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Sample records for producing diboron tetrachloride

  1. Method of purifying zirconium tetrachloride and hafnium tetrachloride in a vapor stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, T.S.; Stolz, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of purifying zirconium tetrachloride and hafnium tetrachloride in a vapor stream from a sand chlorinator in which the silicon and metals present in sand fed to the chlorinator are converted to chlorides at temperatures over about 800 degrees C. It comprises cooling a vapor stream from a sand chlorinator, the vapor stream containing principally silicon tetrachloride, zirconium tetrachloride, and hafnium tetrachloride contaminated with ferric chloride, to a temperature of from about 335 degrees C to about 600 degrees C; flowing the vapor stream through a gaseous diffusion separative barrier to produce a silicon tetrachloride-containing vapor stream concentrated in zirconium tetrachloride and hafnium tetrachloride and a silicon tetrachloride-containing vapor stream depleted in zirconium tetrachloride and hafnium tetrachloride; adsorbing the ferric chloride in the separative barrier; and recovering the silicon tetrachloride stream concentrated in zirconium tetrachloride and hafnium tetrachloride separately from the silicon tetrachloride stream depleted in zirconium tetrachloride and hafnium tetrachloride

  2. Production of titanium tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, P.M.; Botbol, O.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a summary of results from theoperation of a laboratory scale for the production in batches of approximately 100 gs of titanium tetrachloride by chlorination with chloroform and carbon tetrachloride between 340 deg C and 540 deg C. Chlorination agent vapors were passed through a quartz column reacting with titanium oxide powder agglomerated in little spheres. Obtained titanium tetrachloride was condensed in a condenser, taken in a ballon and then purified by fractional distillation. Optimun temperature for chloroform was 400 deg C with 74 % yield and for carbon tetrachloride was 500 deg C with 69 % yield. (Author) [es

  3. Synthesis of 1,1-Diborylalkenes through a Bronsted Base Catalyzed Reaction between Terminal Alkynes and Bis(pinacolato)diboron

    OpenAIRE

    Morinaga, Akira; Nagao, Kazunori; Ohmiya, Hirohisa; Sawamura, Masaya

    2015-01-01

    A method for the synthesis of 1,1-diborylalkenes through a Bronsted base catalyzed reaction between terminal alkynes and bis(pinacolato)diboron has been developed. The procedure allows direct synthesis of functionalized 1,1-diborylalkenes from various terminal alkynes including propiolates, propiolamides, and 2-ethynylazoles.

  4. Facile insertion of a cyclic alkyl(amino) carbene carbon into the B-B bond of diboron(4) reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Antonius F; Kuehn, Laura; Marder, Todd B; Radius, Udo

    2017-10-24

    We report herein the room temperature insertion of the carbene carbon atom of the cyclic (alkyl)(amino) carbene cAAC Me into the B-B single bonds of the diboron(4) compounds B 2 pin 2 , B 2 cat 2 , B 2 neop 2 , and B 2 eg 2 (pin = pinacolato, cat = catecholato, neop = neopentylglycolato, eg = ethyleneglycolato).

  5. Vicinal Diboronates in High Enantiomeric Purity through Tandem Site-Selective NHC–Cu-Catalyzed Boron-Copper Additions to Terminal Alkynes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunmi; Jang, Hwanjong; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2009-01-01

    A Cu-catalyzed protocol for conversion of terminal alkynes to enantiomerically enriched diboronates is reported. In a single vessel, a site-selective hydroboration of an alkyne leads to the corresponding terminal vinylboronate, which undergoes a second site-selective and enantioselective hydroboration. Reactions proceed in the presence of two equivalents of commercially available bis(pinacolato)diboron [B2(pin)2] and 5–7.5 mol % of a chiral bidentate imidazolinium salt, affording diboronates in 60–93% yield and up to 97.5:2.5 enantiomeric ratio (er). The enantiomerically enriched products can be functionalized to afford an assortment of versatile organic molecules. Enynes are converted to unsaturated diboronates with high chemo- (>98% reaction of alkyne; <2% at alkene) and enantioselectivity (e.g., 94.5:5.5 er). PMID:19968273

  6. Processing behaviors of thin-film pentacene and benzene-1,4-diboronic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Truc T.; Keegan, James E.; George, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the feasibility of using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2 ) as a green solvent for processing organic thin film semiconductor, such as pentacene, and a potential molecular modifier for use in electronic device applications. Benzene-1,4-diboronic acid (BDBA) was selected as a molecular modifier in this work due to its electron deficient nature, which can potentially enhance pentacene's physical, chemical or electronic properties by changing its structure in the solid state. In this study, the solubilities of BDBA and pentacene in scCO 2 are measured as individual compounds and as co-solutes, at 313 K, using ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy. Methanol co-solvent effects on solubility have also been characterized for each compound. The results show that BDBA is insoluble in pure scCO 2 up to 1.82 × 10 7 Pa. However, with a small amount of methanol added to the mixture, BDBA becomes soluble in solution with a solubility of 3.81 × 10 −4 mol/l at 9.00 × 10 6 -Pa-pressure. In contrast, pentacene is only soluble in scCO 2 at pressures above 1.10 × 10 7 Pa, and its solubility is decreased upon addition of methanol due to the non-polar nature of pentacene. When a pentacene thin film is treated with BDBA in scCO 2 /methanol solution, BDBA sorption is observed at pressures as low as 8.80 × 10 6 Pa. Based on these results, it is concluded that treatment of pentacene thin films in scCO 2 is a promising approach that can be optimized for BDBA and other similar molecular modifiers, to produce multi-component organic thin film devices.

  7. Boronic, diboronic, and α-amino-boronic acids derived from 1-ethynyl-3, 4-dimethoxybenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Toshio; Mishima, Yutaka

    1985-01-01

    This work was undertaken with the intention of synthesizing (α-amino-β-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethylboronic acid. Unfortunately, the goal could not be attained since the isolation of the target compound could not be achieved though some information suggested its existence in the final product. The methods of synthesis used in the second half of the attempted preparation are described here (compounds in the first half have been published elsewhere). In this procedure, (β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethenylboronic acid is esterified and azeotropic distillation is conducted to provide diethyl (β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethenylboronate. This compound is dissolved in diglyme and diborane gas is introduced. The hydroboration product is then subjected to amination with hydroxylamine-0-sulfonic acid. (β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethyl-α, α-diboronic acid is obtained from the residue of acetone extraction. The acetone extract is concentrated to a solid caramel, from which (α-borono-β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethylammonium tetraphenylborate is formed. Conversion from the tetraphenylborate salt to (α-amino-β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethylboronic acid hydrochloride is attempted by the double decomposition RH BPh 4 + CsCl -- RH Cl + CsBPh 4 . The product is subjected to demethylation and treated with sodium tetraphenylborate to precipitate (α-borono-β-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)) ethylammonium tetraphenylborate. Conversion of this to the target compound is tried by double decomposition. (Nogami, K.)

  8. Bis(pinacolato)diboron as an additive for the detection of thermal neutrons in plastic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahl, Adam [Department of Physics and the Nuclear Science and Engineering Center (NuSEC), Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Yemam, Henok A.; Stuntz, John [Department of Chemistry and Geochemistry and the Materials Science Program Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Remedes, Tyler [Department of Physics and the Nuclear Science and Engineering Center (NuSEC), Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Sellinger, Alan [Department of Chemistry and Geochemistry and the Materials Science Program Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Greife, Uwe, E-mail: ugreife@mines.edu [Department of Physics and the Nuclear Science and Engineering Center (NuSEC), Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2016-04-21

    A readily available and inexpensive boron compound was tested as an additive for the detection of thermal neutrons in plastic scintillators. Bis(pinacolato)diboron (B{sub 2}Pin{sub 2}) was determined to be a compatible boron source (8.51 wt% boron, 1.70 wt% {sup 10}B) in poly(vinyltoluene) based matrices. Plastic scintillator blends of 1–20 wt% 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO), 0.1 wt% 1,4-bis(5-phenyloxazol-2-yl) benzene (POPOP) and 1–15 wt% B{sub 2}Pin{sub 2} were prepared that provided optical clarity, good mechanical properties, and the capability of thermal neutron detection. Independent of B{sub 2}Pin{sub 2} concentration, strong {sup 10}B neutron capture signals around 90 keV{sub ee} were observed at essentially constant light output. Increasing PPO concentration allowed for the use of pulse shape discrimination (PSD) in both fast and thermal neutron detection. High PPO concentrations appear to cause additional alpha quenching that affected the {sup 10}B neutron capture signal. Aging effects after storage in air for several months were observed, which led to degradation of performance and in some samples of mechanical stability.

  9. Bis(pinacolato)diboron as an additive for the detection of thermal neutrons in plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahl, Adam; Yemam, Henok A.; Stuntz, John; Remedes, Tyler; Sellinger, Alan; Greife, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    A readily available and inexpensive boron compound was tested as an additive for the detection of thermal neutrons in plastic scintillators. Bis(pinacolato)diboron (B_2Pin_2) was determined to be a compatible boron source (8.51 wt% boron, 1.70 wt% "1"0B) in poly(vinyltoluene) based matrices. Plastic scintillator blends of 1–20 wt% 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO), 0.1 wt% 1,4-bis(5-phenyloxazol-2-yl) benzene (POPOP) and 1–15 wt% B_2Pin_2 were prepared that provided optical clarity, good mechanical properties, and the capability of thermal neutron detection. Independent of B_2Pin_2 concentration, strong "1"0B neutron capture signals around 90 keV_e_e were observed at essentially constant light output. Increasing PPO concentration allowed for the use of pulse shape discrimination (PSD) in both fast and thermal neutron detection. High PPO concentrations appear to cause additional alpha quenching that affected the "1"0B neutron capture signal. Aging effects after storage in air for several months were observed, which led to degradation of performance and in some samples of mechanical stability.

  10. Production kinetics of zirconium tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudjoko, D.; Masduki, B.; Sunardjo; Sulistyo, B.

    1996-01-01

    This research was intended to study the kinetics of zirconium tetrachloride production. The process was carried out in semi continuous reactor, equipped with heater, temperature controller, sublimator and scrubber. The variables investigated were time, temperature and the pellet forming pressure. Within the range of variables studied, the expression of the process in the chemical reaction controller region and diffusion controller region were both presented. (author)

  11. Compound list: carbon tetrachloride [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available carbon tetrachloride CCL4 00003 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LAT...EST/Human/in_vitro/carbon_tetrachloride.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tgg...ates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/carbon_tetrachloride.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open...-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/carbon_tetrachloride.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.S...ingle.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/carbon_tetrachloride.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  12. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride under sulfate reducing conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, Jappe H. de; Salminen, E.; Doddema, Hans J.; Janssen, Dick B.; Harder, Wim

    1998-01-01

    The removal of carbon tetrachloride under sulfate reducing conditions was studied in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor. Carbon tetrachloride, up to a concentration of 30 µM, was completely converted. Chloroform and dichloromethane were the main transformation products, but part of the carbon

  13. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride under sulfate reducing conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Best, JH; Salminen, E; Doddema, HJ; Janssen, DB; Harder, W

    1997-01-01

    The removal of carbon tetrachloride under sulfate reducing conditions was studied in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor. Carbon tetrachloride, up to a concentration of 30 mu M, was completely converted. Chloroform and dichloromethane were the main transformation products, but part of the carbon

  14. Emissions of carbon tetrachloride from Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, Francesco; Arduini, Jgor; Bonasoni, Paolo; Furlani, Francesco; Giostra, Umberto; Manning, Alistair J.; McCulloch, Archie; O'Doherty, Simon; Simmonds, Peter G.; Reimann, Stefan; Vollmer, Martin K.; Maione, Michela

    2016-10-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a long-lived radiatively active compound with the ability to destroy stratospheric ozone. Due to its inclusion in the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (MP), the last two decades have seen a sharp decrease in its large-scale emissive use with a consequent decline in its atmospheric mole fractions. However, the MP restrictions do not apply to the use of carbon tetrachloride as feedstock for the production of other chemicals, implying the risk of fugitive emissions from the industry sector. The occurrence of such unintended emissions is suggested by a significant discrepancy between global emissions as derived from reported production and feedstock usage (bottom-up emissions), and those based on atmospheric observations (top-down emissions). In order to better constrain the atmospheric budget of carbon tetrachloride, several studies based on a combination of atmospheric observations and inverse modelling have been conducted in recent years in various regions of the world. This study is focused on the European scale and based on long-term high-frequency observations at three European sites, combined with a Bayesian inversion methodology. We estimated that average European emissions for 2006-2014 were 2.2 (± 0.8) Gg yr-1, with an average decreasing trend of 6.9 % per year. Our analysis identified France as the main source of emissions over the whole study period, with an average contribution to total European emissions of approximately 26 %. The inversion was also able to allow the localisation of emission "hot spots" in the domain, with major source areas in southern France, central England (UK) and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg), where most industrial-scale production of basic organic chemicals is located. According to our results, European emissions correspond, on average, to 4.0 % of global emissions for 2006-2012. Together with other regional studies, our results allow a better constraint

  15. Carbon tetrachloride desorption from activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, L.A.; Sansone, E.B.

    1981-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride was desorbed from a granular activated carbon subsequent to its adsorption under various vapor exposure periods. The varied conditions of exposure resulted in a range of partially saturated carbon beds which, when followed by a constant flow rate for desorption, generated different forms of the desorbing concentration versus time curve. A method of analyzing the desorption curves is presented which permits extraction of the various desorbing rates from the different desorption and to relate this to the time required for such regeneration. The Wheeler desorption kinetic equation was used to calculate the pseudo first order desorption rate constant for the carbon. The desorption rate constant was found to increase monotonically with increasing saturation of the bed, permitting the calculation of the maximum desorption rate constant for the carbon at 100% saturation. The Retentivity Index of the carbon, defined as the dimensionless ratio of the adsorption to the desorption rate constant, was found to be 681

  16. Carbon tetrachloride treatment induces anorexia independently of hepatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, T; Okabe, S

    2000-08-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the development of anorexia. In the present study, we examined the possible involvement of anorexia in oxygen radical-induced hepatitis. A low dose of carbon tetrachloride (1 ml/kg of a 1:1 solution with olive oil) was orally administered to rats with and without food restriction. In rats with food restriction, carbon tetrachloride treatment induced hepatitis and reduced the body weight gain. In contrast, carbon tetrachloride treatment did not induce hepatitis in rats without food restriction, but the body weight was decreased. In these rats, the loss of body weight was accompanied by a decrease in food intake. The present results indicate that the administration of a low dose of carbon tetrachloride to rats without food restriction induced anorexia independently of hepatitis.

  17. Preparation of complexes of zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides with phosphorus oxychloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an improvement in a method for separating hafnium tetrachloride from zirconium tetrachloride where a complex of zirconium-hafnium tetrachlorides and phosphorus oxychloride is prepared from zirconium-hafnium tetrachlorides and the complex of zirconium-hafnium tetrachlorides and phosphorus oxychloride is introduced into a distillation column, which distillation column has a reboiler connected at the bottom and a reflux condenser connected at the top and where a hafnium tetrachloride enriched stream is taken from the top of the column and a zirconium enriched tetrachloride stream is taken from the bottom of the column. The improvement comprising: prepurifying the zirconium-hafnium tetrachlorides, prior to preparation of the complex and introduction of the complex into a distillation column, to substantially eliminate iron chloride from the zirconium hafnium tetrachlorides, whereby buildup or iron chloride in the distillation column and in the reboiler is substantially eliminated and the column can be operated in a continuous, stable and efficient manner

  18. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride by Pseudomonas sp. strain KC under denitrification conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criddle, C.S.; DeWitt, J.T.; Grbic-Galic, D.; McCarty, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    A denitrifying Pseudomonas sp. (strain KC) capable of transforming carbon tetrachloride (CT) was isolated from groundwater aquifer solids. Major products of the transformation of 14 C-labeled CT by Pseudomonas strain KC under denitrification conditions were 14 CO 2 and an unidentified water-soluble fraction. Little or no chloroform was produced. Addition of dissolved trace metals, notably, ferrous iron and cobalt, to the growth medium appeared to enhance growth of Pseudomonas strain KC while inhibiting transformation of CT. It is hypothesized that transformation of CT by this organism is associated with the mechanism of trace-metal scavenging

  19. Coagulation performance and floc characteristics of polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC) compared with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and ferric chloride (FeCl3) in algal turbid water

    KAUST Repository

    Chekli, L.; Eripret, C.; Park, S.H.; Tabatabai, S. Assiyeh Alizadeh; Vronska, O.; Tamburic, B.; Kim, J.H.; Shon, H.K.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal green algae blooms in freshwaters have raised attention on the need to develop novel effective treatment processes for the removal of algae in water. In the present study, the performance of newly developed polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC) coagulant for the removal of freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris has been investigated and compared with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) coagulant and the conventional ferric chloride (FeCl3) coagulant. The main benefit of using titanium-based coagulants is that the sludge produced after flocculation may be recycled into a valuable product: titanium dioxide photocatalyst. Both titanium-based coagulants achieved good flocculation over a broader pH range and coagulant dose compared to conventional FeCl3 coagulant. All three coagulants achieved comparable performance in terms of turbidity removal (i.e. turbidity removal efficiency >97%); although TiCl4 performed slightly better at the lower tested dose (i.e. <9 mg/L). Zeta potential measurements indicated that charge neutralisation may not be the sole mechanism involved in the coagulation of algae for all three coagulants. Analysis of the dynamic floc size variation during floc breakage showed no regrowth after floc breakage for the three coagulants. The flocs formed by both Ti-based coagulants were larger than those formed by FeCl3 and also grew at a faster rate. This study indicates that Ti-based coagulants are effective and promising coagulants for algae removal in water.

  20. Coagulation performance and floc characteristics of polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC) compared with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and ferric chloride (FeCl3) in algal turbid water

    KAUST Repository

    Chekli, L.

    2016-11-11

    Seasonal green algae blooms in freshwaters have raised attention on the need to develop novel effective treatment processes for the removal of algae in water. In the present study, the performance of newly developed polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC) coagulant for the removal of freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris has been investigated and compared with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) coagulant and the conventional ferric chloride (FeCl3) coagulant. The main benefit of using titanium-based coagulants is that the sludge produced after flocculation may be recycled into a valuable product: titanium dioxide photocatalyst. Both titanium-based coagulants achieved good flocculation over a broader pH range and coagulant dose compared to conventional FeCl3 coagulant. All three coagulants achieved comparable performance in terms of turbidity removal (i.e. turbidity removal efficiency >97%); although TiCl4 performed slightly better at the lower tested dose (i.e. <9 mg/L). Zeta potential measurements indicated that charge neutralisation may not be the sole mechanism involved in the coagulation of algae for all three coagulants. Analysis of the dynamic floc size variation during floc breakage showed no regrowth after floc breakage for the three coagulants. The flocs formed by both Ti-based coagulants were larger than those formed by FeCl3 and also grew at a faster rate. This study indicates that Ti-based coagulants are effective and promising coagulants for algae removal in water.

  1. Analysis of titanium content in titanium tetrachloride solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaoguo; Dong, Yingnan; Li, Shanshan; Guan, Duojiao; Wang, Jianyu; Tang, Meiling

    2018-03-01

    Strontium titanate, barium titan and lead titanate are new type of functional ceramic materials with good prospect, and titanium tetrachloride is a commonly in the production such products. Which excellent electrochemical performance of ferroelectric tempreature coefficient effect.In this article, three methods are used to calibrate the samples of titanium tetrachloride solution by back titration method, replacement titration method and gravimetric analysis method. The results show that the back titration method has many good points, for example, relatively simple operation, easy to judgment the titration end point, better accuracy and precision of analytical results, the relative standard deviation not less than 0.2%. So, it is the ideal of conventional analysis methods in the mass production.

  2. Liquid structure of vanadium tetrachloride from neutron diffraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopala Rao, R.V.; Satpathy, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    Assuming the separation of the intermolecular scattering function into the radial and angular parts and using Egelstaff et al's orientational model for tetrachlorides, the structure of liquid vanadium tetrachloride has been studied. It has been observed that such a separation is approximate for this liquid and the introduction of a third correction term is required to account for the molecular structure function. The chlorine-chlorine partial structure and effective angle-averaged intermolecular chlorine-chlorine potential in the liquid has been evaluated. Without taking the third correction term, introduced to generate theoretically the molecular structure function, the centre structure function has been obtained in an approximate way from the experimentally observed molecular structure function and from it the centre radial distribution function, centre direct correlation function and the angle-averaged vanadium-vanadium effective potential has been evaluated. (author)

  3. Carbon tetrachloride ERA soil-gas baseline monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fancher, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    From December 1991 through December 1993, Westinghouse Hanford Company performed routine baseline monitoring of selected wells ad soil-gas points twice weekly in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This work supported the carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action (ERA) and provided a solid baseline of volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in wells and in the subsurface at the ERA site. As site remediation continues, comparisons to this baseline can be one means of measuring the success of carbon tetrachloride vapor extraction. This report contains observations of the patterns and trends associated with data obtained during soil-gas monitoring at the 200 West Area: Monitoring performed since late 1991 includes monitoring soil-gas probes ad wellheads for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report reflects monitoring data collected from December 1991 through December 1993

  4. Test plan for the FY 1997 rebound study at the carbon tetrachloride soil vapor extraction site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V.J.; Tranbarger, R.K.

    1996-11-01

    This test plan describes the strategy and field measurements designed to evaluate the potential rebound of carbon tetrachloride vapor concentrations following cessation of soil vapor extraction (SVE) operations at the 200-ZP-2 Operable Unit in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. Soil vapor extraction was initiated in February 1992 as the preferred remedial alternative of the Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action for removal of carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated zone beneath the primary carbon tetrachloride disposal sites. The magnitude, extent, and rate of rebound in carbon tetrachloride vapor concentrations will help determine the availability of additional carbon tetrachloride for removal using SVE. At the conclusion of the field measurements, a report will be completed to evaluate the results of the rebound study

  5. Zirconium and hafnium tetrachloride separation by extractive distillation with molten zinc chloride lead chloride solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Stoltz, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    In an extractive distillation method for separating hafniuim tetrachloride from zirconium tetrachloride of the type wherein a mixture of zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides is introduced into an extractive distillation column, which extractive distillation column has a reboiler connected at the bottom and a reflux condenser connected at the top and wherein a molten salt solvent is circulated into the reflux condenser and through the column to provide a liquid phase, and wherein molten salt solvent containing zirconium tetrachloride is taken from the reboiler and run through a stripper to remove zirconium tetrachloride product from the molten salt solvent and the stripped molten salt solvent is returned to the reflux condenser and hafnium tetrachloride enriched vapor is taken as product from the reflux condenser, the improvement is described comprising: the molten salt having a composition of at least 30 mole percent zinc chloride and at least 10 mole percent of lead chloride

  6. Complexes of uranium tetrachlorides and thorium tetrachloride with N-methylpiperazine, 2-methylpiperazine, N-phenylpiperazine, N,N'-dimethylpiperazine and pyrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manhas, B S; Trikha, A K [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Singh, M

    1979-01-01

    Stable complexes of uranium tetrachloride and thorium tetrachloride with the title ligands have been synthesised and characterised on the basis of elemental analyses, IR and electronic reflectance spectral studies and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The ligands probably coordinate in the chair conformation bridging the metal ions as indicated by IR spectral studies and insolubility of these complexes in common organic solvents. A coordination number of six for uranium (IV) is suggested by the electronic reflectance spectral and magnetic susceptibility data.

  7. Hepatoprotective Effect of Trigona spp. Bee Propolis against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Amelia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress reaction can cause liver injury. This process can be prevented by antioxidant activities which can break the destructive chain caused by free radical substances in the liver. Propolis produced by Trigona spp. bee is known to have a high level of antioxidant. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Trigona spp. bee propolis on liver histological toxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress. Methods:This experimental study was conducted in September 2013 at the Animal Laboratory of Departement of Pharmacology and Therapy, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran. Twenty-four healthy male Wistar rats as objects were adapted for one week and randomly divided into 3 groups. Group I was the control negative, group II was given carbon tetrachloride on day 14, group III was given Trigona spp. bee propolis on day 1-14. On day 14, group III was injected CCl4 intraperitoneally. The quantitative data were statistically analyzed using the one way ANOVA and Tukey test with p value < 0.05. Results: Group I showed the liver contained normal cells, without significant injury of the membrane, round and complete nucleus. The average number of liver cell was 464 ± 9.59281 cells/field; group II underwent necrosis and the average of the cells was 146 ± 7.56885 cells/field; group III showed some normal liver cells, and some necrotic area with the normal liver cells average was 263 ± 14.10860 cells/field. The p-value=0.00. Conclusions: Trigona spp. bee propolis has a hepatoprotective effect against CCl4-induced liver injury histologically.

  8. Nuclear magnetic relaxation in picolines solutions in carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurga, J.; Pajak, Z.; Jurga, K.; Jurga, S.

    1973-01-01

    Spin-lattice relaxation times of the ring and CH 3 group have been measured in order to establish the temperature dependence of the longitudinal relaxation times for picolins in carbon tetrachloride solutions. The information concerning the intramolecular contribution to the relaxation times have been obtained. The high resolution NPR spectrometer operating at 25 MHz has been used. The measurements have been performed in the temperature range from -60degC to 80degC. The experimental results are compared to the predictions given by the Nora Hill and Debye models and it has been found that the Nora Hill model fits the experimental data better than the Debye model. (S.B.)

  9. Amino acid assisted dehalogenation of carbon tetrachloride by green rust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Weizhao; Strobel, Bjarne W.; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    that reduce the formation of toxic by-products such as chloroform (CF). In this study, carbon tetrachloride (CT) dehalogenation by the chloride form of GR (GRCl) was tested in presence of glycine (GLY) and other selected amino acids. GLY, alanine (ALA) or serine (SER) all resulted in remarkable suppression...... of CF formation with only ~ 10% of CF recovery while sarcosine (SAR) showed insignificant effects. For two non-amino acid buffers, TRIS had little effect while HEPES resulted in a 40 times lower rate constant compared to experiments where no buffer was added. The FeII complexing properties of the amino...... acids and buffers caused variable extents of GRCl dissolution which was linearly correlated with CF suppression and dehalogenation rate. We hypothesize that the CF suppression seen for amino acids is caused by stabilization of carbene intermediates via the carbonyl group. Different effects on CF...

  10. Pulse radiolysis of porphyrin and ferriporphyrin solutions in 2-propanol-carbon tetrachloride systems. Protonation and ligand exchange kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brault, D.; Neta, P.

    1983-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis of aqueous and nonaqueous 2-propanol-acetone-carbon tetrachloride mixtures has been investigated by means of conductivity measurements and spectrophotometry. In these solvent mixtures, a pulse of hydrochloric acid originating from either primary events of solvent radiolysis or from further reactions of carbon tetrachloride with radicals derived from 2-propanol and acetone, is produced within ca 100 nanoseconds. Further production of hydrochloric acid occurs as a result of chain reactions involving hydrogen abstraction by CCl 3 or CCl 3 O 2 radicals. These latter radicals appear to be much more reactive and are likely to be involved in the reaction unless the solutions have been thoroughly deoxygenated. Protonation Reactions of porphyrins and ferriporphyrins, which do not react rapidly with the above radicals, were followed by means of spectrophotometric measurements. In turn, these reactions may be used to monitor hydrochloric acid formation. Spectrophotometric measurements on porphyrins corroborate conductivity results, although a quantitative comparison is not feasible because of differences in solvent properties. 6 figures

  11. Supplementation of Citrus maxima Peel Powder Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Hepatic Damage in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Treated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammed Riaz Hasan; Sagor, Md Abu Taher; Tabassum, Nabila; Potol, Md Abdullah; Hossain, Hemayet; Alam, Md Ashraful

    2015-01-01

    Citrus maxima peel is rich in natural phenolic compounds and has a long use in the traditional medicine. HPLC-DAD analysis on Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited the presence of various phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid and (-)-epicatechin. To determine the plausible hepatoprotective activity of Citrus maxima peel powder, we used carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated rat model. Liver damage in rats was confirmed by measuring the AST, ALT, and ALP enzyme activities. In addition, lipid peroxidation products (MDA), nitric oxide, advanced protein oxidation products level (APOP), and catalase activities were also analyzed along with the histological profiling for the inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in liver. Dietary supplementation of Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited significant reduction of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Moreover, Citrus maxima peel powder also showed a significant reduction of the oxidative stress markers (MDA, NO, and APOP level) and restored the catalase activity in CCl4 treated rats. Histological examination of the liver section revealed reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in CCl4 treated rats. The results from this study demonstrated that Citrus maxima peel powder produced significant hepatoprotective action in CCl4 administered rats.

