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Sample records for producing efficient ear

  1. The inner ear produces a natriuretic hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1996-01-01

    Cytoplasmic granules have been demonstrated in epithelial cells from the endolymphatic sac, an extraosseus part of the inner ear located in the posterior cranial fossa. Intravenously infused extracts from endolymphatic sacs in anesthetized rats elicited a potent natriuresis and diuresis without e...

  2. Sound pressure gain produced by the human middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, H; Goode, R L

    1995-10-01

    The acoustic function of the middle ear is to match sound passing from the low impedance of air to the high impedance of cochlear fluid. Little information is available on the actual middle ear pressure gain in human beings. This article describes experiments on middle ear pressure gain in six fresh human temporal bones. Stapes footplate displacement and phase were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer before and after removal of the tympanic membrane, malleus, and incus. Acoustic insulation of the round window with clay was performed. Umbo displacement was also measured before tympanic membrane removal to assess baseline tympanic membrane function. The middle ear has its major gain in the lower frequencies, with a peak near 0.9 kHz. The mean gain was 23.0 dB below 1.0 kHz, the resonant frequency of the middle ear; the mean peak gain was 26.6 dB. Above 1.0 kHz, the second pressure gain decreased at a rate of -8.6 dB/octave, with a mean gain of 6.5 dB at 4.0 kHz. Only a small amount of gain was present above 7.0 kHz. Significant individual differences in pressure gain were found between ears that appeared related to variations in tympanic membrane function and not to variations in cochlear impedance.

  3. Deep features for efficient multi-biometric recognition with face and ear images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omara, Ibrahim; Xiao, Gang; Amrani, Moussa; Yan, Zifei; Zuo, Wangmeng

    2017-07-01

    Recently, multimodal biometric systems have received considerable research interest in many applications especially in the fields of security. Multimodal systems can increase the resistance to spoof attacks, provide more details and flexibility, and lead to better performance and lower error rate. In this paper, we present a multimodal biometric system based on face and ear, and propose how to exploit the extracted deep features from Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) on the face and ear images to introduce more powerful discriminative features and robust representation ability for them. First, the deep features for face and ear images are extracted based on VGG-M Net. Second, the extracted deep features are fused by using a traditional concatenation and a Discriminant Correlation Analysis (DCA) algorithm. Third, multiclass support vector machine is adopted for matching and classification. The experimental results show that the proposed multimodal system based on deep features is efficient and achieves a promising recognition rate up to 100 % by using face and ear. In addition, the results indicate that the fusion based on DCA is superior to traditional fusion.

  4. Improving Measurement Efficiency of the Inner EAR Scale with Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Annika; Ho, Andrew D; Corrales, C Eduardo; Yueh, Bevan; Shin, Jennifer J

    2018-02-01

    Objectives (1) To assess the 11-item Inner Effectiveness of Auditory Rehabilitation (Inner EAR) instrument with item response theory (IRT). (2) To determine whether the underlying latent ability could also be accurately represented by a subset of the items for use in high-volume clinical scenarios. (3) To determine whether the Inner EAR instrument correlates with pure tone thresholds and word recognition scores. Design IRT evaluation of prospective cohort data. Setting Tertiary care academic ambulatory otolaryngology clinic. Subjects and Methods Modern psychometric methods, including factor analysis and IRT, were used to assess unidimensionality and item properties. Regression methods were used to assess prediction of word recognition and pure tone audiometry scores. Results The Inner EAR scale is unidimensional, and items varied in their location and information. Information parameter estimates ranged from 1.63 to 4.52, with higher values indicating more useful items. The IRT model provided a basis for identifying 2 sets of items with relatively lower information parameters. Item information functions demonstrated which items added insubstantial value over and above other items and were removed in stages, creating a 8- and 3-item Inner EAR scale for more efficient assessment. The 8-item version accurately reflected the underlying construct. All versions correlated moderately with word recognition scores and pure tone averages. Conclusion The 11-, 8-, and 3-item versions of the Inner EAR scale have strong psychometric properties, and there is correlational validity evidence for the observed scores. Modern psychometric methods can help streamline care delivery by maximizing relevant information per item administered.

  5. User community vs. producer innovation development efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hienerth, Christoph; von Hippel, Eric; Jensen, Morten Berg

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report upon a first empirical exploration of the relative efficiency of innovation development by product users vs. product producers. In a study of over 50 years of product innovation in the whitewater kayaking field, we find users in aggregate were approximately 3× more efficie...

  6. Handmade Cloned Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryos Produced from Somatic Cells Isolated from Milk and Ear Skin Differ in Their Developmental Competence, Epigenetic Status, and Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyotsana, Basanti; Sahare, Amol A; Raja, Anuj K; Singh, Karn P; Singla, Suresh K; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Manik, Radhey S; Palta, Prabhat

    2015-10-01

    We compared the cloning efficiency of buffalo embryos produced by handmade cloning (HMC) using ear skin- and milk-derived donor cells. The blastocyst rate was lower (p  milk-derived blastocysts and that of NANOG was (p  milk-derived > skin-derived blastocysts. The expression level of all these genes, except NANOG, was lower (p < 0.05) in milk- than in skin-derived or IVF blastocysts. In conclusion, milk-derived cells can be used for producing HMC embryos of quality similar to that of skin-derived embryos, although with a lower blastocyst rate.

  7. Pathogenicity of fumonisin-producing and nonproducing strains of Aspergillus species in section Nigri to maize ears and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species of Aspergillus section Nigri are commonly associated with maize kernels, and some strains can produce fumonisin mycotoxins. However, there is little information about the extent to which these fungi contribute to fumonisin contamination in grain, the damage they cause to maize ears, or their...

  8. Body lift, drag and power are relatively higher in large-eared than in small-eared bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2017-10-01

    Bats navigate the dark using echolocation. Echolocation is enhanced by external ears, but external ears increase the projected frontal area and reduce the streamlining of the animal. External ears are thus expected to compromise flight efficiency, but research suggests that very large ears may mitigate the cost by producing aerodynamic lift. Here we compare quantitative aerodynamic measures of flight efficiency of two bat species, one large-eared ( Plecotus auritus ) and one small-eared ( Glossophaga soricina ), flying freely in a wind tunnel. We find that the body drag of both species is higher than previously assumed and that the large-eared species has a higher body drag coefficient, but also produces relatively more ear/body lift than the small-eared species, in line with prior studies on model bats. The measured aerodynamic power of P. auritus was higher than predicted from the aerodynamic model, while the small-eared species aligned with predictions. The relatively higher power of the large-eared species results in lower optimal flight speeds and our findings support the notion of a trade-off between the acoustic benefits of large external ears and aerodynamic performance. The result of this trade-off would be the eco-morphological correlation in bat flight, with large-eared bats generally adopting slow-flight feeding strategies. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Economic efficiency, independent power producers and wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fytche, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, electric utilities have sought to decrease the cost of production by such means as merit order running of machines, by improving equipment efficiency, by fuel mix, by interconnection and exchange of cheap energy, and by unit participation and firm purchase and sale contracts for long term savings. In the ''new look'', it was suggested that financial and technical competition is not enough, and that economic gains could be achieved through fostering independent power producers, i.e., non-utility generators (NUG's), greater exchanges of economy energy, unrestricted access to the transmission network for moving cheap energy through facilities of third parties, and by bidding to supply energy to non-generators, etc. Naturally, the proposals to change the comfortable and time-hallowed practices by which utility business had been carried out in the past has created an ongoing debate both pro and con, much of it acrimonious, and, unfortunately, some of it ill-informed. The turmoil in the political context impacts on a utility's technical and financial planners, and on their managements, all of whom contribute to justifying and maintaining the flow of capital to the industry and energy to the customer. They must now seek new ways to implement both short- and long-term planning of power supply. Some of the factors that were neglected in the past will demand more attention in the future. This paper discusses some of the costs that, under the anticipated modus operandi, must be integrated into the planning process while meeting the new challenges. The costs are those relating to third-parties, costs of transmission constraints, and costs of wheeling. The opinion is ventured that much of the efficiency improvement anticipated during the debate has already been achieved by conscientious utility managements. (author)

  10. Ear Infection (Middle Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... secretions from the middle ear Swelling, inflammation and mucus in the eustachian tubes from an upper respiratory ... your baby for at least six months. Breast milk contains antibodies that may offer protection from ear ...

  11. Ear Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of different injuries can affect the outer ear. Cauliflower ear (subperichondrial hematoma) A blunt blow to the ... to a deformed ear. This deformity, called a cauliflower ear, is common among wrestlers, boxers, and rugby ...

  12. Efficient utilization of xylanase and lipase producing thermophilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficient utilization of xylanase and lipase producing thermophilic marine actinomycetes ( Streptomyces albus and Streptomyces hygroscopicus ) in the production of ecofriendly alternative energy from waste.

  13. Swimmer's Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eardrum Taking Care of Your Ears Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Your Ears What's Earwax? How Do Pain Relievers Work? View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  14. Ear wax

    Science.gov (United States)

    See your provider if your ears are blocked with wax and you are unable to remove the wax. Also call if you have an ear wax blockage and you develop new symptoms, such as: Drainage from the ear Ear pain Fever Hearing loss that continues after you clean the wax

  15. Ear Pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  16. Ear examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be present. The eardrum is a light-gray color or a shiny pearly-white. Light should ... discharge or bleeding Alternative Names Otoscopy Images Ear anatomy Medical findings based on ear anatomy Otoscopic exam ...

  17. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, Shahida; Nazri, A H

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  18. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  19. Fluorescence imaging spectroscopy (FIS) for comparing spectra from corn ears naturally and artificially infected with aflatoxin producing fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Zuzana; Yao, Haibo; Kincaid, Russell; Darlington, Dawn; Brown, Robert L; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E

    2013-08-01

    In an effort to address the problem of rapid detection of aflatoxin in grain, particularly oilseeds, the current study assessed the spectral differences of aflatoxin production in kernels from a cornfield inoculated with spores from 2 different strains of toxigenic Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin production in corn from the same field due to natural infestation was also assessed. A small corn plot in Baton Rouge, La., U.S.A., was used during the 2008-growing season. Two groups of 400 plants were inoculated with 2 different inocula and 1 group of 400 plants was designated as controls. Any contamination detected in the controls was attributed to natural infestation. A subset of each group was imaged with a visible near infra red (VNIR) hyperspectral system under ultra violet (UV) excitation and subsequently analyzed for aflatoxin using affinity column fluorometry. Group differences were statistically analyzed. Results indicate that when all the spectral data across all groups were averaged, any potential differences between groups (treated and untreated) were obscured. However, spectral analysis based on contaminated "hot" pixel classification showed a distinct spectral shift/separation between contaminated and clean ears with fluorescence peaks at 501 and 478 nm, respectively. All inoculated and naturally infected control ears had fluorescence peaks at 501 nm that differed from uninfected corn ears. Results from this study may be useful in evaluating rapid, noninvasive instrumentation and/or methodology for aflatoxin detection in grain. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Your Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More on this topic for: Kids Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? Senses Experiment: Model Eardrum Going to the Audiologist What's Earwax? View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  1. Cyanobacteria as efficient producers of mycosporine-like amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shikha; Prajapat, Ganshyam; Abrar, Mustari; Ledwani, Lalita; Singh, Anoop; Agrawal, Akhil

    2017-09-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids are the most common group of transparent ultraviolet radiation absorbing intracellular secondary metabolites. These molecules absorb light in the range of ultraviolet-A and -B with a maximum absorbance between 310 and 362 nm. Cyanobacteria might have faced the most deleterious ultraviolet radiation, which leads to an evolution of ultraviolet protecting mycosporine-like amino acids for efficient selection in the environment. In the last 30 years, scientists have investigated various cyanobacteria for novel mycosporine-like amino acids, applying different induction techniques. This review organizes all the cyanobacterial groups that produce various mycosporine-like amino acids. We found out that cyanobacteria belonging to orders Synechococcales, Chroococcales, Oscillatoriales, and Nostocales are frequently studied for the presence of mycosporine-like amino acids, while orders Gloeobacterales, Spirulinales, Pleurocapsales, and Chroococcidiopsidales are still need to be investigated. Nostoc and Anabaena strains are major studied genus for the mycosporine-like amino acids production. Hence, this review will give further insight to the readers about potential mycosporine-like amino acid producing cyanobacterial groups in future investigations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. [Tobacco--a highly efficient producer of vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzianowski, Jaromir

    2010-01-01

    Along with the depreciation of tobacco as a source of nicotine-containing commercial products, the increase of its appreciation as a potential producer of recombinant therapeutical proteins can be observed. Two species of tobacco--Nicotiana tabacum L. and N. benthamiana are easily grown by well established methods of field or green-house cultivation or cell culture, yield high biomass and soluble protein content, can be easily transformed by several methods and are not food for humans or feed for animals. Expression of foreign proteins, including vaccines, can be achieved in those plants either through stable transformation of nuclear or plastid (chloroplast) genomes or by transient transformation using infection with plant virus or bacteria--Agrobacterium tumefaciens (agroinfiltration). The most advanced mode of agrofiltration termed magnifection, which combines benefits of virus and Agrobacterium and depends on using Agrobacterium with viral pro-vectors, enables high-yield and rapid expression of therapeutical proteins, even in a few days, and can be employed on an industrial scale. Expression of many antigenic proteins, which may serve as antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoan and anticancer vaccines, and additionally a few autoantigens designed for the treatment of autoimunogenic diseases, like diabetes, have been achieved in tobacco. To date, a vaccine against Newcastle virus disease in poultry produced by tobacco cell culture has been approved for commercial application and several other vaccines are in advanced stage of development. The possibility of a high-level production of vaccines in tobacco against pandemic influenza or anthrax and plague due to a bioterroristic attack, as well as of individualised anticancer vaccines against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in a much shorter period of time than by traditional methods became realistic and hence caused increased interest in tobacco as a high-efficient producer of vaccines not only of specialistic

  3. The yeast Scheffersomyces amazonensis is an efficient xylitol producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadete, Raquel M; Melo-Cheab, Monaliza A; Viana, Adriana L; Oliveira, Evelyn S; Fonseca, César; Rosa, Carlos A

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed the efficiency of Scheffersomyces amazonensis UFMG-CM-Y493 T , cultured in xylose-supplemented medium (YPX) and rice hull hydrolysate (RHH), to convert xylose to xylitol under moderate and severe oxygen limitation. The highest xylitol yields of 0.75 and 1.04 g g -1 in YPX and RHH, respectively, were obtained under severe oxygen limitation. However, volumetric productivity in RHH was ninefold decrease than that in YPX medium. The xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) activities in the YPX cultures were strictly dependent on NADPH and NAD + respectively, and were approximately 10% higher under severe oxygen limitation than under moderate oxygen limitation. This higher xylitol production observed under severe oxygen limitation can be attributed to the higher XR activity and shortage of the NAD + needed by XDH. These results suggest that Sc. amazonensis UFMG-CM-Y493 T is one of the greatest xylitol producers described to date and reveal its potential use in the biotechnological production of xylitol.

  4. Cosmetic ear surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  5. Penicillium subrubescens, a new species efficiently producing inulinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, S.; Houbraken, J.; Samson, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Inulin is a reserve carbohydrate in about 15 % of the flowering plants and is accumulated in underground tubers of e.g. chicory, dahlia and Jerusalem artichoke. This carbohydrate consists of linear chains of β-(2,1)-linked fructose attached to a sucrose molecule. Inulinases hydrolyse inulin...... into fructose and glucose. To find efficient inulin degrading fungi, 126 fungal strains from the Fungal Biotechnology Culture Collection (FBCC) at University of Helsinki and 74 freshly isolated strains from soil around Jerusalem artichoke tubers were screened in liquid cultures with inulin as a sole source...... of carbon or ground Jerusalem artichoke tubers, which contains up to 19 % (fresh weight) inulin. Inulinase and invertase activities were assayed by the dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method and a freshly isolated Penicillium strain originating from agricultural soil (FBCC 1632) was the most efficient inulinase...

  6. Reflex tetrode for producing an efficient unidirectional ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, J.; Kapetanakos, C.A.; Mahaffey, R.A.; Pasour, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A reflex tetrode device for efficiently generating intense, pulsed unidirectional ion beams is disclosed. The device includes two thin, semitransparent anodes spaced from a real cathode which is maintained at ground potential. The first anode is spaced from and faces the real cathode. The second anode is spaced a short distance from the first anode and a virtual cathode is formed beyond the second anode when a sufficiently high electron current flows from the real cathode and through the anodes. The anodes are ring-like or disc-like structures secured to the edges of a support member with their planes perpendicular to the axis of the device between the real and virtual cathodes. The anode structure (i.e., the support member together with the two anodes) is connected to a pulsed high-voltage generator which is operated in positive polarity. Consequently, both anodes are at the same positive potential. The first anode, because of its material, does not readily form an ionic plasma when electrons pass through it, but the second anode does

  7. Long-term results of middle fossa plugging of superior semicircular canal dehiscences: clinically and instrumentally demonstrated efficiency in a retrospective series of 16 ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Hans; Bonnard, Damien; Castetbon, Vincent; Franco-Vidal, Valérie; Darrouzet, Patricia; Darrouzet, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to report the surgical outcome after middle fossa approach (MFA) plugging in patients suffering from a superior semi-circular canal dehiscence (SCD) syndrome. This is a retrospective case review. Tertiary referral center. Sixteen ears in 13 patients with a SCD syndrome suffering from severe and disabling vestibular symptoms with a bony dehiscence on CT scan >3 mm and decreased threshold of cervical vestibular evoked potentials (cVEMPs). We assessed preoperatively: clinical symptoms, hearing, cVEMPs threshold, size of dehiscence and videonystagmography (VNG) with caloric and 100 Hz vibratory tests. Postoperatively, we noted occurrences of neurosurgical complication, evolution of audiological and vestibular symptoms, and evaluation of cVEMP data. Tullio's phenomenon was observed in 13 cases (81.3 %) and subjectively reported hearing loss in seven (43.7 %). All patients were so disabled that they had to stop working. No neurosurgical complications were observed in the postoperative course. In three cases (16.6 %), an ipsilateral and transitory immediate postoperative vestibular deficit associated with a sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) was noted, which totally resolved with steroids and bed rest. All patients were relieved of audiological and vestibular symptoms and could return to normal activity with a mean follow-up of 31.1 months (range 3-95). No patient had residual SNHL. cVEMPs were performed in 14 ears postoperatively and were normalized in 12 (85.7 %). Two of the three patients operated on both sides kept some degree of unsteadiness and oscillopsia. MFA plugging of the superior semi-circular canal is an efficient and non-hearing deteriorating procedure.

  8. Body lift, drag and power are relatively higher in large-eared than in small-eared bat species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Bats navigate the dark using echolocation. Echolocation is enhanced by external ears, but external ears increase the projected frontal area and reduce the streamlining of the animal. External ears are thus expected to compromise flight efficiency, but research suggests that very large ears may mi....... The result of this trade-off would be the eco-morphological correlation in bat flight, with large-eared bats generally adopting slow-flight feeding strategies....

  9. Play it by Ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The first antenna for ear-to-ear communication with a standard Bluetooth chip has the potential to improve hearing aid technology.......The first antenna for ear-to-ear communication with a standard Bluetooth chip has the potential to improve hearing aid technology....

  10. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Liu

    Full Text Available The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  11. Changing the way employee benefit communications are produced: outsourcing, a more efficient, less costly process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herren, K

    1995-12-01

    Outsourcing may offer employers an efficient, cost-effective way to produce employee benefit communications. It offers a way to utilize the latest technology to produce personalized benefit statements or to target an announcement of benefit changes to a specific group of employees.

  12. Ear Disorders in Scuba Divers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Azizi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available History of underwater diving dates back to antiquity. Breath-hold technique in diving was known to the ancient nations. However, deep diving progressed only in the early decades of the 19th century as the result of advancements in efficient underwater technologies which subsequently led to invention of sophisticated sets of scuba diving in the 20th century. Currently, diving is performed for various purposes including commercial, recreational, military, underwater construction, oil industry, underwater archeology and scientific assessment of marine life. By increasing popularity of underwater diving, dive-related medical conditions gradually became more evident and created a new challenge for the health care professionals, so that eventually, a specialty the so-called “diving medicine” was established. Most of the diving-associated disorders appear in the head and neck. The most common of all occupational disorders associated with diving are otologic diseases. External otitis has been reported as the most common otolaryngologic problem in underwater divers. Exostosis of the external ear canal may be formed in divers as the result of prolonged diving in cold waters. Other disorders of the ear and paranasal sinuses in underwater divers are caused by barometric pressure change (i.e., barotraumas, and to a lesser extent by decompression sickness. Barotrauma of the middle ear is the most prevalent barotrauma in divers. The inner ear barotraumas, though important, is less common. The present paper is a brief overview of diving-related ear disorders particularly in scuba divers.

  13. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  14. Swimmer's Ear (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... can lead to an infection. Dry skin or eczema , scratching the ear canal, vigorous ear cleaning with ...

  15. Non-Renewable Energy and Macroeconomic Efficiency of Seven Major Oil Producing Economies in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awodumi Olabanji Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study adopted two-stage DEA to estimate the technical efficiency scores and assess the impact of the two most important components of fossil fuel associated with oil production on macroeconomic efficiency of Seven oil producing African countries during 2005-2012. Our results showed that increasing the consumption of natural gas would improve technical efficiency. Furthermore, increasing the share of fossil fuel in total energy consumption has negative effect on the efficiency of the economies of the top African oil producers. Also, we found that increasing the consumption of primary energy improves efficiency in these economies. We therefore, recommend that governments and other stakeholders in the energy industry should adopt inclusive strategies that will promote the use of natural gas in the short term. However, in the long-run, efforts should be geared towards increasing the use of primary energy, thereby reducing the percentage share of fossil fuel in total energy consumption.

  16. Technical efficiency and economic viability of different cattle identification methods allowed by the Brazilian traceability system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurelio Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the technical efficiency and economic viability of the implementation and use of four cattle identification methods allowed by the Brazilian traceability system. The study was conducted in a beef cattle production system located in the State of Mato Grosso, from January to June 2012. Four identification methods (treatments were compared: T1: ear tag in one ear and ear button in the other ear (eabu; T2: ear tag and iron brand on the right leg (eaib; T3: ear tag in one ear and tattoo on the other ear (eata; and T4: ear tag in one ear and electronic ear tag (eael on the other. Each treatment was applied to 60 Nelore animals, totaling 240 animals, divided equally into three life stages (calves, young cattle, adult cattle. The study had two phases: implementation (phase 1 and reading and transfer of identification numbers to an electronic database (phase 2. All operating expenses related to the two phases of the study were determined. The database was constructed, and the statistical analyses were performed using SPSS® 17.0 software. Regarding the time spent on implementation (phase 1, conventional ear tags and electronic ear tags produced similar results, which were lower than those of hot iron and tattoo methods, which differed from each other. Regarding the time required for reading the numbers on animals and their transcription into a database (phase 2, electronic ear-tagging was the fastest method, followed by conventional ear tag, hot iron and tattoo. Among the methods analyzed, the electronic ear tag had the highest technical efficiency because it required less time to implement identifiers and to complete the process of reading and transcription to an electronic database and because it did not exhibit any errors. However, the cost of using the electronic ear-tagging method was higher primarily due to the cost of the device.

  17. Taking Care of Your Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audiologist Perforated Eardrum What's Hearing Loss? Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? Swimmer's Ear Your Ears What's Earwax? View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  18. Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus S-1, an Efficient Isoeugenol-Utilizing Producer for Natural Vanillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Hua, Dongliang; Zhang, Zhaobin; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tang, Hongzhi; Tao, Fei; Tai, Cui; Wu, Qiulin; Wu, Geng; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus S-1 is an efficient isoeugenol-utilizing producer of natural vanillin. The genome of B. pumilus S-1 contains the epoxide hydrolase and six candidate monooxygenases that make it possible to explore the mechanism involved in conversion of isoenguenol to vanillin in the B. pumilus strain. PMID:22038964

  19. An empirical method to measure the relative efficiency of dairy producers using deterministic frontier analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram RostamPour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to measure the relative efficiencies of various cow husbandries. The proposed model of this paper uses distribution free analysis to measure the performance of different units responsible for taking care of cows. We gather the necessary information of all units including number of cows, amount of internet usage, number of subunits for taking care of cows, amount of forage produced in each province for grazing livestock and average hour per person training courses as independent variables and consider the amount of produced milk as dependent variable. The necessary information are collected from all available units located in different provinces of Iran and the production function is estimated using a linear programming model. The results indicate that the capital city of Iran, Tehran, holds the highest technical efficiency, the lowest efficiency belongs to province of Ilam and other provinces mostly performs poorly.

  20. Pseudomonas sp. BUP6 produces a thermotolerant alkaline lipase with trans-esterification efficiency in producing biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priji, Prakasan; Sajith, Sreedharan; Faisal, Panichikkal Abdul; Benjamin, Sailas

    2017-12-01

    The present study describes the characteristics of a thermotolerant and alkaline lipase secreted by Pseudomonas sp. BUP6, a novel rumen bacterium isolated from Malabari goat, and its trans -esterification efficiency in producing biodiesel from used cooking oil (UCO). The extracellular lipase was purified to homogeneity (35.8 times purified with 14.8% yield) employing (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 salt precipitation and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. The apparent molecular weight of this lipase on SDS-PAGE was 35 kDa, the identity of which was further confirmed by MALDI-TOF/MS. The purified lipase was found stable at a pH range of 7-9 with the maximum activity (707 U/ml) at pH 8.2; and was active at the temperature ranging from 35 to 50 °C with the optimum at 45 °C (891 U/ml). Triton X-100 and EDTA had no effect on the activity of lipase; whereas SDS, Tween-80 and β-mercaptoethanol inhibited its activity significantly. Moreover, Ca 2+ (1.0 mM) enhanced the activity of lipase (1428 U/ml) by 206% vis-à-vis initial activity; while Zn 2+ , Fe 2+ and Cu 2+ decreased the activity significantly. Using para -nitrophenyl palmitate as substrate, the K m (11.6 mM) and V max [668.9 μmol/(min/mg)] of the purified lipase were also determined. Crude lipase was used for analyzing its trans -esterification efficiency with used cooking oil and methanol which resulted in the worthy yield of fatty acid methyl esters, FAME (45%) at 37 °C, indicating its prospects in biodiesel industry. Thus, the lipase secreted by the rumen bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. BUP6, offers great potentials to be used in various industries including the production of biodiesel by trans -esterification.

  1. State Support for Promotion of Electrical Energy Produced in High Efficiency Cogeneration in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushatescu V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania accumulated a useful experience in supporting high efficient cogeneration through a bonus type scheme. Spreading this experience to other countries that can choose a similar support scheme could lead to important savings and better results in developing this efficient tool. This state aid is operational, targeted to new investments stimulation for cogeneration technologies and replacement or existing plants rehabilitation. Present paper focuses on the results of support scheme after five years of its application: increase of number of producers who benefit of this aid, raising of general efficiency of high efficient cogeneration, important savings of primary energy and CO2 emissions avoided. On the other hand, use of this scheme showed a number of problems (to which this paper proposes adequate solutions on institutional/administrative, investition, technical, economical-financial and social frameworks that influences beneficiaries and/or financiers of state aid.

  2. Hairy ears; Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daifullah Al Aboud

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hair can grow in areas which are not usually hairy in human skin. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM (http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omimhave some entries in this regards. These include ( %139600 – HAIRY ELBOWS, #605130 – HAIRY ELBOWS, SHORT STATURE, FACIAL DYSMORPHISM, AND DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY, 139630 – HAIRY NOSE TIP, 139500 – HAIRY EARS, and 425500 – HAIRY EARS, Y-LINKED. Hairy ears, (Fig. 1, are uncommon trait and it is rare to see a person with very long hair on the ears.

  3. 'Outrunning' the running ear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    In even the most experienced hands, an adequate physical examination of the ears can be difficult to perform because of common problems such as cerumen blockage of the auditory canal, an unco- operative toddler or an exasperated parent. The most common cause for a running ear in a child is acute purulent otitis.

  4. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections, swimmer’s ear, and healthy swimming. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) What are the symptoms of swimmer's ear? ... Healthy page. Reference CDC. Estimated burden of acute otitis externa —United States, 2003–2007 . MMWR Morb Mortal ...

  5. Developing an energy efficient steam reforming process to produce hydrogen from sulfur-containing fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simson, Amanda

    Hydrogen powered fuel cells have the potential to produce electricity with higher efficiency and lower emissions than conventional combustion technology. In order to realize the benefits of a hydrogen fuel cell an efficient method to produce hydrogen is needed. Currently, over 90% of hydrogen is produced from the steam reforming of natural gas. However, for many applications including fuel cell vehicles, the use of a liquid fuel rather than natural gas is desirable. This work investigates the feasibility of producing hydrogen efficiently by steam reforming E85 (85% ethanol/15% gasoline), a commercially available sulfur-containing transportation fuel. A Rh-Pt/SiO2-ZrO2 catalyst has demonstrated good activity for the E85 steam reforming reaction. An industrial steam reforming process is often run less efficiently, with more water and at higher temperatures, in order to prevent catalyst deactivation. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a process that can operate without catalyst deactivation at more energy efficient conditions. In this study, the steam reforming of a sulfur-containing fuel (E85) was studied at near stoichiometric steam/carbon ratios and at 650C, conditions at which catalyst deactivation is normally measured. At these conditions the catalyst was found to be stable steam reforming a sulfur-free E85. However, the addition of low concentrations of sulfur significantly deactivated the catalyst. The presence of sulfur in the fuel caused catalyst deactivation by promoting ethylene which generates surface carbon species (coke) that mask catalytic sites. The amount of coke increased during time on stream and became increasingly graphitic. However, the deactivation due to both sulfur adsorption and coke formation was reversible with air treatment at 650°C. However, regenerations were found to reduce the catalyst life. Air regenerations produce exotherms on the catalyst surface that cause structural changes to the catalyst. During regenerations the

  6. Investigation of the biofuel flue and producer gases cleaning efficiency using ESP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poškas, Robertas; Sirvydas, Arūnas; Poškas, Povilas; Striūgas, Nerijus; Pedišius, Nerijus; Valinčius, Vitas

    2017-11-01

    The use of biofuel has been increasing in Europe over the last years, and the reason for that is acceptable cost and the least negative impact on the environment. However, NOx and emissions of fine particulates are important, and biofuel is still a disadvantage compared to oil and natural gas fired systems. Usually, flue gas is filtered in multicyclones or fibre filters before discharge into the atmosphere. Yet, in the case of fine particulates, the filters of such type do not show high effectiveness, thus electrostatic precipitators are used. In this comparative study on biofuel (wood pellets), the collection efficiency of solid particles from a class 3 boiler (50 kW) and from a gasification unit (100 kW) was investigated. Although releases of solid particles from modern boilers are low, a combination of such a boiler with an electrostatic precipitator may reduce the releases of particles to the minimum, and the collection efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator obtained during the investigation was 98-99%. There is a big difference in particle concentrations comparing the systems with flue gas and producer gas. As the working conditions in the test section with producer gas were harder, it led to lower efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator ( 75%).

  7. Investigation of the biofuel flue and producer gases cleaning efficiency using ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poškas Robertas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biofuel has been increasing in Europe over the last years, and the reason for that is acceptable cost and the least negative impact on the environment. However, NOx and emissions of fine particulates are important, and biofuel is still a disadvantage compared to oil and natural gas fired systems. Usually, flue gas is filtered in multicyclones or fibre filters before discharge into the atmosphere. Yet, in the case of fine particulates, the filters of such type do not show high effectiveness, thus electrostatic precipitators are used. In this comparative study on biofuel (wood pellets, the collection efficiency of solid particles from a class 3 boiler (50 kW and from a gasification unit (100 kW was investigated. Although releases of solid particles from modern boilers are low, a combination of such a boiler with an electrostatic precipitator may reduce the releases of particles to the minimum, and the collection efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator obtained during the investigation was ~98-99%. There is a big difference in particle concentrations comparing the systems with flue gas and producer gas. As the working conditions in the test section with producer gas were harder, it led to lower efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator (~75%.

  8. Adeno-associated virus vectors can be efficiently produced without helper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, T; Elliger, S; Elliger, C; Podsakoff, G; Villarreal, L; Kurtzman, G J; Iwaki, Y; Colosi, P

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop an efficient method for the production of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors in the absence of helper virus. The adenovirus regions that mediate AAV vector replication were identified and assembled into a helper plasmid. These included the VA, E2A and E4 regions. When this helper plasmid was cotransfected into 293 cells, along with plasmids encoding the AAV vector, and rep and cap genes, AAV vector was produced as efficiently as when using adenovirus infection as a source of help. CMV-driven constructs expressing the E4orf6 and the 72-M(r), E2A proteins were able to functionally replace the E4 and E2A regions, respectively. Therefore the minimum set of genes required to produce AAV helper activity equivalent to that provided by adenovirus infection consists of, or is a subset of, the following genes: the E4orf6 gene, the 72-M(r), E2A protein gene, the VA RNA genes and the E1 region. AAV vector preparations made with adenovirus and by the helper virus-free method were essentially indistinguishable with respect to particle density, particle to infectivity ratio, capsimer ratio and efficiency of muscle transduction in vivo. Only AAV vector preparations made by the helper virus-free method were not reactive with anti-adenovirus sera.

  9. Ear Problems in Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Che Wang

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear, otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane.

  10. Firetube boiler with high efficiency for producing saturated or superheated steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carosso, V J; Carosso, J Y

    1976-10-07

    This boiler for producing saturated or super-heated steam is to be manufactured in one piece or in units which can be assembled at site without skilled workers, at the factory. It is to have a high efficiency and dimensions which permit the transport of the completely assembled boiler by road transport. The relatively small water-steam vessel lies across the longitudinal axis of the boiler in the rear boiler space over a battery of preheater tubes. By these measures and by a very detailed and appropriately described rational arrangement of other parts, such as convection bundles, primary and secondary superheater, evaporation tubes, which form an 'evaporation shield', upper and lower longitudinal chambers with vertical connecting pipes of different crossections, the above mentioned condition for space requirement is fulfilled and a high efficiency should be achieved, but with considerable expense.

  11. Comparison of the energy efficiency to produce agroethanol between various industries and processes: Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, Xavier; Frangi, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The article assesses the energy R required by a system to transform a cereal or sugar plant into ethanol. From the specific consumption r j of each process j and its weight w j in the system, process consumption share R j is deduced and hence R, sum of R j . Depending on w j definition, R j and R are relative to either 100 J of ethanol produced or 100 J of plant harvested. Depending on the nature of r j , R j and R represent either only primary external energies, or all fuel and electricity consumed directly, or external and internal energies. From one definition to another R for average sugar cane based industries is the best or the worst relative to other plants. This results also from the use of cane residues as fuels while operating outdated processes. Through r j the process based analysis allows to examine for each system the impact of modern processes or different use of residues. All systems benefit except sugar beet based industry close to its best efficiency. This flexibility permits even to build a self-sufficient system where existing processes produce from system resources substitutes to external energies. R becomes an unambiguous definition of a system efficiency. It shows that all agroethanol systems are more consuming than petroleum industry. The system can be expanded to the vehicle stage to compare with alternatives to ethanol such as electricity and biogas. Wheat straw burnt to produce electricity used in an electrical vehicle will present R close to that of petroleum industry. -- Highlights: → Study of the energy consumptions of agroethanol industries with a process based analysis. → Different definitions of energy efficiency with potential opposite conclusions. → Previous highlight is overcome using self sufficient systems with existing processes. → Consumptions of average and improved agroethanol industries larger than for petroleum industries. → Electricity from wheat straw combustion can compete with gasoline from crude oil.

  12. Laser-produced multi-charged heavy ions as efficient soft x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Yuhei; Kawasaki, Masato

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate EUV and soft x-ray sources in the 2 to 7 nm spectral region related to the beyond EUV (BEUV) question at 6x nm and a water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs), extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on a high-Z plasma UTA source, coupled to x-ray optics. We will discuss the progress and Z-scaling of UTA emission spectra to achieve lab-scale table-top, efficient, high-brightness high-Z plasma EUV-soft x-ray sources for in vivo bio-imaging applications. (author)

  13. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... otitis. Fungal external otitis (otomycosis), typically caused by Aspergillus niger or Candida albicans, is less common. Boils are ... in the ear. Fungal external otitis caused by Aspergillus niger usually causes grayish black or yellow dots (called ...

  14. Ear Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ear infections may get better without antibiotics. Using antibiotics cautiously and with good reason helps prevent the development of bacteria that become resistant to antibiotics. If your doctor prescribes an antibiotic, it’s important ...

  15. Development of an efficient algal H{sub 2}-producing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghirardi, M.L.; Markov, S.; Seibert, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Green algae have the potential to efficiently photoevolve H{sub 2} from water using the photosynthetic O{sub 2} evolving apparatus and the reversible hydrogenase enzyme when CO{sub 2} is not present. Unfortunately algal hydrogenases are very sensitive to inactivation by O{sub 2}, the by-product of the water-splitting process. This problem has been one of the major practical factors limiting the commercial utilization of green algae for H{sub 2} production. The other major limitation, saturation of H{sub 2} production by algae at light intensities much lower than normal solar levels, is being addressed by ORNL. The objectives of this project are to generate O{sub 2}-tolerant, H{sub 2}-producing mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtti, to test them in a laboratory-scale system for continuous production of H{sub 2} under aerobic conditions; and to collaborate with ORNL to improve the overall efficiency of H{sub 2} production in intact and cell-free systems. The ultimate goal of the work is to configure a photobiological water-splitting process that will lead to a H{sub 2}-producing system that is cost effective, scalable, non-polluting, and renewable. The approach to obtain O{sub 2}-tolerant mutants of Chlamydomonas involves two types of selection techniques. The first depends on the survival of cells under photoreductive conditions, where H{sub 2} utilization is required, and the second requires the survival of the organisms under H{sub 2}-producing conditions. As part of this collaboration, the authors have independently confirmed that two of the Chlamydomonas mutants lacking photosystem I used by ORNL do in fact produce O{sub 2} in the light and also evolve H{sub 2}. Not unexpectedly, they do the latter with the same O{sub 2}-sensitivity as the WT cells. This observation is crucial for the credibility of the important ORNL work, since it confirms the potential for doubling the quantum efficiency for H{sub 2} production in these mutants.

  16. Water use efficiency of coriander produced in a low-cost hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Santos Júnior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The increase of water use efficiency in crop production is a clear need in areas with restricted access to this resource and, in these cases, the adoption of forms of cultivation contextualized to local conditions are essential. Thus, the implications of the variation in the amount of seeds per cell (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g and spacing between cells (7.0, 10.0 and 15.0 cm on variables related to consumption and water use efficiency for the production of coriander (cv. Tabocas in a low-cost hydroponic system, an alternative for semiarid regions, were evaluated. A completely randomized experimental design, analysed in 4 x 3 factorial scheme with three replicates, was adopted, and the data were subjected to analysis of variance at 0.05 probability level. It was found that the reduction in the spacing between cells has a better cost-benefit ratio with respect to water consumption, biomass produced and cost of seeds. Therefore, it is recommended the adoption of a spacing of 7.0 cm between cells and the use of 1.0 g seeds per cell; this configuration promoted efficiency of 81.59 g L-1 in shoot green mass production and total mass of 62.4 g coriander bunches.

  17. Efficient soft x-ray generation in short wavelength laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, T.; Yamanaka, C.

    1987-01-01

    Intense x-ray generation in 1.053, 0.53, 0.26 μm laser-produced plasma has been investigated in the photon energy range of 0.1 to 3keV. The x-ray spectrum is found to have several humps which move to the higher energy side as the atomic number of the target increases. This atomic dependence is explained by a semi-Moseley's law and allows us to predict a target material most suitable for generating the photons of desired energies. Conversion efficiencies of 1.5 -- 3keV x-rays are obtained also as a function of laser wavelength at the intensity of 10/sup 13/W/cm/sup 2/. The conversion efficiency of keV x rays has been enhanced by a factor of 2 -- 3 with a controlled prepulse laser. From the semi-Moseley's law we find that cryogenic targets using either Xe or Kr in a liquid or solid phase may be most useful for a number of applications because they radiate 1 -- 3 keV x rays efficiently and never deposit on the x-ray optical components and the objects to be exposed

  18. Efficiency of two enucleation methods connected to handmade cloning to produce transgenic porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, J; Villemoes, K; Zhang, Y

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our work was to establish an efficient-oriented enucleation method to produce transgenic embryos with handmade cloning (HMC). After 41â€"42 h oocytes maturation, the oocytes were further cultured with or without 0.4 μg/ml demecolcine for 45 min [chemically assisted handmade...... cytoplasts without extrusion cones or PB were selected as recipients. Two cytoplasts were electrofused with one transgenic fibroblasts expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), while non-transgenic fibroblasts were used as controls. Reconstructed embryos were cultured in Well of Wells (WOWs) with porcine......%) of cloned embryos with GFP transgenic fibroblast cells after CAHE vs OHE. With adjusted time-lapse for zonae-free cloned embryos cultured in WOWs with PZM-3, it was obvious that in vitro developmental competence after CAHE was compromised when compared with the OHE method. OHE enucleation method seems...

  19. More feed efficient sheep produce less methane and carbon dioxide when eating high-quality pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganoni, B; Rose, G; Macleay, C; Jones, C; Brown, D J; Kearney, G; Ferguson, M; Thompson, A N

    2017-09-01

    The Australian sheep industry aims to increase the efficiency of sheep production by decreasing the amount of feed eaten by sheep. Also, feed intake is related to methane production, and more efficient (low residual feed intake) animals eat less than expected. So we tested the hypothesis that more efficient sheep produce less methane by investigating the genetic correlations between feed intake, residual feed intake, methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. Feed intake, methane, oxygen, and carbon dioxide were measured on Merino ewes at postweaning (1,866 at 223 d old), hogget (1,010 sheep at 607 d old), and adult ages (444 sheep at 1,080 d old). Sheep were fed a high-energy grower pellet ad libitum for 35 d. Individual feed intake was measured using automated feeders. Methane was measured using portable accumulation chambers up to 3 times during this feed intake period. Heritabilities and phenotypic and genotypic correlations between traits were estimated using ASReml. Oxygen (range 0.10 to 0.20) and carbon dioxide (range 0.08 to 0.28) were generally more heritable than methane (range 0.11 to 0.14). Selecting to decrease feed intake or residual feed intake will decrease methane (genetic correlation [] range 0.76 to 0.90) and carbon dioxide ( range 0.65 to 0.96). Selecting to decrease intake ( range 0.64 to 0.78) and methane ( range 0.81 to 0.86) in sheep at postweaning age would also decrease intake and methane in hoggets and adults. Furthermore, selecting for lower residual feed intake ( = 0.75) and carbon dioxide ( = 0.90) in hoggets would also decrease these traits in adults. Similarly, selecting for higher oxygen ( = 0.69) in hoggets would also increase this trait in adults. Given these results, the hypothesis that making sheep more feed efficient will decrease their methane production can be accepted. In addition, carbon dioxide is a good indicator trait for feed intake because it has the highest heritability of the gas traits measured; is cheaper, faster, and

  20. A New Bacillus licheniformis Mutant Strain Producing Serine Protease Efficient for Hvdrolvqis of Sov Meal Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyleva, E V; Sereda, A S; Velikoretskaya, I A; Nefedova, L I; Sharikov, A Yu; Tsurikova, N V; Lobanov, N S; Semenova, M V; Sinitsyn, A P

    2016-07-01

    Induced mutagenesis with y-irradiation of the industrial strain Bacillus licheniformis-60 VKM B-2366,D was used to obtain a new highly active producer of an extracellular serine protease, Bacillus licheni- formis7 145. Samples of dry.concentrated preparations of serine protease produced by the original and mutant strains were obtained, and identity of their protein composition was'established. Alkaline serine protease sub- tilisin DY was the main component of the preparations. The biochemical and physicochemical properties of the Protolkheterm-145 enzyme preparation obtained from the mutant strain were studied. It exhibited pro- teolytic activity (1.5 times higher than the preparation from the initial strain) within broad ranges of pH (5- 11) and temperature (30-70'C).-Efficient hydrolysis of extruded soy meal protein at high concentrations (2 to 50%) in-the reaction mixture was.the main advantage of the Protolikheterm 145 preparation. Compared to,. the preparation obtained using the initial strain, the new preparation with increased proteolytic-activity pro- vided for more complete hydrolysis of the main non-nutritious soy,proteins.(glycinin and 0-conglycinin) with the yield of soluble protein increased by 19-28%, which decreased the cost of bioconversion of the protein- aceous material and indicated promise of the new preparation in resource-saving technologies for processing soy meals and cakes.

  1. A Rapid and Efficient Screening Method for Antibacterial Compound-Producing Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Sachithra; Lee, Su-Jin; Lee, Youngdeuk; Kwon, Young-Kyung; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Moon, Song; Jo, Eunyoung; Kim, Taeho; Kang, Do-Hyung; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong

    2017-08-28

    Antibacterial compounds are widely used in the treatment of human and animal diseases. The overuse of antibiotics has led to a rapid rise in the prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria, making the development of new antibacterial compounds essential. This study focused on developing a fast and easy method for identifying marine bacteria that produce antibiotic compounds. Eight randomly selected marine target bacterial species ( Agrococcus terreus, Bacillus algicola, Mesoflavibacter zeaxanthinifaciens, Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra, P. peptidolytica, P. piscicida, P. rubra , and Zunongwangia atlantica ) were tested for production of antibacterial compounds against four strains of test bacteria ( B. cereus, B. subtilis, Halomonas smyrnensis , and Vibrio alginolyticus ). Colony picking was used as the primary screening method. Clear zones were observed around colonies of P. flavipulchra, P. peptidolytica, P. piscicida , and P. rubra tested against B. cereus, B. subtilis , and H. smyrnensis . The efficiency of colony scraping and broth culture methods for antimicrobial compound extraction was also compared using a disk diffusion assay. P. peptidolytica, P. piscicida , and P. rubra showed antagonistic activity against H. smyrnensis, B. cereus , and B. subtilis , respectively, only in the colony scraping method. Our results show that colony picking and colony scraping are effective, quick, and easy methods of screening for antibacterial compound-producing bacteria.

  2. Identifying efficient dairy heifer producers using production costs and data envelopment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, A J; Jones, C M; Gray, S M; Heinrichs, P A; Cornelisse, S A; Goodling, R C

    2013-01-01

    During November and December 2011, data were collected from 44 dairy operations in 13 Pennsylvania counties. Researchers visited each farm to collect information regarding management practices and feeding, and costs for labor, health, bedding, and reproduction for replacement heifers from birth until first calving. Costs per heifer were broken up into 4 time periods: birth until weaning, weaning until 6 mo of age, 6 mo of age until breeding age, and heifers from breeding to calving. Milk production records for each herd were obtained from Dairy Herd Improvement. The average number of milking cows on farms in this study was 197.8 ± 280.1, with a range from 38 to 1,708. Total cost averaged $1,808.23 ± $338.62 from birth until freshening. Raising calves from birth to weaning cost $217.49 ± 86.21; raising heifers from weaning age through 6 mo of age cost $247.38 ± 78.89; raising heifers from 6 mo of age until breeding cost $607.02 ± 192.28; and total cost for bred heifers was $736.33 ± 162.86. Feed costs were the largest component of the cost to raise heifers from birth to calving, accounting for nearly 73% of the total. Data envelopment analysis determined that 9 of the 44 farms had no inefficiencies in inputs or outputs. These farms best combined feed and labor investments, spending, on average, $1,137.40 and $140.62/heifer for feed and labor. These heifers calved at 23.7 mo of age and produced 88.42% of the milk produced by older cows. In contrast, the 35 inefficient farms spent $227 more on feed and $78 more on labor per heifer for animals that calved 1.6 mo later and produced only 82% of the milk made by their mature herdmates. Efficiency was attained by herds with the lowest input costs, but herds with higher input costs were also able to be efficient if age at calving was low and milk production was high for heifers compared with the rest of the herd. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Air purification in industrial plants producing automotive rubber components in terms of energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzebielec Andrzej

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In automotive industry plants, which use injection molding machines for rubber processing, tar contaminates air to such an extent that air fails to enter standard heat recovery systems. Accumulated tar clogs ventilation heat recovery exchangers in just a few days. In the plant in which the research was conducted, tar contamination causes blockage of ventilation ducts. The effect of this phenomenon was that every half year channels had to be replaced with new ones, since the economic analysis has shown that cleaning them is not cost-efficient. Air temperature inside such plants is often, even in winter, higher than 30°C. The air, without any means of heat recovery, is discharged outside the buildings. The analyzed plant uses three types of media for production: hot water, cold water at 14°C (produced in a water chiller, and compressed air, generated in a unit with a rated power consumption of 180 kW. The aim of the study is to determine the energy efficiency improvement of this type of manufacturing plant. The main problem to solve is to provide an air purification process so that air can be used in heat recovery devices. The next problem to solve is to recover heat at such a temperature level that it would be possible to produce cold for technological purposes without air purification. Experimental studies have shown that air purification is feasible. By using one microjet head, a total of 75% of tar particles was removed from the air; by using 4 heads, a purification efficiency of 93% was obtained. This method of air purification causes air temperature to decrease from 35°C to 20°C, which significantly reduces the potential for heat recovery. The next step of the research was designing a cassette-plate heat exchanger to exchange heat without air purification. The economic analysis of such a solution revealed that replacing the heat exchanger with a new one even once a year was not cost-efficient. Another issue examined in the context of

  4. Listening to the ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shera, Christopher A.

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics-termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models-that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  5. Ear, Hearing and Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)......An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)...

  6. Biocompatibility of Liposome Nanocarriers in the Rat Inner Ear After Intratympanic Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, Jing; Feng, Hao; Sood, Rohit; Kinnunen, Paavo K. J.; Pyykko, Ilmari

    2017-01-01

    Liposome nanocarriers (LPNs) are potentially the future of inner ear therapy due to their high drug loading capacity and efficient uptake in the inner ear after a minimally invasive intratympanic administration. However, information on the biocompatibility of LPNs in the inner ear is lacking. The

  7. Energy-efficient biogas reforming process to produce syngas: The enhanced methane conversion by O_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xuejing; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, Kaimin; Tian, Sicong; Yan, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of O_2 content from 0 to 15% on Ni/SiO_2 are studied for biogas reforming. • The presence of O_2 in biogas improves CH_4 conversion and stability of biogas reforming. • An obvious carbon-resistance effect is observed due to the carbon gasification effect of O_2 in biogas. • The presence of O_2 in biogas greatly helps inhibit the catalyst sintering. - Abstract: We report an energy-efficient biogas reforming process with high and stable methane conversions by O_2 presence. During this biogas reforming process, the effects of various O_2 concentrations in biogas on initial conversions and stability at various temperatures on a Ni/SiO_2 catalyst were detailed investigated. In addition, theoretical energy consumption and conversions were calculated based on the Gibbs energy minimization method to compare with experimental results. Carbon formation and sintering during the reforming process were characterized by thermal gravity analysis, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, X-ray diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy to investigate the feasibility of applying this process to an inexpensive nickel catalyst. The results showed that 5% O_2 in biogas improved the CH_4 conversion and stability of biogas reforming. The enhancement of stability was attributed to the inhibited sintering, our first finding, and the reduced carbon deposition at the same time, which sustained a stable conversion of CH_4, and proved the applicability of base Ni catalyst to this process. Higher O_2 concentrations (⩾10%) in biogas resulted in severe decrease in CO_2 conversion and greater H_2O productivity. Our proposed biogas reforming process, with a high and stable conversion of CH_4, reduced energy input, and the applicability to inexpensive base metal catalyst, offers a good choice for biogas reforming with low O_2 concentrations (⩽5%) to produce syngas with high energy efficiency.

  8. Comparison of the energy efficiency to produce agroethanol between various industries and processes: The transport stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, Xavier; Frangi, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The different modes of transport used in the agroethanol industry and their energy efficiencies have been studied. Their specific consumption of fuels t trans in MJ (t load km) -1 is assessed from raw data and from friction force laws. t trans depends on the mode characteristics, fuel/engine performance, velocity, geometry, total mass, actual load... Lack of precision on them increases the uncertainty on t trans (variation by a factor up to 8 for pipeline depending on the flow velocity). From t trans is deduced the consumption of the mode in the industry R trans in J for 100 J of the energy content of ethanol E etoh produced from the load. R trans takes also into account the distance of shipment d and the weight of the load in E etoh , w load . Trucks, t trans from 7 to 1.4 MJ(t load .km) -1 , can present the best R trans, lower than 0.5 J for 100 J of ethanol, because of trips over small d (less than 100 km) and of low w load (less than 0.04 t load .GJ etoh -1 for farm inputs and ethanol). R trans of the plant transport to the factory by trucks ranges to 3 J due to larger w load (up to 0.56 t load .GJ etoh -1 for sugar cane). Large part of the ethanol is moved from the factory to the local storages over 1000 km more or less depending on the proximity of consumption centers. Efficient modes such as pipeline and sea ships, t trans as low as 0.05 MJ (t load .km) -1 when optimized, can compensate for these distances with R trans around 1 J. R trans to export ethanol from Brazil to France would represent less than 5 J, much lower than the difference of consumptions R between sugar cane and sugar beet based ethanol productions. -- Highlights: → Local and global consumption rates (t and R) to carry inputs, plants or agroethanol. → t in J per km and ton of shipment, and its dependences from data and friction laws. → t from 7 for light trucks to 0.05 MJ (t load .km) -1 for optimized pipe or ship. → R in J for 100 J ethanol from t, distance and mass of load for 100

  9. Pseudomonas sp. BUP6, a novel isolate from Malabari goat produces an efficient rhamnolipid type biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priji, Prakasan; Sajith, Sreedharan; Unni, Kizhakkepowathial Nair; Anderson, Robin C; Benjamin, Sailas

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of a biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas sp. BUP6, a rumen bacterium, and optimization of parameters required for its production. Initial screening of five parameters (pH, temperature, agitation, incubation, and substrate concentration) was carried out employing Plackett-Burman design, which reduced the number of parameters to 3 (pH, temperature, and incubation) according to their significance on the yield of biosurfactant. A suitable statistical model for the production of biosurfactant by Pseudomonas sp. BUP6 was established according to Box-Behnken design, which resulted in 11% increase (at pH 7, 35 °C, incubation 75 h) in the yield (2070 mg L -1 ) of biosurfactant. The biosurfactant was found stable at a wide range of pH (3-9) with 48 mg L -1 critical micelle concentration; and maintained over 90% of its emulsification ability even after boiling and in presence of sodium chloride (0.5%). The highest cell hydrophobicity (37%) and emulsification (69%) indices were determined with groundnut oil and kerosene, respectively. The biosurfactant was found to inhibit the growth and adhesion of E. coli and S. aureus significantly. From the phytotoxicity studies, the biosurfactant did not show any adverse effect on the germinating seeds of rice and green gram. The structural characterization of biosurfactant employing orcinol method, thin layer chromatography and FT-IR indicated that it is a rhamnolipid (glycolipid). Thus, Pseudomonas sp. BUP6, a novel isolate from Malabari goat is demonstrated as a producer of an efficient rhamnolipid type biosurfactant suitable for application in various industries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Genome sequence of the thermophilic strain Bacillus coagulans XZL4, an efficient pentose-utilizing producer of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Xu, Ke; Zhao, Bo; Tai, Cui; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2011-11-01

    Bacillus coagulans XZL4 is an efficient pentose-utilizing producer of important platform compounds, such as l-lactic acid, 2,3-butanediol, and acetoin. Here we present a 2.8-Mb assembly of its genome. Simple and efficient carbohydrate metabolism systems, especially the transketolase/transaldolase pathway, make it possible to convert pentose sugars to products at high levels.

