology for nuclear medicine applications. It proposes designs for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) and Compton gamma camera detectors with a large number of signal channels (of the order of 106). For Compton camera, especially with a large number of readout channels, image reconstruction presents a big challenge. In this work, results are presented for the List-Mode Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (LM-OSEM) image reconstruction algorithm on simulated data with the VIP Compton camera design. For the simulation, all realistic contributions to the spatial resolution are taken into account, including the Doppler broadening effect. The results show that even with a straightforward implementation of LM-OSEM, good images can be obtained for the proposed Compton camera design. Results are shown for various phantoms, including extended sources and with a distance between the field of view and the first detector plane equal to 100 mm which corresponds to a realistic nuclear medicine environment.

  9. Comparative efficacy of tulathromycin versus a combination of florfenicol-oxytetracycline in the treatment of undifferentiated respiratory disease in large numbers of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Champour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of tulathromycin (TUL with a combination of florfenicol (FFC and long-acting oxytetracycline (LAOTC in the treatment of naturally occurring undifferentiated respiratory diseases in large numbers of sheep. In this study, seven natural outbreaks of sheep pneumonia in Garmsar, Iran were considered. From these outbreaks, 400 sheep exhibiting the signs of respiratory diseases were selected, and the sheep were randomly divided into two equal groups. The first group was treated with a single injection of TUL (dosed at 2.5 mg/kg body weight, and the second group was treated with concurrent injections of FFC (dosed at 40 mg/kg bwt and LAOTC (dosed at 20 mg/kg bwt. In the first group, 186 (93% sheep were found to be cured 5 days after the injection, and 14 (7% sheep needed further treatment, of which 6 (3% were cured, and 8 (4% died. In the second group, 172 (86% sheep were cured after the injections, but 28 (14% sheep needed further treatment, of which 10 (5% were cured, and 18 (9% died. This study revealed that TUL was more efficacious as compared to the combined treatment using FFC and LAOTC. As the first report, this field trial describes the successful treatment of undifferentiated respiratory diseases in large numbers of sheep. Thus, TUL can be used for the treatment of undifferentiated respiratory diseases in sheep. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 279-284

  10. On the Required Number of Antennas in a Point-to-Point Large-but-Finite MIMO System: Outage-Limited Scenario

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2016-03-22

    This paper investigates the performance of the point-To-point multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems in the presence of a large but finite numbers of antennas at the transmitters and/or receivers. Considering the cases with and without hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) feedback, we determine the minimum numbers of the transmit/receive antennas, which are required to satisfy different outage probability constraints. Our results are obtained for different fading conditions and the effect of the power amplifiers efficiency/feedback error probability on the performance of the MIMO-HARQ systems is analyzed. Then, we use some recent results on the achievable rates of finite block-length codes, to analyze the effect of the codewords lengths on the system performance. Moreover, we derive closed-form expressions for the asymptotic performance of the MIMO-HARQ systems when the number of antennas increases. Our analytical and numerical results show that different outage requirements can be satisfied with relatively few transmit/receive antennas. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

  11. High Frequency Design Considerations for the Large Detector Number and Small Form Factor Dual Electron Spectrometer of the Fast Plasma Investigation on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawski, Joseph T.; Gliese, Ulrik B.; Cao, N. T.; Zeuch, M. A.; White, D.; Chornay, D. J; Lobell, J. V.; Avanov, L. A.; Barrie, A. C.; Mariano, A. J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Each half of the Dual Electron Spectrometer (DES) of the Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) on NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission utilizes a microchannel plate Chevron stack feeding 16 separate detection channels each with a dedicated anode and amplifier/discriminator chip. The desire to detect events on a single channel with a temporal spacing of 100 ns and a fixed dead-time drove our decision to use an amplifier/discriminator with a very fast (GHz class) front end. Since the inherent frequency response of each pulse in the output of the DES microchannel plate system also has frequency components above a GHz, this produced a number of design constraints not normally expected in electronic systems operating at peak speeds of 10 MHz. Additional constraints are imposed by the geometry of the instrument requiring all 16 channels along with each anode and amplifier/discriminator to be packaged in a relatively small space. We developed an electrical model for board level interactions between the detector channels to allow us to design a board topology which gave us the best detection sensitivity and lowest channel to channel crosstalk. The amplifier/discriminator output was designed to prevent the outputs from one channel from producing triggers on the inputs of other channels. A number of Radio Frequency design techniques were then applied to prevent signals from other subsystems (e.g. the high voltage power supply, command and data handling board, and Ultraviolet stimulation for the MCP) from generating false events. These techniques enabled us to operate the board at its highest sensitivity when operated in isolation and at very high sensitivity when placed into the overall system.

  12. Use of Aerial high resolution visible imagery to produce large river bathymetry: a multi temporal and spatial study over the by-passed Upper Rhine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béal, D.; Piégay, H.; Arnaud, F.; Rollet, A.; Schmitt, L.

    2011-12-01

    Aerial high resolution visible imagery allows producing large river bathymetry assuming that water depth is related to water colour (Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law). In this paper we aim at monitoring Rhine River geometry changes for a diachronic study as well as sediment transport after an artificial injection (25.000 m3 restoration operation). For that a consequent data base of ground measurements of river depth is used, built on 3 different sources: (i) differential GPS acquisitions, (ii) sounder data and (iii) lateral profiles realized by experts. Water depth is estimated using a multi linear regression over neo channels built on a principal component analysis over red, green and blue bands and previously cited depth data. The study site is a 12 km long reach of the by-passed section of the Rhine River that draws French and German border. This section has been heavily impacted by engineering works during the last two centuries: channelization since 1842 for navigation purposes and the construction of a 45 km long lateral canal and 4 consecutive hydroelectric power plants of since 1932. Several bathymetric models are produced based on 3 different spatial resolutions (6, 13 and 20 cm) and 5 acquisitions (January, March, April, August and October) since 2008. Objectives are to find the optimal spatial resolution and to characterize seasonal effects. Best performances according to the 13 cm resolution show a 18 cm accuracy when suspended matters impacted less water transparency. Discussions are oriented to the monitoring of the artificial reload after 2 flood events during winter 2010-2011. Bathymetric models produced are also useful to build 2D hydraulic model's mesh.

  13. Long-term changes in nutrients and mussel stocks are related to numbers of breeding eiders Somateria mollissima at a large Baltic colony.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Laursen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Baltic/Wadden Sea eider Somateria mollissima flyway population is decreasing, and this trend is also reflected in the large eider colony at Christiansø situated in the Baltic Sea. This colony showed a 15-fold increase from 1925 until the mid-1990's, followed by a rapid decline in recent years, although the causes of this trend remain unknown. Most birds from the colony winter in the Wadden Sea, from which environmental data and information on the size of the main diet, the mussel Mytilus edulis stock exists. We hypothesised that changes in nutrients and water temperature in the Wadden Sea had an effect on the ecosystem affecting the size of mussel stocks, the principal food item for eiders, thereby influencing the number of breeding eider in the Christiansø colony. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: A positive relationship between the amount of fertilizer used by farmers and the concentration of phosphorus in the Wadden Sea (with a time lag of one year allowed analysis of the predictions concerning effects of nutrients for the period 1925-2010. There was (1 increasing amounts of fertilizer used in agriculture and this increased the amount of nutrients in the marine environment thereby increasing the mussel stocks in the Wadden Sea. (2 The number of eiders at Christiansø increased when the amount of fertilizer increased. Finally (3 the number of eiders in the colony at Christiansø increased with the amount of mussel stocks in the Wadden Sea. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The trend in the number of eiders at Christiansø is representative for the entire flyway population, and since nutrient reduction in the marine environment occurs in most parts of Northwest Europe, we hypothesize that this environmental candidate parameter is involved in the overall regulation of the Baltic/Wadden Sea eider population during recent decades.

  14. Aerodynamic Effects of Turbulence Intensity on a Variable-Speed Power-Turbine Blade with Large Incidence and Reynolds Number Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie Brynn; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of inlet turbulence intensity on the aerodynamic performance of a variable speed power turbine blade are examined over large incidence and Reynolds number ranges. Both high and low turbulence studies were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The purpose of the low inlet turbulence study was to examine the transitional flow effects that are anticipated at cruise Reynolds numbers. The high turbulence study extends this to LPT-relevant turbulence levels while perhaps sacrificing transitional flow effects. Downstream total pressure and exit angle data were acquired for ten incidence angles ranging from +15.8 to 51.0. For each incidence angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with the exit Reynolds number ranging from 2.12105 to 2.12106 and at a design exit Mach number of 0.72. In order to achieve the lowest Reynolds number, the exit Mach number was reduced to 0.35 due to facility constraints. The inlet turbulence intensity, Tu, was measured using a single-wire hotwire located 0.415 axial-chord upstream of the blade row. The inlet turbulence levels ranged from 0.25 - 0.4 for the low Tu tests and 8- 15 for the high Tu study. Tu measurements were also made farther upstream so that turbulence decay rates could be calculated as needed for computational inlet boundary conditions. Downstream flow field measurements were obtained using a pneumatic five-hole pitchyaw probe located in a survey plane 7 axial chord aft of the blade trailing edge and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressures were acquired for each flow condition as well. The blade loading data show that the suction surface separation that was evident at many of the low Tu conditions has been eliminated. At the extreme positive and negative incidence angles, the data show substantial differences in the exit flow field. These differences are attributable to both the higher inlet Tu directly and to the thinner inlet endwall

  15. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yang Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and carbonyl compounds (CCs in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins. Time was found to affect the emissions of the contaminants in the coaches. Except for benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzene, the highest in-vehicle concentrations of VOCs and CCs were observed on the 15th day after coming off the assembly line, and the concentrations exhibited an approximately inverted U-shaped pattern as a function of time. Interestingly, this study also showed that the interior temperature of the coaches significantly affected the VOCs emissions from the interior materials, whereas the levels of CCs were mainly influenced by the relative humidity within the coaches. In China, guidelines and regulations for the in-vehicle air quality assessment of the coaches have not yet been issued. The results of this study provide further understanding of the in-vehicle air quality of air-conditioned coaches and can be used in the development of both specific and general rules regarding medium- and large-size coaches.

  16. DNA fingerprinting of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli O157 based on Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeats Analysis (MLVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardund Traute

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to react early to possible outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and to trace possible sources relies on the availability of highly discriminatory and reliable techniques. The development of methods that are fast and has the potential for complete automation is needed for this important pathogen. Methods In all 73 isolates of shiga-toxin producing E. coli O157 (STEC were used in this study. The two available fully sequenced STEC genomes were scanned for tandem repeated stretches of DNA, which were evaluated as polymorphic markers for isolate identification. Results The 73 E. coli isolates displayed 47 distinct patterns and the MLVA assay was capable of high discrimination between the E. coli O157 strains. The assay was fast and all the steps can be automated. Conclusion The findings demonstrate a novel high discriminatory molecular typing method for the important pathogen E. coli O157 that is fast, robust and offers many advantages compared to current methods.

  17. A large scale survey reveals that chromosomal copy-number alterations significantly affect gene modules involved in cancer initiation and progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigudosa Juan C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent observations point towards the existence of a large number of neighborhoods composed of functionally-related gene modules that lie together in the genome. This local component in the distribution of the functionality across chromosomes is probably affecting the own chromosomal architecture by limiting the possibilities in which genes can be arranged and distributed across the genome. As a direct consequence of this fact it is therefore presumable that diseases such as cancer, harboring DNA copy number alterations (CNAs, will have a symptomatology strongly dependent on modules of functionally-related genes rather than on a unique "important" gene. Methods We carried out a systematic analysis of more than 140,000 observations of CNAs in cancers and searched by enrichments in gene functional modules associated to high frequencies of loss or gains. Results The analysis of CNAs in cancers clearly demonstrates the existence of a significant pattern of loss of gene modules functionally related to cancer initiation and progression along with the amplification of modules of genes related to unspecific defense against xenobiotics (probably chemotherapeutical agents. With the extension of this analysis to an Array-CGH dataset (glioblastomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas we demonstrate the validity of this approach to investigate the functional impact of CNAs. Conclusions The presented results indicate promising clinical and therapeutic implications. Our findings also directly point out to the necessity of adopting a function-centric, rather a gene-centric, view in the understanding of phenotypes or diseases harboring CNAs.

  18. Three-Dimensional Interaction of a Large Number of Dense DEP Particles on a Plane Perpendicular to an AC Electrical Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanchuan Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of dielectrophoresis (DEP particles in an electric field has been observed in many experiments, known as the “particle chains phenomenon”. However, the study in 3D models (spherical particles is rarely reported due to its complexity and significant computational cost. In this paper, we employed the iterative dipole moment (IDM method to study the 3D interaction of a large number of dense DEP particles randomly distributed on a plane perpendicular to a uniform alternating current (AC electric field in a bounded or unbounded space. The numerical results indicated that the particles cannot move out of the initial plane. The similar particles (either all positive or all negative DEP particles always repelled each other, and did not form a chain. The dissimilar particles (a mixture of positive and negative DEP particles always attracted each other, and formed particle chains consisting of alternately arranged positive and negative DEP particles. The particle chain patterns can be randomly multitudinous depending on the initial particle distribution, the electric properties of particles/fluid, the particle sizes and the number of particles. It is also found that the particle chain patterns can be effectively manipulated via tuning the frequency of the AC field and an almost uniform distribution of particles in a bounded plane chip can be achieved when all of the particles are similar, which may have potential applications in the particle manipulation of microfluidics.

  19. CD3+/CD16+CD56+ cell numbers in peripheral blood are correlated with higher tumor burden in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Twardosz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the commonest histological type of malignant lymphoma, andremains incurable in many cases. Developing more efficient immunotherapy strategies will require betterunderstanding of the disorders of immune responses in cancer patients. NKT (natural killer-like T cells wereoriginally described as a unique population of T cells with the co-expression of NK cell markers. Apart fromtheir role in protecting against microbial pathogens and controlling autoimmune diseases, NKT cells havebeen recently revealed as one of the key players in the immune responses against tumors. The objective of thisstudy was to evaluate the frequency of CD3+/CD16+CD56+ cells in the peripheral blood of 28 diffuse largeB-cell lymphoma (DLBCL patients in correlation with clinical and laboratory parameters. Median percentagesof CD3+/CD16+CD56+ were significantly lower in patients with DLBCL compared to healthy donors(7.37% vs. 9.01%, p = 0.01; 4.60% vs. 5.81%, p = 0.03, although there were no differences in absolute counts.The frequency and the absolute numbers of CD3+/CD16+CD56+ cells were lower in advanced clinical stagesthan in earlier ones. The median percentage of CD3+/CD16+CD56+ cells in patients in Ann Arbor stages 1–2 was5.55% vs. 3.15% in stages 3–4 (p = 0.02, with median absolute counts respectively 0.26 G/L vs. 0.41 G/L (p == 0.02. The percentage and absolute numbers of CD3+/CD16+CD56+ cells were significantly higher in DL-BCL patients without B-symptoms compared to the patients with B-symptoms, (5.51% vs. 2.46%, p = 0.04;0.21 G/L vs. 0.44 G/L, p = 0.04. The percentage of CD3+/CD16+CD56+ cells correlated adversely with serumlactate dehydrogenase (R= –445; p < 0.05 which might influence NKT count. These figures suggest a relationshipbetween higher tumor burden and more aggressive disease and decreased NKT numbers. But it remains tobe explained whether low NKT cell counts in the peripheral blood of patients with DLBCL are the result

  20. Characterization of anti-P monoclonal antibodies directed against the ribosomal protein-RNA complex antigen and produced using Murphy Roths large autoimmune-prone mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H; Onozuka, M; Hagiya, A; Hoshino, S; Narita, I; Uchiumi, T

    2015-02-01

    Autoantibodies, including anti-ribosomal P proteins (anti-P), are thought to be produced by an antigen-driven immune response in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To test this hypothesis, we reconstituted the ribosomal antigenic complex in vitro using human P0, phosphorylated P1 and P2 and a 28S rRNA fragment covering the P0 binding site, and immunized Murphy Roths large (MRL)/lrp lupus mice with this complex without any added adjuvant to generate anti-P antibodies. Using hybridoma technology, we subsequently obtained 34 clones, each producing an anti-P monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognized the conserved C-terminal tail sequence common to all three P proteins. We also obtained two P0-specific monoclonal antibodies, but no antibody specific to P1, P2 or rRNA fragment. Two types of mAbs were found among these anti-P antibodies: one type (e.g. 9D5) reacted more strongly with the phosphorylated P1 and P2 than that with their non-phosphorylated forms, whereas the other type (e.g. 4H11) reacted equally with both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of P1/P2. Both 9D5 and 4H11 inhibited the ribosome/eukaryotic elongation factor-2 (eEF-2)-coupled guanosine triphosphate (GTP)ase activity. However, preincubation with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminal sequence common to all three P proteins, but not the peptide that lacked the last three C-terminal amino acids, mostly prevented the mAb-induced inhibition of GTPase activity. Thus, at least two types of anti-P were produced preferentially following the immunization of MRL mice with the reconstituted antigenic complex. Presence of multiple copies of the C-termini, particularly that of the last three C-terminal amino acid residues, in the antigenic complex appears to contribute to the immunogenic stimulus. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  1. Characterization of anti-P monoclonal antibodies directed against the ribosomal protein–RNA complex antigen and produced using Murphy Roths large autoimmune-prone mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H; Onozuka, M; Hagiya, A; Hoshino, S; Narita, I; Uchiumi, T

    2015-01-01

    Autoantibodies, including anti-ribosomal P proteins (anti-P), are thought to be produced by an antigen-driven immune response in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To test this hypothesis, we reconstituted the ribosomal antigenic complex in vitro using human P0, phosphorylated P1 and P2 and a 28S rRNA fragment covering the P0 binding site, and immunized Murphy Roths large (MRL)/lrp lupus mice with this complex without any added adjuvant to generate anti-P antibodies. Using hybridoma technology, we subsequently obtained 34 clones, each producing an anti-P monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognized the conserved C-terminal tail sequence common to all three P proteins. We also obtained two P0-specific monoclonal antibodies, but no antibody specific to P1, P2 or rRNA fragment. Two types of mAbs were found among these anti-P antibodies: one type (e.g. 9D5) reacted more strongly with the phosphorylated P1 and P2 than that with their non-phosphorylated forms, whereas the other type (e.g. 4H11) reacted equally with both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of P1/P2. Both 9D5 and 4H11 inhibited the ribosome/eukaryotic elongation factor-2 (eEF-2)-coupled guanosine triphosphate (GTP)ase activity. However, preincubation with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminal sequence common to all three P proteins, but not the peptide that lacked the last three C-terminal amino acids, mostly prevented the mAb-induced inhibition of GTPase activity. Thus, at least two types of anti-P were produced preferentially following the immunization of MRL mice with the reconstituted antigenic complex. Presence of multiple copies of the C-termini, particularly that of the last three C-terminal amino acid residues, in the antigenic complex appears to contribute to the immunogenic stimulus. PMID:25255895

  2. Large-Scale Purification of r28M: A Bispecific scFv Antibody Targeting Human Melanoma Produced in Transgenic Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Spiesberger

    Full Text Available 30 years ago, the potential of bispecific antibodies to engage cytotoxic T cells for the lysis of cancer cells was discovered. Today a variety of bispecific antibodies against diverse cell surface structures have been developed, the majority of them produced in mammalian cell culture systems. Beside the r28M, described here, no such bispecific antibody is known to be expressed by transgenic livestock, although various biologicals for medical needs are already harvested-mostly from the milk-of these transgenics. In this study we investigated the large-scale purification and biological activity of the bispecific antibody r28M, expressed in the blood of transgenic cattle. This tandem single-chain variable fragment antibody is designed to target human CD28 and the melanoma/glioblastoma-associated cell surface chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4.With the described optimized purification protocol an average yield of 30 mg enriched r28M fraction out of 2 liters bovine plasma could be obtained. Separation of this enriched fraction by size exclusion chromatography into monomers, dimers and aggregates and further testing regarding the biological activity revealed the monomer fraction as being the most appropriate one to continue working with. The detailed characterization of the antibody's activity confirmed its high specificity to induce the killing of CSPG4 positive cells. In addition, first insights into tumor cell death pathways mediated by r28M-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were gained. In consideration of possible applications in vivo we also tested the effect of the addition of different excipients to r28M.Summing up, we managed to purify monomeric r28M from bovine plasma in a large-scale preparation and could prove that its biological activity is unaffected and still highly specific and thus, might be applicable for the treatment of melanoma.