  12. Supplementation of Citrus maxima Peel Powder Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Hepatic Damage in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4 Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Riaz Hasan Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus maxima peel is rich in natural phenolic compounds and has a long use in the traditional medicine. HPLC-DAD analysis on Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited the presence of various phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid and (−-epicatechin. To determine the plausible hepatoprotective activity of Citrus maxima peel powder, we used carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 treated rat model. Liver damage in rats was confirmed by measuring the AST, ALT, and ALP enzyme activities. In addition, lipid peroxidation products (MDA, nitric oxide, advanced protein oxidation products level (APOP, and catalase activities were also analyzed along with the histological profiling for the inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in liver. Dietary supplementation of Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited significant reduction of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Moreover, Citrus maxima peel powder also showed a significant reduction of the oxidative stress markers (MDA, NO, and APOP level and restored the catalase activity in CCl4 treated rats. Histological examination of the liver section revealed reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in CCl4 treated rats. The results from this study demonstrated that Citrus maxima peel powder produced significant hepatoprotective action in CCl4 administered rats.

  13. Fabrication of bimetallic Ag/Fe immobilized on modified biochar for removal of carbon tetrachloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei Wu; Qiyan Feng

    2017-01-01

    As an effective conventional absorbent,biochar exhibited limited adsorption ability toward small hydrophobic molecules.To enhance the adsorption capacity,a novel adsorbent was prepared by immobilizing nanoscale zero-valent iron onto modified biochar (MB) and then the elemental silver was attached to the surface of iron (Ag/Fe/MB).It's noted that spherical Ag/Fe nanoparticles with diameter of 51 nm were highly dispersed on the surface of MB.As the typical hydrophobic contaminant,carbon tetrachloride was selected for examining the removal efficiency of the adsorbent.The removal efficiencies of carbon tetrachloride by original biochar (OB),Ag/Fe,Ag/Fe/OB and Ag/Fe/MB were fully investigated.It's found that Ag/Fe/MB showed higher carbon tetrachloride removal efficiency,which is about 5.5 times higher than that of the OB sample due to utilizing the merits of high adsorption and reduction.Thermodynamic parameters revealed that the removal of carbon tetrachloride by Ag/Fe/MB was a spontaneous and exothermic process,which was affected by solution pH,initial carbon tetrachloride concentration and temperature.The novel Ag/Fe/MB composites provided a promising material for carbon tetrachloride removal from effluent.

  14. Expedited response action proposal (EE/CA ampersand EA) for 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The report contains the proposal for an expedited response action (ERA) for the remediation of carbon tetrachloride contamination in the unsaturated soils beneath the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. It provides the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) with information regarding the need for the ERA and an evaluation of alternatives to reduce the mobility, toxicity, and/or volume of the carbon tetrachloride in the unsaturated soils. This report is intended to aid the EPA and Ecology in selecting a preferred alternative for implementing the ERA. This proposal does not address remediation of carbon tetrachloride in the ground water underlying the 200 West Area; nor is the radioactive waste mixed with the carbon tetrachloride in the disposal site the subject of this ERA. This report has also been prepared to address the requirements for an environmental assessment (EA). The purpose of this ERA is to prevent, or at least minimize, further migration of carbon tetrachloride contamination from the unsaturated soils to uncontaminated areas. This action is needed to ensure that the environment and public health are adequately protected and to reduce the threat of further groundwater contamination. Information on the origin, nature, and extent of carbon tetrachloride (and co-contaminants), and other site characteristics used as a basis for evaluating remedial alternatives is presented

  15. an assessment of timber trees producing valuable fruits and seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    It is observed that most of the timber trees producing valuable fruits and seeds have low ... sector of the economy by providing major raw materials (saw logs, ... the trees also produce industrial raw materials like latex, ... villagers while avoiding some of the ecological costs of ..... enzymes of rats with carbon tetrachloride.

  16. Application of microwave air plasma in the destruction of trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride at atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, S J; Quintero, M C; Rodero, A

    2011-02-15

    In this study, the destruction rate of a volatile waste destruction system based on a microwave plasma torch operating at atmospheric pressure was investigated. Atmospheric air was used to maintain the plasma and was introduced by a compressor, which resulted in lower operating costs compared to other gases such as argon and helium. To isolate the output gases and control the plasma discharge atmosphere, the plasma was coupled to a reactor. The effect of the gas flow rate, microwave power and initial concentration of compound on the destruction efficiency of the system was evaluated. In this study, trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride were used as representative volatile organic compounds to determine the destruction rate of the system. Based on the experimental results, at an applied microwave power less than 1000 W, the proposed system can reduce input concentrations in the ppmv range to output concentrations at the ppbv level. High air flow rates and initial concentrations produced energy efficiency values greater than 1000 g/kW h. The output gases and species present in the plasma were analysed by gas chromatography and optical emission spectroscopy, respectively, and negligible amounts of halogenated compounds resulting from the cleavage of C(2)HCl(3) and CCl(4) were observed. The gaseous byproducts of decomposition consisted mainly of CO(2), NO and N(2)O, as well as trace amounts of Cl(2) and solid CuCl. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of microwave air plasma in the destruction of trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, S.J., E-mail: f62rugas@uco.es [Departamento de Fisica, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Einstein, Planta Baja, Universidad de Cordoba (Spain); Quintero, M.C.; Rodero, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Einstein, Planta Baja, Universidad de Cordoba (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    In this study, the destruction rate of a volatile waste destruction system based on a microwave plasma torch operating at atmospheric pressure was investigated. Atmospheric air was used to maintain the plasma and was introduced by a compressor, which resulted in lower operating costs compared to other gases such as argon and helium. To isolate the output gases and control the plasma discharge atmosphere, the plasma was coupled to a reactor. The effect of the gas flow rate, microwave power and initial concentration of compound on the destruction efficiency of the system was evaluated. In this study, trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride were used as representative volatile organic compounds to determine the destruction rate of the system. Based on the experimental results, at an applied microwave power less than 1000 W, the proposed system can reduce input concentrations in the ppmv range to output concentrations at the ppbv level. High air flow rates and initial concentrations produced energy efficiency values greater than 1000 g/kW h. The output gases and species present in the plasma were analysed by gas chromatography and optical emission spectroscopy, respectively, and negligible amounts of halogenated compounds resulting from the cleavage of C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} and CCl{sub 4} were observed. The gaseous byproducts of decomposition consisted mainly of CO{sub 2}, NO and N{sub 2}O, as well as trace amounts of Cl{sub 2} and solid CuCl.

  18. Cost/benefit analysis comparing ex situ treatment technologies for removing carbon tetrachloride from Hanford groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truex, M.J.; Brown, D.R.; Elliott, D.B.

    1993-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a cost/benefit and performance analysis to compare ex situ technologies that can be used to destroy the carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) in the ground water of Hanford's 200 West Area. The objective of this work was to provide a direct quantitative and qualitative comparison of competing technologies. The technologies examined included a biological system, the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System II (TEES II), and a UV/oxidation system. The factors examined included key system operation parameters, impact on inorganic contaminants in the ground water, and secondary waste production. The cost effectiveness of these destruction technologies was also compared to the cost for an air stripping/granular activated carbon (AS/GAC) system. While the AS/GAC system appeared to be more cost effective at many levels than the CCl 4 destruction technologies, the secondary waste produced by this system may lead to significant cost and/or regulatory problems. The factors with the greatest influence on cost for each destruction technology are as follows: nutrient requirements for both of the biological systems, electricity requirements and the type of unit operations for the TEES II process, and electricity requirements for UV/oxidation

  19. Resonance Raman spectroscopy of volatile organics -- Carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, R.E.; Veligdan, J.T.

    1994-09-01

    Volatile organic chemicals are a class of pollutants which are regulated at very low levels by the EPA. Consequently a need exists as a part of site remediation efforts within DOE to develop technologies which will allow for the in situ monitoring of these chemicals. Resonance Raman spectroscopy is a potential technique to accomplish this if the resonance enhancement is sufficiently high. Carbon tetrachloride was selected as a test case. Measurements under resonance conditions at 248 nm showed an enhancement factor of 2 x 10 4 . Using this value an estimate of the sensitivity for both in situ and remote monitoring of CCl 4 was made. It was concluded that resonance Raman could be used to detect these chemicals at levels of regulatory interest. Future effort directed towards the development of a suitable probe as well as a field-portable system would be desirable. Such effort could be directed towards the solution of a particular monitoring problem within a DOE waste remediation project. Once developed, however, it should be easily generalized to the analysis of other VOC's in other environments

  20. Biological effects of pesticides on rats treated with carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Kader, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of repeated oral doses of the organophosphorus pesticide, cytrolane on normal and pretreated rate with different oral doses of carbon tetrachloride. For that purpose the effect of cytrolane, CCl 4 and their potential interaction had been studied on brain and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (Ache), plasma cholinesterase (Ch E), liver succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP), liver succinic dehydrogenas (SDH), serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP), glutamic oxaloacetic (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic (GPT) transaminases. It also investigates the effect of an acute oral dose of cytrolane at short time intervals (1/2-24 hours) on brain and blood ache of normal and pretreated rate with a single oral dose of CCl 4 . The distribution and excretion of 1 4cc1 4 at different time intervals (2,6 and 24 hours) in normal rats and in rats pretreated with o.89 mg cytrolane/kg/day for a week had been determined in different organs, expired air, urine and faeces

  1. Structure and energetics of clusters relevant to thorium tetrachloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdeniz, Z.; Tosi, M.P.

    2000-08-01

    We study within an ionic model the structure and the energetics of neutral and charged clusters which may exist as structural units in molten ThCl 4 and in its liquid mixtures with alkali chlorides, with reference to Raman scattering experiments by Photiadis and Papatheodorou. As stressed by these authors, the most striking facts for ThCl 4 in comparison with other tetrachlorides (and in particular with ZrCl 4 ) are the appreciable ionic conductivity of the pure melt and the continuous structural changes which occur in the melt mixtures with varying composition. After adjusting our model to data on the isolated ThCl 4 tetrahedral molecule, we evaluate (i) the Th 2 Cl 8 dimer and the singly charged species obtained by chlorine-ion transfer between two such neutral dimers; (ii) the ThCl 6 and ThCl 7 clusters both as charged anions and as alkali -compensated species; and (iii) various oligomers carrying positive or negative double charges. Our study shows that the characteristic structural properties of the ThCl 4 compound and of the alkali-Th chloride systems are the consequence of the relatively high ionic character of the binding, which is already evident in the isolated ThCl 4 molecular monomer. (author)

  2. Current sources of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in our atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, David; McCulloch, Archie; Liang, Qing; Reimann, Stefan; Newman, Paul A.

    2018-02-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or CTC) is an ozone-depleting substance whose emissive uses are controlled and practically banned by the Montreal Protocol (MP). Nevertheless, previous work estimated ongoing emissions of 35 Gg year-1 of CCl4 into the atmosphere from observation-based methods, in stark contrast to emissions estimates of 3 (0-8) Gg year-1 from reported numbers to UNEP under the MP. Here we combine information on sources from industrial production processes and legacy emissions from contaminated sites to provide an updated bottom-up estimate on current CTC global emissions of 15-25 Gg year-1. We now propose 13 Gg year-1 of global emissions from unreported non-feedstock emissions from chloromethane and perchloroethylene plants as the most significant CCl4 source. Additionally, 2 Gg year-1 are estimated as fugitive emissions from the usage of CTC as feedstock and possibly up to 10 Gg year-1 from legacy emissions and chlor-alkali plants.

  3. Pulmonary retention and tissue distribution of 239Pu nitrate in F344 rats and syrian hamsters inhaling carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, J.M.; Barr, E.B.; Lundgren, D.L.; Nikula, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is possible that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to CCl 4 and plutonium compounds. Potential for future exposure exists during open-quotes cleanupclose quotes operations at weapon production sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. The current Threshold Limit Value for CCl 4 is 5 ppm; however, concentrations of CCl 4 occurring in the nuclear weapons facilities over the past 40-50 y are unknown and may have exceeded this value. The pilot study described in this report is designed to determine whether subchronic inhalation of CCl 4 by CDF register (F-344)/CrlBR rats and Syrian golden hamsters, at concentrations expected to produce some histologic changes in liver, alters the hepatic retention and toxic effects of inhaled 239 Pu nitrate 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4

  4. Mechanisms of circadian rhythmicity of carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, James V; Ramanathan, Raghupathy; Lee, K Monica; Muralidhara, Srinivasa

    2002-01-01

    The toxicity of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) and certain other chemicals varies over a 24-h period. Because the metabolism of some drugs follows a diurnal rhythm, it was decided to investigate whether the hepatic metabolic activation of CCl(4) was rhythmic and coincided in time with maximum susceptibility to CCl(4) hepatotoxicity. A related objective was to test the hypothesis that abstinence from food during the sleep cycle results in lipolysis and formation of acetone, which participates in induction of liver microsomal cytochrome P450IIE1 (CYP2E1), resulting in a diurnal increase in CCl(4) metabolic activation and acute liver injury. Groups of fed and fasted male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single oral dose of 800 mg of CCl(4)/kg at 2- to 4-h intervals over a 24-h period. Serum enzyme activities, measured 24 h post dosing as indices of acute liver injury, exhibited distinct maxima in both fed and fasted animals dosed with CCl(4) near the beginning of their dark/active cycle. Blood acetone, hepatic CYP2E1 activity, and covalent binding of (14)CCl(4)/metabolites to hepatic microsomal proteins in untreated rats fed ad libitum followed circadian rhythms similar to that of susceptibility to CCl(4). Parallel fluctuations of greater amplitude were seen in rats fasted for 24 h. Hepatic glutathione levels were lowest at the time of greatest susceptibility to CCl(4). Acetone dose-response experiments showed high correlations between blood acetone levels, CYP2E1 induction, and CCl(4)-induced liver injury. Pretreatment with diallyl sulfide suppressed CYP2E1 and abolished the circadian rhythmicity of susceptibility to CCl(4). These findings provide additional support for acetone's physiological role in CYP2E1 induction and for CYP2E1's role in modulating CCl(4) chronotoxicity in rats.

  5. Esculetin Ameliorates Carbon Tetrachloride-Mediated Hepatic Apoptosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Sung Chiu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Esculetin (ESC is a coumarin that is present in several plants such as Fraxinus rhynchophylla and Artemisia capillaris. Our previous study found that FR ethanol extract (FREtOH significantly ameliorated rats’ liver function. This study was intended to investigate the protective mechanism of ESC in hepatic apoptosis in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride. Rat hepatic apoptosis was induced by oral administration of CCl4. All rats were administered orally with CCl4 (20%, 0.5 mL/rat twice a week for 8 weeks. Rats in the ESC groups were treated daily with ESC, and silymarin group were treated daily with silymarin. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST as well as the activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase in the liver were measured. In addition, expression of liver apoptosis proteins and anti-apoptotic proteins were detected. ESC (100, 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the elevated activities of serum ALT and AST caused by CCl4 and significantly increased the activities of catalase, GPx and SOD. Furthermore, ESC (100, 500 mg/kg significantly decreased the levels of the proapoptotic proteins (t-Bid, Bak and Bad and significantly increased the levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. ESC inhibited the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. In addition, the levels of activated caspase-9 and activated caspase-3 were significantly decreased in rats treated with ESC than those in rats treated with CCl4 alone. ESC significantly reduced CCl4-induced hepatic apoptosis in rats.

  6. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor without addition of another electron donor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Best, JH; Hunneman, P; Doddema, HJ; Janssen, DB; Harder, W; Doddema, Hans J.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (52 mu M) was biodegraded for more than 72% in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor without addition of an external electron donor. The chloride mass balance demonstrated that all carbon tetrachloride transformed was completely dechlorinated. Chloroform and dichloromethane were

  7. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor without addition of another electron donor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, J.H. de; Hunneman, P.; Doddema, H.J.; Janssen, D.B.; Harder, W.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (52 μM) was biodegraded for more than 72% in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor without addition of an external electron donor. The chloride mass balance demonstrated that all carbon tetrachloride transformed was completely dechlorinated. Chloroform and dichloromethane were

  8. Synthesis of zirconium by zirconium tetrachloride reduction by magnesio-thermia. Experimental study and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basin, N.

    2001-01-01

    This work deals with the synthesis of zirconium. The ore is carbo-chlorinated to obtain the tetrachloride which is then purified by selective condensation and extractive distillation. Zirconium tetrachloride is then reduced by magnesium and the pseudo-alloy is obtained according to the global following reaction (Kroll process): ZrCl 4 + 2 Mg = 2 MgCl 2 . By thermodynamics, it has been shown that the volatilization of magnesium chloride and the formation of zirconium sub-chlorides are minimized when the combined effects of temperature and of dilution with argon are limited. With these conditions, the products, essentially zirconium and magnesium chloride, are obtained in equivalence ratio in the magnesio-thermia reaction. The global kinetics of the reduction process has been studied by a thermal gravimetric method. A thermo-balance device has been developed specially for this kinetics study. It runs under a controlled atmosphere and is coupled to a vapor tetrachloride feed unit. The transformation is modelled supposing that the zirconium and magnesium chloride formation result: 1)of the evaporation of magnesium from its liquid phase 2)of the transfer of magnesium and zirconium tetrachloride vapors towards the front of the reaction located in the gaseous phase 3)of the chemical reaction. In the studied conditions, the diffusion is supposed to be the limiting process. The influence of the following parameters: geometry of the reactive zone, temperature, scanning rate of the argon-zirconium tetrachloride mixture, composition of the argon-zirconium tetrachloride mixture has been experimentally studied and confronted with success to the model. (O.M.)

  9. Performance Evaluation Report for Soil Vapor Extraction Operations at the Carbon Tetrachloride Site, February 1992 - September 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V. J.

    1999-01-01

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is being used to remove carbon tetrachloride from the vadose zone at the 200-ZP-2 Operable Unit. The purpose of this report is to evaluate both the SVE system operating data and the effectiveness of SVE in remediating the carbon tetrachloride contamination. This report has been revised to cover the operating period from February 25, 1992 through September 30, 1998. The scope of the report includes the history of SVE operations at 200-ZP-2, the efficiency of those operations over time, the volume of vapor processed per extraction system, the change in carbon tetrachloride concentrations with time, the mass of carbon tetrachloride removed per site, and recommendations for future operations and evaluations. This revision includes an update to the carbon tetrachloride conceptual model

  10. Model sensitivity studies of the decrease in atmospheric carbon tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Chipperfield

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 is an ozone-depleting substance, which is controlled by the Montreal Protocol and for which the atmospheric abundance is decreasing. However, the current observed rate of this decrease is known to be slower than expected based on reported CCl4 emissions and its estimated overall atmospheric lifetime. Here we use a three-dimensional (3-D chemical transport model to investigate the impact on its predicted decay of uncertainties in the rates at which CCl4 is removed from the atmosphere by photolysis, by ocean uptake and by degradation in soils. The largest sink is atmospheric photolysis (74 % of total, but a reported 10 % uncertainty in its combined photolysis cross section and quantum yield has only a modest impact on the modelled rate of CCl4 decay. This is partly due to the limiting effect of the rate of transport of CCl4 from the main tropospheric reservoir to the stratosphere, where photolytic loss occurs. The model suggests large interannual variability in the magnitude of this stratospheric photolysis sink caused by variations in transport. The impact of uncertainty in the minor soil sink (9 % of total is also relatively small. In contrast, the model shows that uncertainty in ocean loss (17 % of total has the largest impact on modelled CCl4 decay due to its sizeable contribution to CCl4 loss and large lifetime uncertainty range (147 to 241 years. With an assumed CCl4 emission rate of 39 Gg year−1, the reference simulation with the best estimate of loss processes still underestimates the observed CCl4 (overestimates the decay over the past 2 decades but to a smaller extent than previous studies. Changes to the rate of CCl4 loss processes, in line with known uncertainties, could bring the model into agreement with in situ surface and remote-sensing measurements, as could an increase in emissions to around 47 Gg year−1. Further progress in constraining the CCl4 budget is partly limited by

  11. Reductive Dechlorination of Carbon Tetrachloride by Soil With Ferrous and Bisulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, K.; Lee, W.

    2008-12-01

    Batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of concentration of reductants, contact time to activate reductive capacity, and pH on reductive dechlorination by soil with Fe(II) and HS- in this study. Carbon tetrachloride (CT) was used as a representative target organic compound. Sorption kinetic and isotherm tests were performed to investigate the influence of adsorption on the soil surface. Target compound in the soil suspension reached sorption equilibrium in 4 hours and the type of isotherm was well fitted by a linear type isotherm. In batch experiment, kinetic rate constants for the reductive dechlorination of CT increased with increasing the concentration of the reductants (Fe(II) and HS-). However, Fe(II) was a much more effective reductant, producing higher k values than those of HS-. The contact time of one day for the soil with HS- and that of four hours with Fe(II) showed the highest reaction rates. Additionally, the rate constants increased with the increase of pH in soil suspension with Fe(II) (5.2~8) and HS- (8.3~10.3), respectively. In column experiment, the soil column with Fe(II) showed larger bed volumes (13.76) to reach a column breakthrough than that with HS- indicating the treatment of Fe(II) is more effective for the reductive dechlorination of CT. To enhance reductive capacity of soil column under an acidic condition, CaO addition to the column treated with Fe(II) showed better results for the reductive dechlorination of CT than that of HS-. Fe(II) showed better CT dechlorination than HS- in batch and column reactors therefore, it can be used as an effective reducing agent for the treatment of soil contaminated with chlorinated organic compounds.

  12. Correlation of NMR and refractometry to evaluate the stability constant on carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modarress, H.; Pouryazadanpanah, N.

    2004-01-01

    An equation has been suggested which correlate the NMR and refractometry results to evaluate the stability constant of electron donor complexes. Using this equation the stability constant of complexation between carbon tetrachloride and toluene in cyclohexane has been studied by refractometry and NMR spectroscopy

  13. REDUCTIVE DEHALOGENATION OF HEXACHLOROETHANE, CARBON TETRACHLORIDE, AND BROMOFORM BY ANTHRAHYDROQUINONE DISULFONATE AND HUMIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reductive dehalogenation of hexachloroethane (CzCLj), carbon tetrachloride (CC14), and bromoform (CHBr3) was examined at 50 “C in aqueous solutions containing ei- ther (1) 500 pM of 2,6-anthrahydroquinone disulfonate (AHQDS), (2) 250 pM Fe2+, or (3) 250 pM HS-. The pH ranged ...

  14. Study of the production of zirconium tetrachloride by chlorination of its oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, E.S.M.

    1983-01-01

    The studies carried out on the production of zirconium tetrachloride by chlorination of pure zirconium oxide with carbon tetrachloride and chlorine in the presence of carbon. In the process of chlorination with carbon tetrachloride, the chlorination efficiency increases with the rise in temperature at intervals between 450 and 750 0 C. The flow of the carbon tetrachloride vapour was 1.50l/min. Higher temperatures of 700 to 850 0 C were used for the zirconium oxide chlorination in the presence of carbon, and the flowrate of the chlorine gas used in the process was 0.50 l/min. Pure zirconium oxide chlorination as well as zirconium oxide - carbon misture chlorination have been studied in connection with the time of reaction at different temperatures and the apparent rate constant, the activation energies, the order of reaction in relation to the concentration of the gases (CCl 4 and Cl 2 ) and the content of carbon in the pellet have all been determined. (Author) [pt

  15. Preliminary evaluation of soil-heating technologies for the 200-ZP-2 carbon tetrachloride expedited response action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.J.; Todd, M.E.; Tranbarger, R.K.

    1996-09-01

    The 200-ZP-2 Operable Unit is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The US Department of Energy has been conducting an expedited response action to treat carbon tetrachloride contamination since 1992 at the operable unit at the direction of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology. This document provides an analyses of the soil vapor extraction method used to extract carbon tetrachloride from the soil

  16. Betaine reduces hepatic lipidosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junnila, M; Barak, A J; Beckenhauer, H C; Rahko, T

    1998-10-01

    Carbon tetrachloride-injected rats were given liquid diets with and without betaine for 7 d. Hepatic lipidosis was induced by 4 daily injections of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Animals were killed and their livers and blood taken for analysis of betaine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Liver samples were also processed and stained for histological examination. Supplemental betaine reduced triglyceride in the liver and centrilobular hepatic lipidosis induced by the CCl4 injections. In both the control and experimental groups receiving betaine, liver betaine, BHMT and SAM were significantly higher than in their respective groups not receiving betaine. This study provides evidence that betaine protects the liver against CCl4-induced lipidosis and may be a useful therapeutic and prophylactic agent in ameliorating the harmful effects of CCl4.

  17. Vanadium purification by transformation to the tetrachloride and reduction by hydrogen. Study of the reduction mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Val, Christian

    1968-01-01

    The problem studied here is the production of very high purity metallic vanadium. By analogy with the method used for silicon or germanium production in electronics, the one employed here involves preparing the tetrachloride from the impure metal, purifying it by distillation, an easy process, and finally reducing this tetrachloride with hydrogen to obtain the pure metal. By this technique it has been possible to reduce the impurity content from about 5000 ppm to under 500 ppm and, in particular, to eliminate almost completely the nitrogen which is not removed by the normal purification methods. The author has studied the changes in the morphology of the deposit obtained as a function of the operational conditions. He has determined in particular the conditions leading to the formation of a compact deposit. He has shown that the deposition kinetics are very probably governed by an adsorbed phase reaction at the metal surface, (author) [fr

  18. The extraction of vanadium pentoxide from waste of titanium tetrachloride by various methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Инна Михайловна Гунько

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In article the recovery possibility of vanadium pentoxide from wastes, formed as a result of purification from impurities of technical titanium tetrachloride is researched. The purification from impurities is realized by different methods – pulp of lower titanium chlorides, hydrocarbonic reducer and cascade-rectifying purification. Usage of these purification methods leads to formation of anthropogenic wastes. The researches is shown that processing of these wastes is reasonable for the purpose of vanadium pentoxide extraction

  19. Carbon Tetrachloride Flow Behavior in Unsaturated Hanford Caliche Material: An Investigation of Residual Nonaqueous Phase Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oostrom, Mart; Lenhard, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    To obtain data that can be used to study the development of a residual NAPL saturation and to test corresponding models, a detailed transient experiment was conducted in a 170-cm long by 90-cm high by 5.5-cm wide flow cell. Fluid saturation measurements were obtained with a dual-energy gamma radiation system. The experimental conditions reflected those at the Hanford Site in Washington State, where an estimated 363-580 m3 of carbon tetrachloride was disposed to the subsurface. A key subsurface feature at the Hanford Site is a sloped Plio-Pleistocene caliche layer, which was reproduced in the experiment as a sloped lens in a medium-grained, uniform, sand matrix. The caliche contains considerable amounts of calcium carbonate and may have fluid wettability properties other than strongly water wet. A total of 800 ml of carbon tetrachloride was injected in the experimental domain at a rate of 0.5 ml min-1 from a small source area located at the surface. After apparent steady-state conditions were obtained with respect to carbon tetrachloride redistribution (i.e., the formation of residual DNAPL), saturation measurements indicate that all of the DNAPL that initially moved into the caliche, remained in this layer. This experimental result could not be reproduced with numerical multifluid flow simulations based on conventional constitutive relations between relative permeability, saturation, and fluid pressures. Water was subsequently applied to the surface at a constant rate over the full length of the caliche layer to study carbon tetrachloride displacement as a result of changing water saturations. Results show that as a result of this action, 29% of the DNAPL was removed from the caliche. However, the majority of the fluid remained in the caliche entrapped by water. Simulations with the multifluid flow simulator show that the current constitutive theory for relative permeability, saturation and capillary pressure does not describe displacement physics properly

  20. A carbon tetrachloride-free synthesis of N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidoyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dylan G M; Williams, Spencer J

    2017-10-10

    N-Phenyltrifluoroacetimidoyl chloride (PTFAI-Cl) is a reagent widely used for the preparation of glycosyl N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidates. However, the most commonly applied method requires carbon tetrachloride, a hepatotoxic reagent that has been phased out under the Montreal Protocol. We report a new synthesis of N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidoyl chloride (PTFAI-Cl) using dichlorotriphenylphosphane and triethylamine. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Graphene oxide-mediated rapid dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by green rust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Li-Zhi; Hansen, Hans Christian B.; Daasbjerg, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Graphene-based nanomaterials can mediate environmentally relevant abiotic redox reactions of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons. In this study as low amounts as ∼0.007 % of graphene oxide (GO) was found to catalyze the reduction of carbon tetrachloride by layered Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxide (Green R....... This study indicates that traces of graphene oxide can affect reaction pathways as well as kinetics for dechlorination processes in anoxic sediments by facilitating a partial dechlorination....