  11. Vitamin D receptor deficiency impairs inner ear development in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hye-Joo

    2016-01-01

    The biological actions of vitamin D are largely mediated through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, which regulates gene expression in a wide variety of tissues and cells. Mutations in VDR gene have been implicated in ear disorders (hearing loss and balance disorder) but the mechanisms are not well established. In this study, to investigate the role of VDR in inner ear development, morpholino-mediated gene knockdown approaches were used in zebrafish model system. Two paralogs for VDR, vdra and vdrb, have been identified in zebrafish. Knockdown of vdra had no effect on ear development, whereas knockdown of vdrb displayed morphological ear defects including smaller otic vesicles with malformed semicircular canals and abnormal otoliths. Loss-of-vdrb resulted in down-regulation of pre-otic markers, pax8 and pax2a, indicating impairment of otic induction. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos lacking vdrb produced fewer sensory hair cells in the ears and showed disruption of balance and motor coordination. These data reveal that VDR signaling plays an important role in ear development. - Highlights: • VDR signaling is involved in ear development. • Knockdown of vdrb causes inner ear malformations during embryogenesis. • Knockdown of vdrb affects otic placode induction. • Knockdown of vdrb reduces the number of sensory hair cells in the inner ear. • Knockdown of vdrb disrupts balance and motor coordination.

  12. SIFT-based Ear Recognition by Fusion of Detected Keypoints from Color Similarity Slice Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Kisku, Dakshina Ranjan; Mehrotra, Hunny; Gupta, Phalguni; Sing, Jamuna Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Ear biometric is considered as one of the most reliable and invariant biometrics characteristics in line with iris and fingerprint characteristics. In many cases, ear biometrics can be compared with face biometrics regarding many physiological and texture characteristics. In this paper, a robust and efficient ear recognition system is presented, which uses Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) as feature descriptor for structural representation of ear images. In order to make it more robus...

  13. Thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling of silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, R., E-mail: roberto.martini@imec.be [Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark 10, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kepa, J.; Stesmans, A. [Department of Physics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Debucquoy, M.; Depauw, V.; Gonzalez, M.; Gordon, I. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Poortmans, J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark 10, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Universiteit Hasselt, Martelarenlaan 42, B-3500 Hasselt (Belgium)

    2014-10-27

    We report on the drastic improvement of the quality of thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling. In the past, researchers have proposed to fabricate silicon foils by spalling silicon substrates with different stress-inducing materials to manufacture thin silicon solar cells. However, the reported values of effective minority carrier lifetime of the fabricated foils remained always limited to ∼100 μs or below. In this work, we investigate epoxy-induced exfoliated foils by electron spin resonance to analyze the limiting factors of the minority carrier lifetime. These measurements highlight the presence of disordered dangling bonds and dislocation-like defects generated by the exfoliation process. A solution to remove these defects compatible with the process flow to fabricate solar cells is proposed. After etching off less than 1 μm of material, the lifetime of the foil increases by more than a factor of 4.5, reaching a value of 461 μs. This corresponds to a lower limit of the diffusion length of more than 7 times the foil thickness. Regions with different lifetime correlate well with the roughness of the crack surface which suggests that the lifetime is now limited by the quality of the passivation of rough surfaces. The reported values of the minority carrier lifetime show a potential for high efficiency (>22%) thin silicon solar cells.

  14. Thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling of silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, R.; Kepa, J.; Stesmans, A.; Debucquoy, M.; Depauw, V.; Gonzalez, M.; Gordon, I.; Poortmans, J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the drastic improvement of the quality of thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling. In the past, researchers have proposed to fabricate silicon foils by spalling silicon substrates with different stress-inducing materials to manufacture thin silicon solar cells. However, the reported values of effective minority carrier lifetime of the fabricated foils remained always limited to ∼100 μs or below. In this work, we investigate epoxy-induced exfoliated foils by electron spin resonance to analyze the limiting factors of the minority carrier lifetime. These measurements highlight the presence of disordered dangling bonds and dislocation-like defects generated by the exfoliation process. A solution to remove these defects compatible with the process flow to fabricate solar cells is proposed. After etching off less than 1 μm of material, the lifetime of the foil increases by more than a factor of 4.5, reaching a value of 461 μs. This corresponds to a lower limit of the diffusion length of more than 7 times the foil thickness. Regions with different lifetime correlate well with the roughness of the crack surface which suggests that the lifetime is now limited by the quality of the passivation of rough surfaces. The reported values of the minority carrier lifetime show a potential for high efficiency (>22%) thin silicon solar cells.

  15. From Ear to Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

  16. Middle ear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Gangadhara Somayaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is becoming more common in the society living in cities with lot of background noise around, and frequent use of gadgets like mobile phones, MP3s, and IPods are adding to the problem. The loss may involve the conductive or perceptive pathway. Majority of the patients with conductive hearing loss will revert back to normal hearing levels with medical and/or surgical treatment. However, in sensorineural hearing loss, many factors are involved in the management. Though traditionally hearing aids in various forms are the most commonly used modality in managing these patients, there are some drawbacks associated with them. Implantable middle ear amplifiers represent the most recent breakthrough in the management of hearing loss. Middle ear implants are surgically implanted electronic devices that aim to correct hearing loss by stimulating the ossicular chain or middle ear. Of late, they are also being used in the management of congenital conductive hearing loss and certain cases of chronic otitis media with residual hearing loss. The article aims to provide general information about the technology, indications and contraindications, selection of candidates, available systems, and advantages of middle ear implants. (MEI

  17. Seeing With the Ears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In recent talks, I mentioned how my artist friends often complain that their clients see with their ears. It recently dawned on me that nobody understood what I said, or—worse—got the wrong idea. The audience thinks of bionic devices (Proulx, Stoerig, Ludowig, & Knoll, 2008) or bat echo location

  18. Ear infection - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the back of the throat. Normally, this tube drains fluid that is made in the middle ear. ... allows air to get in so fluids can drain more easily. Usually the tubes fall out by themselves. Those that don't ...

  19. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect - pinna; Congenital defect - pinna ... conditions: Abnormal folds or location of the pinna Low-set ears No opening to the ear canal ...

  20. 3D ear identification based on sparse representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    Full Text Available Biometrics based personal authentication is an effective way for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person's identity. Recently, 3D ear shape has attracted tremendous interests in research field due to its richness of feature and ease of acquisition. However, the existing ICP (Iterative Closet Point-based 3D ear matching methods prevalent in the literature are not quite efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by proposing a novel effective fully automatic 3D ear identification system. We at first propose an accurate and efficient template-based ear detection method. By utilizing such a method, the extracted ear regions are represented in a common canonical coordinate system determined by the ear contour template, which facilitates much the following stages of feature extraction and classification. For each extracted 3D ear, a feature vector is generated as its representation by making use of a PCA-based local feature descriptor. At the stage of classification, we resort to the sparse representation based classification approach, which actually solves an l1-minimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work introducing the sparse representation framework into the field of 3D ear identification. Extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset corroborate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The associated Matlab source code and the evaluation results have been made publicly online available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/ear/srcear/srcear.htm.

  1. Topochemical approach to efficiently produce main-chain poly(bile acid)s with high molecular weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weina; Li, Xuesong; Zhu, Wei; Li, Changxu; Xu, Dan; Ju, Yong; Li, Guangtao

    2011-07-21

    Based on a topochemical approach, a strategy for efficiently producing main-chain poly(bile acid)s in the solid state was developed. This strategy allows for facile and scalable synthesis of main-chain poly(bile acid)s not only with high molecular weights, but also with quantitative conversions and yields.

  2. Talaromyces atroroseus, a new species efficiently producing industrially relevant red pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Yilmaz, Neriman; Thrane, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    ., described in this study, produces the azaphilone biosynthetic families mitorubrins and Monascus pigments without any production of mycotoxins. Within the red pigment producing clade, T. atroroseus resolved in a distinct clade separate from all the other species in multigene phylogenies (ITS, β......Some species of Talaromyces secrete large amounts of red pigments. Literature has linked this character to species such as Talaromyces purpurogenus, T. albobiverticillius, T. marneffei, and T. minioluteus often under earlier Penicillium names. Isolates identified as T. purpurogenus have been...... reported to be interesting industrially and they can produce extracellular enzymes and red pigments, but they can also produce mycotoxins such as rubratoxin A and B and luteoskyrin. Production of mycotoxins limits the use of isolates of a particular species in biotechnology. Talaromyces atroroseus sp. nov...

  3. Talaromyces atroroseus, a new species efficiently producing industrially relevant red pigments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens C Frisvad

    Full Text Available Some species of Talaromyces secrete large amounts of red pigments. Literature has linked this character to species such as Talaromyces purpurogenus, T. albobiverticillius, T. marneffei, and T. minioluteus often under earlier Penicillium names. Isolates identified as T. purpurogenus have been reported to be interesting industrially and they can produce extracellular enzymes and red pigments, but they can also produce mycotoxins such as rubratoxin A and B and luteoskyrin. Production of mycotoxins limits the use of isolates of a particular species in biotechnology. Talaromyces atroroseus sp. nov., described in this study, produces the azaphilone biosynthetic families mitorubrins and Monascus pigments without any production of mycotoxins. Within the red pigment producing clade, T. atroroseus resolved in a distinct clade separate from all the other species in multigene phylogenies (ITS, β-tubulin and RPB1, which confirm its unique nature. Talaromyces atroroseus resembles T. purpurogenus and T. albobiverticillius in producing red diffusible pigments, but differs from the latter two species by the production of glauconic acid, purpuride and ZG-1494α and by the dull to dark green, thick walled ellipsoidal conidia produced. The type strain of Talaromyces atroroseus is CBS 133442.

  4. Impact of land fragmentation on rice producers' technical efficiency in South-East China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, S.; Heerink, N.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Qu Futian, F.

    2010-01-01

    Rice farming is important for income generation in large parts of China and Asia. This paper uses detailed household, crop- and plot-level data to investigate the levels and determinants of rice producers’ technical efficiency for three villages with different characteristics in a major rice-growing

  5. A simple approach for producing highly efficient DNA carriers with reduced toxicity based on modified polyallylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oskuee, Reza Kazemi [Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dosti, Fatemeh [School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholami, Leila [Targeted Drug Delivery Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Malaekeh-Nikouei, Bizhan, E-mail: malaekehb@mums.ac.ir [Nanotechnology Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays gene delivery is a topic in many research studies. Non-viral vectors have many advantages over viral vectors in terms of safety, immunogenicity and gene carrying capacity but they suffer from low transfection efficiency and high toxicity. In this study, polyallylamine (PAA), the cationic polymer, has been modified with hydrophobic branches to increase the transfection efficiency of the polymer. Polyallylamine with molecular weights of 15 and 65 kDa was selected and grafted with butyl, hexyl and decyl acrylate at percentages of 10, 30 and 50. The ability of the modified polymer to condense DNA was examined by ethidium bromide test. The complex of modified polymer and DNA (polyplex) was characterized for size, zeta potential, transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity in Neuro2A cell lines. The results of ethidium bromide test showed that grafting of PAA decreased its ability for DNA condensation but vectors could still condense DNA at moderate and high carrier to DNA ratios. Most of polyplexes had particle size between 150 and 250 nm. The prepared vectors mainly showed positive zeta potential but carriers composed of PAA with high percentage of grafting had negative zeta potential. The best transfection activity was observed in vectors with hexyl acrylate chain. Grafting of polymer reduced its cytotoxicity especially at percentages of 30 and 50. The vectors based of PAA 15 kDa had better transfection efficiency than the vectors made of PAA 65 kDa. In conclusion, results of the present study indicated that grafting PAA 15 kDa with high percentages of hexyl acrylate can help to prepare vectors with better transfection efficiency and less cytotoxicity. - Highlights: • The modified polyallylamine was synthesized as a gene carrier. • Modification of polyallylamine (15 kDa) with high percentages of hexyl acrylate improved transfection activity remarkably. • Grafting of polymer with acrylate derivatives reduced polymer cytotoxicity especially at percentages of

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of the Efficient Bioflocculant-Producing Bacterium Paenibacillus sp. Strain A9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-liang; Hu, Xiao-min

    2013-01-01

    Paenibacillus sp. strain A9 is an important bioflocculant-producing bacterium, isolated from a soil sample, and is pale pink-pigmented, aerobic, and Gram-positive. Here, we report the draft genome sequence and the initial findings from a preliminary analysis of strain A9, which is a novel species of Paenibacillus. PMID:23618713

  7. Efficient and specific gene knockdown by small interfering RNAs produced in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Linfeng; Jin, Jingmin; Deighan, Padraig; Kiner, Evgeny; McReynolds, Larry; Lieberman, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are an indispensable tool to investigate gene function in eukaryotic cells1,2 and may be used for therapeutic purposes to knockdown genes implicated in disease3. Thus far, most synthetic siRNAs have been produced by chemical synthesis. Here we present a method to produce highly potent siRNAs in E. coli. This method relies on ectopic expression of p19, a siRNA-binding protein found in a plant RNA virus4, 5. When expressed in E. coli, p19 stabilizes ~21 nt siRNA-like species produced by bacterial RNase III. Transfection of mammalian cells with siRNAs, generated in bacteria expressing p19 and a hairpin RNA encoding 200 or more nucleotides of a target gene, at low nanomolar concentrations reproducibly knocks down gene expression by ~90% without immunogenicity or off-target effects. Because bacterially produced siRNAs contain multiple sequences against a target gene, they may be especially useful for suppressing polymorphic cellular or viral genes. PMID:23475073

  8. Efficiency of producing anion and relative humidity of the indigenous woody plants in Jeju islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, S.-G.; Kim, K.-J.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, C.-M.; Byun, K.-O.

    2009-04-01

    This study is to evaluate the ability of interior plants to produce anion and relative humidity that can purify polluted indoor air. Four indigenous woody plants in Jeju islands such as Sarcandra glaber (Thunb.) Nakai, Illicium anisatum L, Cleyera japonica Thunb. and Ilex rotunda Thunb. were used. Sansevieria trifasciata cv. Laurentii was also used as a comparative plant. The amount of anion and increment of relative humidity produced by five species of indoor plants was assessed by anion measurement (ITC-201A)in a sealed acryl chamber (118Ã-118Ã-119.5cm). The highest amount of anion was 515 ea/cm3produced by I. rotunda. The amounts of anion were 293 ea/cm3, 273 ea/cm3, and 211 ea/cm3 in S. glaber, I. anisatum and C. japonica, respecively while it was 220 ea/cm3 in S. trifasciata. The increment of relative humidity was highest in I. anisatum as 27.4% while it was lowest in S. trifasciata as 14.0%. This result suggested that all four indigenous plants tested were more effective to purify the indoor polluted air than S. trifasciata. Key words: interior plant, S. glaber, I. anisatum, C. japonica, I. rotunda, indoor polluted air

  9. Measurements of hydrogen gas stopping efficiency for tin ions from laser-produced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramenko, D. B.; Spiridonov, M. V.; Krainov, P. V.; Krivtsun, V. M.; Astakhov, D. I.; Medvedev, V. V.; van Kampen, M.; Smeets, D.; Koshelev, K. N.

    2018-04-01

    Experimental studies of stopping of ion fluxes from laser-produced plasma by a low-pressure gas atmosphere are presented. A modification of the time-of-flight spectroscopy technique is proposed for the stopping cross-sectional measurements in the ion energy range of 0.1-10 keV. The application of the proposed technique is demonstrated for Sn ion stopping by H2 gas. This combination of elements is of particular importance for the development of plasma-based sources of extreme ultraviolet radiation for lithographic applications.

  10. Efficient Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Insulin-Producing Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Hsiu Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem (ES cells are a potential source of a variety of differentiated cells for cell therapy, drug discovery, and toxicology screening. Here, we present an efficacy strategy for the differentiation of mouse ES cells into insulin-producing cells (IPCs by a two-step differentiation protocol comprising of (i the formation of definitive endoderm in monolayer culture by activin A, and (ii this monolayer endoderm being induced to differentiate into IPCs by nicotinamide, insulin, and laminin. Differentiated cells can be obtained within approximately 7 days. The differentiation IPCs combined application of RT-PCR, ELISA, and immunofluorescence to characterize phenotypic and functional properties. In our study, we demonstrated that IPCs produced pancreatic transcription factors, endocrine progenitor marker, definitive endoderm, pancreatic β-cell markers, and Langerhans α and δ cells. The IPCs released insulin in a manner that was dose dependent upon the amount of glucose added. These techniques may be able to be applied to human ES cells, which would have very important ramifications for treating human disease.

  11. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    Directional sound receivers are useful for locating sound sources, and they can also partly compensate for the signal degradations caused by noise and reverberations. Ears may become inherently directional if sound can reach both surfaces of the eardrum. Attempts to understand the physics...... of the eardrum. The mere existence of sound transmission to the inner surface does not ensure a useful directional hearing, since a proper amplitude and phase relationship must exist between the sounds acting on the two surfaces of the eardrum. The gain of the sound pathway must match the amplitude and phase...... of the sounds at the outer surfaces of the eardrums, which are determined by diffraction and by the arrival time of the sound, that is by the size and shape of the animal and by the frequency of sound. Many users of hearing aids do not obtain a satisfactory improvement of their ability to localize sound sources...

  12. Human IgE is efficiently produced in glycosylated and biologically active form in lepidopteran cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bantleon, Frank; Wolf, Sara; Seismann, Henning

    2016-01-01

    the recombinant production of the highly complex IgE isotype in insect cells. Recombinant IgE (rIgE) was efficiently assembled and secreted into the supernatant in yields of >30 mg/L. Purification from serum free medium using different downstream processing methods provided large amounts of rIgE. This exhibited...... a highly specific interaction with its antigen, therapeutic anti-IgE and its high affinity receptor, the FcεRI. Lectins and glyco-proteomic analyses proved the presence of prototypic insect type N-glycans on the epsilon heavy chain. Mediator release assays demonstrated a biological activity of the r......IgE comparable to IgE derived from mammalian cells. In summary the expression in insect cells provides rIgE with variant glycosylation pattern, but retained characteristics and biological activity. Therefore our data contribute to the understanding of functional and structural aspects and potential use of the Ig...

  13. Genomic analysis of thermophilic Bacillus coagulans strains: efficient producers for platform bio-chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-29

    Microbial strains with high substrate efficiency and excellent environmental tolerance are urgently needed for the production of platform bio-chemicals. Bacillus coagulans has these merits; however, little genetic information is available about this species. Here, we determined the genome sequences of five B. coagulans strains, and used a comparative genomic approach to reconstruct the central carbon metabolism of this species to explain their fermentation features. A novel xylose isomerase in the xylose utilization pathway was identified in these strains. Based on a genome-wide positive selection scan, the selection pressure on amino acid metabolism may have played a significant role in the thermal adaptation. We also researched the immune systems of B. coagulans strains, which provide them with acquired resistance to phages and mobile genetic elements. Our genomic analysis provides comprehensive insights into the genetic characteristics of B. coagulans and paves the way for improving and extending the uses of this species.

  14. Engineering redox homeostasis to develop efficient alcohol-producing microbial cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunhua; Zhao, Qiuwei; Li, Yin; Zhang, Yanping

    2017-06-24

    The biosynthetic pathways of most alcohols are linked to intracellular redox homeostasis, which is crucial for life. This crucial balance is primarily controlled by the generation of reducing equivalents, as well as the (reduction)-oxidation metabolic cycle and the thiol redox homeostasis system. As a main oxidation pathway of reducing equivalents, the biosynthesis of most alcohols includes redox reactions, which are dependent on cofactors such as NADH or NADPH. Thus, when engineering alcohol-producing strains, the availability of cofactors and redox homeostasis must be considered. In this review, recent advances on the engineering of cellular redox homeostasis systems to accelerate alcohol biosynthesis are summarized. Recent approaches include improving cofactor availability, manipulating the affinity of redox enzymes to specific cofactors, as well as globally controlling redox reactions, indicating the power of these approaches, and opening a path towards improving the production of a number of different industrially-relevant alcohols in the near future.

  15. Silver-free Metallization Technology for Producing High Efficiency, Industrial Silicon Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelson, Lynne M [Technic Inc; Munoz, Krystal [Technic Inc.; Karas, Joseph [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Bowden, Stuart [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Rand, James A; Gallegos, Anthony [Technic Inc.; Tyson, Tom [Technic Inc.; Buonassisi, Tonio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2018-03-30

    The goal of this project is to provide a commercially viable Ag-free metallization technology that will both reduce cost and increase efficiency of standard silicon solar cells. By removing silver from the front grid metallization and replacing it with lower cost nickel, copper, and tin metal, the front grid direct materials costs will decrease. This reduction in material costs should provide a path to meeting the Sunshot 2020 goal of $1 / WDC. As of today, plated contacts are not widely implemented in large scale manufacturing. For organizations that wish to implement pilot scale manufacturing, only two equipment choices exist. These equipment manufacturers do not supply plating chemistry. The main goal of this project is to provide a chemistry and equipment solution to the industry that enables reliable manufacturing of plated contacts marked by passing reliability results and higher efficiencies than silver paste front grid contacts. To date, there have been several key findings that point to plated contacts performing equal to or better than the current state of the art silver paste contacts. Poor adhesion and reliability concerns are a few of the hurdles for plated contacts, specifically plated nickel directly on silicon. A key finding of the Phase 1 budget period is that the plated contacts have the same adhesion as the silver paste controls. This is a huge win for plated contacts. With very little optimization work, state of the art electrical results for plated contacts on laser ablated lines have been demonstrated with efficiencies up to 19.1% and fill factors ~80% on grid lines 40-50 um wide. The silver paste controls with similar line widths demonstrate similar electrical results. By optimizing the emitter and grid design for the plated contacts, it is expected that the electrical performance will exceed the silver paste controls. In addition, cells plated using Technic chemistry and equipment pass reliability testing; i.e. 1000 hours damp heat and 200

  16. How minute sooglossid frogs hear without a middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boistel, Renaud; Aubin, Thierry; Cloetens, Peter; Peyrin, Françoise; Scotti, Thierry; Herzog, Philippe; Gerlach, Justin; Pollet, Nicolas; Aubry, Jean-François

    2013-09-17

    Acoustic communication is widespread in animals. According to the sensory drive hypothesis [Endler JA (1993) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 340(1292):215-225], communication signals and perceptual systems have coevolved. A clear illustration of this is the evolution of the tetrapod middle ear, adapted to life on land. Here we report the discovery of a bone conduction-mediated stimulation of the ear by wave propagation in Sechellophryne gardineri, one of the world's smallest terrestrial tetrapods, which lacks a middle ear yet produces acoustic signals. Based on X-ray synchrotron holotomography, we measured the biomechanical properties of the otic tissues and modeled the acoustic propagation. Our models show how bone conduction enhanced by the resonating role of the mouth allows these seemingly deaf frogs to communicate effectively without a middle ear.

  17. Manufacturing and in vivo inner ear visualization of MRI traceable liposome nanoparticles encapsulating gadolinium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinnunen Paavo KJ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of inner ear diseases remains a problem because of limited passage through the blood-inner ear barriers and lack of control with the delivery of treatment agents by intravenous or oral administration. As a minimally-invasive approach, intratympanic delivery of multifunctional nanoparticles (MFNPs carrying genes or drugs to the inner ear is a future therapy for treating inner ear diseases, including sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL and Meniere's disease. In an attempt to track the dynamics and distribution of nanoparticles in vivo, here we describe manufacturing MRI traceable liposome nanoparticles by encapsulating gadolinium-tetra-azacyclo-dodecane-tetra-acetic acid (Gd-DOTA (abbreviated as LPS+Gd-DOTA and their distribution in the inner ear after either intratympanic or intracochlear administration. Results Measurements of relaxivities (r1 and r2 showed that LPS+Gd-DOTA had efficient visible signal characteristics for MRI. In vivo studies demonstrated that LPS+Gd-DOTA with 130 nm size were efficiently taken up by the inner ear at 3 h after transtympanic injection and disappeared after 24 h. With intracochlear injection, LPS+Gd-DOTA were visualized to distribute throughout the inner ear, including the cochlea and vestibule with fast dynamics depending on the status of the perilymph circulation. Conclusion Novel LPS+Gd-DOTA were visible by MRI in the inner ear in vivo demonstrating transport from the middle ear to the inner ear and with dynamics that correlated to the status of the perilymph circulation.

  18. Human ear recognition by computer

    CERN Document Server

    Bhanu, Bir; Chen, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Biometrics deals with recognition of individuals based on their physiological or behavioral characteristics. The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. Unlike the fingerprint and iris, it can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject, although sometimes it may be hidden with hair, scarf and jewellery. Also, unlike a face, the ear is a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. ""Human Ear Recognition by Computer"" is the first book o

  19. Ear recognition from one sample per person.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    Full Text Available Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods.

  20. Ear recognition from one sample per person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Mu, Zhichun; Zhang, Baoqing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP) in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP) available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC) ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods.

  1. Diagnosis of hearing impairment by high resolution CT scanning of inner ear anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Kiyotaka; Isono, Michio; Ohta, Fumihiko

    1988-01-01

    High resolution CT scanning of the temporal bone in our clinic has provided a more detailed radiological classification of inner ear anomalies than before. The statistical analysis of inner ear malformations based on the theory of quantification II has produced discriminant equations for the measurable diagnosis of hearing impairment and development of the inner ear. This analysis may make it possible to diagnose total and partial deafness on ipsi- and contralateral sides. (author)

  2. Global Ear. Werke 2001 - 2006

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Dresdenis muusikafestivalil "Global Ear" 23.3.03 esitusel Eesti heliloojate muusika: Helena Tulve "lumineux/opaque", Jaan Rääts "Meditation", Mirjam Tally "Aura", Mati Kuulberg "Sonate Nr.4", Mari Vihmand "Seitsmele"

  3. COMMON INFECTIONS OF THE EAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    tion of the skin covering the tympanic membrane and deep exter- nal canal, and the production of ... of combination steroid/antifungal/antibiotic ointment (e.g.. Kenacomb) with a cotton bud ..... protection to the delicate middle ear structures.

  4. Effect of irradiation angle on the efficiency of formation of multiply charged ions in a laser-produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedilov, M R; Beisembaeva, Kh B; Tsoi, T G; Satybaldiev, T B; Sabitov, M S

    2000-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is used to investigate the emission behaviour and the characteristics of multiply charged ions in a plasma produced at small angles of incidence of laser radiation (α∼20 0 ) and also at grazing incidence (α∼85 0 ). It is found that upon grazing incidence of the laser radiation onto a target, the efficiency of production of multiply charged ions is reduced compared to that for α∼20 0 . However, this geometry of laser irradiation of solids can be used for the elemental analysis of surface layers of a sample. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  5. Ear Detection under Uncontrolled Conditions with Multiple Scale Faster Region-Based Convolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ear detection is an important step in ear recognition approaches. Most existing ear detection techniques are based on manually designing features or shallow learning algorithms. However, researchers found that the pose variation, occlusion, and imaging conditions provide a great challenge to the traditional ear detection methods under uncontrolled conditions. This paper proposes an efficient technique involving Multiple Scale Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Networks (Faster R-CNN to detect ears from 2D profile images in natural images automatically. Firstly, three regions of different scales are detected to infer the information about the ear location context within the image. Then an ear region filtering approach is proposed to extract the correct ear region and eliminate the false positives automatically. In an experiment with a test set of 200 web images (with variable photographic conditions, 98% of ears were accurately detected. Experiments were likewise conducted on the Collection J2 of University of Notre Dame Biometrics Database (UND-J2 and University of Beira Interior Ear dataset (UBEAR, which contain large occlusion, scale, and pose variations. Detection rates of 100% and 98.22%, respectively, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  6. Characterization of the newly isolated Geobacillus sp. T1, the efficient cellulase-producer on untreated barley and wheat straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assareh, Reza; Shahbani Zahiri, Hossein; Akbari Noghabi, Kambiz; Aminzadeh, Saeed; Bakhshi Khaniki, Gholamreza

    2012-09-01

    A thermophile cellulase-producing bacterium was isolated and identified as closely related to Geobacillus subterraneus. The strain, named Geobacillus sp. T1, was able to grow and produce cellulase on cellobiose, microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), barley straw, wheat straw and Whatman No. 1 filter paper. However, barley and wheat straws were significantly better substrates for cellulase production. When Geobacillus sp. T1 was cultivated in the presence of 0.5% barley straw, 0.1% Tween 80 and pH 6.5 at 50°C, the maximum level of free cellulase up to 143.50 U/mL was produced after 24h. This cellulase (≈ 54 kDa) was most active at pH 6.5 and 70°C. The enzyme in citrate phosphate buffer (10mM) was stable at 60°C for at least 1h. Geobacillus sp. T1 with efficient growth and cellulase production on straws seems a potential candidate for conversion of agricultural biomass to fuels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Considerations on the use of ear chondrocytes as donor chondrocytes for cartilage tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Osch, Gerjo J. V. M.; Mandl, Erik W.; Jahr, Holger; Koevoet, Wendy; Nolst-Trenité, Gilbert; Verhaar, Jan A. N.

    2004-01-01

    Articular cartilage is often used for research on cartilage tissue engineering. However, ear cartilage is easier to harvest, with less donor-site morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether adult human ear chondrocytes were capable of producing cartilage after expansion in monolayer

  8. The aquatic tympanic ear: convergent adaptations for underwater hearing in three tetrapods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    pressure, low particle motion medium, and the consequence is that an efficient underwater ear is sensitive to sound pressure. It is often stated that underwater hearing can work efficiently without a middle ear apparatus by bone conduction, since sound is transmitted from water to inner ear tissue...... is modified (cartilaginous or partly cartilaginous). In all three species, the lowest threshold to underwater sound is at this peak frequency and is around 80 dB re 1 µPa. The sensitivity to sound pressure is slightly lower in water than in air, making underwater hearing much more efficient in terms of sound...

  9. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  10. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  11. An efficient thermotolerant and halophilic biosurfactant-producing bacterium isolated from Dagang oil field for MEOR application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Langping; Richnow, Hans; Yao, Jun; Jain, Anil

    2014-05-01

    Dagang Oil field (Petro China Company Limited) is one of the most productive oil fields in China. In this study, 34 biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated and cultured from petroleum reservoir of Dagang oil field, using haemolytic assay and the qualitative oil-displacement test. On the basis of 16S rDNA analysis, the isolates were closely related to the species in genus Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus. One of the isolates identified as Bacillus subtilis BS2 were selected for further study. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant with excessive foam-forming properties at 37ºC as well as at higher temperature of 55ºC. The biosurfactant produced by the strain BS2 could reduce the surface tension of the culture broth from 70.87 mN/m to 28.97 mN/m after 8 days of incubation at 37ºC and to 36.15 mN/m after 20 days of incubation at 55ºC, respectively. The biosurfactant showed stability at high temperature (up to 120ºC), a wide range of pH (2 to 12) and salt concentrations (up to 12%) offering potential for biotechnology. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of extracted biosurfactant tentatively characterized the produced biosurfactant as glycolipid derivative. Elemental analysis of the biosurfactant by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the biosurfactant was anionic in nature. 15 days of biodegradation of crude oil suggested a preferential usage of n-alkane upon microbial metabolism of BS2 as a carbon substrate and consequently also for the synthesis of biosurfactants. Core flood studies for oil release indicated 9.6% of additional oil recovery over water flooding at 37ºC and 7.2% of additional oil recovery at 55 ºC. Strain BS2 was characterized as an efficient biosurfactant-producing, thermotolerant and halophillic bacterium and has the potential for application for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) through water flooding in China's oil fields even in situ as adapted to reservoir chemistry and

  12. Systems and methods for biometric identification using the acoustic properties of the ear canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, A.M.; Osbourn, G.C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention teaches systems and methods for verifying or recognizing a person's identity based on measurements of the acoustic response of the individual's ear canal. The system comprises an acoustic emission device, which emits an acoustic source signal s(t), designated by a computer, into the ear canal of an individual, and an acoustic response detection device, which detects the acoustic response signal f(t). A computer digitizes the response (detected) signal f(t) and stores the data. Computer-implemented algorithms analyze the response signal f(t) to produce ear-canal feature data. The ear-canal feature data obtained during enrollment is stored on the computer, or some other recording medium, to compare the enrollment data with ear-canal feature data produced in a subsequent access attempt, to determine if the individual has previously been enrolled. The system can also be adapted for remote access applications. 5 figs

  13. Systems and methods for biometric identification using the acoustic properties of the ear canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Ann Marie; Osbourn, Gordon Cecil

    1998-01-01

    The present invention teaches systems and methods for verifying or recognizing a person's identity based on measurements of the acoustic response of the individual's ear canal. The system comprises an acoustic emission device, which emits an acoustic source signal s(t), designated by a computer, into the ear canal of an individual, and an acoustic response detection device, which detects the acoustic response signal f(t). A computer digitizes the response (detected) signal f(t) and stores the data. Computer-implemented algorithms analyze the response signal f(t) to produce ear-canal feature data. The ear-canal feature data obtained during enrollment is stored on the computer, or some other recording medium, to compare the enrollment data with ear-canal feature data produced in a subsequent access attempt, to determine if the individual has previously been enrolled. The system can also be adapted for remote access applications.

  14. In-the-Ear Hearing-Instrument Antenna for ISM-Band Body-Centric Ear-to-Ear Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yatman, William H.; Larsen, Lauge K; Kvist, Søren Helstrup

    2012-01-01

    A compact 2.45 GHz slot-loop antenna is implemented for the use in the outer shell of an in-the-ear (ITE) hearing instrument (HI). The antenna is optimized for high ear-to-ear path gain (jS21j). The antenna simulation results are presented for two identical antennas, one placed in the center of e...

  15. Biocompatibility of Liposome Nanocarriers in the Rat Inner Ear After Intratympanic Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jing; Feng, Hao; Sood, Rohit; Kinnunen, Paavo K. J.; Pyykko, Ilmari

    2017-05-01

    Liposome nanocarriers (LPNs) are potentially the future of inner ear therapy due to their high drug loading capacity and efficient uptake in the inner ear after a minimally invasive intratympanic administration. However, information on the biocompatibility of LPNs in the inner ear is lacking. The aim of the present study is to document the biocompatibility of LPNs in the inner ear after intratympanic delivery. LPNs with or without gadolinium-tetra-azacyclo-dodecane-tetra-acetic acid (Gd-DOTA) were delivered to the rats through transtympanic injection. The distribution of the Gd-DOTA-containing LPNs in the middle and inner ear was tracked in vivo using MRI. The function of the middle and inner ear barriers was evaluated using gadolinium-enhanced MRI. The auditory function was measured using auditory brainstem response (ABR). The potential inflammatory response was investigated by analyzing glycosaminoglycan and hyaluronic acid secretion and CD44 and TLR2 expression in the inner ear. The potential apoptosis was analyzed using terminal transferase (TdT) to label the free 3'OH breaks in the DNA strands of apoptotic cells with TMR-dUTP (TUNEL staining). As a result, LPNs entered the inner ear efficiently after transtympanic injection. The transtympanic injection of LPNs with or without Gd-DOTA neither disrupted the function of the middle and inner ear barriers nor caused hearing impairment in rats. The critical inflammatory biological markers in the inner ear, including glycosaminoglycan and hyaluronic acid secretion and CD44 and TLR2 expression, were not influenced by the administration of LPNs. There was no significant cell death associated with the administration of LPNs. The transtympanic injection of LPNs is safe for the inner ear, and LPNs may be applied as a drug delivery matrix in the clinical therapy of sensorineural hearing loss.

  16. Digital Active Noise Reduction Ear Plugs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harley, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    .... In contrast to available ANR headsets that implement fixed analog filters, the prototype defines a digital filter that is optimally defined for the user's current acoustical environment. An above-the-ear (ATE) and an in-the-ear (ITE...

  17. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otitis media is an inflammation or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs when there is ... which causes production of fluid or pus. Chronic otitis media occurs when the eustachian tube becomes blocked ...

  18. External ear: An analysis of its uniqueness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruma Purkait

    2016-06-01

    Hence, the individuality of every ear has been confirmed which may find use in personal identification studies. The study is a step towards providing scientific support for admitting ear evidence in the Court of Law.

  19. Proteomics and the Inner Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isolde Thalmann

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The inner ear, one of the most complex organs, contains within its bony shell three sensory systems, the evolutionary oldest gravity receptor system, the three semicircular canals for the detection of angular acceleration, and the auditory system - unrivaled in sensitivity and frequency discrimination. All three systems are susceptible to a host of afflictions affecting the quality of life for all of us. In the first part of this review we present an introduction to the milestones of inner ear research to pave the way for understanding the complexities of a proteomics approach to the ear. Minute sensory structures, surrounded by large fluid spaces and a hard bony shell, pose extreme challenges to the ear researcher. In spite of these obstacles, a powerful preparatory technique was developed, whereby precisely defined microscopic tissue elements can be isolated and analyzed, while maintaining the biochemical state representative of the in vivo conditions. The second part consists of a discussion of proteomics as a tool in the elucidation of basic and pathologic mechanisms, diagnosis of disease, as well as treatment. Examples are the organ of Corti proteins OCP1 and OCP2, oncomodulin, a highly specific calcium-binding protein, and several disease entities, Meniere's disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and perilymphatic fistula.

  20. Activation of bentonite to remove the chromium from waste water produced by panning industry, and studying the chromium recovery efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.; Wahba, H.; AL-Masri, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The fast development of tanning industry led to an increase in environmental problems resulting from discharging its wastes to the surrounding environment. Thus solving this problem became one of the most important aims that the researchers work on. The chromium content of the industrial water wastes of the tanning industry considered as the main pollutant for the environment. The Aleppo Bentonite is used in early research to remove the chromium from the industrial waste water.The current research aims to find a method to activate the Aleppo Bentonite in order to increase the effective removal of chromium from the industrial waste water which is produced by tanning industry, as well as to specify the optimal conditions for chromium recovery.This study used the Aleppo Bentonite, whose origin is Tal Ajar-Aleppo to study the activation aspects using Sulfuric Acid, Hydrochloric Acid and Nitric Acid, in addition to study the recovery aspects using the same acids and hydrogen peroxide and to specify the optimal conditions for chromium recovery through applying some experiments based on three main factors: concentration, settling time and temperature.It was observed from the applied experiments that it is possible to recover chromium from Bentonite efficiently up to (80% - 90%) by treating the Bentonite with hydrogen peroxide(33% concentration) at room temperature, or by treating it with hydrogen peroxide(8.25% concentration) at 75 o C, while the settling time factor proved that full recovery of chromium is obtained during the first hour, and increasing the time factor does not affect the efficiency of chromium recovery. (author)

  1. Low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Dojyo, Naoto; Hamada, Masaya; Sasaki, Wataru; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2006-05-01

    We demonstrated a low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin-dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles. By using a low SnO2 concentration (6%) solution and dual laser pulses for the plasma control, we observed the EUV conversion efficiency of 1.2% with undetectable debris.

  2. Low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Dojyo, Naoto; Hamada, Masaya; Sasaki, Wataru; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrated a low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin-dioxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles. By using a low SnO 2 concentration (6%) solution and dual laser pulses for the plasma control, we observed the EUV conversion efficiency of 1.2% with undetectable debris

  3. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth / For Kids / Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print en español La música ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  4. An Attempt at Quantifying Factors that Affect Efficiency in the Management of Solid Waste Produced by Commercial Businesses in the City of Tshwane, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Worku, Yohannes; Muchie, Mammo

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The objective was to investigate factors that affect the efficient management of solid waste produced by commercial businesses operating in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. Methods. Data was gathered from 1,034 businesses. Efficiency in solid waste management was assessed by using a structural time-based model designed for evaluating efficiency as a function of the length of time required to manage waste. Data analysis was performed using statistical procedures such as frequency...

  5. Induced thermal resistance in the mouse ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, M.P.; Coultas, P.G.; Field, S.B.

    1979-01-01

    The mouse ear (pinna) was used to investigate the effect of two hyperthermic treatments. Heating was by immersion in hot water at 43.5 0 C. A single treatment of about 50 minutes was required to cause necrosis in 50% of the ears treated. When heat treatment was given in two equal fractions the total heating time had to be increased if the interval between fractions was greater than four hours. By 24 hours a total treatment of about 100 minutes was required, indicating almost complete recovery from the first heating. Priming treatments at 43.5 0 C induced thermal resistance to a second heat treatment at 43.5 0 C. Maximum resistance was observed one day after a 20 minute priming and two days after a 40 minute priming, when the heating time had to be increased to 120 minutes, an increase by a factor of 2.4. Shorter priming treatments induced less resistance, the minimum heating time to produce an effect being two minutes. In all cases the effect decreased during the next four to five days. These results indicate that the reduced response of tissues to fractionated hyperthermia is due both to the repair of sublethal heat damage and induction of thermal resistance. (author)

  6. Carcinoid tumour of the middle ear

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baig, Salman

    2012-09-01

    A case of middle ear mass in a young female from Ireland is described, who presented with left ear hearing loss and intermittent bloody discharge from the same ear. Examination under microscope revealed occlusive polyp in the left ear and a biopsy had been taken under general anaesthesia. Histopathology report described an adenoma \\/ carcinoid tumour of the middle ear confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining. CT temporal bones revealed the extension of the disease. The patient underwent left tympanotomy and excision of the tumour. In general, these tumours are regarded as benign but may be mistaken for adenocarcinomas because of their histological heterogenecity.

  7. Imaging of the inner ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, J.W.; Bensimon, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    New computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) techniques allow more detailed anatomic studies of the inner ear. CT is still the best technique to study patients with fractures, congenital malformations and otodystrophies involving the inner ear. During recent years MR imaging has emerged as an excellent method to detect pathology in the internal auditory canal, membranous labyrinth and bony labyrinth and to characterize petrous apex lesions. MR has even proved its value in patients with fractures and congenital malformations making the diagnosis of, for instance, labyrinthine concussion and absence of the vestibulocochlear nerve possible. The diagnosis of acute/chronic labyrinthitis and intralabyrinthine tumors has also became possible. However, MR and CT are often complementary, as is the case in patients with mixed hearing loss, congenital malformations and petrous apex lesions. (orig.) [de

  8. Eficiência do laser diodo 980 nm em comparação à da glicose a 75% na oclusão de veias da orelha de coelhos The efficiency of the diode laser 980 nm compared to glucose 75% in occlusion of the veins in rabbit ears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto da Silva Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Por ser o laser um método novo no tratamento das varizes, há muitos mitos e dúvidas com relação à sua eficácia; assim, surgiu a necessidade de compará-lo a substância esclerosante mais utilizada em nosso meio (glicose hipertônica. OBJETIVO: Comparar a eficiência do laser diodo 980 nm à glicose 75% na oclusão de veias em orelha de coelho. MÉTODOS: Ensaio aleatório em animais de laboratório por 21 dias. A amostra consistiu de orelhas de coelhos machos adultos. Grupo L (laser: 15 orelhas tratadas com laser; grupo G (glicose 75%: 15 orelhas tratadas com glicose a 75%. Variáveis primárias: veias esclerosadas e/ou ocluídas. Variáveis complementares: volume da substância administrada, complicações e peso. O tamanho da amostra foi estimado em 30 orelhas. Foi realizado o teste exato de Fisher associado ao Risco Relativo (RR, calculando-se o intervalo de confiança (IC de 95% para as variáveis acima. RESULTADOS: A incidência de esclerose ou oclusão venosa no grupo G foi de 53% (8/15; IC95%: 27-79 e no grupo L, 20% (3/15; IC95%: 4-49. O p bicaudal foi de 0,1281, o RR usando a aproximação de Katz foi de 2,66; IC95%: 0,87-8,15. CONCLUSÃO: A eficiência do laser diodo 980 nm em comparação à da glicose 75% na oclusão de veias para o modelo experimental estudado foi equivalente.BACKGROUND: The laser is a new treatment to varicose veins and there is several myths and doubts in relation to its efficacy; then, there is the need to compare it with the most commonly sclerosing solution (hypertonic glucose used in our specialty. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficiency of the diode laser 980nm to the glucose 75% in the occlusion of veins from the ear of rabbits. METHODS: Aleatory trial in laboratory animals during 21 days. The sample consisted of ears from male adult rabbits. Group L (laser: 15 ears treated with laser; group G (glucose 75%: 15 ears treated with glucose 75%. Primary variables: sclerotic and/or occluded veins

  9. Cytokine-free directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells efficiently produces hemogenic endothelium with lymphoid potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galat, Yekaterina; Dambaeva, Svetlana; Elcheva, Irina; Khanolkar, Aaruni; Beaman, Kenneth; Iannaccone, Philip M; Galat, Vasiliy

    2017-03-17

    The robust generation of human hematopoietic progenitor cells from induced or embryonic pluripotent stem cells would be beneficial for multiple areas of research, including mechanistic studies of hematopoiesis, the development of cellular therapies for autoimmune diseases, induced transplant tolerance, anticancer immunotherapies, disease modeling, and drug/toxicity screening. Over the past years, significant progress has been made in identifying effective protocols for hematopoietic differentiation from pluripotent stem cells and understanding stages of mesodermal, endothelial, and hematopoietic specification. Thus, it has been shown that variations in cytokine and inhibitory molecule treatments in the first few days of hematopoietic differentiation define primitive versus definitive potential of produced hematopoietic progenitor cells. The majority of current feeder-free, defined systems for hematopoietic induction from pluripotent stem cells include prolonged incubations with various cytokines that make the differentiation process complex and time consuming. We established that the application of Wnt agonist CHIR99021 efficiently promotes differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells in the absence of any hematopoietic cytokines to the stage of hemogenic endothelium capable of definitive hematopoiesis. The hemogenic endothelium differentiation was accomplished in an adherent, serum-free culture system by applying CHIR99021. Hemogenic endothelium progenitor cells were isolated on day 5 of differentiation and evaluated for their endothelial, myeloid, and lymphoid potential. Monolayer induction based on GSK3 inhibition, described here, yielded a large number of CD31 + CD34 + hemogenic endothelium cells. When isolated and propagated in adherent conditions, these progenitors gave rise to mature endothelium. When further cocultured with OP9 mouse stromal cells, these progenitors gave rise to various cells of myeloid lineages as well as natural killer lymphoid, T

  10. Internally Coupled Ears in Living Mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Matthew James

    2015-01-01

    It is generally held that the right and left middle ears of mammals are acoustically isolated from each other, such that mammals must rely on neural computation to derive sound localisation cues. There are, however, some unusual species in which the middle ear cavities intercommunicate, in which case each ear might be able to act as a pressure-difference receiver. This could improve sound localisation at lower frequencies. The platypus Ornithorhynchus is apparently unique among mammals in tha...

  11. Study of inner ear and lateral line hair cell regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Piqué Borràs, Maria Riera

    2013-01-01

    Death of sensory hair cells in the inner ear results in two global health problems that millions of people around the world suffer: hearing loss and balance disorders. Hair cells convert sound vibrations and head movements into electrical signals that are conveyed to the brain, and as a result of aging, exposure to noise, modern drugs or genetic predisposition, hair cells die. In mammals, the great majority of hair cells are produced during embryogenesis, and hair cells that ar...

  12. Genome sequence of the thermophilic strain Bacillus coagulans 2-6, an efficient producer of high-optical-purity L-lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Yu, Bo; Sun, Jibin; Ou, Hong-Yu; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Limin; Qin, Jiayang; Tang, Hongzhi; Tao, Fei; Jarek, Michael; Scharfe, Maren; Ma, Cuiqing; Ma, Yanhe; Xu, Ping

    2011-09-01

    Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is an efficient producer of lactic acid. The genome of B. coagulans 2-6 has the smallest genome among the members of the genus Bacillus known to date. The frameshift mutation at the start of the d-lactate dehydrogenase sequence might be responsible for the production of high-optical-purity l-lactic acid.

  13. Factors That Influence Technical Efficiency of Sorghum Production: A Case of Small Holder Sorghum Producers in Lower Eastern Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaline Chepng’etich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of the rural households in Kenya depend on agriculture as a source of food and livelihood. Agricultural productivity has been declining due to many factors resulting in increased food insecurity in the country. Consequently, there is a renewed interest in promoting drought-tolerant crops such as sorghum which thrives in the arid and semiarid lands of the developing world. However, performance of sorghum production among the smallholder farmers has still remained low. This study was thus carried out to identify factors that influence technical efficiency of sorghum production among smallholder farmers in Machakos and Makindu districts of the lower eastern Kenya. Collected data on farm and farmer characteristics were analysed by use of descriptive statistics and Tobit model. Result highlights show that technical efficiency was influenced positively by formal education level of the household, experience in sorghum farming, membership in farmers associations, use of hired labour, production advice, and use of manure. Surprisingly household size, meant to enhance labour, had a negative influence. To increase technical efficiency, efforts should focus on improving information flows on agronomic practices. Farmers should also be encouraged to form and actively participate in various farmers associations, which enhance learning and pooling of labour resources, hence improving technical efficiency.

  14. Gender-sensitive Value Chain Intervention Improved Profit Efficiency among Orange-fleshed Sweetpotato Producers in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocher Temesgen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Rwanda Super Foods project sought to develop a value chain for processed orange-fleshed sweetpotato products to respond to farmer concerns over lack of markets. This study used data collected from five districts in rural Rwanda under supper food project between August and September 2014. The study applied a stochastic profit frontier model to data collected from 846 households growing sweetpotato, among which 327 were value chain participants; 312 were “spillover” households that received planting material from participant households, and the remainder control households with no project links. Results showed that average level of profit efficiency in sweetpotato production systems is 55%; suggesting that an estimated 45% of profit is lost due to the combined effect of technical, allocative and scale inefficiency. The profit efficiency of participant households was 64% compared to 20% of the control households. Moreover, the profit efficiency of the female beneficiary, female spillover, and male beneficiary households was found to be 55%, 70%, and 90% against 17% for male control households, respectively. Findings suggest that an orange-fleshed sweetpotato based value chain intervention can enhance the profit efficiency of the poor and disadvantageous households, if designed with special attention to women’s needs. Thus, polices and programs aiming at improving the livelihood of smallholder should be designed targeting women and resource poor.

  15. Objective Audiometry using Ear-EEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Kidmose, Preben

    Recently, a novel electroencephalographic (EEG) method called ear-EEG [1], that enable recording of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) from a personalized earpiece was introduced. Initial investigations show that well established AEPs, such as ASSR and P1-N1-P2 complex can be observed from ear-EEG...

  16. Congenital malformation of inner ear, single cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Pazmino, Julio Cesar; Marrugo Pardo, Gilberto Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Congenital malformations of the inner ear are rare conditions, but their detection requires high diagnostic accuracy. In this report we describe the case of a patient with single or common cavity, discuss the corresponding radiological images, describe the treatment of this patient with a cochlear implant, and review the classification and differential diagnosis of the other anomalies of the inner ear.

  17. Interconnections between the Ears in Nonmammalian Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Albert S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2010-01-01

    Many of the nonmammalian vertebrates (anurans, lizards, crocodiles, and some bird species) have large, continuous air spaces connecting the middle ears and acoustically coupling the eardrums. Acoustical coupling leads to strongly enhanced directionality of the ear at frequencies where diffraction...... cues are negligible in small-sized animals. The chapter reviews the peripheral basis of directionality in these animal groups....

  18. Coupled ears in lizards and crocodilians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Catherine E; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Bierman, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Lizard ears are coupled across the pharynx, and are very directional. In consequence all auditory responses should be directional, without a requirement for computation of sound source location. Crocodilian ears are connected through sinuses, and thus less tightly coupled. Coupling may improve th...... range is reviewed in the light of current theories of sound localization....

  19. Gas release-based prescreening combined with reversed-phase HPLC quantitation for efficient selection of high-γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinglong; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-02-01

    High γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactobacilli are promising for the manufacture of GABA-rich foods and to synthesize GRAS (generally recognized as safe)-grade GABA. However, common chromatography-based screening is time-consuming and inefficient. In the present study, Korean kimchi was used as a model of lactic acid-based fermented foods, and a gas release-based prescreening of potential GABA producers was developed. The ability to produce GABA by potential GABA producers in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium supplemented with or without monosodium glutamate was further determined by HPLC. Based on the results, 9 isolates were regarded as high GABA producers, and were further genetically identified as Lactobacillus brevis based on the sequences of 16S rRNA gene. Gas release-based prescreening combined with reversed-phase HPLC confirmation was an efficient and cost-effective method to identify high-GABA-producing LAB, which could be good candidates for probiotics. The GABA that is naturally produced by these high-GABA-producing LAB could be used as a food additive. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intra-operative hearing monitoring methods in middle ear surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is a condition affecting millions of people worldwide. Conductive hearing loss (CHL is mainly caused by middle ear diseases. The low frequency area is the pivotal part of speech frequencies and most frequently impaired in patients with CHL. Among various treatments of CHL, middle ear surgery is efficient to improve hearing. However, variable success rates and possible needs for prolonged revision surgery still frustrate both surgeons and patients. Nowadays, increasing numbers of researchers explore various methods to monitor the efficacy of ossicular reconstruction intraoperatively, including electrocochleography (ECochG, auditory brainstem response (ABR, auditory steady state response (ASSR, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE, subjective whisper test, and optical coherence tomography (OCT. Here, we illustrate several methods used clinically by reviewing the literature.

  1. Microbiomes of the normal middle ear and ears with chronic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Shujiro B; Mutai, Hideki; Suzuki, Tomoko; Horii, Arata; Oishi, Naoki; Wasano, Koichiro; Katsura, Motoyasu; Tanaka, Fujinobu; Takiguchi, Tetsuya; Fujii, Masato; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to profile and compare the middle ear microbiomes of human subjects with and without chronic otitis media. Prospective multicenter cohort study. All consecutive patients undergoing tympanoplasty surgery for chronic otitis media or ear surgery for conditions other than otitis media were recruited. Sterile swab samples were collected from the middle ear mucosa during surgery. The variable region 4 of the 16S rRNA gene in each sample were amplified using region-specific primers adapted for the Illumina MiSeq sequencer (Illumina, CA, USA)). The sequences were subjected to local blast and classified using Metagenome@KIN (World Fusion, Tokyo, Japan). In total, 155 participants were recruited from seven medical centers. Of these, 88 and 67 had chronic otitis media and normal middle ears, respectively. The most abundant bacterial phyla on the mucosal surfaces of the normal middle ears were Proteobacteria, followed by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The children and adults with normal middle ears differed significantly in terms of middle ear microbiomes. Subjects with chronic otitis media without active inflammation (dry ear) had similar middle ear microbiomes as the normal middle ears group. Subjects with chronic otitis media with active inflammation (wet ear) had a lower prevalence of Proteobacteria and a higher prevalence of Firmicutes than the normal middle ears. The human middle ear is inhabited by more diverse microbial communities than was previously thought. Alteration of the middle ear microbiome may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media with active inflammation. 2b. Laryngoscope, 127:E371-E377, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Development of a liquid tin microjet target for an efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Hamada, Masaya; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2007-03-01

    A regenerative tin liquid microjet target was developed for a high average power extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The diameter of the target was smaller than 160 microm and good vacuum lower than 0.5 Pa was maintained during the operation. A maximum EUV conversion efficiency of 1.8% at the Nd:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser intensity of around 2 x 10(11) Wcm(2) with a spot diameter of 175 microm (full width at half maximum) was observed. The angular distribution of the EUV emission remained almost isotropic, whereas suprathermal ions mainly emerged toward the target normal.

  3. Development of a liquid tin microjet target for an efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Hamada, Masaya; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2007-03-01

    A regenerative tin liquid microjet target was developed for a high average power extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The diameter of the target was smaller than 160 μm and good vacuum lower than 0.5 Pa was maintained during the operation. A maximum EUV conversion efficiency of 1.8% at the Nd:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser intensity of around 2×1011 W/cm2 with a spot diameter of 175 μm (full width at half maximum) was observed. The angular distribution of the EUV emission remained almost isotropic, whereas suprathermal ions mainly emerged toward the target normal.