  3. Soil fungal communities in a Castanea sativa (chestnut) forest producing large quantities of Boletus edulis sensu lato (porcini): where is the mycelium of porcini?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peintner, Ursula; Iotti, Mirco; Klotz, Petra; Bonuso, Enrico; Zambonelli, Alessandra

    2007-04-01

    A study was conducted in a Castanea sativa forest that produces large quantities of the edible mushroom porcini (Boletus edulis sensu lato). The primary aim was to study porcini mycelia in the soil, and to determine if there were any possible ecological and functional interactions with other dominant soil fungi. Three different approaches were used: collection and morphological identification of fruiting bodies, morphological and molecular identification of ectomycorrhizae by rDNA-ITS sequence analyses and molecular identification of the soil mycelia by ITS clone libraries. Soil samples were taken directly under basidiomes of Boletus edulis, Boletus aestivalis, Boletus aereus and Boletus pinophilus. Thirty-nine ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified on root tips whereas 40 fungal species were found in the soil using the cloning technique. The overlap between above- and below-ground fungal communities was very low. Boletus mycelia, compared with other soil fungi, were rare and with scattered distribution, whereas their fruiting bodies dominated the above-ground fungal community. Only B. aestivalis ectomycorrhizae were relatively abundant and detected as mycelia in the soil. No specific fungus-fungus association was found. Factors triggering formation of mycorrhizae and fructification of porcini appear to be too complex to be simply explained on the basis of the amount of fungal mycelia in the soil.

  4. Quiescent Galaxies in the 3D-HST Survey: Spectroscopic Confirmation of a Large Number of Galaxies with Relatively Old Stellar Populations at z ~ 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Katherine E.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Skelton, Rosalind; Franx, Marijn; Kriek, Mariska; Labbé, Ivo; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundgren, Britt F.; Nelson, Erica J.; Patel, Shannon G.; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2013-06-01

    Quiescent galaxies at z ~ 2 have been identified in large numbers based on rest-frame colors, but only a small number of these galaxies have been spectroscopically confirmed to show that their rest-frame optical spectra show either strong Balmer or metal absorption lines. Here, we median stack the rest-frame optical spectra for 171 photometrically quiescent galaxies at 1.4 < z < 2.2 from the 3D-HST grism survey. In addition to Hβ (λ4861 Å), we unambiguously identify metal absorption lines in the stacked spectrum, including the G band (λ4304 Å), Mg I (λ5175 Å), and Na I (λ5894 Å). This finding demonstrates that galaxies with relatively old stellar populations already existed when the universe was ~3 Gyr old, and that rest-frame color selection techniques can efficiently select them. We find an average age of 1.3^{+0.1}_{-0.3} Gyr when fitting a simple stellar population to the entire stack. We confirm our previous result from medium-band photometry that the stellar age varies with the colors of quiescent galaxies: the reddest 80% of galaxies are dominated by metal lines and have a relatively old mean age of 1.6^{+0.5}_{-0.4} Gyr, whereas the bluest (and brightest) galaxies have strong Balmer lines and a spectroscopic age of 0.9^{+0.2}_{-0.1} Gyr. Although the spectrum is dominated by an evolved stellar population, we also find [O III] and Hβ emission. Interestingly, this emission is more centrally concentrated than the continuum with {L_{{O}\\,\\scriptsize{III}}}=1.7+/- 0.3\\times 10^{40} erg s-1, indicating residual central star formation or nuclear activity.

  5. The use of mass spectrometry for analysing metabolite biomarkers in epidemiology: methodological and statistical considerations for application to large numbers of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Mads V; Savolainen, Otto I; Ross, Alastair B

    2016-08-01

    Data quality is critical for epidemiology, and as scientific understanding expands, the range of data available for epidemiological studies and the types of tools used for measurement have also expanded. It is essential for the epidemiologist to have a grasp of the issues involved with different measurement tools. One tool that is increasingly being used for measuring biomarkers in epidemiological cohorts is mass spectrometry (MS), because of the high specificity and sensitivity of MS-based methods and the expanding range of biomarkers that can be measured. Further, the ability of MS to quantify many biomarkers simultaneously is advantageously compared to single biomarker methods. However, as with all methods used to measure biomarkers, there are a number of pitfalls to consider which may have an impact on results when used in epidemiology. In this review we discuss the use of MS for biomarker analyses, focusing on metabolites and their application and potential issues related to large-scale epidemiology studies, the use of MS "omics" approaches for biomarker discovery and how MS-based results can be used for increasing biological knowledge gained from epidemiological studies. Better understanding of the possibilities and possible problems related to MS-based measurements will help the epidemiologist in their discussions with analytical chemists and lead to the use of the most appropriate statistical tools for these data.

  6. The application of the central limit theorem and the law of large numbers to facial soft tissue depths: T-Table robustness and trends since 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Carl N

    2014-03-01

    By pooling independent study means (x¯), the T-Tables use the central limit theorem and law of large numbers to average out study-specific sampling bias and instrument errors and, in turn, triangulate upon human population means (μ). Since their first publication in 2008, new data from >2660 adults have been collected (c.30% of the original sample) making a review of the T-Table's robustness timely. Updated grand means show that the new data have negligible impact on the previously published statistics: maximum change = 1.7 mm at gonion; and ≤1 mm at 93% of all landmarks measured. This confirms the utility of the 2008 T-Table as a proxy to soft tissue depth population means and, together with updated sample sizes (8851 individuals at pogonion), earmarks the 2013 T-Table as the premier mean facial soft tissue depth standard for craniofacial identification casework. The utility of the T-Table, in comparison with shorths and 75-shormaxes, is also discussed. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Improved estimation of the noncentrality parameter distribution from a large number of t-statistics, with applications to false discovery rate estimation in microarray data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Long; Nettleton, Dan; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2012-12-01

    Given a large number of t-statistics, we consider the problem of approximating the distribution of noncentrality parameters (NCPs) by a continuous density. This problem is closely related to the control of false discovery rates (FDR) in massive hypothesis testing applications, e.g., microarray gene expression analysis. Our methodology is similar to, but improves upon, the existing approach by Ruppert, Nettleton, and Hwang (2007, Biometrics, 63, 483-495). We provide parametric, nonparametric, and semiparametric estimators for the distribution of NCPs, as well as estimates of the FDR and local FDR. In the parametric situation, we assume that the NCPs follow a distribution that leads to an analytically available marginal distribution for the test statistics. In the nonparametric situation, we use convex combinations of basis density functions to estimate the density of the NCPs. A sequential quadratic programming procedure is developed to maximize the penalized likelihood. The smoothing parameter is selected with the approximate network information criterion. A semiparametric estimator is also developed to combine both parametric and nonparametric fits. Simulations show that, under a variety of situations, our density estimates are closer to the underlying truth and our FDR estimates are improved compared with alternative methods. Data-based simulations and the analyses of two microarray datasets are used to evaluate the performance in realistic situations. © 2012, The International Biometric Society.

  8. Identification of rare recurrent copy number variants in high-risk autism families and their prevalence in a large ASD population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nori Matsunami

    Full Text Available Structural variation is thought to play a major etiological role in the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, and numerous studies documenting the relevance of copy number variants (CNVs in ASD have been published since 2006. To determine if large ASD families harbor high-impact CNVs that may have broader impact in the general ASD population, we used the Affymetrix genome-wide human SNP array 6.0 to identify 153 putative autism-specific CNVs present in 55 individuals with ASD from 9 multiplex ASD pedigrees. To evaluate the actual prevalence of these CNVs as well as 185 CNVs reportedly associated with ASD from published studies many of which are insufficiently powered, we designed a custom Illumina array and used it to interrogate these CNVs in 3,000 ASD cases and 6,000 controls. Additional single nucleotide variants (SNVs on the array identified 25 CNVs that we did not detect in our family studies at the standard SNP array resolution. After molecular validation, our results demonstrated that 15 CNVs identified in high-risk ASD families also were found in two or more ASD cases with odds ratios greater than 2.0, strengthening their support as ASD risk variants. In addition, of the 25 CNVs identified using SNV probes on our custom array, 9 also had odds ratios greater than 2.0, suggesting that these CNVs also are ASD risk variants. Eighteen of the validated CNVs have not been reported previously in individuals with ASD and three have only been observed once. Finally, we confirmed the association of 31 of 185 published ASD-associated CNVs in our dataset with odds ratios greater than 2.0, suggesting they may be of clinical relevance in the evaluation of children with ASDs. Taken together, these data provide strong support for the existence and application of high-impact CNVs in the clinical genetic evaluation of children with ASD.

  9. On the calculation of line strengths, oscillator strengths and lifetimes for very large principal quantum numbers in hydrogenic atoms and ions by the McLean–Watson formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hey, J D

    2014-01-01

    As a sequel to an earlier study (Hey 2009 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42 125701), we consider further the application of the line strength formula derived by Watson (2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 L291) to transitions arising from states of very high principal quantum number in hydrogenic atoms and ions (Rydberg–Rydberg transitions, n > 1000). It is shown how apparent difficulties associated with the use of recurrence relations, derived (Hey 2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 2641) by the ladder operator technique of Infeld and Hull (1951 Rev. Mod. Phys. 23 21), may be eliminated by a very simple numerical device, whereby this method may readily be applied up to n ≈ 10 000. Beyond this range, programming of the method may entail greater care and complexity. The use of the numerically efficient McLean–Watson formula for such cases is again illustrated by the determination of radiative lifetimes and comparison of present results with those from an asymptotic formula. The question of the influence on the results of the omission or inclusion of fine structure is considered by comparison with calculations based on the standard Condon–Shortley line strength formula. Interest in this work on the radial matrix elements for large n and n′ is related to measurements of radio recombination lines from tenuous space plasmas, e.g. Stepkin et al (2007 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 374 852), Bell et al (2011 Astrophys. Space Sci. 333 377), to the calculation of electron impact broadening parameters for such spectra (Watson 2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 1889) and comparison with other theoretical methods (Peach 2014 Adv. Space Res. in press), to the modelling of physical processes in H II regions (Roshi et al 2012 Astrophys. J. 749 49), and the evaluation bound–bound transitions from states of high n during primordial cosmological recombination (Grin and Hirata 2010 Phys. Rev. D 81 083005, Ali-Haïmoud and Hirata 2010 Phys. Rev. D 82 063521

  10. SVA retrotransposon insertion-associated deletion represents a novel mutational mechanism underlying large genomic copy number changes with non-recurrent breakpoints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vogt (Julia); K. Bengesser (Kathrin); K.B.M. Claes (Kathleen B.M.); K. Wimmer (Katharina); V.-F. Mautner (Victor-Felix); R. van Minkelen (Rick); E. Legius (Eric); H. Brems (Hilde); M. Upadhyaya (Meena); J. Högel (Josef); C. Lazaro (Conxi); T. Rosenbaum (Thorsten); S. Bammert (Simone); L. Messiaen (Ludwine); D.N. Cooper (David); H. Kehrer-Sawatzki (Hildegard)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Genomic disorders are caused by copy number changes that may exhibit recurrent breakpoints processed by nonallelic homologous recombination. However, region-specific disease-associated copy number changes have also been observed which exhibit non-recurrent breakpoints. The

  11. Satellite and ground detection of very dense smoke clouds produced on the islands of the Paraná river delta that affected a large region in Central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipiña, A.; Salum, G. M.; Crinó, E.; Piacentini, R. D.

    2012-03-01

    Intense fires were produced on the Paraná river delta islands, Argentina, during most part of 2008, by a combination of an exceptionally dry period and the farmers' use of a fire land-cleaning technique. In April 2008, those fires significantly affected the nearby regions and their inhabitants, from Rosario city to Buenos Aires mega-city. In this work we present satellite as well as ground Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at 550 nm data obtained during the propagation of pollution clouds to the central zone of Argentina. The highest value (1.18) was registered at Buenos Aires by atmospheric remote sensing, using the satellite instrument MODIS/Terra on April 18th 2008 at 10:35 local time (= UT - 3 h). On the same day, ground air quality detectors also measured in this city the highest Total Suspended Particle (TSP) value of the month, 2.02 mg/m3. The AOD(550) daily variation at Rosario Astronomical Observatory, which is located near the Paraná riverside, was derived by combining solar ultraviolet erythemal irradiance data (measured with a YES biometre) with model calculations. On April 25th 2008, from 12:00 to 15:30 local time, a rather high and constant AOD(550) value was registered, with a mean value of (0.90 ± 0.21). Cities located on the side of the Rosario-Buenos Aires highway (San Nicolás, Baradero and San Pedro) were also affected, showing a mean AOD(550) between the Rosario and Buenos Aires values. The particulate matter was collected with gridded samplers placed on the Paraná river islands as well as at the Rosario Observatory. They were analysed with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and mainly showed a biological origin. Even if normally large particles travel small distances from the source, organic aerosol in the range of 40-100 μm and complex asymmetric structures were registered several kilometres away from the aerosol sources on the islands. Another event of intense UV index attenuation (98.6%) occurred on September 18th 2008, due to very dense

  12. Rayleigh- and Prandtl-number dependence of the large-scale flow-structure in weakly-rotating turbulent thermal convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Stephan; Wei, Ping; Ahlers, Guenter

    2015-11-01

    Turbulent thermal convection under rotation shows a remarkable variety of different flow states. The Nusselt number (Nu) at slow rotation rates (expressed as the dimensionless inverse Rossby number 1/Ro), for example, is not a monotonic function of 1/Ro. Different 1/Ro-ranges can be observed with different slopes ∂Nu / ∂ (1 / Ro) . Some of these ranges are connected by sharp transitions where ∂Nu / ∂ (1 / Ro) changes discontinuously. We investigate different regimes in cylindrical samples of aspect ratio Γ = 1 by measuring temperatures at the sidewall of the sample for various Prandtl numbers in the range 3 Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  13. Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) fingerprinting (MLVF) and antibacterial resistance profiles of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa among burnt patients in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabalameli, Fereshteh; Mirsalehian, Akbar; Sotoudeh, Nazli; Jabalameli, Leila; Aligholi, Marzieh; Khoramian, Babak; Taherikalani, Morovat; Emaneini, Mohammad

    2011-11-01

    Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing trait was present in 48 out of the 112 (42.8%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected from burn wound infections during a 12-month period. The presence of oxa-10, per-1, veb-1 and ges genes and the multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) fingerprinting (MLVF) of 112 P. aeruginosa strains were determined by PCR and multiplex PCR. Disk diffusion methods were used to determine the susceptibility of the isolates to antimicrobial agents as instructed by CLSI. All ESBL isolates were resistant to aztreonam, cefepime, cefotaxime, cefpodoxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and ofloxacin. Fewer than 60% of ESBL isolates were resistant to imipenem, meropenem, and piperacillin-tazobactam but more than 90% were resistant to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ticarcillin and tobramycin. The most prevalent ESBL genes included oxa-10 (70%) and per-1 (50%) followed by veb-1 (31.3%). The gene encodes GES enzyme did not detect in any isolates. A total of 100 P. aeruginosa strains were typed by MLVF typing method. MLVF produced 42 different DNA banding patterns. These data indicate that different MLVF types infect burn wounds in patients at a hospital in Tehran and also suggest an alarming rate of ESBL-producing isolates in this test location. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of the mycotoxigenic fungi associated with southeastern U.S. winegrapes reveals a large population of Fusarium fujikuroi isolates producing high levels of fumonisins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins pose a serious challenge to a consistently safe food supply worldwide, and their threat is only expected to worsen with our changing climate. Species of Fusarium produce one or more of several mycotoxins, including tricothecenes, zearalenone, and fumonisins, which have been associated wi...

  15. Development of special machines for production of large number of superconducting coils for the spool correctors for the main dipole of LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puntambekar, A.M.; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting (Sc) spool correctors of different types namely Sextupole, (MCS) Decapole (MCD) and Octupole (MCO) are incorporated in each of the main dipole of Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In all 2464 MCS and 1232 MCDO magnets are required to equip all 1232 Dipoles of LHC. The coils wound from thin rectangular section Sc wires are the heart of magnet assembly and its performance for the field quality and cold quench training largely depends on the precise and robust construction of these coils. Under DAE-CERN collaboration CAT was entrusted with the responsibility of making these magnets for LHC. Starting with development of manual fixtures and prototyping using soldering, a more advances special Automatic Coils Winding and Ultrasonic Welding (USW) system for production of large no. of coils and magnets were built at CAT. The paper briefly describes the various developments in this area. (author)

  16. Experimental observations of electron-backscatter effects from high-atomic-number anodes in large-aspect-ratio, electron-beam diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooperstein, G; Mosher, D; Stephanakis, S J; Weber, B V; Young, F C [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Swanekamp, S B [JAYCOR, Vienna, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Backscattered electrons from anodes with high-atomic-number substrates cause early-time anode-plasma formation from the surface layer leading to faster, more intense electron beam pinching, and lower diode impedance. A simple derivation of Child-Langmuir current from a thin hollow cathode shows the same dependence on the diode aspect ratio as critical current. Using this fact, it is shown that the diode voltage and current follow relativistic Child-Langmuir theory until the anode plasma is formed, and then follows critical current after the beam pinches. With thin hollow cathodes, electron beam pinching can be suppressed at low voltages (< 800 kV) even for high currents and high-atomic-number anodes. Electron beam pinching can also be suppressed at high voltages for low-atomic-number anodes as long as the electron current densities remain below the plasma turn-on threshold. (author). 8 figs., 2 refs.

  17. Large-scale studies of the HphI insulin gene variable-number-of-tandem-repeats polymorphism in relation to Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S K; Gjesing, A P; Rasmussen, S K

    2004-01-01

    The class III allele of the variable-number-of-tandem-repeats polymorphism located 5' of the insulin gene (INS-VNTR) has been associated with Type 2 diabetes and altered birthweight. It has also been suggested, although inconsistently, that the class III allele plays a role in glucose-induced ins......The class III allele of the variable-number-of-tandem-repeats polymorphism located 5' of the insulin gene (INS-VNTR) has been associated with Type 2 diabetes and altered birthweight. It has also been suggested, although inconsistently, that the class III allele plays a role in glucose...

  18. Planning Alternative Organizational Frameworks For a Large Scale Educational Telecommunications System Served by Fixed/Broadcast Satellites. Memorandum Number 73/3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkmeyer, John

    Considerations relating to the design of organizational structures for development and control of large scale educational telecommunications systems using satellites are explored. The first part of the document deals with four issues of system-wide concern. The first is user accessibility to the system, including proximity to entry points, ability…

  19. The number of extranodal sites assessed by PET/CT scan is a powerful predictor of CNS relapse for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Villa, Diego; Michaelsen, Thomas Yssing

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Development of secondary central nervous system involvement (SCNS) in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is associated with poor outcomes. The CNS International Prognostic Index (CNS-IPI) has been proposed for identifying patients at greatest risk, but the optimal model is unknow...