  2. Studying preventive effects of Berberisintegerrimaon root on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammadreza mohammadimalayeri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Liver diseases and their economic losses have gained more importancealongside the development of integrated poultry industry. Studies have proved hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride as one of the best experimental models of hepatotocicity. Barberries have been used widely in traditional medicine.The purpose of the present study was to evaluaterthe preventive effects of Berberisintegerrima root on carbon tetrachloride induced liver lesions in broilers.For this purpose, 80 day old Ross strain broilers were divided randomly to 8 study groupsconsisting of negative control, positive control which received IP 4ml/kg b.w. carbon tetrachloride twice in 25th and 28thdays , treatment controls consisting of 10,20 and 30 grams of  Berberisintegerrima root per kilogram of diet and treatment groups consisting of 10,20 and 30 gr. Of Berberis root / Kg diet + IPcarbontetrachloride 4ml/Kg b.w. twice in 25th and 28th days.At 29th day, blood samples were collected from animals, then they were sacrificed and their liver samples were fixed in 10% formalin solution. The blood samples were sent to laboratory to measure ALT,AST and ALP activities.Biochemical results didn't show any significant changes of ALT,AST and ALP activities between all study groups (P>0.05. Microscopic results showed significant decrease in pathologic lesions of 20 gr Berberis root /Kg diet treatment group in comparison with the positive control group(P

  3. Maresin 1, a Proresolving Lipid Mediator, Mitigates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruidong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maresin 1 (MaR 1 was recently reported to have protective properties in several different animal models of acute inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory response. However, its function in acute liver injury is still unknown. To address this question, we induced liver injury in BALB/c mice with intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride with or without treatment of MaR 1. Our data showed that MaR 1 attenuated hepatic injury, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation induced by carbon tetrachloride, as evidenced by increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and reactive oxygen species levels were inhibited by treatment of MaR 1. Furthermore, MaR 1 increased activities of antioxidative mediators in carbon tetrachloride-treated mice liver. MaR 1 decreased indices of inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, myeloperoxidase, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Administration of MaR 1 inhibited activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κb and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs in the liver of CCl4 treated mice. In conclusion, these results suggested the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory properties of MaR 1 in CCl4 induced liver injury. The possible mechanism is partly implicated in its abilities to inhibit ROS generation and activation of NF-κb and MAPK pathway.

  4. Summary of canister overheating incident at the Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driggers, S.A.

    1994-03-10

    The granular activated carbon (GAC)-filled canister that overheated was being used to adsorb carbon tetrachloride vapors drawn from a well near the 216-Z-9 Trench, a subsurface disposal site in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The overheating incident resulted in a band of discolored paint on the exterior surface of the canister. Although there was no other known damage to equipment, no injuries to operating personnel, and no releases of hazardous materials, the incident is of concern because it was not anticipated. It also poses the possibility of release of carbon tetrachloride and other hazardous vapors if the incident were to recur. All soil vapor extraction system (VES) operations were halted until a better understanding of the cause of the incident could be determined and controls implemented to reduce the possibility of a recurrence. The focus of this report and the intent of all the activities associated with understanding the overheating incident has been to provide information that will allow safe restart of the VES operations, develop operational limits and controls to prevent recurrence of an overheating incident, and safely optimize recovery of carbon tetrachloride from the ground.

  5. Dietary Antioxidants Effectiveness on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Female Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Sherbiny, E.M.; EI-Mahdy, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatic toxicity through carbon tetrachloride (CCI 4 ) induced lipid peroxidation was extensively used in experimental models to understand the cellular mechanisms behind oxidative damage and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of drugs and dietary antioxidants. The ameliorative effect of Aloe vera juice and carrot supplementation on hepato carcinogenesis induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult female albino rats was investigated. The carcinogenic process was determined by measuring gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), representing levels of lipid peroxides, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the sera of female albino rats. Carbon tetrachloride significantly elevated the serum GGT, OCT activities and the level of TBARs. Administration of Aloe vera leaf juice filtrate after CCl 4 treatment resulted in a non-significant modification in GGT, OCT activities and significantly improved the level of TBARs in comparison with control. Supplementation of carrot to CCI 4 treated animals led to a great amelioration in OCT activity and TBARs level, whereas GGT activity was ameliorated but statistically changed compared to control. There was a non-significant alteration in the level of CEA in all treated groups compared to normal control one

  6. In situ bioremediation for the Hanford carbon tetrachloride plume. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    The 200 Area at Hanford (also called the Central Plateau) contains approximately 817 waste sites, 44 facilities to be demolished, and billions of gallons of contaminated groundwater resulting from chemical processing plants and associated waste facilities (e.g., waste tanks). From 1955 to 1973, carbon tetrachloride, nitrate, and other materials were discharged to subsurface liquid waste disposal facilities in the 200 Area. As much as 600,000 kilograms of carbon tetrachloride may have entered the soil column and a portion of this has contaminated the underlying aquifer. In Situ Bioremediation for the Hanford Carbon Tetrachloride Plume (ISB), which is the term used in this report for an in situ treatment process using indigenous micro-organisms with a computer based Accelerated Bioremediation Design Tool (ABDT), remediates groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrates under anaerobic conditions. ISB involves the injection of nutrients into the groundwater and subsequent extraction and re-injection of the groundwater to provide nutrient distribution in the aquifer

  7. Hepatoprotective activity of Eugenia jambolana Lam. in carbon tetrachloride treated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, S.S.; Bhatnagar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the hepatoprotective effects of the methanolic seed extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (Myrtaceae), in Wistar albino rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Materials and Methods: Liver damage in rats treated with CCl4 (1ml/kg/Bw, administered subcutaneously, on alternate days for one week) was studied by assessing parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and bilirubin (total and direct). The effect of co-administration of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p. o.) on the above parameters was investigated. These biochemical observations were supplemented by weight and histological examination of liver sections. Liv.52® was used as positive control. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA, followed by Scheff's/Dunnett's test. Results: Administration of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p. o.) significantly prevented carbon tetrachloride induced elevation of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, ACP and bilirubin (total and direct) level. Histological examination of the liver section revealed hepatic regeneration, after administration of various doses of Eugenia jambolana Lam. The results were comparable to that of Liv.52®. Conclusion: The study suggests preventive action of Eugenia jambolana Lam. in carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity. Hepatic cell regeneration process was dose dependent. PMID:20177577

  8. A proteomic method for analysis of CYP450s protein expression changes in carbon tetrachloride induced male rat liver microsomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Nuan; Liu Xin; Wen Jun; Qian Linyi; Qian Xiaohong; Wu Yutian; Fan Guorong

    2007-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) is a well-known model compound for producing chemical hepatic injury. Cytochrome P450 is an important monooxygenase in biology. We investigated the CYP450 protein expression in the in vivo hepatotoxicity of rats induced by CCl 4 . In this experiment, CCl 4 were administered to male rats, and their livers at 24 h post-dosing were applied to the proteomic analysis. Blood biochemistry and histopathology were examined to identify specific changes. At the same time, a novel acetylation stable isotopic labeling method coupled with LTQ-FTICR mass spectrometry was applied to disclose the changes of cytochrome P450 expression amounts. The quantitative proteomics method demonstrated its correlation coefficient was 0.9998 in a 100-fold dynamic range and the average ratio of the labeled peptides was 1.04, which was very close to the theoretical ratio of 1.00 and the standard deviation (S.D.) of 0.21. With this approach, 17 cytochrome P450 proteins were identified and quantified with high confidence. Among them, the expression amount of 2C11, 3A2, and 2 E1 were down-regulated, while that of 2C6, 2B2, and 2B1 were up-regulated

  9. Bioavailability of andrographolide and protection against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Haw-Wen [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chin-Shiu [Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Li, Chien-Chun [School of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Huang, Yu-Ju [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Tsu-Shing [Department of Biomedical Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yao, Hsien-Tsung [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lii, Chong-Kuei [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-01

    Andrographolide, a bioactive diterpenoid, is identified in Andrographis paniculata. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of andrographolide in rats and studied whether andrographolide enhances antioxidant defense in a variety of tissues and protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage. After a single 50-mg/kg administration, the maximum plasma concentration of andrographolide was 1 μM which peaked at 30 min. The bioavailability of andrographolide was 1.19%. In a hepatoprotection study, rats were intragastrically dosed with 30 or 50 mg/kg andrographolide for 5 consecutive days. The results showed that andrographolide up-regulated glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic and modifier subunits, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and glutathione (GSH) S-transferase (GST) Ya/Yb protein and mRNA expression in the liver, heart, and kidneys. The activity of SOD, GST, and GSH reductase was also increased in rats dosed with andrographolide (p < 0.05). Immunoblot analysis and EMSA revealed that andrographolide increased nuclear Nrf2 contents and Nrf2 binding to DNA, respectively. After the 5-day andrographolide treatment, one group of animals was intraperitoneally injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) at day 6. Andrographolide pretreatment suppressed CCl{sub 4}-induced plasma aminotransferase activity and hepatic lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05). These results suggest that andrographolide is quickly absorbed in the intestinal tract in rats with a bioavailability of 1.19%. Andrographolide protects against chemical-induced oxidative damage by up-regulating the gene transcription and activity of antioxidant enzymes in various tissues. - Highlights: • The bioavailability of andrographolide is 1.19% in rats. • Plasma concentration reaches 1 μM after giving 50 mg/kg andrographolide. • Andrographolide up-regulates Nrf2-dependent antioxidant genes. • Andrographolide increases antioxidant defense

  10. Bioavailability of andrographolide and protection against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Haw-Wen; Huang, Chin-Shiu; Li, Chien-Chun; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Huang, Yu-Ju; Wang, Tsu-Shing; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Lii, Chong-Kuei

    2014-01-01

    Andrographolide, a bioactive diterpenoid, is identified in Andrographis paniculata. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of andrographolide in rats and studied whether andrographolide enhances antioxidant defense in a variety of tissues and protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage. After a single 50-mg/kg administration, the maximum plasma concentration of andrographolide was 1 μM which peaked at 30 min. The bioavailability of andrographolide was 1.19%. In a hepatoprotection study, rats were intragastrically dosed with 30 or 50 mg/kg andrographolide for 5 consecutive days. The results showed that andrographolide up-regulated glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic and modifier subunits, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and glutathione (GSH) S-transferase (GST) Ya/Yb protein and mRNA expression in the liver, heart, and kidneys. The activity of SOD, GST, and GSH reductase was also increased in rats dosed with andrographolide (p < 0.05). Immunoblot analysis and EMSA revealed that andrographolide increased nuclear Nrf2 contents and Nrf2 binding to DNA, respectively. After the 5-day andrographolide treatment, one group of animals was intraperitoneally injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) at day 6. Andrographolide pretreatment suppressed CCl 4 -induced plasma aminotransferase activity and hepatic lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05). These results suggest that andrographolide is quickly absorbed in the intestinal tract in rats with a bioavailability of 1.19%. Andrographolide protects against chemical-induced oxidative damage by up-regulating the gene transcription and activity of antioxidant enzymes in various tissues. - Highlights: • The bioavailability of andrographolide is 1.19% in rats. • Plasma concentration reaches 1 μM after giving 50 mg/kg andrographolide. • Andrographolide up-regulates Nrf2-dependent antioxidant genes. • Andrographolide increases antioxidant defense in

  11. USE OF NARROW-DIAMETER DIRECT-PUSH WELLS TO CHARACTERIZE AND REMEDIATE CARBON TETRACHLORIDE IN THE 200 WEST AREA HANFORD SITE, WASHINGTON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V.J.

    2009-01-01

    This single page graphic shows several figures. The Hydraulic Hammer Rig (HHR) direct-push technology has been successfully used to characterize carbon tetrachloride in the vadose zone. Based on their favorable performance and radius of influence, HHR SVE wells have potential for future use in both monitoring and targeted SVE to achieve VOC cleanup goals at the carbon tetrachloride waste sites

  12. Efficient dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by hydrophobic green rust intercalated with dodecanoate anions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayala Luis, Karina Barbara; Ginette Anneliese Cooper, Nicola; Bender Koch, Christian

    2012-01-01

    similar to those found in heavily contaminated groundwater close to polluted industrial sites (14 988 mu M) was reduced mainly to the fully dechlorinated products carbon monoxide (CO, yields >54 and formic acid (HCOOH, yields >6. Minor formation of chloroform (CF), the only chlorinated degradation product......The reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by Fe-II-Fe-III hydroxide (green rust) intercalated with dodecanoate, (Fe4Fe2III)-Fe-II (OH)(12)(C12H23O2)(2)center dot gamma H2O (designated GR(C12)), at pH similar to 8 and at room temperature was investigated. CT at concentration levels...

  13. Halogeno Aldol Reaction of Ethyl Vinyl Ketone and Aldehydes Mediated by Titanium Tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guigen Li

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A three-component halogeno aldol reaction has been developed by using titanium tetrachloride as the halogen source as well as the Lewis acid mediator. The dehydration and elimination of hydrogen chloride were inhibited by conducting the reaction at 0 °C in dichloromethane or at room temperature with a shortened reaction time. Seven examples were examined, giving good to high yields (61 - 92% and modest stereoselectivity (syn/anti: 2.2/1.0 - 8.4/1.0.

  14. Orientation correlation and intermolecular structure of GeCl4, VCl4 and other tetrachloride liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, P.P.; Sarkar, S.; Joarder, R.N.

    2007-01-01

    The intermolecular structure and correlation of GeCl 4 , VCl 4 and other tetrachloride liquids can be well described by Misawa's orientation correlation model originally applied to liquid CCl 4 . The model supports on average a specific 'corner' to 'face' correlation, but evidently very different from 'Apollo' type model. The Misawa model appears to work, in some respect, even better than reference interaction site model (RISM) used for long to describe intermolecular structure of such molecular systems. The test and comparison are made through the calculation of small asymmetric part of the intermolecular structure and evaluation of partial atom-atom distribution functions

  15. Molten salt scrubbing of zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.D.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a continuous process for removing impurities of iron or aluminum chloride or both from vaporous zirconium or hafnium chloride or both. It comprises: introducing impure zirconium or hafnium chloride vapor or both into a middle portion of an absorbing column containing a molten salt phase, the molten salt phase absorbing the impurities of iron or aluminum chloride or both to produce chloride vapor stripped of zirconium or hafnium chloride; introducing sodium or potassium chloride or both into a top portion of the column; controlling the top portion of the column to between 300--375 degrees C.; heating a bottom portion of the column to 450--550 degrees C. To vaporize zirconium chloride or hafnium chloride or hafnium and zirconium chloride from the molten salt; withdrawing molten salt substantially free of zirconium and hafnium chloride from the bottom portion of the column; and withdrawing zirconium chloride or hafnium chloride or hafnium and zirconium chloride vapor substantially free of impurities of iron and aluminum chloride from the top of the column

  16. Bioavailability of andrographolide and protection against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haw-Wen; Huang, Chin-Shiu; Li, Chien-Chun; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Huang, Yu-Ju; Wang, Tsu-Shing; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Lii, Chong-Kuei

    2014-10-01

    Andrographolide, a bioactive diterpenoid, is identified in Andrographis paniculata. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of andrographolide in rats and studied whether andrographolide enhances antioxidant defense in a variety of tissues and protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage. After a single 50-mg/kg administration, the maximum plasma concentration of andrographolide was 1μM which peaked at 30min. The bioavailability of andrographolide was 1.19%. In a hepatoprotection study, rats were intragastrically dosed with 30 or 50mg/kg andrographolide for 5 consecutive days. The results showed that andrographolide up-regulated glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic and modifier subunits, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and glutathione (GSH) S-transferase (GST) Ya/Yb protein and mRNA expression in the liver, heart, and kidneys. The activity of SOD, GST, and GSH reductase was also increased in rats dosed with andrographolide (pandrographolide increased nuclear Nrf2 contents and Nrf2 binding to DNA, respectively. After the 5-day andrographolide treatment, one group of animals was intraperitoneally injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) at day 6. Andrographolide pretreatment suppressed CCl4-induced plasma aminotransferase activity and hepatic lipid peroxidation (pandrographolide is quickly absorbed in the intestinal tract in rats with a bioavailability of 1.19%. Andrographolide protects against chemical-induced oxidative damage by up-regulating the gene transcription and activity of antioxidant enzymes in various tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Literature information applicable to the reaction of uranium oxides with chlorine to prepare uranium tetrachloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, P.A.

    1992-02-01

    The reaction of uranium oxides and chlorine to prepare anhydrous uranium tetrachloride (UCl{sub 4}) are important to more economical preparation of uranium metal. The most practical reactions require carbon or carbon monoxide (CO) to give CO or carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as waste gases. The chemistry of U-O-Cl compounds is very complex with valances of 3, 4, 5, and 6 and with stable oxychlorides. Literature was reviewed to collect thermochemical data, phase equilibrium information, and results of experimental studies. Calculations using thermodynamic data can identify the probable reactions, but the results are uncertain. All the U-O-Cl compounds have large free energies of formation and the calculations give uncertain small differences of large numbers. The phase diagram for UCl{sub 4}-UO{sub 2} shows a reaction to form uranium oxychloride (UOCl{sub 2}) that has a good solubility in molten UCl{sub 4}. This appears more favorable to good rates of reaction than reaction of solids and gases. There is limited information on U-O-Cl salt properties. Information on the preparation of titanium, zirconium, silicon, and thorium tetrachlorides (TiCl{sub 4}, ZrCl{sub 4}, SiCl{sub 4}, ThCl{sub 4}) by reaction of oxides with chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) and carbon has application to the preparation of UCl{sub 4}.

  18. Literature information applicable to the reaction of uranium oxides with chlorine to prepare uranium tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.

    1992-02-01

    The reaction of uranium oxides and chlorine to prepare anhydrous uranium tetrachloride (UCl 4 ) are important to more economical preparation of uranium metal. The most practical reactions require carbon or carbon monoxide (CO) to give CO or carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) as waste gases. The chemistry of U-O-Cl compounds is very complex with valances of 3, 4, 5, and 6 and with stable oxychlorides. Literature was reviewed to collect thermochemical data, phase equilibrium information, and results of experimental studies. Calculations using thermodynamic data can identify the probable reactions, but the results are uncertain. All the U-O-Cl compounds have large free energies of formation and the calculations give uncertain small differences of large numbers. The phase diagram for UCl 4 -UO 2 shows a reaction to form uranium oxychloride (UOCl 2 ) that has a good solubility in molten UCl 4 . This appears more favorable to good rates of reaction than reaction of solids and gases. There is limited information on U-O-Cl salt properties. Information on the preparation of titanium, zirconium, silicon, and thorium tetrachlorides (TiCl 4 , ZrCl 4 , SiCl 4 , ThCl 4 ) by reaction of oxides with chlorine (Cl 2 ) and carbon has application to the preparation of UCl 4

  19. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa Linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Song-Chow; Lin, Chia-Hsien; Lin, Chun-Ching; Lin, Yun-Ho; Chen, Chin-Fa; Chen, I-Cheng; Wang, Li-Ya

    2002-01-01

    Arctium lappa Linne (burdock) is a perennial herb which is popularly cultivated as a vegetable. In order to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects, a group of rats (n = 10) was fed a liquid ethanol diet (4 g of absolute ethanol/ 80 ml of liquid basal diet) for 28 days and another group (n = 10) received a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in order to potentiate the liver damage on the 21st day (1 day before the beginning of A. lappa treatment). Control group rats were given a liquid basal diet which did not contain absolute ethanol. When 300 mg/kg A. lappa was administered orally 3 times per day in both the 1-day and 7-day treatment groups, some biochemical and histopathological parameters were significantly altered, both in the ethanol group and the groups receiving ethanol supplemented with CCl(4). A. lappa significantly improved various pathological and biochemical parameters which were worsened by ethanol plus CCl(4)-induced liver damage, such as the ethanol plus CCl(4)-induced decreases in total cytochrome P-450 content and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity, increases in serum triglyceride levels and lipid peroxidation (the deleterious peroxidative and toxic malondialdehyde metabolite may be produced in quantity) and elevation of serum transaminase levels. It could even restore the glutathione content and affect the histopathological lesions. These results tended to imply that the hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol and potentiated by CCl(4) could be alleviated with 1 and 7 days of A. lappa treatment. The hepatoprotective mechanism of A. lappa could be attributed, at least in part, to its antioxidative activity, which decreases the oxidative stress of hepatocytes, or to other unknown protective mechanism(s). Copyright 2002 National Science Council, ROC and S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Solvent--solvent extraction of rhodium-103m from ruthenium-103 employing a sulfate-carbon tetrachloride medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperson, C.E.; Landolt, R.R.; Kessler, W.V.

    1976-01-01

    /sup 103m/Rh in equilibrium with parent 103 Ru was separated in yields of 94 percent of those theoretically possible. 103 Ru chloride was first converted to the tetroxide which was then extracted from an aqueous solution of the equilibrium mixture with carbon tetrachloride

  1. Degradation Kinetics of Carbon Tetrachloride by Sulfate Green Rust as Influenced by pH and Copper Ions (Stillwater)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethene (TCE, C2HCl3) and carbon tetrachloride (CT, CCl4) are priority groundwater contaminants at many EPA field sites. Green rust (GR) minerals are important corrosion products of zerovalent iron (Fe0) that has been used in permeable react...

  2. Degradation Kinetics of Carbon Tetrachloride by Sulfate Green Rust as Influenced by pH and Copper Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethene (TCE, C2HCl3) and carbon tetrachloride (CT, CCl4) are priority groundwater contaminants at many EPA field sites. Green rust (GR) minerals are important corrosion products of zerovalent iron (Fe0) that has been used in permeable reactiv...

  3. Reduction of carbon tetrachloride-induced rat liver injury by IRFI 042, a novel dual vitamin E-like antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, G M; Squadrito, F; Ceccarelli, S; Calò, M; Avenoso, A; Campo, S; Squadrito, G; Altavilla, D

    2001-04-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced hepatotoxicity is likely the result of a CCl4 -induced free radical production which causes membrane lipid peroxidation and activation of transcription factors regulating both the TNF-alpha gene and the early-immediate genes involved in tissue regeneration. IRFI 042 is a novel vitamin E-like compound having a masked sulphydryl group in the aliphatic side chain. We studied the effect of IRFI 042 on CCl4 -induced liver injury. Liver damage was induced in male rats by an intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (1 ml/kg in vegetal oil). Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, liver malondialdehyde (MAL), hydroxyl radical formation (OH*), calculated indirectly by a trapping agent, hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration, plasma TNF-alpha, liver histology and hepatic mRNA levels for TNF-alpha were evaluated 48 h after CCl4 administration. Hepatic vitamin E (VE) levels were evaluated, in a separate group of animals, 2 h after CCl4 injection. A control group with vitamin E (100 mg/kg) was also treated in order to evaluate the differences versus the analogue treated groups. Intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride produced a marked increase in serum ALT activity (CCl4 = 404.61 +/- 10.33 U/L; Controls= 28.54 +/- 4.25 U/L), liver MAL (CCl4 = 0.67 +/- 0.16 nmol/mg protein; Controls= 0.13 +/- 0.06 nmol/mg protein), OH(7) levels assayed as 2,3-DHBA (CCl4 = 8.73 +/- 1.46 microM; Controls= 0.45 +/- 0.15 microM) and 2,5-DHBA (CCl4 = 24.61 +/- 3.32 microM; Controls= 2.75 +/- 0.93 microM), induced a severe depletion of GSH (CCl4 = 3.26 +/- 1.85 micromol/g protein; Controls= 17.82 +/- 3.13 micromol/g protein) and a marked decrease in VE levels (CCl4 = 5.67 +/- 1.22 nmol/g tissue; Controls= 13.47 +/- 3.21 nmol/g tissue), caused liver necrosis, increased plasma TNF-alpha levels (CCl4 = 57.36 +/- 13.24 IU/ml; Controls= 7.26 +/- 2.31 IU/ml) and enhanced hepatic mRNA for TNF-alpha (CCl4 = 19.22 +/- 4.38 a.u.; Controls= 0.76 +/- 0.36 a

  4. The vibrational spectra of some tetrachlorides in rare gas matrices with particular reference to the molecular shapes of ThCl4 and UCl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthers, S.A.; Beattie, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    Infrared spectra of tin, lead, hafnium, thorium, and uranium tetrachlorides isolated in inert gas matrices are reported. The results obtained for the tin, lead, and hafnium compounds follow the expected isotope patterns for a tetrahedral molecule except for the observation of additional weak features to high frequency of the all- 35 Cl isotopomers. By contrast for thorium tetrachloride the observed spectrum is not characteristic of a Tsub(d) molecule but can be fitted to a species with Csub(2v) symmetry. Similar results (although less detailed) were obtained for uranium tetrachloride. (author)

  5. Hepatoprotective effects of setarud against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshid, Hamid Reza Khorram; Azonov, Jahan A; Novitsky, Yury A; Farzamfar, Bardia; Shahhosseiny, Mohammad Hassan

    2008-01-01

    To assess the hepatoprotective activity of a new herbal drug "setarud" in experimental liver fibrosis, 48 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: controls, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) group, and two treatment groups that received CCl4 and setarud at doses of 0.02 or 0.04 g/Kg/day for 30 days. Body weight gain, biochemical liver tests, bile flow rate and composition, and changes in liver morphology in the four groups were studied. CCl4 administration led to morphological and biochemical evidence of liver injury as compared to untreated controls. Setarud administration led to significant protection against CCl4-induced changes in body weight gain, liver morphology, bile flow and concentration. It was also associated with significantly lower serum liver enzyme levels (pliver disease are warranted.

  6. Constraining the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) budget using its global trend and inter-hemispheric gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qing; Newman, Paul A.; Daniel, John S.; Reimann, Stefan; Hall, Bradley D.; Dutton, Geoff; Kuijpers, Lambert J. M.

    2014-07-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a major anthropogenic ozone-depleting substance and greenhouse gas and has been regulated under the Montreal Protocol. However, the near-zero 2007-2012 emissions estimate based on the UNEP reported production and feedstock usage cannot be reconciled with the observed slow decline of atmospheric concentrations and the inter-hemispheric gradient (IHG) for CCl4. Our 3-D model simulations suggest that the observed IHG (1.5 ± 0.2 ppt for 2000-2012) is primarily caused by ongoing current emissions, while ocean and soil losses and stratosphere-troposphere exchange together contribute a small negative gradient (~0 - -0.3 ppt). Using the observed CCl4 global trend and IHG, we deduce that the mean global emissions for the 2000-2012 period are 393445 Gg/yr (~30% of the peak 1980s emissions) and a corresponding total lifetime of 353732 years.

  7. Abiotic Degradation Rates for Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform: Progress in FY2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.

    2010-03-31

    This report documents the progress made through FY 2009 on a project initiated in FY 2006 to help address uncertainties related to the rates of hydrolysis in groundwater for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF). The study seeks also to explore the possible effects of contact with minerals and sediment (i.e., heterogeneous hydrolysis) on these rates. In previous years the work was funded as two separate projects by various sponsors, all of whom received their funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In FY2009, the projects were combined and funded by CH2MHill Plateau Remediation Corporation (CHPRC). Work in FY2009 was performed by staff at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Staff from the State University of New York at Cortland (SUNY–Cortland) contributed in previous years.