  4. Development of a liquid tin microjet target for an efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Hamada, Masaya; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2007-01-01

    A regenerative tin liquid microjet target was developed for a high average power extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The diameter of the target was smaller than 160 μm and good vacuum lower than 0.5 Pa was maintained during the operation. A maximum EUV conversion efficiency of 1.8% at the Nd:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser intensity of around 2x10 11 W/cm 2 with a spot diameter of 175 μm (full width at half maximum) was observed. The angular distribution of the EUV emission remained almost isotropic, whereas suprathermal ions mainly emerged toward the target normal

  5. An Attempt at Quantifying Factors that Affect Efficiency in the Management of Solid Waste Produced by Commercial Businesses in the City of Tshwane, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Worku

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective was to investigate factors that affect the efficient management of solid waste produced by commercial businesses operating in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. Methods. Data was gathered from 1,034 businesses. Efficiency in solid waste management was assessed by using a structural time-based model designed for evaluating efficiency as a function of the length of time required to manage waste. Data analysis was performed using statistical procedures such as frequency tables, Pearson’s chi-square tests of association, and binary logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios estimated from logistic regression analysis were used for identifying key factors that affect efficiency in the proper disposal of waste. Results. The study showed that 857 of the 1,034 businesses selected for the study (83% were found to be efficient enough with regards to the proper collection and disposal of solid waste. Based on odds ratios estimated from binary logistic regression analysis, efficiency in the proper management of solid waste was significantly influenced by 4 predictor variables. These 4 influential predictor variables are lack of adherence to waste management regulations, wrong perception, failure to provide customers with enough trash cans, and operation of businesses by employed managers, in a decreasing order of importance.

  6. An Attempt at Quantifying Factors that Affect Efficiency in the Management of Solid Waste Produced by Commercial Businesses in the City of Tshwane, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Yohannes; Muchie, Mammo

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The objective was to investigate factors that affect the efficient management of solid waste produced by commercial businesses operating in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. Methods. Data was gathered from 1,034 businesses. Efficiency in solid waste management was assessed by using a structural time-based model designed for evaluating efficiency as a function of the length of time required to manage waste. Data analysis was performed using statistical procedures such as frequency tables, Pearson's chi-square tests of association, and binary logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios estimated from logistic regression analysis were used for identifying key factors that affect efficiency in the proper disposal of waste. Results. The study showed that 857 of the 1,034 businesses selected for the study (83%) were found to be efficient enough with regards to the proper collection and disposal of solid waste. Based on odds ratios estimated from binary logistic regression analysis, efficiency in the proper management of solid waste was significantly influenced by 4 predictor variables. These 4 influential predictor variables are lack of adherence to waste management regulations, wrong perception, failure to provide customers with enough trash cans, and operation of businesses by employed managers, in a decreasing order of importance. PMID:23209483

  7. Acceleration induced water removal from ear canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hosung; Averett, Katelee; Jung, Sunghwan

    2017-11-01

    Children and adults commonly experience having water trapped in the ear canals after swimming. To remove the water, individuals will shake their head sideways. Since a child's ear canal has a smaller diameter, it requires more acceleration of the head to remove the trapped water. In this study, we theoretically and experimentally investigated the acceleration required to break the surface meniscus of the water in artificial ear canals and hydrophobic-coated glass tubes. In experiments, ear canal models were 3D-printed from a CT-scanned human head. Also, glass tubes were coated with silane to match the hydrophobicity in ear canals. Then, using a linear stage, we measured the acceleration values required to forcefully eject the water from the artificial ear canals and glass tubes. A theoretical model was developed to predict the critical acceleration at a given tube diameter and water volume by using a modified Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Furthermore, this research can shed light on the potential of long-term brain injury and damage by shaking the head to push the water out of the ear canal. This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grant CBET-1604424.

  8. Efficient diagonalization of the sparse matrices produced within the framework of the UK R-matrix molecular codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiatsatos, P. G.; Tennyson, J.

    2012-11-01

    The most time consuming step within the framework of the UK R-matrix molecular codes is that of the diagonalization of the inner region Hamiltonian matrix (IRHM). Here we present the method that we follow to speed up this step. We use shared memory machines (SMM), distributed memory machines (DMM), the OpenMP directive based parallel language, the MPI function based parallel language, the sparse matrix diagonalizers ARPACK and PARPACK, a variation for real symmetric matrices of the official coordinate sparse matrix format and finally a parallel sparse matrix-vector product (PSMV). The efficient application of the previous techniques rely on two important facts: the sparsity of the matrix is large enough (more than 98%) and in order to get back converged results we need a small only part of the matrix spectrum.

  9. CHARACTERISTICS OF MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN ORDER TO EFFICIENTLY ACHIEVE THE ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES PRODUCED BY THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Talmaciu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Change has become the watchword of the present times. The dynamism of economic, social and political life is becoming more pronounced and it determines numerous organizational changes. In times of crisis and during the following periods, companies face major challenges, changes becoming even harder to anticipate and plan. The economic difficulties encountered by the business environment can be a decisive test for the leaders of companies. The main purpose of this article is to analyze the leadership characteristics which are necessary to efficiently manage and implement organizational changes during crisis. The research method used in this paper was based on the content analysis of works by both Romanian and foreign authors and on some studies conducted by different specialized companies. This paper is structured as follows: introduction, aspects regarding managers' role in change management, characteristics needed by the leaders involved in the change process, conclusions and biography.

  10. COST-EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR PRODUCING SELF SUPPORTED PALLADIUM ALLOY MEMBRANES FOR USE IN EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF COAL DERIVED HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Lanning; J. Arps

    2005-08-31

    Efforts in this quarter were concentrated on developing vacuum processing procedures to produce thinner (<4 {micro}m-thick), defect-free films over larger areas (>100 cm{sup 2}). We continued to test three different types of rigid supporting substrates, thermally oxidized silicon (10 cm diameter), polished borosilicate glass (10 cm diameter), and soda-lime glass (>100 cm{sup 2} areas), each representing a different cost, surface roughness, and chemistry. Mechanical integrity, defect density, and release characteristics of the films, though similar for the oxidized silicon and borosilicate glass, were distinctly different for the inexpensive soda-lime (float) glass; i.e., more sensitive to surface impurities. In general, films less than 4 {micro}m-thick were shown to be very sensitive to surface condition of the supporting substrate, particularly in the case of the soda-lime glass, to the point where surface strain overrode and dominated the intrinsic bulk stresses that are produced during the growth process. Therefore, in the near term (over the next quarter), large area films (>100 cm{sup 2}) will be produced at a minimum thickness of 5 {micro}m while further development will be conducted in subsequent quarters to reduce membrane thickness in large area films. Continued hydrogen permeation experiments and characterization of 5 and 10 {micro}m-thick, Pd-Cu films, with compositions near the 60/40 (Pd/Cu phase boundary) in combination with air oxidation treatments to improve performance. Pure hydrogen permeability for an as-received, 5 {micro}m film at 400 C was determined to be 1.3 x 10{sup -4} cm{sup 3}(STP) {center_dot} cm/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s {center_dot} cmHg{sup 0.5} at steady state. Even a membrane {approx} 10 {micro}m-thick, exhibited a steady state hydrogen flux of 32 cm{sup 3}(STP)/cm{sup 2}min after air exposure, which, when normalized for DOE's Office of Fossil Energy's specified hydrogen flux with a {Delta}P of 100 psi and a permeate

  11. Characterization of a thermophilic cellulase from Geobacillus sp. HTA426, an efficient cellulase-producer on alkali pretreated of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potprommanee, Laddawan; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Han, Ye-Ju; Nyobe, Didonc; Peng, Yen-Ping; Huang, Qing; Liu, Jing-Yong; Liao, Yu-Ling; Chang, Ken-Lin

    2017-01-01

    A themophilic cellulase-producing bacterium was isolated from a hot spring district and identified as Geobacillus sp. HTA426. The cellulase enzyme produced by the Geobacillus sp. HTA426 was purified through ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography, with the recovery yield and fold purification of 10.14% and 5.12, respectively. The purified cellulase has a molecular weight of 40 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) activity of the purified cellulase were 60°C and pH 7.0, respectively. The enzyme was also stable over a wide temperature range of 50°C to 70°C after 5 h of incubation. Moreover, the strain HTA426 was able to grow and produce cellulase on alkali-treated sugarcane bagasse, rice straw and water hyacinth as carbon sources. Enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse, which was regarded as the most effective carbon source for cellulase production (CMCase activity = 103.67 U/mL), followed by rice straw (74.70 U/mL) and water hyacinth (51.10 U/mL). This strain producing an efficient thermostable cellulose is a potential candidate for developing a more efficient and cost-effective process for converting lignocellulosic biomass into biofuel and other industrial process.

  12. Imaging of the postoperative middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Marc T. [Department of Medical Imaging, Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, 25 rue Manin, 75940, Paris (France); Ayache, Denis [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, Paris (France)

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: (a) to present the principles and the indications of surgical treatment of middle ear pathologies; and (b) to review the imaging findings after middle ear surgery, including the normal postoperative aspects and imaging findings in patients presenting with unsatisfactory surgical results or with suspicion of postoperative complications. This review is intentionally restricted to the most common diseases involving the middle ear: chronic otitis media and otosclerosis. In these specific fields of interest, CT and MR imaging play a very important role in the postoperative follow-up and in the work-up of surgical failures and complications. (orig.)

  13. EARS: Electronic Access to Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, F O; Borgendale, M

    1986-10-01

    Electronic Access to Reference Service (EARS) is a front end to the Health Sciences Library's electronic mail system, with links to the online public catalog. EARS, which became operational in September 1984, is accessed by users at remote sites with either a terminal or microcomputer. It is menu-driven, allowing users to request: a computerized literature search, reference information, a photocopy of a journal article, or a book. This paper traces the history of EARS and discusses its use, its impact on library staff and services, and factors that influence the diffusion of new technology.

  14. A new route to produce efficient surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates: Gold-decorated CdSe nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Gobind

    2013-04-13

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is a popular tool for the detection of extremely small quantities of target molecules. Au nanoparticles have been very successful in this respect due to local enhancement of the light intensity caused by their plasmon resonance. Furthermore, Au nanoparticles are biocompatible, and target substances can be easily attached to their surface. Here, we demonstrate that Au-decorated CdSe nanowires when employed as SERS substrates lead to an enhancement as large as 105 with respect to the flat Au surfaces. In the case of hybrid metal-CdSe nanowires, the Au nucleates preferably on lattice defects at the lateral facets of the nanowires, which leads to a homogeneous distribution of Au nanoparticles on the nanowire, and to an efficient quenching of the nanowire luminescence. Moreover, the size of the Au nanoparticles can be well controlled via the AuCl3 concentration in the fabrication process. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our SERS substrates with two target substances, namely, cresyl-violet and rhodamine-6G. Au-decorated nanowires can be easily fabricated in large quantities at low cost by wet-chemical synthesis. Furthermore, their deposition onto various substrates, as well as the functionalization of these wires with the target substances, is as straightforward as with the traditional markers. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  15. A new route to produce efficient surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates: Gold-decorated CdSe nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Gobind; Chakraborty, Ritun; Gopalakrishnan, Anisha; Baranov, Dmitry; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Krahne, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is a popular tool for the detection of extremely small quantities of target molecules. Au nanoparticles have been very successful in this respect due to local enhancement of the light intensity caused by their plasmon resonance. Furthermore, Au nanoparticles are biocompatible, and target substances can be easily attached to their surface. Here, we demonstrate that Au-decorated CdSe nanowires when employed as SERS substrates lead to an enhancement as large as 105 with respect to the flat Au surfaces. In the case of hybrid metal-CdSe nanowires, the Au nucleates preferably on lattice defects at the lateral facets of the nanowires, which leads to a homogeneous distribution of Au nanoparticles on the nanowire, and to an efficient quenching of the nanowire luminescence. Moreover, the size of the Au nanoparticles can be well controlled via the AuCl3 concentration in the fabrication process. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our SERS substrates with two target substances, namely, cresyl-violet and rhodamine-6G. Au-decorated nanowires can be easily fabricated in large quantities at low cost by wet-chemical synthesis. Furthermore, their deposition onto various substrates, as well as the functionalization of these wires with the target substances, is as straightforward as with the traditional markers. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  16. Efficient way of importing crude oil from oil producing countries - A review on diversification policy of crude oil import

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dal Sok [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Since the second oil crisis, the government has operated the import diversification support program to reduce the risk of crude oil import from Middle-East region and to raise the ability of dealing with the risk. This study tried to seek policy trends in future through reviewing the market environment related to the crude oil import diversification policy and the goal, instrument and effect of the policy. The supply and demand of crude oil and the price are influenced by market system in the world oil market and there are various types of crude oil trading available to both sellers and buyers. There is a probability that the suspension of supply in a certain area could be led to the price issue rather than the physical use of crude oil. In addition, the advantage of price with long-term contract of crude oil was abolished since the price of crude oil imported by term contract has been linked to spot prices. As a result, it is shown that the potential benefit from crude oil import diversification policy is reduced although political and social insecurity still exists in Middle-East region. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain the existing support program until the amount of stored oil reaches the optimum level and to help private enterprises determine the import considering economical efficiency and risk. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  17. A new route to produce efficient surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates: gold-decorated CdSe nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Gobind; Chakraborty, Ritun; Gopalakrishnan, Anisha [Italian Institute of Technology, Nanostructure Division (Italy); Baranov, Dmitry [University of Colorado at Boulder, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Di Fabrizio, Enzo [King Abdullah University Science and Technology (KAUST), PSE and BESE Divisions (Saudi Arabia); Krahne, Roman, E-mail: roman.krahne@iit.it [Italian Institute of Technology, Nanostructure Division (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is a popular tool for the detection of extremely small quantities of target molecules. Au nanoparticles have been very successful in this respect due to local enhancement of the light intensity caused by their plasmon resonance. Furthermore, Au nanoparticles are biocompatible, and target substances can be easily attached to their surface. Here, we demonstrate that Au-decorated CdSe nanowires when employed as SERS substrates lead to an enhancement as large as 10{sup 5} with respect to the flat Au surfaces. In the case of hybrid metal-CdSe nanowires, the Au nucleates preferably on lattice defects at the lateral facets of the nanowires, which leads to a homogeneous distribution of Au nanoparticles on the nanowire, and to an efficient quenching of the nanowire luminescence. Moreover, the size of the Au nanoparticles can be well controlled via the AuCl{sub 3} concentration in the fabrication process. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our SERS substrates with two target substances, namely, cresyl-violet and rhodamine-6G. Au-decorated nanowires can be easily fabricated in large quantities at low cost by wet-chemical synthesis. Furthermore, their deposition onto various substrates, as well as the functionalization of these wires with the target substances, is as straightforward as with the traditional markers.

  18. Efficient chemical and enzymatic saccharification of the lignocellulosic residue from Agave tequilana bagasse to produce ethanol by Pichia caribbica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-Luna, Jaime; Castro-Montoya, Agustin Jaime; Martinez-Pacheco, Mauro Manuel; Sosa-Aguirre, Carlos Ruben; Campos-Garcia, Jesus

    2011-06-01

    Bagasse of Agave tequilana (BAT) is the residual lignocellulosic waste that remains from tequila production. In this study we characterized the chemical composition of BAT, which was further saccharified and fermented to produce ethanol. BAT was constituted by cellulose (42%), hemicellulose (20%), lignin (15%), and other (23%). Saccharification of BAT was carried out at 147 °C with 2% sulfuric acid for 15 min, yielding 25.8 g/l of fermentable sugars, corresponding to 36.1% of saccharificable material (cellulose and hemicellulose contents, w/w). The remaining lignocellulosic material was further hydrolyzed by commercial enzymes, ~8.2% of BAT load was incubated for 72 h at 40 °C rendering 41 g/l of fermentable sugars corresponding to 73.6% of the saccharificable material (w/w). Mathematic surface response analysis of the acid and enzymatic BAT hydrolysis was used for process optimization. The results showed a satisfactory correlation (R (2) = 0.90) between the obtained and predicted responses. The native yeast Pichia caribbica UM-5 was used to ferment sugar liquors from both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis to ethanol yielding 50 and 87%, respectively. The final optimized process generated 8.99 g ethanol/50 g of BAT, corresponding to an overall 56.75% of theoretical ethanol (w/w). Thus, BAT may be employed as a lignocellulosic raw material for bioethanol production and can contribute to BAT residue elimination from environment.

  19. An efficient biosurfactant-producing bacterium Selenomonas ruminantium CT2, isolated from mangrove sediment in south of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saimmai, Atipan; Onlamool, Theerawat; Sobhon, Vorasan; Maneerat, Suppasil

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactant-producing bacteria, isolate CT2, was isolated from mangrove sediment in the south of Thailand. The sequence of the 16S rRNA gene from isolate CT2 showed 100 % similarity with Selenomonas ruminantium. The highest biosurfactant production (5.02 g/l) was obtained when the cells were grown on minimal salt medium containing 15 g/l molasses and 1 g/l commercial monosodium glutamate supplemented with 1 g/l NaCl, 0.1 g/l leucine, 5 % (v/v) inoculum size at 30 °C and 150 rpm after 54 h of cultivation. The biosurfactant obtained by extraction with ethyl acetate showed high surface tension reduction (25.5 mN/m), a small CMC value (8 mg/l), thermal and pH stability with respect to surface tension reduction and emulsification activity and a high level of salt tolerance. The biosurfactant obtained was confirmed as a lipopeptide by using a biochemical test, FT-IR, MNR and mass spectrometry. The crude biosurfactant showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and also had the ability to emulsify oil and enhance PAHs solubility.

  20. Cost-Effective Method for Producing Self Supported Palladium Alloy Membranes for Use in Efficient Production of Coal Derived Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Coulter

    2008-03-31

    Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}) has utilized its expertise in large-area vacuum deposition methods to conduct research into the fabrication of dense, freestanding Pd-alloy membranes that are 3-5 microns thick and over 100 in{sup 2} in area. The membranes were deposited onto flexible and rigid supports that were subsequently removed and separated using novel techniques developed over the course of the project. Using these methods, the production of novel alloy compositions centered around the Pd-Cu system were developed with the objective of producing a thermally stable, nano-crystalline grain structure with the highest flux recorded as 242 SCFH/ft{sup 2} for a 2 {micro}m thick Pd{sub 53}Cu{sub 47} at 400 C and 20 psig feed pressure which when extrapolated is over twice the 2010 Department of Energy pure H{sub 2} flux target. Several membranes were made with the same permeability, but with different thicknesses and these membranes were highly selective. Researchers at the Colorado School of Mines supported the effort with extensive testing of experimental membranes as well as design and modeling of novel alloy composite structures. IdaTech provided commercial bench testing and analysis of SwRI-manufactured membranes. The completed deliverables for the project include test data on the performance of experimental membranes fabricated by vacuum deposition and several Pd-alloy membranes that were supplied to IdaTech for testing.

  1. Structural Metadata Research in the Ears Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Yang; Shriberg, Elizabeth; Stolcke, Andreas; Peskin, Barbara; Ang, Jeremy; Hillard, Dustin; Ostendorf, Mari; Tomalin, Marcus; Woodland, Phil; Harper, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Both human and automatic processing of speech require recognition of more than just words. In this paper we provide a brief overview of research on structural metadata extraction in the DARPA EARS rich transcription program...

  2. Mozart ear: diagnosis, treatment, and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Ken; Yotsuyanagi, Takatoshi; Saito, Tamotsu; Isogai, Noritaka; Mori, Hiromasa; Itani, Yoshihito

    2011-11-01

    Mozart ear is a congenital auricular deformity, which is mainly characterized by a bulging appearance of the anterosuperior portion of the auricle, a convexly protruded cavum conchae, and a slit-like narrowing of the orifice of the external auditory meatus. It is said to be uncommon, and because no one has yet fully described neither the disease nor the treatment, the concept of Mozart ear has not been unified. This report describes a case of a 13-year-old girl presented with an unusual congenital deformity which showed the features of Mozart ear. It is an extremely rare deformity that only about 4 clinical cases have been reported in medical literature thereby a treatment method has not been fully discussed. For surgical correction of our cases, we excised deformed conchal cartilage, turned it over, regrafted, and maintained a cosmetically positive result. We also reviewed and described the origin, current concept, and treatment method of Mozart ear.

  3. Environment for Auditory Research Facility (EAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — EAR is an auditory perception and communication research center enabling state-of-the-art simulation of various indoor and outdoor acoustic environments. The heart...

  4. Potential of popcorn germplasm as a source of resistance to ear rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Railan do Nascimento Ferreira Kurosawa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Because of its multi-purpose nature, popcorn has sparked the interest of the World Trade Organization as regards fungal contamination by mycotoxins. However, no investigations have been conducted on popcorn for resistance of genotypes to ear rot. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of popcorn genotypes as to resistance to ear rot and rotten kernels, as an initial step for the implementation of a breeding program with the popcorn crop in Northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Thirty-seven accessions from different ecogeographic regions of Latin America were evaluated in 2 cultivation periods, in a randomized block design with 4 replications. We evaluated the incidence of rotten ears, incidence of rotten ears caused by Fusarium spp., severity of ears with Fusarium spp. rot, and incidence of rotten kernels. The results were subjected to analysis of variance, and means were compared by the Scott-Knott clustering test (p < 0.05. A significant effect was observed for all evaluated variables, characterizing them as efficient in the discrimination of genotypic variability for reaction to fungal injuries in popcorn. The gene pool of the tropical and temperate Germplasm Collection evaluated here has the potential to generate superior segregants and provide hybrid combinations with alleles of resistance to diseases affecting ears and stored kernels. Based on the different variables and times, the experiment was conducted, and genotypes L65, L80, and IAC 125 showed the highest levels of resistance.

  5. Verrucous carcinoma of the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, G E; Jurco, S; Alford, B R; McGavran, M H

    1981-01-01

    A case of a highly destructive, cytologically nondysplastic squamous epithelial lesion of the middle ear is presented. The cranial nerve involvement and bone destruction are more extensive than has been seen in cholesteatoma. Cultures are negative for Pseudomonas, and the patient does not have the reported diathesis for malignant otitis externa. The gross and microscopic features are those of verrucous carcinoma. To our knowledge, the middle ear has not been previously reported as a site of involvement by verrucous carcinoma.

  6. Osteoma of the middle ear: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Ji Hwa

    2005-01-01

    Osteomas of the middle ear are exceedingly rare benign neoplasms. To date, only 21 cases have been reported in the literature. They arise from the promontory, the pyramidal process and the ossicles, and they are usually asymptomatic or cause some conductive hearing loss. We report here the CT and pathologic findings in a 38-year-old woman with a benign osteoma of the middle ear along with chronic otitis media

  7. Commissioning of n_TOF EAR2

    CERN Multimedia

    The construction of the second beam line and experiment area (EAR2) of the n_TOF facility is currently ongoing and scheduled to be completed by July 2014. An extensive series of measurements is planned in order to determine the beam characteristics like the neutron flux, the spatial beam profile and the resolution function, as well as the response of several detectors considered for use in future measurements at EAR2. A rigorous study of backgrounds will be undertaken in various conditions.

  8. Osteoma of the middle ear: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Ji Hwa [College of Medicine, Inje University, Dongrae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Osteomas of the middle ear are exceedingly rare benign neoplasms. To date, only 21 cases have been reported in the literature. They arise from the promontory, the pyramidal process and the ossicles, and they are usually asymptomatic or cause some conductive hearing loss. We report here the CT and pathologic findings in a 38-year-old woman with a benign osteoma of the middle ear along with chronic otitis media.

  9. Serous otitis media (S.O.M.). A bacteriological study of the ear canal and the middle ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabenda, S. I.; Peerbooms, P. G.; van Asselt, G. J.; Feenstra, L.; van der Baan, S.

    1988-01-01

    A bacteriological study of the middle-ear effusions and the ear canals in children with chronic serous otitis media (S.O.M.) was performed. Sixty-eight children (127 ears) were investigated. From this study it appeared that cleansing of the ear canal with 0.5% chlorhexidine in 70% ethanol for 30 s

  10. Ear-to-Ear On-Body Channel Fading in the ISM-band for Tangentially-Polarized Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The ear-to-ear on-body channel fading has been studied in the ISM-band. The ear-to-ear path gain was measured on six persons in an indoor environment for a duration of 200 s. The channel fading has been characterized in terms of empirical cumulative distribution functions (CDF), average fade...

  11. Statistical Shape Analysis of the Human Ear Canal with Application to In-the-Ear Hearing Aid Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is about the statistical shape analysis of the human ear canal with application to the mechanical design of in-the-ear hearing aids. Initially, it is described how a statistical shape model of the human ear canal is built based on a training set of laser-scanned ear impressions. A thin...

  12. Challenges in 3D scanning: Focusing on Ears and Multiple View Stereopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl

    It is the goal of this thesis to address some of the challenges in 3D scanning. This has been done with focus on direct in-ear scanning and on Multiple View Stereopsis. Seven papers have been produced over the course of the Ph.D., out of which, six have been included. Two papers concern volumetric...... segmentation based on Markov Random Fields. These have been formulated to address problems relating to noise ltering in direct in-ear scanning and Intracranial Volume estimation. Another two papers have been produced on the topic of recovering surface data based on a strong statistical prior. This was done...

  13. Structure and function of the mammalian middle ear. I: Large middle ears in small desert mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Many species of small desert mammals are known to have expanded auditory bullae. The ears of gerbils and heteromyids have been well described, but much less is known about the middle ear anatomy of other desert mammals. In this study, the middle ears of three gerbils (Meriones, Desmodillus and Gerbillurus), two jerboas (Jaculus) and two sengis (elephant-shrews: Macroscelides and Elephantulus) were examined and compared, using micro-computed tomography and light microscopy. Middle ear cavity expansion has occurred in members of all three groups, apparently in association with an essentially 'freely mobile' ossicular morphology and the development of bony tubes for the middle ear arteries. Cavity expansion can occur in different ways, resulting in different subcavity patterns even between different species of gerbils. Having enlarged middle ear cavities aids low-frequency audition, and several adaptive advantages of low-frequency hearing to small desert mammals have been proposed. However, while Macroscelides was found here to have middle ear cavities so large that together they exceed brain volume, the bullae of Elephantulus are considerably smaller. Why middle ear cavities are enlarged in some desert species but not others remains unclear, but it may relate to microhabitat. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  14. Prenatal evaluation of the middle ear and diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katorza, Eldad; Nahama-Allouche, Catherine; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert; Garel, Catherine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Radiologie, Paris (France); Castaigne, Vanina [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Paris (France); Gonzales, Marie; Marlin, Sandrine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Genetique et Embryologie medicales, Paris (France); Galliani, Eva [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Chirurgie maxillo-faciale, Paris (France); Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Rosenblatt, Jonathan [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Centre pluridisciplinaire de diagnostic prenatal, Paris (France)

    2011-05-15

    Analysis of the middle ear with fetal MRI has not been previously reported. To show the contribution of fetal MRI to middle ear imaging. The tympanic cavity was evaluated in 108 fetal cerebral MRI examinations (facial and/or cerebral malformation excluded) and in two cases, one of Treacher Collins syndrome (case 1) and the other of oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OUV) spectrum (case 2) with middle ear hypoplasia identified by MRI at 27 and 36 weeks' gestation, respectively. In all 108 fetuses (mean gestational age 32.5 weeks), the tympanic cavity and T2 hypointensity related to the ossicles were well visualised on both sides. Case 1 had micro/retrognathia and bilateral external ear deformity and case 2 had retrognathism with a left low-set and deformed ear. MRI made it possible to recognize the marked hypoplasia of the tympanic cavity, which was bilateral in case 1 and unilateral in case 2. Both syndromes are characterized by craniofacial abnormalities including middle ear hypoplasia, which cannot be diagnosed with US. The middle ear cavity can be visualized with fetal MRI. We emphasize the use of this imaging modality in the diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia. (orig.)

  15. Green ear yield and grain yield of maize after harvest of the first ear as baby corn Rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de milho após a colheita da primeira espiga como minimilho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio L e Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Baby corn (BC consists of the corn ear harvested two or three days after silk emergence. BC is a profitable crop, making possible a diversification of production, aggregation of value and increased income. Removing the first female inflorescence induces corn to produce others, making possible to produce several BC ears or, alternatively, BC (by harvesting the first ear and green ears or grain. The objective of this work was to evaluate green ear yield and grain yield, after harvesting the first ear as BC. Corn cultivar AG 1051 was submitted to the following treatments, in a random block design with ten replicates (52 plants per plot: BC harvesting; green ear harvesting (grain moisture content between 60 and 70%; mature ear harvesting; BC harvesting and harvesting of other ears as green or mature ears. Marketable green ears yield or grain yield produced without removing the first inflorescence were superior to the green ears yield or grain yield produced after removal of the first inflorescence harvested as baby corn. Harvesting only the first ear as baby corn, and then harvesting green ears or the mature ears, provided lower baby corn yields than that obtained by harvesting all ears as baby corn. Economically, the best net revenues would be obtained by exploring the crop for the production of green ears, green ears + baby corn, baby corn, baby corn + grain, and grain, in this order.O minimilho (MM é a espiga do milho colhida dois a três dias após a emergência dos estilo-estigmas. O MM é rentável e propicia diversificação da produção, agregação de valor e ampliação de renda. A remoção da primeira inflorescência feminina induz o milho a produzir outras. Isso possibilita a produção de várias espigas de MM ou, alternativamente, MM (colhendo-se a primeira espiga e espigas verdes ou grãos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos, após a colheita da primeira espiga como MM. A cultivar AG

  16. CT of temporal bone - IV. inner ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jae Yoon; Sung, Kyu Bo; Youn, Eun Kyoung; Park, Youn Kyeung; Lee, Young Uk

    1990-01-01

    Temporal bone CT was done in 697 patients from April 1985 to October 1989. The abnormal findings were seen in 453 patients, which were chronic otitis media in 355 patients, fracture in 49 patients and congenital anomaly in 44 patients, etc. The abnormal findings of inner ear were observed on 46 patients. The results were summarized as follows : 1. The incidence of inner ear involvement by chronic otitis media was 7.3% (26/355 : labyrinthine fistula in 17 patients, labyrinthitis ossificans in 9 patients). Labyrinthine fistula was most commonly located on lateral semicircular canal (15/17, 88.2%). 2. Fusion of vestibule with lateral semicircular canal and formation of common cavity was demonstrated incidentally in 5 patients (0.7% of total number of temporal bone CT), and bilateral in 3 patients. 3. The incidence of inner ear anomaly in congenital ear anomaly was 11.4% (5/44). All cases were bilateral and three patients showed associated middle ear anomaly. 4. The incidence of involvement of bony labyrinth in temporal bone fracture was 10.2% (5/49). Labyrinthine fracture was seen all patients of transverse(3) and mixed fracture(1). In longitudinal fracture, labyrinthine fracture was seen in 2.2% (1/45). 5. Others were traumatic labyrinthitis ossificans(1), intracanalicular acoustic neuroma(3) and facial nerve neuroma(1)

  17. Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

  18. Ear Acupuncture in European Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gori

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Auricular acupuncture is a diagnostic and treatment system based on normalizing the body's dysfunction through stimulation of definite points on the ear. Rudimentary forms of acupuncture which probably arose during the Stone Age have survived in many parts of the world right down to present day. It was used in the ancient Egypt, Rome, Greece and all the Mediterranean area. It is a microacupuncture technique similar to reflexology, and was first described in France in 1950 by Paul Nogier who is considered the Father of modern ear acupuncture. It was speculated that the technique works because groups of pluripotent cells contain information from the whole organism and create regional organization centers representing different parts of the body. Nevertheless stimulation of a reflex point in the ear seems relieve symptoms of distant pathologies. Modern research is confirming the efficacy of ear acupuncture for analgesia and anxiety related disease, while tobacco dependence and other substance abuse still need confirmation. Actually main methodological problems with auricular acupuncture are that exist too many maps with little agreement regarding point location in the ear, and that the correspondence or reflex systems does not correlated with modern knowledge of anatomy and physiology.

  19. Strategies for efficiently selecting PHA producing mixed microbial cultures using complex feedstocks: Feast and famine regime and uncoupled carbon and nitrogen availabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Catarina S S; Silva, Carlos E; Carvalho, Gilda; Reis, Maria A

    2017-07-25

    Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by open mixed microbial cultures (MMCs) has been attracting increasing interest as an alternative technology to PHA production by pure cultures, due to the potential for lower costs associated with the use of open systems (eliminating the requirement for sterile conditions) and the utilisation of cheap feedstock (industrial and agricultural wastes). Such technology relies on the efficient selection of an MMC enriched in PHA-accumulating organisms. Fermented cheese whey, a protein-rich complex feedstock, has been used previously to produce PHA using the feast and famine regime for selection of PHA accumulating cultures. While this selection strategy was found efficient when operated at relatively low organic loading rate (OLR, 2g-CODL -1 d -1 ), great instability and low selection efficiency of PHA accumulating organisms were observed when higher OLR (ca. 6g-CODL -1 d -1 ) was applied. High organic loading is desirable as a means to enhance PHA productivity. In the present study, a new selection strategy was tested with the aim of improving selection for high OLR. It was based on uncoupling carbon and nitrogen supply and was implemented and compared with the conventional feast and famine strategy. For this, two selection reactors were fed with fermented cheese whey applying an OLR of ca. 8.5g-CODL -1 (with 3.8g-CODL -1 resulting from organic acids and ethanol), and operated in parallel under similar conditions, except for the timing of nitrogen supplementation. Whereas in the conventional strategy nitrogen and carbon substrates were added simultaneously at the beginning of the cycle, in the uncoupled substrates strategy, nitrogen addition was delayed to the end of the feast phase (i.e. after exogenous carbon was exhausted). The two different strategies selected different PHA-storing microbial communities, dominated by Corynebacterium and a Xantomonadaceae, respectively with the conventional and the new approaches. The new

  20. Are two ears not better than one?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Rachel A; Killion, Mead; Mennite, Monica A; Chisolm, Theresa H

    2012-03-01

    The decision to fit one or two hearing aids in individuals with binaural hearing loss has been debated for years. Although some 78% of U.S. hearing aid fittings are binaural (Kochkin , 2010), Walden and Walden (2005) presented data showing that 82% (23 of 28 patients) of their sample obtained significantly better speech recognition in noise scores when wearing one hearing aid as opposed to two. To conduct two new experiments to fuel the monaural/binaural debate. The first experiment was a replication of Walden and Walden (2005), whereas the second experiment examined the use of binaural cues to improve speech recognition in noise. A repeated measures experimental design. Twenty veterans (aged 59-85 yr), with mild to moderately severe binaurally symmetrical hearing loss who wore binaural hearing aids were recruited from the Audiology Department at the Bay Pines VA Healthcare System. Experiment 1 followed the procedures of the Walden and Walden study, where signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss was measured using the Quick Speech-in-Noise (QuickSIN) test on participants who were aided with their current hearing aids. Signal and noise were presented in the sound booth at 0° azimuth under five test conditions: (1) right ear aided, (2) left ear aided, (3) both ears aided, (4) right ear aided, left ear plugged, and (5) unaided. The opposite ear in (1) and (2) was left open. In Experiment 2, binaural Knowles Electronics Manikin for Acoustic Research (KEMAR) manikin recordings made in Lou Malnati's pizza restaurant during a busy period provided a typical real-world noise, while prerecorded target sentences were presented through a small loudspeaker located in front of the KEMAR manikin. Subjects listened to the resulting binaural recordings through insert earphones under the following four conditions: (1) binaural, (2) diotic, (3) monaural left, and (4) monaural right. Results of repeated measures ANOVAs demonstrated that the best speech recognition in noise performance was

  1. MRI measurement for inner ear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuling; Liu Huaijun; Chi Chen; Qin Ruiping; Shi Zhaoxia

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To reconstruct the image of inner ear by using 3D-FASE heavily T 2 WI, and to establish MRI measurement criterion of inner ear structures. Methods: One hundred and six inner ears of 53 healthy volunteers underwent MRI heavily T2-weighted axial scanning by using 3D fast advanced spin echo sequence. All the original images were transferred to an online workstation. Analyze AVW software was used for image post-processing. All the structures of inner ear were reconstructed, rotated from various angles and measured by using maximum intensity projection (MIP). Results: (1) All the structures of inner ear and internal auditory channel (IAC) could be visualized clearly by using 3D-FASE heavily T 2 WI. (2) Using analysis of variance, there was no age, side or race-related difference in inner ear volume, but it was bigger in male than in female [(0.242 ± 0.0236) mm 3 (male) versus (0.226 ± 0.021) mm 3 (female)]. There was no age, side-related differences in three semicircular canal height and vestibule vertical diameter, but, again, they were bigger in male than in female. The height of upper, lateral and posterior semicircular canal were (5.511 ± 0.626) mm (male) versus (5.167 ± 0.357) mm (female); (3.763 ± 0.495) mm (male) versus (3.446 ± 0.405) mm (female); (5.227 ± 0.547) mm (male) versus (4.786 ± 0.500) mm (female). There was no age, sex or side-related differences in three semicircular canal diameter and cochlea. The diameter of upper, lateral and posterior semicircular canal were (1.06 ± 0.119) mm, (1.14 ± 0.181) mm, and (1.22 ± 0.196)mm; the external diameter of cochlea basal turn was (6.520 ± 0.475) mm, the diameter of cochlea basal turn was (1.413 ± 0.144) mm, and cochlea height was (4.100 ± 0.405) mm. Conclusion: (1) For the first time, the MRI measurement criterion of inner ear structures is established. (2) Vestibule and three semicircular canal of inner ear are bigger in male than in female

  2. Multislice spiral computed tomography imaging in congenital inner ear malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui; Han, Ping; Liang, Bo; Tian, Zhi-liang; Lei, Zi-qiao; Kong, Wei-jia; Feng, Gan-sheng

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of multislice spiral computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of congenital inner ear malformations. Forty-four patients with sensorineural hearing loss were examined on a Somatom Sensation 16 (Siemens) CT scanner. The 3-dimensional reconstructions and multiplanar reformation (MPR) were performed using the volume-rendering technique (VRT) on the workstation. Of the 44 patients examined for this study, 25 patients were found to be normal and 19 patients (36 ears) were diagnosed with congenital inner ear malformations. Of the malformations, the axial, MPR, and VRT images can all display the site and degree in 33 of the ears. Volume-rendering technique images were superior to the axial images in displaying the malformations in 3 ears with small lateral semicircular canal malformations. The common malformations were Michel deformity (1 ear), common cavity deformity (3 ears), incomplete partition I (3 ears), incomplete partition II (Mondini deformity) (5 ears), vestibular and semicircular canal malformations (14 ears), enlarged vestibular aqueduct (16 ears, 6 of which had other malformations), and internal auditory canal malformation (8 ears, all accompanied by other malformations). Multislice spiral CT allows a comprehensively assessment of various congenital inner ear malformations through high-quality MPR and VRT reconstructions. Volume-rendering technique images can display the site and degree of the malformation 3-dimensionally and intuitionisticly. This is very useful to the cochlear implantation.

  3. Cartilage island on stapes: autologous PORP in the hypoventilated middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess-Erga, Jeanette; Engelen, Bart Lambertus Henricus Jozef; Vassbotn, Flemming Slinning

    2017-04-01

    The most common technique in sound restoration of the middle ear is prosthetic surgery. Hypoventilation of the middle ear may cause adhesive otitis or atelectasis resulting in a higher risk of prosthetic extrusion rate and recurrence of the underlying cholesteatoma. We report long-term results using an island of tragal cartilage as an autologous PORP in selected patients with poor middle ear ventilation. Retrospective chart reviews were performed for procedures involving 52 patients between year 2000 and 2009. All patients that underwent surgery using tragal cartilage interposed between the suprastructure of the stapes and the tympanic membrane were included in this study. Audiological parameters using four frequencies, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kHz, according to AAO-HNS guidelines, were assessed pre-and postoperatively. The hearing results on different PTA frequencies were also investigated. We report long-term follow-up of patients with hypoventilated middle ear with a success rate of 71% (ABG <20%). With regards to the ABG, the low frequency component (5 and 1 kHz) showed a significantly (p < 0.05) larger improvement of mean values after surgery as compared to the high-frequency component (2 and 3 kHz). Cartilage island PORP on stapes is a stable and efficient method for selected patients with chronic middle ear disease.

  4. A novel monoclonal anti-CD81 antibody produced by genetic immunization efficiently inhibits Hepatitis C virus cell-cell transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Fofana

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a challenge to prevent and treat because of the rapid development of drug resistance and escape. Viral entry is required for initiation, spread, and maintenance of infection, making it an attractive target for antiviral strategies.Using genetic immunization, we produced four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against the HCV host entry factor CD81. The effects of antibodies on inhibition of HCV infection and dissemination were analyzed in HCV permissive human liver cell lines.The anti-CD81 mAbs efficiently inhibited infection by HCV of different genotypes as well as a HCV escape variant selected during liver transplantation and re-infecting the liver graft. Kinetic studies indicated that anti-CD81 mAbs target a post-binding step during HCV entry. In addition to inhibiting cell-free HCV infection, one antibody was also able to block neutralizing antibody-resistant HCV cell-cell transmission and viral dissemination without displaying any detectable toxicity.A novel anti-CD81 mAb generated by genetic immunization efficiently blocks HCV spread and dissemination. This antibody will be useful to further unravel the role of virus-host interactions during HCV entry and cell-cell transmission. Furthermore, this antibody may be of interest for the development of antivirals for prevention and treatment of HCV infection.

  5. Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about ear tube surgery; Tympanostomy - what to ask your doctor; Myringotomy - what ... other treatments? What are the risks of the surgery? Is it safe to wait before getting ear ...

  6. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders Pediatric Obesity ... self-esteem, and isolation from their peers. Pediatric obesity and otolaryngic problems Otolaryngologists, or ear, nose, and ...

  7. Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis ... relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . What is otitis media? Otitis media refers to inflammation of the middle ...

  8. Sub-clinical middle ear malfunctions in elderly patients; prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... absent acoustic reflex. Keywords: Middle ear malfunctions, elderly patients. ... hearing loss, had audiometric changes suggestive of such. We regarded such .... predictors of silent middle ear malfunction (control for Age and Sex). Variable.

  9. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders Pediatric ... of self-esteem, and isolation from their peers. Pediatric obesity and otolaryngic problems Otolaryngologists, or ear, nose, ...

  10. Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENT Doctor Near You Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Middle Ear Infection (Chronic ... relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . What is otitis media? Otitis media refers to inflammation of the ...

  11. Headaches from ear, nose and throat diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reck, R.

    1984-01-01

    Headaches are a frequent symptom in ENT-patients. The complex sensory innervation of the ear, nose and paranasal sinuses is demonstrated. Heterotopic or referred pain must be differentiated from homotopic pain that is experienced at the point of injury. The nervous pathways of heterotopic otalgia are shown. The quality of pain of the most common rhinological and otological diseases is reported. (orig.) [de

  12. DNA isolation from rat tail or ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    This protocol describes a rapid procedure for isolating DNA from rat tail or ear punches. The simplest version of the protocol can be scaled for use in 96-well (deep-well) plates. The quality of the DNA is sufficient for any polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping approach.

  13. The first neutron beam hits EAR2

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    On 25 July 2014, about a year after construction work began, the Experimental Area 2 (EAR2) of CERN’s neutron facility n_TOF recorded its first beam. Unique in many aspects, EAR2 will start its rich programme of experimental physics this autumn.   The last part of the EAR2 beamline: the neutrons come from the underground target and reach the top of the beamline, where they hit the samples. Built about 20 metres above the neutron production target, EAR2 is in fact a bunker connected to the n_TOF underground facilities via a duct 80 cm in diameter, where the beamline is installed. The feet of the bunker support pillars are located on the concrete structure of the n_TOF tunnel and part of the structure lies above the old ISR building. A beam dump located on the roof of the building completes the structure. Neutrons are used by physicists to study neutron-induced reactions with applications in a number of fields, including nuclear waste transmutation, nuclear technology, nuclear astrop...

  14. "Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facts About “Hot Tub Rash” and “Swimmer’s Ear” (Pseudomonas) What is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh- ... a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ...

  15. Clinical review of inner ear malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokai, Hiromi; Oohashi, Masami; Ishikawa, Kazuo; Harada, Kouji; Hiratsuka, Hitoshi; Ogasawara, Makoto; Miyashita, Souji; Terayama, Yoshihiko

    2003-01-01

    We had 126 patients with inner ear malformation diagnosed with temporal bone computed tomography (CT) scans at Azabu Triology Hospital between 1996 and 2002. We classified cases of inner ear malformation according to Jackler et al. The incidence of inner ear malformation in our series was as follows; labyrinthine anomalies 61% (isolated lateral semicircular canal dysplasia 56%, compound semicircular canal dysplasia 4%, semicircular canal aplasia 1%), cochlear anomalies 24%, enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct 12%, narrow internal auditory canal 2%, complete labyrinthine aplasia 1%, enlargement of the cochlear aqueduct 0%. The most frequent anomaly was isolated lateral semicircular canal dysplasia. We did not detect any significant clinical features in this anomaly. There were 2 patients with cochlear anomalies who had past histories of meningitis. Some patients with enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct had frequent attacks of fluctuating hearing. Clinically it is important to detect patients with inner ear malformation such as cochlear anomalies and enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct usually accompanied by congenital sensorineural hearing loss. For patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss, we recommend temporal bone CT scan. (author)

  16. Cholesteatoma of the external ear canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owen, Hanne H; Rosborg, Jørn; Gaihede, Michael

    2006-01-01

    (n = 2), and otorrhea (n = 1). Similar symptoms were found in secondary EECC, but less pronounced. In total the temporomandibular joint was exposed in 11 cases, while the mastoid and middle ear was invaded in six and three cases, respectively. In one primary case the facial nerve was exposed...

  17. Bacteriology of chronic discharging ears in Port Harcourt, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Ear swabs of discharging ears aseptically collected from 102 patients of various age groups attending Ear, Nose, and Throat out-patient clinic at University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital were cultured for bacterial agents using blood agar, chocolate agar and MacConkey agar. Culture plates were incubated ...

  18. Inner ear malformations in siblings presenting with vestibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the association between inner ear abnormalities and progressive sensorineural hearing loss is well known, vestibular signs or loss of vestibular function in these ... We provide a brief overview of the latest classification of these inner ear defects as well as a review of the literature pertaining to children with inner ear ...

  19. Influence of Ear Surface Area on Heat Tolerance of Composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative importance of ear surface area on heat tolerance of composite rabbit population was evaluated. The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons, climatic data were recorded to obtain categorical heat stress index. Physiological parameters, growth performance, ear length and ear width of the rabbits ...

  20. Role of skeletal muscle in ear development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rot, Irena; Baguma-Nibasheka, Mark; Costain, Willard J; Hong, Paul; Tafra, Robert; Mardesic-Brakus, Snjezana; Mrduljas-Djujic, Natasa; Saraga-Babic, Mirna; Kablar, Boris

    2017-10-01

    The current paper is a continuation of our work described in Rot and Kablar, 2010. Here, we show lists of 10 up- and 87 down-regulated genes obtained by a cDNA microarray analysis that compared developing Myf5-/-:Myod-/- (and Mrf4-/-) petrous part of the temporal bone, containing middle and inner ear, to the control, at embryonic day 18.5. Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses entirely lack skeletal myoblasts and muscles. They are unable to move their head, which interferes with the perception of angular acceleration. Previously, we showed that the inner ear areas most affected in Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses were the vestibular cristae ampullaris, sensitive to angular acceleration. Our finding that the type I hair cells were absent in the mutants' cristae was further used here to identify a profile of genes specific to the lacking cell type. Microarrays followed by a detailed consultation of web-accessible mouse databases allowed us to identify 6 candidate genes with a possible role in the development of the inner ear sensory organs: Actc1, Pgam2, Ldb3, Eno3, Hspb7 and Smpx. Additionally, we searched for human homologues of the candidate genes since a number of syndromes in humans have associated inner ear abnormalities. Mutations in one of our candidate genes, Smpx, have been reported as the cause of X-linked deafness in humans. Our current study suggests an epigenetic role that mechanical, and potentially other, stimuli originating from muscle, play in organogenesis, and offers an approach to finding novel genes responsible for altered inner ear phenotypes.

  1. Naturopathic treatment for ear pain in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrell, E Michael; Cohen, Herman Avner; Kahan, Ernesto

    2003-05-01

    Otitis media is 1 of the most frequent diseases of early infancy and childhood and 1 of the most common reasons for children to visit a physician. In the past 2 decades, there has been a substantial increase in the diagnosis of otitis media worldwide. In the United States, 93% of all children have had at least 1 episode of acute otitis media (AOM) by 7 years of age. Otalgia is the hallmark of AOM. Most affected children either complain of earache or manifest behavior that the parents interpret as indicating ear pain. Treatment of the ear pain early in the course of AOM decreases both parental anxiety and the child's discomfort and accelerates the healing process. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and tolerability of naturopathic versus traditional treatment for the management of otalgia commonly associated with AOM in children. The study was designed as a double-blind trial in an outpatient community clinic. A total of 171 children who were aged 5 to 18 years and had otalgia and clinical findings associated with middle-ear infection were studied. The children were randomly assigned to receive treatment with Naturopathic Herbal Extract Ear Drops (NHED) or anesthetic ear drops, with or without amoxicillin. On enrollment, the children were assigned by computer-numbered randomization to receive NHED (contents: allium sativum, verbascum thapsus, calendula flores, hypericum perfoliatum, lavender, and vitamin E in olive oil) 5 drops 3 times daily, alone (group A) or together with a topical anesthetic (amethocaine and phenazone in glycerin) 5 drops 3 times daily (group B), or oral amoxicillin 80 mg/kg/d (maximum 500 mg/dose) divided into 3 doses with either NHED 5 drops 3 times daily (group C) or topical anesthetic 5 drops 3 times daily (group D). A double-blind design was used, and all ear drops were placed in identical bottles. Treatment was initiated by the nurse in all cases. A single physician (M.S.) evaluated and treated all of the patients

  2. Anthropometric growth study of the ear in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shichun; Li, Dianguo; Liu, Zhenzhong; Wang, Yibiao; Liu, Lei; Jiang, Duyin; Pan, Bo

    2018-04-01

    A large number of anthropometric studies of the auricle have been reported in different nations, but little data were available in the Chinese population. The aim of this study was to analyze growth changes in the ear by measuring the width and length of ears in a Chinese population. A total of 480 participants were enrolled and classified into 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, 9-, 12-, 14-, and 18-year groups (half were boys and half were girls in each group). Ear length, ear width, body weight, and body length were measured and recorded; ear index was calculated according to ear length and ear width. The growth of auricle and differences between genders were analyzed. Growth of ear in relation to body height and weight and the degree of emphasis on the length and width of the auricle were also analyzed. Ear length and width increased with age. Ear length achieved its mature size in both 14-year-old males and females. Ear width reached its mature size in males at 7 years and in females at 5 years. Different trends of ear index were shown between males and females. People in this population paid more attention to the length than the width of the auricle. The data indicated that ear development followed increase in age. There were gender and ethnic difference in the development of ear. These results may have potential implications for the diagnosis of congenital malformations, syndromes, and planning of ear reconstruction surgery. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inner ear pressure changes following square wave intracranial or ear canal pressure manipulation in the same guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thalen, E; Wit, H; Segenhout, H; Albers, F

    Inner ear pressure was measured in scala tympani with a micropipette during square wave pressure manipulation of the intracranial compartment and, subsequently, of the external ear canal (EEC) in the same guinea pig. As expected, the combination of the cochlear aqueduct and the inner ear behaves as

  4. Emission of sound from the mammalian inner ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Tobias; Stefanovic, Aleksandra; Nin, Fumiaki; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2013-03-01

    The mammalian inner ear, or cochlea, not only acts as a detector of sound but can also produce tones itself. These otoacoustic emissions are a striking manifestation of the mechanical active process that sensitizes the cochlea and sharpens its frequency discrimination. It remains uncertain how these signals propagate back to the middle ear, from which they are emitted as sound. Although reverse propagation might occur through waves on the cochlear basilar membrane, experiments suggest the existence of a second component in otoacoustic emissions. We have combined theoretical and experimental studies to show that mechanical signals can also be transmitted by waves on Reissner's membrane, a second elastic structure within the cochea. We have developed a theoretical description of wave propagation on the parallel Reissner's and basilar membranes and its role in the emission of distortion products. By scanning laser interferometry we have measured traveling waves on Reissner's membrane in the gerbil, guinea pig, and chinchilla. The results accord with the theory and thus support a role for Reissner's membrane in otoacoustic emission. T. R. holds a Career Award at the Scientific Interface from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund; A. J. H. is an Investigator of Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

  5. Ear care: an update for nurses (part 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Millward, K.

    2017-01-01

    A healthy ear is vital not just for hearing, but for balance and for full engagement with the community. In the first of two articles, Kat Millward reviews the anatomy of the ear, outlines methods of dealing with cerumen, and discusses methods of assessment and diagnosis\\ud \\ud Our ears are essential for both hearing and balance. Up to 4% of the population will have difficulties with their ears relating to impacted cerumen and many of them will present in primary care with ear discomfort or h...

  6. [EFFICIENCY OF INTRODUCING CAROTENE PRODUCING STRAINS BACILLUS SP. 1.1 AND B. AMYLOLIQUEFACIENS UCM B-5113 INTO THE CHIKENS DIET].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechypurenko, O O; Kharhota M A; Avdeeva, L V

    2015-01-01

    It was shown the efficiency of carotene producing strains Bacillus sp. 1.1 and B. amyloliquefaciens UCM B-5113 in the diet of chickens. Also it was detected the lowering of the quantitative content of bacterial genera Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, family Enterobacteriaceae in the gut after eating by chickens cross "H&N Brown Nick" fodder with strains Bacillus sp. 1.1 and B. amyloliquefaciens UCM B-5113 alone and in composition in quantities 1 x 10(10) CFU per 1 g of feed. On the 18th day after introduction of cultures Bacillus sp. 1.1, B. amyloliquefaciens UCM B-5113 and their composition in the diet of poultry we revealed the increasing of body weight by 21.6, 7.6 and 22.0%, respectively, comparesing to controls. Also due to Bacillus sp. 1.1 it was detected the restore of intestinal villous structures, tissues of spleen, liver and heart. We found the additive effect of the composition of the investigated strains of bacteria genus Bacillus to the chickens.

  7. Jerusalem artichoke powder: a useful material in producing high-optical-purity l-lactate using an efficient sugar-utilizing thermophilic Bacillus coagulans strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limin; Xue, Zhangwei; Zhao, Bo; Yu, Bo; Xu, Ping; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-02-01

    Jerusalem artichoke is a low-requirement crop, which does not interfere with food chain, and is a promising carbon source for industrial fermentation. Microbial conversion of such a renewable raw material to useful products, such as lactic acid, is an important objective in industrial biotechnology. In this study, high-optical-purity l-lactate was efficiently produced from the hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke powder by a thermophilic bacterium, Bacillus coagulans XZL4. High l-lactate production (134gl(-1)) was obtained using 267gl(-1) Jerusalem artichoke powder (total reducing sugars of 140gl(-1)) and 10gl(-1) of corn steep powder in fed-batch fermentation, with an average productivity of 2.5gl(-1)h(-1) and a yield of 0.96gg(-1) reducing sugars. The final product optical purity is 99%, which meets the requirement of lactic acid polymerization. Our study represents a cost-effective and promising method for polymer-grade l-lactate production using a cheap raw bio-resource. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of the organic acids produced by a lactic acid bacterium in Apis mellifera colony development, Nosema ceranae control and fumagillin efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Matías; Negri, Pedro; Plischuk, Santiago; Szawarski, Nicolás; De Piano, Fiorella; De Feudis, Leonardo; Eguaras, Martín; Audisio, Carina

    2013-12-27

    The European honey bee Apis mellifera is known to be affected by many parasites and pathogens that have great impact over the insect development. Among parasites affecting bee health, Nosema ceranae is one of the main biotic factors affecting colony populations. As honey bee populations decline, interest in pathogenic and mutualistic relationships between bees and microorganisms has increased. The main goal of the current study was to assess the effect of the oral administration of the metabolites produced by Lactobacillus johnsonii CRL1647 (mainly organic acids) supplemented in syrup, on: (I) N. ceranae sporulation dynamics before and after fumagillin application, and (II) performance of A. mellifera colonies. Different experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of these bacterial metabolites on bees: in vitro administration revealed no toxic effects against bees. Colonies fed with the lactic acids incremented their beehive population and also the amount of fat bodies per bee. Finally, the organic acids reduced the intensity of the pathogen after the second application of treatment as well as enhanced the fumagillin efficiency. This study provides important information for the development of new control substances against nosemosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Isothermal approach to predict the removal efficiency of β-carotene adsorption from CPO using activated carbon produced from tea waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harahap, S. A. A.; Nazar, A.; Yunita, M.; Pasaribu, RA; Panjaitan, F.; Yanuar, F.; Misran, E.