  20. Handling large numbers of observation units in three-way methods for the analysis of qualitative and quantitative two-way data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, Henk A.L.; Marchetti, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, a number of methods have been proposed for the exploratory analysis of mixtures of qualitative and quantitative variables. In these methods for each variable an object by object similarity matrix is constructed, and these are consequently analyzed by means of three-way methods like

  1. A large increase of sour taste receptor cells in Skn-1-deficient mice does not alter the number of their sour taste signal-transmitting gustatory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Naohiro; Narukawa, Masataka; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Yamamoto, Kurumi; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2017-05-01

    The connections between taste receptor cells (TRCs) and innervating gustatory neurons are formed in a mutually dependent manner during development. To investigate whether a change in the ratio of cell types that compose taste buds influences the number of innervating gustatory neurons, we analyzed the proportion of gustatory neurons that transmit sour taste signals in adult Skn-1a -/- mice in which the number of sour TRCs is greatly increased. We generated polycystic kidney disease 1 like 3-wheat germ agglutinin (pkd1l3-WGA)/Skn-1a +/+ and pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a -/- mice by crossing Skn-1a -/- mice and pkd1l3-WGA transgenic mice, in which neural pathways of sour taste signals can be visualized. The number of WGA-positive cells in the circumvallate papillae is 3-fold higher in taste buds of pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a -/- mice relative to pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a +/+ mice. Intriguingly, the ratio of WGA-positive neurons to P2X 2 -expressing gustatory neurons in nodose/petrosal ganglia was similar between pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a +/+ and pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a -/- mice. In conclusion, an alteration in the ratio of cell types that compose taste buds does not influence the number of gustatory neurons that transmit sour taste signals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Forty-Five-Year Mortality Rate as a Function of the Number and Type of Psychiatric Diagnoses Found in a Large Danish Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madarasz, Wendy; Manzardo, Ann; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    Central Psychiatric Research Registry for 8109 birth cohort members aged 45 years. Lifetime psychiatric diagnoses (International Classification of Diseases, Revision 10, group F codes, Mental and Behavioural Disorders, and one Z code) for identified subjects were organized into 14 mutually exclusive......Objective: Psychiatric comorbidities are common among psychiatric patients and typically associated with poorer clinical prognoses. Subjects of a large Danish birth cohort were used to study the relation between mortality and co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses. Method: We searched the Danish...

  3. Load Frequency Control by use of a Number of Both Heat Pump Water Heaters and Electric Vehicles in Power System with a Large Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuta, Taisuke; Shimizu, Koichiro; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    In Japan, from the viewpoints of global warming countermeasures and energy security, it is expected to establish a smart grid as a power system into which a large amount of generation from renewable energy sources such as wind power generation and photovoltaic generation can be installed. Measures for the power system stability and reliability are necessary because a large integration of these renewable energy sources causes some problems in power systems, e.g. frequency fluctuation and distribution voltage rise, and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) is one of effective solutions to these problems. Due to a high cost of the BESS, our research group has studied an application of controllable loads such as Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) and Electric Vehicle (EV) to the power system control for reduction of the required capacity of BESS. This paper proposes a new coordinated Load Frequency Control (LFC) method for the conventional power plants, the BESS, the HPWHs, and the EVs. The performance of the proposed LFC method is evaluated by the numerical simulations conducted on a power system model with a large integration of wind power generation and photovoltaic generation.

  4. Proposed method of producing large optical mirrors Single-point diamond crushing followed by polishing with a small-area tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, G.; Bryan, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    Faster production of large optical mirrors may result from combining single-point diamond crushing of the glass with polishing using a small area tool to smooth the surface and remove the damaged layer. Diamond crushing allows a surface contour accurate to 0.5 microns to be generated, and the small area computer-controlled polishing tool allows the surface roughness to be removed without destroying the initial contour. Final contours with an accuracy of 0.04 microns have been achieved.

  5. Comparative study between Federer and Gomez method for number of replication in complete randomized design using simulation: study of Areca Palm (Areca catechu) as organic waste for producing handicraft paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihwah, A.; Deoranto, P.; Wijana, S.; Dewi, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    The part of Areca Palm (Areca catechu) that economical is the seed. It is commercially available in dried, cured and fresh forms, while the fibre is usually thrown away. Cellulose fibers from agricultural waste can be utilized as raw material for handicraft paper. Laboratory research showed that Areca palm fibre contained 70.2% of cellulose, 10.92% of water, and 6.02% of ash. This indicated that Areca palm fibre is very potential to be processed as handicraft paper. Handicraft paper is made of wastepaper or plants which cointain celluloce to produce rough-textured paper. In order to obtain preferred sensory quality of handicraft paper such as color, fiber appearance and texture as well as good physical quantity such as tensile strength, tear resistance and grammage, the addition of wastepaper to provide secondary fibre and sometimes adhesive are needed in making handicraft paper. Handicraft paper making was one alternative to treat the solid waste and to reduce the use of wood fiber as paper raw material. The aim of this study is to compare the two most famous method, i.e. Federer and Gomez Method, for calculate the number of replications. This study is preliminary research before do the research in order to get the best treatment to produce handicraft paper. The Gomez method calculates fewer replications than the Federer method. Based on data simulation the error generated using 3 replicates of 0.0876 while using 2 replicates of 0.1032.

  6. A robust variant of block Jacobi-Davidson for extracting a large number of eigenpairs: Application to grid-based real-space density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.; Leiter, K.; Eisner, C.; Breuer, A.; Wang, X.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we investigate a block Jacobi-Davidson (J-D) variant suitable for sparse symmetric eigenproblems where a substantial number of extremal eigenvalues are desired (e.g., ground-state real-space quantum chemistry). Most J-D algorithm variations tend to slow down as the number of desired eigenpairs increases due to frequent orthogonalization against a growing list of solved eigenvectors. In our specification of block J-D, all of the steps of the algorithm are performed in clusters, including the linear solves, which allows us to greatly reduce computational effort with blocked matrix-vector multiplies. In addition, we move orthogonalization against locked eigenvectors and working eigenvectors outside of the inner loop but retain the single Ritz vector projection corresponding to the index of the correction vector. Furthermore, we minimize the computational effort by constraining the working subspace to the current vectors being updated and the latest set of corresponding correction vectors. Finally, we incorporate accuracy thresholds based on the precision required by the Fermi-Dirac distribution. The net result is a significant reduction in the computational effort against most previous block J-D implementations, especially as the number of wanted eigenpairs grows. We compare our approach with another robust implementation of block J-D (JDQMR) and the state-of-the-art Chebyshev filter subspace (CheFSI) method for various real-space density functional theory systems. Versus CheFSI, for first-row elements, our method yields competitive timings for valence-only systems and 4-6× speedups for all-electron systems with up to 10× reduced matrix-vector multiplies. For all-electron calculations on larger elements (e.g., gold) where the wanted spectrum is quite narrow compared to the full spectrum, we observe 60× speedup with 200× fewer matrix-vector multiples vs. CheFSI.

  7. Some aspects of the use of deep inelastic transfer reactions to produce nuclei far from stability and nuclei with large angular momenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    Some experimental data are considered that indicate the validity of the Q/sub gg/ systematics of cross sections for production of isotopes in multinucleon transfer reactions for any target-projectile combination. The effect of the nuclear structure of the light fragment on the evolution and disintegration of the double nuclear system formed in deep inelastic collisions of complex nuclei is discussed. Predominance of the α-particle emission over all other channels of the disintegration of the double nuclear system is demonstrated. It is shown that deep inelastic transfer reactions can be used to study the deformation of nuclei with large angular momenta. 9 figures

  8. A study of events with large total transverse energy produced in proton-antiproton collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekarz, H.

    1994-09-01

    Properties of events originating from proton-antiproton interactions in which the total transverse energy, Σ|E T |, of the event exceeded 400 GeV are presented. These events were produced at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider operating at a center-of-mass energy of 1.8 TeV and recorded in the D0 detector. The authors describe their analysis method which minimizes the effect of multiple interactions in the data sample. Based on a data sample of 5.45 ± 0.65 pb -1 , the topology of these hard scattering events as well as preliminary results for the cross-section, dσ/dΣ|E T |, are presented and discussed

  9. Production yield of produced radioisotopes from 100 MeV proton beam on lead target for shielding analysis of large accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oranj, Leila Mokhtari; Oh, Joo Hee; Jung, Nam Suk; Bae, O Ryun; Lee, Hee Seock [Div. of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    In this work, the production yield of major shielding material, a lead, was investigated using 100 MeV protons of KOMAC accelerator facility. For the analysis of the experimental data, the activity has been calculated using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code and analytical methods. The cross section data and the stopping power in the irradiated assembly were calculated by TALYS and SRIM codes in the analytical method, respectively. Consequently, the experimental production yield of produced radioisotopes was compared with the data that are based on Monte Carlo calculations and analytical studies. In this research, the {sup nat}Pb(p, x) reaction was studied using experimental measurements, Monte Carlo simulations and analytical methods. Rereading to the experimental measurements, we demonstrate that both Monte Carlo simulation and analytical methods could be useful tools for the estimation of production yield of this reaction.

  10. Production yield of produced radioisotopes from 100 MeV proton beam on lead target for shielding analysis of large accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oranj, Leila Mokhtari; Oh, Joo Hee; Jung, Nam Suk; Bae, O Ryun; Lee, Hee Seock

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the production yield of major shielding material, a lead, was investigated using 100 MeV protons of KOMAC accelerator facility. For the analysis of the experimental data, the activity has been calculated using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code and analytical methods. The cross section data and the stopping power in the irradiated assembly were calculated by TALYS and SRIM codes in the analytical method, respectively. Consequently, the experimental production yield of produced radioisotopes was compared with the data that are based on Monte Carlo calculations and analytical studies. In this research, the nat Pb(p, x) reaction was studied using experimental measurements, Monte Carlo simulations and analytical methods. Rereading to the experimental measurements, we demonstrate that both Monte Carlo simulation and analytical methods could be useful tools for the estimation of production yield of this reaction

  11. IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0517 TITLE: IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Simon P. Hogan PhD...IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Yui Hsi Wang, Sunil...threatening anaphylaxis. We have identified a novel multi-functional IL-9-producing mucosal mast cells (MMC9s) that produce large amounts of IL-9, IL

  12. Prediction of the number of 14 MeV neutron elastically scattered from large sample of aluminium using Monte Carlo simulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husin Wagiran; Wan Mohd Nasir Wan Kadir

    1997-01-01

    In neutron scattering processes, the effect of multiple scattering is to cause an effective increase in the measured cross-sections due to increase on the probability of neutron scattering interactions in the sample. Analysis of how the effective cross-section varies with thickness is very complicated due to complicated sample geometries and the variations of scattering cross-section with energy. Monte Carlo method is one of the possible method for treating the multiple scattering processes in the extended sample. In this method a lot of approximations have to be made and the accurate data of microscopic cross-sections are needed at various angles. In the present work, a Monte Carlo simulation programme suitable for a small computer was developed. The programme was capable to predict the number of neutrons scattered from various thickness of aluminium samples at all possible angles between 00 to 36011 with 100 increments. In order to make the the programme not too complicated and capable of being run on microcomputer with reasonable time, the calculations was done in two dimension coordinate system. The number of neutrons predicted from this model show in good agreement with previous experimental results

  13. Implementation of genomic recursions in single-step genomic best linear unbiased predictor for US Holsteins with a large number of genotyped animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Y; Misztal, I; Tsuruta, S; Legarra, A; Aguilar, I; Lourenco, D A L; Fragomeni, B O; Lawlor, T J

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate an efficient implementation in the computation of the inverse of genomic relationship matrix with the recursion algorithm, called the algorithm for proven and young (APY), in single-step genomic BLUP. We validated genomic predictions for young bulls with more than 500,000 genotyped animals in final score for US Holsteins. Phenotypic data included 11,626,576 final scores on 7,093,380 US Holstein cows, and genotypes were available for 569,404 animals. Daughter deviations for young bulls with no classified daughters in 2009, but at least 30 classified daughters in 2014 were computed using all the phenotypic data. Genomic predictions for the same bulls were calculated with single-step genomic BLUP using phenotypes up to 2009. We calculated the inverse of the genomic relationship matrix GAPY(-1) based on a direct inversion of genomic relationship matrix on a small subset of genotyped animals (core animals) and extended that information to noncore animals by recursion. We tested several sets of core animals including 9,406 bulls with at least 1 classified daughter, 9,406 bulls and 1,052 classified dams of bulls, 9,406 bulls and 7,422 classified cows, and random samples of 5,000 to 30,000 animals. Validation reliability was assessed by the coefficient of determination from regression of daughter deviation on genomic predictions for the predicted young bulls. The reliabilities were 0.39 with 5,000 randomly chosen core animals, 0.45 with the 9,406 bulls, and 7,422 cows as core animals, and 0.44 with the remaining sets. With phenotypes truncated in 2009 and the preconditioned conjugate gradient to solve mixed model equations, the number of rounds to convergence for core animals defined by bulls was 1,343; defined by bulls and cows, 2,066; and defined by 10,000 random animals, at most 1,629. With complete phenotype data, the number of rounds decreased to 858, 1,299, and at most 1,092, respectively. Setting up GAPY(-1

  14. A modification to linearized theory for prediction of pressure loadings on lifting surfaces at high supersonic Mach numbers and large angles of attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    A new linearized-theory pressure-coefficient formulation was studied. The new formulation is intended to provide more accurate estimates of detailed pressure loadings for improved stability analysis and for analysis of critical structural design conditions. The approach is based on the use of oblique-shock and Prandtl-Meyer expansion relationships for accurate representation of the variation of pressures with surface slopes in two-dimensional flow and linearized-theory perturbation velocities for evaluation of local three-dimensional aerodynamic interference effects. The applicability and limitations of the modification to linearized theory are illustrated through comparisons with experimental pressure distributions for delta wings covering a Mach number range from 1.45 to 4.60 and angles of attack from 0 to 25 degrees.

  15. Large-Scale Purification, Characterization, and Spore Outgrowth Inhibitory Effect of Thurincin H, a Bacteriocin Produced by Bacillus thuringiensis SF361.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaoyan; Manns, David C; Guron, Giselle K; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2014-06-01

    Large-scale purification of the highly hydrophobic bacteriocin thurincin H was accomplished via a novel and simple two-step method: ammonia sulfate precipitation and C18 solid-phase extraction. The inhibition spectrum and stability of thurincin H as well as its antagonistic activity against Bacillus cereus F4552 spores were further characterized. In the purification method, secreted proteins contained in the supernatant of a 40 h incubated culture of B. thuringiensis SF361 were precipitated by 68 % ammonia sulfate and purified by reverse-phase chromatography, with a yield of 18.53 mg/l of pure thurincin H. Silver-stained SDS-PAGE, high-performance liquid chromatography, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry confirmed the high purity of the prepared sample. Thurincin H exhibited a broad antimicrobial activity against 22 tested bacterial strains among six different genera including Bacillus, Carnobacterium, Geobacillus, Enterococcus, Listeria, and Staphylococcus. There was no detectable activity against any of the selected yeast or fungi. The bacteriocin activity was stable for 30 min at 50 °C and decreased to undetectable levels within 10 min at temperatures above 80 °C. Thurincin H is also stable from pH 2-7 for at least 24 h at room temperature. Thurincin H is germicidal against B. cereus spores in brain heart infusion broth, but not in Tris-NaCl buffer. The efficient purification method enables the large-scale production of pure thurincin H. The broad inhibitory spectrum of this bacteriocin may be of interest as a potential natural biopreservative in the food industry, particularly in post-processed and ready-to-eat food.

  16. Coincident detection of electrons ejected at large angles and target recoil ions produced in multiply ionizing collisions for the 1-MeV/u Oq++Ar collision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaither III, C.C.; Breinig, M.; Berryman, J.W.; Hasson, B.F.; Richards, J.D.; Price, K.

    1993-01-01

    The angular distributions of energetic electrons ejected at angles between 45 degree and 135 degree with respect to the incident-beam direction have been measured in coincidence with the charge states of the target recoil ions produced in multiply ionizing collisions for the 1-MeV/u O q+ (q=4,7)+Ar collision systems. These measurements have been made for ∼179-, ∼345-, and ∼505-eV electrons. Additionally, the energy distributions of electrons ejected into specific angular regions have been measured. Ar LMM satellite Auger electrons appear as a peak in the energy spectrum of electrons ejected at all large angles. The center of this peak is found at an electron energy of ∼179 eV. Electrons with ∼179 eV energy, ejected at large angles, are preferentially produced in coincidence with recoil ions of charge state 4+. Electrons with ∼345 eV energy and ∼505 eV energy ejected at large angles are preferentially produced in coincidence with recoil ions of charge state 3+. The angular distributions for these electrons are strongly peaked in the forward direction; essentially no electrons are observed at angles larger than 90 degree. These results are consistent with the dominant production mechanism for energetic electrons ejected at large angles being a binary-encounter process. Differential cross sections have been calculated from these angular distributions. They are on the order of 10 -21 cm 2 /(eV sr)

  17. Large Diversity of Porcine Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 in Eight European Countries Assessed by Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakurtti, Sini; Keto-Timonen, Riikka; Virtanen, Sonja; Martínez, Pilar Ortiz; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Korkeala, Hannu

    2016-06-01

    A total of 253 multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) types among 634 isolates were discovered while studying the genetic diversity of porcine Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates from eight different European countries. Six variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci V2A, V4, V5, V6, V7, and V9 were used to study the isolates from 82 farms in Belgium (n = 93, 7 farms), England (n = 41, 8 farms), Estonia (n = 106, 12 farms), Finland (n = 70, 13 farms), Italy (n = 111, 20 farms), Latvia (n = 66, 3 farms), Russia (n = 60, 10 farms), and Spain (n = 87, 9 farms). Cluster analysis revealed mainly country-specific clusters, and only one MLVA type consisting of two isolates was found from two countries: Russia and Italy. Also, farm-specific clusters were discovered, but same MLVA types could also be found from different farms. Analysis of multiple isolates originating either from the same tonsils (n = 4) or from the same farm, but 6 months apart, revealed both identical and different MLVA types. MLVA showed a very good discriminatory ability with a Simpson's discriminatory index (DI) of 0.989. DIs for VNTR loci V2A, V4, V5, V6, V7, and V9 were 0.916, 0.791, 0.901, 0.877, 0.912, and 0.785, respectively, when studying all isolates together, but variation was evident between isolates originating from different countries. Locus V4 in the Spanish isolates and locus V9 in the Latvian isolates did not differentiate (DI 0.000), and locus V9 in the English isolates showed very low discriminatory power (DI 0.049). The porcine Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were diverse, but the variation in DI demonstrates that the well discriminating loci V2A, V5, V6, and V7 should be included in MLVA protocol when maximal discriminatory power is needed.