  8. Antihepatotoxic effect of golden berry (Physalis peruviana Linn.) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj, Darakhshan; Khan, Hira; Sultana, Viqar; Ara, Jehan; Ehteshamul-Haque, Syed

    2014-05-01

    Liver is the main site in the body for intense metabolism and excretion. A number of chemicals and drugs which are used routinely cause liver damage. The present study investigates the antihepatotoxic effect of Physalis peruviana whole ripe fruit, water and ethanol extracts of fruit in normal as well as in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) intoxicated rats. The CCl(4) treated rats showed marked elevation in liver enzymes: alanine transaminse, aspratate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and other biochemical parameters: bilirubin, creatinine and urea, thus indicating liver injury. Whereas animal treated/fed with various preparations of Physalis peruviana showed significant lowering effect (pPhysalis peruviana showed highest activity in both rat models while ripe fruit and ethanol extract showed moderate activity compared to standard drug.

  9. Simultaneous biodegradation of carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene in a coupled anaerobic/aerobic biobarrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kiwook [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 55 Hanyangdaehak-ro, Sangnok-gu, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Hojae [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau SAR, 999078 (China); Bae, Wookeun, E-mail: wkbae@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 55 Hanyangdaehak-ro, Sangnok-gu, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Juhyun; Bae, Jisu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 55 Hanyangdaehak-ro, Sangnok-gu, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 15588 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • Coupled biodegradation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) and trichloroethylene (TCE) in biobarrier with polyethylene glycol carriers. • TCE aerobically cometabolized and CT anaerobically dechlorinated. • Removal efficiencies of over 98%, leaving residuals below or near the regulatory standards. • Coupled aerobic/anaerobic environments established by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} injected at 50% of electron donor. • Longer retention time (from 3.6 to 7.2 days) achieved satisfactory removal at lower temperature (18 °C). - Abstract: Simultaneous biodegradation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) and trichloroethylene (TCE) in a biobarrier with polyethylene glycol (PEG) carriers was studied. Toluene/methanol and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were used as electron donors and an electron acceptor source, respectively, in order to develop a biologically active zone. The average removal efficiencies for TCE and toluene were over 99.3%, leaving the respective residual concentrations of ∼12 and ∼57 μg/L, which are below or close to the groundwater quality standards. The removal efficiency for CT was ∼98.1%, with its residual concentration (65.8 μg/L) slightly over the standards. TCE was aerobically cometabolized with toluene as substrate while CT was anaerobically dechlorinated in the presence of electron donors, with the respective stoichiometric amount of chloride released. The oxygen supply at equivalent to 50% chemical oxygen demand of the injected electron donors supported successful toluene oxidation and also allowed local anaerobic environments for CT reduction. The originally augmented (immobilized in PEG carriers) aerobic microbes were gradually outcompeted in obtaining substrate and oxygen. Instead, newly developed biofilms originated from indigenous microbes in soil adapted to the coupled anaerobic/aerobic environment in the carrier for the simultaneous and almost complete removal of CT, TCE, and toluene. The declined removal rates when temperature

  10. The workings of a molecular thermometer: the vibrational excitation of carbon tetrachloride by a solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Polly B; Matus, Kira J M; Stratt, Richard M

    2004-09-15

    An intriguing energy-transfer experiment was recently carried out in methanol/carbon tetrachloride solutions. It turned out to be possible to watch vibrational energy accumulating in three of carbon tetrachloride's modes following initial excitation of O-H and C-H stretches in methanol, in effect making those CCl(4) modes "molecular thermometers" reporting on methanol's relaxation. In this paper, we use the example of a CCl(4) molecule dissolved in liquid argon to examine, on a microscopic level, just how this kind of thermal activation occurs in liquid solutions. The fact that even the lowest CCl(4) mode has a relatively high frequency compared to the intermolecular vibrational band of the solvent means that the only solute-solvent dynamics relevant to the vibrational energy transfer will be extraordinarily local, so much so that it is only the force between the instantaneously most prominent Cl and solvent atoms that will significantly contribute to the vibrational friction. We use this observation, within the context of a classical instantaneous-pair Landau-Teller calculation, to show that energy flows into CCl(4) primarily via one component of the nominally degenerate, lowest frequency, E mode and does so fast enough to make CCl(4) an excellent choice for monitoring methanol relaxation. Remarkably, within this theory, the different symmetries and appearances of the different CCl(4) modes have little bearing on how well they take up energy from their surroundings--it is only how high their vibrational frequencies are relative to the solvent intermolecular vibrational band edge that substantially favors one mode over another.

  11. Protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice on testes against carbon tetrachloride intoxication in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M; El-Khadragy, Manal F; Metwally, Dina M; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-05-22

    Pomegranate fruit has been extensively used as a natural medicine in many cultures. The present study was aimed at evaluating the protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and testes injury in adult Wistar rats. Twenty eight Wistar albino male rats were divided equally into 4 groups for the assessment of protective potential of pomegranate juice. Rats of group I (control) received only vehicles and had free access to food and water. Rats of groups II and IV were treated with CCl4 (2 ml/kg bwt) via the intraperitoneal route once a week for ten weeks. The pomegranate juice was supplemented via drinking water 2 weeks before and concurrent with CCl4 treatment to group IV. Group III was supplemented with pomegranate juice for twelve weeks. The protective effects of pomegranate on serum sex hormones, oxidative markers, activities of antioxidant enzymes and histopathology of testes were determined in CCl4-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Pomegranate juice showed significant elevation in testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) those depleted by the injection of CCl4. Activity levels of endogenous testesticular antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione (GSH) contents were increased while lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) were decreased with pomegranate juice. Moreover, degeneration of germ and Leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis induced after CCl4 injections were restored with the treatment of pomegranate juice. The results clearly demonstrated that pomegranate juice augments the antioxidant defense mechanism against carbon tetrachloride-induced reproductive toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.

  12. Protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice on testes against carbon tetrachloride intoxication in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Pomegranate fruit has been extensively used as a natural medicine in many cultures. The present study was aimed at evaluating the protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and testes injury in adult Wistar rats. Methods Twenty eight Wistar albino male rats were divided equally into 4 groups for the assessment of protective potential of pomegranate juice. Rats of group I (control) received only vehicles and had free access to food and water. Rats of groups II and IV were treated with CCl4 (2 ml/kg bwt) via the intraperitoneal route once a week for ten weeks. The pomegranate juice was supplemented via drinking water 2 weeks before and concurrent with CCl4 treatment to group IV. Group III was supplemented with pomegranate juice for twelve weeks. The protective effects of pomegranate on serum sex hormones, oxidative markers, activities of antioxidant enzymes and histopathology of testes were determined in CCl4-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Results Pomegranate juice showed significant elevation in testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) those depleted by the injection of CCl4. Activity levels of endogenous testesticular antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione (GSH) contents were increased while lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) were decreased with pomegranate juice. Moreover, degeneration of germ and Leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis induced after CCl4 injections were restored with the treatment of pomegranate juice. Conclusion The results clearly demonstrated that pomegranate juice augments the antioxidant defense mechanism against carbon tetrachloride-induced reproductive toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated

  13. An alternate metabolic hypothesis for a binary mixture of trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride: application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon tetrachloride (CC4) and trichloroethylene (TCE) are hepatotoxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and environmental contaminants. Previous physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models describe the kinetics ofindividual chemical disposition and metabolic clearance fo...

  14. Inhibitory effects of prior low-dose X-ray irradiation on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy in acatalasemic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Kataoka, Takahiro; Taguchi, Takehito; Wang, Da-Hong; Mori, Shuji; Hanamoto, Katsumi; Kira, Shohei; Nomura, Takaharu

    2004-01-01

    The catalase activities in blood and organs of the acatalasemic (C3H/AnLCs b Cs b ) mouse of C3H strain are lower than those of the normal (C3H/AnLCs a Cs a ) mouse. We examined the effects of prior low-dose (0.5 Gy) X-ray irradiation, which reduced the oxidative damage under carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy in the acatalasemic or normal mice. The acatalasemic mice showed a significantly lower catalase activity and a significantly higher glutathione peroxidase activity compared with those in the normal mice. Moreover, low-dose irradiation increased the catalase activity in the acatalasemic mouse liver to a level similar to that of the normal mouse liver. Pathological examinations and analyses of blood glutamic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminase activity and lipid peroxide levels showed that carbon tetrachloride induced hepatopathy was inhibited by low-dose irradiation. These findings may indicate that the free radical reaction induced by the lack of catalase and the administration of carbon tetrachloride is more properly neutralized by high glutathione peroxidase activity and low-dose irradiation in the acatalasemic mouse liver. (author)

  15. Abrogation of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats by Ajwa date fruit extract through ameliorating oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsadek, Bakheet; El-Sayed, El-Sayed; Mansour, Ahmed; Elazab, Ayman

    2017-11-01

    Ajwa, a variety of date palme Phoenix dactylifera L., has long been used and considered as one of the most popular fruits in the North Africa and Middle East region. For Muslims this fruit is of religious importance and is mentioned several times in Quran. Besides being a part of the Arabian essential diet, dates have been used traditionally for number of complications. This study aimed to evaluate the possible potential of Ajwa date extract to guard against carbon tetrachloride (CCL4)-induced liver damage in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given Ajwa date extract and silymarin (a standard reference drug) at doses of 300 & 50mg/kg, p.o., respectively for 2 weeks before CCl4 (2 ml/kg, s. c., twice weekly for 8 consecutive weeks), and concomitantly administered with CCl4 for 8 consecutive weeks. Like silymarin, Ajwa date extract produced significant decrease in serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and LDL-cholesterol as well as lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroxyproline and caspase-3 contents of liver tissue with marked increase in serum albumin, HDL-cholesterol and reduced glutathione (GSH) content as well as enzyme activities of super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). In conclusion, Ajwa date extract afforded significant protection against CCl4-induced hepatocellular injury; an effect that could be attributed to its antioxidant, antiapoptotic and antifibrotic activities.

  16. Effects of ethanol and carbon tetrachloride upon vitamin A status of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, K.; Prabhudesai, M.; Erdman, J.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of ethanol (ET) and carbon tetrachloride (CCL 4 ) upon tissue vitamin A, liver lipids, liver cytochrome P 450 and hepatic morphology were investigated. After a two week feeding period, young male rats were divided into four groups. For 5 weeks one group of rats (n=18) received ET in liquid diets (30% of calories) while another (n=8) was exposed to CCL 4 inhalation twice a week along with phenobarbitol in the diet. All groups received the NRC recommended level for vitamin A. Comparison of ET and its pair-fed control group revealed; decreased hepatic vitamin A, no change in serum vitamin A, increased % liver lipid and cytochrome P 450 with minimal fat accumulation in hepatocytes. Comparison of CCL 4 group with pair-fed controls showed; increased serum vitamin A, decreased hepatic vitamin A, increased cytochrome P 450 , marked hepatic fat accumulation, hepatic cell necrosis and early cirrhosis. Thus, CCL 4 , which is a more potent hepatotoxin as evidenced by a more elevated cytochrome P 450 and distorted liver morphology, not only reduced liver vitamin A, but also increased serum vitamin A. The hepatic response to CCL 4 may mimic a more cirrhotic condition such as that resulting from longer-termed ET intake

  17. Hepatocurative potential of sesquiterpene lactones of Taraxacum officinale on carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, A; Jeyachandran, R; Cindrella, L; Thangadurai, D; Veerapur, V P; Muralidhara Rao, D

    2010-06-01

    The hepatocurative potential of ethanolic extract (ETO) and sesquiterpene lactones enriched fraction (SL) of Taraxacum officinale roots was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The diagnostic markers such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin contents were significantly elevated, whereas significant reduction in the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation, liver weight and liver protein were observed in CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Post-treatment with ETO and SL significantly protected the hepatotoxicity as evident from the lower levels of hepatic enzyme markers, such as serum transaminase (ALT, AST), ALP and total bilirubin. Further, significant reduction in the liver weight and liver protein in drug-treated hepatotoxic mice and also reduced oxidative stress by increasing reduced glutathione content and decreasing lipid peroxidation level has been noticed. The histopathological evaluation of the liver also revealed that ETO and SL reduced the incidence of liver lesions induced by CCl 4 . The results indicate that sesquiterpene lactones have a protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by the administration of CCl 4 in mice. Furthermore, observed activity of SL may be due to the synergistic action of two sesquiterpene lactones identified from enriched ethyl acetate fraction by HPLC method.

  18. Fasting ameliorates metabolism, immunity, and oxidative stress in carbon tetrachloride-intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Km; Saleh, Ea

    2014-12-01

    Fasting has been recently discovered to improve overall health, but its beneficial effects in the presence of hepatic insufficiency have not been proven. The influence of fasting on the metabolism, immunological aspects, and oxidative stress of 40 male carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-intoxicated Wistar rats was investigated in the present study. The rats were divided into four groups, including a placebo group, CCl4-intoxicated rats, which were injected subcutaneously with 1.0 ml/kg of CCl4 solution, a fasting group, which was fasted 12 h/day for 30 days, and a fourth group, which was injected with CCl4 and fasted. The metabolism, immunity, and oxidative stress improved in CCl4-intoxicated rats fasted for 12 h/day for 30 days, as evidenced in significant increase (p fasting improved metabolism, immunity, and oxidative stress in CCl4-intoxicated rats. Thus, fasting during Ramadan is safe for patients with hepatic disorders, as the prophet Mohammed (S) said "Keep the fast, keep your health". © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Andrographis paniculata ameliorates carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-dependent hepatic damage and toxicity: diminution of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Pei Hoon; Mokhtar, Ruzaidi Azli Mohd; Iqbal, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (hempedu bumi) is a plant that possesses many medicinal values in treating several diseases and for health care maintenance. However, its hepatoprotective activity and mechanism of action have not been fully investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of A. paniculata and its mechanism of action in rats. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) challenge of rats at a dose of 1.2 ml/kg body weight-induced oxidative stress in the liver. This was evidenced by augmentation in lipid peroxidation, which was accompanied by a decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and depletion in the level of reduced glutathione (P paniculata (P paniculata to scavenge the 2,2-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical was determined through its EC(50) value. The EC(50) value of A. paniculata was 583.60 ± 4.25 µg/ml. In addition, A. paniculata was found to contain 65.37 ± 1.20 mg/g total phenolics expressed as gallic acid equivalent. From these studies, it is concluded that A. paniculata could be used as a hepatoprotective agent and possesses the potential to treat or prevent degenerative diseases where oxidative stress is implicated.

  20. Hepatoprotective potential of three sargassum species from Karachi coast against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Hira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the hepatoprotective effect of ethanol extracts of Sargassum variegatum (S. variegatum, Sargassum tenerrimum (S. tenerrimum and Sargassum binderi occurring at Karachi coast against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 and acetaminophen intoxication in rats. Methods: Sargassum species were collected at low tide from Buleji beach at Karachi coast. Effect of ethanol extracts of Sargassum spp., on lipid parameter, serum glucose and kidney function was examined. Liver damage in rats was induced by CCl4 or acetaminophen. Rats were administered with ethanol extracts of S. tenerrimum, S. variegatum and Sargassum binderi at 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 14 days separately. Hepatotoxicity was determined in terms of cardiac and liver enzymes and other biochemical parameters. Results: S. variegatum showed highest activity by reducing the elevated level of hepatic enzymes, bilirubin, serum glucose, triglyceride with restoration of cholesterol. Urea and creatinine concentrations were also significantly (P < 0.05 reduced as compared to acetaminophen intoxicated rats. S. tenerrimum and S. variegatum showed moderate activity against CCl4 hepatic toxicity. Conclusions: The protective role of S. variegatum against acetaminophen liver damage and its positive impact on disturbed lipid, glucose metabolism, kidney dysfunction and S. tenerrimum against CCl4 liver toxicity suggest that Sargassum species offer a non-chemical means for the treatment of toxicity mediated liver damage.

  1. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa on carbon tetrachloride- and acetaminophen-induced liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S C; Chung, T C; Lin, C C; Ueng, T H; Lin, Y H; Lin, S Y; Wang, L Y

    2000-01-01

    The root of Arctium lappa Linne (A. lappa) (Compositae), a perennial herb, has been cultivated for a long time as a popular vegetable. In order to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of A. lappa, male ICR mice were injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 32 microl/kg, i.p.) or acetaminophen (600 mg/kg, i.p.). A. lappa suppressed the SGOT and SGPT elevations induced by CCl4 or acetaminophen in a dose-dependent manner and alleviated the severity of liver damage based on histopathological observations. In an attempt to elucidate the possible mechanism(s) of this hepatoprotective effect, glutathione (GSH), cytochrome P-450 (P-450) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were studied. A. lappa reversed the decrease in GSH and P-450 induced by CCl4 and acetaminophen. It was also found that A. lappa decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in CCl4 or acetaminophen-intoxicated mice. From these results, it was suggested that A. lappa could protect the liver cells from CCl4 or acetaminophen-induced liver damages, perhaps by its antioxidative effect on hepatocytes, hence eliminating the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites from CCl4 or acetaminophen.

  2. Removal of Technetium, Carbon Tetrachloride, and Metals from DOE Properties - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallouk, Thomas E.; Ponder, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    This research is a three year project involving close collaboration between chemists at Pennsylvania State University and materials scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The goal of the project is the development and characterization of supported reducing agents, and solid waste forms derived from them, which will be effective in remediation of aqueous wastes. The work follows the recent discovery that zero-valent metals, such as iron, are effective decontaminants for waste streams containing chlorinated hydrocarbons. Preliminary data, obtained at Penn State and elsewhere, have shown that the same strategy will be effective in reducing soluble compounds containing toxic metals (technetium, lead, mercury, and chromium) to insoluble forms. The Penn State group has prepared a new class of powerful reducing agents, called Ferragels, which consist of finely divided zero-valent metals on high surface area supports. Because the rate of the surface oxidation-reduction reaction depends on available surface area, Ferragels are more effective in every case tested to date than unsupported metals. The project will further develop and investigate the application of these composite materials to problems relevant to the DOE-EM mission, namely the detoxification of waste streams containing technetium, carbon tetrachloride, and toxic metal ions. The Penn State group will work closely with the PNNL group to prepare materials that are compatible with the highly corrosive liquid fraction of Hanford site tank waste, to conduct tests with waste simulants containing technetium, and to formulate and characterize vitrified waste forms derived from these materials

  3. Possible Protective Effect of Kombucha Tea Ferment on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Liver Damage in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, O.A.; Fahim, Th.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study has shown that administration of kombucha ferment tea (KT) to rats improved the damage caused in livers of animals treated with toxic chemicals such as carbon tetrachloride (CCL 4 ) and/ or exposed to y-irradiation. This work was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of treatment with KT ferment in rat liver after a long-term treatment with CCL 4 alone and with subsequent y-irradiation. Hepatic pathological changes observed in the CCL 4 -treated rats included increased serum alanine transaminase (ALT) , aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities as well as concentration of bilirubin in addition to a decrease in the concentration of serum albumin and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Consistent with these changes, the increase in oxidative stress markers expressed as malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and depletion in glutathione (GSH) contents in liver was observed. 24 h after the last dose of KT administration in a group of animals treated with CCL 4 and/ or radiation exposure cessation, the pathological changes were recovered. These results demonstrate that most of the pathological alterations in the liver in response to CCL 4 and/ or radiation exposure intoxication are recoverable upon treatment with KT ferments

  4. Protection effect of piper betel leaf extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shun-Chieh; Wang, Chau-Jong; Lin, Jing-Jing; Peng, Pei-Ling; Hsu, Jui-Ling; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2007-01-01

    Piper betel leaves (PBL) are used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of various disorders. PBL has the biological capabilities of detoxication, antioxidation, and antimutation. In this study, we evaluated the antihepatotoxic effect of PBL extract on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver injury in a rat model. Fibrosis and hepatic damage, as reveled by histology and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were induced in rats by an administration of CCl(4) (8%, 1 ml/kg body weight) thrice a week for 4 weeks. PBL extract significantly inhibited the elevated AST and ALT activities caused by CCl(4) intoxication. It also attenuated total glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and GST alpha isoform activity, and on the other hand, enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. The histological examination showed the PBL extract protected liver from the damage induced by CCl(4) by decreasing alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-sma) expression, inducing active matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) expression though Ras/Erk pathway, and inhibiting TIMP2 level that consequently attenuated the fibrosis of liver. The data of this study support a chemopreventive potential of PBL against liver fibrosis.

  5. The protective role of pomegranate juice against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirinççioğlu, Mihdiye; Kızıl, Göksel; Kızıl, Murat; Kanay, Zeki; Ketani, Aydın

    2014-11-01

    Most pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn., Punicaceae) fruit parts are known to possess enormous antioxidant activity. The present study was carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents of Derik pomegranate juice and determine its effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity in rats. Animals were divided into four groups (n = 6): group I: control, group II: CCl4 (1 ml/kg), group III: CCl4 + pomegranate juice and group IV: CCl4 + ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Treatment duration was 4 weeks, and the dose of CCl4 was administered once a week to groups II, III and IV during the experimental period. CCl4-treated rats caused a significant increase in serum enzyme levels, such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin, and decrease in albumin, when compared with control. Administration of CCl4 along with pomegranate juice or UDCA significantly reduces these changes. Analysis of lipid peroxide (LPO) levels by thiobarbutiric acid reaction showed a significant increase in liver, kidney and brain tissues of CCl4-treated rats. However, both pomegranate juice and UDCA prevented the increase in LPO level. Histopathological reports also revealed that there is a regenerative activity in the liver and kidney cells. Derik pomegranate juice showed to be hepatoprotective against CCl4-induced hepatic injury. In conclusion, present study reveals a biological evidence that supports the use of pomegranate juice in the treatment of chemical-induced hepatotoxicity. © The Author(s) 2012.

  6. Liver fibrosis in mice induced by carbon tetrachloride and its reversion by luteolin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domitrovic, Robert; Jakovac, Hrvoje; Tomac, Jelena; Sain, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is effusive wound healing process in which excessive connective tissue builds up in the liver. Because specific treatments to stop progressive fibrosis of the liver are not available, we have investigated the effects of luteolin on carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced hepatic fibrosis. Male Balb/C mice were treated with CCl 4 (0.4 ml/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.), twice a week for 6 weeks. Luteolin was administered i.p. once daily for next 2 weeks, in doses of 10, 25, and 50 mg/kg of body weight. The CCl 4 control group has been observed for spontaneous reversion of fibrosis. CCl 4 -intoxication increased serum aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels and disturbed hepatic antioxidative status. Most of these parameters were spontaneously normalized in the CCl 4 control group, although the progression of liver fibrosis was observed histologically. Luteolin treatment has increased hepatic matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels and metallothionein (MT) I/II expression, eliminated fibrinous deposits and restored architecture of the liver in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and α-smooth muscle actin indicated deactivation of hepatic stellate cells. Our results suggest the therapeutic effects of luteolin on CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis by promoting extracellular matrix degradation in the fibrotic liver tissue and the strong enhancement of hepatic regenerative capability, with MTs as a critical mediator of liver regeneration.

  7. Total Flavonoids from Mimosa Pudica Protects Carbon Tetrachloride -Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice

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    Zhen-qin QIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the protective effect of total flavonoids from Mimosa pudica on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. Methods: CCl4-induced acute liver injury model in mice was established. The activity of ALT and AST, the content of serum albumin (Alb and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC were determined. The content of malondiadehyde (MDA was measured and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD was determined. The histopathological changes of liver were observed.Results: Compared with CCl4 modle group, each dose group of total flavonouida from Mimosa pudica couldreduced the activity of ALT and AST in mice obviously (P<0.01, indicating they had remarkably protective effect on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. high and middle dose groups of total flavonouida from Mimosa pudica couldincrease the content of Alb in mice (P<0.01. Each dose group of total flavonouida from Mimosa pudica could enhance the level of T-AOC (P<0.01. each dose group of total flavonouida from Mimosa pudica could lower the content of liver homogenate MDA but enhance the activity of SOD in a dose-depended manner (P<0.01. Conclusion: Total flavones from Mimosa Pudica have obvious protective effect on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice.

  8. Fermented Citrus Lemon Reduces Liver Injury Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Rats

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    Yi Jinn Lillian Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented lemon juice displays a variety of important biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capabilities. The aim of the present study is to investigate hepatic-protective effects of no-sugar-added fermented lemon juice (FLJ for liver inflammation caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rats. Rats are divided into six groups: H2O, CCl4 + H2O, CCl4 + silymarin, and CCl4 plus three different FLJ doses by oral administration, respectively. The results show that the contents of plasma ALT and AST, hepatic lipid peroxidation, splenomegaly, and liver water are reduced significantly in rats under FLJ treatment, and pathological examination of liver fibrosis is improved. The reduced hepatic injury by increasing liver soluble protein and glutathione and albumin is observed in FLJ treated groups, and FLJ has comparable efficacies to medicine silymarin in liver therapies. The no-sugar-added FLJ differs from traditional fermentation by adding lots of sugar and prevents any hidden sugar intake while taking it as a complimentary treatment for liver inflammation. The green color and the taste of sourness are both associated with treating and healing the liver based on the five-element theory in traditional Chinese medicine, and the green and sour FLJ may be applied to the ancient theory in preventing hepatic injury accordingly.

  9. Mutual diffusion of binary liquid mixtures containing methanol, ethanol, acetone, benzene, cyclohexane, toluene, and carbon tetrachloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara-Carrion, Gabriela; Janzen, Tatjana; Muñoz-Muñoz, Y. Mauricio; Vrabec, Jadran, E-mail: jadran.vrabec@uni-paderborn.de [Thermodynamics and Energy Technology, University of Paderborn, 33098 Paderborn (Germany)

    2016-03-28

    Mutual diffusion coefficients of all 20 binary liquid mixtures that can be formed out of methanol, ethanol, acetone, benzene, cyclohexane, toluene, and carbon tetrachloride without a miscibility gap are studied at ambient conditions of temperature and pressure in the entire composition range. The considered mixtures show a varying mixing behavior from almost ideal to strongly non-ideal. Predictive molecular dynamics simulations employing the Green-Kubo formalism are carried out. Radial distribution functions are analyzed to gain an understanding of the liquid structure influencing the diffusion processes. It is shown that cluster formation in mixtures containing one alcoholic component has a significant impact on the diffusion process. The estimation of the thermodynamic factor from experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium data is investigated, considering three excess Gibbs energy models, i.e., Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC. It is found that the Wilson model yields the thermodynamic factor that best suits the simulation results for the prediction of the Fick diffusion coefficient. Four semi-empirical methods for the prediction of the self-diffusion coefficients and nine predictive equations for the Fick diffusion coefficient are assessed and it is found that methods based on local composition models are more reliable. Finally, the shear viscosity and thermal conductivity are predicted and in most cases favorably compared with experimental literature values.

  10. The Beneficial Effect of Cape Gooseberry Juice on Carbon Tetrachloride- Induced Neuronal Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M; El-Khadragy, Manal F; Omer, Sawsan A; Shata, Mohamed T M; Kassab, Rami B; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2016-01-01

    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) belongs to the Solanaceae family. Physalis has many medicinal properties however, the beneficial effect of physalis in protecting against neurotoxins has not yet been evaluated. This experimental study investigated the protective effect of physalis juice against the oxidative damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in the rat brain. The degrees of protection by physalis in brain tissues were evaluated by determining the brain levels of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, glutathione content and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase), after CCl4) induction in the presence or absence of physalis. Adult male albino Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, Group I served as the control group, Group II was intraperitoneally treated with 2 ml CCl4)/kg bwt for 12 weeks, Group III was supplemented with physalis juice via the drinking water for 12 weeks, Group IV was supplemented with physalis juice and was intraperitoneally injected weekly with CCl4). Treatment with CCl4) was significantly associated with a disturbance in the oxidative status in the brain tissues; this was marked by a significant (pphysalis along with CCl4) juice significantly (pphysalis juice supplemention inhibited apoptosis, as indicated by the increase of Bcl-2 immunoreactivity in brain tissue. Our results suggest that physalis juice could be effective in preventing neurotoxicity and the neuroprotective effect of physalis might be mediated via antioxidant and anti-apoptosis activities.

  11. Metabolic activation of carbon tetrachloride by the cervico-vaginal epithelium in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittebo, E.B.; Brandt, I.