    2018-02-01

    Adsorption of β-carotene in crude palm oil (CPO) was studied using activated carbon produced from tea waste (ACTW) an adsorbent. Isothermal studies were carried out at 60 °C with the ratio of activated carbon to CPO were 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, and 1:6, respectively. The ACTW showed excellent performance as the percentage of adsorption of β-carotene from CPO was > 99%. The best percentage removal (R) was achieved at ACTW to CPO ratio equal to 1:3, which was 99.61%. The appropriate isotherm model for this study was Freundlich isotherm model. The combination of Freundlich isotherm equation and mass balance equation showed a good agreement when validated to the experimental data. The equation subsequently executed to predict the removal efficiency under given sets of operating conditions. At a targetted R, CPO volume can be estimated for a certain initial concentration β-carotene in CPO C0 and mass of ACTW adsorbent M used.

  10. A Rare Case of Petrified Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E. Buikema

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcification or ossification of the auricle, also referred to as petrified ear, is a rare diagnosis in dermatology. In medical literature, it has most often been attributed to trauma, hypothermia and frostbite, or hypercalcemia secondary to a metabolic or endocrine disorder, such as Addison's disease. Here, we report the clinical and radiologic findings of a 79-year-old African American male whose unilateral petrified auricle was an incidental finding. He had a preceding history of hyperparathyroidism and subsequent hypercalcemia treated with a subtotal parathyroidectomy three years prior to presentation. In addition to laboratory analysis, a history and physical examination was performed which revealed no other signs of hypercalcemia. Radiologic studies demonstrated partial ossification of the external auricular cartilage on the left side. The patient was diagnosed with the rare occurrence of a petrified ear. In light of this case, we provide a discussion concerning the possible etiologies of this diagnosis including appropriate patient evaluation and possible treatment recommendations.

  11. Clonal analysis of corn plant development. I. The development of the tassel and the ear shoot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johri, M.M.; Coe, E.H. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the tassel and the ear shoot has been investigated in corn (Zea mays L.). X irradiation of dry kernels and seedlings heterozygous for anthocyanin markers or for factors altering tassel and ear morphology results in the formation of clones (sectors) from cells of the apical meristem. Most tassels develop from 4 +/- 1 cells of the mature embryo. The expression of ramosa-1, tunicate, tassel seed-6, and vestigial is cell autonomous in the tassel. These genes act late in development and modify the developmental fate or decision of an individual clone and not of the whole group of cells producing a tassel. The ear shoot develops from lineages of one to three cells derived each from the L-I (outmost cell layer) and L-II (second cell layer) of the apical meristem. Typically the clones start in the ear shoot (in the husks and possibly in the cob), extend upward in an internode, continue along the margin of the leaf sheath or leaf blade at the node above, and terminate in this or the next higher leaf. The separation of lineages for ear shoot and internode occurs in the period around 13 days after sowing. The analysis of clonal boundaries shows that a small number of embryonic cells become isolated in their developmental capacity. This commitment process appears to be analogous to the process of compartmentation in the imaginal disks of fruit flies. The extent of proliferation of individual cells within a group of highly flexible and any particular clone does not generate a specific part of a tassel or an ear shoot. There must be cellular communication between various clones so that the overall size and morphology of an organ remain normal and more or less fixed. Thus the process of development in plants is also highly regulative in nature and shares many features in common with development in fruit flies

  12. Ear embryonic rabdomiosarcoma. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueto, L.; Canabal, A.; Blanco, A.; Sabate, J.

    2002-01-01

    A case of embryonic rabdomiosarcoma in the ear of a 5-year-old girl who initially shows clinical symptoms of otitis media. The CT reveals a dense lesion of soft tissue which shows up slightly in the right external auditory channel. Also of interest were osteolytic areas in the petrous, clivus and zygomatic arch. A hypointensive lesion with marked enhancement after Gd-DPTA injection is observed. Discussed are the imaging methods used in the diagnosis of this tumor. (Author) 10 refs

  13. ElectroAcoustic Resource Site (EARS)

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Simon; Landy, Leigh

    2002-01-01

    Central to the MTIRC’s electroacoustic music studies focus, EARS is supported by the AHRC’s resource enhancement scheme (ca. £170k) and Unesco (£3k). Beyond its initial goal to create the glossary (~500 entries) and related index (providing a coherent hyperlink structure for the bibliography – ~3000 entries) there are further methodological research imperatives – to offer a web-based resource that: a) Realises an accessible research resource (glossary, keyword index and bibliography) to co...

  14. Structural Metadata Research in the Ears Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    detecting structural information in the word stream (the so-called “structural MDE” portion of the EARS program); other MDE efforts on speaker ... diarization are overviewed in [13]. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. We describe the structural MDE tasks, performance measurement, and corpora...tems have only recently been introduced, with NIST reporting re- sults with the Wilcoxon signed rank test for speaker -level average score differences

  15. CT analysis of 333 cases of congenital malformations of the external and middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xin; Li Qiang; Wang Zhenchang; Xian Junfang; Lan Baosen

    1997-01-01

    To analyze the different CT findings of congenital malformations of the external and middle ear, 333 cases including 404 ears with external and middle ear malformations diagnosed by high resolution CT (HRCT) were analysed according to the location and type of the malformation. In 404 ears, there were 364 ears with atresia of external auditory meatus, 40 ears with stenosis of external auditory meatus, 377 ears with malformation of the ossicles, 382 ears with stenosis of tympanum and 333 ears with anterior position of the mastoid segment of the facial canal. HRCT can show the location and type of external and middle ear malformation and provide valuable information for surgery

  16. Pressure equilibration in the penguin middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadé, Jacob; Handrich, Yves; Bernheim, Joelle; Cohen, David

    2008-01-01

    King penguins have a venous structure in the form of a corpus cavernosum (CC) in their middle ear (ME) submucosa. The CC may be viewed as a special organelle that can change ME volume for pressure equilibration during deep-sea diving it is a pressure regulating organelle (PRO). A similar CC and muscles also surround the external ear (EE) and may constrict it, isolating the tympanic membrane from the outside. A CC was previously found also in the ME of marine diving mammals and can be expected to exist in other deep diving animals, such as marine turtles. Marine animals require equalization of middle ear (ME) pressure when diving hundreds or thousands of meters to catch prey. We investigated what mechanism enables king penguins to protect their ME when they dive to great depths. Biopsies and serial sections of the ME and the EE of the deep diving king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) were examined microscopically. It was demonstrated that the penguin ME has an extensive network of small and large submucosal venous sinuses. This venous formation, a corpus cavernosum, can expand and potentially 'flood' the ME almost completely on diving, thus elevating ME pressure and reducing the ME space. The EE has a similar protective mechanism.

  17. Pathology of ear hematomas in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Richard; Hélie, Pierre; D'Allaire, Sylvie

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of our study were to describe the pathology of ear hematomas in swine and to add to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of this condition. The pathogenesis of aural hematomas has been studied mainly in dogs; however, disagreements exist about the precise anatomic location of the hemorrhage. Sixteen pigs with ear hematoma at various stages of development were included in this study. The pigs were submitted for routine autopsy for various and unrelated reasons over a period of several years. Based on gross examination, the 16 cases of aural hematomas were subjectively classified as acute (n = 6), subacute (n = 3), and chronic (n = 7). The age of the animals at the time of autopsy ranged from 2 weeks to adulthood, with all acute cases being hematoma developed predominantly in a subperichondral location on both sides of the cartilaginous plate simultaneously. Within these same cases, there were also some areas in which blood-filled clefts had formed within the cartilage itself. Besides fibroplasia, neoformation of cartilage was found to represent a significant part of the repair process. All chronic cases were characterized on cross-section of the ear by the presence of at least 2 distinct, wavy, focally folded, and roughly parallel plates of cartilage separated from each other by fibrous tissue. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Acute toxicity of Psilocybe cubensis (Ear. Sing., Strophariaceae, aqueous extract in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Berti Kirsten

    Full Text Available Psilocybe cubensis (Ear. Sing., Strophariaceae, is a hallucinogen mushroom that has been used since the old times by humans, causing several psychotic effects. P. cubensis contains two tryptamine derivates: psilocybin and psilocin, agonists of the 5-HT2 receptor (serotonin. The main objective of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity effects of P. cubensis aqueous extract (PCAE administration in mice. Male and female adult Swiss mice received PCAE 0.1 mL/10 g i.p., and were observed individually, directly in a glass box and in an open-field. In relation to the data of the control group, PCAE-treated animals presented: an increased gnawing, appearance of wet-dog shakes and a decreased locomotion and rearing frequencies after 29-38 min. Also a clear gender difference was detected, being female mice more sensible to the PCAE than males. It was suggested that PCAE administration produced specific effects on mice behaviors, characteristic of drugs which interfere on central serotonergic and dopaminergic systems. Finally, the observational methods here employed were efficient to evaluate the toxic effects of the extract.

  19. Ear Mushroom (Auricularia sp.) Cultivation On Irradiated Palm Oil Empty Fruit Bunch And Saw Dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endrawanto; Suwadji, E.

    2000-01-01

    The experiments were conducted under laboratory condition. Ear mushroom (Auricularia sp.) were grown on palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB), sludge of oil residue, and saw dust as growth medium after (heating) autoclaved and irradiated by gamma rays at the dose of 30 kGy. EFB fiber as well as saw dust were mixed with sludge in composition of (1:0), (0;1), (1;1), (2;5), (1;5), (1;10) and (1;20). The mixture was then composted within 2 weeks by the addition of CaO 2%, CaSO 4 (gypsum) 2 %, rice bran 12%, P fertilizer 0,5% and urea 0,25%. A plastic bag volume 1000 ml was filled by 400 grams of composted material as mushrooms medium or bag log. Sterilized bag logs were then inoculated with mushroom spawns. After inoculation, bag logs were incubated during 1.5 months waiting for mycelium growing. Parameters of the experiments were following weight of mushrooms after harvesting, biological efficiency, rendement, and total fiber on bag log after mushrooms harvesting. Results of experiments showed that utilization of sludge as mixture with EFB produced weight mushrooms yield more than without sludge addition. Saw dust treatment produced more mushrooms weight compared to EFB treatments I.e. 90 g and 75 g. Weight of mushrooms produced and 76.6 g respectively. Rendement obtained between saw dust palm oil empty fruit bunch treatments were not significant at P<0.05 I.e. 91-92%

  20. Molecular mapping of QTLs for resistance to Gibberella ear rot, in corn, caused by Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M Liakat; Taylor, Jeff H; Jie, Liu; Sun, Genlou; William, Manilal; Kasha, Ken J; Reid, Lana M; Pauls, K Peter

    2005-06-01

    Gibberella ear rot, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a serious disease of corn (Zea mays) grown in northern climates. Infected corn is lower yielding and contains toxins that are dangerous to livestock and humans. Resistance to ear rot in corn is quantitative, specific to the mode of fungal entry (silk channels or kernel wounds), and highly influenced by the environment. Evaluations of ear rot resistance are complex and subjective; and they need to be repeated over several years. All of these factors have hampered attempts to develop F. graminearum resistant corn varieties. The aim of this study was to identify molecular markers linked to the genes for resistance to Gibberella ear rot. A recombinant inbred (RI) population, produced from a cross between a Gibberella ear rot resistant line (CO387) and a susceptible line (CG62), was field-inoculated and scored for Gibberella ear rot symptoms in the F4, F6, and F7 generations. The distributions of disease scores were continuous, indicating that resistance is probably conditioned by multiple loci. A molecular linkage map, based on segregation in the F5 RI population, contained 162 markers distributed over 10 linkage groups and had a total length of 2237 cM with an average distance between markers of 13.8 cM. Composite interval mapping identified 11 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for Gibberella ear rot resistance following silk inoculation and 18 QTLs following kernel inoculation in 4 environments that accounted for 6.7%-35% of the total phenotypic variation. Only 2 QTLs (on linkage group 7) were detected in more than 1 test for silk resistance, and only 1 QTL (on linkage group 5) was detected in more than 1 test for kernel resistance, confirming the strong influence of the environment on these traits. The majority of the favorable alleles were derived from the resistant parent (CO387). The germplasm and markers for QTLs with significant phenotypic effects may be useful for marker-assisted selection

  1. Alterations in the Contra lateral Ear in Chronic Otitis Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Damghani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic otitis media (COM, a persistent and durable inflammation and infection of the middle ear, is a common disorder. Alterations in the contralateral ear in sufferers have been observed in recent years. Because only a few studies have been reported in this area, we performed this study in order to assess alterations in the contralateral ear of patients with COM.   Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional and descriptive methods were used in 100 patients with COM who were selected for surgical treatment and admitted to hospital. An information form was completed for all patients including demographic data, medical history of otoscopy and paraclinical examinations such as pure tone audiometry (PTA, tympanometry, Schuller radiography, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT. All data were processed using SPSS (version 18 software and descriptive statistical tests.   Results: According to otoscopy, PTA, tympanometry and graphical analysis, 60% of patients experienced disorders of the contralateral ear. Otoscopy analysis showed 54% of patients had a disorder of the contralateral ear, with the most common disorder being perforation of the ear drum. PTA showed a 48% incidence of contralateral ear problems (85% conductive hearing impairment; 12.5% sensorineural hearing impairment; 1.2% mixed. A total of 73.2% of patients with conductive hearing loss had a problem across all frequencies, while half of the patients with sensorineural hearing impairment had problems at frequencies greater than 1000 Hz. According to tympanometry, 38% of patients had problem in the contralateral ear. HRCT and Schuller graphical analyses indicated 31.5% and 36% occurrence of contralateral ear disorders, respectively.   Conclusion:  More than 50% of patients with COM in one ear have a chance of also presenting with the disease in the other ear. Outcomes of this study and previous studies have shown that COM should not be perceived as a disease limited

  2. Sheep as a large animal ear model: Middle-ear ossicular velocities and intracochlear sound pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péus, Dominik; Dobrev, Ivo; Prochazka, Lukas; Thoele, Konrad; Dalbert, Adrian; Boss, Andreas; Newcomb, Nicolas; Probst, Rudolf; Röösli, Christof; Sim, Jae Hoon; Huber, Alexander; Pfiffner, Flurin

    2017-08-01

    Animals are frequently used for the development and testing of new hearing devices. Dimensions of the middle ear and cochlea differ significantly between humans and commonly used animals, such as rodents or cats. The sheep cochlea is anatomically more like the human cochlea in size and number of turns. This study investigated the middle-ear ossicular velocities and intracochlear sound pressure (ICSP) in sheep temporal bones, with the aim of characterizing the sheep as an experimental model for implantable hearing devices. Measurements were made on fresh sheep temporal bones. Velocity responses of the middle ear ossicles at the umbo, long process of the incus and stapes footplate were measured in the frequency range of 0.25-8 kHz using a laser Doppler vibrometer system. Results were normalized by the corresponding sound pressure level in the external ear canal (P EC ). Sequentially, ICSPs at the scala vestibuli and tympani were then recorded with custom MEMS-based hydrophones, while presenting identical acoustic stimuli. The sheep middle ear transmitted most effectively around 4.8 kHz, with a maximum stapes velocity of 0.2 mm/s/Pa. At the same frequency, the ICSP measurements in the scala vestibuli and tympani showed the maximum gain relative to the P EC (24 dB and 5 dB, respectively). The greatest pressure difference across the cochlear partition occurred between 4 and 6 kHz. A comparison between the results of this study and human reference data showed middle-ear resonance and best cochlear sensitivity at higher frequencies in sheep. In summary, sheep can be an appropriate large animal model for research and development of implantable hearing devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hyperspectral and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging to Analyse the Impact of Fusarium culmorum on the Photosynthetic Integrity of Infected Wheat Ears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner B. Herppich

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Head blight on wheat, caused by Fusarium spp., is a serious problem for both farmers and food production due to the concomitant production of highly toxic mycotoxins in infected cereals. For selective mycotoxin analyses, information about the on-field status of infestation would be helpful. Early symptom detection directly on ears, together with the corresponding geographic position, would be important for selective harvesting. Hence, the capabilities of various digital imaging methods to detect head blight disease on winter wheat were tested. Time series of images of healthy and artificially Fusarium-infected ears were recorded with a laboratory hyperspectral imaging system (wavelength range: 400 nm to 1,000 nm. Disease-specific spectral signatures were evaluated with an imaging software. Applying the ‘Spectral Angle Mapper’ method, healthy and infected ear tissue could be clearly classified. Simultaneously, chlorophyll fluorescence imaging of healthy and infected ears, and visual rating of the severity of disease was performed. Between six and eleven days after artificial inoculation, photosynthetic efficiency of infected compared to healthy ears decreased. The severity of disease highly correlated with photosynthetic efficiency. Above an infection limit of 5% severity of disease, chlorophyll fluorescence imaging reliably recognised infected ears. With this technique, differentiation of the severity of disease was successful in steps of 10%. Depending on the quality of chosen regions of interests, hyperspectral imaging readily detects head blight 7 d after inoculation up to a severity of disease of 50%. After beginning of ripening, healthy and diseased ears were hardly distinguishable with the evaluated methods.

  4. [Diagnostic value of high-resolution computed tomography imaging in congenital inner ear malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaowei; Ding, Yuanping; Zhang, Jianji; Chen, Ying; Xu, Anting; Dou, Fenfen; Zhang, Zihe

    2007-02-01

    To observe the inner ear structure with volume rendering (VR) reconstruction and to evaluate the role of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in congenital inner ear malformations. HRCT scanning was performed in 10 patients (20 ears) without ear disease (control group) and 7 patients (11 ears) with inner ear malformations (IEM group) and the original data was processed with VR reconstruction. The inner ear osseous labyrinth structure in the images generated by these techniques was observed respectively in the normal ears and malformation ears. The inner ear osseous labyrinth structure and the relationship was displayed clearly in VR imaging in the control group,meanwhile, characters and degree of malformed structure were also displayed clearly in the IEA group. Of seven patients (11 ears) with congenital inner ear malformations, the axial, MPR and VR images can display the site and degree in 9 ears. VR images were superior to the axial images in displaying the malformations in 2 ears with the small lateral semicircular canal malformations. The malformations included Mondini deformity (7 ears), vestibular and semicircular canal malformations (3 ears), vestibular aqueduct dilate (7 ears, of which 6 ears accompanied by other malformations) , the internal auditory canal malformation (2 ears, all accompanied by other malformations). HRCT can display the normal structure of bone inner ear through high quality VR reconstructions. VR images can also display the site and degree of the malformations three-dimensionally and intuitively. HRCT is valuable in diagnosing the inner ear malformation.

  5. A survey of pre-harvest ear rot diseases of maize and associated mycotoxins in south and central Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukanga, Mweshi; Derera, John; Tongoona, Pangirayi; Laing, Mark D

    2010-07-15

    Maize ear rots reduce grain yield and quality with implication on food security and health. Some of the pathogenic fungi produce mycotoxins in maize grain posing a health risk to humans and livestock. Unfortunately, the levels of ear rot and mycotoxin infection in grain produced by subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan countries are not known. A survey was thus conducted to determine the prevalence of the ear rot problem and levels of mycotoxins in maize grain. A total of 114 farmsteads were randomly sampled from 11 districts in Lusaka and southern provinces in Zambia during 2006. Ten randomly picked cobs were examined per farmstead and the ear rot disease incidence and severity were estimated on site. This was followed by the standard seed health testing procedures for fungal isolation in the laboratory. Results indicated that the dominant ear rots were caused by Fusarium and Stenocarpella. Incidence of Fusarium verticillioides ranged from 2 to 21%, whereas that of Stenocarpella maydis reached 37% on ear rot diseased maize grain. In addition, 2-7% F. verticillioides, and 3-18% Aspergillus flavus, respectively, were recovered from seemingly healthy maize grain. The mean rank of fungal species, from highest to lowest, was F. verticillioides, S. maydis, A. flavus, Fusarium graminearum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Botrydiplodia spp., and Cladosporium spp. The direct competitive ELISA-test indicated higher levels of fumonisins than aflatoxins in pre-harvest maize grain samples. The concentration of fumonisins from six districts, and aflatoxin from two districts, was 10-fold higher than 2 ppm and far higher than 2 ppb maximum daily intake recommended by the FAO/WHO. The study therefore suggested that subsistence farmers and consumers in this part of Zambia, and maybe also in similar environments in sub-Saharan Africa, might be exposed to dangerous levels of mycotoxins due to the high levels of ear rot infections in maize grain. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  6. Infection of corn ears by Fusarium spp. induces the emission of volatile sesquiterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Eva-Maria; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Irmisch, Sandra; Köllner, Tobias G; Feussner, Ivo; Karlovsky, Petr; Splivallo, Richard

    2014-06-04

    Infection of corn (Zea mays L.) ears with fungal pathogens of the Fusarium genus might result in yield losses and in the accumulation of mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to investigate whether volatile profiles could be used to identify Fusarium-infected corn ears. The volatiles released by corn ears infected by Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides, and Fusarium subglutinans were studied. Volatile emission was recorded at 24 days postinoculation (dpi) and in a time series (from 4 to 24 dpi). Twenty-two volatiles were differentially emitted from Fusarium-infected versus healthy corn ears. These included C6-C8 compounds and sesquiterpenoids. All volatiles indicative of Fusarium infection were detectable as early as 4-8 dpi and continued to be produced to the final sampling time (early milk maturity stage). The induced emission of β-macrocarpene and β-bisabolene correlated with an increased transcript accumulation of corn terpene synthase 6/11 (tps6/11). Additionally, the modification of volatile profiles after Fusarium infection was accompanied by the induction of plant defense compounds such as zealexins and oxylipins. Together, these results reveal a broad metabolic response of the plant to pathogen attack. Volatile biomarkers of Fusarium infection are promising indicators for the early detection of fungal infection before disease symptoms become visible.

  7. Maize kernel antioxidants and their potential involvement in Fusarium ear rot resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Adeline; Atanasova-Pénichon, Vessela; Pons, Sebastien; Marchegay, Gisèle; Barreau, Christian; Pinson-Gadais, Laëtitia; Roucolle, Joël; Daveau, Florie; Caron, Daniel; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2013-04-10

    The potential involvement of antioxidants (α-tocopherol, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene, and ferulic acid) in the resistance of maize varieties to Fusarium ear rot was the focus of this study. These antioxidants were present in all maize kernel stages, indicating that the fumonisin-producing fungi (mainly Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum ) are likely to face them during ear colonization. The effect of these compounds on fumonisin biosynthesis was studied in F. verticillioides liquid cultures. In carotenoid-treated cultures, no inhibitory effect of fumonisin accumulation was observed while a potent inhibitory activity was obtained for sublethal doses of α-tocopherol (0.1 mM) and ferulic acid (1 mM). Using a set of genotypes with moderate to high susceptibility to Fusarium ear rot, ferulic acid was significantly lower in immature kernels of the very susceptible group. Such a relation was nonexistent for tocopherols and carotenoids. Also, ferulic acid in immature kernels ranged from 3 to 8.5 mg/g, i.e., at levels consistent with the in vitro inhibitory concentration. Overall, our data support the fact that ferulic acid may contribute to resistance to Fusarium ear rot and/or fumonisin accumulation.

  8. The eyes, ears and collective voice for nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, L.

    2000-01-01

    Transport is a vital part of the nuclear industry and the safety record of radioactive materials transport across the world is excellent. This record is due primarily to well-founded regulations developed by such intergovernmental organisations as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the International Maritime Organisation. It is due, also, to the professionalism of those in the industry. Attitudes to nuclear transport are important. They have the potential, if not heeded, and not responded to sensitively and convincingly to make life very much more difficult for those committed to the safe, reliable and efficient transport of nuclear materials. What is required is a balanced situation, which takes account both of the public's attitudes and industry's need for an efficient operation. The voices of the nuclear transport industry and those who value the industry need to be heard. The World Nuclear Transport Institute was established to provide the nuclear transport industry with the collective eyes, ears and voice in the key intergovernmental organisations which are so important to it. The nuclear transport industry has a safety record which could be regarded as a model for the transport of dangerous goods of all kinds. The industry is situated within a comprehensive and strict regime of national and international standards and regulations. That is the message to be disseminated, and that is the commitment of the World Nuclear Transport Institute as it works to protect and to promote the safe, efficient and reliable transport of radioactive materials. (author)

  9. Efficient models for photoionization produced by non-thermal gas discharges in air based on radiative transfer and the Helmholtz equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdon, A; Pasko, V P; Liu, N Y; Celestin, S; Segur, P; Marode, E

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents formulation of computationally efficient models of photoionization produced by non-thermal gas discharges in air based on three-group Eddington and improved Eddington (SP 3 ) approximations to the radiative transfer equation, and on effective representation of the classic integral model for photoionization in air developed by Zheleznyak et al (1982) by a set of three Helmholtz differential equations. The reported formulations represent extensions of ideas advanced recently by Segur et al (2006) and Luque et al (2007), and allow fast and accurate solution of photoionization problems at different air pressures for the range 0.1 O 2 O 2 is the partial pressure of molecular oxygen in air in units of Torr ( p O 2 = 150 Torr) at atmospheric pressure) and R in cm is an effective geometrical size of the physical system of interest. The presented formulations can be extended to other gases and gas mixtures subject to availability of related emission, absorption and photoionization coefficients. The validity of the developed models is demonstrated by performing direct comparisons of the results from these models and results obtained from the classic integral model. Specific validation comparisons are presented for a set of artificial sources of photoionizing radiation with different Gaussian dimensions, and for a realistic problem involving development of a double-headed streamer at ground pressure. The reported results demonstrate the importance of accurate definition of the boundary conditions for the photoionization production rate for the solution of second order partial differential equations involved in the Eddington, SP 3 and the Helmholtz formulations. The specific algorithms derived from the classic photoionization model of Zheleznyak et al (1982), allowing accurate calculations of boundary conditions for differential equations involved in all three new models described in this paper, are presented. It is noted that the accurate formulation of

  10. Presbycusis: do we have a third ear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Luis Roque; Escada, Pedro

    Age-related hearing changes are the most frequent cause of sensorineural hearing loss in adults. In the literature no studies exist concerning the importance of speechreading in individuals with presbycusis. Equally, no such studies have been carried out with speakers of the Portuguese (Portugal) language. To evaluate whether the intelligibility of words in presbycusis is improved by speechreading, in such a way that looking at the interlocutor's face while he is talking functions like a "third ear", and to determine the statistical relevance of the intelligibility improvement by speechreading. Eleven individuals (22 ears) with bilateral and symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss compatible with presbycusis were evaluated. The subjects were aged between 57 and 82 years, with an average of 70±11.51 years and median of 69.5 years. A complete medical and audiological profile of each patient was created and all patients were submitted to a vocal audiogram, without and with observation of the audiologist's face. A descriptive and analytical statistical analysis was performed (Shapiro-Wilk and t pairs tests) adopting the significance level of 0.05 (5%). We noticed better performance in intelligibility with speechreading. The p-value was zero (ppresbycusis in this study, performed better on spoken word intelligibility when the hearing of those words was associated with speechreading. This phenomenon helps in such a way that observation of the interlocutor's face works like a "third ear". Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Analytical model of internally coupled ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vossen, Christine; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Leo van Hemmen, J

    2010-01-01

    Lizards and many birds possess a specialized hearing mechanism: internally coupled ears where the tympanic membranes connect through a large mouth cavity so that the vibrations of the tympanic membranes influence each other. This coupling enhances the phase differences and creates amplitude...... additionally provides the opportunity to incorporate the effect of the asymmetrically attached columella, which leads to the activation of higher membrane vibration modes. Incorporating this effect, the analytical model can explain measurements taken from the tympanic membrane of a living lizard, for example...

  12. Ear replanatation: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Božikov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Total ear amputation is a rare accident. The most common causes are traffic accidents (33 %, followed by fights (28 %. In 1980, Pennington et al. reported the first successful microsurgical ear replantation in a 29-year old man.Methods: An English literature review of trauma cases of total ear amputation showed only 13 successful replantations with arterial and venous microanastomoses. We present a case report of successful total ear replantation with arterial and vein microanastomoses in a 17-year old boy.Results: Our ear replantation with both arterial and venous anastomoses performed was successful and we achieved an excellent aesthetic outcome.Conclusion: The reason for such a low number of successful ear replantations is technical challenge due to small vessel diameter, difficult vessel identification, vessel approach and concomitant avulsion injury. The best aesthetic result in ear reconstruction is achieved by microsurgical replantation. The surgical technique depends on the intraoperative findings. Since ear replantation is a very challenging procedure, a microsurgeon needs to discuss with the patient the risk of partial/total necrosis of the replanted ear and the possibilities of other reconstructive options.

  13. Incorporating anthropometry into design of ear-related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bor-Shong

    2008-01-01

    To achieve mass customization and collaborative product design, human factors and ergonomics should play a key development role. The purpose of this study was to provide product designers with the anthropometic dimensions of outer ears for different demographic data, including gender and age. The second purpose was to compare the dimensions of various ear-related products (i.e., earphone, bluetooth earphone and ear-cup earphone) with the anthropometic database and recommend appropriate solutions for design. Two hundred subjects aged 20-59 was selected for this study and divided into four age stratifications. Further, three different dimensions of the outer ear (i.e., the earhole length, the ear connection length and the length of the pinna) were measured by superimposed grid photographic technique. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate the effects of gender, and age on ear dimensions. The results showed that all ear dimensions had significant gender effects. A comparison between the anthropometric dimensions and those of current products revealed that most current ear-related products need to be redesigned using anthropometric data. The shapes of earhole and pinna are not circular. Consequently, ear products need to be elongated so that users may feel more comfortably and not have the product slip off easily.

  14. Ear-to-Ear On-Body Channel Model for Hearing Aid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    that the head is mod- eled more accurately, and the radiation pattern is sampled in more points. The model is able to take the on-body radiation pattern of the antenna, as well as arbitrary he ad contours into account. The model is validated by the use of measurements and Ansys HFSS simulations on the specific......The deterministic ear-to-ear on-body channel is modeled by the use of a number of elliptically shaped paths. The semi-major axes of the elliptica lly shaped paths are adjusted such that they trace the outline of the head. The path gain converges when the number of paths is increased, su ch...... anthropomorphic mannequin (SAM) head. The model is used with a g enetic algorithm in order to synthesize a radiation pattern that is optimal for use with the ear-to-ear on-body channel. The radiation pattern is synthesized in terms of the spherical wave expansion coefficients of the hypothetical small antenna...

  15. Gibberella ear rot of maize (Zea mays) in Nepal: distribution of the mycotoxins nivalenol and deoxynivalenol in naturally and experimentally infected maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Anne E; Busman, Mark; Manandhar, Gyanu; Jarosz, Andrew M; Manandhar, Hira K; Proctor, Robert H

    2008-07-09

    The fungus Fusarium graminearum (sexual stage Gibberella zeae) causes ear rot of maize (Zea mays) and contamination with the 8-ketotrichothecenes nivalenol (1) or 4-deoxynivalenol (2), depending on diversity of the fungal population for the 4-oxygenase gene (TRI13). To determine the importance of 1 and 2 in maize ear rot, a survey of naturally contaminated maize in Nepal was combined with experiments in the field and in a plant growth room. In the survey, 1 contamination was 4-fold more frequent than 2 contamination and 1-producers (TRI13) were isolated more than twice as frequently as 2-producers (Psi TRI13). In maize ear rot experiments, genetically diverse 1-producers and 2-producers caused ear rot and trichothecene contamination. Among strains with the same genetic background, however, 1-producers caused less ear rot and trichothecene contamination than did 2-producers. The high frequency of 1 contamination and the high virulence of many 1-producers are of concern because maize is a staple food of rural populations in Nepal and because 1 has proven to be more toxic than 2 to animals.

  16. Middle ear function in sinonasal polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Ardakani, Hossein Payedar; Ghazizadeh, Amir Hossain; Movahed, Rahman; Jarahi, Lida; Rajati, Mohsen

    2016-10-01

    Nasal airway patency has long been considered a major factor in ear health. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sinonasal polyposis on middle ear and eustachian tube (ET) functionality. Forty-four individuals with polyposis, 23 with non-polyposis nasal obstruction, and 23 healthy controls were enrolled. Demographic, clinical and imaging data of all participants were collected and ET function tests and audiologic tests were performed. Hearing loss (p = 0.02), flat tympanogram (p = 0.02), disturbed Toynbee and Valsalva tests (p = 0.01), and the prevalence of allergy (p = 0.04) and purulent nasal discharge (p polyposis group than the other groups. Regression analysis revealed that infection and allergy have more important roles in ET function than the nasal obstruction. Polyposis could impede ET function; however, it is probably not because of its obstructive nature, but because of the associated increased risk of infection.

  17. Wearable ear EEG for brain interfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Eric D.; Walker, Nicholas; Danko, Amanda S.

    2017-02-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) measuring electrical activity via electroencephalogram (EEG) have evolved beyond clinical applications to become wireless consumer products. Typically marketed for meditation and neu- rotherapy, these devices are limited in scope and currently too obtrusive to be a ubiquitous wearable. Stemming from recent advancements made in hearing aid technology, wearables have been shrinking to the point that the necessary sensors, circuitry, and batteries can be fit into a small in-ear wearable device. In this work, an ear-EEG device is created with a novel system for artifact removal and signal interpretation. The small, compact, cost-effective, and discreet device is demonstrated against existing consumer electronics in this space for its signal quality, comfort, and usability. A custom mobile application is developed to process raw EEG from each device and display interpreted data to the user. Artifact removal and signal classification is accomplished via a combination of support matrix machines (SMMs) and soft thresholding of relevant statistical properties.

  18. Enhanced visualization of inner ear structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczyk, Kazimierz; Kucharski, Tomasz; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Bruzgielewicz, Antoni

    2004-07-01

    Recently surgery requires extensive support from imaging technologies in order to increase effectiveness and safety of operations. One of important tasks is to enhance visualisation of quasi-phase (transparent) 3d structures. Those structures are characterized by very low contrast. It makes differentiation of tissues in field of view very difficult. For that reason the surgeon may be extremly uncertain during operation. This problem is connected with supporting operations of inner ear during which physician has to perform cuts at specific places of quasi-transparent velums. Conventionally during such operations medical doctor views the operating field through stereoscopic microscope. In the paper we propose a 3D visualisation system based on Helmet Mounted Display. Two CCD cameras placed at the output of microscope perform acquisition of stereo pairs of images. The images are processed in real-time with the goal of enhancement of quasi-phased structures. The main task is to create algorithm that is not sensitive to changes in intensity distribution. The disadvantages of existing algorithms is their lack of adaptation to occuring reflexes and shadows in field of view. The processed images from both left and right channels are overlaid on the actual images exported and displayed at LCD's of Helmet Mounted Display. A physician observes by HMD (Helmet Mounted Display) a stereoscopic operating scene with indication of the places of special interest. The authors present the hardware ,procedures applied and initial results of inner ear structure visualisation. Several problems connected with processing of stereo-pair images are discussed.

  19. Inflammatory diseases of the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boasquevisque, Gustavo Santos; Andrade, Carlos Ramon de; Boasquevisque, Edson Mendes

    2008-01-01

    Objective: to determine the aspects and frequency of middle ear alterations at computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in patients with clinical suspicion for middle ear inflammatory disease. Material and method: imaging examination results of 95 patients (95 computed tomography and 1 magnetic resonance imaging) were compared with the results of otology, imaging and surgical findings. Results: fifty-two patients had normal imaging results. Forty-three patients had radiologic alterations compared to the physical, otology and histopathologic exams: acute otomastoiditis in 2 patients (4.6%), unilateral chronic otomastoiditis in 9 (21.0%), bilateral chronic otomastoiditis in 2 (4.6%), unilateral cholesteatoma in 26 (60.5%), and bilateral cholesteatoma in 4 (9.3%). Conclusion: computed tomography was able to demonstrate the characteristics of the lesions and found complications in majority of the cases. Magnetic resonance imaging was used only in one patient to rule out scar and cholesteatoma. The knowledge of the clinical and otologic data enables the radiologist to elaborate a more appropriate interpretation of the imaging findings. (author)

  20. Movement of the external ear in human embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagurasho, Miho; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Kose, Katsumi; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2012-02-01

    External ears, one of the major face components, show an interesting movement during craniofacial morphogenesis in human embryo. The present study was performed to see if movement of the external ears in a human embryo could be explained by differential growth. In all, 171 samples between Carnegie stage (CS) 17 and CS 23 were selected from MR image datasets of human embryos obtained from the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos. The three-dimensional absolute position of 13 representative anatomical landmarks, including external and internal ears, from MRI data was traced to evaluate the movement between the different stages with identical magnification. Two different sets of reference axes were selected for evaluation and comparison of the movements. When the pituitary gland and the first cervical vertebra were selected as a reference axis, the 13 anatomical landmarks of the face spread out within the same region as the embryo enlarged and changed shape. The external ear did move mainly laterally, but not cranially. The distance between the external and internal ear stayed approximately constant. Three-dimensionally, the external ear located in the caudal ventral parts of the internal ear in CS 17, moved mainly laterally until CS 23. When surface landmarks eyes and mouth were selected as a reference axis, external ears moved from the caudal lateral ventral region to the position between eyes and mouth during development. The results indicate that movement of all anatomical landmarks, including external and internal ears, can be explained by differential growth. Also, when the external ear is recognized as one of the facial landmarks and having a relative position to other landmarks such as the eyes and mouth, the external ears seem to move cranially. © 2012 Kagurasho et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  1. Identifying position, visibility, dimensions, and angulation of the ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Kasim; Christian, Jayanth; Jeyapalan, Karthigeyan; Natarajan, Shanmuganathan; Banu, Fathima; Veeravalli, Padmanabhan T

    2014-01-01

    We selected 254 subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 yr to assess the ear position, angulations of the ear in relation to the nose, visibility from the frontal view, and dimensions of the ear by using various anthropometric points of the face. Subjects were divided into four groups based on facial form. A reference plane indicator, facial topographical measurements, metal ruler, and digital photography were used. While considering the position of the ear, in all facial forms except square tapering, the most samples showed a tendency for the subaurale being in line with subnasale. Regression analysis showed a tendency to gnathion distance is the most dependent variable with length of the ear kept as a constant predictor, while both interalar distance and exocanthion to endocanthion distance correlate highly significantly to the width of the ear. In all subjects, the visibility of the ear when viewed from the front was an average of 1.5 mm. Regardless of facial form, ear angulation was generally less than nose angulation.

  2. Ad Hoc Constitution of Topical Antibiotics Solution for Ear Dressing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/ Purpose: In the management of chronic suppurative otitis media and otitis externa there are few cases where although an organism is cultured and isolated from the ear, there are either no antibiotic sensitive to the microbiological flora or the sensitive antibiotic is not available in the form of an ear drop, limiting ...

  3. Why do elephants flap their ears? | Wright | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The blood flow in the ear of the African elephant Loxodonta africana was measured In anaesthetized animals using the dye dilution technique at the same time as the arterio-venous temperature difference. The calculated heat loss from the ear is shown to be a substantial proportion of the total metabolic heat-loss ...

  4. Economic Evaluation pf Antibacterial Usage in Ear, Nose and Throat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To carry out economic evaluation of antibacterial usage for Ear, Nose and Throat infections in a tertiary health care facility in Nigeria. Methods: Antibacterial utilisation evaluation was carried out retrospectively over one year period by reviewing 122 case notes containing 182 prescriptions of patient with Ear Nose ...

  5. A break-even analysis of major ear surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, J D; Phillips, J S

    2015-10-01

    To determine variables which affect cost and profit for major ear surgery and perform a break-even analysis. Retrospective financial analysis. UK teaching hospital. Patients who underwent major ear surgery under general anaesthesia performed by the senior author in main theatre over a 2-year period between dates of 07 September 2010 and 07 September 2012. Income, cost and profit for each major ear patient spell. Variables that affect major ear surgery profitability. Seventy-six patients met inclusion criteria. Wide variation in earnings, with a median net loss of £-1345.50 was observed. Income was relatively uniform across all patient spells; however, theatre time of major ear surgery at a cost of £953.24 per hour varied between patients and was the main determinant of cost and profit for the patient spell. Bivariate linear regression of earnings on theatre time identified 94% of variation in earnings was due to variation in theatre time (r = -0.969; P break-even time for major ear surgery of 110.6 min. Theatre time was dependent on complexity of procedure and number of OPCS4 procedures performed, with a significant increase in theatre time when three or more procedures were performed during major ear surgery (P = 0.015). For major ear surgery to either break-even or return a profit, total theatre time should not exceed 110 min and 36 s. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Congenital inner ear malformations without sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, Kumiko; Horiguchi, Satoshi; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2008-03-01

    It has been reported that normal hearing is rare in patients with severe inner ear vestibular malformations [Kokai H, Oohashi M, Ishikawa K, Harada K, Hiratsuka H, Ogasawara M et al. Clinical review of inner ear malformation. J Otolaryngol Jpn 2003;106(10):1038-44; Schuknecht HF. Mondini dysplasia. A clinical pathological study. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1980;89(Suppl. 65):1-23; Jackler RK, Luxford WM, House WF. Congenital malformations of the inner ear: a classification based on embryogenesis. Laryngoscope 1987;97:2-14; Phelps PD. Congenital lesions of the inner ear, demonstrated by tomography. Arch Otolaryngol 1974;100:11-8]. A 37-year-old woman had combined dysplasia of the posterior and lateral semicircular canals (PSCC, LSCC) with normal cochlear development and normal hearing in both ears. She had complained of dizziness for 8 months. High resolution computed tomography (CT) showed hypogenesis of the bony labyrinth in both ears. Bilateral PSCC and LSCC dysplasia and dilatation of the vestibule were detected. Magnetic resonant imaging (MRI) revealed that the deformity of the PSCC was more severe than the LSCC. Although the caloric test of the left ear elicited no nystagmus and there was reduced response in the right ear, the horizontal vestibulo-occular reflex (VOR) was present. Her dizzy sensation disappeared within 3 months without special treatment. The dizziness attack might have been caused by a temporary breakdown of her peripheral vestibular system.

  7. Temporal bone CT analysis of congenital ear anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jung Won; Moon, Min Joo; Sung, Kyu Bo

    1988-01-01

    Authors analysed the CT findings of the congenital ear anomalies of twenty-nine patients for 2 years and 3 months. The results were as follows: 1. Most of the patients were under the age of 20 (82.7%) and prevalent in male (72.4%). 2. Clinically, congenital ear anomalies were detected in 20 patients (68.9%), conductive hearing loss in 4, sensorineural hearing loss in 1, and the remained 4 patients were detected incidentally without clinical symptom. 3. In the cases of unilateral involvement of 20 patients, right ear was more common (12/20). Eight of 9 bilateral involvement showed similar degree. 4. The middle ear malformations were found in 22 patients (75.9%) and bilateral in 4 patients. 26 cases of middle ear malformations had been classified by Frey into 4 groups; Group I in 5, Group II in 9, Graoup III in 9 and Group IV in 3. 5. Incidentally found ear anomaly was lateral semicircular canal formed a single cavity with the vestibule in all patients (5 pts.). 6. Inner ear malformations accompanying sensorineural hearing loss were found in 3 patients with bilateral involvement and middle ear malformations were accompanied in 2 patients. The degree of involvement of labyrinth was variable.

  8. The acoustical significance of age-dependent ear elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    , corresponding to what is reported in the literature. For female ears, virtually no acoustical effect was found. For male ears directional dependent effects in the range up to 5 dB on average was found for certain directions and frequencies. Implications on age dependent hearing loss (presbycusis...

  9. Profile of Ear Diseases among Elderly Patients in Sagamu, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of screening for hearing impairment in the elderly patients was also stressed. KEYWORDS: Cerumen, Ear disease, Elderly, Otitis, Presbycusis. Erratum Note: Olusola AS on the article “Profile of Ear Diseases among Elderly Patients in Sagamu, South-Western Nigeria” on Page Nig. J. Med 2013. 143-147.

  10. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class airman..., vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium. ...

  11. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman... may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium. ...

  12. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman... by, or that may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium. ...

  13. Directional characteristics for different in-ear recording points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Kalsgaard; Christensen, Flemming; Hoffmann, Pablo Faundez

    2015-01-01

    -back the sound. In this paper, measurements with different in-ear recording positions are conducted on nine subjects. The measurements are used for finding the optimal microphone position. The results show that spatial information equivalent to ears without insert earphones can be preserved up to around 4-5 kHz....

  14. Concha headphones and their coupling to the ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Lola Justine Kydia Olivia; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to obtain a better understanding of concha headphone. Concha headphones are the small types of earpiece that are placed in the concha. They are not sealed to the ear and therefore, there is a leak between the earpiece and the ear. This leak is the reason why...

  15. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles. 734.2 Section 734.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to...

  16. Preventing Cauliflower Ear with a Modified Tie-Through Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeff, Robert J.; Hough, David O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a quick, simple tie-through suture technique (in which a collodion packing is secured to the auricle with two buttons) for preventing cauliflower ear following external ear trauma in wrestlers and boxers. The technique ensures constant compression; multiple treatments for fluid reaccumulation are rarely necessary. (SM)

  17. Comparison of Microbiological Flora in the External Auditory Canal of Normal Ear and an Ear with Acute Otitis Externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanpur, Asheesh Dora; Nayak, Dipak Ranjan; Chawla, Kiran; Shashidhar, V; Singh, Rohit

    2017-09-01

    Acute Otitis Externa (AOE) is also known as swimmer's ear. Investigations initiated during World War II firmly established the role of bacteria in the aetiology of Acute Otitis Externa. To culture the microbiological flora of the normal ear and compare it with the flora causing AOE and to know the role of normal ear canal flora and anaerobes in the aetiology. A prospective observational study was conducted on 64 patients clinically diagnosed with unilateral AOE. Ear swabs were taken from both the ears. Microbiological flora was studied considering diseased ear as test ear and the normal ear as the control. Aerobic and anaerobic cultures were done. Severity of the disease was assessed by subjective and objective scores. Effect of topical treatment with ichthammol glycerine pack was assessed after 48 hours and scores were calculated again. Patients with scores < 4 after pack removal were started on systemic antibiotics and were assessed after seven days of antibiotics course. Data was analysed using Paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Chi-square test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33%) was the most common bacteria cultured from the ear followed by Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (18%). Patients with anaerobic organism in the test ear had severe symptoms and needed systemic antibiotic therapy. Most of the cases may respond to empirical antibiotic therapy. In cases with severe symptoms and the ones refractory to empirical treatment, a culture from the ear canal will not be a tax on the patient. This helps in giving a better understanding about the disease, causative organisms and helps in avoiding the use of inappropriate antibiotics that usually result in developing resistant strains of bacteria.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging in inflammatory lesions of the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tono, Tetsuya; Saku, Kazuaki; Miyanaga, Satoshi; Kano, Kiyo; Morimitsu, Tamotsu; Suzuki, Yukiko.

    1988-01-01

    Eighteen patients with chronic otitis media, middle ear cholesteatoma, and postoperative inflammatory diseases of the middle ear underwent high resolution computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before surgical exploration of the middle ear. Results showed that CT provides higher detail resolution in middle ear structures, but provides limited density resolution in displaying inflammatory soft tissue lesions. By contrast, MRI differentiates among soft tissue lesions such as fluid-filled spaces, granulation tissues, and cholesteatomatous debris. Cholesterin granulomas show a particularly characteristic signal pattern with a very high intensity area in both T1 and T2 weighted images. It is concluded that MRI is useful in differentiating soft tissue density masses when used in conjunction with CT in middle ear inflammatory diseases. (author)

  19. Acoustic impedances of ear canals measured by impedance tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciric, Dejan; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    During hearing sensitivity tests, the sound field is commonly generated by an earphone placed on a subject ear. One of the factors that can affect the sound transmission in the ear is the acoustic impedance of the ear canal. Its importance is related to the contribution of other elements involved...... in the transmission such as the earphone impedance. In order to determine the acoustic impedances of human ear canals, the standardized method for measurement of complex impedances used for the measurement of the audiometric earphone impedances is applied. It is based on the transfer function between two microphone...... locations in an impedance tube. The end of the tube representing the measurement plane is placed at the ear canal entrance. Thus, the impedance seen from the entrance inward is measured on 25 subjects. Most subjects participated in the previous measurement of the ratio between the pressures at the open...

  20. Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Keun Tak; Kang, Hyun Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The knowledge about the aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is essential for clinicians, because a misdiagnosis of the aberrant ICA could have serious consequences such as excessive aural bleeding during a middle ear surgery. A 38-year-old woman presented with tinnitus and hearing difficulties of the left ear that had started 5 years ago. During otoscopy, an anteroinferior bluish mass was seen in the tympanic space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left-side aberrant ICA with bony dehiscence of the carotid canal in the middle ear and a reduced diameter of the tympanic ICA. Herein we report a case of an aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We also review the literature regarding this important vascular anomaly of the temporal bone which may lead to disastrous surgical complications.

  1. Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Keun Tak; Kang, Hyun Koo

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge about the aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is essential for clinicians, because a misdiagnosis of the aberrant ICA could have serious consequences such as excessive aural bleeding during a middle ear surgery. A 38-year-old woman presented with tinnitus and hearing difficulties of the left ear that had started 5 years ago. During otoscopy, an anteroinferior bluish mass was seen in the tympanic space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left-side aberrant ICA with bony dehiscence of the carotid canal in the middle ear and a reduced diameter of the tympanic ICA. Herein we report a case of an aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We also review the literature regarding this important vascular anomaly of the temporal bone which may lead to disastrous surgical complications.

  2. Direct cost comparison of totally endoscopic versus open ear surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, N; Mohammadi, A; Jufas, N

    2018-02-01

    Totally endoscopic ear surgery is a relatively new method for managing chronic ear disease. This study aimed to test the null hypothesis that open and endoscopic approaches have similar direct costs for the management of attic cholesteatoma, from an Australian private hospital setting. A retrospective direct cost comparison of totally endoscopic ear surgery and traditional canal wall up mastoidectomy for the management of attic cholesteatoma in a private tertiary setting was undertaken. Indirect and future costs were excluded. A direct cost comparison of anaesthetic setup and resources, operative setup and resources, and surgical time was performed between the two techniques. Totally endoscopic ear surgery has a mean direct cost reduction of AUD$2978.89 per operation from the hospital perspective, when compared to canal wall up mastoidectomy. Totally endoscopic ear surgery is more cost-effective, from an Australian private hospital perspective, than canal wall up mastoidectomy for attic cholesteatoma.

  3. Bionic Design of Wind Turbine Blade Based on Long-Eared Owl’s Airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a bionic design for the airfoil of wind turbines inspired by the morphology of Long-eared Owl’s wings. Glauert Model was adopted to design the standard blade and the bionic blade, respectively. Numerical analysis method was utilized to study the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoils as well as the blades. Results show that the bionic airfoil inspired by the airfoil at the 50% aspect ratio of the Long-eared Owl’s wing gives rise to a superior lift coefficient and stalling performance and thus can be beneficial to improving the performance of the wind turbine blade. Also, the efficiency of the bionic blade in wind turbine blades tests increases by 12% or above (up to 44% compared to that of the standard blade. The reason lies in the bigger pressure difference between the upper and lower surface which can provide stronger lift.

  4. Bionic Design of Wind Turbine Blade Based on Long-Eared Owl's Airfoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Weijun; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Jiyue; Li, Ming; Ma, Yi; Cong, Qian

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a bionic design for the airfoil of wind turbines inspired by the morphology of Long-eared Owl's wings. Glauert Model was adopted to design the standard blade and the bionic blade, respectively. Numerical analysis method was utilized to study the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoils as well as the blades. Results show that the bionic airfoil inspired by the airfoil at the 50% aspect ratio of the Long-eared Owl's wing gives rise to a superior lift coefficient and stalling performance and thus can be beneficial to improving the performance of the wind turbine blade. Also, the efficiency of the bionic blade in wind turbine blades tests increases by 12% or above (up to 44%) compared to that of the standard blade. The reason lies in the bigger pressure difference between the upper and lower surface which can provide stronger lift.

  5. Physiological artifacts in scalp EEG and ear-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Simon L; Looney, David; Mandic, Danilo P; Kidmose, Preben

    2017-08-11

    A problem inherent to recording EEG is the interference arising from noise and artifacts. While in a laboratory environment, artifacts and interference can, to a large extent, be avoided or controlled, in real-life scenarios this is a challenge. Ear-EEG is a concept where EEG is acquired from electrodes in the ear. We present a characterization of physiological artifacts generated in a controlled environment for nine subjects. The influence of the artifacts was quantified in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) deterioration of the auditory steady-state response. Alpha band modulation was also studied in an open/closed eyes paradigm. Artifacts related to jaw muscle contractions were present all over the scalp and in the ear, with the highest SNR deteriorations in the gamma band. The SNR deterioration for jaw artifacts were in general higher in the ear compared to the scalp. Whereas eye-blinking did not influence the SNR in the ear, it was significant for all groups of scalps electrodes in the delta and theta bands. Eye movements resulted in statistical significant SNR deterioration in both frontal, temporal and ear electrodes. Recordings of alpha band modulation showed increased power and coherence of the EEG for ear and scalp electrodes in the closed-eyes periods. Ear-EEG is a method developed for unobtrusive and discreet recording over long periods of time and in real-life environments. This study investigated the influence of the most important types of physiological artifacts, and demonstrated that spontaneous activity, in terms of alpha band oscillations, could be recorded from the ear-EEG platform. In its present form ear-EEG was more prone to jaw related artifacts and less prone to eye-blinking artifacts compared to state-of-the-art scalp based systems.

  6. Mozart Ear Deformity: a Rare Diagnosis in the Ear Reconstruction Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telich-Tarriba, Jose E; Victor-Baldin, Andre; Apellaniz-Campo, Armando

    2017-07-01

    Mozart ear is a rare auricular deformity; clinically the auricle is characterized by the bulging appearance of the anterosuperior portion of the auricle due to fusion of the crura of the antihelix, an inversion in the normal form of the cavum conchae resulting in its convexity and a slit-like narrowing of the orifice of the external auditory meatus.A retrospective review of clinical and photographic records of patients attended at the ear reconstruction clinic of our hospital between June of 2010 and May 2016 was performed; out of 576 consecutive patients only 3 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, with a prevalence of 0.5%. The authors present these patients.Surgical interventions mainly focus on the correction of the convex concha; however, the procedure should be tailored to the severity of the deformity and the wishes of the patient.

  7. [Risk factors for inner ear diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszewska, G; Kaźmierczak, H; Doroszewski, W

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of obesity and arterial hypertension in patients suffering from vertigo, and/or tinnitus and/or hearing loss of unknown origin. 48 patients (25 women and 23 men) were included into this study. All patients had a negative previous medical history of any metabolic, cardiovascular or neurological disorders. Our results were compared to the control group of 31 healthy persons (16 women and 15 men). All subjects had a complete neurootologic examination, appropriate audiometric and vestibular studies. In most cases inner ear pathology was recognised. BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured in all cases. Patients were overweight significantly more often comparing to the control group. Systolic and diastolic hypertension was found significantly more often in men from the patients than control group.

  8. Advances tomographic in evaluation of middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, Mayara Alves Pinheiro dos; Ledo, Mirelle D'arc Frota; Ribeiro, Marcio Duarte

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography has a key role in the study of hearing, since through it can be evaluated structures not seen by otoscope. In many clinical situations the diagnosis through this test proves limited, being fundamental examination of the associated image reconstructions: multiplanar reconstruction, maximum intensity projection, and volume-rendering technique. The ossicular chain is a complex formed by the ossicles malleus, incus and stapes, situated in the middle ear; it is difficult to view them in orthogonals planes. This review article intends to demonstrate the importance of post-processing the image of the ossicular chain for a better representation of the anatomy and possible diseases. Reformatting of images helps, significantly, to a better visualization of these structures as related congenital malformations, vascular abnormalities, inflammatory conditions, neoplasia and traumas. (author)

  9. The effect of different sowing depths on fresh ear yield and some ear characteristics of sweet corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Atar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted with aim to investigate effect on fresh ear yield and some ear characteristics of sweet corn of sowing at different depths during 2015 and 2016 years in Isparta. The experiments were set up according to randomized complete block design with three replicates using BATEM TATLI sweet corn cultivar. Furrows were opened at depths of 10 and 20 cm after the soil preparation, and seeds were sown in the 4-5 cm depth in to these furrows. According to means of years, while furrow sowing increased ear diameter, ear weigh, number of kernels per ear and fresh ear yield compared to control, it was not effect on ear length. In the research, between 10 cm and 20 cm furrow sowing wasn’t significant statistically. Fresh ear yield in control, 10 cm and 20 cm furrow sowing were measured as 1110.9 kg ha-1 , 1228.4 kg ha-1 and 1289.4 kg ha-1 , respectively. According to results of research, 5 cm deep sowing in 10 cm furrows should be advised in sweet corn cultivation.