  18. Efficacy, Reliability, and Safety of Completely Autologous Fibrin Glue in Neurosurgical Procedures: Single-Center Retrospective Large-Number Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Noriyuki; Yano, Hirohito; Egashira, Yusuke; Enomoto, Yukiko; Ohe, Naoyuki; Kanemura, Nobuhiro; Kitagawa, Junichi; Iwama, Toru

    2018-01-01

    Commercially available fibrin glue (Com-FG), which is used commonly worldwide, is produced with pooled human plasma from multiple donors. However, it has added bovine aprotinin, which involves the risk of infection, allogenic immunity, and allergic reactions. We evaluate the efficacy, reliability, and safety of completely autologous fibrin glue (CAFG). From August 2014 to February 2016, prospective data were collected and analyzed from 153 patients. CAFG was prepared with the CryoSeal System using autologous blood and was applied during neurosurgical procedures. Using CAFG-soaked oxidized regenerated cellulose and/or polyglycolic acid sheets, we performed a pinpoint hemostasis, transposed the offending vessels in a microvascular decompression, and covered the dural incision to prevent cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The CryoSeal System had generated up to a mean of 4.51 mL (range, 3.0-8.4 mL) of CAFG from 400 mL autologous blood. Com-FG products were not used in our procedures. Only 6 patients required an additional allogeneic blood transfusion. The hemostatic effective rate was 96.1% (147 of 153 patients). Only 1 patient who received transsphenoidal surgery for a pituitary adenoma presented with the complication of delayed postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage (0.65%). No patient developed allergic reactions or systemic complications associated with the use of CAFG. CAFG effectively provides hemostatic, adhesive, and safety performance. The timing and three-dimensional shape of CAFG-soaked oxidized regenerated cellulose and/or polyglycolic acid sheets solidification can be controlled with slow fibrin formation. The cost to prepare CAFG is similar compared with Com-FG products, and it can therefore be easily used at most institutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The One-carbon Carrier Methylofuran from Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 Contains a Large Number of α- and γ-Linked Glutamic Acid Residues*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmann, Jethro L.; Saurel, Olivier; Ochsner, Andrea M.; Stodden, Barbara K.; Kiefer, Patrick; Milon, Alain; Vorholt, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 uses dedicated cofactors for one-carbon unit conversion. Based on the sequence identities of enzymes and activity determinations, a methanofuran analog was proposed to be involved in formaldehyde oxidation in Alphaproteobacteria. Here, we report the structure of the cofactor, which we termed methylofuran. Using an in vitro enzyme assay and LC-MS, methylofuran was identified in cell extracts and further purified. From the exact mass and MS-MS fragmentation pattern, the structure of the cofactor was determined to consist of a polyglutamic acid side chain linked to a core structure similar to the one present in archaeal methanofuran variants. NMR analyses showed that the core structure contains a furan ring. However, instead of the tyramine moiety that is present in methanofuran cofactors, a tyrosine residue is present in methylofuran, which was further confirmed by MS through the incorporation of a 13C-labeled precursor. Methylofuran was present as a mixture of different species with varying numbers of glutamic acid residues in the side chain ranging from 12 to 24. Notably, the glutamic acid residues were not solely γ-linked, as is the case for all known methanofurans, but were identified by NMR as a mixture of α- and γ-linked amino acids. Considering the unusual peptide chain, the elucidation of the structure presented here sets the basis for further research on this cofactor, which is probably the largest cofactor known so far. PMID:26895963

  20. The One-carbon Carrier Methylofuran from Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 Contains a Large Number of α- and γ-Linked Glutamic Acid Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmann, Jethro L; Saurel, Olivier; Ochsner, Andrea M; Stodden, Barbara K; Kiefer, Patrick; Milon, Alain; Vorholt, Julia A

    2016-04-22

    Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 uses dedicated cofactors for one-carbon unit conversion. Based on the sequence identities of enzymes and activity determinations, a methanofuran analog was proposed to be involved in formaldehyde oxidation in Alphaproteobacteria. Here, we report the structure of the cofactor, which we termed methylofuran. Using an in vitro enzyme assay and LC-MS, methylofuran was identified in cell extracts and further purified. From the exact mass and MS-MS fragmentation pattern, the structure of the cofactor was determined to consist of a polyglutamic acid side chain linked to a core structure similar to the one present in archaeal methanofuran variants. NMR analyses showed that the core structure contains a furan ring. However, instead of the tyramine moiety that is present in methanofuran cofactors, a tyrosine residue is present in methylofuran, which was further confirmed by MS through the incorporation of a (13)C-labeled precursor. Methylofuran was present as a mixture of different species with varying numbers of glutamic acid residues in the side chain ranging from 12 to 24. Notably, the glutamic acid residues were not solely γ-linked, as is the case for all known methanofurans, but were identified by NMR as a mixture of α- and γ-linked amino acids. Considering the unusual peptide chain, the elucidation of the structure presented here sets the basis for further research on this cofactor, which is probably the largest cofactor known so far. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Sub-typing of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing isolates from a nosocomial outbreak: application of a 10-loci generic Escherichia coli multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Karami

    Full Text Available Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-E. coli were isolated from infants hospitalized in a neonatal, post-surgery ward during a four-month-long nosocomial outbreak and six-month follow-up period. A multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA, using 10 loci (GECM-10, for 'generic' (i.e., non-STEC E. coli was applied for sub-species-level (i.e., sub-typing delineation and characterization of the bacterial isolates. Ten distinct GECM-10 types were detected among 50 isolates, correlating with the types defined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, which is recognized to be the 'gold-standard' method for clinical epidemiological analyses. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, multiplex PCR genotyping of bla CTX-M, bla TEM, bla OXA and bla SHV genes and antibiotic resistance profiling, as well as a PCR assay specific for detecting isolates of the pandemic O25b-ST131 strain, further characterized the outbreak isolates. Two clusters of isolates with distinct GECM-10 types (G06-04 and G07-02, corresponding to two major PFGE types and the MLST-based sequence types (STs 131 and 1444, respectively, were confirmed to be responsible for the outbreak. The application of GECM-10 sub-typing provided reliable, rapid and cost-effective epidemiological characterizations of the ESBL-producing isolates from a nosocomial outbreak that correlated with and may be used to replace the laborious PFGE protocol for analyzing generic E. coli.

  2. Influence of a modification of the petcoke/coal ratio on the leachability of fly ash and slag produced from a large PCC power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Izquierdo; Oriol Font; Natalia Moreno (and others) [CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera'

    2007-08-01

    Co-firing of coal with inexpensive secondary fuels such as petroleum coke is expected to increase in the near future in the EU given that it may provide certain economic and environmental benefits with respect to coal combustion. However, changes in the feed fuel composition of power plants may modify the bulk content and the speciation of a number of elements in fly ash and slag. Consequently, leachability of these byproducts also can be modified. This study is focused on identifying the changes in the environmental quality of co-fired fly ash and slag induced by a modification of the petcoke/coal ratio. Petcoke was found to increase the leachable content of V and Mo and to enhance the mobility of S and As. However, with the exception of these elements, the addition of this secondary fuel did not drastically modify the bulk composition or the overall leachability of the resulting fly ash and slag. 30 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Suspect screening of large numbers of emerging contaminants in environmental waters using artificial neural networks for chromatographic retention time prediction and high resolution mass spectrometry data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Richard; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Miller, Thomas H; Barron, Leon P; Sancho, Juan Vicente; Hernández, Felix

    2015-12-15

    The recent development of broad-scope high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) screening methods has resulted in a much improved capability for new compound identification in environmental samples. However, positive identifications at the ng/L concentration level rely on analytical reference standards for chromatographic retention time (tR) and mass spectral comparisons. Chromatographic tR prediction can play a role in increasing confidence in suspect screening efforts for new compounds in the environment, especially when standards are not available, but reliable methods are lacking. The current work focuses on the development of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for tR prediction in gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography and applied along with HRMS data to suspect screening of wastewater and environmental surface water samples. Based on a compound tR dataset of >500 compounds, an optimized 4-layer back-propagation multi-layer perceptron model enabled predictions for 85% of all compounds to within 2min of their measured tR for training (n=344) and verification (n=100) datasets. To evaluate the ANN ability for generalization to new data, the model was further tested using 100 randomly selected compounds and revealed 95% prediction accuracy within the 2-minute elution interval. Given the increasing concern on the presence of drug metabolites and other transformation products (TPs) in the aquatic environment, the model was applied along with HRMS data for preliminary identification of pharmaceutically-related compounds in real samples. Examples of compounds where reference standards were subsequently acquired and later confirmed are also presented. To our knowledge, this work presents for the first time, the successful application of an accurate retention time predictor and HRMS data-mining using the largest number of compounds to preliminarily identify new or emerging contaminants in wastewater and surface waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  4. Extensive unusual lesions on a large number of immersed human victims found to be from cookiecutter sharks (Isistius spp.): an examination of the Yemenia plane crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribéreau-Gayon, Agathe; Rando, Carolyn; Schuliar, Yves; Chapenoire, Stéphane; Crema, Enrico R; Claes, Julien; Seret, Bernard; Maleret, Vincent; Morgan, Ruth M

    2017-03-01

    Accurate determination of the origin and timing of trauma is key in medicolegal investigations when the cause and manner of death are unknown. However, distinction between criminal and accidental perimortem trauma and postmortem modifications can be challenging when facing unidentified trauma. Postmortem examination of the immersed victims of the Yemenia airplane crash (Comoros, 2009) demonstrated the challenges in diagnosing extensive unusual circular lesions found on the corpses. The objective of this study was to identify the origin and timing of occurrence (peri- or postmortem) of the lesions.A retrospective multidisciplinary study using autopsy reports (n = 113) and postmortem digital photos (n = 3 579) was conducted. Of the 113 victims recovered from the crash, 62 (54.9 %) presented unusual lesions (n = 560) with a median number of 7 (IQR 3 ∼ 13) and a maximum of 27 per corpse. The majority of lesions were elliptic (58 %) and had an area smaller than 10 cm 2 (82.1 %). Some lesions (6.8 %) also showed clear tooth notches on their edges. These findings identified most of the lesions as consistent with postmortem bite marks from cookiecutter sharks (Isistius spp.). It suggests that cookiecutter sharks were important agents in the degradation of the corpses and thus introduced potential cognitive bias in the research of the cause and manner of death. A novel set of evidence-based identification criteria for cookiecutter bite marks on human bodies is developed to facilitate more accurate medicolegal diagnosis of cookiecutter bites.

  5. Adverse drug reaction prediction using scores produced by large-scale drug-protein target docking on high-performance computing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBute, Montiago X; Zhang, Xiaohua; Lenderman, Jason; Bennion, Brian J; Wong, Sergio E; Lightstone, Felice C

    2014-01-01

    Late-stage or post-market identification of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is a significant public health issue and a source of major economic liability for drug development. Thus, reliable in silico screening of drug candidates for possible ADRs would be advantageous. In this work, we introduce a computational approach that predicts ADRs by combining the results of molecular docking and leverages known ADR information from DrugBank and SIDER. We employed a recently parallelized version of AutoDock Vina (VinaLC) to dock 906 small molecule drugs to a virtual panel of 409 DrugBank protein targets. L1-regularized logistic regression models were trained on the resulting docking scores of a 560 compound subset from the initial 906 compounds to predict 85 side effects, grouped into 10 ADR phenotype groups. Only 21% (87 out of 409) of the drug-protein binding features involve known targets of the drug subset, providing a significant probe of off-target effects. As a control, associations of this drug subset with the 555 annotated targets of these compounds, as reported in DrugBank, were used as features to train a separate group of models. The Vina off-target models and the DrugBank on-target models yielded comparable median area-under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic-curves (AUCs) during 10-fold cross-validation (0.60-0.69 and 0.61-0.74, respectively). Evidence was found in the PubMed literature to support several putative ADR-protein associations identified by our analysis. Among them, several associations between neoplasm-related ADRs and known tumor suppressor and tumor invasiveness marker proteins were found. A dual role for interstitial collagenase in both neoplasms and aneurysm formation was also identified. These associations all involve off-target proteins and could not have been found using available drug/on-target interaction data. This study illustrates a path forward to comprehensive ADR virtual screening that can potentially scale with increasing number

  6. Adverse drug reaction prediction using scores produced by large-scale drug-protein target docking on high-performance computing machines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montiago X LaBute

    increasing number of CPUs to tens of thousands of protein targets and millions of potential drug candidates.

  7. Analysis of the Latitudinal Variability of Tropospheric Ozone in the Arctic Using the Large Number of Aircraft and Ozonesonde Observations in Early Summer 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancellet, Gerard; Daskalakis, Nikos; Raut, Jean Christophe; Quennehen, Boris; Ravetta, Francois; Hair, Jonathan; Tarasick, David; Schlager, Hans; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Thompson, Anne M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the paper are to: (1) present tropospheric ozone (O3) climatologies in summer 2008 based on a large amount of measurements, during the International Polar Year when the Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements, and Models of Climate Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport (POLARCAT) campaigns were conducted (2) investigate the processes that determine O3 concentrations in two different regions (Canada and Greenland) that were thoroughly studied using measurements from 3 aircraft and 7 ozonesonde stations. This paper provides an integrated analysis of these observations and the discussion of the latitudinal and vertical variability of tropospheric ozone north of 55oN during this period is performed using a regional model (WFR-Chem). Ozone, CO and potential vorticity (PV) distributions are extracted from the simulation at the measurement locations. The model is able to reproduce the O3 latitudinal and vertical variability but a negative O3 bias of 6-15 ppbv is found in the free troposphere over 4 km, especially over Canada. Ozone average concentrations are of the order of 65 ppbv at altitudes above 4 km both over Canada and Greenland, while they are less than 50 ppbv in the lower troposphere. The relative influence of stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) and of ozone production related to the local biomass burning (BB) emissions is discussed using differences between average values of O3, CO and PV for Southern and Northern Canada or Greenland and two vertical ranges in the troposphere: 0-4 km and 4-8 km. For Canada, the model CO distribution and the weak correlation (less than 30%) of O3 and PV suggests that stratosphere troposphere exchange (STE) is not the major contribution to average tropospheric ozone at latitudes less than 70 deg N, due to the fact that local biomass burning (BB) emissions were significant during the 2008 summer period. Conversely over Greenland, significant STE is found according to the better O3 versus PV

  8. Producing cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E G

    1923-09-12

    A process and apparatus are described for producing Portland cement in which pulverized shale is successively heated in a series of inclined rotary retorts having internal stirrers and oil gas outlets, which are connected to condensers. The partially treated shale is removed from the lowermost retort by a conveyor, then fed separately or conjointly into pipes and thence into a number of vertically disposed retorts. Each of these retorts may be fitted interiorly with vertical arranged conveyors which elevate the shale and discharge it over a lip, from whence it falls to the bottom of the retorts. The lower end of each casing is furnished with an adjustable discharge door through which the spent shale is fed to a hopper, thence into separate trucks. The oil gases generated in the retorts are exhausted through pipes to condensers. The spent shale is conveyed to a bin and mixed while hot with ground limestone. The admixed materials are then ground and fed to a rotary kiln which is fired by the incondensible gases derived from the oil gases obtained in the previous retorting of the shale. The calcined materials are then delivered from the rotary kiln to rotary coolers. The waste gases from the kiln are utilized for heating the retorts in which the ground shale is heated for the purpose of extracting therefrom the contained hydrocarbon oils and gases.

  9. Production of Numbers about the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huikku, Jari; Mouritsen, Jan; Silvola, Hanna

    of prominent Finnish business managers, auditors, analysts, investors, financial supervisory authority, academics and media, the paper extends prior research which has used large data. The paper analyses impairment testing as a process where network of human and non-human actors produce numbers about...

  10. Those fascinating numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Koninck, Jean-Marie De

    2009-01-01

    Who would have thought that listing the positive integers along with their most remarkable properties could end up being such an engaging and stimulating adventure? The author uses this approach to explore elementary and advanced topics in classical number theory. A large variety of numbers are contemplated: Fermat numbers, Mersenne primes, powerful numbers, sublime numbers, Wieferich primes, insolite numbers, Sastry numbers, voracious numbers, to name only a few. The author also presents short proofs of miscellaneous results and constantly challenges the reader with a variety of old and new n

  11. Gaming the Law of Large Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Thomas R.; Snapp, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Many view mathematics as a rich and wonderfully elaborate game. In turn, games can be used to illustrate mathematical ideas. Fibber's Dice, an adaptation of the game Liar's Dice, is a fast-paced game that rewards gutsy moves and favors the underdog. It also brings to life concepts arising in the study of probability. In particular, Fibber's Dice…

  12. Hupa Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    An introduction to the Hupa number system is provided in this workbook, one in a series of numerous materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. The book is written in English with Hupa terms used only for the names of numbers. The opening pages present the numbers from 1-10, giving the numeral, the Hupa word, the English word, and…

  13. Triangular Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Triangular number, figurate num- ber, rangoli, Brahmagupta–Pell equation, Jacobi triple product identity. Figure 1. The first four triangular numbers. Left: Anuradha S Garge completed her PhD from. Pune University in 2008 under the supervision of Prof. S A Katre. Her research interests include K-theory and number theory.

  14. Proth Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce Proth numbers and prove two theorems on such numbers being prime [3]. We also give revised versions of Pocklington’s theorem and of the Legendre symbol. Finally, we prove Pepin’s theorem and that the fifth Fermat number is not prime.

  15. Sagan numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2012-01-01

    We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.

  16. Changes in the number of nesting pairs and breeding success of theWhite Stork Ciconia ciconia in a large city and a neighbouring rural area in South-West Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopij Grzegorz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During the years 1994–2009, the number of White Stork pairs breeding in the city of Wrocław (293 km2 fluctuated between 5 pairs in 1999 and 19 pairs 2004. Most nests were clumped in two sites in the Odra river valley. Two nests were located only cca. 1 km from the city hall. The fluctuations in numbers can be linked to the availability of feeding grounds and weather. In years when grass was mowed in the Odra valley, the number of White Storks was higher than in years when the grass was left unattended. Overall, the mean number of fledglings per successful pair during the years 1995–2009 was slightly higher in the rural than in the urban area. Contrary to expectation, the mean number of fledglings per successful pair was the highest in the year of highest population density. In two rural counties adjacent to Wrocław, the number of breeding pairs was similar to that in the city in 1994/95 (15 vs. 13 pairs. However, in 2004 the number of breeding pairs in the city almost doubled compared to that in the neighboring counties (10 vs. 19 pairs. After a sharp decline between 2004 and 2008, populations in both areas were similar in 2009 (5 vs. 4 pairs, but much lower than in 1994–1995. Wrocław is probably the only large city (>100,000 people in Poland, where the White Stork has developed a sizeable, although fluctuating, breeding population. One of the most powerful role the city-nesting White Storks may play is their ability to engage directly citizens with nature and facilitate in that way environmental education and awareness.

  17. Eulerian numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, T Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...

  18. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transfinite Numbers. What is Infinity? S M Srivastava. In a series of revolutionary articles written during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the great Ger- man mathematician Georg Cantor removed the age-old mistrust of infinity and created an exceptionally beau- tiful and useful theory of transfinite numbers. This is.

  19. Room for wind. An investigation into the possibilities for the erection of large numbers of wind turbines. Ruimte voor wind. Een studie naar de plaatsingsmogelijkheden van grote aantallen windturbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkesteijn, L; Van Huis, G; Reckman, E

    1987-01-01

    The Dutch government aims to realize a wind power capacity in The Netherlands of 1000 MW in the year 2000. Environmental impacts of the erection of a large number of 200 kW and 1 MW wind turbines are studied. Four siting models have been developed in which attention is paid to environmental and economic aspects, the possibilities to introduce the electric power into the national power grid and the availability and reliability of enough wind. Noise pollution and danger for birds are to be avoided. The choice between the construction of wind parks where a number of wind turbines is concentrated in a small area or a more dispersed construction is somewhat difficult if all relevant factors are to be taken into consideration. Without government's interference the target of 1000 MW in the year 2000 will probably not be attained. It is therefore desirable to practise an active energy policy in favor of wind energy, for which many ways are possible.

  20. Chocolate Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Caleb; Khovanova, Tanya; Park, Robin; Song, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a game played on a rectangular $m \\times n$ gridded chocolate bar. Each move, a player breaks the bar along a grid line. Each move after that consists of taking any piece of chocolate and breaking it again along existing grid lines, until just $mn$ individual squares remain. This paper enumerates the number of ways to break an $m \\times n$ bar, which we call chocolate numbers, and introduces four new sequences related to these numbers. Using various techniques, we p...

  1. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  2. Nice numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, John

    2016-01-01

    In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...