    1989-01-01

    The metabolism and binding of 14 C-labelled carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) in the genital tract of female adult or juvenile NMRI-mice and Sprague-Dawly rats (mainly in the pro-oestrous/oestrous stage) and an adult New Zealand rabbit were studied. A marked irreversible binding of radioactivity in the squamous cervico-vaginal epithelium of mice given intravenous injections of 14 C-CCl 4 was revealed by autoradiography of solvent-extracted tissue. The localization of binding in the mouse genital tract incubated with 14 C-CCl 4 under air was similar to that observed in vivo. Bound radioactivity was also present in the cylindrical epithelium of the rabbit vagina incubated with 14 C-CCl 4 in vitro. For a comparison, no preferential binding of radiolabelled diethylstilbestrol or ethinylestradiol was observed in the mouse cervico-vaginal epithelium. The level of irreversible binding to PMSG-primed (pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin) vaginal epithelial 100 x g supernatants of mice and rats incubated with 14 C-CCl 4 under air was low. Addition of the reducing agent dithionite to the incubations increased the binding in the vaginal epithelium 20-fold. In juvenile mice and rats injected with 14 C-CCl 4 , the levels of metabolites in the epithelium were low, whereas PMSG-primed juvenile rats contained a higher level of metabolites. The results show that the cervico-vaginal epithelium can metabolically activate CCl 4 to reactive metabolites and suggest that the metabolism is under endocrine control. (author)

  12. Dietary honey and ginseng protect against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatonephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Denshary, Ezzeldeen S; Al-Gahazali, Mohammad A; Mannaa, Fathia A; Salem, Hesham A; Hassan, Nabila S; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A

    2012-11-01

    Liver diseases are amongst the most serious health problems in the world today and hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the world's deadliest cancers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the protective effect of sider honey and/or Korean ginseng extract (KGE) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepato-nephrotoxicity in rat. Eighty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were allocated into different groups and over a 4-week period, they orally received honey and/or KGE or were treated either with CCl(4) alone (100 mg/kg b.w) or with CCl(4) after a pretreatment period with honey, KGE or a combination of both. Clinical, clinico-pathological and histopathological evaluations were done and CCl(4)-treated groups were compared with rats receiving no treatment and with rats given honey, KGE or a combination of these substances. The results indicated that oral administration of CCl(4) induced severe hepatic and kidney injury associated with oxidative stress. The combined treatment with CCl(4) plus honey and/or KGE resulted in a significant improvement in all evaluated parameters. This improvement was prominent in the group receiving CCl(4) after combined pretreatment with honey and KGE. Animals receiving honey and/or KGE (without CCl(4)-treatment) were comparable to the control untreated group. It could be concluded that honey and KGE protect SD rats against the severe CCl(4)-induced hepatic and renal toxic effects. Our results suggest that the protective activity of honey and KGE may have been related to their antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform by trichloroethene respiring anaerobic mixed cultures and supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickstrom, Kyle E; Azizian, Mohammad F; Semprini, Lewis

    2017-09-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF) were transformed in batch reactor experiments conducted with anaerobic dechlorinating cultures and supernatant (ADC + S) harvested from continuous flow reactors. The Evanite (EV) and Victoria/Stanford (VS) cultures, capable of respiring trichloroethene (TCE), 1,2-cis-dichloroethene (cDCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) to ethene (ETH), were grown in continuous flow reactors receiving an influent feed of saturated TCE (10 mM; 60 mEq) and formate (45 mM; 90 mEq) but no CT or CF. Cells and supernatant were harvested from the chemostats and inoculated into batch reactors at the onset of each experiment. CT transformation was complete following first order kinetics with CF, DCM and CS 2 as the measurable transformation products, representing 20-40% of the original mass of CT, with CO 2 likely the unknown transformation product. CF was transformed to DCM and likely CO 2 at an order of magnitude rate lower than CT, while DCM was not further transformed. An analytical first order model including multiple key reactions effectively simulated CT transformation, product formation and transformation, and provided reasonable estimates of transformation rate coefficients. Biotic and abiotic treatments indicated that CT was mainly transformed via abiotic processes. However, the presence of live cells was associated with the transformation of CF to DCM. In biotic tests both TCE and CT were simultaneously transformed, with TCE transformed to ETH and approximately 15-53% less CF formed via CT transformation. A 14-day exposure to CF (CF max  = 1.4 μM) reduced all rates of chlorinated ethene respiration by a factor of 10 or greater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Emissions estimates of carbon tetrachloride for 1992-2014 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Pengju; Fang, Xuekun; Li, Zhifang; Wang, Ziyuan; Hu, Jianxin

    2017-05-01

    Discrepancies in emission estimates of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 , CTC), between bottom-up and top-down methods, have been shown since the 1990s at both the global and regional scale. This study estimates the emissions of China from 1992 to 2014 based on emission functions and aggregated activity information given reasonable uncertainties. The results show that emissions increase from 7.3 Gg/yr (5.6-9.1 Gg/yr at 95% confidential interval) to 14.0 (9.1-19.5) Gg/yr with a growth rate of 6.7 (1.9-11.4) %/yr during 1992-2002 and then decrease to a minimum of 4.3 (1.9-8.0) Gg/yr in 2011. More than 54% of the emissions during 1992-2009 are from the process agents sector. The estimates are comparable with those of other studies and those in this study based on observations during 2011-2014 using the interspecies correlation method. China's contribution to global emissions increases from 7.5% to 19.5% during 1992-2009, but the contribution is reduced to 9.9% and 8.0% in 2010 and 2011, respectively, indicating the effectiveness of compliance with the Montreal Protocol and its subsequent Amendments and Adjustments, whereby CTC emissions are phased-out. The results of this study are beneficial for narrowing the gap between bottom-up estimates and top-down emission calculations of CTC in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hepatoprotective effect of Scoparia dulcis on carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Peng, Wen-Huang; Chiu, Tai-Hui; Huang, Shun-Chieh; Huang, Tai-Hung; Lai, Shang-Chih; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Lee, Chao-Ying

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the hepatoprotective activity and active constituents of the ethanol extract of Scoparia dulcis (SDE). The hepatoprotective effect of SDE (0.1, 0.5 and 1 g/kg) was evaluated on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver injury. The active constituents were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mice pretreated orally with SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) and silymarin (200 mg/kg) for five consecutive days before the administering of a single dose of 0.2% CCl(4) (10 ml/kg of bw, ip) showed a significant inhibition of the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Histological analyses also showed that SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) and silymarin reduced the extent of liver lesions induced by CCl(4), including vacuole formation, neutrophil infiltration and necrosis. Moreover, SDE decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and elevated the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver as compared to those in the CCl(4) group. Furthermore, SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) enhanced the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRd) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The quantities of active constituents in SDE were about 3.1 mg luteolin/g extract and 1.1 mg apigenin/g extract. The hepatoprotective mechanisms of SDE were likely associated to the decrease in MDA level and increase in GSH level by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GPx, GRd and GST. These results demonstrated that SDE could alleviate CCl(4)-induced acute liver injury in mice.

  16. MIPAS IMK/IAA carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 retrieval and first comparison with other instruments

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    E. Eckert

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available MIPAS thermal limb emission measurements were used to derive vertically resolved profiles of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. Level-1b data versions MIPAS/5.02 to MIPAS/5.06 were converted into volume mixing ratio profiles using the level-2 processor developed at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA. Consideration of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN as an interfering species, which is jointly retrieved, and CO2 line mixing is crucial for reliable retrievals. Parts of the CO2 Q-branch region that overlap with the CCl4 signature were omitted, since large residuals were still found even though line mixing was considered in the forward model. However, the omitted spectral region could be narrowed noticeably when line mixing was accounted for. A new CCl4 spectroscopic data set leads to slightly smaller CCl4 volume mixing ratios. In general, latitude–altitude cross sections show the expected CCl4 features with highest values of around 90 pptv at altitudes at and below the tropical tropopause and values decreasing with altitude and latitude due to stratospheric decomposition. Other patterns, such as subsidence in the polar vortex during winter and early spring, are also visible in the distributions. The decline in CCl4 abundance during the MIPAS Envisat measurement period (July 2002 to April 2012 is clearly reflected in the altitude–latitude cross section of trends estimated from the entire retrieved data set.

  17. Obeticholic acid protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury and inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Da-Gang; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Jun-Xian; Wang, Bi-Wei; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Lu, Yan; Tao, Li; Wang, Jian-Qing; Chen, Xi; Xu, De-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays important roles in regulating bile acid homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of obeticholic acid (OCA), a novel synthetic FXR agonist, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced acute liver injury. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with CCl 4 (0.15 ml/kg). In CCl 4 + OCA group, mice were orally with OCA (5 mg/kg) 48, 24 and 1 h before CCl 4 . As expected, hepatic FXR was activated by OCA. Interestingly, OCA pretreatment alleviated CCl 4 -induced elevation of serum ALT and hepatic necrosis. Moreover, OCA pretreatment inhibited CCl 4 -induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Additional experiment showed that OCA inhibits CCl 4 -induced hepatic chemokine gene Mcp-1, Mip-2 and Kc. Moreover, OCA inhibits CCl 4 -induced hepatic pro-inflammatory gene Tnf-α and Il-1β. By contrast, OCA pretreatment elevated hepatic anti-inflammatory gene Il-4. Further analysis showed that OCA pretreatment inhibited hepatic IκB phosphorylation and blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits during CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury. In addition, OCA pretreatment inhibited hepatic Akt, ERK and p38 phosphorylation in CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury. These results suggest that OCA protects against CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury and inflammation. Synthetic FXR agonists may be effective antidotes for hepatic inflammation during acute liver injury. - Highlights: • OCA pretreatment activates hepatic FXR. • FXR activation protects against CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury. • FXR activation inhibits hepatocyte apoptosis during CCl 4 -induced liver injury. • FXR activation differentially regulates hepatic inflammatory genes. • Synthetic FXR agonists are effective antidotes for acute liver injury.

  18. Hepatoprotective Potential of Propolis toward Hepar Injury Rats (Rattus norvegicus Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Krisnansari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of chronic liver disease continues to increase. One potentially hepatotoxic substances that cause chronic liver disease is carbon tetrachloride. The process of liver damage can be prevented by the antioxidant role of propolis. The aims of this research was to study the hepatoprotective potential of propolis toward hepar injury rats induced by carbon tetrachlorida. Method: This was an experimental study with pre-post test. Twenty five male Wistar rats aged 12–16 week old, weighing 125–200 gr were allocated into 5 groups. Group I: standard meal + aquadest-gavage; group II: standard meal + CCl4 1% 1 mL + aquadest-gavage, group III: standard meal + CCl4 1% 1 mL + 0,054 gr propolis-gavage, group IV: standard meal + CCl4 1% 1 mL + 0,108 gr propolis-gavage and group V: standard meal + CCl4 1% 1 mL + sylimarin 50 mg/kg-gavage. IL-6, SOD, NAS score+fibrotic were measured after treatment. Analysed of IL-6 and NAS score+fibrotic with Kruskal Wallis to Mann Whitney and analysed of SOD with One-Way ANOVA to LSD. Results: The study showed that there were significant differences in IL-6, SOD and NAS score + fibrotic between groups. Discussion: Provision of 0,054 gr and 0,108 gr have hepatoprotective potential toward hepar injury rats induced by carbon tetrachlorida. Further research need to identify antioxidants and hepatoprotective potential of propolis on human with liver disease. Keywords: IL-6, SOD, fibrotic, propolis

  19. Obeticholic acid protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury and inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Da-Gang [First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022 (China); Zhang, Cheng [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032 (China); Wang, Jun-Xian [First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022 (China); Wang, Bi-Wei; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Chen, Yuan-Hua [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032 (China); Lu, Yan; Tao, Li; Wang, Jian-Qing [Second Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230601 (China); Chen, Xi [First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022 (China); Xu, De-Xiang, E-mail: xudex@126.com [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032 (China)

    2017-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays important roles in regulating bile acid homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of obeticholic acid (OCA), a novel synthetic FXR agonist, carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced acute liver injury. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with CCl{sub 4} (0.15 ml/kg). In CCl{sub 4} + OCA group, mice were orally with OCA (5 mg/kg) 48, 24 and 1 h before CCl{sub 4}. As expected, hepatic FXR was activated by OCA. Interestingly, OCA pretreatment alleviated CCl{sub 4}-induced elevation of serum ALT and hepatic necrosis. Moreover, OCA pretreatment inhibited CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Additional experiment showed that OCA inhibits CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic chemokine gene Mcp-1, Mip-2 and Kc. Moreover, OCA inhibits CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic pro-inflammatory gene Tnf-α and Il-1β. By contrast, OCA pretreatment elevated hepatic anti-inflammatory gene Il-4. Further analysis showed that OCA pretreatment inhibited hepatic IκB phosphorylation and blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits during CCl{sub 4}-induced acute liver injury. In addition, OCA pretreatment inhibited hepatic Akt, ERK and p38 phosphorylation in CCl{sub 4}-induced acute liver injury. These results suggest that OCA protects against CCl{sub 4}-induced acute liver injury and inflammation. Synthetic FXR agonists may be effective antidotes for hepatic inflammation during acute liver injury. - Highlights: • OCA pretreatment activates hepatic FXR. • FXR activation protects against CCl{sub 4}-induced acute liver injury. • FXR activation inhibits hepatocyte apoptosis during CCl{sub 4}-induced liver injury. • FXR activation differentially regulates hepatic inflammatory genes. • Synthetic FXR agonists are effective antidotes for acute liver injury.

  20. Hepatoprotective role of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Linn. against carbon tetrachloride-induced injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Abdus Saboor; Khan, Rahmat Ali; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Muhammad, Nawshad

    2016-02-01

    Nicotiana plumbignifolia (Linn) is used as folk medicine in the treatment of liver dysfunction in Pakistan. The present study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective role of N. plumbignifolia methanolice extract (NPME) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative damage in liver of chicks. Methanolic extract of N. plumbignifolia was obtained and was further evaluated as a hepatoprotective agent against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in liver of chicks. For this study, 60-day-old 50 male chicks were divided into five groups. Chicks of group 1 (control) had free access to food and water. Group II received 1 mL/kg of CCl4 (30% in olive oil v/v) via the intraperitoneal route thrice a week for 4 weeks. Group III received 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) of silymarin via gavage after 48 h of CCl4 treatment, whereas group IV were given 200 mg/kg b.w. NPME after 48 h of CCl4 treatment. Hepatoprotective activity was assessed by measuring the activities of the antioxidant enzymes: catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)). Serum was analyzed for various biochemical parameters. The results revealed that CCl4 induced oxidative stress as evidenced by the significant decrease in the activity levels of antioxidant enzymes, while an increase in the levels of TBARS in liver samples is compared with the control group. Serum levels lactate dehydrogenase, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein was elevated while reducing high-density lipoprotein compared to controls. Cotreatment of NPME treatment reversed these alterations, which seems likely that NPME can protect the liver tissues against CCl4-mediated oxidative damage. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Solanum muricatum Aiton Juice as A Hepatoprotective Agent in Wistar Rats Induced With Carbon Tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Sim Wei Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver participates in various metabolic processes in human body. Exposures to toxins such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 results in hepatocyte destruction and release the cell contents. Enzymes such as serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT were used as a parameter to diagnose liver damage. Pepino (Solanum muricatum Aiton contains antioxidants that protect liver from hepatoxicity. The aim of this experiment is to determine the effect of pepino in protecting the hepatocyte from hepatotoxic effect of CCl4. Methods: A total of 16 Wistar rats used as the subject were divided into Control and Therapeutic Group. The Control group was induced with CCl4 but was not given pepino juice. Meanwhile, the Therapeutic Group was given pepino juice for 10 days. For induction of hepatotoxicity, CCl4 10% was given at a dosage of 2.0 ml/kg intra-peritoneal. Each Wistar rat in Therapeutic Group was given 1.0 ml of 300 g/ml pepino juice via oral feeding. Spectrophotometer with adjusted wavelength of 340 nm was used to measure SGPT level of the Wistar rats and statistical T-test was used to analyze the data. Results: Wistar rats in Therapeutic group showed a larger decrease (6898.9 IU/L–79.1 IU/L in SGPT level compared to the Control group (6469.8 IU/L–418.5 IU/L. The SGPT level of the Wistar rat in Therapeutic group reached normal baseline (50 IU/L–150 IU/L. The significance of the experiment was supported by the T-test, P-value <0.05 Discussion: Pepino juice had antioxidants that protect the hepatocyte of Wistar rats from free radicals. The synergistic action of antioxidants and hepatocyte regeneration of Wistar rats in Therapeutic group caused a decrease in SGPT level. Therefore, the experiment concluded that pepino juice at the dosage of 300 g/ml has hepatoprotective effect.

  2. Amelioration of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury by emulsified Antrodia extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chih Chang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Antrodia cinnamomea (AC is found with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory biological activities. In this study, we investigated the anti-hepatitis effect of the emulsified AC extract from RO water or supercritical fluid CO2 with ethanol co-solvent extract methods of AC preparations. Materials and Methods: Five groups of eight to ten weeks male rats with a count of ten for each group were studied to evaluate the protection of two kinds of AC extract from hepatic injury. Acute liver injury of rats was induced by injecting 40% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 1 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Positive and negative control groups rats were perfused with CCl4 or isotonic saline, respectively. Experimental groups received oral administration once/day of AC preparations before CCl4 treatment: water AC extract (WAE group, or emulsified AC extract from supercritical fluid extraction (EAE group for 5 days, and sacrificed on the 6th day and the blood and liver samples were collected under chloral hydrate anesthesia. The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant markers, and relevant signaling pathways were measured (AST, ALT, ROS, IL-1, IL-6, NO, and COX-2, MAPKs, and caspase-3. Results: EAE at 50 mg/kg significantly decreased the serum AST, ALT, IL-1, IL-6, NO, and ROS levels. Both extracts reduced the activation of p-ERK in the liver samples, but EAE inhibited COX-2 and caspase-3 protein expression better than WAE. The EAE ameliorated CCl4-induced hepatic injury significantly; as compared with WAE and the positive control. Conclusion: The hepatoprotection of EAE could be attributed to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Antrodia.

  3. Hepatoprotective effect of Forsythiae Fructus water extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Miao, Hui; Yan, Hongyu; Sheng, Yuchen; Ji, Lili

    2018-05-23

    The fruit of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, named Forsythiae Fructus (Lian-Qiao), is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used for clearing away heat and toxic material, eliminating the mass and relieving swelling. This study aims to observe the attenuation of the water extract of Forsythiae Fructus (FSE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced hepatic fibrosis in male C57BL/6 mice. Hepatic fibrosis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by intraperitoneal injection with 2 ml/kg CCl 4 (mixed 1: 3 in olive oil) twice a week for 4 weeks. At the same time, the mice were orally given with FSE (1, 2 g/kg) every day for 4 weeks. Serum biochemical parameters, gene and protein expression related to liver fibrosis were analyzed. The contents of forsythiaside A and forsythin in FSE were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results of serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) activity and liver histological evaluation both showed the protection of FSE against CCl 4 -induced liver injury. Further, the anti-fibrotic effects of FSE was evidenced by the results of Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining, liver hydroxyproline content, and serum amounts of hyaluronic acid, laminin, collagen Ⅳ and type III procollagen (PCIII). FSE also reduced the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in livers from CCl 4 -injured mice. Additionally, FSE decreased the increased hepatic expression of fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1) and vimentin induced by CCl 4 in mice. FSE attenuates CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis in mice by inhibiting hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation, reducing hepatic extracellular matrix (ECM) disposition and reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. MIPAS IMK/IAA carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) retrieval and first comparison with other instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Ellen; von Clarmann, Thomas; Laeng, Alexandra; Stiller, Gabriele P.; Funke, Bernd; Glatthor, Norbert; Grabowski, Udo; Kellmann, Sylvia; Kiefer, Michael; Linden, Andrea; Babenhauserheide, Arne; Wetzel, Gerald; Boone, Christopher; Engel, Andreas; Harrison, Jeremy J.; Sheese, Patrick E.; Walker, Kaley A.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2017-07-01

    MIPAS thermal limb emission measurements were used to derive vertically resolved profiles of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Level-1b data versions MIPAS/5.02 to MIPAS/5.06 were converted into volume mixing ratio profiles using the level-2 processor developed at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK) and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA). Consideration of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) as an interfering species, which is jointly retrieved, and CO2 line mixing is crucial for reliable retrievals. Parts of the CO2 Q-branch region that overlap with the CCl4 signature were omitted, since large residuals were still found even though line mixing was considered in the forward model. However, the omitted spectral region could be narrowed noticeably when line mixing was accounted for. A new CCl4 spectroscopic data set leads to slightly smaller CCl4 volume mixing ratios. In general, latitude-altitude cross sections show the expected CCl4 features with highest values of around 90 pptv at altitudes at and below the tropical tropopause and values decreasing with altitude and latitude due to stratospheric decomposition. Other patterns, such as subsidence in the polar vortex during winter and early spring, are also visible in the distributions. The decline in CCl4 abundance during the MIPAS Envisat measurement period (July 2002 to April 2012) is clearly reflected in the altitude-latitude cross section of trends estimated from the entire retrieved data set.

  5. Implementing and operating the Hanford Environmental Information System and applying it to the carbon tetrachloride expedited response action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, P.J.; Last, G.V.; Schwab, M.R.; Rohay, V.J.

    1993-02-01

    To manage waste and perform environmental monitoring and restoration at the 1450-square kilometer (560-square mile) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, vast amounts of scientific and technical data are being generated from sampling. This paper provides an overview of the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS), a computerized system designed and implemented to manage the Site's environmental sampling data, lessons learned from putting HEIS into operation, and how HEIS is being applied to the carbon tetrachloride expedited response action being performed at the Site

  6. Comparison of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin in the treatment of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative stress, injury and fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Shaker, Mohamed E.; Zalata, Khaled R.; Mehal, Wajahat Z.; Shiha, Gamal E.; Ibrahim, Tarek M.

    2011-01-01

    Effective and well-tolerated anti-fibrotic drugs are currently lacking. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the potential anti-fibrotic effects of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin on established hepatic fibrosis in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) rat model. Male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of CCl4 twice weekly for 8 weeks, as well as daily intraperitoneal treatments of imatinib (10 and 20 mg/kg), nilotinib (10 and 20 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg) durin...

  7. Protective Effect of the Persian Gulf brittle star Ophiocoma Erinaceus extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced liver damage in adult male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Soheili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim:  Brittle star possess  bioactive compounds which confer the wound healing capacity and regenerative potency of damaged  arms and organisms to this creature. The aim of the current study was to assess the   protective  effect  of  the  star extract on liver damages induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 adult male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: control, Sham exposed, experimental 1 (treated with %25 extract and experimental 2 (treated with %50 extract of star Ophiocoma Erinaceus. The control group received no treatment. The sham exposed groups received carbon tetrachloride .(50% in olive oil .0.5 ml/kg for 7 days. The experimental groups firstly received carbon tetrachloride, then received %25, %50 brittle star extract as intragastric for 7 days. Finally, the animals were sacrificed, and their bodies and livers were weighed. Then, the livers sections were prepared and were examined by means of light microscope. Finally, the obtained  quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS (V; 20, Mini Tab software, ANOVA, and Tukey. at the significant level of P<0.001. Results: Carbon tetrachloride significantly decreased the rats’ body weight, but it increased their livers weight (P<0.001. Histopathological evaluations showed .extensive liver damage. On the other hand, treatment with brittle star extract .ncreased liver weight, reduced. body weight and significantly altered other induced changes by carbon tetrachloride on liver structure such as hepatocytes number, Kupffer cells, and arteritis, which indicated  the improvement of damaged liver tissue (P<0.001. Conclusion: It was found that brittle star extract can exert protective effects on  liver damages induced by carbon tetrachloride on male Wistar rat.

  8. Effect of Apitherapy Formulations against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats after Three Weeks of Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin Vasile Andritoiu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The human body is exposed nowadays to increasing attacks by toxic compounds in polluted air, industrially processed foods, alcohol and drug consumption that increase liver toxicity, leading to more and more severe cases of hepatic disorders. The present paper aims to evaluate the influence of the apitherapy diet in Wistar rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity, by analyzing the biochemical determinations (enzymatic, lipid and protein profiles, coagulation parameters, minerals, blood count parameters, bilirubin levels and histopathological changes at the level of liver, spleen and pancreas. The experiment was carried out on six groups of male Wistar rats. Hepatic lesions were induced by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (dissolved in paraffin oil, 10% solution. Two mL per 100 g were administered, every 2 days, for 2 weeks. Hepatoprotection was achieved with two apitherapy diet formulations containing honey, pollen, propolis, Apilarnil, with/without royal jelly. Biochemical results reveal that the two apitherapy diet formulations have a positive effect on improving the enzymatic, lipid, and protein profiles, coagulation, mineral and blood count parameters and bilirubin levels. The histopathological results demonstrate the benefits of the two apitherapy diet formulations on reducing toxicity at the level of liver, spleen and pancreas in laboratory animals.

  9. Human endometrial regenerative cells alleviate carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanzheng Lu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endometrial regenerative cell (ERC is a novel type of adult mesenchymal stem cell isolated from menstrual blood. Previous studies demonstrated that ERCs possess unique immunoregulatory properties in vitro and in vivo, as well as the ability to differentiate into functional hepatocyte-like cells. For these reasons, the present study was undertaken to explore the effects of ERCs on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4–induced acute liver injury (ALI. Methods An ALI model in C57BL/6 mice was induced by administration of intraperitoneal injection of CCl4. Transplanted ERCs were intravenously injected (1 million/mouse into mice 30 min after ALI induction. Liver function, pathological and immunohistological changes, cell tracking, immune cell populations and cytokine profiles were assessed 24 h after the CCl4 induction. Results ERC treatment effectively decreased the CCl4-induced elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities and improved hepatic histopathological abnormalities compared to the untreated ALI group. Immunohistochemical staining showed that over-expression of lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G (Ly6G was markedly inhibited, whereas expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA was increased after ERC treatment. Furthermore, the frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations in the spleen was significantly down-regulated, while the percentage of splenic CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs was obviously up-regulated after ERC treatment. Moreover, splenic dendritic cells in ERC-treated mice exhibited dramatically decreased MHC-II expression. Cell tracking studies showed that transplanted PKH26-labeled ERCs engrafted to lung, spleen and injured liver. Compared to untreated controls, mice treated with ERCs had lower levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α but higher level of IL-10 in both serum and liver. Conclusions Human ERCs protect the liver from acute injury

  10. Protective effects of Lactuca sativa ethanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hefnawy Taha M. Hefnawy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia leaves against the toxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in reproductive system of rats. Methods: Lettuce leaves were dried and extracted with ethanol (plant: solvent, 1:10, w/v. The extract was filtered and evaporated to yield dried lettuce extract. Animals were divided into seven groups and treated with CCl4 and different concentrations of lettuce extract. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected and centrifuged for serum separation. Body weights, testis size, histopathology of testis and liver, catalase (CAT activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, peroxidase (POD activity, reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, nitrite level, and serum hormones were determined. Results: Oxidative stress induced by CCl4 (2 mL/kg body weight in rat decreases the increase in body weight and relative testis weight. It also markedly increases the level of TBARS and nitrites along with corresponding decrease in reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in testis (i.e., CAT, POD, SOD and GSH-Px. Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone was decreased while estradiol and prolactin were increased during CCl 4 treatment. Histopathology of CCl4-treated rats indicated the partial degeneration of germ and leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis. Supplementation of lettuce extract (100, 150, 200 mg/kg body weight orally once a week for 10 weeks results in decrease of TBARS and nitrite, while increase in antioxidant enzymes; CAT, POD, SOD, GSH-Px and GSH contents. Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, prolactin, histology, body weight and relative testis weight was also concomitantly restored to near normal

  11. The influence of interferon alpha on the rat liver injured by chronic administration of carbon tetrachloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madro, Agnieszka; Słomka, Maria; Celiński, Krzysztof; Chibowski, Daniel; Czechowska, Grazyna; Kleinrok, Zdzisław; Karpińska, Agnieszka

    2002-01-01

    Due to their complex and not fully known etiopathogenesis as well as difficulties in treatment, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis still remain one of the main problems of hepatologists. Nowadays, the use of IFN alpha is considered the most effective method of treatment in chronic hepatitis. Recently, a new property of IFN, i.e. its effects on the reduction of fibrosis, has been discovered. The aim of the paper was to examine the effects of IFN alpha on biochemical parameters (AlAt and AspAt activities), on the metabolic function of the liver and its morphologic picture observed under the light and electron microscope after the 3- and 6-week CCl4-induced damage. The experiments were carried out in Wistar male rats. To evaluate the liver function, the test of aminophenazone elimination in the isolated perfused rat livers was used according to Miller modified by Hafte. Additionally, AspAt and AlAt activities were determined. The liver specimens were analysed under the light and electron microscope and using immunohistochemical methods. The findings show that after the 3-week CCl4-induced liver damage, IFN alpha does not significantly affect AlAt and AspAt activities, irrespective of the dose used. IFN alpha administered after the 6-week damage significantly changes those activities when the doses used are high. It was found that carbon tetrachloride does not result in evident cirrhotic changes, however it activates Ito cells, causes focal retraction of the stroma and fibrosis. The increased number of Ito cells in Disse's space observed in immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examinations is indicative of the activation of liver fibrotic processes following CCl4 administration in both variants used. IFN alpha substantially weakens fibrogenesis of the CCl4-damaged liver which is visible in the decreased number of Ito cells and weaker expression of the stroma retraction. Moreover, IFN alpha administered to the experimental animals after the CCl4-induced injury of the

  12. Solving the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) budget mystery using surface observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Q.; Newman, P. A.; Daniel, J. S.; Reimann, S.; Hall, B. D.; Dutton, G. S.; Kuijpers, L. J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a major anthropogenic ozone-depleting substance, with an ozone depletion potential (with respect to CFC-11) of 0.82. CCl4 is also a greenhouse gas and the 100-yr global warming potential is 1,400. In 1987, the Montreal Protocol (MP) included CCl4, and production and consumption were phased out for developed countries in 1996. Developing countries were allowed a delayed reduction, but CCl4 was fully phased out from emissive uses in 2010. However, the near-zero 2007-2012 emissions estimate based on the UNEP reported production and feedstock usage cannot be reconciled with the observed slow decline of atmospheric concentrations, year-to-year variability, and the inter-hemispheric gradient (IHG). We use available source and sink data in the NASA 3-Dimensional (3-D) Chemistry Climate Model, GEOSCCM, to test existing emissions and lifetime estimates against CCl4 mixing ratio observations. Our model results show that the IHG and global trend provide useful information for quantitatively constraining CCl4 emissions and lifetime estimates. The observed IHG (1.5±0.2 ppt for 2000-2012) is primarily caused by ongoing current emissions, while ocean and soil losses and stratosphere-troposphere exchange together contribute a small negative gradient (~0 - -0.3 ppt). Using the observed CCl4 global trend and IHG from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Global Monitoring Division (NOAA-GMD) and Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) networks, we deduce the mean global emissions for the 2000-2012 period are 39 (34-45, lower-upper limit emission estimates) Gg/yr (~ 30% of the peak 1980s emissions) and a corresponding total lifetime of 35 (37-32, upper-lower limit lifetime estimates) years. These results point to the need for a more accurate bottom-up estimate of CCl4 emissions as well as re-evaluation of the CCl4 best estimate lifetime (currently 25 years).