  10. Rhamnolipid Biosurfactant against Fusarium verticillioides to Control Stalk and Ear Rot Disease of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Narayan Borah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activity of rhamnolipids (RLs has been widely studied against many plant pathogenic fungi, but not against Fusarium verticillioides, a major pathogen of maize (Zea mays L.. F. verticillioides causes stalk and ear rot of maize or asymptomatically colonizes the plant and ears resulting in moderate to heavy crop loss throughout the world. F. verticillioides produces fumonisin mycotoxins, reported carcinogens, which makes the contaminated ears unsuitable for consumption. In this study, the RL produced using glucose as sole carbon source was characterized by FTIR and LCMS analyses and its antifungal activity against F. verticillioides was evaluated in vitro on maize stalks and seeds. Further, the effect of RL on the mycelia of F. verticillioides was investigated by scanning electron microscopy which revealed visible damage to the mycelial structure as compared to control samples. In planta, treatment of maize seeds with a RL concentration of 50 mg l-1 resulted in improved biomass and fruiting compared to those of healthy control plants and complete suppression of characteristic disease symptoms and colonization of maize by F. verticillioides. The study highlights the potential of RLs to be used for an effective biocontrol strategy against colonization of maize plant by F. verticillioides.

  11. Presbycusis: do we have a third ear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Roque Reis

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Age-related hearing changes are the most frequent cause of sensorineural hearing loss in adults. In the literature no studies exist concerning the importance of speechreading in individuals with presbycusis. Equally, no such studies have been carried out with speakers of the Portuguese (Portugal language. Objectives: To evaluate whether the intelligibility of words in presbycusis is improved by speechreading, in such a way that looking at the interlocutor's face while he is talking functions like a “third ear”, and to determine the statistical relevance of the intelligibility improvement by speechreading. Methods: Eleven individuals (22 ears with bilateral and symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss compatible with presbycusis were evaluated. The subjects were aged between 57 and 82 years, with an average of 70 ± 11.51 years and median of 69.5 years. A complete medical and audiological profile of each patient was created and all patients were submitted to a vocal audiogram, without and with observation of the audiologist's face. A descriptive and analytical statistical analysis was performed (Shapiro-Wilk and t pairs tests adopting the significance level of 0.05 (5%. Results: We noticed better performance in intelligibility with speechreading. The p-value was zero (p < 0.05, so we rejected the null hypothesis, showing that there was statistically significant difference with speechreading; the same conclusion was obtained by analysis of the confidence intervals. Conclusions: Individuals with presbycusis in this study, performed better on spoken word intelligibility when the hearing of those words was associated with speechreading. This phenomenon helps in such a way that observation of the interlocutor's face works like a "third ear".

  12. Passage of albumin from the middle ear to the inner ear in otitis media in the chinchilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, B.; Goycoolea, M.V.; Schleivert, P.M.; Shea, D.; Schachern, P.; Paparella, M.M.; Carpenter, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the permeability of the middle ear-inner ear interface for macromolecules was carried out in chinchillas with open and obstructed eustachian tubes utilizing tritiated human serum albumin and immunoelectrophoresis. Tritiated albumin was placed in the round window niche area or normal animals and animals in which the eustachian tubes had been obstructed for 24 hours or 14 days. The tritiated albumin was allowed to remain in the middle ear cavity for 24 hours, Samples of middle ear effusion, perilymph, blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected and measured for radioactivity. Radioactivity was demonstrated in the perilymph. Samples of middle ear effusions and perilymph were also studied by immunoelectrophoresis with goat antihuman albumin. Albumin placed in the round window niche of an experimental animal could be recovered unchanged in the perilymph. The results suggest a pathophysiologic explanation for the association of otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss or endolymphatic hydrops

  13. Molecular and functional assessment of multicellular cancer spheroids produced in double emulsions enabled by efficient airway resistance based selective surface treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao; Leth Jepsen, Morten; Ivarsen, Anne Kathrine R.; Knudsen, Birgitta R.; Ho, Yi-Ping

    2017-09-01

    Multicellular spheroids have garnered significant attention as an in vitro three-dimensional cancer model which can mimick the in vivo microenvironmental features. While microfluidics generated double emulsions have become a potential method to generate spheroids, challenges remain on the tedious procedures. Enabled by a novel ‘airway resistance’ based selective surface treatment, this study presents an easy and facile generation of double emulsions for the initiation and cultivation of multicellular spheroids in a scaffold-free format. Combining with our previously developed DNA nanosensors, intestinal spheroids produced in the double emulsions have shown an elevated activities of an essential DNA modifying enzyme, the topoisomerase I. The observed molecular and functional characteristics of spheroids produced in double emulsions are similar to the counterparts produced by the commercially available ultra-low attachment plates. However, the double emulsions excel for their improved uniformity, and the consistency of the results obtained by subsequent analysis of the spheroids. The presented technique is expected to ease the burden of producing spheroids and to promote the spheroids model for cancer or stem cell study.

  14. Development of an efficient fungal DNA extraction method to be used in random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR analysis to differentiate cyclopiazonic acid mold producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Mar; Casado, Eva M; Martín, Alberto; Córdoba, Juan J

    2008-12-01

    A variety of previously established mechanical and chemical treatments to achieve fungal cell lysis combined with a semiautomatic system operated by a vacuum pump were tested to obtain DNA extract to be directly used in randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR to differentiate cyclopiazonic acid-producing and -nonproducing mold strains. A DNA extraction method that includes digestion with proteinase K and lyticase prior to using a mortar and pestle grinding and a semiautomatic vacuum system yielded DNA of high quality in all the fungal strains and species tested, at concentrations ranging from 17 to 89 ng/microl in 150 microl of the final DNA extract. Two microliters of DNA extracted with this method was directly used for RAPD-PCR using primer (GACA)4. Reproducible RAPD fingerprints showing high differences between producer and nonproducer strains were observed. These differences in the RAPD patterns did not differentiate all the strains tested in clusters by cyclopiazonic acid production but may be very useful to distinguish cyclopiazonic acid producer strains from nonproducer strains by a simple RAPD analysis. Thus, the DNA extracts obtained could be used directly without previous purification and quantification for RAPD analysis to differentiate cyclopiazonic acid producer from nonproducer mold strains. This combined analysis could be adaptable to other toxigenic fungal species to enable differentiation of toxigenic and non-toxigenic molds, a procedure of great interest in food safety.

  15. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF FUNGAL INFECTIONS IN CHRONICALLY DISCHARGING EARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM is a disease of multiple aetiology and well known for its persis tence and recurrence inspite of treatment and are the bearbug of otologist, paediatrician and general practitioner. One of the reason s for the refractoriness to treatment and chronicity is coexist ing fungal infection of the ear. OBJECTIVES: Are to find out the prevalence of fungal infections in chronic discharging ears and to identify and isolate the type of fungus prevalent in these ears . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: Tertiary care hospital level descrip tive study was conducted in 50 cases of CSOM with actively discharging ears for a period of one year starting from February 2013. For all the cases aural swabs were collected from the diseased ear and were used for direct microscopic examination in potassi um hydroxide wet mount. Ear swab was cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plate for fungal cultures. The patient characteristics were prospectively recorded and results were analysed. CONCLUSION : There is high prevalence of coexisting fungal infection in actively discharging ears of CSOM patients

  16. An in vitro model of murine middle ear epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulay, Apoorva; Akram, Khondoker M; Williams, Debbie; Armes, Hannah; Russell, Catherine; Hood, Derek; Armstrong, Stuart; Stewart, James P; Brown, Steve D M; Bingle, Lynne; Bingle, Colin D

    2016-11-01

    Otitis media (OM), or middle ear inflammation, is the most common paediatric disease and leads to significant morbidity. Although understanding of underlying disease mechanisms is hampered by complex pathophysiology it is clear that epithelial abnormalities underpin the disease. There is currently a lack of a well-characterised in vitro model of the middle ear (ME) epithelium that replicates the complex cellular composition of the middle ear. Here, we report the development of a novel in vitro model of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMECs) at an air-liquid interface (ALI) that recapitulates the characteristics of the native murine ME epithelium. We demonstrate that mMECs undergo differentiation into the varied cell populations seen within the native middle ear. Proteomic analysis confirmed that the cultures secrete a multitude of innate defence proteins from their apical surface. We showed that the mMECs supported the growth of the otopathogen, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), suggesting that the model can be successfully utilised to study host-pathogen interactions in the middle ear. Overall, our mMEC culture system can help to better understand the cell biology of the middle ear and improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of OM. The model also has the potential to serve as a platform for validation of treatments designed to reverse aspects of epithelial remodelling that underpin OM development. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. THE IDENTIFICATION OF EAR PRINTS USING COMPLEX GABOR FILTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A S Gunawan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is a method used to recognize humans based on one or a few characteristicsphysical or behavioral traits that are unique such as DNA, face, fingerprints, gait, iris, palm, retina,signature and sound. Although the facts that ear prints are found in 15% of crime scenes, ear printsresearch has been very limited since the success of fingerprints modality. The advantage of the useof ear prints, as forensic evidence, are it relatively unchanged due to increased age and have fewervariations than faces with expression variation and orientation. In this research, complex Gaborfilters is used to extract the ear prints feature based on texture segmentation. Principal componentanalysis (PCA is then used for dimensionality-reduction where variation in the dataset ispreserved. The classification is done in a lower dimension space defined by principal componentsbased on Euclidean distance. In experiments, it is used left and right ear prints of ten respondentsand in average, the successful recognition rate is 78%. Based on the experiment results, it isconcluded that ear prints is suitable as forensic evidence mainly when combined with otherbiometric modalities.Keywords: Biometrics; Ear prints; Complex Gabor filters; Principal component analysis;Euclidean distance

  18. An in vitro model of murine middle ear epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Mulay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Otitis media (OM, or middle ear inflammation, is the most common paediatric disease and leads to significant morbidity. Although understanding of underlying disease mechanisms is hampered by complex pathophysiology it is clear that epithelial abnormalities underpin the disease. There is currently a lack of a well-characterised in vitro model of the middle ear (ME epithelium that replicates the complex cellular composition of the middle ear. Here, we report the development of a novel in vitro model of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMECs at an air–liquid interface (ALI that recapitulates the characteristics of the native murine ME epithelium. We demonstrate that mMECs undergo differentiation into the varied cell populations seen within the native middle ear. Proteomic analysis confirmed that the cultures secrete a multitude of innate defence proteins from their apical surface. We showed that the mMECs supported the growth of the otopathogen, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi, suggesting that the model can be successfully utilised to study host–pathogen interactions in the middle ear. Overall, our mMEC culture system can help to better understand the cell biology of the middle ear and improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of OM. The model also has the potential to serve as a platform for validation of treatments designed to reverse aspects of epithelial remodelling that underpin OM development.

  19. Trends and complications of ear piercing among selected Nigerian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajide Toye Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The reported health and socioeconomic consequences of ear piercing, especially in modern day society, underscore the need to further research into this subject. In this study, we determine the trends and complications of ear piercing among selected Nigerian population. Aim and Objectives: The aim and objective of this study was to draw attention to the trends and complications of ear piercing with a view to prevent its associated complications. Methodology: It is a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out between February and May 2015 among selected Nigerian population from two of its six geo-political zones. A self-administered semi-structured questionnaire which had been pretested was used to collect data from 458 respondents who consented using multistage sampling technique. Results: Of 480 respondents enumerated, 458 completed the questionnaires and gave their biodata. The male:female ratio was 1:6.2. Their ages ranged from 18 to 75 years with a mean of 35.56 ± 10.16. About 35.4% of the respondents were within the age group of 31–40 years. Majority of the respondents, i.e.,79.3% practiced ear piercing on their children. Most of them (86.8% preferred single piercing. Ear piercing was performed within the 1st week of birth in 37.2% of the respondents. Large percentage (93.2% of the respondents will not encourage ear piercing in male children. Nearly 20.5% of the respondents observed complications. Conclusion: Ear piercing remained a common practice in Nigeria, with respondents preferring it on females. Majority of the piercings are done in childhood and by untrained personnel. Keloid formation was the notable complication observed by the respondents. There is a need to increase awareness about the hazards of ear piercings and to enact laws that regulate ear piercings particularly in children which is hereby stretched.

  20. Efficient soft x-ray emission source at 13.5 nm by use of a femtosecond-laser-produced Li-based microplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Rajyaguru, Chirag; Kubodera, Shoichi; Sasaki, Wataru; Yugami, Noboru; Kikuchi, Takashi; Kawata, Shigeo; Andreev, Alex

    2005-01-01

    A proof-of-principle experiment was demonstrated to optimize a Li-based microjet target coupled to dual subpicosecond laser pulses as a 13.5 nm soft x-ray emission source. An optimum pulse duration of 450 fs to achieve a maximum emission at 13.5 nm was well explained by the resonant absorption process. Utilization of dual femtosecond pulses revealed that the optimum pulse separation around 500 ps was necessary to achieve a maximum soft x-ray conversion efficiency of 0.2%, where plasma hydrodynamics could not be neglected. A one-fluid two-temperature hydrodynamic simulation reproduced this optimum pulse separation behavior

  1. [Surgical manipulators in ear surgery: a future vision?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, M; Dietz, A; Strauss, G

    2011-04-01

    Middle ear surgery bears a high risk for injury of difficult to differentiate risk structures. Thus, a precise preparation in this area must be the surgical task. However, there are human (tremor) and systematic limitations (OR setup, narrow access). Assistance systems in terms of manipulators are so far not part of the clinical routine. Although, they could compensate for the above mentioned limitations. MANIPULATORS: This work reviews existing surgical manipulator systems. The expected value is an elevated patient safety through improving surgical accuracy and the reduction of ergonomic deficits. CLINICAL APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT: In clinical application there are simply modified industrial robots, highly complex master slave systems and small miniature master slave systems which are directly located at the patient. A disadvantage of most systems is the limited number of applicable instruments. Often, only especially designed instruments can be used. The goal in development should be to create a compact, short distance operated master slave system. The usability of standard (already available) instruments with an easy integration into the surgical and sterilisation procedure would lower the threshold for acceptance of such systems.The surgeon will remain the key player. He can only work efficiently in an ergonomic environment and will always have the responsibility for the intervention. From the authors perspective, highly automated systems should not be the research goal. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. The middle ear immune defense changes with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michelle Christine; Friis, Morten; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    of this study was to analyze the relationship between age and the mucosal immune system in the middle ear. It is hypothesized that genes involved in the middle ear immune system will change with age. A comprehensive assessment of these genetic differences using the techniques of complementary DNA has not been...... performed. Complementary DNA microarray technology was used to identify immune-related genes differentially expressed between the normal middle ear mucosa of young (10 days old) and adult rats (80 days old). Data were analyzed using tools of bioinformatics. A total of 260 age-related genes were identified...

  3. Neonatal Hairy Ear Pinnae and Gestational Diabetes: Just a Coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Enrico; Riello, Laura; Chirico, Michela; Semenzato, Rossella; Cutrone, Mario

    2015-01-01

    A newborn girl of 36 weeks gestation was noted to have several anomalies, including bilateral low ear attachment with ear pinnae hypertrichosis, left preauricular pit, micrognathia, short lingual frenulum, and short neck. Pregnancy history revealed poorly controlled maternal gestational diabetes (GD). Localized hypertrichosis of the ear pinnae may represent a potential marker of GD and thereby alert physicians to suspect other potentially GD-associated conditions such as macrosomia, asphyxia, respiratory distress, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hyperbilirubinemia, polycythemia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and congenital anomalies, particularly those involving the central nervous system. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Comparative analysis of ear-hole closure identifies epimorphic regeneration as a discrete trait in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawriluk, Thomas R.; Simkin, Jennifer; Thompson, Katherine L.; Biswas, Shishir K.; Clare-Salzler, Zak; Kimani, John M.; Kiama, Stephen G.; Smith, Jeramiah J.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Seifert, Ashley W.

    2016-01-01

    Why mammals have poor regenerative ability has remained a long-standing question in biology. In regenerating vertebrates, injury can induce a process known as epimorphic regeneration to replace damaged structures. Using a 4-mm ear punch assay across multiple mammalian species, here we show that several Acomys spp. (spiny mice) and Oryctolagus cuniculus completely regenerate tissue, whereas other rodents including MRL/MpJ ‘healer' mice heal similar injuries by scarring. We demonstrate ear-hole closure is independent of ear size, and closure rate can be modelled with a cubic function. Cellular and genetic analyses reveal that injury induces blastema formation in Acomys cahirinus. Despite cell cycle re-entry in Mus musculus and A. cahirinus, efficient cell cycle progression and proliferation only occurs in spiny mice. Together, our data unite blastema-mediated regeneration in spiny mice with regeneration in other vertebrates such as salamanders, newts and zebrafish, where all healthy adults regenerate in response to injury. PMID:27109826

  5. Fascioperichondrial Flap with a Proximal Base Combined with Prominent Ear Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heval Selman Özkan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this article, we present a personalized surgical technique to relocate a fascioperichondrial flap with a proximal base as an additional measure to improve results and hide sharp edges which frequently occur following traditional otoplasty. Materials and Methods: Fascioperichondrial flap with a proximal base prepared from the dorsal side was transposed to the anterior helix and conchal excision side and secured with stitches to hide visible edges and reinforce Furnas sutures. Nine patients operated for prominent ear deformity using this modification were included in the study and follow-up period was at least 6 months. Conchal mastoid distances were calculated from the superior and middle third of the ears before and after the operation, also in follow-up controls to determine the efficiency of the method. Results: There were no suture extrusions, skin necrosis or infection. The mean difference for both the upper and middle third of the ears were considerably lower (p≤0.05 at the end of six month after the operation. There were no visible skin edges and discomfort described by the patients. Conclusion: Fascioperichondrial flap with a proximal base repositioning to conchal side is an easy procedure that can be applied simply as an adjunct to traditional techniques. Addition of this flap provides an additional tissue to reinforce suture repair and, the results seem to be more durable and strong. Another main advantage of this flap is eliminating the unnatural visible breakpoints in the conchal bowl.

  6. Interplay of static and dynamic features in biomimetic smart ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannala, Mittu; Meymand, Sajjad Zeinoddini; Müller, Rolf

    2013-06-01

    Horseshoe bats (family Rhinolophidae) have sophisticated biosonar systems with outer ears (pinnae) that are characterized by static local shape features as well as dynamic non-rigid changes to their overall shapes. Here, biomimetic prototypes fabricated from elastic rubber sheets have been used to study the impact of these static and dynamic features on the acoustic device characteristics. The basic shape of the prototypes was an obliquely truncated horn augmented with three static local shape features: vertical ridge, pinna-rim incision and frontal flap (antitragus). The prototype shape was deformed dynamically using a one-point actuation mechanism to produce a biomimetic bending of the prototype's tip. In isolation, the local shape features had little impact on the device beampattern. However, strong interactions were observed between these features and the overall deformation. The further the prototype tip was bent down, the stronger the beampatterns associated with combinations of multiple features differed from the upright configuration in the prominence of sidelobes. This behavior was qualitatively similar to numerical predictions for horseshoe bats. Hence, the interplay between static and dynamic features could be a bioinspired principle for affecting large changes through the dynamic manipulations of interactions that are sensitive to small geometrical changes.

  7. Stress improves selective attention towards emotionally neutral left ear stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, Robert; Hunter, M D; Woodruff, P W R

    2014-09-01

    Research concerning the impact of psychological stress on visual selective attention has produced mixed results. The current paper describes two experiments which utilise a novel auditory oddball paradigm to test the impact of psychological stress on auditory selective attention. Participants had to report the location of emotionally-neutral auditory stimuli, while ignoring task-irrelevant changes in their content. The results of the first experiment, in which speech stimuli were presented, suggested that stress improves the ability to selectively attend to left, but not right ear stimuli. When this experiment was repeated using tonal stimuli the same result was evident, but only for female participants. Females were also found to experience greater levels of distraction in general across the two experiments. These findings support the goal-shielding theory which suggests that stress improves selective attention by reducing the attentional resources available to process task-irrelevant information. The study also demonstrates, for the first time, that this goal-shielding effect extends to auditory perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A green and efficient method to produce graphene for electrochemical capacitors from graphene oxide using sodium carbonate as a reducing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuhong; Huang, Shuo; Zhang, Mei; Jia, Mengqiu; Hu, Dong

    2013-03-01

    The green and efficient synthesis of graphene using sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) as a chemical reducing agent was studied. Extensive characterization confirmed the formation of graphene from graphene oxide using a Na2CO3 solution. The C/O atomic ratio of the as-prepared graphene has increased from 2.48 to 8.15 after reduction as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The conductivity of as-prepared graphene sheets is as high as 10 S m-1. After electrochemical measurements, gravimetric capacitances of 228 and 166 F g-1 at current densities of 5 and 25 mA cm-2, respectively, were obtained with KOH electrolyte.

  9. Frequency specificity and left-ear advantage of medial olivocochlear efferent modulation: a study based on stimulus frequency otoacoustic emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Dongjia; Gong, Qin

    2017-09-06

    The medial olivocochlear (MOC) bundle is an auditory nucleus that projects efferent nerve fibers to the outer hair cells (OHCs) for synaptic innervation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible existence of frequency and ear specificity in MOC efferent modulation, as well as how MOC activation influences cochlear tuning. Stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) were used to study MOC efferent modulation. Therefore, the current experiment was designed to compare the degree of SFOAE suppression in the both ears of 20 individuals at 1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz. We also compared changes in Q10 values of SFOAE suppression tuning curves at 1, 2, and 4 kHz under contralateral acoustic stimulation (CAS) and no-CAS conditions. We observed a significant reduction in SFOAE magnitude in the CAS condition compared with the no-CAS condition at 1 and 2 kHz in the left ear. A significant difference in CAS suppression was also found between the left and right ears at 1 and 2 kHz, with larger CAS suppression in the left ear. CAS further produced a statistically significant increase in the Q10 value at 1 kHz and a significant reduction in Q10 values at 2 and 4 kHz. These findings suggest a left-ear advantage in terms of CAS-induced MOC efferent SFOAE suppression, with larger MOC efferent modulation for lower frequencies, and cochlear tuning was sharpened by means of MOC activation at lower frequencies and broadened at higher frequencies.

  10. Deep Arm/Ear-ECG Image Learning for Highly Wearable Biometric Human Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingxue; Zhou, Dian

    2018-01-01

    In this study, to advance smart health applications which have increasing security/privacy requirements, we propose a novel highly wearable ECG-based user identification system, empowered by both non-standard convenient ECG lead configurations and deep learning techniques. Specifically, to achieve a super wearability, we suggest situating all the ECG electrodes on the left upper-arm, or behind the ears, and successfully obtain weak but distinguishable ECG waveforms. Afterwards, to identify individuals from weak ECG, we further present a two-stage framework, including ECG imaging and deep feature learning/identification. In the former stage, the ECG heartbeats are projected to a 2D state space, to reveal heartbeats' trajectory behaviors and produce 2D images by a split-then-hit method. In the second stage, a convolutional neural network is introduced to automatically learn the intricate patterns directly from the ECG image representations without heavy feature engineering, and then perform user identification. Experimental results on two acquired datasets using our wearable prototype, show a promising identification rate of 98.4% (single-arm-ECG) and 91.1% (ear-ECG), respectively. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first study on the feasibility of using single-arm-ECG/ear-ECG for user identification purpose, which is expected to contribute to pervasive ECG-based user identification in smart health applications.

  11. A new cochlear implant electrode with a "cork"-type stopper for inner ear malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennaroğlu, Levent; Atay, Gamze; Bajin, Münir Demir

    2014-08-01

    Gusher in inner ear malformations is common in patients with incomplete partition type I and type III. It is also common in less severe form as oozing in incomplete partition type II and large vestibular aqueduct. It is important to prevent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) escape around the electrode to prevent meningitis. The custom-made device was produced by Med-El Company. It has a "cork"-like stopper instead of the usual silicon ring to prevent gusher. There are two types of electrodes of different lengths. The standard one is 25mm (contact space 1.7mm) and the short one is 20mm (contact space 1.3mm). It was used in 50 patients with different inner ear malformations. Thirteen patients had gusher, and 11 patients oozing during cochleostomy. One patient with initial prototype of the cork electrode had to be revised because of persistent oozing around the electrode. Another patient had slow extrusion of the electrode most probably due to CSF pulsation and had to be revised. Both patients had no more CSF fistula. CSF fistula in inner ear malformations is a serious situation which may lead to recurrent meningitis. The new electrode with "cork" stopper looks promising in preventing the postoperative CSF leak around the electrode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Laser vibrometer measurements and middle ear prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flock, Stephen T.; Dornhoffer, John; Ferguson, Scott

    1997-05-01

    One of us has developed an improved partial ossicular replacement prosthesis that is easier to implant and, based on pilot clinical measurements, results in better high-frequency hearing as compared to patients receiving one of the alternative prostheses. It is hypothesized that the primary reason for this is because of the relatively light weight (about 25 mg) and low compliance of the prosthesis, which could conceivably result in better high frequency vibrational characteristics. The purpose of our initial work was to develop an instrument suitable for objectively testing the vibrational characteristics of prostheses. We have developed a laser based device suitable for measuring the vibrational characteristics of the oval window or other structures of the middle ear. We have tested this device using a piezoelectric transducer excited at audio frequencies, as well as on the oval window in human temporal bones harvested from cadavers. The results illustrate that it is possible to non-invasively monitor the vibrational characteristics of anatomic structures with a very inexpensive photonic device.

  13. Gentamicin pharmacokinetics in the chicken inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Eric C; Park, Debra L; Durham, Dianne; Girod, Douglas A

    2004-06-01

    Avians have the unique ability to regenerate cochlear hair cells that are lost due to ototoxins or excessive noise. Many methodological techniques are available to damage the hair cells for subsequent scientific study. A recent method utilizes topical application of an ototoxic drug to the round window membrane. The current study examines the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in the inner ear of chickens following topical application to the round window membrane or a single systemic high dose given intraperitoneally. Chickens were given gentamicin topically or systemically and survived for 1, 4, 12, 24, or 120 h (controls at 4 and 120 h). Serum and perilymph samples were obtained prior to sacrifice and measured for gentamicin levels. Results revealed higher levels of gentamicin in the perilymph of topically treated chickens than systemically treated chickens, with significant amounts of gentamicin still present in both at the latest survival time of 5 days. As expected, systemically treated chickens had much higher levels of gentamicin in the serum than topically treated chickens. Advantages and disadvantages to each method of drug administration are discussed.

  14. The acoustic reflex threshold in aging ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, C A; Silman, S; Miller, M H

    1983-01-01

    This study investigates the controversy regarding the influence of age on the acoustic reflex threshold for broadband noise, 500-, 1000-, 2000-, and 4000-Hz activators between Jerger et al. [Mono. Contemp. Audiol. 1 (1978)] and Jerger [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 66 (1979)] on the one hand and Silman [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 66 (1979)] and others on the other. The acoustic reflex thresholds for broadband noise, 500-, 1000-, 2000-, and 4000-Hz activators were evaluated under two measurement conditions. Seventy-two normal-hearing ears were drawn from 72 subjects ranging in age from 20-69 years. The results revealed that age was correlated with the acoustic reflex threshold for BBN activator but not for any of the tonal activators; the correlation was stronger under the 1-dB than under the 5-dB measurement condition. Also, the mean acoustic reflex thresholds for broadband noise activator were essentially similar to those reported by Jerger et al. (1978) but differed from those obtained in this study under the 1-dB measurement condition.

  15. Congenital malformations of the external and middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koesling, S.; Omenzetter, M.; Bartel-Friedrich, S.

    2009-01-01

    With the focus on imaging, this paper gives a summarized view of the present knowledge on fields, which are necessary to know for a profound understanding of congenital malformations of the external and middle ear. Typical and less typical combinations of malformed parts of the ear can be derived from the embryogenesis. Clinical signs and audiometric findings lead to diagnosis in congenital aural atresia. Isolated middle ear malformations can be clinically mixed up especially with otosclerosis and tympanosclerosis. Imaging is needed for exact morphological information. In malformations of the external and middle ear, CT is the imaging modality of choice. Requirements on CT-technique as well as radiological findings including classification and pre-surgical rating are described. Morphological CT-correlates of congenital malformations and their differential diagnoses are enlisted and illustrated. The impact of CT-results on therapy is explained and actual therapeutic concepts are briefly presented

  16. Computed tomography of middle ear cholesteatomas without tympanic membrane perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettorre, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    The growth of a middle ear cholesteatoma behind a normal tympanic membrane is a rate though possible event. In such cases, CT may provide useful information for diagnosis. The results are presented of a CT study carried out on 14 patients affected with unilateral conductive hearing loss and with normal tympanic membrane. CT allowed the diagnosis of meddle ear cholesteatoma to be made in all cases. All patients were treated with surgery: 8 of them underwent tympanoplasty and 6 explorative tympanotomy. While the diagnosis of cholesteatoma was confirmed in 13 patients, in 1 case tympanosclerosis was diagnosed. CT diagnosis of middle ear cholesteatoma is based on the demonstration of a low-density soft-tissue mass, in association with bone erosion or ossicular dislocation. The author emphasizes the difficulty of a CT diagnosis of cholesteatoma in the patients with middle ear soft-tissue masses in the absence of bone alterations

  17. The ferret as a model for inner ear research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarey, K E

    1985-06-01

    Viral infections have long been suspected to be causative agents in a number of inner ear dysfunctions. With few exceptions, the virus has not been demonstrated as the direct agent leading to hearing loss and/or vertigo. Selective inner ear changes have been observed recently in sensory and nonsensory epithelial cells in the ferret model for Reye's syndrome after intranasal inoculation with influenza B combined with aspirin administration and the creation of an arginine deficiency. Such findings suggest that these agents act synergistically on the inner ear, particularly on cells that are metabolically active, and that the ferret may now be a useful model to examine the role of certain upper respiratory tract viruses implicated in inner ear disorders, singly and in combination with other agents that may cause metabolic alterations.

  18. [Reconstruction of the ear in the burns patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Córdova, Jorge Raúl; Jiménez Murat, Yusef; Apellaniz-Campo, Armando; Bracho-Olvera, Hazel; Carrillo Esper, Raúl

    Face burns are a singular pathology with great functional and psychological impact in the patients suffering them. The ears play a fundamental role in personal interactions and damage to this organ results in physical and emotional distress. The reconstructive treatment of the burned ear is a challenge. Multiple procedures have been described to achieve success in the reconstruction of the burned ear; immediate reconstruction with autologous rib cartilage, secondary reconstruction, alloplastic material reconstruction, tissue expansion, skin grafts and also microvascular flaps are some of the most common procedures used in this patients. All these techniques focus on giving a natural appearance to the patient. Burns to the ears affect 30% of the patients with facial burns, they require an excellent treatment given by a multidisciplinary team. Copyright © 2017 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. In-the-Ear Spiral Monopole Antenna for Hearing Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    A novel in-the-ear (ITE) antenna solution for hearing instruments that operates at 2.45 GHz is presented. The antenna consists of a quarter wave monopole and a ground plane that are placed in the ear. The simulated path gain | S 21 |is − 86 dB and the measured path gain is − 80 dB. Simulations an...... and measurements show that the antenna covers the entire 2.40 – 2.48 GHz industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band. It is the first ever ITE-antenna solution that demonstrates the possibility of establishing an ear-to-ear link by using a standard Bluetooth chip...

  20. Ex Vivo Application of Secreted Metabolites Produced by Soil-Inhabiting Bacillus spp. Efficiently Controls Foliar Diseases Caused by Alternaria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Gul Shad; El-Sayed, Ashraf S A; Patel, Jaimin S; Green, Kari B; Ali, Mohammad; Brennan, Mary; Norman, David

    2016-01-15

    Bacterial biological control agents (BCAs) are largely used as live products to control plant pathogens. However, due to variable environmental and ecological factors, live BCAs usually fail to produce desirable results against foliar pathogens. In this study, we investigated the potential of cell-free culture filtrates of 12 different bacterial BCAs isolated from flower beds for controlling foliar diseases caused by Alternaria spp. In vitro studies showed that culture filtrates from two isolates belonging to Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens displayed strong efficacy and potencies against Alternaria spp. The antimicrobial activity of the culture filtrate of these two biological control agents was effective over a wider range of pH (3.0 to 9.0) and was not affected by autoclaving or proteolysis. Comparative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses showed that a complex mixture of cyclic lipopeptides, primarily of the fengycin A and fengycin B families, was significantly higher in these two BCAs than inactive Bacillus spp. Interaction studies with mixtures of culture filtrates of these two species revealed additive activity, suggesting that they produce similar products, which was confirmed by LC-tandem MS analyses. In in planta pre- and postinoculation trials, foliar application of culture filtrates of B. subtilis reduced lesion sizes and lesion frequencies caused by Alternaria alternata by 68 to 81%. Taken together, our studies suggest that instead of live bacteria, culture filtrates of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens can be applied either individually or in combination for controlling foliar diseases caused by Alternaria species. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Sonographic Measurement of Fetal Ear Length in Turkish Women with a Normal Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mucize Eriç Özdemir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal fetal ear length is a feature of chromosomal disorders. Fetal ear length measurement is a simple measurement that can be obtained during ultrasonographic examinations. Aims: To develop a nomogram for fetal ear length measurements in our population and investigate the correlation between fetal ear length, gestational age, and other standard fetal biometric measurements. Study Design: Cohort study. Methods: Ear lengths of the fetuses were measured in normal singleton pregnancies. The relationship between gestational age and fetal ear length in millimetres was analysed by simple linear regression. In addition, the correlation of fetal ear length measurements with biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length were evaluated.Ear length measurements were obtained from fetuses in 389 normal singleton pregnancies ranging between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation. Results: A nomogram was developed by linear regression analysis of the parameters ear length and gestational age. Fetal ear length (mm = y = (1.348 X gestational age-12.265, where gestational ages is in weeks. A high correlation was found between fetal ear length and gestational age, and a significant correlation was also found between fetal ear length and the biparietal diameter (r=0.962; p<0.001. Similar correlations were found between fetal ear length and head circumference, and fetal ear length and femur length. Conclusion: The results of this study provide a nomogram for fetal ear length. The study also demonstrates the relationship between ear length and other biometric measurements.

  2. Ear biometrics for patient identification in global health: a cross-sectional study to test the feasibility of a simplified algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Elizabeth J; Johnson, Courtney; Milton, Jacqueline N; Gill, Christopher J

    2016-11-02

    One of the greatest public health challenges in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is identifying people over time and space. Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in developing electronic approaches to addressing this problem, with mobile technology at the forefront of these efforts. We investigate the possibility of biometrics as a simple, cost-efficient, and portable solution. Common biometrics approaches include fingerprinting, iris scanning and facial recognition, but all are less than ideal due to complexity, infringement on privacy, cost, or portability. Ear biometrics, however, proved to be a unique and viable solution. We developed an identification algorithm then conducted a cross sectional study in which we photographed left and right ears from 25 consenting adults. We then conducted re-identification and statistical analyses to identify the accuracy and replicability of our approach. Through principal component analysis, we found the curve of the ear helix to be the most reliable anatomical structure and the basis for re-identification. Although an individual ear allowed for high re-identification rate (88.3%), when both left and right ears were paired together, our rate of re-identification amidst the pool of potential matches was 100%. The results of this study have implications on future efforts towards building a biometrics solution for patient identification in LMICs. We provide a conceptual platform for further investigation into the development of an ear biometrics identification mobile application.

  3. Study on corrosion products from ear piercing studs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogero, Sizue O.; Costa, Isolda; Saiki, Mitiko

    2000-01-01

    In this work instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to analyse elemental composition of commercial gold coated ear piercing substrate and metals present in their corrosion products. The cytotoxic effect was also verified in these corrosion product extracts, probably, due to the lixiviation of Ni present in high quantity in their substrates. The analysis of gold coated ear piercing surfaces by scanning electron microscopy before and after the corrosion test showed coating defects and the occurrence of corrosion process. (author)

  4. The ear region of Latimeria chalumnae: functional and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The anatomy of Latimeria chalumnae has figured prominently in discussions about tetrapod origins. While the gross anatomy of Latimeria is well documented, relatively little is known about its otic anatomy and ontogeny. To examine the inner ear and the otoccipital part of the cranium, a serial-sectioned juvenile coelacanth was studied in detail and a three-dimensional reconstruction was made. The ear of Latimeria shows a derived condition compared to other basal sarcopterygians in having a connection between left and right labyrinths. This canalis communicans is perilymphatic in nature and originates at the transition point of the saccule and the lagena deep in the inner ear, where a peculiar sense end organ can be found. In most gnathostomes the inner ears are clearly separated from each other. A connection occurs in some fishes, e.g. within the Ostariophysi. In the sarcopterygian lineage no connections between the inner ears are known except in the Actinistia. Some fossil actinistians show a posteriorly directed duct lying between the foramen magnum and the notochordal canal, similar to the condition in the ear of Latimeria, so this derived character complex probably developed early in actinistian history. Because some features of the inner ear of Latimeria have been described as having tetrapod affinities, the problem of hearing and the anatomy of the otical complex in the living coelacanth has been closely connected to the question of early tetrapod evolution. It was assumed in the past that the structure found in Latimeria could exemplify a transitional stage in otic evolution between the fishlike sarcopterygians and the first tetrapods in a functional or even phylogenetic way. Here the possibility is considered that the canalis communicans does not possess any auditory function but rather is involved in sensing pressure changes during movements involving the intracranial joint. Earlier hypotheses of a putative tympanic ear are refuted.

  5. Prevalence of external ear disorders in Belgian stray cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollez, Anouck; de Rooster, Hilde; Furcas, Alessandra; Vandenabeele, Sophie

    2018-02-01

    Objectives Feline otitis externa is a multifactorial dermatological disorder about which very little is known. The objective of this study was to map the prevalence of external ear canal disorders and the pathogens causing otitis externa in stray cats roaming around the region of Ghent, Belgium. Methods One hundred and thirty stray cats were randomly selected during a local trap-neuter-return programme. All cats were European Shorthairs. This study included clinical, otoscopic and cytological evaluation of both external ears of each cat. Prospective data used as parameters in this study included the sex, age and body condition score of each cat, as well as the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge, and the results of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) Snap tests. Results Remarkably, very few (sub)clinical problems of the external ear canal were found in the stray cat population. Malassezia species was by far the most common organism found in the external ear canals of the 130 stray cats. A total of 96/130 (74%) cats were found to have Malassezia species organisms present in one or both ears based on the cytological examination. No correlation was found between the parameters of sex, age, body condition score, the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge and FIV and FeLV status, and the presence of parasites, bacteria or yeasts. Conclusions and relevance This study provides more information about the normal state of the external ear canal of stray cats. The ears of most stray cats are relatively healthy. The presence of Malassezia species organisms in the external ear canal is not rare among stray cats.

  6. Cisplatin Ototoxicity Blocks Sensory Regeneration in the Avian Inner Ear

    OpenAIRE

    Slattery, Eric L.; Warchol, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent that is widely-used in the treatment of solid tumors. Ototoxicity is a common side effect of cisplatin therapy, and often leads to permanent hearing loss. The sensory organs of the avian ear are able to regenerate hair cells after aminoglycoside ototoxicity. This regenerative response is mediated by supporting cells, which serve as precursors to replacement hair cells. Given the antimitotic properties of cisplatin, we examined whether the avian ear was al...

  7. Cochlear implantation in the Mondini inner ear malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, R T; Robbins, A J; Myres, W A; Pope, M L

    1986-07-01

    We report the case of a profoundly deaf 4-year-old boy with congenital deafness as a result of Mondini's dysplasia. The Mondini inner ear malformation is the result of arrested labyrinthine development during embryogenesis and is characterized by both bony and membranous anomalies of the inner ear. The dysplastic cochlear anatomy does not preclude successful cochlear implantation, and electrical threshold measurements are similar to those recorded in pediatric subjects deafened as a result of other causes.

  8. Melanoacanthoma of external ear: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Patnayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoacanthoma is a rare lesion. Melanoacanthoma of external ear is still rarer . We present two cases of melanoacanthoma of external ear in adults which presented as pigmented growths and clinically were suspected as malignant lesions. Histopathology was diagnostic as it demonstrated the characteristic elevated lesion with abundant melanin pigment. No recurrence of the lesion was reported after four years of initial diagnosis. These cases have been presented because of their uncommon location, highlighting the differential diagnoses.

  9. Poor Oral Hygiene and Middle Ear Infections: Any Relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Esra, Eryaman; Banu, Oter Ilhan; Erdinc, Aydin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections. 59 children between 3–12 age intervals were included in this study. The ears were examined by microscope. The findings were marked according to Kempthorne clinical scale and tympanograms were performed. For data analysis of dental caries, dft and DMFT indexes were used in accordance with WHO (World Health Organization) criteria for oral health surveys. The oral hygiene status was det...

  10. Effect of laryngoscopy on middle ear pressure during anaesthesia induction

    OpenAIRE

    Degerli, Semih; Acar, Baran; Sahap, Mehmet; Horasanlı, Eyup

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The procedure of laryngoscopic orotracheal intubation (LOTI) has many impacts on several parts of the body. But its effect on middle ear pressure (MEP) is not known well. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the MEP changes subsequent to insertion of endotracheal tube with laryngoscope. Subjects and methods: 44 patients were included in this study with a normal physical examination of ear, nose and throat. A standard general anaesthesia induction without any inhaler agent was perfor...

  11. Research paper 2000-B-4: adjustments in the Dutch electricity producing sector in the context of the European directive 88/609/EEC: a case study on national implementation, environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lulofs, K. [Twente Univ., Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Within the context of the IMPOL project several fields of European environmental policy are studied on aspects as national implementation and environmental and efficiency outcomes. For the IMPOL project a case study was done on the transformation of the Dutch electricity sector in the context of the European Directive 88/609/EEC. The indicators used in this report for environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs were chosen in line with a coordinating document (Eames, 1999). The European Directive 88/609/EEC regulates Large Combustion Plants on their SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. These emissions are relevant for air quality and for the acidification problem. In the empirical part of this report emphasis is laid on the power plants as a specific sub-group of the large combustion plants. The report starts in chapter 2 with a description of the Dutch policy on acidification and regulation that existed when 88/609/EEC was issued. This way it is clarified that the formal implementation of the European Directive was done in the Netherlands with very little effort. In section 2.4 some major information on the structure of the electricity production sector is given as well as some insights into developments. In section 2.5 details on a covenant to reduce emissions from power plants is given. The electricity sector and the government agreed upon this document as a binding agenda for change. In section 2.6 information on monitoring and enforcement is given. In chapter 3, the environmental outcomes are discussed. First the emissions of all large combustion plants are presented in time series. Within the IMPOL research-team the decision was taken to concentrate on the SO{sub 2} emissions of power plants. Therefore, secondly the SO{sub 2} emissions of the power plants and the individual power plants are presented. This opens the possibility for an analysis of the found decrease of SO{sub 2} emissions. In section 3.3 the

  12. Research paper 2000-B-4: adjustments in the Dutch electricity producing sector in the context of the European directive 88/609/EEC: a case study on national implementation, environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lulofs, K.

    2000-01-01

    Within the context of the IMPOL project several fields of European environmental policy are studied on aspects as national implementation and environmental and efficiency outcomes. For the IMPOL project a case study was done on the transformation of the Dutch electricity sector in the context of the European Directive 88/609/EEC. The indicators used in this report for environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs were chosen in line with a coordinating document (Eames, 1999). The European Directive 88/609/EEC regulates Large Combustion Plants on their SO 2 and NO x emissions. These emissions are relevant for air quality and for the acidification problem. In the empirical part of this report emphasis is laid on the power plants as a specific sub-group of the large combustion plants. The report starts in chapter 2 with a description of the Dutch policy on acidification and regulation that existed when 88/609/EEC was issued. This way it is clarified that the formal implementation of the European Directive was done in the Netherlands with very little effort. In section 2.4 some major information on the structure of the electricity production sector is given as well as some insights into developments. In section 2.5 details on a covenant to reduce emissions from power plants is given. The electricity sector and the government agreed upon this document as a binding agenda for change. In section 2.6 information on monitoring and enforcement is given. In chapter 3, the environmental outcomes are discussed. First the emissions of all large combustion plants are presented in time series. Within the IMPOL research-team the decision was taken to concentrate on the SO 2 emissions of power plants. Therefore, secondly the SO 2 emissions of the power plants and the individual power plants are presented. This opens the possibility for an analysis of the found decrease of SO 2 emissions. In section 3.3 the likely causes and their

  13. A Non-sulfided flower-like Ni-PTA Catalyst that Enhances the Hydrotreatment Efficiency of Plant Oil to Produce Green Diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Pan; Deng, Lihong; He, Jing; Wang, Luying; Rong, Long; Lei, Jiandu

    2015-01-01

    The development of a novel non-sulfided catalyst with high activity for the hydrotreatment processing of plant oils, is of high interest as a way to improve the efficient production of renewable diesel. To attempt to develop such a catalyst, we first synthesized a high activity flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst used in the hydrotreatment processes of plant oils. The obtained catalyst was characterized with SEM, EDX, HRTEM, BET, XRD, H2-TPR, XPS and TGA. A probable formation mechanism of flower-like Ni(OH)2 is proposed on the basis of a range of contrasting experiments. The results of GC showed that the conversion yield of Jatropha oil was 98.95%, and the selectivity of C11-C18 alkanes was 70.93% at 360 °C, 3 MPa, and 15 h−1. The activity of this flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst was more than 15 times higher than those of the conventional Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalysts. Additionally, the flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst exhibited good stability during the process of plant oil hydrotreatment. PMID:26503896

  14. Efficient In Vitro and In Vivo Activity of Glyco-Engineered Plant-Produced Rabies Monoclonal Antibodies E559 and 62-71-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsepo Lebiletsa Tsekoa

    Full Text Available Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease that has no effective treatment after onset of illness. However the disease can be prevented effectively by prompt administration of post exposure prophylaxis which includes administration of passive immunizing antibodies (Rabies Immune Globulin, RIG. Currently, human RIG suffers from many restrictions including limited availability, batch-to batch inconsistencies and potential for contamination with blood-borne pathogens. Anti-rabies monoclonal antibodies (mAbs have been identified as a promising alternative to RIG. Here, we applied a plant-based transient expression system to achieve rapid, high level production and efficacy of the two highly potent anti-rabies mAbs E559 and 62-71-3. Expression levels of up to 490 mg/kg of recombinant mAbs were obtained in Nicotiana benthamiana glycosylation mutants by using a viral based transient expression system. The plant-made E559 and 62-71-3, carrying human-type fucose-free N-glycans, assembled properly and were structurally sound as determined by mass spectrometry and calorimetric density measurements. Both mAbs efficiently neutralised diverse rabies virus variants in vitro. Importantly, E559 and 62-71-3 exhibited enhanced protection against rabies virus compared to human RIG in a hamster model post-exposure challenge trial. Collectively, our results provide the basis for the development of a multi-mAb based alternative to RIG.

  15. The role of MRI in suspected inner ear malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koesling, S.; Juettemann, S.; Amaya, B.; Rasinski, C.; Bloching, M.; Koenig, E.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This is a prospective analysis of the value of MRI in suspected inner ear malformations. Materials and Methods: In 50 patients (43 children and young adults, 7 adults) with suspected inner ear malformation MRI (1.5 T) was performed. In addition, 42 of these patients underwent CT. For the analysis of the inner ear structures, the constructive interference in steady state (CISS) sequence with 0.7 mm slice thickness was used. Functional tests revealed a sensorineural hearing loss or deafness in 82 temporal bones (TB) and a combined hearing loss in 4 TB. The hearing loss was unilateral in 14 patients. MRI and CT findings were compared. Results: Imaging findings were normal in 58 TB. The pathological findings included inner ear malformations (35 TB), inflammatory changes (4 TB), partial obliteration of labyrinth (2 TB) and congenital aural atresia (1 TB). An isolated absence of the cochlear nerve (1 TB) could only be found by MRI. In the remaining cases, an inner ear malformation was diagnosed by MRI and CT with the same confidence but MRI was superior in displaying the fine details. Conclusions: MRI will become the method of choice in the diagnosis of inner ear malformations. (orig.) [de

  16. Inner ear test battery in guinea pig models - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Yi-Ho

    2018-06-01

    This study reviewed the development of the inner ear test battery comprising auditory brainstem response (ABR), and caloric, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) tests in guinea pig models at our laboratory over the last 20 years. Detailed description of the methodology for testing the small animals is also included. Inner ear disorders, i.e. ototoxicity, noise exposure, or perilymph fistula were established in guinea pig models first. One to four weeks after operation, each animal underwent ABR, oVEMP, cVEMP, and caloric tests. Then, animals were sacrificed for morphological study in the temporal bones. Inner ear endorgans can be comprehensively evaluated in guinea pig models via an inner ear test battery, which provides thorough information on the cochlea, saccule, utricle, and semicircular canal function of guinea pigs. Coupled with morphological study in the temporal bones of the animals may help elucidate the mechanism of inner ear disorders in humans. The inner ear test battery in guinea pig models may encourage young researchers to perform basic study in animals and stimulate the progress of experimental otology which is in evolution.

  17. Lumped parametric model of the human ear for sound transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Gan, Rong Z

    2004-09-01

    A lumped parametric model of the human auditoria peripherals consisting of six masses suspended with six springs and ten dashpots was proposed. This model will provide the quantitative basis for the construction of a physical model of the human middle ear. The lumped model parameters were first identified using published anatomical data, and then determined through a parameter optimization process. The transfer function of the middle ear obtained from human temporal bone experiments with laser Doppler interferometers was used for creating the target function during the optimization process. It was found that, among 14 spring and dashpot parameters, there were five parameters which had pronounced effects on the dynamic behaviors of the model. The detailed discussion on the sensitivity of those parameters was provided with appropriate applications for sound transmission in the ear. We expect that the methods for characterizing the lumped model of the human ear and the model parameters will be useful for theoretical modeling of the ear function and construction of the ear physical model.

  18. The ear in fetal MRI: what can we really see?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Nuno Canto [Neuroradiology Section C., Campos Costa, Fragosela, Viseu (Portugal); Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Teixeira, Joao [Department of Neuroradiology, Porto (Portugal); Raininko, Raili; Wikstrom, Johan [Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability to depict the components of the ear on brain-oriented fetal MRI studies. Retrospective evaluation of the ear in MRI studies was performed post-mortem in 16 fetuses ranging from 15 to 22 gestation weeks (GW), and in 122 examinations in vivo of fetuses ranging from 20 to 38 GW. The cochlea, vestibular apparatus, middle ear, and external auditory canal were separately graded according to the components that were delineated. The components of the inner and middle ear were fully delineated in 100% of the post-mortem examinations, but the external auditory canals were only seen in only 25%. In the in vivo group, the imaging detail was much lower. Cochlear turns could be identified in 75% of the fetuses, the vestibule and the lateral semicircular canals in 72% andossicles in 70%. Before 25 GW, the ability to identify these individual parts was 50%, 30%, and 33%, respectively, and above it was 89%, 93%, and 90%. In most cases, the external auditory canals could only be seen after 29 GW. In fetal MRI studies in vivo, it is possible to depict the components of the ear in the majority of the fetuses, in such a manner as to exclude major malformations. However, MRI might not provide enough detail to rule out pathology of the ear before 25 GW, this being a critical age for pregnancy management in many countries. (orig.)

  19. [HRCT imaging characterized of congenital abnormalities of the inner ear in 45 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinling; Meng, Meijuan; Huan, Yi; Zhang, Jinsong

    2003-10-01

    To explore the high resolution CT (HRCT) image characterized of congenital abnormalities of the inner ear(CAIE), and its value in the diagnosis and treatment of CAIE. The clinic data and axial HRCT scans of CAIE in 45 cases were analyzed. In 45 CAIE patients, most of them were frequently associated with slowly progressive sensorineural hearing loss in childhood, 15 ears were fluctuating hearing loss. Seventeen ears were unilateral semicircular canal paralysis. HRCT showed that Michel type 3 cases(4 ears), Mondini type 25 cases(39 ears). Large vestibular aqueduct malformation not associated with anomalies of inner ears 13 cases(23 ears), anomalies of internal auditory canal 4 cases (5 ears). Thirteen ears were associated with outer and middle ear malformation. HRCT image has the important value in the diagnosis and treatment of CAIE, especially for the excerpt of indication of cochlear implantation.

  20. Mass-Producible 2D-MoS2-Impregnated Screen-Printed Electrodes That Demonstrate Efficient Electrocatalysis toward the Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley-Neale, Samuel J; Smith, Graham C; Banks, Craig E

    2017-07-12

    Two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (2D-MoS 2 ) screen-printed electrodes (2D-MoS 2 -SPEs) have been designed, fabricated, and evaluated toward the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) within acidic aqueous media. A screen-printable ink has been developed that allows for the tailoring of the 2D-MoS 2 content/mass used in the fabrication of the 2D-MoS 2 -SPEs, which critically affects the observed ORR performance. In comparison to the graphite SPEs (G-SPEs), the 2D-MoS 2 -SPEs are shown to exhibit an electrocatalytic behavior toward the ORR which is found, critically, to be reliant upon the percentage mass incorporation of 2D-MoS 2 in the 2D-MoS 2 -SPEs; a greater percentage mass of 2D-MoS 2 incorporated into the 2D-MoS 2 -SPEs results in a significantly less electronegative ORR onset potential and a greater signal output (current density). Using optimally fabricated 2D-MoS 2 -SPEs, an ORR onset and a peak current of approximately +0.16 V [vs saturated calomel electrode (SCE)] and -1.62 mA cm -2 , respectively, are observed, which exceeds the -0.53 V (vs SCE) and -635 μA cm -2 performance of unmodified G-SPEs, indicating an electrocatalytic response toward the ORR utilizing the 2D-MoS 2 -SPEs. An investigation of the underlying electrochemical reaction mechanism of the ORR within acidic aqueous solutions reveals that the reaction proceeds via a direct four-electron process for all of the 2D-MoS 2 -SPE variants studied herein, where oxygen is electrochemically favorably reduced to water. The fabricated 2D-MoS 2 -SPEs are found to exhibit no degradation in the observed achievable current over the course of 1000 repeat scans. The production of such inks and the resultant mass-producible 2D-MoS 2 -SPEs mitigates the need to modify post hoc an electrode via the drop-casting technique that has been previously shown to result in a loss of achievable current over the course of 1000 repeat scans. The 2D-MoS 2 -SPEs designed, fabricated, and tested herein could

  1. Characterization, Genome Sequence, and Analysis of Escherichia Phage CICC 80001, a Bacteriophage Infecting an Efficient L-Aspartic Acid Producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Youqiang; Ma, Yuyue; Yao, Su; Jiang, Zengyan; Pei, Jiangsen; Cheng, Chi

    2016-03-01

    Escherichia phage CICC 80001 was isolated from the bacteriophage contaminated medium of an Escherichia coli strain HY-05C (CICC 11022S) which could produce L-aspartic acid. The phage had a head diameter of 45-50 nm and a tail of about 10 nm. The one-step growth curve showed a latent period of 10 min and a rise period of about 20 min. The average burst size was about 198 phage particles per infected cell. Tests were conducted on the plaques, multiplicity of infection, and host range. The genome of CICC 80001 was sequenced with a length of 38,810 bp, and annotated. The key proteins leading to host-cell lysis were phylogenetically analyzed. One protein belonged to class II holin, and the other two belonged to the endopeptidase family and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase family, respectively. The genome showed the sequence identity of 82.7% with that of Enterobacteria phage T7, and carried ten unique open reading frames. The bacteriophage resistant E. coli strain designated CICC 11021S was breeding and its L-aspartase activity was 84.4% of that of CICC 11022S.