  3. 3rd year final contractor report for: U.S. Department of Energy Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Program Project Title: Detailed Measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing at Large and Small Atwood Numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm J. Andrews

    2006-01-01

    This project had two major tasks: Task 1. The construction of a new air/helium facility to collect detailed measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing at high Atwood number, and the distribution of these data to LLNL, LANL, and Alliance members for code validation and design purposes. Task 2. The collection of initial condition data from the new Air/Helium facility, for use with validation of RT simulation codes at LLNL and LANL. This report describes work done in the last twelve (12) months of the project, and also contains a summary of the complete work done over the three (3) life of the project. As of April 1, 2006, the air/helium facility (Task 1) is now complete and extensive testing and validation of diagnostics has been performed. Initial condition studies (Task 2) is also complete. Detailed experiments with air/helium with Atwood numbers up to 0.1 have been completed, and Atwood numbers of 0.25. Within the last three (3) months we have been able to successfully run the facility at Atwood numbers of 0.5. The progress matches the project plan, as does the budget. We have finished the initial condition studies using the water channel, and this work has been accepted for publication on the Journal of Fluid Mechanics (the top fluid mechanics journal). Mr. Nick Mueschke and Mr. Wayne Kraft are continuing with their studies to obtain PhDs in the same field, and will also continue their collaboration visits to LANL and LLNL. Over its three (3) year life the project has supported two(2) Ph.D.'s and three (3) MS's, and produced nine (9) international journal publications, twenty four (24) conference publications, and numerous other reports. The highlight of the project has been our close collaboration with LLNL (Dr. Oleg Schilling) and LANL (Drs. Dimonte, Ristorcelli, Gore, and Harlow)

  4. Neutrino number of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of grand unified theories on the lepton number of the universe is reviewed. A scenario is presented for the generation of a large (>> 1) lepton number and a small (<< 1) baryon number. 15 references

  5. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  6. Diesel with low sulfur content and high cetane number produced by two stages hydrotreating procedures; Diesel com baixos teores de enxofre e alto numero de cetano a partir de hidrotratamento em dois estagios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotin, J L; Pacheco, M E; Souza, V P; Belato, D; Silva, R M.S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    According to the Brazilian specifications for diesel, lower sulfur content and higher cetane number can be expected in the near future, leading to an increased capacity of hydrotreating processes. PETROBRAS has proved technology for hydrotreating processes with 8 high pressure single stage units in operation. However, the production of ultra low sulfur diesel with high cetane number may require two stages processes, with conventional hydrotreating in the first step and deep aromatic saturation (HDA), with increase in the cetane number, in the second one. In this approach, noble metal catalysts, which are more active for hydrogenation but more sensitive to sulfur and nitrogen poisoning, can be used in the second stage. In the present work, the 2 stages approach was studied for maximizing cetane number of Brazilian gasoils. The influence of operating variables and the inhibition effect by sulfur and nitrogen were analyzed. Diesel with sulfur content below 10 ppm and high aromatic conversions at relatively mild conditions were obtained with noble metal catalysts, with a cetane number increase up to 6 points in the second stage. Sulfur compounds have a stronger inhibition effect than basic nitrogen compounds on hydrogenation reaction rates, but a synergetic effect was observed when both contaminants were present in high concentrations. (author)

  7. Funny Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore M. Porter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The struggle over cure rate measures in nineteenth-century asylums provides an exemplary instance of how, when used for official assessments of institutions, these numbers become sites of contestation. The evasion of goals and corruption of measures tends to make these numbers “funny” in the sense of becoming dis-honest, while the mismatch between boring, technical appearances and cunning backstage manipulations supplies dark humor. The dangers are evident in recent efforts to decentralize the functions of governments and corporations using incen-tives based on quantified targets.

  8. Transcendental numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, M Ram

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the topic of transcendental numbers for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. The text is constructed to support a full course on the subject, including descriptions of both relevant theorems and their applications. While the first part of the book focuses on introducing key concepts, the second part presents more complex material, including applications of Baker’s theorem, Schanuel’s conjecture, and Schneider’s theorem. These later chapters may be of interest to researchers interested in examining the relationship between transcendence and L-functions. Readers of this text should possess basic knowledge of complex analysis and elementary algebraic number theory.

  9. Templates, Numbers & Watercolors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemesha, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how a second-grade class used large templates to draw and paint five-digit numbers. The lesson integrated artistic knowledge and vocabulary with their mathematics lesson in place value. Students learned how draftspeople use templates, and they studied number paintings by Charles Demuth and Jasper Johns. (KM)

  10. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    this is a characteristic difference between finite and infinite sets and created an immensely useful branch of mathematics based on this idea which had a great impact on the whole of mathe- matics. For example, the question of what is a number (finite or infinite) is almost a philosophical one. However Cantor's work turned it ...

  11. Applied number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas.  Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc.  Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters...

  12. Producing pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Noomi Christine Linde

    2018-01-01

    In an educational system, oriented towards ensuring heightened educational performativity, there is an increased focus on reducing discontinuities between home and educational contexts for ethnic minority children. This article argues, that this is done in a number of more or less standardized wa...

  13. The new allelic variant of the subtilase cytotoxin (subAB2) is common among Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains from large game animals and their meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Sergio; Díaz-Sánchez, Sandra; Martínez, Remigio; Llorente, María Teresa; Herrera-León, Silvia; Vidal, Dolors

    2013-10-25

    Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is an AB5 toxin produced by Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains usually lacking the eae gene product intimin. Two allelic variants of SubAB encoding genes have been described: subAB1, located on a plasmid, and subAB2, located on a pathogenicity island (PAI) together with tia gene. While subAB1 has been reported to be more frequent among bovine strains, subAB2 has been mainly associated with strains from small ruminants. We investigated the presence of the two variants of subAB among 59 eae-negative STEC from large game animals (deer and wild boar) and their meat and meat products in order to assess the role of other species in the epidemiology of subAB-positive, eae-negative STEC. For this approach, the strains were PCR-screened for the presence of subAB, including the specific detection of both allelic variants, for the presence of saa, tia and sab, and for stx subtyping. Overall, subAB genes were detected in 71.2% of the strains: 84.1% of the strains from deer and 33.3% of the strains from wild boar. Most of them (97.6%) possessed subAB2 and most of these subAB2-positive strains (92.7%) were also positive for tia and negative for saa, suggesting the presence of the subAB2-harbouring PAI. Subtype stx2b was present in most of the strains (67.8%) and a statistically significant association could be established between subAB2 and stx2b. Our results suggest that large game animals, mainly deer, may represent an important animal reservoir of subAB2-positive, eae-negative STEC, and also highlight the risk of human infection posed by the consumption of large game meat and meat products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation by electronic paramagnetic resonance of the number of free radicals produced in irradiated rat bone; Evaluation par resonance paramagnetique electronique du nombre de radicaux libres produits dans l'os de rat irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, G; Valderas, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The number of long half-life free radicals created by gamma irradiation in the bones of the rat has been determined from the electrons paramagnetic resonance spectrum. This number decreases slowly with time (calculated half life: 24 days). It is proportional to the dose of gamma radiation given to the rat. The method could find interesting applications in the field of biological dosimetry. (authors) [French] Le nombre de radicaux libres a vie longue crees par irradiation gamma dans l'os de rat a ete determine a partir du spectre de resonance paramagnetique electronique. Ce nombre decroit lentement avec le temps (demi-vie calculee {approx_equal} 24 jours). IL est proportionnel a la dose de rayonnement gamma delivree au rat. La methode pourra trouver en dosimetrie biologique des applications interessantes. (auteurs)

  15. Evaluation by electronic paramagnetic resonance of the number of free radicals produced in irradiated rat bone; Evaluation par resonance paramagnetique electronique du nombre de radicaux libres produits dans l'os de rat irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, G.; Valderas, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The number of long half-life free radicals created by gamma irradiation in the bones of the rat has been determined from the electrons paramagnetic resonance spectrum. This number decreases slowly with time (calculated half life: 24 days). It is proportional to the dose of gamma radiation given to the rat. The method could find interesting applications in the field of biological dosimetry. (authors) [French] Le nombre de radicaux libres a vie longue crees par irradiation gamma dans l'os de rat a ete determine a partir du spectre de resonance paramagnetique electronique. Ce nombre decroit lentement avec le temps (demi-vie calculee {approx_equal} 24 jours). IL est proportionnel a la dose de rayonnement gamma delivree au rat. La methode pourra trouver en dosimetrie biologique des applications interessantes. (auteurs)

  16. Asymptotic numbers: Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, T.D.

    1980-01-01

    The set of asymptotic numbers A as a system of generalized numbers including the system of real numbers R, as well as infinitely small (infinitesimals) and infinitely large numbers, is introduced. The detailed algebraic properties of A, which are unusual as compared with the known algebraic structures, are studied. It is proved that the set of asymptotic numbers A cannot be isomorphically embedded as a subspace in any group, ring or field, but some particular subsets of asymptotic numbers are shown to be groups, rings, and fields. The algebraic operation, additive and multiplicative forms, and the algebraic properties are constructed in an appropriate way. It is shown that the asymptotic numbers give rise to a new type of generalized functions quite analogous to the distributions of Schwartz allowing, however, the operation multiplication. A possible application of these functions to quantum theory is discussed

  17. A critical review of producers of small lactone mycotoxins: patulin, penicillic acid and moniliformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, J.C.

    2018-01-01

    A very large number of filamentous fungi has been reported to produce the small lactone mycotoxins patulin, penicillic acid and moniliformin. Among the 167 reported fungal producers of patulin, only production by 29 species could be confirmed. Patulin is produced by 3 Aspergillus species, 3...

  18. Volume 9 Number 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    with large succulent leaves while the male plants produce leaves that are scrawny, small and less attractive. Farmers therefore prefer the females to the males. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to differentiate the males from the females until the plants begin to flower. At this stage of development, the male plants begin to show.

  19. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Varadhan, S R S

    2016-01-01

    The theory of large deviations deals with rates at which probabilities of certain events decay as a natural parameter in the problem varies. This book, which is based on a graduate course on large deviations at the Courant Institute, focuses on three concrete sets of examples: (i) diffusions with small noise and the exit problem, (ii) large time behavior of Markov processes and their connection to the Feynman-Kac formula and the related large deviation behavior of the number of distinct sites visited by a random walk, and (iii) interacting particle systems, their scaling limits, and large deviations from their expected limits. For the most part the examples are worked out in detail, and in the process the subject of large deviations is developed. The book will give the reader a flavor of how large deviation theory can help in problems that are not posed directly in terms of large deviations. The reader is assumed to have some familiarity with probability, Markov processes, and interacting particle systems.

  20. The Challenges of Implementing Next Generation Sequencing Across a Large Healthcare System, and the Molecular Epidemiology and Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Carbapenemase-Producing Bacteria in the Healthcare System of the U.S. Department of Defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Lesho

    Full Text Available We sought to: 1 provide an overview of the genomic epidemiology of an extensive collection of carbapenemase-producing bacteria (CPB collected in the U.S. Department of Defense health system; 2 increase awareness of the public availability of the sequences, isolates, and customized antimicrobial resistance database of that system; and 3 illustrate challenges and offer mitigations for implementing next generation sequencing (NGS across large health systems.Prospective surveillance and system-wide implementation of NGS.288-hospital healthcare network.All phenotypically carbapenem resistant bacteria underwent CarbaNP® testing and PCR, followed by NGS. Commercial (Newbler and Geneious, on-line (ResFinder, and open-source software (Btrim, FLASh, Bowtie2, an Samtools were used for assembly, SNP detection and clustering. Laboratory capacity, throughput, and response time were assessed.From 2009 through 2015, 27,000 multidrug-resistant Gram-negative isolates were submitted. 225 contained carbapenemase-encoding genes (most commonly blaKPC, blaNDM, and blaOXA23. These were found in 15 species from 146 inpatients in 19 facilities. Genetically related CPB were found in more than one hospital. Other clusters or outbreaks were not clonal and involved genetically related plasmids, while some involved several unrelated plasmids. Relatedness depended on the clustering algorithm used. Transmission patterns of plasmids and other mobile genetic elements could not be determined without ultra-long read, single-molecule real-time sequencing. 80% of carbapenem-resistant phenotypes retained susceptibility to aminoglycosides, and 70% retained susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. However, among the CPB-confirmed genotypes, fewer than 25% retained susceptibility to aminoglycosides or fluoroquinolones.Although NGS is increasingly acclaimed to revolutionize clinical practice, resource-constrained environments, large or geographically dispersed healthcare networks, and

  1. The Challenges of Implementing Next Generation Sequencing Across a Large Healthcare System, and the Molecular Epidemiology and Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Carbapenemase-Producing Bacteria in the Healthcare System of the U.S. Department of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesho, Emil; Clifford, Robert; Onmus-Leone, Fatma; Appalla, Lakshmi; Snesrud, Erik; Kwak, Yoon; Ong, Ana; Maybank, Rosslyn; Waterman, Paige; Rohrbeck, Patricia; Julius, Michael; Roth, Amanda; Martinez, Joshua; Nielsen, Lindsey; Steele, Eric; McGann, Patrick; Hinkle, Mary

    2016-01-01

    We sought to: 1) provide an overview of the genomic epidemiology of an extensive collection of carbapenemase-producing bacteria (CPB) collected in the U.S. Department of Defense health system; 2) increase awareness of the public availability of the sequences, isolates, and customized antimicrobial resistance database of that system; and 3) illustrate challenges and offer mitigations for implementing next generation sequencing (NGS) across large health systems. Prospective surveillance and system-wide implementation of NGS. 288-hospital healthcare network. All phenotypically carbapenem resistant bacteria underwent CarbaNP® testing and PCR, followed by NGS. Commercial (Newbler and Geneious), on-line (ResFinder), and open-source software (Btrim, FLASh, Bowtie2, an Samtools) were used for assembly, SNP detection and clustering. Laboratory capacity, throughput, and response time were assessed. From 2009 through 2015, 27,000 multidrug-resistant Gram-negative isolates were submitted. 225 contained carbapenemase-encoding genes (most commonly blaKPC, blaNDM, and blaOXA23). These were found in 15 species from 146 inpatients in 19 facilities. Genetically related CPB were found in more than one hospital. Other clusters or outbreaks were not clonal and involved genetically related plasmids, while some involved several unrelated plasmids. Relatedness depended on the clustering algorithm used. Transmission patterns of plasmids and other mobile genetic elements could not be determined without ultra-long read, single-molecule real-time sequencing. 80% of carbapenem-resistant phenotypes retained susceptibility to aminoglycosides, and 70% retained susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. However, among the CPB-confirmed genotypes, fewer than 25% retained susceptibility to aminoglycosides or fluoroquinolones. Although NGS is increasingly acclaimed to revolutionize clinical practice, resource-constrained environments, large or geographically dispersed healthcare networks, and military or

  2. A simple method to recover Norovirus from fresh produce with large sample size by using histo-blood group antigen-conjugated to magnetic beads in a recirculating affinity magnetic separation system (RCAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Peng; Yang, David; Mandrell, Robert

    2011-06-30

    Human norovirus (NoV) outbreaks are major food safety concerns. The virus has to be concentrated from food samples in order to be detected. PEG precipitation is the most common method to recover the virus. Recently, histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) have been recognized as receptors for human NoV, and have been utilized as an alternative method to concentrate human NoV for samples up to 40 mL in volume. However, to wash off the virus from contaminated fresh food samples, at least 250 mL of wash volume is required. Recirculating affinity magnetic separation system (RCAMS) has been tried by others to concentrate human NoV from large-volume samples and failed to yield consistent results with the standard procedure of 30 min of recirculation at the default flow rate. Our work here demonstrates that proper recirculation time and flow rate are key factors for success in using the RCAMS. The bead recovery rate was increased from 28% to 47%, 67% and 90% when recirculation times were extended from 30 min to 60 min, 120 min and 180 min, respectively. The kinetics study suggests that at least 120 min recirculation is required to obtain a good recovery of NoV. In addition, different binding and elution conditions were compared for releasing NoV from inoculated lettuce. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and water results in similar efficacy for virus release, but the released virus does not bind to RCAMS effectively unless pH was adjusted to acidic. Either citrate-buffered saline (CBS) wash, or water wash followed by CBS adjustment, resulted in an enhanced recovery of virus. We also demonstrated that the standard curve generated from viral RNA extracted from serially-diluted virus samples is more accurate for quantitative analysis than standard curves generated from serially-diluted plasmid DNA or transcribed-RNA templates, both of which tend to overestimate the concentration power. The efficacy of recovery of NoV from produce using RCAMS was directly compared with that of the

  3. Low Reynolds Number Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    of the blade. The Darrieus VAWT has more complex aerodynamics. This type of wind turbine produces power as a result of the tangential thrust as...Horizontal Axis Propeller-Type b) Verticle Axis Darrieus -Type Figure 78. Wind Turbine Configurations 0 6 Q K [_ 2 -, C 4 UJ UJ...Sailplanes 23 5.2 Wind Turbines 23 6. CONCLUDING REMARKS 24 7. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 24 REFERENCES 25 FIGURES 32 yv/ LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER

  4. The Brothel Phone Number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsby, Trine Mygind

    2017-01-01

    Taking a point of departure in negotiations for access to a phone number for a brothel abroad, the article demonstrates how a group of pimps in Eastern Romania attempt to extend their local business into the rest of the EU. The article shows how the phone number works as a micro-infrastructure in......Taking a point of departure in negotiations for access to a phone number for a brothel abroad, the article demonstrates how a group of pimps in Eastern Romania attempt to extend their local business into the rest of the EU. The article shows how the phone number works as a micro...... in turn cultivate and maximize uncertainty about themselves in others. When making the move to go abroad into unknown terrains, accessing the infrastructure generated by the phone number can provide certainty and consolidate one’s position within criminal networks abroad. However, at the same time......, mishandling the phone number can be dangerous and in that sense produce new doubts and uncertainties....

  5. Some types of parent number talk count more than others: relations between parents' input and children's cardinal-number knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C

    2011-09-01

    Before they enter preschool, children vary greatly in their numerical and mathematical knowledge, and this knowledge predicts their achievement throughout elementary school (e.g. Duncan et al., 2007; Ginsburg & Russell, 1981). Therefore, it is critical that we look to the home environment for parental inputs that may lead to these early variations. Recent work has shown that the amount of number talk that parents engage in with their children is robustly related to a critical aspect of mathematical development - cardinal-number knowledge (e.g. knowing that the word 'three' refers to sets of three entities; Levine, Suriyakham, Rowe, Huttenlocher & Gunderson, 2010). The present study characterizes the different types of number talk that parents produce and investigates which types are most predictive of children's later cardinal-number knowledge. We find that parents' number talk involving counting or labeling sets of present, visible objects is related to children's later cardinal-number knowledge, whereas other types of parent number talk are not. In addition, number talk that refers to large sets of present objects (i.e. sets of size 4 to 10 that fall outside children's ability to track individual objects) is more robustly predictive of children's later cardinal-number knowledge than talk about smaller sets. The relation between parents' number talk about large sets of present objects and children's cardinal-number knowledge remains significant even when controlling for factors such as parents' socioeconomic status and other measures of parents' number and non-number talk. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Degree-days as a tool for use in producing tilapia fry for sex inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormonal sex inversion of newly hatched tilapia fry continues to be an important method to produce monosex male tilapia fingerlings. Large numbers of tilapia fry suitable for sex inversion can be produced by periodic complete harvest of earthen reproduction ponds. Traditionally, harvest interval was...

  7. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic–inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie–Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol–gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie–Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating. (paper)

  8. [Intel random number generator-based true random number generator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Shen, Hong

    2004-09-01

    To establish a true random number generator on the basis of certain Intel chips. The random numbers were acquired by programming using Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 via register reading from the random number generator (RNG) unit of an Intel 815 chipset-based computer with Intel Security Driver (ISD). We tested the generator with 500 random numbers in NIST FIPS 140-1 and X(2) R-Squared test, and the result showed that the random number it generated satisfied the demand of independence and uniform distribution. We also compared the random numbers generated by Intel RNG-based true random number generator and those from the random number table statistically, by using the same amount of 7500 random numbers in the same value domain, which showed that the SD, SE and CV of Intel RNG-based random number generator were less than those of the random number table. The result of u test of two CVs revealed no significant difference between the two methods. Intel RNG-based random number generator can produce high-quality random numbers with good independence and uniform distribution, and solves some problems with random number table in acquisition of the random numbers.

  9. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Terry; Frost, Carol; Hayes, Thomas; Heath, Leo; Johnson, Drew; Lopez, David; Saffer, Demian; Urynowicz, Michael; Wheaton, John; Zoback, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm

  10. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  11. Earthquake number forecasts testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Yan Y.