  13. MIPAS ESA v7 carbon tetrachloride data: distribution, trend and atmospheric lifetime estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri, M.; Barbara, F.; Boone, C. D.; Ceccherini, S.; Gai, M.; Maucher, G.; Raspollini, P.; Ridolfi, M.; Sgheri, L.; Wetzel, G.; Zoppetti, N.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a strong ozone-depleting atmospheric gas regulated by the Montreal protocol. Recently it received increasing interest due to the so called "mystery of CCl4": it was found that its atmospheric concentration at the surface declines with a rate significantly smaller than its lifetime-limited rate. Indeed there is a discrepancy between atmospheric observations and the estimated distribution based on the reported production and consumption. Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) measurements are used to estimate CCl4 distributions, its trend, and atmospheric lifetime in the upper troposphere / lower stratosphere (UTLS) region. In particular, here we use MIPAS product generated with Version 7 of the Level 2 algorithm operated by the European Space Agency. The CCl4 distribution shows features typical of long-lived species of anthropogenic origin: higher concentrations in the troposphere, decreasing with altitude due to the photolysis. We compare MIPAS CCl4 data with independent observations from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE - FTS) and stratospheric balloon version of MIPAS (MIPAS-B). The comparison shows a general good agreement between the different datasets. CCl4 trends are evaluated as a function of both latitude and altitude: negative trends (-10/ -15 pptv/decade, -10/ -30 %/decade) are found at all latitudes in the UTLS, apart from a region in the Southern mid-latitudes between 50 and 10 hPa where the trend is slightly positive (5/10 pptv/decade, 15/20 %/decade). At the lowest altitudes sounded by the MIPAS scan we find trend values consistent with those determined on the basis of the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration / Earth System Research Laboratory / Halocarbons and other Atmospheric Trace Species (NOAA / ESRL / HATS) networks. CCl4 global average lifetime of 47(39 - 61) years has been

  14. Protective effects of Lactuca sativa ethanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative damage in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawy, Hefnawy Taha M.; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) leaves against the toxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in reproductive system of rats. Methods Lettuce leaves were dried and extracted with ethanol (plant: solvent, 1:10, w/v). The extract was filtered and evaporated to yield dried lettuce extract. Animals were divided into seven groups and treated with CCl4 and different concentrations of lettuce extract. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected and centrifuged for serum separation. Body weights, testis size, histopathology of testis and liver, catalase (CAT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite level, and serum hormones were determined. Results Oxidative stress induced by CCl4 (2 mL/kg body weight) in rat decreases the increase in body weight and relative testis weight. It also markedly increases the level of TBARS and nitrites along with corresponding decrease in reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in testis (i.e., CAT, POD, SOD and GSH-Px). Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone was decreased while estradiol and prolactin were increased during CCl4 treatment. Histopathology of CCl4-treated rats indicated the partial degeneration of germ and leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis. Supplementation of lettuce extract (100, 150, 200 mg/kg body weight orally) once a week for 10 weeks results in decrease of TBARS and nitrite, while increase in antioxidant enzymes; CAT, POD, SOD, GSH-Px and GSH contents. Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, prolactin, histology, body weight and relative testis weight was also concomitantly restored to near normal level by

  15. Effect of WeiJia on carbon tetrachloride induced chronic liver injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Pik-Yuen; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Ya-Ou; Bai, Gan-Rong; Lin, Marie Chia-Mi; Chan, Bernard; Fong, Chi-Chun; Shi, Lin; Shi, Yue-Feng; Chun, Jay; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Yang, Mengsu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of WeiJia on chronic liver injury using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injury animal model. METHODS: Wistar rats weighing 180-220g were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (Group A), CCl4 induced liver injury control group (Group B) and CCl4 induction with WeiJia treatment group (Group C). Each group consisted of 14 rats. Liver damage and fibrosis was induced by subcutaneous injection with 40% CCl4 in olive oil at 3 mL/kg body weight twice a week for eight weeks for Groups B and C rats whereas olive oil was used for Group A rats. Starting from the third week, Group C rats also received daily intraperitoneal injection of WeiJia at a dose of 1.25 μg/kg body weight. Animals were sacrificed at the fifth week (4 male, 3 female), and eighth week (4 male, 3 female) respectively. Degree of fibrosis were measured and serological markers for liver fibrosis and function including hyaluronic acid (HA), type IV collagen (CIV), γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined. Alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry were also performed. RESULTS: CCl4 induction led to the damage of liver and development of fibrosis in Group B and Group C rats when compared to Group A rats. The treatment of WeiJia in Group C rats could reduce the fibrosis condition significantly compared to Group B rats. The effect could be observed after three weeks of treatment and was more obvious after eight weeks of treatment. Serum HA, CIV, ALT, AST and γ-GT levels after eight weeks of treatment for Group C rats were 58±22 µg/L (P0.05) respectively, similar to normal control group (Group A), but significantly different from CCl4 induced liver injury control group (Group B). An increase in PCNA and decrease in α-SMA expression level was also observed. CONCLUSION: WeiJia could improve liver function and reduce liver

  16. Phenylbutyric acid protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrogenesis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian-Qing [School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Second Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230601 (China); Chen, Xi [First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022 (China); Zhang, Cheng [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Tao, Li [First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022 (China); Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Qian [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Xu, Yuan-Bao [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022 (China); Wang, Hua [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Li, Jun, E-mail: lijun@ahmu.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Xu, De-Xiang, E-mail: xudex@126.com [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China)

    2013-01-15

    A recent report showed that the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling was activated in the pathogenesis of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced hepatic fibrosis. Phenylbutyric acid (PBA) is a well-known chemical chaperone that inhibits endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling. In the present study, we investigated the effects of PBA on CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. All mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with CCl{sub 4} (0.15 ml/kg BW, twice per week) for 8 weeks. In CCl{sub 4} + PBA group, mice were i.p. injected with PBA (150 mg/kg, twice per day) from the beginning of CCl{sub 4} injection to the end. As expected, PBA significantly attenuated CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic ER stress and UPR activation. Although PBA alleviated, only to a less extent, hepatic necrosis, it obviously inhibited CCl{sub 4}-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Moreover, PBA inhibited CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 translocation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. Interestingly, CCl{sub 4}-induced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker for the initiation phase of HSC activation, was significantly attenuated in mice pretreated with PBA. Correspondingly, CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic collagen (Col)1α1 and Col1α2, markers for the perpetuation phase of HSC activation, were inhibited in PBA-treated mice. Importantly, CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic fibrosis, as determined using Sirius red staining, was obviously attenuated by PBA. In conclusion, PBA prevents CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic fibrosis through inhibiting hepatic inflammatory response and HSC activation. Highlights: ► CCl{sub 4} induces hepatic ER stress, inflammation, HSC activation and hepatic fibrosis. ► PBA alleviates CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic ER stress and UPR signaling activation. ► PBA inhibits CCl{sub 4}-induced

  17. Assessment of the Mutagenic Potential of Carbon Disulfide, Carbon Tetrachloride, Dichloromethane, Ethylene Dichloride, and Methyl Bromide: A Comparative Analysis in Relation to Ethylene Dibromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document provides an evaluation of the mutagenic potential of five alternative fumigants to ethylene dibromide(EDB). These include carbon disulfide(CS2), carbon tetrachloride(CCl4), dichloromethane(DCM), ethylene dichloride(EDC), and methyl bromide (MB). Of the five proposed ...

  18. Process and operating device for an apparatus using a running liquid film and application to separation of Zr and Hf tetrachlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, R.

    1989-01-01

    A process is claimed allowing to maintain a thin film in a running film exchanger, by increasing the flow rate for a short time to establish a film all over the surface. Application is made to continuous condensation of zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides, from the separation column, by absorption in a liquid solvent made of potassium chloroaluminate [fr

  19. Reaction of carbon tetrachloride with methane in a non-equilibrium plasma at atmospheric pressure, and characterisation of the polymer thus formed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaikwad, Vaibhav [Process Safety and Environment Protection Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Kennedy, Eric, E-mail: Eric.Kennedy@newcastle.edu.au [Process Safety and Environment Protection Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Mackie, John [Process Safety and Environment Protection Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Holdsworth, Clovia [Centre for Organic Electronics, Chemistry Building, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Molloy, Scott; Kundu, Sazal; Stockenhuber, Michael [Process Safety and Environment Protection Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Dlugogorski, Bogdan [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150 (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • CCl{sub 4} remediation using non-equilibrium plasma and non-oxidative conditions is proposed. • The reaction mechanism relies on experimental data and quantum chemical analysis. • Comprehensive mass balance for the reaction is provided. • CCl{sub 4} is converted to an environmentally benign and potentially useful polymer. • Characterisation of the polymer structure based on NMR and FTIR analyses is presented. - Abstract: In this paper we focus on the development of a methodology for treatment of carbon tetrachloride utilising a non-equilibrium plasma operating at atmospheric pressure, which is not singularly aimed at destroying carbon tetrachloride but rather at converting it to a non-hazardous, potentially valuable commodity. This method encompasses the reaction of carbon tetrachloride and methane, with argon as a carrier gas, in a quartz dielectric barrier discharge reactor. The reaction is performed under non-oxidative conditions. Possible pathways for formation of major products based on experimental results and supported by quantum chemical calculations are outlined in the paper. We elucidate important parameters such as carbon tetrachloride conversion, product distribution, mass balance and characterise the chlorinated polymer formed in the process.

  20. Full molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water and carbon tetrachloride for two-dimensional Raman spectroscopy in the frequency domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Ju-Yeon, E-mail: ju8879@kuchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Ito, Hironobu, E-mail: h.ito@kuchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tanimura, Yoshitaka, E-mail: tanimura@kuchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2016-12-20

    Frequency-domain two-dimensional (2D) Raman signals, which are equivalent to coherent two-dimensional Raman scattering (COTRAS) signals, for liquid water and carbon tetrachloride were calculated using an equilibrium–nonequilibrium hybrid molecular dynamics (MD) simulation algorithm. An appropriate representation of the 2D Raman spectrum obtained from MD simulations provides an easy-to-understand depiction of structural and dynamical properties. We elucidate mechanisms governing the 2D signal profiles involving anharmonic mode–mode coupling and the nonlinearities of the polarizability for the intermolecular and intramolecular vibrational modes. The predicted signal profiles and intensities can be utilized to analyze recently developed single-beam 2D spectra, whose signals are generated from a coherently controlled pulse, allowing the single-beam measurement to be carried out more efficiently. Moreover, the MD simulation results allow us to visualize the molecular structure and dynamics by comparing the accurately calculated spectrum with experimental result.

  1. Effect of carbon tetrachloride and Liv-52 on the clearance rate of 131I-Rose bengal in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhawan, D.; Goel, A.; Karkara, K.

    1991-01-01

    131 I-Rose bengal clearance test has been immensely used for the clinical assessment of functional hepatic abnormalities. It has been observed that external collimated scintillation probe employing 131 I-Rose bengal is a rapid and less erroneous way of assessing polygonal cell function in liver. The present study demonstrates the protection of liver by Liv-52 from the deleterious effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) by determining the biological half-life of 131 I-Rose bengal in male albino rats. An increase in the biological half-life of the radio-iodinated dye was observed following CCl 4 intoxication which was reversed by Liv-52 treatment. (author). 15 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Synthesis of Novel E-2-Chlorovinyltellurium Compounds Based on the Stereospecific Anti-addition of Tellurium Tetrachloride to Acetylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Amosova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of tellurium tetrachloride with acetylene proceeds in a stereospecific anti-addition manner to afford the novel products E-2-chlorovinyltellurium trichloride and E,E-bis(2-chlorovinyltellurium dichloride. Reaction conditions for the selective preparation of each of these products were found. The latter was obtained in 90% yield in CHCl3 under a pressure of acetylene of 10–15 atm, whereas the former product was formed in up to 72% yield in CCl4 under a pressure of acetylene of 1–3 atm. Synthesis of the previously unknown E,E-bis(2-chlorovinyl telluride, E,E-bis(2-chlorovinyl ditelluride, E-2-chlorovinyl 1,2,2-trichloroethyl telluride and E,E-bis(2-chlorovinyl-tellurium dibromide is described.

  3. Synergistic Extraction of Copper from Nitrate Solutions Using β-Hydroxy-Naphthaldoxime and Organophosphorus Compounds into Carbon-Tetrachloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Pulak; Basu, Sukalyan

    2011-12-01

    The extraction behavior of Cu(II) from an aqueous nitrate medium employing β-hydroxy-naphthaldoxime in carbon tetrachloride has been investigated in the presence of several organophosphorus donors like tri-octyl phosphine oxide, tri-butyl phosphine oxide, and tri-butyl phosphate at pH 1.5. The concentration of the metal was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Synergism was observed when neutral donor was added because of the formation of the adduct [Cu(L)2.(S)] in CCl4 (S denotes neutral donor). The equilibrium constants of the binary system using β-hydroxy-naphthaldoxime and the ternary system involving another addition of an organophosphorus compound were calculated from the extraction date obtained. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the equilibrium constants was also investigated to evaluate standard enthalpy (Δ H°), entropy (Δ S°), and free energy (Δ G°) of the reactions proposed.

  4. Design, operations, and maintenance of the soil vapor extraction systems for the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranbarger, R.K.

    1996-05-01

    This report provides the design, operating, and maintenance guidelines for the soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems implemented as part of the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride ERA. Additionally, this document provides general information regarding the ERA, the SVE system design, and the general approach towards soil vapor extraction. The remaining content of this document includes the following: regulatory compliance; summary of vadose zone physical and containment characteristics; past and present SVE system designs and potential design upgrades; general design and monitoring considerations for the SVE systems; descriptions of the SVE system components and their respective functions; safety requirements; operation of the SVE systems including startup, surveillances, shutdown, GAC canister changeouts, and wellfield characterization; monitoring requirements; SVE optimization; and instrument calibrations, preventive maintenance, and spare parts and site inventory requirements

  5. Subchronic inhalation of carbon tetrachloride alters the tissue retention of acutely inhaled plutonium-239 nitrate in F344 rats and syrian golden hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, J.M.; Barr, E.B.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is likely that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to both CCl 4 and plutonium compounds. Future exposures may occur during open-quotes cleanupclose quotes operations at weapons productions sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. Inhalation of 20 and 100 ppm CCl 4 by hamsters reduces uptake of 239 Pu solubilized from lung, shunting the 239 Pu to the skeleton

  6. Study of protective effect of Avicennia marina hydroethanolic leaf extract on testes tissue and spermatogenesis in male rat induced with carbon tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z soleimani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The toxic chemical compounds are widelyused in the world. Carbon tetrachloride which is used in hygiene industries caused tissue disorders. Medicinal plants have protective effects in body tissues. In this study the protective effect of Avicennia marina leaf extract (MLE on spermatogenesis in male rat were induced with ccl4 investigating. Method and materials: The 42 male rats with 220-250 gr body weight were divided randomly in 6 groups(n=7: control (taking normal saline,0.5ml/day, i,p , sham(taking olive oil, 0.5ml/day, i,p single dose,group induced by ccl4(carbon tetrachloride 1:1 with olive oil,0.5ml single dose, i,p, treated groups: (1,2 and3 by carbon tetrachloride 1:1 with olive oil,0.5ml single dose and 200mg/Kg, 400mg/Kg and 800mg/kg MLE /day for 96 hrs, i,p. After the examination the blood samples were collected from heart directly and testosterone , FSH, LH , sperm count, sperm motility and GSI were analyzed and the microscopic studies of testes tissue were done. All data were expressed as mean±SEM. and statistical significance differences were accepted at P<0.05. Results: Our results showed that the carbon tetrachloride has necrotic effect in testes. The number of sperm and motility were increased and microscopic study of testes tissue showed the necrosis and inflammation with decrease in spermatogonia and spermatocytes comparedwith ccl4 induced only group significantly (P<0.001 and treated groups were no changed. Conclusion: the Avicennia marina hydroethanolic extract has antioxidant and flavonoids compounds which can protect the testes tissues from toxic chemical agents.

  7. Outbreak of carbon tetrachloride poisoning in a color printing factory related to the use of isopropyl alcohol and an air conditioning system in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, J F; Wang, J D; Shih, T S; Lan, F L

    1987-01-01

    Three workers from a color printing factory were admitted to community hospitals in 1985 with manifestations of acute hepatitis. One of the three had superimposed acute renal failure and pulmonary edema. An investigation was subsequently conducted at the plant to determine the etiology of the outbreak and the prevalence of liver disease among the remaining workers. Comprehensive medical evaluations were conducted, which included physical examinations, liver function tests, and serological screening for hepatitis. Seventeen of 25 workers from the plant had abnormal liver function tests 10 days after the outbreak, and a significant association was found between the presence of abnormal liver function tests and a history of recently having worked inside any of three rooms in which an interconnecting air conditioning system had been installed to cool the printing machines. After further investigation, it was determined that the incident occurred following inadvertent use of carbon tetrachloride to clean a pump in the printing machine. A simulation of the pump cleaning operation revealed ambient air levels of carbon tetrachloride of 300-500 ppm. Ultimately, it was concluded that the outbreak was in all likelihood due to the combined use of carbon tetrachloride and isopropyl alcohol in the cleaning operation. This outbreak underscores the importance of adopting appropriate industrial hygiene measures in a rapidly industrializing nation such as Taiwan.

  8. Comparative study on the inhibitory effects of antioxidant vitamins and radon on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Takahiro; Nishiyama, Yuichi; Yamato, Keiko; Teraoka, Junichi; Morii, Yuji; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that radon inhalation activates anti-oxidative functions and inhibits carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced hepatopathy. It has also been reported that antioxidant vitamins can inhibit CCl 4 -induced hepatopathy. In the current study, we examined the comparative efficacy of treatment with radon, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol on CCl 4 -induced hepatopathy. Mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of CCl 4 after inhaling approximately 1000 or 2000 Bq/m 3 radon for 24 h, or immediately after intraperitoneal injection of ascorbic acid (100, 300, or 500 mg/kg bodyweight) or α-tocopherol (100, 300, or 500 mg/kg bodyweight). We estimated the inhibitory effects on CCl 4 -induced hepatopathy based on hepatic function-associated parameters, oxidative damage-associated parameters and histological changes. The results revealed that the therapeutic effects of radon inhalation were almost equivalent to treatment with ascorbic acid at a dose of 500 mg/kg or α-tocopherol at a dose of 300 mg/kg. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the liver were significantly higher in mice exposed to radon than in mice treated with CCl 4 alone. These findings suggest that radon inhalation has an anti-oxidative effect against CCl 4 -induced hepatopathy similar to the anti-oxidative effects of ascorbic acid or α-tocopherol due to the induction of anti-oxidative functions. (author)

  9. Continued emissions of carbon tetrachloride from the United States nearly two decades after its phaseout for dispersive uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Montzka, Stephen A.; Miller, Ben R.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Miller, John B.; Lehman, Scott J.; Sweeney, Colm; Miller, Scot M.; Thoning, Kirk; Siso, Carolina; Atlas, Elliot L.; Blake, Donald R.; de Gouw, Joost; Gilman, Jessica B.; Dutton, Geoff; Elkins, James W.; Hall, Bradley; Chen, Huilin; Fischer, Marc L.; Mountain, Marikate E.; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Biraud, Sebastien C.; Moore, Fred L.; Tans, Pieter

    2016-03-01

    National-scale emissions of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are derived based on inverse modeling of atmospheric observations at multiple sites across the United States from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's flask air sampling network. We estimate an annual average US emission of 4.0 (2.0-6.5) Gg CCl4 y-1 during 2008-2012, which is almost two orders of magnitude larger than reported to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) (mean of 0.06 Gg y-1) but only 8% (3-22%) of global CCl4 emissions during these years. Emissive regions identified by the observations and consistently shown in all inversion results include the Gulf Coast states, the San Francisco Bay Area in California, and the Denver area in Colorado. Both the observation-derived emissions and the US EPA TRI identified Texas and Louisiana as the largest contributors, accounting for one- to two-thirds of the US national total CCl4 emission during 2008-2012. These results are qualitatively consistent with multiple aircraft and ship surveys conducted in earlier years, which suggested significant enhancements in atmospheric mole fractions measured near Houston and surrounding areas. Furthermore, the emission distribution derived for CCl4 throughout the United States is more consistent with the distribution of industrial activities included in the TRI than with the distribution of other potential CCl4 sources such as uncapped landfills or activities related to population density (e.g., use of chlorine-containing bleach).

  10. Transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells ameliorates vascular dysfunction and portal hypertension in carbon tetrachloride-induced rat liver cirrhotic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Masaharu; Nakamura, Toru; Torimura, Takuji; Iwamoto, Hideki; Masuda, Hiroshi; Koga, Hironori; Abe, Mitsuhiko; Hashimoto, Osamu; Ueno, Takato; Sata, Michio

    2013-01-01

    In cirrhosis, sinusoidal endothelial cell injury results in increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) and decreased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, leading to portal hypertension. However, the effects of transplanted endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) on the cirrhotic liver have not yet been clarified. We investigated whether EPC transplantation reduces portal hypertension. Cirrhotic rats were created by the administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4) ) twice weekly for 10 weeks. From week 7, rat bone marrow-derived EPCs were injected via the tail vein in this model once a week for 4 weeks. Endothelial NOS (eNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and caveolin expressions were examined by Western blots. Hepatic tissue ET-1 was measured by a radioimmunoassay (RIA). Portal venous pressure, mean aortic pressure, and hepatic blood flow were measured. Endothelial progenitor cell transplantation reduced liver fibrosis, α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells, caveolin expression, ET-1 concentration and portal venous pressure. EPC transplantation increased hepatic blood flow, protein levels of eNOS and VEGF. Immunohistochemical analyses of eNOS and isolectin B4 demonstrated that the livers of EPC-transplanted animals had markedly increased vascular density, suggesting reconstitution of sinusoidal blood vessels with endothelium. Transplantation of EPCs ameliorates vascular dysfunction and portal hypertension, suggesting this treatment may provide a new approach in the therapy of portal hypertension with liver cirrhosis. © 2012 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Hepatoprotective activity of Chhit-Chan-Than extract powder against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Lin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The capability of Chhit-Chan-Than extract powder (CCTEP, 10% aqueous Ocimum gratissimum L. extract to protect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in vivo was investigated. Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Group A was a normal control group given only vehicle; Group B, the hepatotoxic group, was injected intraperitoneally twice a week with repeated 8% CCl4/olive oil (0.1 mL/100 g of body weight; Groups C–E, extract-treated groups received CCl4 and different doses of CCTEP (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg or silymarin (200 mg/kg of body weight daily by gavage for 8 weeks, respectively. The results showed that the CCl4-induced histopathogical changes may be prevented by CCTEP through reducing the intercellular collogen stack, dropping blood serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, and restoring the catalase activity and glutathione content. The hepatoprotective properties were further confirmed by the marked improvement in histopathological examination and by quantitative steatosis-fibrosis scoring. The above results suggest that CCTEP is able to prevent the liver inflammation and fibrosis induced by repeated CCl4 administration, and the hepatoprotective effects might be correlated partly with its antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects.

  12. Nigella sativa improves the carbon tetrachloride-induced lung damage in rats through repression of erk/akt pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Aslan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine whether Nigella sativa plays a protective role against the damage in the lung by administering carbon tetra-chloride (CCl4 to rats. Male Wistar albino (n=28, 8 weeks old rats were divided into 4 groups: a negative control: Normal water consuming group to which no CCl4 and N. sativa was administered; b Positive control: Normal water consuming group to which no CCl4 was administered but N. sativa was administered; c CCl4 Group: Normal water consuming and group to which CCl4 was administered (1.5 mL/kg, ip; d N. sativa plus CCl4 group: CCl4 and N. sativa administered group (1.5 mL/kg, ip. Caspase-3, caspase -9, erk, akt protein syntheses were examined via Western blotting. Malondialdehyde determination in lung tissue was made using spectrophotometer. As a results, malondialdehyde amount was decreased in the CCl4 plus N. sativa group in comparison to CCl4 group whereas caspase-3, caspase-9 was increased and erk, akt had decreased. These results show that N. sativa protects the lung against oxidative damage.

  13. Hepatoprotective Effect of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. Whole Plant on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Chronic Liver Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Yi-Wen; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Chang, Wen-Te; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Lin, Ying-Chih; Lin, Ming-Kuem

    2016-12-07

    Cuscuta seeds and whole plant have been used to nourish the liver and kidney. This study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanol extract of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. whole plant (CC EtOH ). The hepatoprotective effect of CC EtOH (20, 100 and 500 mg/kg) was evaluated on carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-induced chronic liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured and the fibrosis was histologically examined. CC EtOH exhibited a significant inhibition of the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol. Histological analyses showed that fibrosis of liver induced by CCl₄ were significantly reduced by CC EtOH . In addition, 20, 100 and 500 mg/kg of the extract decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and enhanced the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver. We demonstrate that the hepatoprotective mechanisms of CC EtOH were likely to be associated to the decrease in MDA level by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GPx and GRd. In addition, our findings provide evidence that C. campestris Yunck. whole plant possesses a hepatoprotective activity to ameliorate chronic liver injury.