  2. Real ear unaided gain and its relation with the equivalent volume of the external and middle ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastos, Bárbara Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Old age is associated with changes in the characteristics of the middle ear transmission system and in external ear resonance, and these carry implications for the hearing aid (HA verification process for which targets and measures of the real ear insertion gain (REIG are used. Aim: To compare the real ear unaided gain (REUG and the equivalent volumes of the external ear (VeqEE and the middle ear (VeqME between elderly and adult patients. Methods: This is a retrospective study in which the medical records of 28 elderly patients (aged between 61 and 102 years, average hearing thresholds between 38.75 and 85 dB HL and 23 adult patients (aged 20-59, mean hearing thresholds between 31.25 and 116.25 dB HL with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and no history of middle ear abnormalities were analyzed. Immittance measurements (VeqEE, VeqME, and pressure of the peak of maximum compliance and the REUG (frequency and amplitude of the primary peak were recovered for a total of 40 ears. These data were compared between elderly and adults as well as between men and women, using Student's t test. Correlations (Pearson between immittance and REUG data were also verified. Results: No statistically significant differences (p < 0.01 were found for immittance and REUG data between elderly and adults, or between men and women. A negative and weak but significant correlation was observed between the REUG primary peak and VeqEE. Conclusion: Hearing aid verification can be performed with target and measures of the REIG in the elderly population.

  3. FT-IR Microspectroscopy of Rat Ear Cartilage.

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    Benedicto de Campos Vidal

    Full Text Available Rat ear cartilage was studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR microspectroscopy to expand the current knowledge which has been established for relatively more complex cartilage types. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the ear cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM with published data on articular cartilage, collagen II and 4-chondroitin-sulfate standards, as well as of collagen type I-containing dermal collagen bundles (CBs with collagen type II, was performed. Ear cartilage ECM glycosaminoglycans (GAGs were revealed histochemically and as a reduction in ECM FT-IR spectral band heights (1140-820 cm-1 after testicular hyaluronidase digestion. Although ear cartilage is less complex than articular cartilage, it contains ECM components with a macromolecular orientation as revealed using polarization microscopy. Collagen type II and GAGs, which play a structural role in the stereo-arrangement of the ear cartilage, contribute to its FT-IR spectrum. Similar to articular cartilage, ear cartilage showed that proteoglycans add a contribution to the collagen amide I spectral region, a finding that does not recommend this region for collagen type II quantification purposes. In contrast to articular cartilage, the symmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups at 1064 cm-1 appeared under-represented in the FT-IR spectral profile of ear cartilage. Because the band corresponding to the asymmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups (1236-1225 cm-1 overlapped with that of amide III bands, it is not recommended for evaluation of the -SO3- contribution to the FT-IR spectrum of the ear cartilage ECM. Instead, a peak (or shoulder at 1027-1016 cm-1 could be better considered for this intent. Amide I/amide II ratios as calculated here and data from the literature suggest that protein complexes of the ear cartilage ECM are arranged with a lower helical conformation compared to pure collagen II. The present results could motivate further studies on this tissue

  4. Efficient and simple production of insulin-producing cells from embryonal carcinoma stem cells using mouse neonate pancreas extract, as a natural inducer.

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    Marzieh Ebrahimie

    Full Text Available An attractive approach to replace the destroyed insulin-producing cells (IPCs is the generation of functional β cells from stem cells. Embryonal carcinoma (EC stem cells are pluripotent cells which can differentiate into all cell types. The present study was carried out to establish a simple nonselective inductive culture system for generation of IPCs from P19 EC cells by 1-2 weeks old mouse pancreas extract (MPE. Since, mouse pancreatic islets undergo further remodeling and maturation for 2-3 weeks after birth, we hypothesized that the mouse neonatal MPE contains essential factors to induce in vitro differentiation of pancreatic lineages. Pluripotency of P19 cells were first confirmed by expression analysis of stem cell markers, Oct3/4, Sox-2 and Nanog. In order to induce differentiation, the cells were cultured in a medium supplemented by different concentrations of MPE (50, 100, 200 and 300 µg/ml. The results showed that P19 cells could differentiate into IPCs and form dithizone-positive cell clusters. The generated P19-derived IPCs were immunoreactive to proinsulin, insulin and insulin receptor beta. The expression of pancreatic β cell genes including, PDX-1, INS1 and INS2 were also confirmed. The peak response at the 100 µg/ml MPE used for investigation of EP300 and CREB1 gene expression. When stimulated with glucose, these cells synthesized and secreted insulin. Network analysis of the key transcription factors (PDX-1, EP300, CREB1 during the generation of IPCs resulted in introduction of novel regulatory candidates such as MIR17, and VEZF1 transcription factors, as well as MORN1, DKFZp761P0212, and WAC proteins. Altogether, we demonstrated the possibility of generating IPCs from undifferentiated EC cells, with the characteristics of pancreatic β cells. The derivation of pancreatic cells from EC cells which are ES cell siblings would provide a valuable experimental tool in study of pancreatic development and function as well as rapid

  5. Anatomical variants of tympanic compartments and their aeration pathways involved in the pathogenesis of middle ear inflammatory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    MANIU, ALMA; CATANA, IULIU V.; HARABAGIU, OANA; PETRI, MARIA; COSGAREA, MARCEL

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this article is to review the anatomy of middle ear compartments and folds and to demonstrate through anatomical evidence their presence at birth. Additionally, their role in the obstructions of middle ear ventilatory pathway is highlighted. Methods Ninety-eight adult temporal bones, with no history of auricular disease and fifteen newborn temporal bones were studied by micro dissection. Documentation was done by color photography using the operation microscope Results Our micro-dissections have showed that mucosal folds from the middle ear are steadily present since birth, given that they were found in all newborn temporal bones. The mucosal folds in our normal adult material, showed some variations including membrane defects but they were constantly present. Our micro dissections showed that the epitympanic diaphragm consisted, in addition to malleal ligamental folds and ossicles, of only two constantly present folds: the tensor tympani fold and the incudomalleal fold. When the tensor fold is complete the only ventilation pathway to the anterior epitympanic space is through the isthmus, whereas its absence creates an efficient additional aeration route from the Eustachian tube to the epitympanum. Conclusions The goal of surgery in the chronic pathology of the middle ear should be restoration of normal ventilation of the attical-mastoid area. This is possible by removing the tensor fold and restoring the functionality of the isthmus tympani. PMID:26527977

  6. Stimulus-dependent effects on right ear advantage in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smucny J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jason Smucny,1,3 Korey Wylie,3 Jason Tregellas1–31Neuroscience Program, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 2Research Science, Denver VA Medical, Center, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USABackground: When presented with different sounds in each ear (dichotic listening, healthy subjects typically show a preference for stimuli heard in the right ear, an effect termed "right ear advantage". Previous studies examining right ear advantage in schizophrenia have been inconsistent, showing either decreased or increased advantage relative to comparison subjects. Given evidence for enhanced semantic processing in schizophrenia, some of this inconsistency may be due to the type of stimuli presented (words or syllables. The present study examined right ear advantage in patients and controls using both words and syllables as stimuli.Methods: Right ear advantage was compared between 20 patients with schizophrenia and 17 healthy controls. Two versions of the task were used, ie, a consonant-vowel pairing task and a fused rhymed words task.Results: A significant group × task interaction was observed. Relative to healthy controls, patients showed a greater difference on the syllable-based task compared with the word-based task. The number of distractors marked during the syllable-based task was inversely correlated with score on the Global Assessment of Function Scale.Conclusion: The findings are consistent with a left hemisphere dysfunction in schizophrenia, but also suggest that differences may be stimulus-specific, with a relative sparing of the deficit in the context of word stimuli. Performance may be related to measures of social, occupational, and psychological function.Keywords: schizophrenia, right ear advantage, dichotic, distraction

  7. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn E Mills

    Full Text Available Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1 assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2 determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3 owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810 were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness ('nature vs nurture task', found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392 provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its 'natural' state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410 is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others.

  8. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Katelyn E; Robbins, Jesse; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-01-01

    Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1) assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2) determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3) owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810) were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness ('nature vs nurture task'), found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392) provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its 'natural' state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410) is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others.

  9. First Results in the Use of Bovine Ear Notch Tag for Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Detection and Genetic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Quinet

    Full Text Available Infection due to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV is endemic in most cattle-producing countries throughout the world. The key elements of a BVDV control programme are biosecurity, elimination of persistently infected animals and surveillance. Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD is a notifiable disease in Belgium and an official eradication programme started from January 2015, based on testing ear notches sampled during the official identification and registration of calves at birth. An antigen-capture ELISA test based on the detection of BVDV Erns protein is used. Ear notch sample may also be used to characterize the genotype of the calf when appropriate elution/dilution buffer is added. Both BVDV antigen-ELISA analysis and animal traceability could be performed.With regards to the reference protocol used in the preparation of ear notch samples, alternative procedures were tested in terms of BVDV analytic sensitivity, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, as well as quality and purity of animal DNA.The Allflex DNA Buffer D showed promising results in BVDV diagnosis and genome analyses, opening new perspectives for the livestock industry by the exploitation of the animal genome. Due to the high number of cattle involved in the Belgian official BVDV eradication programme based on ear notch tags sample, a large database on both BVDV status of newborn calves and cattle genome could be created for subsequent different uses (e.g. traceability, determination of parentage, genetic signatures throughout the genome associated with particular traits evolving through a more integrated animal health.

  10. Evaluation of MR safety of a set of canine ear defenders (MuttMuffs®) at 1 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that loud noise produced during MR scanning is hazardous for human patients. Although loud noise can also be harmful to canine patients in MRI, ear protection is not routinely provided. The purpose of this study was to test the safety of a set of commercially available canine ear defenders (MuttMuffs ® ) during MRI scanning at 1 T. A metal fastening ring was removed and replaced with a plastic washer prior to testing. Torque, translation, heating and artifact production were tested. No torque, translation, or excessive heating were detected. No artifacts were observed. Clinical use demonstrated additional benefits of improved immobilisation of the dog, with no effect on signal-to-noise ratio. Results from this study indicate that following replacement of the metal ring with one made of plastic, these canine ear defenders are suitable for use at 1 T. The author recommends the use of ear defenders during canine MRI scans in order to reduce the risk of hearing damage, reduce the dose needed for anaesthetic maintenance and reduce the need for repeated MRI sequences due to movement of the dog

  11. Adeno-associated virus-mediated gene delivery into the scala media of the normal and deafened adult mouse ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, L A; Li, Q; Yang, J; Goddard, J C; Fekete, D M; Lang, H

    2011-06-01

    Murine models are ideal for studying cochlear gene transfer, as many hearing loss-related mutations have been discovered and mapped within the mouse genome. However, because of the small size and delicate nature, the membranous labyrinth of the mouse is a challenging target for the delivery of viral vectors. To minimize injection trauma, we developed a procedure for the controlled release of adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) into the scala media of adult mice. This procedure poses minimal risk of injury to structures of the cochlea and middle ear, and allows for near-complete preservation of low and middle frequency hearing. In this study, transduction efficiency and cellular specificity of AAV vectors (serotypes 1, 2, 5, 6 and 8) were investigated in normal and drug-deafened ears. Using the cytomegalovirus promoter to drive gene expression, a variety of cell types were transduced successfully, including sensory hair cells and supporting cells, as well as cells in the auditory nerve and spiral ligament. Among all five serotypes, inner hair cells were the most effectively transduced cochlear cell type. All five serotypes of AAV vectors transduced cells of the auditory nerve, though serotype 8 was the most efficient vector for transduction. Our findings indicate that efficient AAV inoculation (via the scala media) can be performed in adult mouse ears, with hearing preservation a realistic goal. The procedure we describe may also have applications for intra-endolymphatic drug delivery in many mouse models of human deafness.

  12. A miniaturized laser-Doppler-system in the ear canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T.; Gerhardt, U.; Kupper, C.; Manske, E.; Witte, H.

    2013-03-01

    Gathering vibrational data from the human middle ear is quite difficult. To this date the well-known acoustic probe is used to estimate audiometric parameters, e.g. otoacoustic emissions, wideband reflectance and the measurement of the stapedius reflex. An acoustic probe contains at least one microphone and one loudspeaker. The acoustic parameter determination of the ear canal is essential for the comparability of test-retest measurement situations. Compared to acoustic tubes, the ear canal wall cannot be described as a sound hard boundary. Sound energy is partly absorbed by the ear canal wall. In addition the ear canal features a complex geometric shape (Stinson and Lawton1). Those conditions are one reason for the inter individual variability in input impedance measurement data of the tympanic membrane. The method of Laser-Doppler-Vibrometry is well described in literature. Using this method, the surface velocity of vibrating bodies can be determined contact-free. Conventional Laser-Doppler-Systems (LDS) for auditory research are mounted on a surgical microscope. Assuming a free line of view to the ear drum, the handling of those laser-systems is complicated. We introduce the concept of a miniaturized vibrometer which is supposed to be applied directly in the ear canal for contact-free measurement of the tympanic membrane surface vibration. The proposed interferometer is based on a Fabry-Perot etalon with a DFB laser diode as light source. The fiber-based Fabry-Perot-interferometer is characterized by a reduced size, compared to e.g. Michelson-, or Mach-Zehnder-Systems. For the determination of the phase difference in the interferometer, a phase generated carrier was used. To fit the sensor head in the ear canal, the required shape of the probe was generated by means of the geometrical data of 70 ear molds. The suggested prototype is built up by a singlemode optical fiber with a GRIN-lens, acting as a fiber collimator. The probe has a diameter of 1.8 mm and a

  13. Human ear detection in the thermal infrared spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaza, Ayman; Bourlai, Thirimachos

    2012-06-01

    In this paper the problem of human ear detection in the thermal infrared (IR) spectrum is studied in order to illustrate the advantages and limitations of the most important steps of ear-based biometrics that can operate in day and night time environments. The main contributions of this work are two-fold: First, a dual-band database is assembled that consists of visible and thermal profile face images. The thermal data was collected using a high definition middle-wave infrared (3-5 microns) camera that is capable of acquiring thermal imprints of human skin. Second, a fully automated, thermal imaging based ear detection method is developed for real-time segmentation of human ears in either day or night time environments. The proposed method is based on Haar features forming a cascaded AdaBoost classifier (our modified version of the original Viola-Jones approach1 that was designed to be applied mainly in visible band images). The main advantage of the proposed method, applied on our profile face image data set collected in the thermal-band, is that it is designed to reduce the learning time required by the original Viola-Jones method from several weeks to several hours. Unlike other approaches reported in the literature, which have been tested but not designed to operate in the thermal band, our method yields a high detection accuracy that reaches ~ 91.5%. Further analysis on our data set yielded that: (a) photometric normalization techniques do not directly improve ear detection performance. However, when using a certain photometric normalization technique (CLAHE) on falsely detected images, the detection rate improved by ~ 4%; (b) the high detection accuracy of our method did not degrade when we lowered down the original spatial resolution of thermal ear images. For example, even after using one third of the original spatial resolution (i.e. ~ 20% of the original computational time) of the thermal profile face images, the high ear detection accuracy of our method

  14. Molecular Basis of Resistance to Fusarium Ear Rot in Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Lanubile

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change has been identified as an emerging issue for food security and safety, and the increased incidence of mycotoxin contamination in maize over the last two decades is considered a potential emerging hazard. Disease control by chemical and agronomic approaches is often ineffective and increases the cost of production; for this reason the exploitation of genetic resistance is the most sustainable method for reducing contamination. The review focuses on the significant advances that have been made in the development of transcriptomic, genetic and genomic information for maize, Fusarium verticillioides molds, and their interactions, over recent years. Findings from transcriptomic studies have been used to outline a specific model for the intracellular signaling cascade occurring in maize cells against F. verticillioides infection. Several recognition receptors, such as receptor-like kinases and R genes, are involved in pathogen perception, and trigger down-stream signaling networks mediated by mitogen-associated protein kinases. These signals could be orchestrated primarily by hormones, including salicylic acid, auxin, abscisic acid, ethylene, and jasmonic acid, in association with calcium signaling, targeting multiple transcription factors that in turn promote the down-stream activation of defensive response genes, such as those related to detoxification processes, phenylpropanoid, and oxylipin metabolic pathways. At the genetic and genomic levels, several quantitative trait loci (QTL and single-nucleotide polymorphism markers for resistance to Fusarium ear rot deriving from QTL mapping and genome-wide association studies are described, indicating the complexity of this polygenic trait. All these findings will contribute to identifying candidate genes for resistance and to applying genomic technologies for selecting resistant maize genotypes and speeding up a strategy of breeding to contrast disease, through plants

  15. Effect of laryngoscopy on middle ear pressure during anaesthesia induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degerli, Semih; Acar, Baran; Sahap, Mehmet; Horasanlı, Eyup

    2013-01-01

    The procedure of laryngoscopic orotracheal intubation (LOTI) has many impacts on several parts of the body. But its effect on middle ear pressure (MEP) is not known well. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the MEP changes subsequent to insertion of endotracheal tube with laryngoscope. 44 patients were included in this study with a normal physical examination of ear, nose and throat. A standard general anaesthesia induction without any inhaler agent was performed to the all patients. The MEP measurements for both ears were applied under 1 minute; before induction (BI) and after intubation (AI) with a middle ear analyzer. Also hemodynamic parameters were recorded before induction and after intubation. Of the 44 patients were 25 women and 19 men with a 43.5±15.1 mean age. A statistically significant rise in MEP was seen in all patients subsequent to insertion of endotracheal tube (Ptube, size and type of the blades, drugs and face masking time. But on the other hand in our opinion cardiovascular and haemodynamic response to LOTI has the most impact over the middle ear mucosa with mucosal venous congestion.

  16. Dose rate to cellular systems of the inner ear during Moessbauer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliauga, P.; Khanna, S.

    1982-01-01

    In the Moessbauer technique for vibration measurements a small radioactive source is placed on the basilar membrane. This source produces gamma rays of precise frequencies. When sound is applied to the ear the source vibrates with the basilar membrane. These vibrations produce a Doppler shift in the frequency of the emitted γ rays. Although the method provides a sensitive means of measuring small vibrations it requires placement of a radioactive material in close proximity to sensitive receptor cells. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether radiation from the Moessbauer source itself can produce sufficient radiation damage to the tissue to alter its physiological response. The absorbed dose delivered to the organ of Corti under typical experimental conditions is calculated. Possible implications for the Moessbauer experiments are discussed

  17. High resolution computed tomography of the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Sakurai, Tokio; Saijo, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu

    1983-01-01

    High resolution computed tomography was performed in 57 cases with various middle ear diseases (chronic otitis media, otitis media with effusion, acute otitis media and atelectasis). Although further improvement in detectability is necessary in order to discriminate each type of the soft tissue lesions, CT is the most useful method currently available in detecting the small structures and soft tissue lesions of the middle ear. In particular, the lesions at the tympanic isthmus and tympanic fold could very clearly be detected only by CT. In acute otitis media, lesions usually started in the attic and spread to the mastoid air cells. In otitis media with effusion, the soft tissue shadow was ovserved in the attic and mastoid air cell. CT is valuable in diagnosis, evaluation of the treatment and prognosis, and analysis of pathophysiology in the middle ear diseases. (author)

  18. Insights into inner ear-specific gene regulation: epigenetics and non-coding RNAs in inner ear development and regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, Karen B.

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate inner ear houses highly specialized sensory organs, tuned to detect and encode sound, head motion and gravity. Gene expression programs under the control of transcription factors orchestrate the formation and specialization of the non-sensory inner ear labyrinth and its sensory constituents. More recently, epigenetic factors and non-coding RNAs emerged as an additional layer of gene regulation, both in inner ear development and disease. In this review, we provide an overview on how epigenetic modifications and non-coding RNAs, in particular microRNAs (miRNAs), influence gene expression and summarize recent discoveries that highlight their critical role in the proper formation of the inner ear labyrinth and its sensory organs. In contrast to non-mammalian vertebrates, adult mammals lack the ability to regenerate inner ear mechano-sensory hair cells. Finally, we discuss recent insights into how epigenetic factors and miRNAs may facilitate, or in the case of mammals, restrict sensory hair cell regeneration. PMID:27836639

  19. Fertile forests produce biomass more efficiently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vicca, S.; Luyssaert, S.; Peñuelas, J.; Campioli, M.; Chapin, F.S. III; Ciais, P.; Heinemeyer, A.; Högberg, P.; Kutsch, W.L.; Law, Beverly E.; Malhi, Y.; Papale, D.; Piao, S.L.; Reichstein, M.; Schulze, E.D.; Janssens, Ivan A.

    Trees with sufficient nutrition are known to allocate carbon preferentially to aboveground plant parts. Our global study of 49 forests revealed an even more fundamental carbon allocation response to nutrient availability: forests with high-nutrient availability use 58±3% (mean±SE; 17 forests) of

  20. Microalgae-Novel Highly Efficient Starch Producers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brániyková, Irena; Maršálková, B.; Doucha, Jiří; Brányik, T.; Bišová, Kateřina; Zachleder, Vilém; Vítová, Milada

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 4 (2011), s. 766-776 ISSN 0006-3592 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OE 221; GA MŠk OE09025 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : bioethanol * chlorella * cycloheximide Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.946, year: 2011

  1. Producing Innovations : Determinants of Innovativity and Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.W.B.; van Lamoen, R.C.R.; Sanders, M.W.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we investigate the knowledge production function, using the Community Innovation Survey, an unbalanced firm-level panel data set collected in the Netherlands between 1994 and 2004. This database allows us to span the entire innovation process from initial resources committed (R&D

  2. Effect of the STereoLithography file structure on the ear shell production for hearing aids according to DICOM images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIm, Hyeong Gyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Far East University, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    A technique for producing the ear shell for a hearing aid using DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine) image and a 3D printing was studied. It is a new application method, and is an application technique that can improve the safety and infection of hearing aid users and can reduce the production time and process stages. In this study, the effects on the shape surface were examined before and after the printing of the ear shell using a 3D printer based on the values obtained from the raw data of the DICOM images at the volumes of 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, and 2.0 mm, respectively. Before the printing, relative relationship was compared with respect to the STL (STereoLithography) file structure; and after the printing, the intervals of the layered structure of the ear shell shape surface were compared by magnifying them using a microscope. For the STL file structure, the numbers of triangular vertices, more than five intersecting points, and maximum intersecting points were large in the order of 0.5 mm, 1.0 m, and 2.0 mm, respectively; and the triangular structure was densely distributed in the order of the bending, angle, and crest regions depending on the sinuosity of the external auditory meatus shape. As for the ear shell shape surface examined by the digital microscope, the interval of the layered structure was thick in the order of 2.0 mm, 1.0 mm, and 0.5 mm. For the STL surface structure mentioned above, the intersecting STL triangular structure was denser as the sinuosity of the 3D ear shell shape became more irregular and the volume of the raw data decreased.

  3. Effect of the STereoLithography file structure on the ear shell production for hearing aids according to DICOM images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIm, Hyeong Gyun

    2017-01-01

    A technique for producing the ear shell for a hearing aid using DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine) image and a 3D printing was studied. It is a new application method, and is an application technique that can improve the safety and infection of hearing aid users and can reduce the production time and process stages. In this study, the effects on the shape surface were examined before and after the printing of the ear shell using a 3D printer based on the values obtained from the raw data of the DICOM images at the volumes of 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, and 2.0 mm, respectively. Before the printing, relative relationship was compared with respect to the STL (STereoLithography) file structure; and after the printing, the intervals of the layered structure of the ear shell shape surface were compared by magnifying them using a microscope. For the STL file structure, the numbers of triangular vertices, more than five intersecting points, and maximum intersecting points were large in the order of 0.5 mm, 1.0 m, and 2.0 mm, respectively; and the triangular structure was densely distributed in the order of the bending, angle, and crest regions depending on the sinuosity of the external auditory meatus shape. As for the ear shell shape surface examined by the digital microscope, the interval of the layered structure was thick in the order of 2.0 mm, 1.0 mm, and 0.5 mm. For the STL surface structure mentioned above, the intersecting STL triangular structure was denser as the sinuosity of the 3D ear shell shape became more irregular and the volume of the raw data decreased

  4. Blastema Tissue Formed at Experimentally-Created Rabbit Ear Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Throughout evolution, mammalians have increasingly lost their ability to regenerate structures however rabbits are exceptional since they develop a blastema in their ear wound for regeneration purposes. Blastema consists of a group of undifferentiated cells capable of dividing and differentiating into the ear tissue. The objective of the present study is to isolate, culture expand, and characterize blastema progenitor cells in terms of their in vitro differentiation capacity.   Materials and Methods: Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. Using a punching apparatus, a 4-mm hole was created in the animal ears. Following 4 days, the blastema ring which was created in the periphery of primary hole in the ears was removed and cultivated. The cells migrated from the blastema were expanded through 3 successive subcultures and characterized in terms of their potential differentiation, growth characteristics, and culture requirements. Results: The primary cultures tended to be morphologically heterogeneous having spindly-shaped fibroblast-like cells as well as flattened cells. Fibroblast-like cells survived and dominated the cultures. These cells tended to have the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation potentials. They were highly colonogenic and maximum proliferation was achieved when the cells were plated at density of 100 cells/cm2 in a medium which contained 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS. Conclusion: Taken together, blastema tissue-derived stem cells from rabbit ear are of mesenchymal stem cell-like population. Studies similar to this will assist scientist better understanding the nature of blastema tissue formed at rabbit ear to regenerate the wound.

  5. External ear anomalies and hearing impairment in Noonan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Trier, Dorothée C; van Nierop, Josephine; Draaisma, Jos M Th; van der Burgt, Ineke; Kunst, Henricus; Croonen, Ellen A; Admiraal, Ronald J C

    2015-06-01

    This is the first cohort in which hearing impairment and external ear anomalies in Noonan Syndrome are described extensively. Retrospective analysis of the otorhinolaryngological and clinical genetic data from 97 Noonan Syndrome (NS) patients. Forty-four NS patients were seen by an otorhinolaryngologist for the analysis of hearing impairment. In our cohort 80 of the 97 patients were genetically tested. In 71 of these mutations were found: in 48 patients a mutation in PTPN11, in 10 patients in SOS1, in 5 patients in SHOC2, in 5 patients in RAF1, in 1 patient in MAP2K2, in 1 patient in KRAS and in 1 patient in A2ML1. External ear anomalies were reported in 75 NS patients (77%). In 69 patients the ears were low-set, 28 patients had posteriorly rotated ears, 14 patients showed protruding ears and 18 had thickened helices. Hearing impairment was detected in 34 NS patients. Nine patients had sensorineural hearing impairment, two a permanent conductive hearing impairment, two other patients had mixed hearing impairment and 20 patients had conductive hearing impairment in the past, caused by otitis media with effusion. Their temporary conductive hearing impairment resolved between the ages of 2 and 18 years. Sensorineural hearing impairment varied between mild high-frequency hearing impairment and profound (uni- and bilateral) hearing impairment and was progressive in three patients. Four NS patients received cochlear implants for their severe sensorineural hearing impairment. The cohort is small for genotype-phenotype correlations, but sensorineural hearing impairment, especially the bilateral severe hearing impairment, was only seen in patients with a PTPN11 mutation. NS is characterized by dysmorphic external ear anomalies and both sensorineural and conductive hearing impairment. Audiological examinations are recommended in all patients with Noonan Syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Transfection using hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in the inner ear via an intact round window membrane in chinchilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xuewen; Ding Dalian; Jiang Haiyan; XingXiaowei; Huang, Suping; Liu Hong; Chen Zhedong; Sun Hong

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAT) are known to have excellent biocompatibility, and have attracted increasing attention as new candidates of non-viral vectors for gene therapy. In our previous studies, nHAT carrying a therapeutic gene and a reporter gene were successfully transfected into the spiral ganglion neurons in the inner ear of guinea pigs in vivo as well as in the cultured cell lines, although the transfection efficiencies were never higher than 30%. In this study, the surface modification of nHAT with polyethylenimine (PEI) was made (PEI–nHAT, diameter = 73.09 ± 27.32 nm) and a recombinant plasmid carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) gene was constructed as pEGFPC2–NT3. The PEI modified nHAT and the recombinant plasmid was then connected to form the nHAT-based vector–gene complex (PEI–nHAT–pEGFPC2–NT3). This complex was then placed onto the intact round window membranes of the chinchillas for inner ear transfection. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) was tested to evaluate auditory function. Green fluorescence of EGFP was observed using confocal microscopy 48 h after administering vector–gene complexes. There was no significant threshold shift in tone burst-evoked ABR at any tested frequency. Abundant, condensed green fluorescence was found in dark cells on both sides of the crista and around the macula of the utricle. Scattered EGFP signals were also detected in vestibular hair cells, some Schwann cells in the cochlear spiral ganglion region, some outer pillar cells in the organ of Corti, and a few cells in the stria vascularis. The density of green fluorescence-marked cells was obviously higher in the vestibular dark cell area than in other areas of the inner ear, suggesting that vestibular dark cells may have the ability to actively engulf the nHAT-based vector–gene complexes. Considering the high transfection efficiency in the vestibular system, PEI–nHAT may be a potential vector for

  7. Transfection using hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in the inner ear via an intact round window membrane in chinchilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Xuewen; Ding Dalian [Central South University, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The Third Xiangya Hospital (China); Jiang Haiyan [State University of New York at Buffalo, Center for Hearing and Deafness (United States); XingXiaowei [Central South University, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The Third Xiangya Hospital (China); Huang, Suping [Central South University, State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy (China); Liu Hong [Central South University, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The Third Xiangya Hospital (China); Chen Zhedong [Central South University, State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy (China); Sun Hong, E-mail: shjhaj@vip.163.com [Central South University, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Xiangya Hospital (China)

    2012-01-15

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAT) are known to have excellent biocompatibility, and have attracted increasing attention as new candidates of non-viral vectors for gene therapy. In our previous studies, nHAT carrying a therapeutic gene and a reporter gene were successfully transfected into the spiral ganglion neurons in the inner ear of guinea pigs in vivo as well as in the cultured cell lines, although the transfection efficiencies were never higher than 30%. In this study, the surface modification of nHAT with polyethylenimine (PEI) was made (PEI-nHAT, diameter = 73.09 {+-} 27.32 nm) and a recombinant plasmid carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) gene was constructed as pEGFPC2-NT3. The PEI modified nHAT and the recombinant plasmid was then connected to form the nHAT-based vector-gene complex (PEI-nHAT-pEGFPC2-NT3). This complex was then placed onto the intact round window membranes of the chinchillas for inner ear transfection. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) was tested to evaluate auditory function. Green fluorescence of EGFP was observed using confocal microscopy 48 h after administering vector-gene complexes. There was no significant threshold shift in tone burst-evoked ABR at any tested frequency. Abundant, condensed green fluorescence was found in dark cells on both sides of the crista and around the macula of the utricle. Scattered EGFP signals were also detected in vestibular hair cells, some Schwann cells in the cochlear spiral ganglion region, some outer pillar cells in the organ of Corti, and a few cells in the stria vascularis. The density of green fluorescence-marked cells was obviously higher in the vestibular dark cell area than in other areas of the inner ear, suggesting that vestibular dark cells may have the ability to actively engulf the nHAT-based vector-gene complexes. Considering the high transfection efficiency in the vestibular system, PEI-nHAT may be a potential vector for gene therapy of

  8. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Invasion through Ear Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Boisen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the ear represents a high-risk tumor location with an increased risk of metastasis and local tissue invasion. However, it is uncommon for these cancers to invade through nearby cartilage. Cartilage invasion is facilitated by matrix metalloproteases, specifically collagenase 3. We present the unusual case of a 76-year-old man with an auricular squamous cell carcinoma that exhibited full-thickness perforation of the scapha cartilage. Permanent sections through the eroded cartilage confirmed tumor invasion extending to the posterior ear skin.

  9. An assessment of individualized technical ear training for audio production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungyoung

    2015-07-01

    An individualized technical ear training method is compared to a non-individualized method. The efficacy of the individualized method is assessed using a standardized test conducted before and after the training period. Participants who received individualized training improved better than the control group on the test. Results indicate the importance of individualized training for acquisition of spectrum-identification and spectrum-matching skills. Individualized training, therefore, should be implemented by default into technical ear training programs used in audio production industry and education.

  10. [Clinical analysis of 102 patients with congenital inner ear malformation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X; Lian, N; Cai, Z

    1995-01-01

    Hearing loss and CT findings of 200 ears from 102 cases with congenital malformation of inner ear were included in our study. Hearing loss was typically bilateral severe, or total deafness. 75 percent of them were found deaf within one-year-old. In addition, 47 patients' (46%) mothers were noted to have caught a cold in first trimester of pregnancy. Temporal bone abnormalties were described as five types: 1. Michel malformation, 2. Mondini malformation, 3. enlargement of the vestibular aqueducts, 4. developmental deformity of cochlear aqueduct, 5. developmental deformity of internal acoustic meatus. Most cases showed malformations of vestibule or vestibular aqueducts.

  11. Radiation-induced external ear canal cholesteatoma-like disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Akiko; Okuno, Hideji; Noguchi, Keisuke; Komatsuzaki, Atsushi [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-06-01

    Three cases of cholesteatoma-like disease in the ear canals after radiation therapy for head and neck tumor were reported. Effect of irradiation on bone and soft tissue including skin brings about pathological reaction to the external ear canal as well. Two types of disease resembling cholesteatomas have been recognized: keratosis obturans (KO) and external auditory canal cholesteatoma (EACC). KO appears to be derived from disease of canal skin involved with keratinization, creating a widning of the canal. EACC, on the other hand, seems to develop in the disease of bony canal where a localized absorption of its bone with invasion of squamous epithelium takes place. (author)

  12. Sound source localization and segregation with internally coupled ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bee, Mark A; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    to their correct sources (sound source segregation). Here, we review anatomical, biophysical, neurophysiological, and behavioral studies aimed at identifying how the internally coupled ears of frogs contribute to sound source localization and segregation. Our review focuses on treefrogs in the genus Hyla......, as they are the most thoroughly studied frogs in terms of sound source localization and segregation. They also represent promising model systems for future work aimed at understanding better how internally coupled ears contribute to sound source localization and segregation. We conclude our review by enumerating...

  13. Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Poten tial Mycotoxin Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canxing Duan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B1, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China.

  14. Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Potential Mycotoxin Production in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Canxing; Qin, Zihui; Yang, Zhihuan; Li, Weixi; Sun, Suli; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B1, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China. PMID:27338476

  15. Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Potential Mycotoxin Production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Canxing; Qin, Zihui; Yang, Zhihuan; Li, Weixi; Sun, Suli; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Xiaoming

    2016-06-21

    Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B₁, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China.

  16. Water Penetration into Middle Ear Through Ventilation Tubes in Children While Swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Che Wang

    2009-02-01

    Conclusion: Water penetration into the middle ear through ventilation tubes and middle ear infection are not likely when surface swimming. Children with ventilation tubes can enjoy swimming without protection in clean chlorinated swimming pools.

  17. Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in the inner ear and middle ear in lipopolysaccharide-induced otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Hisashi; Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Zhao, Pengfei; Maeda, Yukihide; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Significant expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its receptor (CD74) was observed in both the middle ear and inner ear in experimental otitis media in mice. Modulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its signaling pathway might be useful in the management of inner ear inflammation due to otitis media. Inner ear dysfunction secondary to otitis media has been reported. However, the specific mechanisms involved are not clearly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in the middle ear and inner ear in lipopolysaccharide-induced otitis media. BALB/c mice received a transtympanic injection of either lipopolysaccharide or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The mice were sacrificed 24 h after injection, and temporal bones were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, histologic examination, and immunohistochemistry. PCR examination revealed that the lipopolysaccharide-injected mice showed a significant up-regulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in both the middle ear and inner ear as compared with the PBS-injected control mice. The immunohistochemical study showed positive reactions for macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in infiltrating inflammatory cells, middle ear mucosa, and inner ear in the lipopolysaccharide-injected mice.

  18. Blastema from rabbit ear contains progenitor cells comparable to marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits have the capacity to regenerate holes in their ears by forming a blastema, a tissue that is made up of a group of undifferentiated cells. The purpose of the present study was to isolate and characterize blastema progenitor cells and compare them with marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. A 2-mm hole was created in the animal ears. After 4 days, the blastema ring formed in the periphery of the hole was removed and cultivated. The cells were expanded through several subcultures and compared with the MSCs derived from the marrow of same animal in terms of in vitro differentiation capacity, growth kinetics and culture requirements for optimal proliferation. The primary cultures from both cells tended to be heterogeneous. Fibroblastic cells became progressively dominant with advancing passages. Similar to MSCs blastema passaged-3 cells succeeded to differentiate into bone, cartilage and adipose cell lineages. Even lineage specific genes tended to express in higher level in blastema cells compared to MSCs (p < 0.05. Moreover blastema cells appeared more proliferative; producing more colonies (p < 0.05. While blastema cells showed extensive proliferation in 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS, MSCs displayed higher expansion rate at 10% FBS. In conclusion, blastema from rabbit ear contains a population of fibroblastic cells much similar in characteristic to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. However, the two cells were different in the level of lineage-specific gene expression, the growth curve characteristics and the culture requirements.

  19. Control of Fusarium verticillioides, cause of ear rot of maize, by Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayaka, Siddaiah Chandra; Shankar, Arakere C Udaya; Reddy, Munagala S; Niranjana, Siddapura R; Prakash, Harishchandra S; Shetty, Hunthrike S; Mortensen, Carmen N

    2009-07-01

    Maize is one of the staple food crops grown in India. Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg is the most important fungal pathogen of maize, associated with diseases such as ear rot and kernel rot. Apart from the disease, it is capable of producing fumonisins, which have elicited considerable attention over the past decade owing to their association with animal disease syndromes. Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate ecofriendly approaches by using a maize rhizosphere isolate of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Trev.) Mig. and its formulation to control ear rot disease and fumonisin accumulation, and also to study the capacity to promote growth and yield of maize. In vitro assays were conducted to test the efficacy of P. fluorescens as a seed treatment on seed germination, seedling vigour and also the incidence of F. verticillioides in different maize cultivars. The field trials included both seed treatment and foliar spray. For all the experiments, P. fluorescens was formulated using corn starch, wheat bran and talc powder. In each case there were three different treatments of P. fluorescens, a non-treated control and chemical control. Pure culture and the formulations, in comparison with the control, increased plant growth and vigour as measured by seed germination, seedling vigour, plant height, 1000 seed weight and yield. P. fluorescens pure culture used as seed treatment and as spray treatment enhanced the growth parameters and reduced the incidence of F. verticillioides and the level of fumonisins to a maximum extent compared with the other treatments. The study demonstrates the potential role of P. fluorescens and its formulations in ear rot disease management. The biocontrol potential of this isolate is more suited for fumonisin reduction in maize kernels intended for human and animal feed. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Dumbbell-shaped neurofibroma over the external ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Shirol

    2015-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever case to be reported of a dumbbell-shaped neurofibroma over the external ear and only the fourth case of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 to be associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

  1. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... alcohol 95 percent in an anhydrous glycerin 5 percent base. [65 FR 48905, Aug. 10, 2000] ...

  2. Components of genetic variability of ear length of silage maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sečanski Mile

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate following parameters of the ear length of silage maize: variability of inbred lines and their diallel hybrids, superior-parent heterosis and genetic components of variability and habitability on the basis of a diallel set. The analysis of genetic variance shows that the additive component (D was lower than the dominant (H1 and H2 genetic variances, while the frequency of dominant genes (u for this trait was greater than the frequency of recessive genes (v Furthermore, this is also confirmed by the dominant to recessive genes ratio in parental inbreeds for the ear length (Kd/Kr> 1, which is greater than unity during both investigation years. The calculated value of the average degree of dominance √H1/D is greater than unity, pointing out to superdominance in inheritance of this trait in both years of investigation, which is also confirmed by the results of Vr/Wr regression analysis of inheritance of the ear length. As a presence of the non-allelic interaction was established it is necessary to study effects of epitasis as it can have a greater significance in certain hybrids. A greater value of dominant than additive variance resulted in high broad-sense habitability for ear length in both investigation years.

  3. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the pigeon inner ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, R.; Segenhout, J. M.; Wit, H. P.

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional reconstructions of the inner ear of the pigeon (Columba livia domestica), from two-dimensional images, obtained with (conventional) light microscopy or orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical sectioning (OPFOS), are presented. The results are compared with available information on

  4. Performance of a digital PCO2/SPO2 ear sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Serge; Rohling, Roman; Tschupp, Andres

    2004-04-01

    For determining the adequacy of ventilation, conventional pulse oximetry should be amended by PaCO2 (= arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure). This study investigates the precision of carbon dioxide measurements of the first digital ear-clip sensor providing continuous non-invasive monitoring of PaCO2, SpO2 (= functional arterial oxygen saturation as estimated with a pulse oximeter) and pulse rate and compares it to two conventional analog oximeters. 30 hypoxemia episodes in 6 adult volunteers were investigated in a standardized protocol. Masimo analog finger sensor, Nellcor analog ear sensor, SenTec digital ear sensor. The difference between PCO2 data (= PaCO2 estimated from the measured PcCO2 based on an algorithm by Severinghaus) (PcCO2 = cutaneous carbon dioxide pressure) and the PaCO2 is clinically unimportant. Therefore, we suggest, the two methods of estimating patient's carbon dioxide status can be used interchangeably. Combined digital SpO2/ PcCO2 ear sensors are very promising to allow for a fast and reliable monitoring of patient's oxygenation, hyper-/hypocapnia and ventilation with one single non-invasive probe. Optimal primary signal processing--amplification and digitalisation within the probe--allow for fast and reliable downstream signal processing algorithms. The resulting short SpO2 response times give the medical staff more time to take appropriate actions.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of moringa on ear, nose and throat associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial activity of Moringa on ear, nose and throat associated fungi and vancomycin resistant cocci. The plant material was extracted with methanol and petroleum ethe and screened for phytochemical contents. The microbial isolates were obtained from females and males ...

  6. Ear Infection Treatment Shouldn't Be Shortened

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatments might also reduce other side effects. A new NIH-funded study provides some answers—at least for children under age 2. The study enrolled 520 children, ages 6 to 23 months, who had middle-ear infections diagnosed using stringent criteria. Kids were ...

  7. The "pixie" ear deformity following face lift surgery revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowlavi, Arian; Meldrum, D Garth; Wilhelmi, Bradon J; Russell, Robert C; Zook, Elvin G

    2005-04-01

    The "pixie" ear deformity can be recognized by its "stuck on" or "pulled" appearance, which is caused by the extrinsic pull of the medial cheek and jawline skin flaps at the earlobe attachment point, the otobasion inferius. The tension results in migration of the otobasion inferius from a posterior cephalad position to an anterior caudal position. Although this deformity has been described clinically, it has yet to be objectively defined. Recently, the two components of the earlobe, the attached cephalic segment (intertragal to otobasion inferius distance) and the free caudal segment (otobasion inferius to subaurale distance), were shown to be essential in evaluating for earlobe ptosis and pseudoptosis. These two components can be used to designate an objective criterion for the pixie ear deformity. The deformity, as defined by the authors' parameters, was assessed in 44 patients who had undergone rhytidectomy. A simple and accurate surgical treatment is demonstrated by a cadaver dissection and a clinical case. The deformity can be defined as an increase in the attached cephalic segment (intertragal to otobasion inferius distance) and a decrease in the free caudal segment (otobasion inferius to subaurale distance) to 0 mm following rhytidectomy. The incidence of pixie ear deformity was 5.7 percent in the authors' series of patients. A medially based triangular excision over the attached cephalic segment is presented as a simple and accurate surgical treatment of pixie ear deformity. A more accurate and objective designation may allow for improved detection, avoidance, and treatment of this deformity.

  8. Rehabilitation with ear prosthesis linked to osseointegrated implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo C; dos Santos, Daniela M; Haddad, Marcela F; Moreno, Amália

    2012-06-01

    The absence of an ear, which can be the result of a congenital malformation, surgical tumour resection or traumatic injury, is a significant aesthetic problem. Attachment of ear prostheses with adhesives can cause local irritation for the wearer and affect the colour of the prostheses. Use of implants in craniofacial reconstruction can improve the retention and stability of prostheses giving to patient greater comfort and security relative to adhesive attachment. The aim of this report was to present a clinical case of a mutilated patient who was rehabilitated by means of installing an ear prosthesis fixed through osseointegrated implants. The patient had two implants installed in the mastoid region that were linked by a bar, and a clip-type system was used. The ear prosthesis was constructed from medical-use silicone, pigmented to match the patient's skin colour and linked to the retention system. The patient's rehabilitation was satisfactory from both a functional and an aesthetic point of view, making it possible for the patient to return to a normal social life and regain lost self-esteem. © 2012 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. [Cochlear implant in patients with congenital malformation of inner ear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong-yi; Wu, Wen-ming; Xi, Xin; Huang, De-liang; Yang, Wei-yan

    2004-02-01

    To study surgical difficulty and key of the cochlear implant in patients with congenital malformation of inner ear. The cochlear implantations were performed in our department from Jan. 2001 to Apr. 2003 for 18 patients with the malformation of inner ear. In this series, there were 11 cases of large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS), 3 cases of Waardenberg syndrome, 3 cases of Mondini malformation, and 1 case of Usher syndrome. All 18 patients accepted the Nucleus 24-channel cochlear implantations, including Nucleus straight electrode in 13 cases but Contour implantation in 5 cases of LVAS. During operations, leakage of perilymph but not cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the open of scala tympani occurred in 11 cases of LVAS, however, the electrode was inserted successfully. The abnormalities of round window occurred in one of 3 cases of Waardenberg syndrome and 3 cases of Mondini malformation, respectively. The cochlear implant could be conducted successfully for the LVAS, and the postoperative effect was same as the ones for the deafness persons with normal development of inner ear. However, for the patients with Mondini syndrome and common cavity, it is important to accurately assess the extent of abnormalities in the inner ear and accompanied malformation before operation, and to evaluate the full extent of difficulties of the operation in order to minimize the risk of CSF leakage and meningitis.

  10. Prevalence of inner ear anomalies among cochlear implant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhafeeri, Ahmad M; Alsanosi, Abdulrahman A

    2016-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of inner ear anomalies and the frequency of different anomaly types among cochlear implant recipients. This study included a retrospective chart review of all patients who received cochlear implants between January 2009 and January 2013 in King Abdulaziz University Hospital cochlear implant program in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All subjects underwent thin-cut CT of the temporal bone and MRI. The collected data included age, gender, and CT and MRI findings regarding temporal bone anomalies. Patients with any identified congenital inner ear anomalies were included in the study.  In total, 316 patients' cases were reviewed. Inner ear malformations were identified in 24 patients, which represented a prevalence of 7.5%. Among these 24 patients, 8 (33.3%) presented with a large vestibular aqueduct (LVA), 8 (33.3%) semicircular canal (SCC) dysplasia, 7 (29.1%) classical Mondini deformity, and one (4.1%) cochlear hypoplasia. The prevalence of inner ear anomalies among cochlear implant recipients was 7.5%. This result is consistent with findings worldwide. The most common anomalies were LVA and SCC hypoplasia; by contrast, in other regions, the most common anomaly is either the Mondini deformity, or LVA.

  11. Diagnosis and treatment of ear disease among children in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Audiologists and ENT registrars examined 2 036 children aged 10 years or younger by means of pure-tone audiometry, tympanometry and otoscopic examinations. Twenty per cent of these children had ear pathology and 7,5% had impaired hearing. Forty-three pus swabs taken from patients with suppurative otitis media ...

  12. Study of the EAR.620 aerosol monitor survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisset, A.; Sciorella, G.; Chivu, D.; Meriaux, P.; Pagel, M.

    1976-01-01

    The disappearance of different electronic components on the European professional market was likely to create a very serious problem for the maintenance of health physics instrumentation existing at CEA. The present report is a study of the conditions of assurance of the survival of the air contamination monitor EAR.620 up to 1980 [fr

  13. Statistical shape model with random walks for inner ear segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pujadas, Esmeralda Ruiz; Kjer, Hans Martin; Piella, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    is required. We propose a new framework for segmentation of micro-CT cochlear images using random walks combined with a statistical shape model (SSM). The SSM allows us to constrain the less contrasted areas and ensures valid inner ear shape outputs. Additionally, a topology preservation method is proposed...

  14. Microbiological Assessment of Bacterial Isolates from Ear, Nose And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples from patients who reported to in-patient ENT unit of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano were isolated for further microbiological assessment. One hundred (100) from both male and female patients comprising 55 ear swabs, 30 and 15 throat and nose swabs respectively were screened between February and ...

  15. Middle ear effusion from metastatic carcinoma of the breast | Okpala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcinoma of the breast can metastasise to many organs. Metastasis to the temporal bone is rare and even when it does, it would usually spread to other parts of the body. This is a report of isolated metastasis to the temporal bone with middle ear effusion.

  16. MicroRNAs in sensorineural diseases of the ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy eUshakov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding microRNAs have a fundamental role in gene regulation and expression in almost every multicellular organism. Only discovered in the last decade, microRNAs are already known to play a leading role in many aspects of disease. In the vertebrate inner ear, microRNAs are essential for controlling development and survival of hair cells. Moreover, dysregulation of microRNAs has been implicated in sensorineural hearing impairment, as well as in other ear diseases such as cholesteatomas, vestibular schwannomas and otitis media. Due to the inaccessibility of the ear in humans, animal models have provided the optimal tools to study microRNA expression and function, in particular mice and zebrafish. A major focus of current research has been to discover the targets of the microRNAs expressed in the inner ear, in order to determine the regulatory pathways of the auditory and vestibular systems. The potential for microRNA manipulation in development of therapeutic tools for hearing impairment is as yet unexplored, paving the way for future work in the field.

  17. Imaging evaluation of middle ear cholesteatoma: iconographic essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Ana Flavia Assis de; Aburjeli, Bruna de Oliveira Melim; Moreira, Wanderval; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira, E-mail: fauassis@hotmail.com [Hospital Mater Dei, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is a relevant and relatively common disease that may have severe consequences. In the present pictorial essay, the authors have selected illustrative examples of multislice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging depicting the main presentations of cholesteatomas, and describing their characteristics, locations, and major complications. (author)

  18. Towards making HCS ear detection robust against rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pflug, Anika; Back, Philip Michael; Busch, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    In identity retrieval from crime scene images, the outer ear (auricle) has ever since been regarded as a valuable characteristic. Because of its unique and permanent shape, the auricle also attracted the attention of researches in the field of biometrics over the last years. Since then, numerous...

  19. Clinical evidence in the management of swimmer's ear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Swimmer's ear” or acute otitis externa is a term that is used commonly by medical practitioners and patients. It refers to an inflammatory condition of the external auditory canal, with anatomical regions which may stretch distally to the pinna and proximally to the tympanic membrane of the ear.1 The prevalence in swimmers ...

  20. Concise Review: Inner Ear Stem Cells—An Oxymoron, But Why?

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaghi, Mohammad; Nasr, Marjan; Heller, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Hearing loss, caused by irreversible loss of cochlear sensory hair cells, affects millions of patients worldwide. In this concise review, we examine the conundrum of inner ear stem cells, which obviously are present in the inner ear sensory epithelia of nonmammalian vertebrates, giving these ears the ability to functionally recover even from repetitive ototoxic insults. Despite the inability of the mammalian inner ear to regenerate lost hair cells, there is evidence for cells with regenerativ...

  1. Middle ear osteoma causing progressive facial nerve weakness: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Kate; Bance, Manohar; Carter, Michael; Hong, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Facial nerve weakness is most commonly due to Bell’s palsy or cerebrovascular accidents. Rarely, middle ear tumor presents with facial nerve dysfunction. Case presentation We report a very unusual case of middle ear osteoma in a 49-year-old Caucasian woman causing progressive facial nerve deficit. A subtle middle ear lesion was observed on otoscopy and computed tomographic images demonstrated an osseous middle ear tumor. Complete surgical excision resulted in the partial recovery...

  2. The influence of metal speciation in combustion waste on the efficiency of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni and Cr bioleaching in a mixed culture of sulfur-oxidizing and biosurfactant-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowska, Ewa; Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Andrzejewska, Dorota

    2015-12-15

    Metal leachability from ash and combustion slag is related to the physico-chemical properties, including their speciation in the waste. Metals speciation is an important factor that influences the efficiency of metal bioleaching from combustion wastes in a mixed culture of acidophilic and biosurfactant-producing bacteria. It was observed that individual metals tended to occur in different fractions, which reflects their susceptibility to bioleaching. Cr and Ni were readily removed from wastes when present with a high fraction bound to carbonates. Cd and Pb where not effectively bioleached when present in high amounts in a fraction bound to organic matter. The best bioleaching results were obtained for power plant slag, which had a high metal content in the exchangeable, bound to carbonates and bound to Fe and Mg oxides fractions- the metal recovery percentage for Zn, Cu and Ni from this waste exceeded 90%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Blue Ear Cyst: A Rare Eccrine Hidrocystoma of the Ear Canal and Successful Endoscopic Excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha A. Mur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Hidrocystomas are benign cystic growths of the apocrine and eccrine sweat glands. These cystic lesions have been well documented on the face, head, and neck, but rarely in the external auditory canal. Presentation of Case. A 67-year-old woman presented with a bluish cystic mass partially occluding the external auditory canal and interfering with hearing aid use. Lesion was excised completely via a transcanal endoscopic approach with excellent cosmetic results, no canal stenosis, and no recurrence at 1-year follow-up. Discussion. We present a rare eccrine hidrocystoma of the external auditory canal and successful excision of this benign lesion. We describe the surgical management using a transcanal endoscopic approach and follow-up results. An eccrine gland cyst that presents as a mass occluding the external auditory canal is quite rare. There are only a few such cases reported in the literature. These masses can be mistaken for basal cell carcinomas or cholesterol granulomas but can be easily differentiated using histopathology. Conclusion. Eccrine hidrocystoma is a cystic lesion of sweat glands, rarely found in the external auditory canal. A characteristic bluish hue aids in diagnosis and surgical excision using ear endoscopy provides excellent control.

  4. aetiological agents of ear discharge: a two year re- view in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... SUMMARY. Background: The discharging ear is a common presentation in medical practice affecting all age groups but primarily children. This study shows the current aetiological causes of ear discharge and their antibiograms, data which would guide empirical treat- ment of ear infections, and also form ...

  5. Building and Testing a Statistical Shape Model of the Human Ear Canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus; Laugesen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Today the design of custom in-the-ear hearing aids is based on personal experience and skills and not on a systematic description of the variation of the shape of the ear canal. In this paper it is described how a dense surface point distribution model of the human ear canal is built based on a t...

  6. Morphological Variations and Biometrics of Ear: An Aid to Personal Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pradhuman; Sandhu, Harpreet Kaur; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Goyal, Sharry; Sudan, Madhu; Ladgotra, Amit

    2016-05-01

    The morphological characteristics and dimensions of external ear vary in different human ethnic races which can be utilized in forensics for personal identification of living or deceased. To determine uniqueness of morphological and biometric variations of both ears for individualization among North East (NE) and North West (NW) subpopulation of India. The study was conducted on randomly selected 80 students, 40 from each subgroup. Nine ear parameters were recorded twice using digital Vernier's caliper by single investigator and two indices (Ear Index and Lobule Index) were calculated for both the ears. Morphological ear shapes and lobule attachment were also noted. Pearson's coefficient correlation test was performed on cross-tabulations to evaluate significant relationship between different variables. Of the total 35% free and 65% attached ear lobes were noted in both population groups. Oval ear shape was most commonly noted followed by triangular, rectangular and round in both populations. On comparing anthropometric measurements of ears in two populations it was found that except the tragus length and lobule index all other values were noted more in NW population. No statistical difference was found in ear and lobular indices of males and females although the left ear index and lobule index were found to be higher than right in both populations except in NW females where right lobule index was recorded more than left. The results obtained can be used in anthropological and forensic sciences for the inclusion and exclusion of persons for identification on the basis of ear variations.