    2017-10-01

    We study the distributions of earthquake numbers in two global earthquake catalogues: Global Centroid-Moment Tensor and Preliminary Determinations of Epicenters. The properties of these distributions are especially required to develop the number test for our forecasts of future seismic activity rate, tested by the Collaboratory for Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP). A common assumption, as used in the CSEP tests, is that the numbers are described by the Poisson distribution. It is clear, however, that the Poisson assumption for the earthquake number distribution is incorrect, especially for the catalogues with a lower magnitude threshold. In contrast to the one-parameter Poisson distribution so widely used to describe earthquake occurrences, the negative-binomial distribution (NBD) has two parameters. The second parameter can be used to characterize the clustering or overdispersion of a process. We also introduce and study a more complex three-parameter beta negative-binomial distribution. We investigate the dependence of parameters for both Poisson and NBD distributions on the catalogue magnitude threshold and on temporal subdivision of catalogue duration. First, we study whether the Poisson law can be statistically rejected for various catalogue subdivisions. We find that for most cases of interest, the Poisson distribution can be shown to be rejected statistically at a high significance level in favour of the NBD. Thereafter, we investigate whether these distributions fit the observed distributions of seismicity. For this purpose, we study upper statistical moments of earthquake numbers (skewness and kurtosis) and compare them to the theoretical values for both distributions. Empirical values for the skewness and the kurtosis increase for the smaller magnitude threshold and increase with even greater intensity for small temporal subdivision of catalogues. The Poisson distribution for large rate values approaches the Gaussian law, therefore its skewness

  12. Large transverse momentum hadronic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darriulat, P.

    1977-01-01

    The possible relations between deep inelastic leptoproduction and large transverse momentum (psub(t)) processes in hadronic collisions are usually considered in the framework of the quark-parton picture. Experiments observing the structure of the final state in proton-proton collisions producing at least one large transverse momentum particle have led to the following conclusions: a large fraction of produced particles are uneffected by the large psub(t) process. The other products are correlated to the large psub(t) particle. Depending upon the sign of scalar product they can be separated into two groups of ''towards-movers'' and ''away-movers''. The experimental evidence are reviewed favouring such a picture and the properties are discussed of each of three groups (underlying normal event, towards-movers and away-movers). Some phenomenological interpretations are presented. The exact nature of away- and towards-movers must be further investigated. Their apparent jet structure has to be confirmed. Angular correlations between leading away and towards movers are very informative. Quantum number flow, both within the set of away and towards-movers, and between it and the underlying normal event, are predicted to behave very differently in different models

  13. Investigating the Randomness of Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Kenn L.

    2009-01-01

    The use of random numbers is pervasive in today's world. Random numbers have practical applications in such far-flung arenas as computer simulations, cryptography, gambling, the legal system, statistical sampling, and even the war on terrorism. Evaluating the randomness of extremely large samples is a complex, intricate process. However, the…

  14. Number Sense on the Number Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Dawn Marie; Ketterlin Geller, Leanne; Basaraba, Deni

    2018-01-01

    A strong foundation in early number concepts is critical for students' future success in mathematics. Research suggests that visual representations, like a number line, support students' development of number sense by helping them create a mental representation of the order and magnitude of numbers. In addition, explicitly sequencing instruction…

  15. Large Rotor Test Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test apparatus, when combined with the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, produces a thorough, full-scale test capability. The Large Rotor Test Apparatus...

  16. The Super Patalan Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the super Patalan numbers, a generalization of the super Catalan numbers in the sense of Gessel, and prove a number of properties analagous to those of the super Catalan numbers. The super Patalan numbers generalize the super Catalan numbers similarly to how the Patalan numbers generalize the Catalan numbers.

  17. [The significance of a large number of health insurance funds and fusions for health services research with statutory health insurance data in Germany - experiences of the lidA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, S; Powietzka, J; Stallmann, C; Swart, E

    2015-02-01

    Since 1970 the health insurance system in Germany has shrunk by more than 90% to 132 statutory health insurance funds (SHI) at present. For studies using data from different SHI, this development means a reduction of contacts and a higher workload when requesting data. The latter is due to the fact that fusions bind resources in the health insurance funds. In order to avoid selection in studies among the insured, all SHI must be contacted. Additionally, 15 controlling institutions on the state and national level have to agree as determined in § 75 of the German Social Code number 10. The lidA study - a German cohort study on work, age and health intends to link primary and secondary data from all SHI of those insured who have given their agreement for participation. Since the beginning of the study in 2009 the number of SHI has been reduced by 70. Of the 6 585 interviews in 2011 approximately half of the interviewees agreed in written form that their individual health insurance data can be linked. This portion of the insured is dispersed among 95 SHI. At this point, 11 contracts with SHI are realised (approximately 50% of the insured) and 8 data controlling authorities have been contacted. The problems involved in the fusion of SHI and its meaning for research are explained in this article. The fusion of SHI makes sense for the long term. It will lead to a reduction of contacts and contracts that researchers have to establish in order to analyse the data. Therefore, this article also discusses the alternative of creating a meta-data set of all the data from the different SHI combined. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Thanks to CERN's team of surveyors, the Organization's stand at the Night of Science attracted a large number of visitors : the technology and tools used by the surveyors, such as the Terrameter shown here, attracted many visitors to the CERN stand

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Thanks to CERN's team of surveyors, the Organization's stand at the Night of Science attracted a large number of visitors : the technology and tools used by the surveyors, such as the Terrameter shown here, attracted many visitors to the CERN stand

  19. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, H. Craig

    1997-01-01

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

  20. Neutrino fluxes produced by high energy solar flare particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomeets, E.V.; Shmonin, V.L.

    1975-01-01

    In this work the calculated differential energy spectra of neutrinos poduced by high energy protons accelerated during 'small' solar flares are presented. The muon flux produced by neutrino interactions with the matter at large depths under the ground is calculated. The obtained flux of muons for the total number of solar flare accelerated protons of 10 28 - 10 32 is within 10 9 - 10 13 particles/cm 2 X s x ster. (orig.) [de

  1. Direct-photon spectrum and elliptic flow produced from Pb+Pb collisions at √{sN N}=2.76 TeV at the CERN Large Hadron Collider within an integrated hydrokinetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naboka, V. Yu.; Sinyukov, Yu. M.; Zinovjev, G. M.

    2018-05-01

    The photon transverse momentum spectrum and its anisotropy from Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider energy √{sN N}=2.76 TeV are investigated within the integrated hydrokinetic model (iHKM). Photon production is accumulated from the different processes at the various stages of relativistic heavy ion collisions: from the primary hard photons of very early stage of parton collisions to the thermal photons from equilibrated quark-gluon and hadron gas stages. Along the way a hadronic medium evolution is treated in two distinct, in a sense opposite, approaches: chemically equilibrated and chemically frozen system expansion. Studying the centrality dependence of the results obtained allows us to conclude that a relatively strong transverse momentum anisotropy of thermal radiation is suppressed by prompt photon emission which is an isotropic. We find out that this effect is getting stronger as centrality increases because of the simultaneous increase in the relative contribution of prompt photons in the soft part of the spectra. The substantial results obtained in iHKM with nonzero viscosity (η /s =0.08 ) for photon spectra and v2 coefficients are mostly within the error bars of experimental data, but there is some systematic underestimation of both observables for the near central events. We claim that a situation could be significantly improved if an additional photon radiation that accompanies the presence of a deconfined environment is included. Since a matter of a space-time layer where hadronization takes place is actively involved in anisotropic transverse flow, both positive contributions to the spectra and v2 are considerable, albeit such an argument needs further research and elaboration.

  2. Number-unconstrained quantum sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Morgan W.

    2017-12-01

    Quantum sensing is commonly described as a constrained optimization problem: maximize the information gained about an unknown quantity using a limited number of particles. Important sensors including gravitational wave interferometers and some atomic sensors do not appear to fit this description, because there is no external constraint on particle number. Here, we develop the theory of particle-number-unconstrained quantum sensing, and describe how optimal particle numbers emerge from the competition of particle-environment and particle-particle interactions. We apply the theory to optical probing of an atomic medium modeled as a resonant, saturable absorber, and observe the emergence of well-defined finite optima without external constraints. The results contradict some expectations from number-constrained quantum sensing and show that probing with squeezed beams can give a large sensitivity advantage over classical strategies when each is optimized for particle number.

  3. Large scale electrolysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B Bello; M Junker

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen production by water electrolysis represents nearly 4 % of the world hydrogen production. Future development of hydrogen vehicles will require large quantities of hydrogen. Installation of large scale hydrogen production plants will be needed. In this context, development of low cost large scale electrolysers that could use 'clean power' seems necessary. ALPHEA HYDROGEN, an European network and center of expertise on hydrogen and fuel cells, has performed for its members a study in 2005 to evaluate the potential of large scale electrolysers to produce hydrogen in the future. The different electrolysis technologies were compared. Then, a state of art of the electrolysis modules currently available was made. A review of the large scale electrolysis plants that have been installed in the world was also realized. The main projects related to large scale electrolysis were also listed. Economy of large scale electrolysers has been discussed. The influence of energy prices on the hydrogen production cost by large scale electrolysis was evaluated. (authors)

  4. Large transverse momentum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1977-09-01

    It is pointed out that it is particularly significant that the quantum numbers of the leading particles are strongly correlated with the quantum numbers of the incident hadrons indicating that the valence quarks themselves are transferred to large p/sub t/. The crucial question is how they get there. Various hadron reactions are discussed covering the structure of exclusive reactions, inclusive reactions, normalization of inclusive cross sections, charge correlations, and jet production at large transverse momentum. 46 references

  5. Number words and number symbols a cultural history of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Menninger, Karl

    1992-01-01

    Classic study discusses number sequence and language and explores written numerals and computations in many cultures. "The historian of mathematics will find much to interest him here both in the contents and viewpoint, while the casual reader is likely to be intrigued by the author's superior narrative ability.

  6. Extraction Tools for Identification of Chemical Contaminants in Estuarine and Coastal Waters to Determine Toxic Pressure on Primary Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, P; Sjollema, S.B.; Leonards, P.E.G.; de Voogt, P.; Stroomberg, G.J.; Vethaak, A.D.; Lamoree, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which chemical stressors affect primary producers in estuarine and coastal waters is largely unknown. However, given the large number of legacy pollutants and chemicals of emerging concern present in the environment, this is an important and relevant issue that requires further study.

  7. Visuospatial Priming of the Mental Number Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoianov, Ivilin; Kramer, Peter; Umilta, Carlo; Zorzi, Marco

    2008-01-01

    It has been argued that numbers are spatially organized along a "mental number line" that facilitates left-hand responses to small numbers, and right-hand responses to large numbers. We hypothesized that whenever the representations of visual and numerical space are concurrently activated, interactions can occur between them, before response…

  8. teaching multiplication of large positive whole numbers using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Grating Method, History of Mathematics, Long Multiplication. ... The Wolfram mathworld (n.d.) opined that the ... A further simple random sampling was carried out to select an intact class of 40 students from each of the sampled ...

  9. Boll weevil: experimental sterilization of large numbers by fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, J.W.; Wright, J.E.; Davich, T.B.; Roberson, J.; Griffin, J.G.; Darden, E.

    1978-01-01

    Boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, 9 days after egg implantation in the larval diet were transported from the Boll Weevil Research Laboratory, Mississippi State, MS, to the Comparative Animal Research Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, and irradiated with 6.9 krad (test 1) or 7.2 krad (test 2) of 60 Co gamma rays delivered in 25 equal doses over 100 h. In test 1, from 600 individual pairs of T (treated) males x N (normal) females, only 114 eggs hatched from a sample of 950 eggs, and 47 adults emerged from a sample of 1042 eggs. Also, from 600 pairs of T females x N males, 6 eggs hatched of a sample of 6 eggs and 12 adults emerged from a sample of 20 eggs. In test 2, from 700 individual pairs of T males x N females, 54 eggs hatched from a sample of 1510, and 10 adults emerged from a sample of 1703 eggs. Also, in T females x N males matings, 1 egg hatched of a sample of 3, and no adults emerged from a sample of 4. Transportation and handling in the 2nd test reduced adult emergence an avg of 49%. Thus the 2 replicates in test 2 resulted in 3.4 x 10 5 and 4.3 x 10 5 irradiated weevils emerging/day for 7 days. Bacterial contamination of weevils was low

  10. Files synchronization from a large number of insertions and deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellappan, Vijayan; Kumari, Savera

    2017-11-01

    Synchronization between different versions of files is becoming a major issue that most of the applications are facing. To make the applications more efficient a economical algorithm is developed from the previously used algorithm of “File Loading Algorithm”. I am extending this algorithm in three ways: First, dealing with non-binary files, Second backup is generated for uploaded files and lastly each files are synchronized with insertions and deletions. User can reconstruct file from the former file with minimizing the error and also provides interactive communication by eliminating the frequency without any disturbance. The drawback of previous system is overcome by using synchronization, in which multiple copies of each file/record is created and stored in backup database and is efficiently restored in case of any unwanted deletion or loss of data. That is, to introduce a protocol that user B may use to reconstruct file X from file Y with suitably low probability of error. Synchronization algorithms find numerous areas of use, including data storage, file sharing, source code control systems, and cloud applications. For example, cloud storage services such as Drop box synchronize between local copies and cloud backups each time users make changes to local versions. Similarly, synchronization tools are necessary in mobile devices. Specialized synchronization algorithms are used for video and sound editing. Synchronization tools are also capable of performing data duplication.

  11. Large numbers hypothesis. IV - The cosmological constant and quantum physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    In standard physics quantum field theory is based on a flat vacuum space-time. This quantum field theory predicts a nonzero cosmological constant. Hence the gravitational field equations do not admit a flat vacuum space-time. This dilemma is resolved using the units covariant gravitational field equations. This paper shows that the field equations admit a flat vacuum space-time with nonzero cosmological constant if and only if the canonical LNH is valid. This allows an interpretation of the LNH phenomena in terms of a time-dependent vacuum state. If this is correct then the cosmological constant must be positive.

  12. The large Reynolds number - Asymptotic theory of turbulent boundary layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    A self-consistent, asymptotic expansion of the one-point, mean turbulent equations of motion is obtained. Results such as the velocity defect law and the law of the wall evolve in a relatively rigorous manner, and a systematic ordering of the mean velocity boundary layer equations and their interaction with the main stream flow are obtained. The analysis is extended to the turbulent energy equation and to a treatment of the small scale equilibrium range of Kolmogoroff; in velocity correlation space the two-thirds power law is obtained. Thus, the two well-known 'laws' of turbulent flow are imbedded in an analysis which provides a great deal of other information.

  13. Rabi-vibronic resonance with large number of vibrational quanta

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn, R.; Raikh, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    We study theoretically the Rabi oscillations of a resonantly driven two-level system linearly coupled to a harmonic oscillator (vibrational mode) with frequency, \\omega_0. We show that for weak coupling, \\omega_p \\ll \\omega_0, where \\omega_p is the polaronic shift, Rabi oscillations are strongly modified in the vicinity of the Rabi-vibronic resonance \\Omega_R = \\omega_0, where \\Omega_R is the Rabi frequency. The width of the resonance is (\\Omega_R-\\omega_0) \\sim \\omega_p^{2/3} \\omega_0^{1/3} ...

  14. Our prescription drugs kill us in large numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Our prescription drugs are the third leading cause of death after heart disease and cancer in the United States and Europe. Around half of those who die have taken their drugs correctly; the other half die because of errors, such as too high a dose or use of a drug despite contraindications. Our...

  15. Diamond Fuzzy Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pathinathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we define diamond fuzzy number with the help of triangular fuzzy number. We include basic arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction of diamond fuzzy numbers with examples. We define diamond fuzzy matrix with some matrix properties. We have defined Nested diamond fuzzy number and Linked diamond fuzzy number. We have further classified Right Linked Diamond Fuzzy number and Left Linked Diamond Fuzzy number. Finally we have verified the arithmetic operations for the above mentioned types of Diamond Fuzzy Numbers.

  16. From Calculus to Number Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. Raghuram

    2016-11-04

    Nov 4, 2016 ... diverges to infinity. This means given any number M, however large, we can add sufficiently many terms in the above series to make the sum larger than M. This was first proved by Nicole Oresme (1323-1382), a brilliant. French philosopher of his times.

  17. Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)—positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis—produces commercially...

  18. Building Numbers from Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  19. Introduction to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vazzana, Anthony; Garth, David

    2007-01-01

    One of the oldest branches of mathematics, number theory is a vast field devoted to studying the properties of whole numbers. Offering a flexible format for a one- or two-semester course, Introduction to Number Theory uses worked examples, numerous exercises, and two popular software packages to describe a diverse array of number theory topics.

  20. Producing charcoal from wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental works to use wood wastes for producing charcoal are examined, which are being conducted in the Sverdlovsk assembly and adjustment administration of Soyuzorglestekhmontazh. A wasteless prototype installation for producing fine charcoal is described, along with its subsequent briqueting, which is made on the basis of units which are series produced by the factories of the country. The installation includes subassemblies for preparing and drying the raw material and for producing the charcoal briquets. In the opinion of specialists, the charcoal produced from the wastes may be effectively used in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and in the production of pipes.

  1. Comparison of trends in abundance of guano-producing seabirds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The abundant guano-producing seabirds in Peru and southern Africa feed mainly on the large populations of anchovy Engraulis spp. and sardine Sardinops sagax supported by the Humboldt and Benguela upwelling systems. Numbers of guanay cormorants Phalacrocorax bougainvillii in Peru and the breeding population ...

  2. On the number of special numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    without loss of any generality to be the first k primes), then the equation a + b = c has .... This is an elementary exercise in partial summation (see [12]). Thus ... This is easily done by inserting a stronger form of the prime number theorem into the.

  3. Produção de cebola sobre palhada a partir de mudas obtidas em bandejas com diferentes números de células Onion yield in no-tillage system using seedlings produced in trays with different cell numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Y Reghin

    2006-12-01

    qualidade de bulbos, tendo destaque a muda M1 que apresentou rendimento acima de 77,0 % de bulbos das classes 3C (60The experiment was carried out in Ponta Grossa-PR, aiming to evaluate onion seedlings produced in trays with different cell numbers and their further field production under a no tillage system. Onion seedlings were produced under protected cultivation. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, with three replications. Treatments followed a factorial scheme 4 x 3, with four cultivars (Mercedes, Bola Precoce, Crioula and Montana and three types of polystyrene trays, with 128, 200 and 288 cells. The substrate used was Plantmax® and seeds were sowed in May, 15. Seedlings were evaluated 53 days after sowing for length, fresh, and dry weight of upground and root material. The field trial was carried out on dry oat straw. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, with three replications, with the following treatments: four cultivars (Mercedes, Bola Precoce, Crioula, and Montana and three tray types; 128 (M1, 200 (M2, and 288 cells (M3. 84 days after transplanting, plant height, leaf number and neck diameter were evaluated. Plants were harvested on different days, according to maturation. Yield was evaluated and bulbs were graded by diameter into classes. In seedling production, it was observed that the highest values for onion upground length and fresh weight were obtained on seedlings produced in 128 cells to all cultivars. The largest size of the M1 seedlings was an important attribute to define quality on seedlings production. This characteristic reflected on early bulbification and higher bulb yield and quality, when compared with M2 and M3 seedlings. Independent of the cultivar, seedlings produced in trays resulted in high yield (average of 90,7 t ha-1 and high bulb quality and M1 seedlings shower strong concentration of bulbs graded into classes 3 C (60 < Ø <70 mm and 4 (70 < Ø <90mm.

  4. A novel method for producing multiple ionization of noble gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Li; Li Haiyang; Dai Dongxu; Bai Jiling; Lu Richang

    1997-01-01

    We introduce a novel method for producing multiple ionization of He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe. A nanosecond pulsed electron beam with large number density, which could be energy-controlled, was produced by incidence a focused 308 nm laser beam onto a stainless steel grid. On Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer, using this electron beam, we obtained multiple ionization of noble gas He, Ne, Ar and Xe. Time of fight mass spectra of these ions were given out. These ions were supposed to be produced by step by step ionization of the gas atoms by electron beam impact. This method may be used as a ideal soft ionizing point ion source in Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer

  5. Large-scale patterns in Rayleigh-Benard convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardenberg, J. von; Parodi, A.; Passoni, G.; Provenzale, A.; Spiegel, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Rayleigh-Benard convection at large Rayleigh number is characterized by the presence of intense, vertically moving plumes. Both laboratory and numerical experiments reveal that the rising and descending plumes aggregate into separate clusters so as to produce large-scale updrafts and downdrafts. The horizontal scales of the aggregates reported so far have been comparable to the horizontal extent of the containers, but it has not been clear whether that represents a limitation imposed by domain size. In this work, we present numerical simulations of convection at sufficiently large aspect ratio to ascertain whether there is an intrinsic saturation scale for the clustering process when that ratio is large enough. From a series of simulations of Rayleigh-Benard convection with Rayleigh numbers between 10 5 and 10 8 and with aspect ratios up to 12π, we conclude that the clustering process has a finite horizontal saturation scale with at most a weak dependence on Rayleigh number in the range studied

  6. Classical theory of algebraic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Ribenboim, Paulo

    2001-01-01

    Gauss created the theory of binary quadratic forms in "Disquisitiones Arithmeticae" and Kummer invented ideals and the theory of cyclotomic fields in his attempt to prove Fermat's Last Theorem These were the starting points for the theory of algebraic numbers, developed in the classical papers of Dedekind, Dirichlet, Eisenstein, Hermite and many others This theory, enriched with more recent contributions, is of basic importance in the study of diophantine equations and arithmetic algebraic geometry, including methods in cryptography This book has a clear and thorough exposition of the classical theory of algebraic numbers, and contains a large number of exercises as well as worked out numerical examples The Introduction is a recapitulation of results about principal ideal domains, unique factorization domains and commutative fields Part One is devoted to residue classes and quadratic residues In Part Two one finds the study of algebraic integers, ideals, units, class numbers, the theory of decomposition, iner...