  14. Hepatoprotective Effect of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. Whole Plant on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Chronic Liver Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Huang Peng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cuscuta seeds and whole plant have been used to nourish the liver and kidney. This study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanol extract of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. whole plant (CCEtOH. The hepatoprotective effect of CCEtOH (20, 100 and 500 mg/kg was evaluated on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced chronic liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured and the fibrosis was histologically examined. CCEtOH exhibited a significant inhibition of the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol. Histological analyses showed that fibrosis of liver induced by CCl4 were significantly reduced by CCEtOH. In addition, 20, 100 and 500 mg/kg of the extract decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA and enhanced the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione reductase (GRd in the liver. We demonstrate that the hepatoprotective mechanisms of CCEtOH were likely to be associated to the decrease in MDA level by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GPx and GRd. In addition, our findings provide evidence that C. campestris Yunck. whole plant possesses a hepatoprotective activity to ameliorate chronic liver injury.

  15. Carbon tetrachloride contamination, 200 West Area, Hanford Site: Arid Site Integrated Demonstration for remediation of volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Rohay, V.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Arid State Integrated Demonstration is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program targeted at the acquisition, development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic and associated contaminants in soils and ground waters. Several DOE laboratories, universities, and industry will participate in the program. Candidate technologies will be demonstrated in the areas of site characterization; performance prediction, monitoring, and evaluations; contaminant extraction and ex situ treatment; in situ remediations; and site closure and monitoring. The performance of these demonstrated technologies will be compared to baseline technologies and documented to promote the transfer of new technologies to industry for use at DOE facilities. The initial host site is the Hanford Site's 200 West Area. The location of the demonstration contains primarily carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), chloroform, and a variety of associated mixed waste contaminants. Chemical processes used to recover and purify plutonium at Hanford's plutonium finishing plant (Z Plant) resulted in the production of actinide-bearing waste liquid. Both aqueous and organic liquid wastes were generated, and were routinely discharged to subsurface disposal facilities. The primary radionuclide in the waste streams was plutonium, and the primary organic was CCl 4 . This paper contains brief descriptions of the principal CCl 4 waste disposal facilities in Hanford's 200 West Area, associated hydrogeology, existing information on the extent of soil and ground-water contamination, and a conceptual outline of suspected subsurface CCl 4 distributions

  16. Dielectric properties of liquid systems: study of interactions in the systems carbon tetrachloride with benzene, toluene, and p-xylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián H. Buep

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermolecular associations in liquid systems of non-polar and slightly polar compounds were studied through excess molar volumes (VEM and excess dielectric properties (εE and n2ED for mixtures of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 with benzene (C6H6, toluene (C6H5CH3, and p-xylene (p-(CH32C6H4. These excess properties were calculated from measurements of density (ρ, static permittivity (ε, and refractive index (nD over the whole range of concentrations at 298.15 K. The values of the excess dielectric properties for these mixtures were fitted in two different ways, one through least squares using the Redlich–Kister equation and the other using a model developed to explain deviations from ideality. The first fit was found to be descriptive while the second gave the equilibrium constant values for the interaction products actually formed in the mixtures and the respective electronic polarizabilities and dipole moments, indicating the existence of interaction products.

  17. Stevia Prevents Acute and Chronic Liver Injury Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride by Blocking Oxidative Stress through Nrf2 Upregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Tovar, Erika; Hernández-Aquino, Erika; Casas-Grajales, Sael; Buendia-Montaño, Laura D.; Tsutsumi, Víctor

    2018-01-01

    The effect of stevia on liver cirrhosis has not been previously investigated. In the present study, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of stevia leaves were studied in male Wistar rats with carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced acute and chronic liver damage. Acute and chronic liver damage induced oxidative stress, necrosis, and cholestasis, which were significantly ameliorated by stevia. Chronic CCl4 treatment resulted in liver cirrhosis, as evidenced by nodules of hepatocytes surrounded by thick bands of collagen and distortion of the hepatic architecture, and stevia significantly prevented these alterations. Subsequently, the underlying mechanism of action of the plant was analyzed. Our study for the first time shows that stevia upregulated Nrf2, thereby counteracting oxidative stress, and prevented necrosis and cholestasis through modulation of the main proinflammatory cytokines via NF-κB inhibition. These multitarget mechanisms led to the prevention of experimental cirrhosis. Given the reasonable safety profile of stevia, our results indicated that it may be useful for the clinical treatment of acute and chronic liver diseases. PMID:29849889

  18. Toxicological and biochemical studies on Schinus terebinthifolius concerning its curative and hepatoprotective effects against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Rania H.; Saleh, Sherif Y.; Khalil, Waleed F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, many efforts have been made to discover new products of natural origin which can limit the xenobiotic-induced hepatic injury. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a highly toxic chemical that is widely used to study hepatotoxicity in animal models. Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the curative and protective effects of Schinus terbenthifolius ethanolic extract against CCl4 -induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: S. terbenthifolius extract was orally administered in a dose of 350 mg dried extract/kg b.wt. before and after intoxication with CCl4 for curative and protective experiments, respectively. A group of hepatotoxicity indicative enzymes, oxidant-antioxidant capacity, DNA oxidation, and apoptosis markers were measured. Results: CCl4 increased liver enzyme leakage, oxidative stress, hepatic apoptosis, DNA oxidation, and inflammatory markers. Administration of S. terebinthifolius, either before or after CCl4 intoxication, significantly decreased elevated serum liver enzymes and reinstated the antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, S. terebinthifolius extract inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis as revealed by approximately 20 times down-regulation in caspase-3 expression when compared to CCl4 untreated group. On the other hand, there was neither protective nor curative effect of S. terebinthifolius against DNA damage caused by CCl4. Conclusion: The present study suggests that S. terebinthifolius extract could be a substantially promising hepatoprotective agent against CCl4 toxic effects and may be against other hepatotoxic chemical or drugs. PMID:26109780

  19. Protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum flowers against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neeraj; Singh, Anil P; Amresh, G; Sahu, P K; Rao, Ch V

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum (Family: Ericaceae) in Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage in preventive and curative models. Fraction at a dose of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg was administered orally once daily for 14 days in CCl(4)-treated groups (II, III, IV, V and VI). The serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP), γ-glutamyltransferase (γ -GT), and bilirubin were estimated along with activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase, hepatic malondialdehyde formation, and glutathione content. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic activities of SGOT, SGPT, SALP, γ-GT, and bilirubin due to CCl(4) treatment were restored toward normal in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the decreased activities of GST and glutathione reductase were also restored toward normal. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction also significantly prevented the elevation of hepatic malondialdehyde formation and depletion of reduced glutathione content in the liver of CCl(4)-intoxicated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Silymarin used as standard reference also exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity on post-treatment against CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that ethyl acetate fraction has a potent hepatoprotective action against CCl(4)-induced hepatic damage in rats.

  20. Reconnaissance survey for lightweight and carbon tetrachloride extractable hydrocarbons in the central and eastern basins of Lake Erie: September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapotosky, J.E.; White, W.S.

    1980-10-01

    A reconnaissance survey of the central and eastern basins of Lake Erie (22,240 km/sup 2/) was conducted from September 17 to 27, 1978. The survey provided baseline information on natural gas and oil losses from geologic formations, prior to any potential development of natural gas resources beneath the United States portion of the Lake. Lightweight hydrocarbons indicative of natural gas (methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, and n-butane) are introduced into the waters of Lake Erie by escape from geologic formations and by biological/photochemical processes. The geochemical exploration technique of hydrocarbon sniffing provided enough data to reveal significant distribution patterns, approximate concentrations, and potential sources. Twelve sites with elevated lightweight hydrocarbon concentrations had a composition similar to natural gas. In one area of natural gas input, data analysis suggested a potential negative effect of natural gas on phytoplanktonic metabolism (i.e., ethylene concentration). Samples taken for liquid hydrocarbon analysis (carbon tetrachloride extractable hydrocarbons) correlated best with biologically derived lightweight hydrocarbons.

  1. Eleusine indica L. possesses antioxidant activity and precludes carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-mediated oxidative hepatic damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad; Gnanaraj, Charles

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of aqueous extract of Eleusine indica to protect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-induced hepatic injury in rats. The antioxidant activity of E. indica was evaluated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The total phenolic content of E. indica was also determined. Biochemical parameters [e.g. alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and quinone reductase] were used to evaluate hepatic damage in animals pretreated with E. indica and intoxicated with CCl₄. CCl₄-mediated hepatic damage was also evaluated by histopathologically. E. indica extract was able to reduce the stable DPPH level in a dose-dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) value was 2350 μg/ml. Total phenolic content was found to be 14.9 ± 0.002 mg/g total phenolic expressed as gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract. Groups pretreated with E. indica showed significantly increased activity of antioxidant enzymes compared to the CCl₄-intoxicated group (p indica pretreatment (p indica-pretreated groups as compared to the CCl₄-intoxicated group. The protective effect of E. indica was further evident through decreased histopathological alterations in the liver. The results of our study indicate that the hepatoprotective effects of E. indica might be ascribable to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging property.

  2. Prophylactic effect of four prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine on alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate and carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, K J; Chen, J C; Tsauer, W; Lin, C C; Lin, J G; Tsai, C C

    2001-12-01

    To study the prophylactic effects of four Chinese traditional prescriptions against experimental liver injury. Liver toxins, alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT), and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were used to induce acute liver injury. Simo Yin(SMY), Guizhi Fuling Wan (GFW), Xieqing Wan (XQW), and Sini San (SNS) were fed (500 mg/kg, in saline, po) to the rats before toxin administration. All the animals were killed 48 h after toxin insulted. Serum index of liver function and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated. Histopathological observation was conducted simultaneously. The rats treated with ANIT exhibited elevations of serum total bilirubin (TBI), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate-oxalate- transaminase (GOT), glutamate-pyruvate-transaminase (GPT), as well as cholestasis and parenchyma necrosis. In rats, challenged with ANIT, receiving the pre-treatment of prescriptions of SMY, XQW, and SNS, the biochemical and morphological parameters of liver injury were significantly reduced. The increased LPO level in liver tissue, associated with the provoked serum GOT and GPT levels were the salient features observed in CCl4-insulting rats. Pre-treatment of four prescriptions showed a remarkable protective effect, and also was effective in counteracting the free radical toxicity by bringing about a significant decrease in peroxidative level. These recipes ameliorate liver damage induced by both ANIT and CCl4 despite the differences in their mechanisms of injury. Therefore they may be able to exert hepatoprotective effects through more than one mechanism of action because they contained a mixture of anti-hepatotoxic ingredients with mutual reinforcement and assistance.

  3. Study of lifetimes of fluorescence levels of tetravalent uranium in the incommensurate phase of thorium tetrabromide and tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milicic, A.

    1989-01-01

    The lifetimes of radiative levels of tetravalent uranium in the incommensurate phase of thorium tetrahalides have been measured as a function of different parameters: site symmetry, temperature and concentration. The incommensurate phase of thorium tetrabromide and tetrachloride is characterized by a continuous distribution of site symmetries induced by a continuous and weak displacement of the halides around the thorium (uranium) ions. At low temperature, 4.2 K, the lifetime variation as a function of excited classes of symmetry is governed by the radiative process probability as well as the energy transfer between uranium ions in different sites. At higher temperature, a model based on a Boltzmann equilibrium between closed energy levels is able to reproduce the experimental lifetime variation as a function of the temperature, for a given class of symmetry. For the variation of lifetime as a function of uranium ion concentrations, at high dilution and in the case of U 4+ : ThBr 4 , there is a competition between the energy transfer and thermal population of excited states [fr

  4. Folic acid and melatonin ameliorate carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury, oxidative stress and inflammation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebaid Hossam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the protective effects of melatonin and folic acid against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats. Oxidative stress, liver function, liver histopathology and serum lipid levels were evaluated. The levels of protein kinase B (Akt1, interferon gamma (IFN-γ, programmed cell death-receptor (Fas and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α mRNA expression were analyzed. CCl4 significantly elevated the levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA, cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, bilirubin and urea. In addition, CCl4 was found to significantly suppress the activity of both catalase and glutathione (GSH and decrease the levels of serum total protein and HDL-cholesterol. All of these parameters were restored to their normal levels by treatment with melatonin, folic acid or their combination. An improvement of the general hepatic architecture was observed in rats that were treated with the combination of melatonin and folic acid along with CCl4. Furthermore, the CCl4-induced upregulation of TNF-α and Fas mRNA expression was significantly restored by the three treatments. Melatonin, folic acid or their combination also restored the baseline levels of IFN-γ and Akt1 mRNA expression. The combination of melatonin and folic acid exhibited ability to reduce the markers of liver injury induced by CCl4 and restore the oxidative stability, the level of inflammatory cytokines, the lipid profile and the cell survival Akt1 signals.

  5. Synthesis, growth, and structural, optical, mechanical, electrical properties of a new inorganic nonlinear optical crystal: Sodium manganese tetrachloride (SMTC

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    M. Packiya raj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new inorganic nonlinear optical single crystal of sodium manganese tetrachloride (SMTC has been successfully grown from aqueous solution using the slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The crystals obtained using the aforementioned method were characterized using different techniques. The crystalline nature of the as-grown crystal of SMTC was analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction revealed that the crystal belongs to an orthorhombic system with non-centrosymmetric space group Pbam. The optical transmission study of the SMTC crystal revealed high transmittance in the entire UV–vis region, and the lower cut-off wavelength was determined to be 240 nm. The mechanical strength of the as-grown crystal was estimated using the Vickers microhardness test. The second harmonic generation (SHG efficiency of the crystal was measured using Kurtz's powder technique, which indicated that the crystal has a nonlinear optical (NLO efficiency that is 1.32 times greater than that of KDP. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the compound were measured at different temperatures with varying frequencies. The photoconductivity study confirmed that the title compound possesses a negative photoconducting nature. The growth mechanism and surface features of the as-grown crystals were investigated using chemical etching analysis.

  6. Protection of the Extracts of Lentinus edodes Mycelia against Carbon-Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Injury in Rats

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    Mei-Fen Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lentinus edodes is the medicinal macrofungus showing potential for therapeutic applications in infectious disorders including hepatitis. In an attempt to develop the agent for handling hepatic injury, we used the extracts of Lentinus edodes mycelia (LEM to screen the effect on hepatic injury in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. Intraperitoneal administration of CCl4 not only increased plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT but also decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx levels in rats. Similar to the positive control silymarin, oral administration (three times daily of this product (LEM for 8 weeks significantly reduced plasma GOT and GPT. Also, the activities of antioxidant enzymes of SOD and GPx were elevated by LEM. in liver from CCl4-treated rats, indicating that mycelium can increase antioxidant-like activity. Moreover, the hepatic mRNA and protein levels of SOD and GPx were both markedly raised by LEM. The obtained results suggest that oral administration of the extracts of Lentinus edodes mycelia (LEM has the protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats, mainly due to an increase in antioxidant-like action.

  7. Prevention of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity in testes of rats treated with Physalis peruviana L. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4; 2 ml/kg body weight) once a week for 12 weeks caused a significant decrease in serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. These decreases in sex hormones were reduced with Physalis peruviana L. (Cape gooseberry) juice supplementation. In addition, testicular activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase suppressed with CCl4 were elevated after P. peruviana juice supplements. P. peruviana juice supplementation significantly increased the testicular glutathione and significantly decreased the level of lipid peroxidation and the nitric oxide production compared with the CCl4 group. In addition, the decline in the activity of antioxidant enzymes after CCl4 was ameliorated by P. peruviana Moreover, degeneration of germ and Leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis induced after CCl4 injections were prevented with the supplementation of P. peruviana juice. Furthermore, P. peruviana juice attenuated CCl4-induced apoptosis in testes tissue by inhibition of caspase-3 activity. The results clearly demonstrate that P. peruviana juice augments the antioxidants defense mechanism against CCl4-induced reproductive toxicity and provides evidence that the juice may have a therapeutic role in free radical-mediated diseases and infertility. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Green Pepper and Parsley on the Toxicity Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Rats

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    E Adibfard

    2014-02-01

    Background & aim: Green pepper and parsley have high antioxidant properties due to flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of green pepper and parsley on the toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, 48 male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of eight. The first group (negative control received olive oil, the second group receiving tetrachloride carbon and olive oil in equal proportions. The third and fourth groups (treatment groups were treated with the tetrachloride carbon and olive oil equally and then exposed to extract of parsley and green pepper to the amount of 200 mg/kg separately. The fifth and six groups were treated with tetrachloride carbon and olive oil equally, and then separately exposed to 400 mg/kg of parsley and green pepper extract. The amount of total phenol and flavonoid samples and antioxidant activities were assessed by different methods. The collected data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA tests followed by Tukey test. Results: Intraperitoneal injection of 202, 191 and 183 In.U/L of carbon tetrachloride to positive control increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, respectively. The injection of carbon tetrachloride increased total bilirubin at the rate of4.8 mg/dl and also decreased protein and albumin at rate of 5.1 and 2.6 g/dl.Mqdartvtal respectively 1/5 and 6/2 g, was dL ( p <0.001. In the groups treated with the extract the activity of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in the third to sixth groups were 121, 115 and 109, 130, 121 and 121, 112 109 and 98, 118, 114, and 119 respectively. The values of bilirubin, total protein and albumin, in the III group were: 3/8, 5/5 and 2/8, Group IV: 3/9, 5/3and 2/7, the V: 3/6, 5/8 and 3/1, the VI: 3/8, 5/6 and 3, respectively. Finaly, the amount

  9. Producing cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E G

    1923-09-12

    A process and apparatus are described for producing Portland cement in which pulverized shale is successively heated in a series of inclined rotary retorts having internal stirrers and oil gas outlets, which are connected to condensers. The partially treated shale is removed from the lowermost retort by a conveyor, then fed separately or conjointly into pipes and thence into a number of vertically disposed retorts. Each of these retorts may be fitted interiorly with vertical arranged conveyors which elevate the shale and discharge it over a lip, from whence it falls to the bottom of the retorts. The lower end of each casing is furnished with an adjustable discharge door through which the spent shale is fed to a hopper, thence into separate trucks. The oil gases generated in the retorts are exhausted through pipes to condensers. The spent shale is conveyed to a bin and mixed while hot with ground limestone. The admixed materials are then ground and fed to a rotary kiln which is fired by the incondensible gases derived from the oil gases obtained in the previous retorting of the shale. The calcined materials are then delivered from the rotary kiln to rotary coolers. The waste gases from the kiln are utilized for heating the retorts in which the ground shale is heated for the purpose of extracting therefrom the contained hydrocarbon oils and gases.

  10. Effectiveness of enterosgel usage in the conditions of simultaneous destruction of rats by karbofos and carbon tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. А. Boyko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the effectiveness of the enterosgel sorbent in the terms of simultaneous destruction of rats by karbofos and carbon tetrachloride. Experiments were carried out on white rats weighing 175–200 g, which were kept on a standard diet. Karbofos was administered intragastrically on daily basis in the aqueous solution at the rate of 20 mg/kg of the body weight, which is 1/10 of the LD50. Carbon tetrachloride was administered intraperitoneally, twice a day in the form of a 50% oil solution at a dose of 1.0 ml/kg of animal. Animals received enterosgel daily by intragastric way at the rate of 120 mg/kg of body weight. The activity of free radical processes in rats was assessed by thiobarbituric acid content – active products (TBA-AP in serum, liver and heart homogenates. Level of endogenous intoxication was determined by the content of average weight molecules (AWM in serum and liver homogenate. The degree of cytolysis of hepatocytes was assessed by the activity of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase (AlAT, AsAT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP in serum, liver and heart homogenates. The degree of damage of the nervous system was studied by the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE in serum and liver homogenate. Content of TBA-AP in serum, liver and myocardium increased throughout the period of study. Reduction of TBA-AP was observed in studied tissues after applying of enterosgel sorbent in the affected body. After the defeat by toxicants we showed significant increase of fraction of AM1 (chain aminoacids dominate and AM2 (aromatic aminoacids dominate in serum and liver of experimental rats throughout the experiment. Enterosgel showed a positive effect on this index, reducing the content of MSM molecules. Due to toxic effects of endogenous and exogenous toxins in cells degradation and changing the permeability of plasma membranes of hepatocytes was observed as evidenced by the increased activity of both AlAT and As

  11. New therapeutic aspect for carvedilol: Antifibrotic effects of carvedilol in chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdy, Nadia; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2012-01-01

    Portal hypertension is a common complication of chronic liver diseases associated with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. At present, beta-blockers such as carvedilol remain the medical treatment of choice for protection against variceal bleeding and other complications. Since carvedilol has powerful antioxidant properties we assessed the potential antifibrotic effects of carvedilol and the underlying mechanisms that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness using a chronic model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. Two weeks after CCl4 induction of chronic hepatotoxicity, rats were co-treated with carvedilol (10 mg/kg, orally) daily for 6 weeks. It was found that treatment of animals with carvedilol significantly counteracted the changes in liver function and histopathological lesions induced by CCl4. Also, carvedilol significantly counteracted lipid peroxidation, GSH depletion, and reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities; glutathione-S-transferase and catalase that was induced by CCl4. In addition, carvedilol ameliorated the inflammation induced by CCl4 as indicated by reducing the serum level of acute phase protein marker; alpha-2-macroglobulin and the liver expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Finally, carvedilol significantly reduced liver fibrosis markers including hydroxyproline, collagen accumulation, and the expression of the hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation marker; alpha smooth muscle actin. In conclusion, the present study provides evidences for the promising antifibrotic effects of carvedilol that can be explained by amelioration of oxidative stress through mainly, replenishment of GSH, restoration of antioxidant enzyme activities and reduction of lipid peroxides as well as amelioration of inflammation and fibrosis by decreasing collagen accumulation, acute phase protein level, NF-κB expression and finally HSC activation. -- Highlights: ► Carvedilol is a beta blocker with antioxidant and antifibrotic

  12. Protective effect of a coffee preparation (Nescafe pure) against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongyang; Dong, Lei; Zhang, Yong; Bai, Yanhua; Zhao, Juhui; Zhang, Li

    2010-06-01

    We examined the effects of a coffee preparation on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) and explored the possible mechanisms. Rats were divided randomly into four groups: control, CCl(4), and two coffee preparation groups. Except for the control group, liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by subcutaneous injection with 40% CCl(4) twice a week for 8 weeks. At the same time, a coffee preparation (300 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg) was administered to the two coffee preparation groups intragastrically once daily. Upon pathological examination, a coffee preparation treatment significantly reduced liver damage and symptoms of liver fibrosis. The mRNA expression of collagen I, collagen III, bcl-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) were markedly increased by CCl(4) treatment but suppressed by a coffee preparation treatment. Whereas compared with the CCl(4) group, the mRNA expression of Bax was increased in the coffee preparation group. The protein expression of Bax and bcl-2 were confirmed by western blot. Intragastric administration of a coffee preparation reduced the protein expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and the glucose-regulated proteins (GRP) 78 and 94 in rats increased by CCl(4). Our data indicate that a coffee preparation can efficiently inhibit CCl(4)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. The coffee preparation may therefore be a potential functional food for preventing liver fibrosis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase attenuates hepatic fibrosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Todd R.; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Kodani, Sean; Dong, Hua; Myers, Richard; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Haj, Fawaz G.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a pathological condition in which chronic inflammation and changes to the extracellular matrix lead to alterations in hepatic tissue architecture and functional degradation of the liver. Inhibitors of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) reduce fibrosis in the heart, pancreas and kidney in several disease models. In this study, we assess the effect of sEH inhibition on the development of fibrosis in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced mouse model by monitoring changes in the inflammatory response, matrix remolding and endoplasmic reticulum stress. The sEH inhibitor 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU) was administered in drinking water. Collagen deposition in the liver was increased five-fold in the CCl 4 -treated group, and this was returned to control levels by TPPU treatment. Hepatic expression of Col1a2 and 3a1 mRNA was increased over fifteen-fold in the CCl 4 -treated group relative to the Control group, and this increase was reduced by 50% by TPPU treatment. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress observed in the livers of CCl 4 -treated animals was attenuated by TPPU treatment. In order to support the hypothesis that TPPU is acting to reduce the hepatic fibrosis and ER stress through its action as a sEH inhibitor we used a second sEH inhibitor, trans-4-(4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy)-benzoic acid (t-TUCB), and sEH null mice. Taken together, these data indicate that the sEH may play an important role in the development of hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl 4 , presumably by reducing endogenous fatty acid epoxide chemical mediators acting to reduce ER stress. - Highlights: • We administer an inhibitor of sEH in a CCl4 murine model. • sEH inhibition reduces liver collagen deposition and pro-fibrotic gene expression. • sEH inhibition induces MMP-1a activity

  14. Comparison of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin in the treatment of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative stress, injury and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Mohamed E; Zalata, Khaled R; Mehal, Wajahat Z; Shiha, Gamal E; Ibrahim, Tarek M

    2011-04-15

    Effective and well-tolerated anti-fibrotic drugs are currently lacking. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the potential anti-fibrotic effects of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin on established hepatic fibrosis in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) rat model. Male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of CCl(4) twice weekly for 8weeks, as well as daily intraperitoneal treatments of imatinib (10 and 20mg/kg), nilotinib (10 and 20mg/kg) and silymarin (100mg/kg) during the last 4weeks of CCl(4)-intoxication. At the end of the study, hepatic damage was evaluated by analysis of liver function tests and hepatic oxidative stress parameters. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by histopathology and morphometry, as well as collagen and 4-hydroxyproline contents. Nilotinib (20mg/kg) was the most effective treatment to counteract CCl(4)-induced hepatic injury as indicated by liver function tests and histopathology. Nilotinib (10mg/kg), nilotinib (20mg/kg) and silymarin (100mg/kg) treatments reduced the mean score of hepatic fibrosis by 31%, 68% and 47%, respectively, and hepatic collagen content by 47%, 49% and 18%, respectively in CCl(4)-treated rats. Hepatic morphometric evaluation and 4-hydroxyproline content revealed that CCl(4)-induced fibrosis was ameliorated significantly by nilotinib (20mg/kg) and imatinib (20mg/kg). Unlike nilotinib, imatinib (20mg/kg) showed some sort of hepatic injury evidenced by elevation of serum aminotransferases and total bilirubin levels, and hepatic total nitrate/nitrite content, as well as characteristic anisonucleosis visualized with the hematoxylin-eosin staining. In conclusion, this study provides the evidence that nilotinib exerts anti-fibrotic activity and suggests that it may be valuable in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hepatoprotective activity of the neem-based constituent azadirachtin-A in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baligar, N S; Aladakatti, R H; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Hiremath, M B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective role of azadirachtin-A in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The group allotment for the animals used in the hepatoprotective study included a vehicle treatment group, CCl4 (1 mL · (kg body mass)(-1)) treatment group, silymarin (100 μg · (kg body mass)(-1) · day(-1)) + CCl4 treatment group, and groups treated with different doses of azadirachtin-A (100 or 200 μg · (kg body mass)(-1) · day(-1)) + CCl4. On the 9th day, blood was obtained for measuring the biochemical parameters, and liver tissue was obtained for pathological examination. The acute toxicity test with azadirachtin-A (500, 1000, or 2000 μg · (kg body mass)(-1)) indicated no mortality after 14 days of treatment; further, there was no change in behavior, food consumption, or organ mass. However with the higher dose, some hematological parameters showed changes. Hepatoprotective studies revealed that the CCl4 treatment group exhibited a decrease in total protein and albumin levels, whereas a significant increase in BUN, AST, ALT, and ALP levels were noticed compared with the vehicle-treated control, indicating that there was liver damage caused by CCl4. Histology and ultrastructure study confirmed that pretreatment with azadirachtin-A dose-dependently reduced hepatocellular necrosis and, therefore, protected the liver against toxicity caused by CCl4. The results from this study indicate that pretreatment with azadirachtin-A at the higher dose levels, moderately restores the rat liver to normal. This study confirms that azadirachtin-A possesses greater hepatoprotective action; however, the effective concentration needs to be determined.