  7. A systematic review of discomfort due to toe or ear clipping in laboratory rodents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, K.E.; Geessink, F.J.; Brouwer, M.A.E.; Tillema, A.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.

    2017-01-01

    Toe clipping and ear clipping (also ear notching or ear punching) are frequently used methods for individual identification of laboratory rodents. These procedures potentially cause severe discomfort, which can reduce animal welfare and distort experimental results. However, no systematic summary of

  8. An audit of Ear, Nose and Throat diseases in a tertiary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study showed that otitis media, obstructive adenoid, foreign bodies in the ear and throat infections were the common ear, nose, throat disorders seen in patients aged ≤15years whereas, hearing loss, rhinosinusitis and tumors were the common disorders of ear, nose and throat seen in patients aged 16 ...

  9. A unique anomaly of the ear: Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum or an isolated disruption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Eleonoor A. R.; Hoogslag, Isabella C. M.; van Spronsen, Erik; Oostra, Roelof J.; Ebbens, Fenna A.

    2017-01-01

    We present a rare case of a neonate with an isolated congenital condition of his right ear involving the outer ear, middle ear, eustachian tube, and the facial nerve, with an external opening into the skull that connects to the oropharynx. Taking this bizarre aspect of the exterior lesion and the

  10. Ear surgery techniques results on hearing threshold improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Mokhtarinejad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone conduction (BC threshold depression is not always by means of sensory neural hearing loss and sometimes it is an artifact caused by middle ear pathologies and ossicular chain problems. In this research, the influences of ear surgeries on bone conduction were evaluated. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a clinical trial study. The ear surgery performed on 83 patients classified in four categories: Stapedectomy, tympanomastoid surgery and ossicular reconstruction partially or totally; Partial Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (PORP and Total Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (TORP. Bone conduction thresholds assessed in frequencies of 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz pre and post the surgery. Results: In stapedectomy group, the average of BC threshold in all frequencies improved approximately 6 dB in frequency of 2000 Hz. In tympanomastoid group, BC threshold in the frequency of 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz changed 4 dB (P-value < 0.05. Moreover, In the PORP group, 5 dB enhancement was seen in 1000 and 2000 Hz. In TORP group, the results confirmed that BC threshold improved in all frequencies especially at 4000 Hz about 6.5 dB. Conclusion: In according to results of this study, BC threshold shift was seen after several ear surgeries such as stapedectomy, tympanoplasty, PORP and TORP. The average of BC improvement was approximately 5 dB. It must be considered that BC depression might happen because of ossicular chain problems. Therefore; by resolving middle ear pathologies, the better BC threshold was obtained, the less hearing problems would be faced.

  11. "COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH INNER EAR MALFORMATIONS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Borghei S. Abdi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Performing cochlear implantation in patients with inner ear malformation has always been a matter of dispute. This study was designed to analyze the operative findings,complications, and postoperative performance of patients with inner ear anomalies who underwent cochlear implantation. Six patients with inner ear malformations underwent implantation in our academic tertiary referral center from 1997 to 2002. The average follow-up period was 27 months. Malformations included one incomplete partition, one common cavity, one narrow internal acoustic canal (IAC in a patient with Riley-Day syndrome and 3 cases of large vestibular aqueduct. All received multi-channel implants either Nucleus 22 or Clarion device. Facial nerve was anomalous in 2 cases. CSF gusher occurred in 4 patients, which was controlled with packing the cochleostomy site. In all cases, the full length of electrode array was inserted, except one with Mondini's dysplasia where insertion failed in the first operation and was referred to another center for a successful surgery on the opposite ear. No other surgical complications were encountered. In 4 cases, all the 22 electrodes could be activated. All patients showed improved hearing performance after implantation. Four showed open-set speech recognition. The one with narrow IAC showed improved awareness to environmental sounds. In the other case (common cavity, the perception tests could not be performed because of very young age. Cochlear implantation in patients with inner ear malformations is a successful way of rehabilitation, although complications should be expected and auditory responses may be highly variable and relatively moderate.

  12. Reconstruction of Cochlea Based on Micro-CT and Histological Images of the Human Inner Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Bellos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the normal function and pathology of the inner ear has unique difficulties as it is inaccessible during life and, so, conventional techniques of pathologic studies such as biopsy and surgical excision are not feasible, without further impairing function. Mathematical modelling is therefore particularly attractive as a tool in researching the cochlea and its pathology. The first step towards efficient mathematical modelling is the reconstruction of an accurate three dimensional (3D model of the cochlea that will be presented in this paper. The high quality of the histological images is being exploited in order to extract several sections of the cochlea that are not visible on the micro-CT (mCT images (i.e., scala media, spiral ligament, and organ of Corti as well as other important sections (i.e., basilar membrane, Reissner membrane, scala vestibule, and scala tympani. The reconstructed model is being projected in the centerline of the coiled cochlea, extracted from mCT images, and represented in the 3D space. The reconstruction activities are part of the SIFEM project, which will result in the delivery of an infrastructure, semantically interlinking various tools and libraries (i.e., segmentation, reconstruction, and visualization tools with the clinical knowledge, which is represented by existing data, towards the delivery of a robust multiscale model of the inner ear.

  13. Experimental and theoretical investigations about the vaporization of laser-produced aerosols and individual particles inside inductively-coupled plasmas — Implications for the extraction efficiency of ions prior to mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flamigni, Luca; Koch, Joachim; Günther, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    Current quantification capabilities of laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are known to be restricted by elemental fractionation as a result of LA-, transport-, and ICP-induced effects which, particularly, may provoke inaccuracies whenever calibration strategies on the basis of non-matrix matched standard materials are applied. The present study is dealing with the role of ICP in this complex scenario. Therefore, the vaporization process of laser-produced aerosols and subsequent diffusion losses occurring inside ICP sources were investigated using 2-D optical emission spectrometry (OES) and ICP-quadrupole (Q)MS of individual particles. For instance, Na- and Ca-specific OES of aerosols produced by LA of silicate glasses or metals revealed axial shifts in the onset and maximum position of atomic emission which were in the range of a few millimeters. The occurrence of these shifts was found to arise from composition-dependent particle/aerosol penetration depths, i.e. the displacement of axial vaporization starting points controlling the ion extraction efficiency through the ICP-MS vacuum interface due to a delayed, diffusion-driven expansion of oxidic vs. metallic aerosols. Furthermore, ICP-QMS of individual particles resulted in 1/e half-value signal durations of approximately 100 μs, which complies with modeled values if OES maxima are assumed to coincide with positions of instantaneous vaporization and starting points for atomic diffusion. To prove phenomena observed for their consistency, in addition, “ab initio” as well as semi-empirical simulations of particle/aerosol penetration depths followed by diffusion-driven expansion was accomplished indicating differences of up to 15% in the relative ion extraction efficiency depending on whether analytes are supplied as metals or oxides. Implications of these findings on the accuracy achievable by state-of-the-art LA-ICP-MS systems are outlined. - Highlights: ► Specification

  14. The physics of hearing: fluid mechanics and the active process of the inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Tobias; Hudspeth, A J

    2014-07-01

    Most sounds of interest consist of complex, time-dependent admixtures of tones of diverse frequencies and variable amplitudes. To detect and process these signals, the ear employs a highly nonlinear, adaptive, real-time spectral analyzer: the cochlea. Sound excites vibration of the eardrum and the three miniscule bones of the middle ear, the last of which acts as a piston to initiate oscillatory pressure changes within the liquid-filled chambers of the cochlea. The basilar membrane, an elastic band spiraling along the cochlea between two of these chambers, responds to these pressures by conducting a largely independent traveling wave for each frequency component of the input. Because the basilar membrane is graded in mass and stiffness along its length, however, each traveling wave grows in magnitude and decreases in wavelength until it peaks at a specific, frequency-dependent position: low frequencies propagate to the cochlear apex, whereas high frequencies culminate at the base. The oscillations of the basilar membrane deflect hair bundles, the mechanically sensitive organelles of the ear's sensory receptors, the hair cells. As mechanically sensitive ion channels open and close, each hair cell responds with an electrical signal that is chemically transmitted to an afferent nerve fiber and thence into the brain. In addition to transducing mechanical inputs, hair cells amplify them by two means. Channel gating endows a hair bundle with negative stiffness, an instability that interacts with the motor protein myosin-1c to produce a mechanical amplifier and oscillator. Acting through the piezoelectric membrane protein prestin, electrical responses also cause outer hair cells to elongate and shorten, thus pumping energy into the basilar membrane's movements. The two forms of motility constitute an active process that amplifies mechanical inputs, sharpens frequency discrimination, and confers a compressive nonlinearity on responsiveness. These features arise because the

  15. The physics of hearing: fluid mechanics and the active process of the inner ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichenbach, Tobias; Hudspeth, A J

    2014-01-01

    Most sounds of interest consist of complex, time-dependent admixtures of tones of diverse frequencies and variable amplitudes. To detect and process these signals, the ear employs a highly nonlinear, adaptive, real-time spectral analyzer: the cochlea. Sound excites vibration of the eardrum and the three miniscule bones of the middle ear, the last of which acts as a piston to initiate oscillatory pressure changes within the liquid-filled chambers of the cochlea. The basilar membrane, an elastic band spiraling along the cochlea between two of these chambers, responds to these pressures by conducting a largely independent traveling wave for each frequency component of the input. Because the basilar membrane is graded in mass and stiffness along its length, however, each traveling wave grows in magnitude and decreases in wavelength until it peaks at a specific, frequency-dependent position: low frequencies propagate to the cochlear apex, whereas high frequencies culminate at the base. The oscillations of the basilar membrane deflect hair bundles, the mechanically sensitive organelles of the ear's sensory receptors, the hair cells. As mechanically sensitive ion channels open and close, each hair cell responds with an electrical signal that is chemically transmitted to an afferent nerve fiber and thence into the brain. In addition to transducing mechanical inputs, hair cells amplify them by two means. Channel gating endows a hair bundle with negative stiffness, an instability that interacts with the motor protein myosin-1c to produce a mechanical amplifier and oscillator. Acting through the piezoelectric membrane protein prestin, electrical responses also cause outer hair cells to elongate and shorten, thus pumping energy into the basilar membrane's movements. The two forms of motility constitute an active process that amplifies mechanical inputs, sharpens frequency discrimination, and confers a compressive nonlinearity on responsiveness. These features arise

  16. a Middle-Ear Reverse Transfer Function Computed from Vibration Measurements of Otoacoustic Emissions on the Ear Drum of the Guinea PIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalhoff, Ernst; Turcanu, Diana; Gummer, Anthony W.

    2009-02-01

    Using distortion products measured as vibration of the umbo and as sound pressure in the ear canal of guinea pigs, we calculated the corresponding reverse transfer function. We compare the measurements with a middle-ear model taken from the literature and adapted to the guinea pig. A reasonable fit could be achieved. We conclude that the reverse transfer function will be useful to aid fitting a middle-ear model to measured transfer functions of human subjects.

  17. [Diagnostic significance of multi-slice computed tomography imaging in congenital inner ear malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui; Han, Ping; Liang, Bo; Liu, Fang; Tian, Zhi-Liang; Lei, Zi-Qiao; Li, You-Lin; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2005-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and usability of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) in congenital inner ear malformations. Fourty-four patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) were examined by a Somatom Sensation 16 (siemens, Germany) CT scanner with following parameters: 120 kV, 100 mAs, 0.75 mm collimation, 1 mm reconstruction increment, a pitch factor of 1 and a field of view of 100 mm. The axial images of interested ears were reconstructed with 0.1 mm reconstruction increment, and a field of view of 50 mm. The 3D reconstructions were done with volume rendering technique (VRT) on the workstation (3D Virtuoso and Wizard,siemens). Twenty-five patients were normal and 19 patients (36 ears) were congenital inner ear malformations among 44 patients scanned with MSCT. Of the malformations, all the axial, MPR and VRT images can display the site and degree in 33 ears. VRT images were superior to the axial images in displaying the malformations in 3 ears with the small lateral semicircular canal malformations. The malformations were Michel deformity (1 ear), common cavity deformity (3 ears), incomplete partition I (3 ears), incomplete partition II (Mondini deformity, 5 ears), vestibular and semicircular canal malformations( 14 ears), vestibular aqueduct dilate( 16 ears, of which 6 ears accompanied by other malformations), the internal auditory canal malformation(8 ears, all accompanied by other malformations). MSCT allows a comprehensively assessing various congenital ear malformations through high quality MPR and VRT reconstructions. VRT images can display the site and degree of the malformations three-dimensionally and intuitionisticly. It is very useful to the cochlear implantation.

  18. Occurrence and identification of yeasts in dogs external ear canal with and without otitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidiana de Bona

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the presence of yeast in the external ear canal of 116 dogs with and without a diagnosis of otitis from veterinary clinic in the Chapecó city, Santa Catarina, Brazil, and to examine the secretion of the proteinase in isolates. Materials and methods. Were collected cerumen of conduct hearing of dogs of 16 different races 71% with pendular ear type, 5% of semi-pendular and 24% of the erect type. All dogs were previously evaluated by otoscopy and grouped in dogs with and without otitis. Results. Yeasts were isolated in 44 samples (approximately 36%, where Malassezia pachydermatis was identified in 95% of samples where were observed growth of yeasts. On 20 samples the proteinase enzyme showed strong activity in 31% isolates, were 21% of the dogs with otitis tested showed high proteolytic activity. Conclusions. We observed a variation of strains of M. pachydermatis-producing enzymes. The variation in production of these enzymes is probably more associated with different response to the action of the immune system of the animal in the tissue injury.

  19. The corrosion resistance of materials used for the manufacture of ear piercing studs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, O. V.; Saiki, M.; Rogero, S. O.; Costa, I.

    2003-01-01

    Nickel containing alloy shave been widely used as substrates for the manufacture of studs used for ear piercing. Unfortunately, nickel has also been related to the development of allergic contact dermatitis caused by skin sensitization due to Ni''2+ ions. Nickel ions can be leached out into the body fluids due to corrosion reactions. Defect free coatings are very difficult to produce, and therefore nickel free materials should be used as substrates of ear piercing studs, although the commercial alloys used usually contain this element. In this study, the corrosion resistance of two kinds of commercial studs prepared with nickel containing substrates and a titanium laboratory made stud was determined in a culture medium. The corrosion resistance of the studs was investigated by means of potentiodynamic polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as a function of immersion time in the culture medium. The elements that leached out into the medium due to corrosion reactions were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The surfaces of the commercial gold-coated studs were examined by scanning electron microscopy and analyzed by energy dispersive spectroscopy, both before and after exposure to the culture medium. The cytotoxicity of the tested studs was also determined in the culture medium. (Author) 10 refs

  20. Characterization of Treponema spp. isolates from pigs with ear necrosis and shoulder ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svartström, Olov; Karlsson, Frida; Fellström, Claes; Pringle, Märit

    2013-10-25

    Ear necrosis and shoulder ulcers in pigs are animal welfare problems and ethical issues that can cause economic losses for producers. Spirochetes have been observed microscopically in scrapings from pig ulcers since the early 1900s, but have until recently not been cultured and therefore not characterized. In this study, 12 Treponema spp. isolates were acquired from porcine ear necrosis, shoulder ulcers and gingiva. DNA analysis of the 16S rRNA-tRNA(Ile) intergenic spacer region (ISR2) or the 16S rRNA gene revealed relatedness to oral treponemes found in dogs and humans. All isolates except one aligned into two clusters, Treponema pedis and Treponema sp. OMZ 840-like. The 16S rRNA gene of the remaining isolate shared 99% nucleotide identity with Treponema parvum. Genetic fingerprinting of the isolates was performed through random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). In addition, the isolates were characterized by biochemical tests, including api(®)ZYM, tryptophanase and hippuricase activity, and by testing the antimicrobial susceptibility to tiamulin, valnemulin, tylosin, tylvalosin, lincomycin and doxycycline using broth dilution. All isolates except two showed unique RAPD fingerprints, whereas metabolic activity tests could not differentiate between the isolates. The MICs of all antimicrobial agents tested were low. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of an ear cap in chronic suppurative otitis media using additive manufacturing and TRIZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawale, Mahesh B; Kuthe, Abhaykumar; Mawale, Anupama M; Dahake, Sandeep W

    2018-06-01

    The prevalence rate of chronic suppurative otitis media is high and its treatment continues to be a challenge for the otorhinolaryngologists. Due to middle ear infection, there may be pain, hearing loss and spontaneous rupture of the eardrum which results in perforation. Infections can cause a hole in the eardrum as a side effect of otitis media. The patients suffering from ear perforation or having a hole in eardrum require preventing entry of water in the ear. This article describes the development of ear cap using additive manufacturing and TRIZ (a collaborative tool) to prevent the entry of water in the ear during chronic otitis media.

  2. Handheld tympanometer measurements in conscious dogs for the evaluation of the middle ear and auditory tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, George M; Fernandes, Asia J

    2015-06-01

    Otitis externa is frequently accompanied by otitis media, yet it can be difficult to evaluate the tympanum, middle ear and auditory tube without the use of advanced radiographic imaging. The objective was to develop techniques for tympanometry testing in conscious dogs and to present normative data for clinical use of this equipment to enable assessment of the tympanum, middle ear and auditory tube. Sixteen hounds (14 female) from a school teaching colony. Dogs were gently restrained in a standing position. After cleaning of the ear canal, a tympanometer probe tip extension was placed in the vertical canal and automated testing performed using a handheld device. Both ears were tested in all dogs. Acceptable recordings were obtained from both ears of 13 dogs, from one ear in each of two dogs and from neither ear of one dog, resulting in data from 28 of 32 (88%) ears. Otoscopic examination confirmed the absence of inflammation or any other obvious explanation for the noncompliant dogs. No significant differences were seen between ears for any measure. Normative data are reported for peak compliance, peak compliance pressure, gradient and ear canal volume. Tympanograms can be recorded in conscious dogs to assist in the evaluation of the middle ear structures. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  3. Cilia-driven fluid flow as an epigenetic cue for otolith biomineralization on sensory hair cells of the inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianwen; Lau, Doreen; Ng, Chee Peng; Roy, Sudipto

    2011-02-01

    Ciliary motility is necessary for many developmental and physiological processes in animals. In zebrafish, motile cilia are thought to be required for the deposition of otoliths, which comprise crystals of protein and calcium carbonate, on hair cells of the inner ear. The identity of the motile cilia and their role in otolith biogenesis, however, remain controversial. Here, we show that the ear vesicle differentiates numerous motile cilia, the spatial distribution of which changes as a function of the expression pattern of the ciliogenic gene foxj1b. By contrast, the hair cells develop immotile kinocilia that serve as static tethers for otolith crystallization. In ears devoid of all cilia, otoliths can form but they are of irregular shapes and sizes and appear to attach instead to the hair cell apical membranes. Moreover, overproduction of motile cilia also disrupts otolith deposition through sustained agitation of the precursor particles. Therefore, the correct spatial and temporal distribution of the motile cilia is crucial for proper otolith formation. Our findings support the view that the hair cells express a binding factor for the otolith precursors, while the motile cilia ensure that the precursors do not sediment prematurely and are efficiently directed towards the hair cells. We also provide evidence that the kinocilia are modified motile cilia that depend on Foxj1b for their differentiation. We propose that in hair cells, a Foxj1b-dependent motile ciliogenic program is altered by the proneural Atoh proteins to promote the differentiation of immotile kinocilia.

  4. Modeling Analysis of Biomechanical Changes of Middle Ear and Cochlea in Otitis Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Rong Z.; Zhang, Xiangming; Guan, Xiying

    2011-11-01

    A comprehensive finite element (FE) model of the human ear including the ear canal, middle ear, and spiral cochlea was developed using histological sections of human temporal bone. The cochlea was modeled with three chambers separated by the basilar membrane and Reissner's membrane and filled with perilymphatic fluid. The viscoelastic material behavior was applied to middle ear soft tissues based on dynamic measurements of tissues in our lab. The model was validated using the experimental data obtained in human temporal bones and then used to simulate various stages of otitis media (OM) including the changes of morphology, mechanical properties, pressure, and fluid level in the middle ear. Function alterations of the middle ear and cochlea in OM were derived from the model and compared with the measurements from temporal bones. This study indicates that OM can be simulated in the FE model to predict the hearing loss induced by biomechanical changes of the middle ear and cochlea.

  5. Inner ear barriers to nanomedicine-augmented drug delivery and imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are several challenges to inner ear drug delivery and imaging due to the existence of tight biological barriers to the target structure and the dense bone surrounding it. Advances in imaging and nanomedicine may provide knowledge for overcoming the existing limitations to both the diagnosis and treatment of inner ear diseases. Novel techniques have improved the efficacy of drug delivery and targeting to the inner ear, as well as the quality and accuracy of imaging this structure. In this review, we will describe the pathways and biological barriers of the inner ear regarding drug delivery, the beneficial applications and limitations of the imaging techniques available for inner ear research, the behavior of engineered nanomaterials in inner ear applications, and future perspectives for nanomedicine-based inner ear imaging.

  6. Short communication: QTL mapping for ear tip-barrenness in maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, J.; Ma, J.; Chen, J.; Ai, T.; Li, Z.; Tian, Z.; Wu, S.; Chen, W.; Wu, J.

    2016-11-01

    Barren tip on corn ear is an important agronomic trait in maize, which is highly associated with grain yield. Understanding the genetic basis of tip-barrenness may help to reduce the ear tip-barrenness in breeding programs. In this study, ear tip-barrenness was evaluated in two environments in a F2:3 population, and it showed significant genotypic variation for ear tip-barrenness in both environments. Using mixed-model composite interval mapping method, three additive effects quantitative trait loci (QTL) for ear tip-barrenness were mapped on chromosomes 2, 3 and 6, respectively. They explained 16.6% of the phenotypic variation, and no significant QTL × Environment interactions and digenic interactions were detected. The results indicated that additive effect was the main genetic basis for ear tip-barrenness in maize. This is the first report of QTL mapped for ear tip-barrenness in maize. (Author)

  7. Do helmets worn for hurling fail to protect the ear? Identification of an emerging injury pattern.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin-Smith, James D

    2012-12-01

    Hurling is an Irish national game of stick and ball known for its ferocity, played by 190 000 players. Facial injuries were common but have been significantly reduced by legislation enforcing compulsory helmet wearing. Current standard helmets worn by hurlers do not offer protection to the external ear. Here we describe an emerging pattern of ear injuries and demonstrate the risk of external ear injuries in hurlers complying with current helmet safety standards. A 6-month retrospective analysis was carried out of patients attending Cork University Hospital (CUH) with ear lacerations sustained while hurling. Patient notes were reviewed and helmet manufacturers were interviewed. Seven patients were identified, all of whom sustained complex through ear lacerations while wearing helmets complying with current safety standards. Current helmet design fails to protect the external ear placing it at an increased risk of injury, a potential solution is to include ear protection in the helmet design.

  8. Fgf8 and Fgf3 are required for zebrafish ear placode induction, maintenance and inner ear patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Sophie; Brand, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The vertebrate inner ear develops from initially 'simple' ectodermal placode and vesicle stages into the complex three-dimensional structure which is necessary for the senses of hearing and equilibrium. Although the main morphological events in vertebrate inner ear development are known, the genetic mechanisms controlling them are scarcely understood. Previous studies have suggested that the otic placode is induced by signals from the chordamesoderm and the hindbrain, notably by fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) and Wnt proteins. Here we study the role of Fgf8 as a bona-fide hindbrain-derived signal that acts in conjunction with Fgf3 during placode induction, maintenance and otic vesicle patterning. Acerebellar (ace) is a mutant in the fgf8 gene that results in a non-functional Fgf8 product. Homozygous mutants for acerebellar (ace) have smaller ears that typically have only one otolith, abnormal semi-circular canals, and behavioral defects. Using gene expression markers for the otic placode, we find that ace/fgf8 and Fgf-signaling are required for normal otic placode formation and maintenance. Conversely, misexpression of fgf8 or Fgf8-coated beads implanted into the vicinity of the otic placode can increase ear size and marker gene expression, although competence to respond to the induction appears restricted. Cell transplantation experiments and expression analysis suggest that Fgf8 is required in the hindbrain in the rhombomere 4-6 area to restore normal placode development in ace mutants, in close neighbourhood to the forming placode, but not in mesodermal tissues. Fgf3 and Fgf8 are expressed in hindbrain rhombomere 4 during the stages that are critical for placode induction. Joint inactivation of Fgf3 and Fgf8 by mutation or antisense-morpholino injection causes failure of placode formation and results in ear-less embryos, mimicking the phenotype we observe after pharmacological inhibition of Fgf-signaling. Fgf8 and Fgf3 together therefore act during induction

  9. The visible ear simulator: a public PC application for GPU-accelerated haptic 3D simulation of ear surgery based on the visible ear data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten; Mosegaard, Jesper; Trier, Peter

    2009-01-01

    material.Virtual training often requires the purchase of a program, a customized computer, and expensive peripherals dedicated exclusively to this purpose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Visible Ear freeware library of digital images from a fresh-frozen human temporal bone was segmented, and real-time volume...... is published for download (approximately 120 MB) as freeware at http://www.alexandra.dk/ves/index.htm.With increasing personal computer performance, future versions may include enhanced resolution (up to 8,000 voxels/mm3) and realistic interaction with deformable soft tissue components such as skin, tympanic...

  10. Anatomical influences on internally coupled ears in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bruce A

    2016-10-01

    Many reptiles, and other vertebrates, have internally coupled ears in which a patent anatomical connection allows pressure waves generated by the displacement of one tympanic membrane to propagate (internally) through the head and, ultimately, influence the displacement of the contralateral tympanic membrane. The pattern of tympanic displacement caused by this internal coupling can give rise to novel sensory cues. The auditory mechanics of reptiles exhibit more anatomical variation than in any other vertebrate group. This variation includes structural features such as diverticula and septa, as well as coverings of the tympanic membrane. Many of these anatomical features would likely influence the functional significance of the internal coupling between the tympanic membranes. Several of the anatomical components of the reptilian internally coupled ear are under active motor control, suggesting that in some reptiles the auditory system may be more dynamic than previously recognized.

  11. Congenital ossicular malformation. A study of 27 ears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Shigefumi; Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Taki, Masakatsu; Hyogo, Misako; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Hisa, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    Despite otological surgerical progress improving clinical congenital ossicular malformation management, some cases remain inadequately treated. We report 27 cases of congenital ossicular malformation, focusing on reasons for remaining or delayed postoperative hearing loss evaluated in 27 congenital ossicular malformation cases in Kyoto Prefecture from 2002 to 2008. Overall success was 93% (25/27) 6 months postoperatively. Two ears had no hearing improvement and three delayed hearing loss 8 to 48 months postoperatively. The first two ears underwent small fenestration stapedotomy with malleus attachment piston, and the other three tympanoplasty type III using an autologous ossicle or total ossicular replacement prosthesis (TORP) as a columella. We discuss problems and solutions using a malleus attachment piston or prosthesis, preoperative audio- and radiological findings, and operative findings including facial nerve anomaly and congenital cholesteatoma. (author)

  12. New onset of idiopathic bilateral ear tics in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit; Shrestha, Rabin

    2009-04-01

    Tic disorders are commonly considered to be childhood syndromes. Newly presenting tic disorders during adulthood are uncommon and mostly described in relation to an acquired brain lesion or as incidental tics, particularly in context with other neurological or psychiatric diseases. Tic disorder involving the ears is extremely uncommon with only few studies in English literature. In the present case, we describe an adult patient with new-onset idiopathic tics disorder involving both ears, causing social embarrassment. In addition, our patient had recent onset of the tics without any childhood or family history of tic disorders. The single most important component of management is an accurate diagnosis. At the same time, tics should be differentiated from other movement disorders such as chorea, stereotypy, and dystonias.

  13. Tick in the outer ear canal: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özalkan Özkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Serious systemic diseases such as Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Lyme Disease, tularemia, typhus and Q fever can be transmitted by ticks. An 8-year-old boy and a 34-year-old woman were brought to our clinic with ear pains. No symptoms such as fever, headache or lethargy to suggest CCHF were present. The patients both lived in rural areas and were engaged in farming. Full blood count, liver and kidney function tests and serum electrolytes were within normal limits at laboratory tests. Prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time and INR were normal. The tick was grasped with alligator forceps and removed from the outer ear in one piece with the help of 0-degree rigid otoendoscopy.

  14. Air-Leak Effects on Ear-Canal Acoustic Absorbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasetshwane, Daniel M.; Kopun, Judy G.; Gorga, Michael P.; Neely, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Accurate ear-canal acoustic measurements, such as wideband acoustic admittance, absorbance, and otoacoustic emissions, require that the measurement probe be tightly sealed in the ear canal. Air leaks can compromise the validity of the measurements, interfere with calibrations, and increase variability. There are no established procedures for determining the presence of air leaks or criteria for what size leak would affect the accuracy of ear-canal acoustic measurements. The purpose of this study was to determine ways to quantify the effects of air leaks and to develop objective criteria to detect their presence. Design: Air leaks were simulated by modifying the foam tips that are used with the measurement probe through insertion of thin plastic tubing. To analyze the effect of air leaks, acoustic measurements were taken with both modified and unmodified foam tips in brass-tube cavities and human ear canals. Measurements were initially made in cavities to determine the range of critical leaks. Subsequently, data were collected in ears of 21 adults with normal hearing and normal middle-ear function. Four acoustic metrics were used for predicting the presence of air leaks and for quantifying these leaks: (1) low-frequency admittance phase (averaged over 0.1–0.2 kHz), (2) low-frequency absorbance, (3) the ratio of compliance volume to physical volume (CV/PV), and (4) the air-leak resonance frequency. The outcome variable in this analysis was the absorbance change (Δabsorbance), which was calculated in eight frequency bands. Results: The trends were similar for both the brass cavities and the ear canals. ΔAbsorbance generally increased with air-leak size and was largest for the lower frequency bands (0.1–0.2 and 0.2–0.5 kHz). Air-leak effects were observed in frequencies up to 10 kHz, but their effects above 1 kHz were unpredictable. These high-frequency air leaks were larger in brass cavities than in ear canals. Each of the four predictor variables

  15. TL dating of vases with elephant ears in Yuan Dynasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Junding; Wang Weida; Leung, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating using an activation method in pre-dose technique was described. Three vases in underglaze blue with elephant ears and one vase in underglaze red with elephant ears in Yuan Dynasty were dated by this method. The results show that the TL ages are all less than 100 a B.P., and in which sbc 648 and sbc 649 were imitated in recent years. This method is quick, convenient and reliable for porcelain dating with the age of less than 1000 a B.P.. As a comparison, a porcelain sample with underglaze blue in Yuan Dynasty was dated too, and its TL age is 620 ± 140 B.P.. In addition, some complex factors associated with dating have been discussed and a resolution has been raised, which will help improve the accuracy of TL dating. (authors)

  16. The cormorant ear – an adaptation to underwater hearing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    Depending on species, diving birds may spend 2-20 minutes under water during a single foraging dive when they may reach depths ranging from one to several hundred meters. Surprisingly little is known about avian underwater hearing despite the fact that several hundred species dive for food. We do...... was similar to that reported for birds of the same size in air. The bandwidth and slopes of the audiograms were similar in air and water. However, in air the highest sensitivity was found at 1-2 kHz, whereas it was displaced towards lower frequencies under water. These results suggest that cormorants have...... rather poor in-air hearing compared to similar-sized birds. Their underwater hearing sensitivity, however, is higher than what would have been expected for purely air-adapted ears. A possible reason for the poor in-air sensitivity is the special ear anatomy with the central eardrum shaped as a rigid...

  17. Visualization of normal and abnormal inner ear with volume rendering technique using multislice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hui; Han Ping; Liang Bo; Lei Ziqiao; Liu Fang; Tian Zhiliang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of the volume rendering technique to display the normal and abnormal inner ear structures. Methods: Forty normal earand 61 abnormal inner ears (40 congenital inner ear malformations, 7 labyrinthitis ossificans, and 14 inner ear erosion caused by cholesteatomas) were examined with a MSCT scanner. Axial imaging were performed using the following parameters: 120 kV, 100 mAs, 0.75 mm slice thickness, a pitch factor of 1. The axial images of interested ears were reconstructed with 0.1 mm reconstruction increment and a FOV of 50 mm. The 3D reconstructions were done with volume rendering technique on the workstation. Results: In the subjects without ear disorders a high quality 3D visualization of the inner ear could be achieved. In the patients with inner ear' disorders all inner ear malformations could be clearly displayed on 3D images as follows: (1) Michel deformity (one ear): There was complete absence of all cochlear and vestibular structures. (2) common cavity deformity (3 ears): The cochlea and vestibule were represented by a cystic cavity and couldn't be differentiated from each other. (3)incomplete partition type I (3 ears): The cochlea lacked the entire modiolus and cribriform area, resulting in a cystic appearance. (4) incomplete partition type II (Mondini deformity) (5 ears): The cochlea consisted of 1.5 turns, in which the middle and apical turns coalesced to form a cystic apex. (5) vestibular and semicircular canal malformations (14 ears): Cochlea was normal, vestibule dilated, semicircular canals were absent, hypoplastic or enlarged. (6) dilated vestibular aqueduct (14 ears): The vestibular aqueduct was bell-mouthed. In 7 patients with labyrinthifis ossificans, 3D images failed to clearly show the completeinner ears in 4 ears because of too high ossifications in the membranous labyrinth. In the other 3 ears volume rendering could display the thin cochlea basal turn and the intermittent semicircular canals. In the patients

  18. [Suitability study for super sweet corn on the ears hybrids under refrigerated conditions evaluating chemicals microbiological and sensorial characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, C; Alfonzo, B; Ortiz de Bertorelli, L; De Venanzi, F

    2001-06-01

    Krispy King, Víctor and 324, super sweet hybrids (sh2) were cultivated in San Joaquín, estado Carabobo, Venezuela. The scheme was stablished to produce refrigerated fresh ears to be commercialized. The chemistry, microbiology and sensorial characteristics were evaluated at 0; 7; 14; 21 and 28 days of storage. One hundred ears of each hybrid were picked at the ripe fresh stage and packed in polystyrene trays covered with polyethylene. The storage temperature was 4 degrees C +/- 1 degree C. The scheme used was well adapted, allowing a good stability of the ears until 28 days of storing. The plastic cover avoid the lost of humidity. The soluble solids, total sugars and pH went down during the storage. The acidity and the microorganisms increased as expected. The sensorial variables kept the same for Krispy king and Víctor, while the hybrid 324 shown the lowest humidity content, the highest count of microorganisms and the poorest sensorial quality.

  19. Cell density and N-cadherin interactions regulate cell proliferation in the sensory epithelia of the inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warchol, Mark E

    2002-04-01

    Sensory hair cells in the inner ears of nonmammalian vertebrates can regenerate after injury. In many species, replacement hair cells are produced by the proliferation of epithelial supporting cells. Thus, the ability of supporting cells to undergo renewed proliferation is a key determinant of regenerative ability. The present study used cultures of isolated inner ear sensory epithelia to identify cellular signals that regulate supporting cell proliferation. Small pieces of sensory epithelia from the chicken utricle were cultured in glass microwells. Under those conditions, cell proliferation was inversely related to local cell density. The signaling molecules N-cadherin, beta-catenin, and focal adhesion kinase were immunolocalized in the cultured epithelial cells, and high levels of phosphotyrosine immunoreactivity were present at cell-cell junctions and focal contacts of proliferating cells. Binding of microbeads coated with a function-blocking antibody to N-cadherin inhibited ongoing proliferation. The growth of epithelial cells was also affected by the density of extracellular matrix molecules. The results suggest that cell density, cell-cell contact, and the composition of the extracellular matrix may be critical influences on the regulation of sensory regeneration in the inner ear.

  20. Sci-Thur AM: Planning - 04: Evaluation of the fluence complexity, solution quality, and run efficiency produced by five fluence parameterizations implemented in PARETO multiobjective radiotherapy treatment planning software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, H; Fiege, J; McCurdy, B; Potrebko, P; Cull, A

    2012-07-01

    PARETO (Pareto-Aware Radiotherapy Evolutionary Treatment Optimization) is a novel multiobjective treatment planning system that performs beam orientation and fluence optimization simultaneously using an advanced evolutionary algorithm. In order to reduce the number of parameters involved in this enormous search space, we present several methods for modeling the beam fluence. The parameterizations are compared using innovative tools that evaluate fluence complexity, solution quality, and run efficiency. A PARETO run is performed using the basic weight (BW), linear gradient (LG), cosine transform (CT), beam group (BG), and isodose-projection (IP) methods for applying fluence modulation over the projection of the Planning Target Volume in the beam's-eye-view plane. The solutions of each run are non-dominated with respect to other trial solutions encountered during the run. However, to compare the solution quality of independent runs, each run competes against every other run in a round robin fashion. Score is assigned based on the fraction of solutions that survive when a tournament selection operator is applied to the solutions of the two competitors. To compare fluence complexity, a modulation index, fractal dimension, and image gradient entropy are calculated for the fluence maps of each optimal plan. We have found that the LG method results in superior solution quality for a spine phantom, lung patient, and cauda equina patient. The BG method produces solutions with the highest degree of fluence complexity. Most methods result in comparable run times. The LG method produces superior solution quality using a moderate degree of fluence modulation. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  1. Ear Acupuncture for Acute Sore Throat: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ear acupuncture for acute sore throat. A randomized controlled trial...Auncular Acupuncture is a low risk option for acute pain control •Battlefield acupuncture (BFA) IS a specific auncular acupuncture technique •BFA IS...Strengths: Prospect1ve RCT •Weaknesses Small sample stze. no sham acupuncture performed, patients not blinded to treatment •Th1s study represents an

  2. Lobule separator prosthesis to prevent adhesion of reconstructed ear lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokendra Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An adhesion is a band of scar tissue that binds two parts of the tissue together, which develops when the body's repair mechanisms respond to any tissue disturbance, such as surgery, infection, trauma, or radiation. Prevention of unwanted scar bands is of utmost importance to develop esthetic and healthy tissue. This article describes a technique to prevent the adhesion of the surgically reconstructed ear lobule with facial skin, using novel lobule separator prosthesis.

  3. Auditory Localization Performance with Asymmetric Integrated Eye and Ear Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Scharine, Morgan Domanico, Ashley N Foots, Kim Fluitt, and Timothy J Mermagen Human Research and Engineering Directorate, ARL Morgan Domanico Oak...prototypes. The AIEEP is a tactical communications and protection system (TCAPS) that also provides eye protection. Participants used a laser pointer...Decibels “A-weighted” is the sound pressure level adjusted for the sensitivity of the average human ear. The reference level is the

  4. Cisplatin ototoxicity blocks sensory regeneration in the avian inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Eric L; Warchol, Mark E

    2010-03-03

    Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent that is widely used in the treatment of solid tumors. Ototoxicity is a common side effect of cisplatin therapy and often leads to permanent hearing loss. The sensory organs of the avian ear are able to regenerate hair cells after aminoglycoside ototoxicity. This regenerative response is mediated by supporting cells, which serve as precursors to replacement hair cells. Given the antimitotic properties of cisplatin, we examined whether the avian ear was also capable of regeneration after cisplatin ototoxicity. Using cell and organ cultures of the chick cochlea and utricle, we found that cisplatin treatment caused apoptosis of both auditory and vestibular hair cells. Hair cell death in the cochlea occurred in a unique pattern, progressing from the low-frequency (distal) region toward the high-frequency (proximal) region. We also found that cisplatin caused a dose-dependent reduction in the proliferation of cultured supporting cells as well as increased apoptosis in those cells. As a result, we observed no recovery of hair cells after ototoxic injury caused by cisplatin. Finally, we explored the potential for nonmitotic hair cell recovery via activation of Notch pathway signaling. Treatment with the gamma-secretase inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester failed to promote the direct transdifferentiation of supporting cells into hair cells in cisplatin-treated utricles. Taken together, our data show that cisplatin treatment causes maintained changes to inner ear supporting cells and severely impairs the ability of the avian ear to regenerate either via proliferation or by direct transdifferentiation.

  5. Ear-related problems among children attending the paediatric and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-31

    Aug 31, 2006 ... Results: Three thousand and twenty-one children were seen during the study period. Out of these, 248 children (8.2%) pre- sented with ear-related problems. Chronic otitis media (30.5%), acute otitis media (29.9%), cerumen auris (11.3%), otitis ex- terna(10.1%), hearing impairment (7.3%) and foreign body ...

  6. Development of optoelectronic monitoring system for ear arterial pressure waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Satoshi; Imachi, Yu; Yagi, Tamotsu; Imachi, Kou; Ono, Toshirou; Man-i, Masando

    1994-02-01

    Invasive intra-arterial blood pressure measurement is the most accurate method but not practical if the subject is in motion. The apparatus developed by Wesseling et al., based on a volume-clamp method of Penaz (Finapres), is able to monitor continuous finger arterial pressure waveforms noninvasively. The limitation of Finapres is the difficulty in measuring the pressure of a subject during work that involves finger or arm action. Because the Finapres detector is attached to subject's finger, the measurements are affected by inertia of blood and hydrostatic effect cause by arm or finger motion. To overcome this problem, the authors made a detector that is attached to subject's ear and developed and optoelectronic monitoring systems for ear arterial pressure waveform (Earpres). An IR LEDs, photodiode, and air cuff comprised the detector. The detector was attached to a subject's ear, and the space adjusted between the air cuff and the rubber plate on which the LED and photodiode were positioned. To evaluate the accuracy of Earpres, the following tests were conducted with participation of 10 healthy male volunteers. The subjects rested for about five minutes, then performed standing and squatting exercises to provide wide ranges of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure. Intra- and inter-individual standard errors were calculated according to the method of van Egmond et al. As a result, average, the averages of intra-individual standard errors for earpres appeared small (3.7 and 2.7 mmHg for systolic and diastolic pressure respectively). The inter-individual standard errors for Earpres were about the same was Finapres for both systolic and diastolic pressure. The results showed the ear monitor was reliable in measuring arterial blood pressure waveforms and might be applicable to various fields such as sports medicine and ergonomics.

  7. Chicken (Gallus domesticus) inner ear afferents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, H.; Chen, X.; Hartsfield, J. F.; Hara, J.; Martin, D.; Fermin, C. D.

    1998-01-01

    Neurons from the vestibular (VG) and the statoacoustic (SAG) ganglion of the chick (Gallus domesticus) were evaluated histologically and morphometrically. Embryos at stages 34 (E8 days), 39 (E13 days) and 44 (E18 days) were sacrificed and temporal bones microdissected. Specimens were embedded in JB-4 methacrylate plastic, and stained with a mixture of 0.2% toluidine blue (TB) and 0.1% basic Fuschin in 25% ethanol or with a mixture of 2% TB and 1% paraphenylenediamine (PDA) for axon and myelin measurement study. Images of the VIIIth nerve were produced by a V150 (R) color imaging system and the contour of 200-300 neuronal bodies (perikarya) was traced directly on a video screen with a mouse in real time. The cross-sectional area of VG perikarya was 67.29 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 128.46 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 275.85 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). The cross-sectional area of SAG perikarya was 62.44 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 102.05 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 165.02 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). A significant cross-sectional area increase of the VG perikarya between stage 39 (E13) and stage 44 (E18) was determined. We randomly measured the cross-sectional area of myelin and axoplasm of hatchling afferent nerves, and found a correspondence between axoplasmic and myelin cross-sectional area in the utricular, saccular and semicircular canal nerve branches of the nerve. The results suggest that the period between stage 34 (E8) and 39 (E13) is a critical period for afferent neuronal development. Physiological and behavioral vestibular properties of developing and maturing hatchlings may change accordingly. The results compliment previous work by other investigators and provide valuable anatomical measures useful to correlate physiological data obtained from stimulation of the whole nerve or its parts.

  8. Cochlear aqueduct flow resistance is not constant during evoked inner ear pressure change in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, HP; Feijen, RA; Albers, FWJ

    Inner ear fluid pressure was measured during 6.25 mHz square wave middle ear pressure manipulation, with a perforated tympanic membrane. After a negative-going middle ear pressure change the calculated flow resistance of the inner ear pressure release routes (mainly the cochlear aqueduct) was

  9. Comparative transcriptome analysis of oil palm flowers reveals an EAR-motif-containing R2R3-MYB that modulates phenylpropene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Reddy, Vaishnavi Amarr; Jin, Jingjing; Rajan, Chakaravarthy; Wang, Qian; Yue, Genhua; Lim, Chin Huat; Chua, Nam-Hai; Ye, Jian; Sarojam, Rajani

    2017-11-23

    Oil palm is the most productive oil crop and the efficiency of pollination has a direct impact on the yield of oil. Pollination by wind can occur but maximal pollination is mediated by the weevil E. kamerunicus. These weevils complete their life cycle by feeding on male flowers. Attraction of weevils to oil palm flowers is due to the emission of methylchavicol by both male and female flowers. In search for male flowers, the weevils visit female flowers by accident due to methylchavicol fragrance and deposit pollen. Given the importance of methylchavicol emission on pollination, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis of oil palm flowers and leaves to identify candidate genes involved in methylchavicol production in flowers. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of male open flowers, female open flowers and leaves was performed using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Analysis of the transcriptome data revealed that the transcripts of methylchavicol biosynthesis genes were strongly up-regulated whereas transcripts encoding genes involved in lignin production such as, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) and Ferulate-5-hydroxylase (F5H) were found to be suppressed in oil palm flowers. Among the transcripts encoding transcription factors, an EAR-motif-containing R2R3-MYB transcription factor (EgMYB4) was found to be enriched in oil palm flowers. We determined that EgMYB4 can suppress the expression of a monolignol pathway gene, EgCOMT, in vivo by binding to the AC elements present in the promoter region. EgMYB4 was further functionally characterized in sweet basil which also produces phenylpropenes like oil palm. Transgenic sweet basil plants showed significant reduction in lignin content but produced more phenylpropenes. Our results suggest that EgMYB4 possibly restrains lignin biosynthesis in oil palm flowers thus allowing enhanced carbon flux into the phenylpropene pathway. This study augments our understanding of the diverse roles that EAR-motif-containing MYBs play to

  10. Inner ear decompression sickness in compressed-air diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingmann, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Inner ear decompression sickness (IEDCS) has become more frequently reported in recreational diving. We examined 34 divers after IEDCS and analyzed their dive profiles, pattern of symptoms, time of symptom onset and the association with a right-to left shunt (r/l shunt). Four divers used mixed gas and were excluded from the analysis. Of the remaining 30 divers, 25 presented with isolated IEDCS alone, while five divers had additional skin and neurological symptoms. All divers presented with vertigo (100%), and 12 divers reported additional hearing loss (40%). All symptoms occurred within 120 minutes (median 30 minutes) of ascent. Twenty-two of 30 divers (73.3%) showed a r/l shunt. A possible explanation for the frequent association of a r/l shunt and the dominance of vestibular rather than cochlear symptoms could be attributed to the different blood supply of the inner ear structures and the different size of the labyrinthine compartments. The cochlea has a blood supply up to four times higher than the vestibular part of the inner ear, whereas the vestibular fluid space is 30% larger. The higher prevalence of symptoms referrable to the less well-perfused vestibular organ provides further evidence that persistent local inert gas supersaturation may cause growth of incoming arterial bubbles and may therefore be an important pathophysiological factor in IEDCS.

  11. Immune-Mediated Inner Ear Disease: Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penêda, José Ferreira; Lima, Nuno Barros; Monteiro, Francisco; Silva, Joana Vilela; Gama, Rita; Condé, Artur

    2018-03-07

    Immune Mediated Inner Ear Disease (IMIED) is a rare form of sensorineural bilateral hearing loss, usually progressing in weeks to months and responsive to immunosuppressive treatment. Despite recent advances, there is no consensus on diagnosis and optimal treatment. A review of articles on IMIED from the last 10 years was conducted using PubMed ® database. IMIED is a rare disease, mostly affecting middle aged women. It may be a primary ear disease or secondary to autoimmune systemic disease. A dual immune response (both cellular and humoral) seems to be involved. Cochlin may be the inner ear protein targeted in this disease. Distinction from other (core common) forms of neurosensory hearing loss is a challenge. Physical examination is mandatory for exclusion of other causes of hearing loss; audiometry identifies characteristic hearing curves. Laboratory and imaging studies are controversial since no diagnostic marker is available. Despite recent research, IMIED diagnosis remains exclusive. Steroids are the mainstay treatment; other therapies need further investigation. For refractory cases, cochlear implantation is an option and with good relative outcome. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Carcinoma of the middle ear and external auditory canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, S.S.; Kim, J.A.; Goodchild, N.; Constable, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with malignant tumors of the middle ear and external auditory canal (EAC) were observed at the University of Virginia Hospital from 1956 through 1980. Of 27 patients with carcinoma, 21 had squamous cell carcinoma, 4 had basal cell carcinoma and 2 had adenoid cystic carcinoma. The 27 patients with carcinoma are reviewed with regard to clinical presentation, treatment modality, results and complications. The majority (67%) of patients had a history of chronic ear drainage, 22% had a previous mastoidectomy or polypectomy and 7% had an associated cholesteatoma. Eighty percent of patients with carcinoma limited to EAC were alive and well at 5 years, compared to 43% of patients with involvement of the middle ear. Fifty-six percent of patients without invasion of the petrous bone were alive at 5 years compared to only 20% of patients with petrous bone involvement. The data strongly suggest that survival depends on the extent of disease. The corrected disease free 5 year survival rates were 14% for patients who had surgery alone and 50% for those who had surgery and radiotherapy. Of the three patients with advanced disease who received radiotherapy alone, none survived five years

  13. Effects of motherwort alkaloids on rat ear acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Mingsan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the effects of motherwort alkaloids on rat ear acne. The rats that were administered high, medium, and low doses of motherwort alkaloids, tanshinone capsules, a model and a control group. Each group of rats was subjected to gavage once daily for 14 consecutive days. On the first day of testing, the control and model groups were administered an intradermal auricle injection of sterilized saline solution and the remaining groups were administered an intradermal auricle injection of Staphylococcus epidermidis in addition to the gavage. The thicknesses of the rats’ auricles were measured for five consecutive days following the injections. Anticoagulated blood was used for erythrocyte rheology index measurement. In addition, the entire ear of each rat was removed for morphological examination. Compared to the model group, the group administered motherwort alkaloids exhibited significantly reduced swelling, improved localized auricle proliferation, and reduced blood viscosity. This result suggests motherwort alkaloids are effective in rat ear acne.

  14. Age effects in the human middle ear: Wideband acoustical measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, M. Patrick; Sanford, Chris A.

    2004-12-01

    Studies that have examined age effects in the human middle ear using either admittance measures at 220 or 660 Hz or multifrequency tympanometry from 200 to 2000 Hz have had conflicting results. Several studies have suggested an increase in admittance with age, while several others have suggested a decrease in admittance with age. A third group of studies found no significant age effect. This study examined 226 Hz tympanometry and wideband energy reflectance and impedance at ambient pressure in a group of 40 young adults and a group of 30 adults with age >=60 years. The groups did not differ in admittance measures of the middle ear at 226 Hz. However, significant age effects were found in wideband energy reflectance and impedance. In particular, in older adults there was a comparative decrease in reflectance from 800 to 2000 Hz but an increase near 4000 Hz. The results suggest a decrease in middle-ear stiffness with age. The findings of this study hold relevance for understanding the aging process in the auditory system, for the establishment of normative data for wideband energy reflectance, for the possibility of a conductive component to presbycusis, and for the interpretation of otoacoustic emission measurements. .

  15. Anatomic Considerations on the Middle Ear in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Berghes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study is to explain some aspects of middle ear anatomy in dog. The study was conducted on five dog skulls (different ages from common, large size dogs. The skulls were processed by maceration and submitted to a treatment of mechanical cleaning with perhydrol. The temporal bone was collected first; the external wall was opened carefully to study the tympanic cavity. The ossicles were collected separately and subsequently described. From research carried promontory appears as an elongated projection that separates the oval window and round window. Vestibular window is oval or slightly ovoid shape of a hole, located dorso-medially to the promontory, which communicates with the middle ear vestibule. Cochlearia window appears as a round or circular hole located caudo-lateral to the promontory . it is blocked by a membrane called the tympanum secondary, cavity separating the ramp of the snail. In the ventro-oral cavity openings ductus faringo tympanicum. The osicules sound represented by hammer, anvil and stirrup are articulated with each other and form a chain as a link between the eardrum and vestibular window. Bones are driven by two muscles: the tensor muscle and muscle stirrup eardrum is very thin. osicules ear are relatively large and resemble those of humans. Lenticular bone is the lenticular process of the long arm of anvile.

  16. Shaping magnetic fields to direct therapy to ears and eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, B; Kulkarni, S; Nacev, A; Sarwar, A; Preciado, D; Depireux, D A

    2014-07-11

    Magnetic fields have the potential to noninvasively direct and focus therapy to disease targets. External magnets can apply forces on drug-coated magnetic nanoparticles, or on living cells that contain particles, and can be used to manipulate them in vivo. Significant progress has been made in developing and testing safe and therapeutic magnetic constructs that can be manipulated by magnetic fields. However, we do not yet have the magnet systems that can then direct those constructs to the right places, in vivo, over human patient distances. We do not yet know where to put the external magnets, how to shape them, or when to turn them on and off to direct particles or magnetized cells-in blood, through tissue, and across barriers-to disease locations. In this article, we consider ear and eye disease targets. Ear and eye targets are too deep and complex to be targeted by a single external magnet, but they are shallow enough that a combination of magnets may be able to direct therapy to them. We focus on how magnetic fields should be shaped (in space and time) to direct magnetic constructs to ear and eye targets.