  7. It's a Girl! Random Numbers, Simulations, and the Law of Large Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Chris; Ortiz, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Modeling using mathematics and making inferences about mathematical situations are becoming more prevalent in most fields of study. Descriptive statistics cannot be used to generalize about a population or make predictions of what can occur. Instead, inference must be used. Simulation and sampling are essential in building a foundation for…

  8. p-adic numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Grešak, Rozalija

    2015-01-01

    The field of real numbers is usually constructed using Dedekind cuts. In these thesis we focus on the construction of the field of real numbers using metric completion of rational numbers using Cauchy sequences. In a similar manner we construct the field of p-adic numbers, describe some of their basic and topological properties. We follow by a construction of complex p-adic numbers and we compare them with the ordinary complex numbers. We conclude the thesis by giving a motivation for the int...

  9. On the number of special numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We now apply the theory of the Thue equation to obtain an effective bound on m. Indeed, by Lemma 3.2, we can write m2 = ba3 and m2 − 4 = cd3 with b, c cubefree. By the above, both b, c are bounded since they are cubefree and all their prime factors are less than e63727. Now we have a finite number of. Thue equations:.

  10. Number projection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, K.

    1987-01-01

    A relationship between the number projection and the shell model methods is investigated in the case of a single-j shell. We can find a one-to-one correspondence between the number projected and the shell model states

  11. Numbers and brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2017-12-01

    The representation of discrete and continuous quantities appears to be ancient and pervasive in animal brains. Because numbers are the natural carriers of these representations, we may discover that in brains, it's numbers all the way down.

  12. LHCb: Managing Large Data Productions in LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Tsaregorodtsev, A

    2009-01-01

    LHC experiments are producing very large volumes of data either accumulated from the detectors or generated via the Monte-Carlo modeling. The data should be processed as quickly as possible to provide users with the input for their analysis. Processing of multiple hundreds of terabytes of data necessitates generation, submission and following a huge number of grid jobs running all over the Computing Grid. Manipulation of these large and complex workloads is impossible without powerful production management tools. In LHCb, the DIRAC Production Management System (PMS) is used to accomplish this task. It enables production managers and end-users to deal with all kinds of data generation, processing and storage. Application workflow tools allow to define jobs as complex sequences of elementary application steps expressed as Directed Acyclic Graphs. Specialized databases and a number of dedicated software agents ensure automated data driven job creation and submission. The productions are accomplished by thorough ...

  13. Number in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    had a marked singular and an unmarked plural. Synchronically, however, the singular is arguably the basic member of the number category as revealed by the use of the two numbers. In addition, some nouns have a collective form, which is grammatically singular. Number also plays a role...

  14. Safety-in-numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Bjørnskau, Torkel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •26 studies of the safety-in-numbers effect are reviewed. •The existence of a safety-in-numbers effect is confirmed. •Results are consistent. •Causes of the safety-in-numbers effect are incompletely known....

  15. Discovery: Prime Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestre, Neville

    2008-01-01

    Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…

  16. Producing liquid fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solantausta, Yrjo; Gust, Steven

    The aim of this survey was to compare, on techno-economic criteria, alternatives of producing liquid fuels from indigenous raw materials in Finland. Another aim was to compare methods under development and prepare a proposal for steering research related to this field. Process concepts were prepared for a number of alternatives, as well as analogous balances and production and investment cost assessments for these balances. Carbon dioxide emissions of the alternatives and the price of CO2 reduction were also studied. All the alternatives for producing liquid fuels from indigenous raw materials are utmost unprofitable. There are great differences between the alternatives. While the production cost of ethanol is 6 to 9 times higher than the market value of the product, the equivalent ratio for substitute fuel oil produced from peat by pyrolysis is 3 to 4. However, it should be borne in mind that the technical uncertainties related to the alternatives are of different magnitude. Production of ethanol from barley is of commercial technology, while biomass pyrolysis is still under development. If the aim is to reach smaller carbon dioxide emissions by using liquid biofuels, the most favorable alternative is pyrolysis oil produced from wood. Fuels produced from cultivated biomass are more expensive ways of reducing CO2 emissions. Their potential of reducing CO2 emissions in Finland is insignificant. Integration of liquid fuel production to some other production line is more profitable.

  17. The large-s field-reversed configuration experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A.L.; Carey, L.N.; Crawford, E.A.; Harding, D.G.; DeHart, T.E.; McDonald, K.F.; McNeil, J.L.; Milroy, R.D.; Slough, J.T.; Maqueda, R.; Wurden, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Large-s Experiment (LSX) was built to study the formation and equilibrium properties of field-reversed configurations (FRCs) as the scale size increases. The dynamic, field-reversed theta-pinch method of FRC creation produces axial and azimuthal deformations and makes formation difficult, especially in large devices with large s (number of internal gyroradii) where it is difficult to achieve initial plasma uniformity. However, with the proper technique, these formation distortions can be minimized and are then observed to decay with time. This suggests that the basic stability and robustness of FRCs formed, and in some cases translated, in smaller devices may also characterize larger FRCs. Elaborate formation controls were included on LSX to provide the initial uniformity and symmetry necessary to minimize formation disturbances, and stable FRCs could be formed up to the design goal of s = 8. For x ≤ 4, the formation distortions decayed away completely, resulting in symmetric equilibrium FRCs with record confinement times up to 0.5 ms, agreeing with previous empirical scaling laws (τ∝sR). Above s = 4, reasonably long-lived (up to 0.3 ms) configurations could still be formed, but the initial formation distortions were so large that they never completely decayed away, and the equilibrium confinement was degraded from the empirical expectations. The LSX was only operational for 1 yr, and it is not known whether s = 4 represents a fundamental limit for good confinement in simple (no ion beam stabilization) FRCs or whether it simply reflects a limit of present formation technology. Ideally, s could be increased through flux buildup from neutral beams. Since the addition of kinetic or beam ions will probably be desirable for heating, sustainment, and further stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic modes at reactor-level s values, neutral beam injection is the next logical step in FRC development. 24 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Number to finger mapping is topological.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, M.A.; Smeets, J.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that humans associate fingers with numbers because finger counting strategies interact with numerical judgements. At the same time, there is evidence that there is a relation between number magnitude and space as small to large numbers seem to be represented from left to right. In

  19. Biologically produced sulfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are

  20. Consumers and Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Maira (Elisa)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the last few decades, advances in information and communication technology have dramatically changed the way consumers and producers interact in the marketplace. The Internet and social media have torn down the information barrier between producers and consumers, leading to

  1. Producers and oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, W.

    1993-01-01

    This article attempts an assessment of the potential use of futures by the Middle East oil producers. It focuses on Saudi Arabia since the sheer size of Saudi Arabian sales poses problems, but the basic issues discussed are similar for the other Middle East producers. (Author)

  2. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Deuschel, Jean-Dominique; Deuschel, Jean-Dominique

    2001-01-01

    This is the second printing of the book first published in 1988. The first four chapters of the volume are based on lectures given by Stroock at MIT in 1987. They form an introduction to the basic ideas of the theory of large deviations and make a suitable package on which to base a semester-length course for advanced graduate students with a strong background in analysis and some probability theory. A large selection of exercises presents important material and many applications. The last two chapters present various non-uniform results (Chapter 5) and outline the analytic approach that allow

  3. Predicting Lotto Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus Bjørn; Suetens, Sigrid; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    numbers based on recent drawings. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week without regards of numbers drawn or anything else, we find that those who do change, act on average in the way predicted by the law of small numbers as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular......We investigate the “law of small numbers” using a unique panel data set on lotto gambling. Because we can track individual players over time, we can measure how they react to outcomes of recent lotto drawings. We can therefore test whether they behave as if they believe they can predict lotto......, on average they move away from numbers that have recently been drawn, as suggested by the “gambler’s fallacy”, and move toward numbers that are on streak, i.e. have been drawn several weeks in a row, consistent with the “hot hand fallacy”....

  4. Invitation to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ore, Oystein

    2017-01-01

    Number theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with the counting numbers, 1, 2, 3, … and their multiples and factors. Of particular importance are odd and even numbers, squares and cubes, and prime numbers. But in spite of their simplicity, you will meet a multitude of topics in this book: magic squares, cryptarithms, finding the day of the week for a given date, constructing regular polygons, pythagorean triples, and many more. In this revised edition, John Watkins and Robin Wilson have updated the text to bring it in line with contemporary developments. They have added new material on Fermat's Last Theorem, the role of computers in number theory, and the use of number theory in cryptography, and have made numerous minor changes in the presentation and layout of the text and the exercises.

  5. Experimental determination of Ramsey numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhengbing; Chudak, Fabian; Macready, William G; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank

    2013-09-27

    Ramsey theory is a highly active research area in mathematics that studies the emergence of order in large disordered structures. Ramsey numbers mark the threshold at which order first appears and are extremely difficult to calculate due to their explosive rate of growth. Recently, an algorithm that can be implemented using adiabatic quantum evolution has been proposed that calculates the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n). Here we present results of an experimental implementation of this algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(m,2) for 4≤m≤8. The R(8,2) computation used 84 qubits of which 28 were computational qubits. This computation is the largest experimental implementation of a scientifically meaningful adiabatic evolution algorithm that has been done to date.

  6. Producing the Spielberg Brand

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter looks at the manufacture of Spielberg’s brand, and the limits of its usage. Spielberg’s directorial work is well known, but Spielberg’s identity has also been established in other ways, and I focus particularly on his work as a producer. At the time of writing, Spielberg had produced (or executive produced) 148 movies and television series across a range of genres that takes in high budget blockbusters and low budget documentaries, with many more to come. In these texts, Spielber...

  7. The adventure of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Godefroy, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    Numbers are fascinating. The fascination begins in childhood, when we first learn to count. It continues as we learn arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and so on. Eventually, we learn that numbers not only help us to measure the world, but also to understand it and, to some extent, to control it. In The Adventure of Numbers, Gilles Godefroy follows the thread of our expanding understanding of numbers to lead us through the history of mathematics. His goal is to share the joy of discovering and understanding this great adventure of the mind. The development of mathematics has been punctuated by a n

  8. Predicting Lotto Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetens, Sigrid; Galbo-Jørgensen, Claus B.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the ‘law of small numbers’ using a data set on lotto gambling that allows us to measure players’ reactions to draws. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week, we find that those who do change react on average as predicted by the law of small numbers...... as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular, players tend to bet less on numbers that have been drawn in the preceding week, as suggested by the ‘gambler’s fallacy’, and bet more on a number if it was frequently drawn in the recent past, consistent with the ‘hot-hand fallacy’....

  9. Beurling generalized numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, Harold G; Cheung, Man Ping

    2016-01-01

    "Generalized numbers" is a multiplicative structure introduced by A. Beurling to study how independent prime number theory is from the additivity of the natural numbers. The results and techniques of this theory apply to other systems having the character of prime numbers and integers; for example, it is used in the study of the prime number theorem (PNT) for ideals of algebraic number fields. Using both analytic and elementary methods, this book presents many old and new theorems, including several of the authors' results, and many examples of extremal behavior of g-number systems. Also, the authors give detailed accounts of the L^2 PNT theorem of J. P. Kahane and of the example created with H. L. Montgomery, showing that additive structure is needed for proving the Riemann hypothesis. Other interesting topics discussed are propositions "equivalent" to the PNT, the role of multiplicative convolution and Chebyshev's prime number formula for g-numbers, and how Beurling theory provides an interpretation of the ...

  10. Intuitive numbers guide decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Peters

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Measuring reaction times to number comparisons is thought to reveal a processing stage in elementary numerical cognition linked to internal, imprecise representations of number magnitudes. These intuitive representations of the mental number line have been demonstrated across species and human development but have been little explored in decision making. This paper develops and tests hypotheses about the influence of such evolutionarily ancient, intuitive numbers on human decisions. We demonstrate that individuals with more precise mental-number-line representations are higher in numeracy (number skills consistent with previous research with children. Individuals with more precise representations (compared to those with less precise representations also were more likely to choose larger, later amounts over smaller, immediate amounts, particularly with a larger proportional difference between the two monetary outcomes. In addition, they were more likely to choose an option with a larger proportional but smaller absolute difference compared to those with less precise representations. These results are consistent with intuitive number representations underlying: a perceived differences between numbers, b the extent to which proportional differences are weighed in decisions, and, ultimately, c the valuation of decision options. Human decision processes involving numbers important to health and financial matters may be rooted in elementary, biological processes shared with other species.

  11. Numbers, sequences and series

    CERN Document Server

    Hirst, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Number and geometry are the foundations upon which mathematics has been built over some 3000 years. This book is concerned with the logical foundations of number systems from integers to complex numbers. The author has chosen to develop the ideas by illustrating the techniques used throughout mathematics rather than using a self-contained logical treatise. The idea of proof has been emphasised, as has the illustration of concepts from a graphical, numerical and algebraic point of view. Having laid the foundations of the number system, the author has then turned to the analysis of infinite proc

  12. Bio-based production of fuels and industrial chemicals by repurposing antibiotic-producing type I modular polyketide synthases: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzawa, Satoshi; Keasling, Jay D; Katz, Leonard

    2017-04-01

    Complex polyketides comprise a large number of natural products that have broad application in medicine and agriculture. They are produced in bacteria and fungi from large enzyme complexes named type I modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) that are composed of multifunctional polypeptides containing discrete enzymatic domains organized into modules. The modular nature of PKSs has enabled a multitude of efforts to engineer the PKS genes to produce novel polyketides of predicted structure. We have repurposed PKSs to produce a number of short-chain mono- and di-carboxylic acids and ketones that could have applications as fuels or industrial chemicals.

  13. Bio-based production of fuels and industrial chemicals by repurposing antibiotic-producing type I modular polyketide synthases: opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuzawa, Satoshi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Keasling, Jay D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). QB3 Inst.; Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Bioengineering; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Technical Univ. of Denmark, Horsholm (Denmark). Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability; Katz, Leonard [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). QB3 Inst.

    2016-11-16

    Complex polyketides comprise a large number of natural products that have broad application in medicine and agriculture. They are produced in bacteria and fungi from large enzyme complexes named type I modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) that are composed of multifunctional polypeptides containing discrete enzymatic domains organized into modules. The modular nature of PKSs has enabled a multitude of efforts to engineer the PKS genes to produce novel polyketides of predicted structure. Finally, we have repurposed PKSs to produce a number of short-chain mono- and di-carboxylic acids and ketones that could have applications as fuels or industrial chemicals.

  14. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  15. Hyperreal Numbers for Infinite Divergent Series

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Treating divergent series properly has been an ongoing issue in mathematics. However, many of the problems in divergent series stem from the fact that divergent series were discovered prior to having a number system which could handle them. The infinities that resulted from divergent series led to contradictions within the real number system, but these contradictions are largely alleviated with the hyperreal number system. Hyperreal numbers provide a framework for dealing with divergent serie...

  16. Structural bursts produced by high energy muons in the rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, K.; Takahashi, T.; Teramoto, Y.; Higashi, S.; Ozaki, S.

    1975-01-01

    Lateral structures of bursts produced by high energy muons in the rock have been observed at a depth 30 mw. e. underground by use of two layers of proportional counters. The running times were 7940 hr. The number of structural bursts observed, which have two cores in the both layers ( 1 >= 200, N 2 >= 20 particles) is 110, 1.6% of total events. These structural bursts have two types; 1) incident directions of two cores are parallel, 2) two cores intersect in the rock within 2 m above the roof of the tunnel. The events of this 2) type have large transverse momentum. (orig.) [de

  17. Methods for producing diterpenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention discloses that by combining different di TPS enzymes of class I and class II different diterpenes may be produced including diterpenes not identified in nature. Surprisingly it is revealed that a di TPS enzyme of class I of one species may be combined with a di TPS enzyme...... of class II from a different species, resulting in a high diversity of diterpenes, which can be produced....

  18. Polysaccharide-producing microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braud, J.P.; Chaumont, D.; Gudin, C.; Thepenier, C.; Chassin, P.; Lemaire, C.

    1982-11-01

    The production of extracellular polysaccharides is studied with Nostoc sp (cyanophycus), Porphiridium cruentum, Rhodosorus marinus, Rhodella maculata (rhodophyci) and Chlamydomonas mexicana (chlorophycus). The polysaccharides produced are separated by centrifugation of the culture then precipitation with alcohol. Their chemical structure was studied by infrared spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. By their rheological properties and especially their insensitivity to temperatrure and pH variations the polysaccharides produced by Porphryridium cruentum and Rhodella maculata appear as suitable candidates for industrial applications.

  19. 7 CFR 46.20 - Lot numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and entered on all sales tickets identifying and segregating the sales from the various shipments on hand. The lot number shall be entered on the sales tickets by the salesmen at the time of sale or by the produce dispatcher, and not by bookkeepers or others after the sales have been made. No lot number...

  20. A Fast Shutdown Technique for Large Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, E.; Schmidt, G.L.; Hill, K.; Jardin, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    A practical method is proposed for the fast shutdown of a large ignited tokamak. The method consists of injecting a rapid series of 30-50 deuterium pellets doped with a small ( 0.0005%) concentration of Krypton impurity, and simultaneously ramping the plasma current and shaping fields down over a period of several seconds using the poloidal field system. Detailed modeling with the Tokamak Simulation Code using a newly developed pellet mass deposition model shows that this method should terminate the discharge in a controlled and stable way without producing significant numbers of runaway electrons. A partial prototyping of this technique was accomplished in TFTR

  1. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  2. The MIXMAX random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvidy, Konstantin G.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we study the randomness properties of unimodular matrix random number generators. Under well-known conditions, these discrete-time dynamical systems have the highly desirable K-mixing properties which guarantee high quality random numbers. It is found that some widely used random number generators have poor Kolmogorov entropy and consequently fail in empirical tests of randomness. These tests show that the lowest acceptable value of the Kolmogorov entropy is around 50. Next, we provide a solution to the problem of determining the maximal period of unimodular matrix generators of pseudo-random numbers. We formulate the necessary and sufficient condition to attain the maximum period and present a family of specific generators in the MIXMAX family with superior performance and excellent statistical properties. Finally, we construct three efficient algorithms for operations with the MIXMAX matrix which is a multi-dimensional generalization of the famous cat-map. First, allowing to compute the multiplication by the MIXMAX matrix with O(N) operations. Second, to recursively compute its characteristic polynomial with O(N2) operations, and third, to apply skips of large number of steps S to the sequence in O(N2 log(S)) operations.

  3. Leaders produce leaders and managers produce followers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshhal, Khalid I.; Guraya, Salman Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To elaborate the desired qualities, traits, and styles of physician’s leadership with a deep insight into the recommended measures to inculcate leadership skills in physicians. Methods: The databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library were searched for the full-text English-language articles published during the period 2000-2015. Further search, including manual search of grey literature, was conducted from the bibliographic list of all included articles. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords “Leadership” AND “Leadership traits” AND “Leadership styles” AND “Physicians’ leadership” AND “Tomorrow’s doctors” were used for the literature search. This search followed a step-wise approach defined by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The retrieved bibliographic list was analyzed and non-relevant material such as abstracts, conference proceedings, letters to editor, and short communications were excluded. Finally, 21 articles were selected for this review. Results: The literature search showed a number of leadership courses and formal training programs that can transform doctors to physician leaders. Leaders can inculcate confidence by integrating diverse views and listening; supporting skillful conversations through dialogue and helping others assess their influence and expertise. In addition to their clinical competence, physician leaders need to acquire the industry knowledge (clinical processes, health-care trends, budget), problem-solving skills, and emotional intelligence. Conclusion: This review emphasizes the need for embedding formal leadership courses in the medical curricula for fostering tomorrow doctors’ leadership and organizational skills. The in-house and off-campus training programs and workshops should be arranged for grooming the potential candidates for effective leadership. PMID:27652355

  4. Random number generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coveyou, R.R.

    1974-01-01

    The subject of random number generation is currently controversial. Differing opinions on this subject seem to stem from implicit or explicit differences in philosophy; in particular, from differing ideas concerning the role of probability in the real world of physical processes, electronic computers, and Monte Carlo calculations. An attempt is made here to reconcile these views. The role of stochastic ideas in mathematical models is discussed. In illustration of these ideas, a mathematical model of the use of random number generators in Monte Carlo calculations is constructed. This model is used to set up criteria for the comparison and evaluation of random number generators. (U.S.)

  5. Algebraic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Edwin

    1998-01-01

    Careful organization and clear, detailed proofs characterize this methodical, self-contained exposition of basic results of classical algebraic number theory from a relatively modem point of view. This volume presents most of the number-theoretic prerequisites for a study of either class field theory (as formulated by Artin and Tate) or the contemporary treatment of analytical questions (as found, for example, in Tate's thesis).Although concerned exclusively with algebraic number fields, this treatment features axiomatic formulations with a considerable range of applications. Modem abstract te

  6. Advanced number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cohn, Harvey

    1980-01-01

    ""A very stimulating book ... in a class by itself."" - American Mathematical MonthlyAdvanced students, mathematicians and number theorists will welcome this stimulating treatment of advanced number theory, which approaches the complex topic of algebraic number theory from a historical standpoint, taking pains to show the reader how concepts, definitions and theories have evolved during the last two centuries. Moreover, the book abounds with numerical examples and more concrete, specific theorems than are found in most contemporary treatments of the subject.The book is divided into three parts

  7. The emergence of number

    CERN Document Server

    Crossley, John N

    1987-01-01

    This book presents detailed studies of the development of three kinds of number. In the first part the development of the natural numbers from Stone-Age times right up to the present day is examined not only from the point of view of pure history but also taking into account archaeological, anthropological and linguistic evidence. The dramatic change caused by the introduction of logical theories of number in the 19th century is also treated and this part ends with a non-technical account of the very latest developments in the area of Gödel's theorem. The second part is concerned with the deve

  8. Professor Stewart's incredible numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Ian Stewart explores the astonishing properties of numbers from 1 to10 to zero and infinity, including one figure that, if you wrote it out, would span the universe. He looks at every kind of number you can think of - real, imaginary, rational, irrational, positive and negative - along with several you might have thought you couldn't think of. He explains the insights of the ancient mathematicians, shows how numbers have evolved through the ages, and reveals the way numerical theory enables everyday life. Under Professor Stewart's guidance you will discover the mathematics of codes,

  9. Fundamentals of number theory

    CERN Document Server

    LeVeque, William J

    1996-01-01

    This excellent textbook introduces the basics of number theory, incorporating the language of abstract algebra. A knowledge of such algebraic concepts as group, ring, field, and domain is not assumed, however; all terms are defined and examples are given - making the book self-contained in this respect.The author begins with an introductory chapter on number theory and its early history. Subsequent chapters deal with unique factorization and the GCD, quadratic residues, number-theoretic functions and the distribution of primes, sums of squares, quadratic equations and quadratic fields, diopha

  10. Numbers and computers

    CERN Document Server

    Kneusel, Ronald T

    2015-01-01

    This is a book about numbers and how those numbers are represented in and operated on by computers. It is crucial that developers understand this area because the numerical operations allowed by computers, and the limitations of those operations, especially in the area of floating point math, affect virtually everything people try to do with computers. This book aims to fill this gap by exploring, in sufficient but not overwhelming detail, just what it is that computers do with numbers. Divided into two parts, the first deals with standard representations of integers and floating point numb

  11. Elementary theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpinski, Waclaw

    1988-01-01

    Since the publication of the first edition of this work, considerable progress has been made in many of the questions examined. This edition has been updated and enlarged, and the bibliography has been revised.The variety of topics covered here includes divisibility, diophantine equations, prime numbers (especially Mersenne and Fermat primes), the basic arithmetic functions, congruences, the quadratic reciprocity law, expansion of real numbers into decimal fractions, decomposition of integers into sums of powers, some other problems of the additive theory of numbers and the theory of Gaussian

  12. On powerful numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Mollin

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available A powerful number is a positive integer n satisfying the property that p2 divides n whenever the prime p divides n; i.e., in the canonical prime decomposition of n, no prime appears with exponent 1. In [1], S.W. Golomb introduced and studied such numbers. In particular, he asked whether (25,27 is the only pair of consecutive odd powerful numbers. This question was settled in [2] by W.A. Sentance who gave necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such pairs. The first result of this paper is to provide a generalization of Sentance's result by giving necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of pairs of powerful numbers spaced evenly apart. This result leads us naturally to consider integers which are representable as a proper difference of two powerful numbers, i.e. n=p1−p2 where p1 and p2 are powerful numbers with g.c.d. (p1,p2=1. Golomb (op.cit. conjectured that 6 is not a proper difference of two powerful numbers, and that there are infinitely many numbers which cannot be represented as a proper difference of two powerful numbers. The antithesis of this conjecture was proved by W.L. McDaniel [3] who verified that every non-zero integer is in fact a proper difference of two powerful numbers in infinitely many ways. McDaniel's proof is essentially an existence proof. The second result of this paper is a simpler proof of McDaniel's result as well as an effective algorithm (in the proof for explicitly determining infinitely many such representations. However, in both our proof and McDaniel's proof one of the powerful numbers is almost always a perfect square (namely one is always a perfect square when n≢2(mod4. We provide in §2 a proof that all even integers are representable in infinitely many ways as a proper nonsquare difference; i.e., proper difference of two powerful numbers neither of which is a perfect square. This, in conjunction with the odd case in [4], shows that every integer is representable in

  13. Brief history of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Corry, Leo

    2015-01-01

    The world around us is saturated with numbers. They are a fundamental pillar of our modern society, and accepted and used with hardly a second thought. But how did this state of affairs come to be? In this book, Leo Corry tells the story behind the idea of number from the early days of the Pythagoreans, up until the turn of the twentieth century. He presents an overview of how numbers were handled and conceived in classical Greek mathematics, in the mathematics of Islam, in European mathematics of the middle ages and the Renaissance, during the scientific revolution, all the way through to the

  14. Elementary number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dudley, Underwood

    2008-01-01

    Ideal for a first course in number theory, this lively, engaging text requires only a familiarity with elementary algebra and the properties of real numbers. Author Underwood Dudley, who has written a series of popular mathematics books, maintains that the best way to learn mathematics is by solving problems. In keeping with this philosophy, the text includes nearly 1,000 exercises and problems-some computational and some classical, many original, and some with complete solutions. The opening chapters offer sound explanations of the basics of elementary number theory and develop the fundamenta

  15. Produced water radionuclide hazard/risk assessment, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-06-01

    Petroleum production may be accompanied by the production of saline water, called produced water.'' Produced water discharged into freshwater streams, estuaries, coastal and outer continental shelf waters can contained enhanced levels of radium isotopes. This document reports on the first phase of a study to estimate the risk to human health and the environment from radium discharged in produced water. The study involved five major steps: (1) evaluate the usefulness of available produced water outfall data for developing estimates of radium environmental concentrations; (2) review the literature on the bioaccumulation of radium by aquatic organism; (3) review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms; (4) review the information available concerning the human health risks associated with exposure to Ra-226 and Ra-228 and (5) perform a conservative, screening-level assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by Ra-226 and Ra-228 discharged in produced waters. A screening-level analysis was performed to determine whether radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in produced waters presents potential health or environmental risks requiring further study. This conservative assessment suggested that no detectable impact on populations of fish, molluscs or crustaceans from radium discharged in produced waters is likely. The analysis also suggested that there is a potential for risk were an individual to ingest a large amount of seafood harvested near a produced water discharge point over a lifetime. The number of excess cancers predicted per year under a conservative scenario is comparable to those expected to result from background concentrations of radium.

  16. Produced water radionuclide hazard/risk assessment, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-06-01

    Petroleum production may be accompanied by the production of saline water, called ``produced water.`` Produced water discharged into freshwater streams, estuaries, coastal and outer continental shelf waters can contained enhanced levels of radium isotopes. This document reports on the first phase of a study to estimate the risk to human health and the environment from radium discharged in produced water. The study involved five major steps: (1) evaluate the usefulness of available produced water outfall data for developing estimates of radium environmental concentrations; (2) review the literature on the bioaccumulation of radium by aquatic organism; (3) review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms; (4) review the information available concerning the human health risks associated with exposure to Ra-226 and Ra-228 and (5) perform a conservative, screening-level assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by Ra-226 and Ra-228 discharged in produced waters. A screening-level analysis was performed to determine whether radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in produced waters presents potential health or environmental risks requiring further study. This conservative assessment suggested that no detectable impact on populations of fish, molluscs or crustaceans from radium discharged in produced waters is likely. The analysis also suggested that there is a potential for risk were an individual to ingest a large amount of seafood harvested near a produced water discharge point over a lifetime. The number of excess cancers predicted per year under a conservative scenario is comparable to those expected to result from background concentrations of radium.

  17. Produced water radionuclide hazard/risk assessment, Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-06-01

    Petroleum production may be accompanied by the production of saline water, called ''produced water.'' Produced water discharged into freshwater streams, estuaries, coastal and outer continental shelf waters can contained enhanced levels of radium isotopes. This document reports on the first phase of a study to estimate the risk to human health and the environment from radium discharged in produced water. The study involved five major steps: (1) evaluate the usefulness of available produced water outfall data for developing estimates of radium environmental concentrations; (2) review the literature on the bioaccumulation of radium by aquatic organism; (3) review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms; (4) review the information available concerning the human health risks associated with exposure to Ra-226 and Ra-228 and (5) perform a conservative, screening-level assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by Ra-226 and Ra-228 discharged in produced waters. A screening-level analysis was performed to determine whether radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in produced waters presents potential health or environmental risks requiring further study. This conservative assessment suggested that no detectable impact on populations of fish, molluscs or crustaceans from radium discharged in produced waters is likely. The analysis also suggested that there is a potential for risk were an individual to ingest a large amount of seafood harvested near a produced water discharge point over a lifetime. The number of excess cancers predicted per year under a conservative scenario is comparable to those expected to result from background concentrations of radium

  18. Bio-based production of fuels and industrial chemicals by repurposing antibiotic-producing type I modular polyketide synthases: opportunities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuzawa, Satoshi; Keasling, Jay D.; Katz, Leonard

    2017-01-01

    Complex polyketides comprise a large number of natural products that have broad application in medicine and agriculture. They are produced in bacteria and fungi from large enzyme complexes named type I modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) that are composed of multifunctional polypeptides containin...... have applications as fuels or industrial chemicals....

  19. Choice of large projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R

    1978-08-01

    Conventional cost/benefit or project analysis has generally not taken into account circumstances in which the project under consideration is large enough that its introduction to the economy would have significant general equilibrium effects. In this paper, rules are examined that would indicate whether such large projects should be accepted or rejected. The rules utilize information yielded by before-project and after-project equilibrium prices and production data. Rules are developed for the undistorted ''first-best'' case, the case in which the fixed costs of the project are covered by distortionary taxation, and for the case of projects producing public goods. 34 references.

  20. Producing metallurgic coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, T.; Isida, K.; Vada, Y.

    1982-11-18

    A mixture of power producing coals with coal briquets of varying composition is proposed for coking in horizontal chamber furnaces. The briquets are produced from petroleum coke, coal fines or semicoke, which make up less than 27 percent of the mixture to be briquetted and coals with a standard coking output of volatile substances and coals with high maximal Gizeler fluidity. The ratio of these coals in the mixture is 0.6 to 2.1 or 18 to 32 percent, respectively. Noncaking or poorly caking coals are used as the power producing coals. The hardness of the obtained coke is DJ15-30 = 90.5 to 92.7 percent.

  1. Volume 9 Number 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 9 Number 1 ... of persistent dumping of cheap subsidized food imports from developed ... independence of the inefficiency effects in the two estimation ...

  2. High Reynolds Number Turbulence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smits, Alexander J

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of the grant were to provide a systematic study to fill the gap between existing research on low Reynolds number turbulent flows to the kinds of turbulent flows encountered on full-scale vehicles...

  3. Crunching the Numbers

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Operating a Demographic Surveillance System (DSS) like this one requires a blend of high-tech number-crunching ability and .... views follow a standardized format that takes several ... general levels of health and to the use of health services.

  4. Quantum random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-05-10

    A quantum random number generator (QRNG) and a photon generator for a QRNG are provided. The photon generator may be operated in a spontaneous mode below a lasing threshold to emit photons. Photons emitted from the photon generator may have at least one random characteristic, which may be monitored by the QRNG to generate a random number. In one embodiment, the photon generator may include a photon emitter and an amplifier coupled to the photon emitter. The amplifier may enable the photon generator to be used in the QRNG without introducing significant bias in the random number and may enable multiplexing of multiple random numbers. The amplifier may also desensitize the photon generator to fluctuations in power supplied thereto while operating in the spontaneous mode. In one embodiment, the photon emitter and amplifier may be a tapered diode amplifier.

  5. Solar Indices - Sunspot Numbers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  6. Really big numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Richard Evan

    2014-01-01

    In the American Mathematical Society's first-ever book for kids (and kids at heart), mathematician and author Richard Evan Schwartz leads math lovers of all ages on an innovative and strikingly illustrated journey through the infinite number system. By means of engaging, imaginative visuals and endearing narration, Schwartz manages the monumental task of presenting the complex concept of Big Numbers in fresh and relatable ways. The book begins with small, easily observable numbers before building up to truly gigantic ones, like a nonillion, a tredecillion, a googol, and even ones too huge for names! Any person, regardless of age, can benefit from reading this book. Readers will find themselves returning to its pages for a very long time, perpetually learning from and growing with the narrative as their knowledge deepens. Really Big Numbers is a wonderful enrichment for any math education program and is enthusiastically recommended to every teacher, parent and grandparent, student, child, or other individual i...

  7. The Congruent Number Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One could endlessly churn out congruent numbers following the method in Box 1 without being certain when a given number n (or n x m 2, for some integer m) will ap- pear on the list. Continuing in this way ·would exhaust one's computing resources, not to mention one's patience! Also, this procedure is of no avail if n is not ...

  8. Large Scale Self-Organizing Information Distribution System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Low, Steven

    2005-01-01

    This project investigates issues in "large-scale" networks. Here "large-scale" refers to networks with large number of high capacity nodes and transmission links, and shared by a large number of users...

  9. Volume 9 Number 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    insufficient energy reserves for regrowth (Jung et al., 1994). ... temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, ... Hydrogen. 3.2. Aluminium. 0.8. C.E.C.. 8.4. Month. Jan. Feb. March. Apr. May .... the year, the pure verano stylo swards produced.

  10. Enzymes and bioproducts produced by the ascomycete fungus Paecilomyces variotii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, I; Toledo Marante, F J; Mioso, R

    2015-12-01

    Due its innate ability to produce extracellular enzymes which can provide eco-friendly solutions for a variety of biotechnological applications, Paecilomyces variotii is a potential source of industrial bioproducts. In this review, we report biotechnological records on the biochemistry of different enzymes produced by the fermentation of the P. variotii fungus, including tannases, phytases, cellulases, xylanases, chitinases, amylases and pectinases. Additionally, the main physicochemical properties which can affect the enzymatic reactions of the enzymes involved in the conversion of a huge number of substrates to high-value bioproducts are described. Despite all the background information compiled in this review, more research is required to consolidate the catalytic efficiency of P. variotii, which must be optimized so that it is more accurate and reproducible on a large scale. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Standards and producers' liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmer, F.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses the liability of producers and the diligence required, which has to come up to technical standards and the latest state of technology. The consequences of this requirement with regard to claims for damages are outlined and proposals for reforms are pointed out. (HSCH) [de

  12. Report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  13. Report number codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name

  14. A Numbers Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Bruce R; McCall, Ingrid C.; Perrot, Veronique

    2017-01-01

    We postulate that the inhibition of growth and low rates of mortality of bacteria exposed to ribosome-binding antibiotics deemed bacteriostatic can be attributed almost uniquely to these drugs reducing the number of ribosomes contributing to protein synthesis, i.e., the number of effective......-targeting bacteriostatic antibiotics, the time before these bacteria start to grow again when the drugs are removed, referred to as the post-antibiotic effect (PAE), is markedly greater for constructs with fewer rrn operons than for those with more rrn operons. We interpret the results of these other experiments reported...... here as support for the hypothesis that the reduction in the effective number of ribosomes due to binding to these structures provides a sufficient explanation for the action of bacteriostatic antibiotics that target these structures....

  15. Quantum random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubusta, Jan; Haderka, Ondrej; Hendrych, Martin

    2001-03-01

    Since reflection or transmission of a quantum particle on a beamsplitter is inherently random quantum process, a device built on this principle does not suffer from drawbacks of neither pseudo-random computer generators or classical noise sources. Nevertheless, a number of physical conditions necessary for high quality random numbers generation must be satisfied. Luckily, in quantum optics realization they can be well controlled. We present an easy random number generator based on the division of weak light pulses on a beamsplitter. The randomness of the generated bit stream is supported by passing the data through series of 15 statistical test. The device generates at a rate of 109.7 kbit/s.

  16. The LHC in numbers

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    What makes the LHC the biggest particle accelerator in the world? Here are some of the numbers that characterise the LHC, and their equivalents in terms that are easier for us to imagine.   Feature Number Equivalent Circumference ~ 27 km   Distance covered by beam in 10 hours ~ 10 billion km a round trip to Neptune Number of times a single proton travels around the ring each second 11 245   Speed of protons first entering the LHC 299 732 500 m/s 99.9998 % of the speed of light Speed of protons when they collide 299 789 760 m/s 99.9999991 % of the speed of light Collision temperature ~ 1016 °C ove...

  17. Algebraic theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Algebraic number theory introduces students not only to new algebraic notions but also to related concepts: groups, rings, fields, ideals, quotient rings and quotient fields, homomorphisms and isomorphisms, modules, and vector spaces. Author Pierre Samuel notes that students benefit from their studies of algebraic number theory by encountering many concepts fundamental to other branches of mathematics - algebraic geometry, in particular.This book assumes a knowledge of basic algebra but supplements its teachings with brief, clear explanations of integrality, algebraic extensions of fields, Gal

  18. Analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Iwaniec, Henryk

    2004-01-01

    Analytic Number Theory distinguishes itself by the variety of tools it uses to establish results, many of which belong to the mainstream of arithmetic. One of the main attractions of analytic number theory is the vast diversity of concepts and methods it includes. The main goal of the book is to show the scope of the theory, both in classical and modern directions, and to exhibit its wealth and prospects, its beautiful theorems and powerful techniques. The book is written with graduate students in mind, and the authors tried to balance between clarity, completeness, and generality. The exercis

  19. CONFUSION WITH TELEPHONE NUMBERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Telecom Service

    2002-01-01

    he area code is now required for all telephone calls within Switzerland. Unfortunately this is causing some confusion. CERN has received complaints that incoming calls intended for CERN mobile phones are being directed to private subscribers. This is caused by mistakenly dialing the WRONG code (e.g. 022) in front of the mobile number. In order to avoid these problems, please inform your correspondents that the correct numbers are: 079 201 XXXX from Switzerland; 0041 79 201 XXXX from other countries. Telecom Service

  20. CONFUSION WITH TELEPHONE NUMBERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Telecom Service

    2002-01-01

    The area code is now required for all telephone calls within Switzerland. Unfortunately this is causing some confusion. CERN has received complaints that incoming calls intended for CERN mobile phones are being directed to private subscribers. This is caused by mistakenly dialing the WRONG code (e.g. 022) in front of the mobile number. In order to avoid these problems, please inform your correspondents that the correct numbers are: 079 201 XXXX from Switzerland; 0041 79 201 XXXX from other countries. Telecom Service