  17. Classification and Current Management of Inner Ear Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Sennaroğlu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphologically congenital sensorineural hearing loss can be investigated under two categories. Majority of the congenital hearing loss (80% are membranous malformations. Here the pathology involves inner ear hair cells. There is no gross bony abnormality and therefore, in these cases, high resolution computerized tomography and MRI of the temporal bone reveal normal findings. Remaining 20% have various malformations involving the bony labyrinth and therefore, can be radiologically demonstrated by CT and MRI. The latter group involves surgical challenges as well as problems in decision making. Some cases may be managed by hearing aid, some need cochlear implantation while some cases are candidates for an auditory brainstem implantation. During cochlear implantation, there may be facial nerve abnormalities, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, electrode misplacement or difficulty in finding the cochlea itself. During the surgery for inner ear malformations, surgeon must be ready to modify the surgical approach or choose special electrodes for surgery. In the present review article inner ear malformations are classified according to the differences observed in the cochlea. Hearing and language outcome after various implantation methods is closely related to the status of cochlear nerve and a practical classification of the cochlear nerve deficiency is also provided

  18. Early and late surgical site infections in ear surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastier, P L; Leroyer, C; Lashéras, A; Rogues, A-M; Darrouzet, V; Franco-Vidal, V

    2016-04-01

    A retroauricular approach is routinely used for treating chronic otitis media. The incidence of surgical site infections after ear surgery is around 10% in contaminated or dirty procedures. This observational prospective study describes surgical site infections after chronic otitis media surgery with the retroauricular approach and investigated their potential predictive factors. This observational prospective study included patients suffering from chronic otitis media and eligible for therapeutic surgery with a retroauricular approach. During follow-up, surgical site infections were defined as "early" if occurring within 30 days after surgery or as "late" if occurring thereafter. The data of 102 patients were analysed. Concerning early surgical site infections, four cases were diagnosed (3.9%) and a significant association was found with preoperative antibiotic therapy, wet ear at pre-operative examination, class III (contaminated) in the surgical wound classification, NNIS (National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance) index > 1, and oral post-operative antibiotic use. Seven late surgical site infections were diagnosed (7.1%) between 90 and 160 days after surgery and were significantly correlated to otorrhoea during the 6 months before surgery, surgery duration ≤60 minutes, canal wall down technique and use of fibrin glue. Surgical site infections after chronic otitis media surgery seem to be associated with factors related to the inflammatory state of the middle ear at the time of surgery in early infections and with chronic inflammation in late infections. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  19. Radiation effect on the middle ear of the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Hirofumi; Nishizawa, Shinji; Hiraide, Fumihisa; Inoue, Tetsuzo

    1984-01-01

    It is known that radiation therapy of the head and neck causes otitis media with effusion. Otitis media with effusion was induced in guinea pigs by cobalt-60 irradiation. Twenty guinea pigs with intact drum and normal Preyer reflex were used. We conducted, two experiments as follows: 1) The animals were irradiated with doses of 2,000 rad, 4,000 rad, and 6,000 rad. They were sacrificed seven days after the irradiation. 2) The animals were irradiated with doses of 4,000 rad and sacrificed one day, three days, seven days, and fourteen days after the irradiation. Vascular permeability of the middle ear mucosa was observed by Majno's vascular labelling technique. Pathological change of the middle ear was examined under the light microscope. Vascular permeability increased in three days after 4,000 rad irradiation and small vessels were labelled with carbon particles. Seven days after irradiation, carbon labelling of small vessels was more extensive and extravascular blackening was present in the adjacent tissues. Edematous change of the middle ear mucosa and metaplasia of the epithelial cells were also observed. New bone formation of the tympanic bulla was increased by repeated irradiations. (author)

  20. Design of a dynamic sensor inspired by bat ears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Rolf; Pannala, Mittu; Praveen K Reddy, O; Meymand, Sajjad Z

    2012-01-01

    In bats, the outer ear shapes act as beamforming baffles that create a spatial sensitivity pattern for the reception of the biosonar signals. Whereas technical receivers for wave-based signals usually have rigid geometries, the outer ears of some bat species, such as horseshoe bats, can undergo non-rigid deformations as a result of muscular actuation. It is hypothesized that these deformations provide the animals with a mechanism to adapt their spatial hearing sensitivity on short, sub-second time scales. This biological approach could be of interest to engineering as an inspiration for the design of beamforming devices that combine flexibility with parsimonious implementation. To explore this possibility, a biomimetic dynamic baffle was designed based on a simple shape overall geometry based on an average bat ear. This shape was augmented with three different biomimetic local shape features, a ridge on its exposed surface as well as a flap and an incision along its rim. Dynamic non-rigid deformations of the shape were accomplished through a simple actuation mechanism based on linear actuation inserted at a single point. Despite its simplicity, the prototype device was able to reproduce the dynamic functional characteristics that have been predicted for its biological paragon in a qualitative fashion. (paper)

  1. Speech understanding and directional hearing for hearing-impaired subjects with in-the-ear and behind-the-ear hearing aids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, A. R.; Dreschler, W. A.

    1987-01-01

    With respect to acoustical properties, in-the-ear (ITE) aids should give better understanding and directional hearing than behind-the-ear (BTE) aids. Also hearing-impaired subjects often prefer ITEs. A study was performed to assess objectively the improvement in speech understanding and directional

  2. Reflectance Measures from Infant Ears With Normal Hearing and Transient Conductive Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Susan E; Herrmann, Barbara S; Horton, Nicholas J; Amadei, Elizabeth A; Kujawa, Sharon G

    2016-01-01

    The objective is to develop methods to utilize newborn reflectance measures for the identification of middle-ear transient conditions (e.g., middle-ear fluid) during the newborn period and ultimately during the first few months of life. Transient middle-ear conditions are a suspected source of failure to pass a newborn hearing screening. The ability to identify a conductive loss during the screening procedure could enable the referred ear to be either (1) cleared of a middle-ear condition and recommended for more extensive hearing assessment as soon as possible, or (2) suspected of a transient middle-ear condition, and if desired, be rescreened before more extensive hearing assessment. Reflectance measurements are reported from full-term, healthy, newborn babies in which one ear referred and one ear passed an initial auditory brainstem response newborn hearing screening and a subsequent distortion product otoacoustic emission screening on the same day. These same subjects returned for a detailed follow-up evaluation at age 1 month (range 14 to 35 days). In total, measurements were made on 30 subjects who had a unilateral refer near birth (during their first 2 days of life) and bilateral normal hearing at follow-up (about 1 month old). Three specific comparisons were made: (1) Association of ear's state with power reflectance near birth (referred versus passed ear), (2) Changes in power reflectance of normal ears between newborn and 1 month old (maturation effects), and (3) Association of ear's newborn state (referred versus passed) with ear's power reflectance at 1 month. In addition to these measurements, a set of preliminary data selection criteria were developed to ensure that analyzed data were not corrupted by acoustic leaks and other measurement problems. Within 2 days of birth, the power reflectance measured in newborn ears with transient middle-ear conditions (referred newborn hearing screening and passed hearing assessment at age 1 month) was significantly

  3. Producing cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E G

    1923-09-12

    A process and apparatus are described for producing Portland cement in which pulverized shale is successively heated in a series of inclined rotary retorts having internal stirrers and oil gas outlets, which are connected to condensers. The partially treated shale is removed from the lowermost retort by a conveyor, then fed separately or conjointly into pipes and thence into a number of vertically disposed retorts. Each of these retorts may be fitted interiorly with vertical arranged conveyors which elevate the shale and discharge it over a lip, from whence it falls to the bottom of the retorts. The lower end of each casing is furnished with an adjustable discharge door through which the spent shale is fed to a hopper, thence into separate trucks. The oil gases generated in the retorts are exhausted through pipes to condensers. The spent shale is conveyed to a bin and mixed while hot with ground limestone. The admixed materials are then ground and fed to a rotary kiln which is fired by the incondensible gases derived from the oil gases obtained in the previous retorting of the shale. The calcined materials are then delivered from the rotary kiln to rotary coolers. The waste gases from the kiln are utilized for heating the retorts in which the ground shale is heated for the purpose of extracting therefrom the contained hydrocarbon oils and gases.

  4. Inner ear anatomy in Waardenburg syndrome: radiological assessment and comparison with normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontorinis, Georgios; Goetz, Friedrich; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Luytenski, Stefan; Giesemann, Anja M

    2014-08-01

    As patients with Waardenburg syndrome (WS) represent potential candidates for cochlear implantation, their inner ear anatomy is of high significance. There is an ongoing debate whether WS is related to any inner ear dysplasias. Our objective was to evaluate radiologically the inner ear anatomy in patients with WS and identify any temporal bone malformations. A retrospective case review was carried out in a tertiary, referral center. The high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans of the temporal bone from 20 patients (40 ears) with WS who were managed for deafness in a tertiary referral center from 1995 to 2012 were retrospectively examined. Measurements of 15 different inner ear dimensions, involving the cochlea, the vestibule, the semicircular canals and the internal auditory meatus, as well as measurements of the vestibular aqueduct, were performed independently by two neuroradiologists. Finally, we compared the results from the WS group with a control group consisting of 50 normal hearing subjects (100 ears) and with previously reported normative values. Inner ear malformations were not found in any of the patients with WS. All measured inner ear dimensions were within the normative values compiled by our study group as well as by others. Inner ear malformations are not characteristic for all types of WS; however, certain rare subtypes might be related to inner ear deformities. Normative cochleovestibular dimensions that can help in assessing the temporal bone anatomy are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the canine tympanic membrane by positive contrast ear canalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trower, N.D.; Gregory, S.P.; Renfrew, H.; Lamb, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    Positive contrast ear canalography was described briefly in 1973 as a method for detecting rupture of the tympanic membrane in dogs with otitis media. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and usefulness of the technique. The ears of 10 normal canine cadavers and 31 dogs with clinical signs of ear disease were examined using otoscopy, radiography and contrast radiography after infusing 2 to 5 ml of positive contrast medium into the ear canals. These examinations were repeated in the cadavers after the tympanic membrane had been punctured with a Spreull needle. In the cadavers 14 of 19 (74 per cent) of the tympanic membranes were visible otoscopically; contrast medium did not enter the tympanic bulla of any of the ears before the tympanic membrane was ruptured, but was visible in the bulla in every ear after rupture. In the clinical study, 40 of 61 (66 per cent) of the tympanic membranes were visible otoscopically, and 12 appeared to be ruptured. Radiographic signs of otitis media (increased opacity and/or thickening of the tympanic bulla) were identified in seven ears. Canalography was positive for rupture of the tympanic membrane in 13 ears, including four in which it appeared to be intact otoscopically. In normal canine ears, canalography was a more accurate method for detecting iatrogenic tympanic membrane rupture than otoscopy. In dogs with ear disease, canalography may be more sensitive for otitis media than either otoscopy or survey radiography

  6. Reestablishing speech understanding through musical ear training after cochlear implantation: a study of the potential cortical plasticity in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn; Mortensen, Malene V; Gjedde, Albert

    2009-01-01

    the behavioral and neurologic effects of musical ear training on CI users' speech and music perception. The goal is to find and work out musical methods to improve CI users' auditory capabilities and, in a longer perspective, provide an efficient strategy for improving speech understanding for both adults......Cochlear implants (CIs) provide impressive speech perception for persons with severe hearing loss, but many CI recipients fail in perceiving speech prosody and music. Successful rehabilitation depends on cortical plasticity in the brain and postoperative measures. The present study evaluates...

  7. Oval window transport of Gd-dOTA from rat middle ear to vestibulum and scala vestibuli visualized by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jing; Poe, Dennis; Ramadan, Usama Abo; Pyykkö, Ilmari

    2012-02-01

    We tested our hypothesis that the oval window (OW) potentially functions as a route to carry substances from the middle ear to the vestibulum and then the scala vestibuli through the annular ligament across the stapediovestibular joint. Gd-DOTA was either injected into the lateral attic compartment of rats with a high-performance polyimide tube in a selective OW delivery group, or administered to the middle ear cavity of two groups of rats in which the OW was either sealed or not sealed. The dynamic uptake of Gd-DOTA in the inner ear was visualized with a 4.7-T magnetic resonance imaging machine. In the selective OW delivery group, Gd-DOTA appeared in the vestibulum and in the basal turn of the scala vestibuli but not in the scala tympani on T1-weighted images acquired at 10 minutes after Gd-DOTA administration (the earliest available time point of magnetic resonance imaging). In the sealed-OW group, immediate uptake of Gd-DOTA was absent in the vestibulum and scala vestibuli. Measurement of the signal ratio of the vestibulum to that of the scala tympani showed that selective OW delivery induced the greatest signal ratio and that sealing of the OW induced the lowest signal ratio. The OW is a genuine and efficient pathway to transport Gd-DOTA from the middle ear to the vestibulum.

  8. Middle ear osteoma causing progressive facial nerve weakness: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Kate; Bance, Manohar; Carter, Michael; Hong, Paul

    2014-09-18

    Facial nerve weakness is most commonly due to Bell's palsy or cerebrovascular accidents. Rarely, middle ear tumor presents with facial nerve dysfunction. We report a very unusual case of middle ear osteoma in a 49-year-old Caucasian woman causing progressive facial nerve deficit. A subtle middle ear lesion was observed on otoscopy and computed tomographic images demonstrated an osseous middle ear tumor. Complete surgical excision resulted in the partial recovery of facial nerve function. Facial nerve dysfunction is rarely caused by middle ear tumors. The weakness is typically due to a compressive effect on the middle ear portion of the facial nerve. Early recognition is crucial since removal of these lesions may lead to the recuperation of facial nerve function.

  9. Pd-catalytic in situ generation of H2O2 from H2 and O2 produced by water electrolysis for the efficient electro-fenton degradation of rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Songhu; Fan, Ye; Zhang, Yucheng; Tong, Man; Liao, Peng

    2011-10-01

    A novel electro-Fenton process was developed for wastewater treatment using a modified divided electrolytic system in which H2O2 was generated in situ from electro-generated H2 and O2 in the presence of Pd/C catalyst. Appropriate pH conditions were obtained by the excessive H+ produced at the anode. The performance of the novel process was assessed by Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation in an aqueous solution. Experimental results showed that the accumulation of H2O2 occurred when the pH decreased and time elapsed. The maximum concentration of H2O2 reached 53.1 mg/L within 120 min at pH 2 and a current of 100 mA. Upon the formation of the Fenton reagent by the addition of Fe2+, RhB degraded completely within 30 min at pH 2 with a pseudo first order rate constant of 0.109 ± 0.009 min(-1). An insignificant decline in H2O2 generation and RhB degradation was found after six repetitions. RhB degradation was achieved by the chemisorption of H2O2 on the Pd/C surface, which subsequently decomposed into •OH upon catalysis by Pd0 and Fe2+. The catalytic decomposition of H2O2 to •OH by Fe2+ was more powerful than that by Pd0, which was responsible for the high efficiency of this novel electro-Fenton process.

  10. Auditory semantic processing in dichotic listening: effects of competing speech, ear of presentation, and sentential bias on N400s to spoken words in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel; Mercure, Evelyne; Pizzioli, Fabrizio; Aydelott, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    The effects of ear of presentation and competing speech on N400s to spoken words in context were examined in a dichotic sentence priming paradigm. Auditory sentence contexts with a strong or weak semantic bias were presented in isolation to the right or left ear, or with a competing signal presented in the other ear at a SNR of -12 dB. Target words were congruent or incongruent with the sentence meaning. Competing speech attenuated N400s to both congruent and incongruent targets, suggesting that the demand imposed by a competing signal disrupts the engagement of semantic comprehension processes. Bias strength affected N400 amplitudes differentially depending upon ear of presentation: weak contexts presented to the le/RH produced a more negative N400 response to targets than strong contexts, whereas no significant effect of bias strength was observed for sentences presented to the re/LH. The results are consistent with a model of semantic processing in which the RH relies on integrative processing strategies in the interpretation of sentence-level meaning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Limits on normal cochlear 'third' windows provided by previous investigations of additional sound paths into and out of the cat inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosowski, John J; Bowers, Peter; Nakajima, Hideko H

    2018-03-01

    While most models of cochlear function assume the presence of only two windows into the mammalian cochlea (the oval and round windows), a position that is generally supported by several lines of data, there is evidence for additional sound paths into and out of the inner ear in normal mammals. In this report we review the existing evidence for and against the 'two-window' hypothesis. We then determine how existing data and inner-ear anatomy restrict transmission of sound through these additional sound pathways in cat by utilizing a well-tested model of the cat inner ear, together with anatomical descriptions of the cat cochlear and vestibular aqueducts (potential additional windows to the cochlea). We conclude: (1) The existing data place limits on the size of the cochlear and vestibular aqueducts in cat and are consistent with small volume-velocities through these ducts during ossicular stimulation of the cochlea, (2) the predicted volume velocities produced by aqueducts with diameters half the size of the bony diameters match the functional data within ±10 dB, and (3) these additional volume velocity paths contribute to the inner ear's response to non-acoustic stimulation and conductive pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bone Signaling in Middle Ear Development: A Genome‐Wide Differential Expression Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michelle Christine; Bertelsen, Tomas Martin; Friis, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Common middle ear diseases may affect bone behavior in the middle ear air cell system. To understand this pathologic pneumatization, the normal development of bone in the middle ear should be investigated. The objective of this study was to analyze gene expression of bone‐related signaling factor...... of the bulla wall. Anat Rec, 297:2349–2355, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  13. Erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor expression in the guinea pig inner ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Wagner, Niels; Lidegaard Frederiksen, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    , this study determines expression of EPO and EPOR in the inner ear of the guinea pig. Normal guinea pig inner ears were processed for immunohistochemistry, using poly-clonal antibodies against EPO and the EPO receptor. EPO expression was exclusively found in most, but not all spiral ganglion neurons...... expressed by several cell types within the guinea pig cochlea. We hypothesize on the existence of a local paracrine system and that EPO treatment may be feasible following inner ear damage....

  14. Efficacy of naturopathic extracts in the management of ear pain associated with acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrell, E M; Mandelberg, A; Cohen, H A

    2001-07-01

    To determine the efficacy and tolerance of Otikon Otic Solution (Healthy-On Ltd, Petach-Tikva, Israel), a naturopathic herbal extract (containing Allium sativum, Verbascum thapsus, Calendula flores, and Hypericum perforatum in olive oil), compared with Anaesthetic (Vitamed Pharmaceutical Ltd, Benyamina, Israel) ear drops (containing ametocaine and phenazone in glycerin) in the management of ear pain associated with acute otitis media (AOM). Children between the ages of 6 and 18 years who experienced ear pain (otalgia) and who were diagnosed with eardrum problems associated with AOM were randomly assigned to be treated with Otikon or Anaesthetic ear drops, which were instilled into the external canal(s) of the affected ear(s). Ear pain was assessed using 2 visual analog scales: a linear scale and a color scale. Pain assessment took place throughout the course of 3 days. The mean score of pain reduction was used to measure outcome. Primary pediatric community ambulatory centers. One hundred three children aged 6 to 18 years who were diagnosed with otalgia associated with AOM. Each of the 2 treatment groups were comparable on the basis of age, sex, laterality of AOM, and the effectiveness of ameliorating symptoms of otalgia. The 2 groups were also comparable to each other in the initial ear pain score and in the scores at each application of Otikon or Anaesthetic drops. There was a statistically significant improvement in ear pain score throughout the course of the study period (P =.007). Otikon, an ear drop formulation of naturopathic origin, is as effective as Anaesthetic ear drops and was proven appropriate for the management of AOM-associated ear pain.

  15. Ear-body lift and a novel thrust generating mechanism revealed by the complex wake of brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L. Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Large ears enhance perception of echolocation and prey generated sounds in bats. However, external ears likely impair aerodynamic performance of bats compared to birds. But large ears may generate lift on their own, mitigating the negative effects. We studied flying brown long-eared bats, using high resolution, time resolved particle image velocimetry, to determine the aerodynamics of flying with large ears. We show that the ears and body generate lift at medium to cruising speeds (3-5 m/s), but at the cost of an interaction with the wing root vortices, likely reducing inner wing performance. We also propose that the bats use a novel wing pitch mechanism at the end of the upstroke generating thrust at low speeds, which should provide effective pitch and yaw control. In addition, the wing tip vortices show a distinct spiraling pattern. The tip vortex of the previous wingbeat remains into the next wingbeat and rotates together with a newly formed tip vortex. Several smaller vortices, related to changes in circulation around the wing also spiral the tip vortex. Our results thus show a new level of complexity in bat wakes and suggest large eared bats are less aerodynamically limited than previous wake studies have suggested.

  16. Statistical Surface Recovery: A Study on Ear Canals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Olesen, Oline Vinter; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    We present a method for surface recovery in partial surface scans based on a statistical model. The framework is based on multivariate point prediction, where the distribution of the points are learned from an annotated data set. The training set consist of surfaces with dense correspondence...... that are Procrustes aligned. The average shape and point covariances can be estimated from this set. It is shown how missing data in a new given shape can be predicted using the learned statistics. The method is evaluated on a data set of 29 scans of ear canal impressions. By using a leave-one-out approach we...

  17. Ear, nose, and throat disorders in a nigerian rural community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheed Atilade Adegbiji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of ear, nose, and throat with head and neck diseases in a rural community in Oyo State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective community-based study of ear, nose, and throat diseases. The study was carried out over a period of 3 months (January to March 2017. Verbal consent was obtained from the village head and participants. A total of 738 individuals were enrolled into the study. Interview-assisted questionnaire was administered to obtain bio data and otorhinolaryngological history from all participants, followed by examination and investigation. Data obtained were collated and statistically analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 738 consented participants had various forms of ear, nose, and throat disorders. They constituted 435 (58.9% males and 303 (41.1% females, with a male: female ratio of 1:1. Majority of enrollee were dependent age groups. These age groups were 27.4% (1–10, 25.5% (11–20, and 14.1% (51–60. The occupational status revealed that 28.9% were employed; 9.3% were retired; 45.5% were children/students/apprenticeship; and 16.3% were artisans, homemakers, and farmers. Nasal diseases (34.4% were the most common otorhinolaryngological, head and neck disorders while ear, nose, and throat with head and neck diseases were responsible for 43.4%, 14.6%, and 7.6%, respectively. The common diseases were wax impaction (11.7%, sinusitis (14.4%, and allergic rhinitis (22.6%. Less prevalent otorhinolaryngological, head and neck diseases were vertigo/balance disorder (0.9%, cervical spondylosis (1.6%, and pharyngitis/tonsillitis (2.0%. Common procedures performed included impacted earwax removal (22.8%, aural toilet/dressing (14.4%, pure tone audiometry (32.5%, tympanometry (18.4%, endoscopy (9.8%, and antral irrigation (5.7%. Referred cases of 7.2% were recorded. The barriers experienced by these villagers in seeking otorhinolaryngological

  18. Ossicular erosions in the dry ear: CT diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, J.D.; Nunnelly, D.E.; Zwillenberg, S.; Berger, A.S.; Popky, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Erosions of the ossicular chain can occur as a complication of noncholesteatomatous chronic otitis media. These defects may appear on CT of the healed ''dry'' ear. Ischemic necrosis is the most likely etiology; however, acid phosphatase-containing lysosomes are also implicated. The incus (particularly the long and lenticular processes) is by far the most vulnerable ossicle. Coronal CT is especially valuable in diagnosing these erosions. Fibrous replacement of the incudostapedial articulation may be diagnosed on CT when an unusually wide ''joint'' is seen on axial CT scans

  19. Regeneration and replacement in the vertebrate inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Jonathan I; Parker, Mark A; Ryals, Brenda M; Cotanche, Douglas A

    2005-10-01

    Deafness affects more than 40 million people in the UK and the USA, and many more world-wide. The primary cause of hearing loss is damage to or death of the sensory receptor cells in the inner ear, the hair cells. Birds can readily regenerate their cochlear hair cells but the mammalian cochlea has shown no ability to regenerate after damage. Current research efforts are focusing on gene manipulation, gene therapy and stem cell transplantation for repairing or replacing damaged mammalian cochlear hair cells, which could lead to therapies for treating deafness in humans.

  20. The XVth Century Ear Dagger. Its Hispano-Moresque origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Lorente, J. J.

    1964-12-01

    Full Text Available THE so-called ear dagger is one of the short European arms more sought after by collectors, due to the comparatively small number of specimens which are known to exist at the present time. These daggers are usually described as those where the pommel is formed by a pair of discs bent outwards, sometimes covered on the outside with plaques of ivory or horn, and the grip of steel always forms part of the blade. Most of the authors of the last century, specially the French, have considered these arms as being made in Venice, as well as in some other parts of Europe.

    No disponible.

  1. Direct Acoustic Stimulation at the Lateral Canal: An Alternative Route to the Inner Ear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Verhaert

    Full Text Available Severe to profound mixed hearing loss is associated with hearing rehabilitation difficulties. Recently, promising results for speech understanding were obtained with a direct acoustic cochlear implant (DACI. The surgical implantation of a DACI with standard coupling through a stapedotomy can however be regarded as challenging. Therefore, in this experimental study, the feasibility of direct acoustic stimulation was investigated at an anatomically and surgically more accessible inner ear site. DACI stimulation of the intact, blue-lined and opened lateral semicircular canal (LC was investigated and compared with standard oval window (OW coupling. Additionally, stapes footplate fixation was induced. Round window (RW velocity, as a measure of the performance of the device and its coupling efficiency, was determined in fresh-frozen human cadaver heads. Using single point laser Doppler vibrometry, RW velocity could reliably be measured in low and middle frequency range, and equivalent sound pressure level (LE output was calculated. Results for the different conditions obtained in five heads were analyzed in subsequent frequency ranges. Comparing the difference in RW membrane velocity showed higher LE in the LC opened condition [mean: 103 equivalent dB SPL], than in LC intact or blue-lined conditions [63 and 74 equivalent dB SPL, respectively]. No difference was observed between the LC opened and the standard OW condition. Inducing stapes fixation, however, led to a difference in the low frequency range of LE compared to LC opened. In conclusion, this feasibility study showed promising results for direct acoustic stimulation at this specific anatomically and surgically more accessible inner ear site. Future studies are needed to address the impact of LC stimulation on cochlear micromechanics and on the vestibular system like dizziness and risks of hearing loss.

  2. Image analysis of the inner ear with CT and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakawa, Kohzoh; Takeda, Hidehiko; Mutoh, Naoko; Miyakawa, Kohichi; Yukawa, Kumiko; Funasaka, Sohtaro.

    1992-01-01

    Recent progress in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has made it possible to obtain detailed images of the inner ear by delineating the lymphatic fluid within the labyrinth. We analyzed CT scans and MR imaging in 70 ears manifesting profound deafness owing to inner ear lesions and compared their detective ability for inner ear lesions. The following results were obtained. CT scan examination showed slight to extensive ossification of the labyrinth in six ears (9%), whereas MRI examination revealed low to absent signal intensity of the inner ear in nine ears (13%). Therefore, it was concluded that MRI is more sensitive in detecting abnormalities of the inner ear than CT scan. MRI provided useful information as to whether the cochlear turn is filled with lymphatic fluid or obstructed. This point was one of the greatest advantages of MRI over CT scan. Abnormal findings in either or both the CT scan and the MRI were detected in suppurative labyrinthitis occurring secondary to chronic otitis media, bacterial meningitis and in inner ear trauma. However, such abnormal findings were not detected in patients with idiopathic progressive sensorineural hearing loss, ototoxity or sudden deafness. These findings should be taken into consideration in pre-operative assessment of cochlear implant candidates. (author)

  3. Radiographic appearance of the middle ear after ventral bulla osteotomy in five dogs with otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, D.E.; Walker, L.

    1997-01-01

    Radiographs of the middle ear were made in five dogs 60 to 78 months after ventral bulla osteotomy was performed to treat otitis media. The clinical results of surgery were considered satisfactory in four dogs and unsatisfactory in one. In 4 dogs with satisfactory results, radiographs demonstrated complete reformation of the bulla in 3 operated middle ears (3 dogs), with partial bulla reformation in the three middle ears (3 dogs). Radiographs in one dog with unsatisfactory results showed complete bulla reformation with no increase in lumen opacity. The proliferative bony response obliterating the middle ear previously reported in normal dogs after ventral bulla osteotomy was not seen in any of these patients

  4. Safe storage of premature maize ears through gamma radiation and irradiation effect on chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, H.O.; Singh, N.N.; Roy, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    Marked differences were observed between unirradiated and irradiated premature ears (early dough stage) of maize during storage. Some molds were developed on the grains and deterioration set in at the peduncle and stone of maize in the unirradiated ears, whereas no such symptoms were observed in the 3 kGy irradiated ears even after 45 days of storage. Changes in chemical constituents viz. starch, protein, total sugars were observed in the ears without adversely affecting the quality traits through radiation although 100 grains weight reduced slightly. (author)

  5. Assessment of genetic diversity in Chinese eared pheasant using fluorescent-AFLP markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiujuan; Zhu, Yaohong; Liu, Panqi

    2010-01-01

    on the list of the world’s threatened species. In this paper, 74 individuals from the four eared pheasant species were assessed for population genetic diversity by means of fluorescent-AFLP markers. A total of 429 AFLP peaks were amplified by 11 pairs of fluorescent EcoRI/TaqI primer combinations. Out of all...... using Jaccard’s similarity coefficients (SC) and the corresponding dendrogram. It was found that there was a moderate genetic distance between the four species (SC = 0.674–0.832). Brown eared pheasant was genetically closely related to blue eared pheasant (SC = 0.832), while white eared pheasant...

  6. Characteristics and application of inner ear CT in 20 cases of sensorineural hearing loss in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Liang; Wang, Hua

    2012-12-01

    This study shows that a number of children with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) have inner ear malformations demonstrated by multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT). MSCT allows a comprehensive assessment of various congenital inner ear malformations through high quality multiplanar reformation (MPR) and can display the site and degree of the malformation three-dimensionally and intuitively. This is very useful for cochlear implantation. To evaluate the feasibility and usability of MSCT in pediatric SNHL with inner ear malformations. Sixty-five patients were diagnosed with SNHL by brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER). Inner ear MSCT scan and coronal MPR reconstruction were performed in all cases. This study demonstrated 20 cases (33 ears) with inner ear malformations, which included 10 ears with cochlear malformations, 7 with vestibular malformations, 5 with semicircular canal malformations, 8 with internal auditory canal (IAC) malformations, and 15 with vestibular malformations. Cochlear malformations included one ear with Michel deformity, two ears with common cavity deformity, one with cochlear aplasia, one with hypoplastic cochlea, two with incomplete partition type I, and three with incomplete partition type II (Mondini deformity).

  7. In vivo imaging of middle-ear and inner-ear microstructures of a mouse guided by SD-OCT combined with a surgical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Nam Hyun; Jang, Jeong Hun; Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun

    2014-01-01

    We developed an augmented-reality system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) with a surgical microscope. By sharing the common optical path in the microscope and OCT, we could simultaneously acquire OCT and microscope views. The system was tested to identify the middle-ear and inner-ear microstructures of a mouse. Considering the probability of clinical application including otorhinolaryngology, diseases such as middle-ear effusion were visualized using in vivo mouse and OCT images simultaneously acquired through the eyepiece of the surgical microscope during surgical manipulation using the proposed system. This system is expected to realize a new practical area of OCT application. PMID:24787787

  8. Effect of target-masker similarity on across-ear interference in a dichotic cocktail-party listening task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brungart, Douglas S; Simpson, Brian D

    2007-09-01

    Similarity between the target and masking voices is known to have a strong influence on performance in monaural and binaural selective attention tasks, but little is known about the role it might play in dichotic listening tasks with a target signal and one masking voice in the one ear and a second independent masking voice in the opposite ear. This experiment examined performance in a dichotic listening task with a target talker in one ear and same-talker, same-sex, or different-sex maskers in both the target and the unattended ears. The results indicate that listeners were most susceptible to across-ear interference with a different-sex within-ear masker and least susceptible with a same-talker within-ear masker, suggesting that the amount of across-ear interference cannot be predicted from the difficulty of selectively attending to the within-ear masking voice. The results also show that the amount of across-ear interference consistently increases when the across-ear masking voice is more similar to the target speech than the within-ear masking voice is, but that no corresponding decline in across-ear interference occurs when the across-ear voice is less similar to the target than the within-ear voice. These results are consistent with an "integrated strategy" model of speech perception where the listener chooses a segregation strategy based on the characteristics of the masker present in the target ear and the amount of across-ear interference is determined by the extent to which this strategy can also effectively be used to suppress the masker in the unattended ear.

  9. Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma of the ear helix: report of primary ear helix adnexal carcinoma with regional lymph node metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Tae Hui; Kang, Shin Hyuk; Kim, Han Koo; Kim, Woo Seob; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2014-07-01

    Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma is a rare tumor of eccrine sweat gland origin that has a predilection for the head and neck. It has an indolent growth pattern and a higher incidence of regional and distant metastases. Metastasizing adnexal carcinomas are rare; thus, currently there is no uniform treatment guideline. We report a case of an 89-year-old female patient with clear cell hidradenocarcinoma manifesting in the right ear helix that metastasized to the right parotid gland who was treated by wide local excision and radiation therapy.

  10. Drop weld thermal injuries to the middle ear.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keogh, I J

    2009-01-01

    Drop weld injuries to the tympanic membrane and middle ear caused by hot sparks or molten slag are a rare but significant injury. Steel workers and welders who are regularly exposed to flying sparks and molten metal slag are predisposed. This type of transtympanic thermal injury occurs when the slag literally drops into the external auditory canal and burns through the tympanic membrane. A spectrum of severity of injury occurs which includes chronic tympanic membrane perforation, chronic otorrhoea, facial nerve injury and deafness. Chronic tympanic membrane perforation is the most common sequelae and is perhaps one of the most challenging of all perforations to repair The combination of direct thermal injury and foreign body reaction results in continuing or recurrent suppuration. The foreign body reaction is due to the embedding of metal slag in the promontorial mucosa. We present a case of drop weld injury to the left tympanic membrane, resulting in chronic middle ear inflammation, otorrhoea and tympanic perforation. CAT scan clearly demonstrated a metallic promontorial foreign body with localised bone erosion. We emphasise the importance of removing these foreign bodies and recommend a cartilage reinforced underlay tympanoplasty technique to repair these perforations. Transtympanic thermal trauma is a preventable occupational injury, which is best, avoided by earplugs and increased awareness.

  11. Ear nose throat manifestations in hypoidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callea, Michele; Teggi, Roberto; Yavuz, Izzet; Tadini, Gianluca; Priolo, Manuela; Crovella, Sergio; Clarich, Gabriella; Grasso, Domenico Leonardo

    2013-11-01

    The ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) are a large and complex group of inherited disorders. In various combinations, they all share anomalies in ectodermal derived structures: hair, teeth, nails and sweat gland function. Clinical overlap is present among EDs. Few causative genes have been identified, to date. Altered gene expression is not limited to the ectoderm but a concomitant effect on developing mesenchymal structures, with modification of ectodermal-mesenchymal signaling, takes place. The two major categories of ED include the hidrotic and hypohidrotic form, the latter more frequent; they differentiate each other for the presence or absence of sweat glands. We report Ear Nose Throat manifestations of ED, linked to the reduction of mucous glands in the nasal fossae with reduced ciliar function, and decrease salivary glands function. Often patients report an increased rate of infections of the upper respiratory tract and of the ear. Nasal obstruction due to the presence of nasal crusting, hearing loss and throat hoarseness are the most represented symptoms. Environmental measures, including a correct air temperature and humidification, is mandatory above all in subjects affected by hypohidrotic form. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Lead on Human Middle Ear Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hye Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a ubiquitous metal in the environment, but no studies have examined lead toxicity on the middle ear. Here, we investigated lead toxicity and its mechanism in human middle ear epithelial cells (HMEECs. Moreover, we investigated the protective effects of amniotic membrane extract (AME and chorionic membrane extract (CME against lead toxicity in HMEECs. Cell viability was analyzed using the cell counting kit, and reactive oxygen species (ROS activity was measured using a cellular ROS detection kit. After lead(II acetate trihydrate treatment, mRNA levels of various genes were assessed by semiquantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Following treatment with AME or CME after lead exposure, the changes in cell viability, ROS activity, and gene expression were analyzed. Exposure to >100 μg/mL of lead(II acetate trihydrate caused a significant decrease in cell viability and increased ROS production in HMEECs. Lead exposure significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and mucins. Administration of AME or CME restored cell viability, reduced ROS activity, and ameliorated mRNA levels. Our findings suggest that environmental lead exposure is related to the development of otitis media, and AME and CME may have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects against lead toxicity.

  13. What the Toadfish Ear Tells the Toadfish Brain About Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edds-Walton, Peggy L

    2016-01-01

    Of the three, paired otolithic endorgans in the ear of teleost fishes, the saccule is the one most often demonstrated to have a major role in encoding frequencies of biologically relevant sounds. The toadfish saccule also encodes sound level and sound source direction in the phase-locked activity conveyed via auditory afferents to nuclei of the ipsilateral octaval column in the medulla. Although paired auditory receptors are present in teleost fishes, binaural processes were believed to be unimportant due to the speed of sound in water and the acoustic transparency of the tissues in water. In contrast, there are behavioral and anatomical data that support binaural processing in fishes. Studies in the toadfish combined anatomical tract-tracing and physiological recordings from identified sites along the ascending auditory pathway to document response characteristics at each level. Binaural computations in the medulla and midbrain sharpen the directional information provided by the saccule. Furthermore, physiological studies in the central nervous system indicated that encoding frequency, sound level, temporal pattern, and sound source direction are important components of what the toadfish ear tells the toadfish brain about sound.

  14. The evolution of tetrapod ears and the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, J A

    1997-01-01

    In the earliest tetrapods, the fenestra vestibuli was a large hole in the braincase wall bounded by bones of different embryological origins: the otic capsule and occipital arch components, and also, in all except the Devonian Acanthostega, the dermal parasphenoid. This means that the hole lay along the line of the embryonic metotic fissure. Early tetrapod braincases were poorly ossified internally, and no specialized opening for a perilymphatic duct is evident. It is arguable that the earliest tetrapods had neither a perilympllatic duct crossing the otic capsule nor a specialized auditory receptor in a separate lagenar pouch. The primitive tetrapod condition is found in the earliest amniotes, and the separate development of (1) a fenestra vestibuli confined to the limits of the otic capsule, (2) a specialized pressure relief window also derived from components on the line of the metolic fissure, (3) a nonstructural, vibratory stapes and (4) increased internal ossification of the internal walls of the otic capsule, can be traced separately in synapsids, lepidosauromorph diapsids, archosauromorph diapsids, probably turtles, and amphibians. This suggests separate development of true tympanic ears in each of these groups. Developments indicating the existence of a true tympanic ear in amniotes are first found in animals from the Triassic period, and a correlation with the evolution of insect sound production is suggested.

  15. A uniquely specialized ear in a very early tetrapod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, J A; Ahlberg, P E; Finney, S M; Dominguez Alonso, P; Robinson, J; Ketcham, R A

    2003-09-04

    The Late Devonian genus Ichthyostega was for many decades the earliest known tetrapod, and the sole representative of a transitional form between a fish and a land vertebrate. However, despite being known since 1932 (ref. 1) from a large collection of specimens, its morphology remained enigmatic and not what was expected of a very primitive tetrapod. Its apparent specializations led it to be considered as a "blind offshoot" or "sidebranch" off the tetrapod family tree, and recent cladistic analyses have disagreed about its exact phylogenetic position within the tetrapod stem group. In particular, its braincase and ear region defied interpretation, such that conventional anatomical terms seemed inapplicable. Using new material collected in 1998 (ref. 9), preparation of earlier-collected material, and high-resolution computed tomography scanning, here we identify and interpret these problematic anatomical structures. They can now be seen to form part of a highly specialized ear, probably a hearing device for use in water. This represents a structurally and functionally unique modification of the tetrapod otic region, unlike anything seen in subsequent tetrapod evolution. The presence of deeply grooved gill bars as in its contemporary Acanthostega suggest that Ichthyostega may have been more aquatically adapted than previously believed.

  16. Tolerance of normal tissues to radiation therapy: Ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleury, B.; Lapeyre, M.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to describe, based on a literature survey, the radiation-induced toxicity of the ear and to try to establish the limiting dose. The limiting toxicity was the sensorineural hearing loss. A dose-effect relationship has been described by several authors. Thirty to 40% of patients who are irradiated for head and neck cancer are concerned, but the intensity of the hearing loss tends to depend on the exact localisation of the primary tumour: nasopharyngeal irradiations, paranasal sinusal and parotid irradiation are at greater risk of complication. High frequencies are more vulnerable than the lower ones. Age of patients, as well as baseline hearing abilities, deeply influence the issue. As far as possible, the dose to the inner ear (the cochlea more precisely) should be kept under 40 Gy. In case of association with other causes of toxicity (such as age, low baseline value, association to cisplatin), this dose should be as low as possible. Should carcinologic constraints lead to toxic doses, then patients should be properly informed. (authors)

  17. Effect of Formaldehyde on Human Middle Ear Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hye Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (FA is a familiar indoor air pollutant found in everything from cosmetics to clothing, but its impact on the middle ear is unknown. This study investigated whether FA causes cytotoxicity, inflammation, or induction of apoptosis in human middle ear epithelial cells (HMEECs. Cell viability was investigated using the trypan blue assay and a cell counting kit (CCK-8 in HMEECs treated with FA for 4 or 24 h. The expression of genes encoding the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and mucin (MUC5AC was analyzed using RT-PCR. Activation of the apoptosis pathway was determined by measuring mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, cytochrome oxidase, caspase-9/Mch6/Apaf 3, and Caspase-Glo® 3/7 activities. The CCK-8 assay and trypan blue assay results showed a reduction in cell viability in FA-treated HMEECs. FA also increased the cellular expression of TNF-α and MUC5AC and reduced the activities of MMP and cytochrome oxidase. Caspase-9 activity increased in cells stimulated for 4 h, as well as caspase-3/7 activity in cells stimulated for 24 h. The decreased cell viability, the induction of inflammation and mucin gene expression, and the activation of the apoptosis pathway together indicate a link between environmental FA exposure and the development of otitis media.

  18. Inner ear dysfunction in caspase-3 deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Minna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspase-3 is one of the most downstream enzymes activated in the apoptotic pathway. In caspase-3 deficient mice, loss of cochlear hair cells and spiral ganglion cells coincide closely with hearing loss. In contrast with the auditory system, details of the vestibular phenotype have not been characterized. Here we report the vestibular phenotype and inner ear anatomy in the caspase-3 deficient (Casp3-/- mouse strain. Results Average ABR thresholds of Casp3-/- mice were significantly elevated (P Casp3+/- mice and Casp3+/+ mice at 3 months of age. In DPOAE testing, distortion product 2F1-F2 was significantly decreased (P Casp3-/- mice, whereas Casp3+/- and Casp3+/+ mice showed normal and comparable values to each other. Casp3-/- mice were hyperactive and exhibited circling behavior when excited. In lateral canal VOR testing, Casp3-/- mice had minimal response to any of the stimuli tested, whereas Casp3+/- mice had an intermediate response compared to Casp3+/+ mice. Inner ear anatomical and histological analysis revealed gross hypomorphism of the vestibular organs, in which the main site was the anterior semicircular canal. Hair cell numbers in the anterior- and lateral crista, and utricle were significantly smaller in Casp3-/- mice whereas the Casp3+/- and Casp3+/+ mice had normal hair cell numbers. Conclusions These results indicate that caspase-3 is essential for correct functioning of the cochlea as well as normal development and function of the vestibule.

  19. Middle-Ear Microsurgery Simulation to Improve New Robotic Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Kazmitcheff

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Otological microsurgery is delicate and requires high dexterity in bad ergonomic conditions. To assist surgeons in these indications, a teleoperated system, called RobOtol, is developed. This robot enhances gesture accuracy and handiness and allows exploration of new procedures for middle ear surgery. To plan new procedures that exploit the capacities given by the robot, a surgical simulator is developed. The simulation reproduces with high fidelity the behavior of the anatomical structures and can also be used as a training tool for an easier control of the robot for surgeons. In the paper, we introduce the middle ear surgical simulation and then we perform virtually two challenging procedures with the robot. We show how interactive simulation can assist in analyzing the benefits of robotics in the case of complex manipulations or ergonomics studies and allow the development of innovative surgical procedures. New robot-based microsurgical procedures are investigated. The improvement offered by RobOtol is also evaluated and discussed.

  20. Role of bacterial biofilm in development of middle ear effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Sedeek Abd El-Salam; Ibrahim, Ahmed Aly; Talaat, Iman Mamdoh; El-Alkamy, Soliman Samy Abd El-Raouf; Youssef, Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    Biofilms have been implicated in the development of several chronic upper respiratory tract infections. Role of bacterial biofilms has been well studied in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis. However, its impact on development of middle ear effusion is still a matter of debate. To study the extent of surface adenoid biofilm and evaluate its role in the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media with effusion in children. The study was carried out on 40 children in Alexandria Main University Hospital between 1 and 16 years of age without sex predilection, who were divided into two groups. The first group (20 children) had otitis media with effusion associated with adenoid hypertrophy, whereas the second group (20 children) had adenoid hypertrophy without middle ear effusion. Adenoidectomy with ventilation tube insertion was done for group 1 cases, whereas, only Adenoidectomy was done for group 2 cases. The samples were processed for the detection of biofilms by scanning electron microscopy. The biofilm formation was graded according to extension. Biofilm formation was detected on all samples for group 1. Adenoids removed from patients with otitis media with effusion had higher-grade biofilm formation than the other group (P 0.0001). No correlation was found between adenoid size and biofilm formation. In pediatric population, adenoid surface biofilm formation may be involved in the pathogenesis otitis media with effusion.

  1. Deriving habitat models for northern long-eared bats from historical detection data: A case study using the Fernow Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, W. Mark; Silvis, Alexander; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Kniowski, Andrew B.; Johnson, Joshua B.

    2016-01-01

    The listing of the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) as federally threatened under the Endangered Species Act following severe population declines from white-nose syndrome presents considerable challenges to natural resource managers. Because the northern long-eared bat is a forest habitat generalist, development of effective conservation measures will depend on appropriate understanding of its habitat relationships at individual locations. However, severely reduced population sizes make gathering data for such models difficult. As a result, historical data may be essential in development of habitat models. To date, there has been little evaluation of how effective historical bat presence data, such as data derived from mist-net captures, acoustic detection, and day-roost locations, may be in developing habitat models, nor is it clear how models created using different data sources may differ. We explored this issue by creating presence probability models for the northern long-eared bat on the Fernow Experimental Forest in the central Appalachian Mountains of West Virginia using a historical, presence-only data set. Each presence data type produced outputs that were dissimilar but that still corresponded with known traits of the northern long-eared bat or are easily explained in the context of the particular data collection protocol. However, our results also highlight potential limitations of individual data types. For example, models from mist-net capture data only showed high probability of presence along the dendritic network of riparian areas, an obvious artifact of sampling methodology. Development of ecological niche and presence models for northern long-eared bat populations could be highly valuable for resource managers going forward with this species. We caution, however, that efforts to create such models should consider the substantial limitations of models derived from historical data, and address model assumptions.

  2. Development of high-efficiency solar cells and modules. Optimised production processes and more durable modules can reduce the costs for producing solar power by a third; Hocheffiziente Solarzellen und Module entwickeln. Optimierte Fertigungsablaeufe und langlebigere Module koennen die Erzeugung von Solarstrom um ein Drittel billiger machen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirn, Gerhard

    2013-09-01

    Research institutes, photovoltaic producers, system manufacturers and solar industry suppliers are working together to produce more powerful and durable modules in a more efficient manner. In the SONNE project, companies and researchers are optimising the output and production of modules made of crystalline silicon cells, whereby they are covering the entire production chain and are making the new developments ready for production in a short time. With their developments they want to reduce the costs of solar power by a third.

  3. EARS: An Online Bibliographic Search and Retrieval System Based on Ordered Explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, R.; Drury, Colin G.

    1987-01-01

    Provides overview of Ergonomics Abstracts Retrieval System (EARS), an online bibliographic search and retrieval system in the area of human factors engineering. Other online systems are described, the design of EARS based on inverted file organization is explained, and system expansions including a thesaurus are discussed. (Author/LRW)

  4. Bug-in-Ear eCoaching: Impacts on Novice Early Childhood Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygas Coogle, Christan; Ottley, Jennifer R.; Rahn, Naomi L.; Storie, Sloan

    2018-01-01

    A multiple-probe, single-case design was used to determine the effects of bug-in-ear eCoaching on teachers' use of two targeted naturalistic communication strategies and focus children's responses to these strategies. Results indicated that bug-in-ear eCoaching enhanced teachers' use of communication strategies and the appropriate responses of…

  5. [SOX10 mutation is relevant to inner ear malformation in patients with Waardenburg syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G Y; Hao, Q Q; Zhong, L L; Ren, W; Yan, Y; Liu, R Y; Li, J N; Guo, W W; Zhao, H; Yang, S M

    2016-11-07

    Objective: To determine the relevance between the SOX 10 mutation and Waardenburg syndrome (WS) accompanied with inner ear abnormality by analyzing the inner ear imaging results and molecular and genetic results of the WS patients with the SOX 10 mutation. Methods: This study included 36 WS in patients during 2001 and 2015 in the department of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery, Chinese Peoples's Liberation Army General Hospital. The condition of the inner ear of each patient was assessed by analyzing HRCT scans of the temporal bone and MRI scans of the brain and internal auditory canal. Meanwhile, the possible pathogenic genes of WS, including SOX10, MITF , and PAX 3, were also screened. Patients were divided into two groups according to SOX 10 mutation.The Fisher accuracy test was used to determine statistical difference of inner ear deformation incidence between the two groups. Results: Among all 36 patients, 12 were found to have inner ear abnormality. Most abnormalities were posterior semicircular canal deformations, some accompanied with cochlear deformation and an enlarged vestibule. Among all patients, 9 patients were SOX 10 heterozygous mutation carriers, among which six showed bilateral inner ear abnormality. Fisher accuracy test results suggested a significant correlation between the SOX 10 mutation and inner ear abnormality in WS patients ( P =0.036). Conclusion: This study found that WS patients with the SOX 10 mutation are more likely to have deformed inner ears when compared to WS patients without the SOX 10 mutation.

  6. Macroscopic description of the external and middle ear of paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro L. Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Paca (Cuniculus paca, one of the largest rodents of the Brazilian fauna, has inherent characteristics of its species which can conribute as a new option for animal experimantation. As there is a growing demand for suitable experimental models in audiologic and otologic surgical research, the gross anatomy and ultrastructural ear of this rodent have been analyzed and described in detail. Fifteen adult pacas from the Wild Animals Sector herd of Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Unesp-Jaboticabal, were used in this study. After anesthesia and euthanasia, we evaluated the entire composition of the external ear, registering and ddescribing the details; the temporal region was often dissected for a better view and detailing of the tympanic bulla which was removed and opened to expose the ear structures analyzed mascroscopically and ultrastructurally. The ear pinna has a triangular and concave shape with irregular ridges and sharp apex. The external auditory canal is winding in its path to the tympanic mebrane. The tympanic bulla is is on the back-bottom of the skull. The middle ear is formed by a cavity region filled with bone and membranous structures bounded by the tympanic membrane and the oval and round windows. The tympanic membrane is flat and seals the ear canal. The anatomy of the paca ear is similar to the guinea pig and from the viewpoint of experimental model has major advantages compared with the mouse ear.

  7. Serous otitis media and immunological reactions in the middle ear mucosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Baan, S.; Seldenrijk, C. A.; Henzen-Logmans, S. C.; Drexhage, H. A.

    1988-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study was performed on the middle ear mucosa of 21 children with chronic serous otitis media (SOM). In 86% of the patients a highly organized lymphatic tissue was found in the middle ear mucosa which can be regarded as part of the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT).

  8. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... laser. 874.4500 Section 874.4500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear, nose...

  9. Tissue to plasma capillary permeability of 131I-albumin in the perfused rabbit ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bent-Hansen, L; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    1991-01-01

    The tissue to plasma transfer of 131I-albumin was recorded in perfused rabbit ears (n = 6) following equilibration for 24 hr. 125I-fibrinogen served as the plasma marker, and was introduced intravenously 15 min before clamping. The ears were rollerpump perfused with isotonic diluted plasma...

  10. The malleable middle ear: an underappreciated player in the evolution of hearing in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Manley, Geoffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    The middle ear of tetrapods (limbed vertebrates) originated from nonauditory structures, and has been modified by adaptations arising from the lifestyle of the tetrapods. These accessory structures for the inner ear increased the sensitivity to airborne sound, the frequency range of hearing, and ...

  11. Aetiological Agents of Ear Discharge: A Two year Review in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 48, No 2 (2014) > ... Methodology: This was a retrospective review of laboratory records of all ear swabs submitted for culture over a two year ... Data was obtained on demographic characteristics of patients, clinical ... of the discharging ear was Pseudomonas spp followed by Staphylococcus aureus.

  12. Early uneven ear input induces long-lasting differences in left-right motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Michelle W; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Dieterich, Marianne; Brandt, Thomas; Vijayakumar, Sarath; McKeehan, Nicholas; Arezzo, Joseph C; Zukin, R Suzanne; Borkholder, David A; Jones, Sherri M; Frisina, Robert D; Hébert, Jean M

    2018-03-01

    How asymmetries in motor behavior become established normally or atypically in mammals remains unclear. An established model for motor asymmetry that is conserved across mammals can be obtained by experimentally inducing asymmetric striatal dopamine activity. However, the factors that can cause motor asymmetries in the absence of experimental manipulations to the brain remain unknown. Here, we show that mice with inner ear dysfunction display a robust left or right rotational preference, and this motor preference reflects an atypical asymmetry in cortico-striatal neurotransmission. By unilaterally targeting striatal activity with an antagonist of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a downstream integrator of striatal neurotransmitter signaling, we can reverse or exaggerate rotational preference in these mice. By surgically biasing vestibular failure to one ear, we can dictate the direction of motor preference, illustrating the influence of uneven vestibular failure in establishing the outward asymmetries in motor preference. The inner ear-induced striatal asymmetries identified here intersect with non-ear-induced asymmetries previously linked to lateralized motor behavior across species and suggest that aspects of left-right brain function in mammals can be ontogenetically influenced by inner ear input. Consistent with inner ear input contributing to motor asymmetry, we also show that, in humans with normal ear function, the motor-dominant hemisphere, measured as handedness, is ipsilateral to the ear with weaker vestibular input.

  13. Immune system of the inner ear as a novel therapeutic target for sensorineural hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki eOkano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL is a common clinical condition resulting from dysfunction in one or more parts in the auditory pathway between the inner ear and auditory cortex. Despite the prevalence of SNHL, little is known about its etiopathology, although several mechanisms have been postulated including ischemia, viral infection or reactivation, and microtrauma. Immune-mediated inner ear disease has been introduced and accepted as one SNHL pathophysiology; it responds to immunosuppressive therapy and is one of the few reversible forms of bilateral SNHL. The concept of immune-mediated inner ear disease is straightforward and comprehensible, but criteria for clinical diagnosis and the precise mechanism of hearing loss have not been determined. Moreover, the therapeutic mechanisms of corticosteroids are unclear, leading to several misconceptions by both clinicians and investigators concerning corticosteroid therapy. This review addresses our current understanding of the immune system in the inner ear and its involvement in the pathophysiology in SNHL. Treatment of SNHL, including immune-mediated inner ear disorder, will be discussed with a focus on the immune mechanism and immunocompetent cells as therapeutic targets. Finally, possible interventions modulating the immune system in the inner ear to repair the tissue organization and improve hearing in patients with SNHL will be discussed. Tissue macrophages in the inner ear appear to be a potential target for modulating the immune response in the inner ear in the pathophysiology of SNHL.

  14. Evoked acoustic emissions from the human ear. III. Findings in neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, N J; Bagi, P; Elberling, C

    1983-01-01

    Stimulated acoustic emissions were recorded in a consecutive series of 20 full-term and otherwise normal neonates with the equipment and method previously used in adults. One ear randomly chosen was tested in each baby, and otoscopy and tympanometry were normal in all ears. A 2 kHz click stimulus...

  15. 21 CFR 344.52 - Labeling of ear drying aid drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52 Section 344.52 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains...

  16. Scorpion sting in the right ear of a young adult: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He had made attempts to remove the insect with the cotton bud but all proved abortive. Two drops of 2% plain xylocaine and 5 drops of cerumol were applied on the affected ear. He was managed with analgesics, anxiolytic, antihistamine and ear syringing. The family physician; a frontline doctor and first point of contact for ...

  17. Attitude Of Self Ear Cleaning In Black Africans: Any Benefit? | Afolabi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wax removal compromises the integrity of the ear's defenses. It is a leading cause of otitis externa, Otomycosis and impaired hearing. Aims of the study are to assess the knowledge and implication of self ear cleaning among black Africans. Material and methods: A prospective study carried out at the Tundun-wada ...

  18. Foreign Bodies in the Ear as Seen at Kigali University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various complications in the ear following removal of the FB were recorded in 41.9%. Conclusion: The risk of complications following removal of FB ear canal is inversely proportional to the skills of the personnel, number of attempts and availability of equipment. Referral to otolaryngology should be considered if more than ...

  19. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. 874.3620 Section 874.3620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer...

  20. Recovery time for inflamed middle ear mucosa in chronic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakır, Onur; Dinç, Aykut Erdem; Damar, Murat; Akyıldız, İlker; Eliçora, Sultan Şevik; Erdem, Duygu

    2016-01-01

    The present study shows that 2-3 weeks after medical treatment the status of middle ear mucosa in draining ears is similar to that of dry ears for at least 3 months. To measure the time required for an inflamed middle ear mucosa to return into optimal state after appropriate medical treatment in chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). To assess optimal timing for elective surgical treatment of draining ears in uncomplicated CSOM. In this prospective study, the Eustachian tube (ET) mucociliary clearance time (MCT) was used as the method to demonstrate the status of middle ear mucosa. In group 1 (28 patients) ET-MCT was measured in ears that were free of drainage for at least 3 months. In Group 2 (21 patients), ET-MCT was measured in draining ears, who responded to 10-14 days medical treatment, at presentation, after 10 days and 1 month. The ET-MCT was 8.63 ± 1.32 min in group 1 and 28.96 ± 8.19 min in group 2 at presentation; and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The ET-MCT was 14.76 ± 5.11 min after 10 days and 9.31 ± 2.33 min after 1 month in group 2. The ET-MCT was indifferent between groups 1 and 2 after 1 month (p = 0.235).