  16. Protective effects of total glucosides of paeony and the underlying mechanisms in carbon tetrachloride-induced experimental liver injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ying; Tian, Ya-ping

    2011-01-01

    Introduction We explored the protective effects of total glucosides of paeony (TGP) and the underlying mechanisms in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced experimental liver injury in mice. Material and methods Chronic liver damage was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (0.5 µl/g) three times per week for 8 weeks. Mice also received 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg TGP. Liver sections were stained with haematoxylin/eosin. Serum amino transferases, lipid peroxidation and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were determined using commercial assays. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the changes in hepatic TNF-α, COX-2, iNOS and HO-1 expression. Protein levels of nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, haem oxygenase-1 and cytochrome P450 2E1 were determined by western blotting. Results Histological results showed that TGP improved the CCl4-induced changes in liver structure and alleviated lobular necrosis. The increases in serum protein and hepatic mRNA expression of TNF-α induced by CCl4 treatment were suppressed by TGP. Total glucosides of paeony also attenuated the increase the expression in iNOS and CYP2E1 but augmented the increase in HO-1.The mRNA and protein expression levels of inducible HO-1 increased significantly after CCl4 treatment. Conclusions Total glucosides of paeony protects hepatocytes from oxidative damage induced by CCl4. Total glucosides of paeony may achieve these effects by enhancing HO-1 expression and inhibiting the expression of proinflammatory mediators. PMID:22291795

  17. Performance and Serum Hepatic Enzymes of Hy-Line W-36 Laying Hens Intoxicated with Dietary Carbon Tetrachloride

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    Hadavi A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 on post-peak performance and serum enzymes of Hy-Line W-36 laying hens from 32-36 weeks of age. The experiment was carried out with a total of 192 laying hens in a completely randomized block design. During the experiment laying hens were allocated to 4 groups consisted of T1 no CCl4 as control diet, T2, T3 and T4 control diet supplemented with 1, 3 and 5 mL CCl4/100 g diet, respectively. Each experimental group was divided into 6 blocks of 8 hens each. Egg production, cracked egg percentage and feed intake were recorded weekly. Blood samples were taken from wing veins of hens at the middle and end of the experiment to measure serum hepatic enzymes of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Data showed that in comparison with the control group, the inclusion of CCl4 to the diets had no significant effect on performance parameters. However, by increasing the level of CCl4, egg production was linearly decreased and feed intake was linearly increased (P < 0.05. The effect of CCl4 on cracked eggs was significant and this effect was linearly increased (P < 0.05. Dietary supplementation of 3 and 5 mL CCl4 elevated the serum concentration of hepatic enzymes of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, linearly (P < 0.0001. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of CCl4 has the ability to decrease the performance and egg quality. CCl4 is also a potent hepatic toxicity inducer and may damage liver hepatocytes. Therefore, the level of 3 mL CCl4 was assigned as the one had the maximum negative effect on serum hepatic enzymes concentration (maximum liver damage alongside the minimum negative effect on laying hen performance for further studies.

  18. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheshchevik, V.T.; Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V.; Reiter, R.J.; Prokopchik, N.I.; Zavodnik, I.B.

    2012-01-01

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p 4 displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl 4 , reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage. Highlights: ► After 30-day chronic CCl 4 intoxication mitochondria displayed considerable changes. ► The functional parameters of mitochondria were similar to the control values. ► Melatonin + succinate + flavonoids prevented mitochondrial ultrastructure damage. ► The above complex enhanced regenerative processes in the liver.

  19. Continued emissions of carbon tetrachloride from the United States nearly two decades after its phaseout for dispersive uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Montzka, Stephen A.; Miller, Ben R.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Miller, John B.; Lehman, Scott J.; Sweeney, Colm; Miller, Scot M.; Thoning, Kirk; Siso, Carolina; Atlas, Elliot L.; Blake, Donald R.; de Gouw, Joost; Gilman, Jessica B.; Dutton, Geoff; Elkins, James W.; Hall, Bradley; Chen, Huilin; Fischer, Marc L.; Mountain, Marikate E.; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Biraud, Sebastien C.; Moore, Fred L.; Tans, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    National-scale emissions of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are derived based on inverse modeling of atmospheric observations at multiple sites across the United States from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s flask air sampling network. We estimate an annual average US emission of 4.0 (2.0–6.5) Gg CCl4 y−1 during 2008–2012, which is almost two orders of magnitude larger than reported to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) (mean of 0.06 Gg y−1) but only 8% (3–22%) of global CCl4 emissions during these years. Emissive regions identified by the observations and consistently shown in all inversion results include the Gulf Coast states, the San Francisco Bay Area in California, and the Denver area in Colorado. Both the observation-derived emissions and the US EPA TRI identified Texas and Louisiana as the largest contributors, accounting for one- to two-thirds of the US national total CCl4 emission during 2008–2012. These results are qualitatively consistent with multiple aircraft and ship surveys conducted in earlier years, which suggested significant enhancements in atmospheric mole fractions measured near Houston and surrounding areas. Furthermore, the emission distribution derived for CCl4 throughout the United States is more consistent with the distribution of industrial activities included in the TRI than with the distribution of other potential CCl4 sources such as uncapped landfills or activities related to population density (e.g., use of chlorine-containing bleach). PMID:26929368

  20. Semiprotective Effects of Hempseed Oil on Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Rats: An Ultra-short Toxicological Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Hashemzadeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the protective activity of hempseed oil on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 hepatotoxicity in male rats at Islamic Azad University, Saveh Branch, Saveh, Iran in 2015. Normal control (NC group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p. with distilled water (0.5 ml/kg; CCl4-intoxicated group (TCC injected CCl4; hempseed oil treated group (HSO gavaged hempseed oil; TCC-HSO group was injected CCl4 prior to intake of hempseed oil and HSO-TCC group was gavaged hempseed oil prior to being injected with CCl4. In all treated groups, toxicity was induced by i.p. injection of CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg for two consecutive days and hemp seed, oil was gavaged at 8 ml/kg in respective group once daily for one week. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST levels increased in TCC. Protection against toxicity in HSO-TCC and TCC-HSO reduced AST and ALT activities compared to TCC. Plasma alkaline phosphatase activity in TCC-HSO and HSO-TCC increased as compared with other groups. CCl4 decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in TCC. Hempseed oil decreased total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triacylglycerols in HSO compared to NC. Hempseed oil in TCC-HSO and HSO-TCC restored TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C levels to those of NC. Atherogenic index was lower in HSO in comparison to TCC. Based on histopathology, hempseed oil improved CCl4-induced-cardio- and hepatotoxicity in TCC-HSO and HSO-TCC; however, hempseed oil did not prevent CCl4-induced nephrotoxicity. To sum up, hempseed oil has mild protective effects against CCl4 toxicity in male rats.

  1. New therapeutic aspect for carvedilol: Antifibrotic effects of carvedilol in chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdy, Nadia [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Demerdash, Ebtehal, E-mail: ebtehal_dm@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-06-15

    Portal hypertension is a common complication of chronic liver diseases associated with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. At present, beta-blockers such as carvedilol remain the medical treatment of choice for protection against variceal bleeding and other complications. Since carvedilol has powerful antioxidant properties we assessed the potential antifibrotic effects of carvedilol and the underlying mechanisms that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness using a chronic model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. Two weeks after CCl4 induction of chronic hepatotoxicity, rats were co-treated with carvedilol (10 mg/kg, orally) daily for 6 weeks. It was found that treatment of animals with carvedilol significantly counteracted the changes in liver function and histopathological lesions induced by CCl4. Also, carvedilol significantly counteracted lipid peroxidation, GSH depletion, and reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities; glutathione-S-transferase and catalase that was induced by CCl4. In addition, carvedilol ameliorated the inflammation induced by CCl4 as indicated by reducing the serum level of acute phase protein marker; alpha-2-macroglobulin and the liver expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Finally, carvedilol significantly reduced liver fibrosis markers including hydroxyproline, collagen accumulation, and the expression of the hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation marker; alpha smooth muscle actin. In conclusion, the present study provides evidences for the promising antifibrotic effects of carvedilol that can be explained by amelioration of oxidative stress through mainly, replenishment of GSH, restoration of antioxidant enzyme activities and reduction of lipid peroxides as well as amelioration of inflammation and fibrosis by decreasing collagen accumulation, acute phase protein level, NF-κB expression and finally HSC activation. -- Highlights: ► Carvedilol is a beta blocker with antioxidant and antifibrotic

  2. Protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in precision-cut carp liver slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjuan; Zhang, Chunyun; Du, Jinliang; Jia, Rui; Cao, Liping; Jeney, Galina; Teraoka, Hiroki; Xu, Pao; Yin, Guojun

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLPS) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced hepatotoxicity in vitro in common carp. Precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs), which closely resemble the organ from which they are derived, were employed as an in vitro model system. GLPS (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/ml) was added to PCLS culture system before the exposure to 12 mM CCl 4 . The supernatants and slices were collected to detect molecular and biochemical responses to CCl 4 and PCLS treatments. The levels of CYP1A, CYP3A, and CYP2E1 were measured by ELISA; the mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and iNOS were determined by RT-PCR; and the relative protein expressions of c-Rel and p65 were analyzed by western blotting. Results showed that GLPS inhibited the elevations of the marker enzymes (GOT, GPT, LDH) and MDA induced by CCl 4 ; it also enhanced the suppressed activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, T-AOC). The treatment with GLPS resulted in significant downregulation of NF-κB and inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels and significant decreases in the hepatic protein levels of CYP1A, CYP3A, and CYP2E1. These results suggest that GLPS can protect CCl 4 -induced PCLS injury through inhibiting lipid peroxidation, elevating antioxidant enzyme activity, and suppressing immune inflammatory response.

  3. Shark Cartilage Attenuates Oxidative Stress in the liver of Guinea Pigs Exposed to Carbon Tetrachloride and/or Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, N.K.; Abd El Aziz, N.

    2009-01-01

    There is overwhelming evidence to indicate that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) and ionizing radiations are environmental pollutants well known to induce free radicals formation and oxidative stress. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of shark cartilage administration on CCl 4 and/or gamma radiation-induced oxidative damage in the liver. CCl 4 (1 ml/kg body wt) was subcutaneously administered to guinea pigs twice a week for four weeks. Gamma irradiation (RAD) was applied by whole body exposure of guinea pigs to 1.0 Gy/week up to a total dose of 4.0 Gy. Shark cartilage (ShC) was given to animals at a concentration of 1.0 g/kg body wt daily, one week before exposure to CCl 4 and/or gamma irradiation and during the experimental period. Animals sacrificed at the end of the experimental period showed that administration of shark cartilage has significantly attenuated the increase in liver malonaldehyde (MDA) observed in CCl 4 and/or irradiated guinea pigs. Furthermore, shark cartilage treatment has significantly increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and the content of reduced glutathione (GSH). The amelioration of oxidative stress induced in liver tissues of CCL 4 and/or irradiated guinea pigs treated with shark cartilage was associated with significant improvement in the activity of serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), as well as, bilirubin, albumin, and iron contents. It could be concluded that shark cartilage might protect liver tissues from oxidative injury induced by environmental pro-oxidants pollutants via modulating the antioxidant status and decreasing the process of lipid peroxidation

  4. Subchronic inhalation of carbon tetrachloride alters the tissue retention of acutely inhaled plutonium-239 nitrate in F344 rats and syrian golden hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Barr, E.B.; Lundgren, D.L. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is likely that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to both CCl{sub 4} and plutonium compounds. Future exposures may occur during {open_quotes}cleanup{close_quotes} operations at weapons productions sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. Inhalation of 20 and 100 ppm CCl{sub 4} by hamsters reduces uptake of {sup 239}Pu solubilized from lung, shunting the {sup 239}Pu to the skeleton.

  5. Synthesis of zirconium by zirconium tetrachloride reduction by magnesio-thermia. Experimental study and modelling; Elaboration de zirconium par reduction de tetrachlorure de zirconium par magnesothermie. Etude experimentale et modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basin, N

    2001-01-01

    This work deals with the synthesis of zirconium. The ore is carbo-chlorinated to obtain the tetrachloride which is then purified by selective condensation and extractive distillation. Zirconium tetrachloride is then reduced by magnesium and the pseudo-alloy is obtained according to the global following reaction (Kroll process): ZrCl{sub 4} + 2 Mg = 2 MgCl{sub 2}. By thermodynamics, it has been shown that the volatilization of magnesium chloride and the formation of zirconium sub-chlorides are minimized when the combined effects of temperature and of dilution with argon are limited. With these conditions, the products, essentially zirconium and magnesium chloride, are obtained in equivalence ratio in the magnesio-thermia reaction. The global kinetics of the reduction process has been studied by a thermal gravimetric method. A thermo-balance device has been developed specially for this kinetics study. It runs under a controlled atmosphere and is coupled to a vapor tetrachloride feed unit. The transformation is modelled supposing that the zirconium and magnesium chloride formation result: 1)of the evaporation of magnesium from its liquid phase 2)of the transfer of magnesium and zirconium tetrachloride vapors towards the front of the reaction located in the gaseous phase 3)of the chemical reaction. In the studied conditions, the diffusion is supposed to be the limiting process. The influence of the following parameters: geometry of the reactive zone, temperature, scanning rate of the argon-zirconium tetrachloride mixture, composition of the argon-zirconium tetrachloride mixture has been experimentally studied and confronted with success to the model. (O.M.)

  6. Kinetics study of levulinic acid production from corncobs by tin tetrachloride as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Qing; Guo, Qi; Wang, Pengbo; Qian, Hongjia; Gao, Xiaohang; Zhang, Yue

    2018-07-01

    Levulinic acid (LA) is an ideal platform chemical that can be produced through acid-catalyzed dehydration and hydrolysis of hexose sugars obtained from lignocellulosic materials. In this study, SnCl 4 was identified as an efficient catalyst for LA production and the reaction kinetics was investigated in a single water phase under different reaction conditions. The Box-Behnken design response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the optimized reaction conditions and three individual variables including reaction temperature, duration, and catalyst concentration were evaluated. An appealing LA yield of 76.0% was achieved at 193 °C and 17 min with 82 mM SnCl 4 catalyst. A kinetics model was developed to predict the yields of glucose, HMF, and LA, which are tally with the experimental results. The analysis of the related kinetic parameters and the results of the RSM experiment helped to provide insights into the interplay between various reaction steps with SnCl 4 as catalysts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hepatoprotective and curative properties of Kombucha tea against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, G S; Sathishkumar, M; Jayabalan, R; Binupriya, A R; Swaminathan, K; Yun, S E

    2009-04-01

    Kombucha tea (KT) is sugared black tea fermented with a symbiotic culture of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts, which is said to be tea fungus. KT is claimed to have various beneficial effects on human health, but there is very little scientific evidence available in the literature. In the present study, KT along with black tea (BT) and black tea manufactured with tea fungus enzymes (enzyme-processed tea, ET) was evaluated for hepatoprotective and curative properties against CCl4-induced toxicity, using male albino rats as an experimental model by analyzing aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase in plasma and malondialdehyde content in plasma and liver tissues. Histopathological analysis of liver tissue was also included. Results showed that BT, ET, and KT have the potential to revert the CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Among the three types of teas tried, KT was found to be more efficient than BT and ET. Antioxidant molecules produced during the fermentation period could be the reason for the efficient hepatoprotective and curative properties of KT against CCI4-induced hepatotoxicity.

  8. Design of an Extractive Distillation Column for the Environmentally Benign Separation of Zirconium and Hafnium Tetrachloride for Nuclear Power Reactor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Quang Minh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power with strengthened safety regulations continues to be used as an important resource in the world for managing atmospheric greenhouse gases and associated climate change. This study examined the environmentally benign separation of zirconium tetrachloride (ZrCl4 and hafnium tetrachloride (HfCl4 for nuclear power reactor applications through extractive distillation using a NaCl-KCl molten salt mixture. The vapor–liquid equilibrium behavior of ZrCl4 and HfCl4 over the molten salt system was correlated with Raoult’s law. The molten salt-based extractive distillation column was designed optimally using a rigorous commercial simulator for the feasible separation of ZrCl4 and HfCl4. The molten salt-based extractive distillation approach has many potential advantages for the commercial separation of ZrCl4 and HfCl4 compared to the conventional distillation because of its milder temperatures and pressure conditions, smaller number of required separation trays in the column, and lower energy requirement for separation, while still taking the advantage of environmentally benign feature by distillation. A heat-pump-assisted configuration was also explored to improve the energy efficiency of the extractive distillation process. The proposed enhanced configuration reduced the energy requirement drastically. Extractive distillation can be a promising option competing with the existing extraction-based separation process for zirconium purification for nuclear power reactor applications.

  9. Effects of carbon tetrachloride on oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Rui; Cao, Li-Ping; Du, Jin-Liang; Wang, Jia-Hao; Liu, Ying-Juan; Jeney, Galina; Xu, Pao; Yin, Guo-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We explored the underlying toxicology of CCl 4 at the cellular and molecular levels. • QRT-PCR detected the gene expression of NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines. • The apoptosis and necrosis occurred simultaneously in carp liver damage. • CCl 4 activated the TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways. - Abstract: In the present study, the cellular and molecular mechanism of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced hepatotoxicity in fish was investigated by studying the effects of CCl 4 on the oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis. Common carp were given an intraperitoneal injection of 30% CCl 4 in arachis oil (0.5 ml/kg body weight). At 72 h post-injection, blood were collected to measure glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and malondialdehyde (MDA), liver samples were taken to analyze toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and gene expressions of inflammatory cytokines and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB/cREL). Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed after treatment of the primary hepatocytes with CCl 4 at 8 mM. The results showed that CCl 4 significantly increased the levels of GPT, GOT, MDA, TLR4 and CYP2E1, reduced the levels of SOD, GPx, CAT, GSH and T-AOC, and up-regulated the gene expressions of NF-κB/cREL and inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12. In vitro, CCl 4 caused a dramatic loss in cell viability and induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Overall results suggest that oxidative stress lipid peroxidation, and TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways play important roles in CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity in fish

  10. Application of Needle Trap Device Packed with Polydimethylsiloxane for Determination of Carbon Tetrachloride and Trichloroethylene in Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heidari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The use of modern microextraction techniques for determination and evaluation of pollutants is progressively increasing nowadays. Needle trap microextraction (NTME technique has privileges compared to the other techniques for sampling occupa-tional and environmental pollutants from air. In this study the application of NTD technique packed with polydimethylsiloxane as sorbent for determination of two organohalogen com-pounds (carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene was investigated. Material & Methods: In this experimental study NTDs were prepared with the same length of proposed sorbent and used after calibration of sampling pump. The parameters related to per-formance of NTD and proposed sorbent including temperature and relative humidity, sam-pling storage time and breakthrough volume were investigated. In analytical performances, the capability of NTD on time and temperature of desorption also carryover of analytes were assessed. Finally, the results for NTD microextraction e were compared to the NIOSH 1003 method. Results: Results have shown that, temperature and relative humidity had effects on the per-formance of NTD and it's sorbent, and NTD contained PDMS showed better performance in the lower temperature and relative humidity at the range of assessment. The performance of NTD and it's sorbent for storage of sampled analytes was more than 95% of analytes mass after 4 days of sampling. The proposed technique also showed a good performance for de-sorption parameters and desorption temperature and time was 290?C and 4 minutes, respec-tively. After desorption, the carryover was also investigated and measured as 4 min. Relative standard division (RSD for repeatability of method for NTD from different concentration levels of 1-250 µgL-1were 4.1-7.5%. Conclusions: The NTD technique as an active sampling method with high enrichment factor showed a good performance for sampling and analysis of volatile organohalogen

  11. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheshchevik, V.T. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Reiter, R.J. [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229–3900 (United States); Prokopchik, N.I. [Grodno State Medical University, Gorkogo - 80, 230015 Grodno (Belarus); Zavodnik, I.B., E-mail: zavodnik_il@mail.ru [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus)

    2012-06-15

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p < 0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxic mitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of liver mitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance of mitochondria. The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl{sub 4} displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl{sub 4}, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage

  12. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase attenuates hepatic fibrosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Todd R. [Department of Entomology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bettaieb, Ahmed [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Kodani, Sean; Dong, Hua [Department of Entomology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Myers, Richard; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan [Department of Internal Medicine: Cardiovascular, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Haj, Fawaz G. [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Internal Medicine: Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hammock, Bruce D., E-mail: bdhammock@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Liver fibrosis is a pathological condition in which chronic inflammation and changes to the extracellular matrix lead to alterations in hepatic tissue architecture and functional degradation of the liver. Inhibitors of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) reduce fibrosis in the heart, pancreas and kidney in several disease models. In this study, we assess the effect of sEH inhibition on the development of fibrosis in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced mouse model by monitoring changes in the inflammatory response, matrix remolding and endoplasmic reticulum stress. The sEH inhibitor 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU) was administered in drinking water. Collagen deposition in the liver was increased five-fold in the CCl{sub 4}-treated group, and this was returned to control levels by TPPU treatment. Hepatic expression of Col1a2 and 3a1 mRNA was increased over fifteen-fold in the CCl{sub 4}-treated group relative to the Control group, and this increase was reduced by 50% by TPPU treatment. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress observed in the livers of CCl{sub 4}-treated animals was attenuated by TPPU treatment. In order to support the hypothesis that TPPU is acting to reduce the hepatic fibrosis and ER stress through its action as a sEH inhibitor we used a second sEH inhibitor, trans-4-(4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy)-benzoic acid (t-TUCB), and sEH null mice. Taken together, these data indicate that the sEH may play an important role in the development of hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl{sub 4}, presumably by reducing endogenous fatty acid epoxide chemical mediators acting to reduce ER stress. - Highlights: • We administer an inhibitor of sEH in a CCl4 murine model. • sEH inhibition reduces liver collagen deposition and pro-fibrotic gene expression. • sEH inhibition induces MMP-1a activity.

  13. Effects of carbon tetrachloride on oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Rui [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Cao, Li-Ping; Du, Jin-Liang [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Fish Immunopharmacology, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Wang, Jia-Hao; Liu, Ying-Juan [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Jeney, Galina [National Agricultural Research Center, Research Institute for Fisherie and, Aquaculture, Anna Light 8, Szarvas 5440 (Hungary); Xu, Pao, E-mail: xup@ffrc.cn [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Yin, Guo-Jun, E-mail: yingj@ffrc.cn [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Fish Immunopharmacology, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • We explored the underlying toxicology of CCl{sub 4} at the cellular and molecular levels. • QRT-PCR detected the gene expression of NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines. • The apoptosis and necrosis occurred simultaneously in carp liver damage. • CCl{sub 4} activated the TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways. - Abstract: In the present study, the cellular and molecular mechanism of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced hepatotoxicity in fish was investigated by studying the effects of CCl{sub 4} on the oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis. Common carp were given an intraperitoneal injection of 30% CCl{sub 4} in arachis oil (0.5 ml/kg body weight). At 72 h post-injection, blood were collected to measure glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and malondialdehyde (MDA), liver samples were taken to analyze toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and gene expressions of inflammatory cytokines and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB/cREL). Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed after treatment of the primary hepatocytes with CCl{sub 4} at 8 mM. The results showed that CCl{sub 4} significantly increased the levels of GPT, GOT, MDA, TLR4 and CYP2E1, reduced the levels of SOD, GPx, CAT, GSH and T-AOC, and up-regulated the gene expressions of NF-κB/cREL and inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12. In vitro, CCl{sub 4} caused a dramatic loss in cell viability and induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Overall results suggest that oxidative stress lipid peroxidation, and TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways play important roles in CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatotoxicity in fish.

  14. Comparison of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin in the treatment of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative stress, injury and fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaker, Mohamed E.; Zalata, Khaled R.; Mehal, Wajahat Z.; Shiha, Gamal E.; Ibrahim, Tarek M.

    2011-01-01

    Effective and well-tolerated anti-fibrotic drugs are currently lacking. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the potential anti-fibrotic effects of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin on established hepatic fibrosis in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) rat model. Male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of CCl 4 twice weekly for 8 weeks, as well as daily intraperitoneal treatments of imatinib (10 and 20 mg/kg), nilotinib (10 and 20 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg) during the last 4 weeks of CCl 4 -intoxication. At the end of the study, hepatic damage was evaluated by analysis of liver function tests and hepatic oxidative stress parameters. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by histopathology and morphometry, as well as collagen and 4-hydroxyproline contents. Nilotinib (20 mg/kg) was the most effective treatment to counteract CCl 4 -induced hepatic injury as indicated by liver function tests and histopathology. Nilotinib (10 mg/kg), nilotinib (20 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg) treatments reduced the mean score of hepatic fibrosis by 31%, 68% and 47%, respectively, and hepatic collagen content by 47%, 49% and 18%, respectively in CCl 4 -treated rats. Hepatic morphometric evaluation and 4-hydroxyproline content revealed that CCl 4 -induced fibrosis was ameliorated significantly by nilotinib (20 mg/kg) and imatinib (20 mg/kg). Unlike nilotinib, imatinib (20 mg/kg) showed some sort of hepatic injury evidenced by elevation of serum aminotransferases and total bilirubin levels, and hepatic total nitrate/nitrite content, as well as characteristic anisonucleosis visualized with the hematoxylin-eosin staining. In conclusion, this study provides the evidence that nilotinib exerts anti-fibrotic activity and suggests that it may be valuable in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis in humans. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights: → The anti-fibrotic effects of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin were compared. → These effects were

  15. NRF2 Protection against Liver Injury Produced by Various Hepatotoxicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of Nrf2 as a master defense against the hepatotoxicity produced by various chemicals, Nrf2-null, wild-type, Keap1-knock down (Keap1-Kd and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO mice were used as a “graded Nrf2 activation” model. Mice were treated with 14 hepatotoxicants at appropriate doses, and blood and liver samples were collected thereafter (6 h to 7 days depending on the hepatotoxicant. Graded activation of Nrf2 offered a Nrf2-dependent protection against the hepatotoxicity produced by carbon tetrachloride, acetaminophen, microcystin, phalloidin, furosemide, cadmium, and lithocholic acid, as evidenced by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT activities and by histopathology. Nrf2 activation also offered moderate protection against liver injury produced by ethanol, arsenic, bromobenzene, and allyl alcohol but had no effects on the hepatotoxicity produced by D-galactosamine/endotoxin and the Fas ligand antibody Jo-2. Graded Nrf2 activation reduced the expression of inflammatory genes (MIP-2, mKC, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα, oxidative stress genes (Ho-1, Egr1, ER stress genes (Gadd45 and Gadd153, and genes encoding cell death (Noxa, Bax, Bad, and caspase3. Thus, this study demonstrates that Nrf2 prevents the liver from many, but not all, hepatotoxicants. The Nrf2-mediated protection is accompanied by induction of antioxidant genes, suppression of inflammatory responses, and attenuation of oxidative stress.

  16. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial Activity of Propolis Ethanolic Extract and Its Improving Role of Biochemical Changes Induced by Carbon tetrachloride in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabr, S.A.; Abbas, M.M.; Ouda, S.M.; Abdeldaiem, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Propolis (bee glue) is a sticky substance that is collected from plants by honeybees. Due to biological and pharmacological activities, it has been extensively used in folk medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition, the antimicrobial activity and possible protective effects of ethanolic extract of propolis on carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced biological damages in rats. The studied rats were allotted to four equal groups (6 rats each) : Group 1 served as control and was given the vehicle (Tween 80 dissolved in distilled water, 1:100 ) orally for 21 consecutive days after which they were sacrificed , group 2 treated orally with ethanolic extract of popolis (100μg/rat) for 21 successive days, group 3 ( CCl 4 - treated group) administered orally with a single dose (0.5 ml/kg body weight) of carbon tetrachloride (mixed with an equal volume of olive oil) and group 4 (protected group) was treated with propolis extract (100μg/rat) for 21 successive days, after one hour of the last dose of the treatment, a single dose of CCl 4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight) was given. Then all animals were sacrificed, 24 hr post experimental design period for each group. Our results revealed that, fourteen compounds were identified by chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC- MS analysis). Propolis ethanolic extract inhibited the growth of six from the tested microorganisms including bacteria and fungi at 5 mg/ml against E. coli and B. subtilis and 20 mg/ml against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Penicillium italicum and Candida albicans, while it has no effect on A. fumigatus and Syncephalstrum racemasum. In experimental animals, Leucocytic counts and platelets, in addition, AST, ALT, CK and LDH were significantly increased, meanwhile, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) level was decreased in CCl 4 treated rats (group 3) compared to the control (group 1). Protection with ethanolic extract of propolis to rats received CCl 4 (group 4) ameliorated

  17. Amelioration of carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis and portal hypertension in rat using adenoviral gene transfer of Akt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gang; Huang, Xiang-Jun; Luo, Hong-Wu; Huang, Fei-Zhou; Liu, Xun-Yang; Wang, Yong-Heng

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether a virus constitutively expressing active Akt is useful to prevent cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Using cre-loxp technique, we created an Ad-myr-HA-Akt virus, in which Akt is labeled by a HA tag and its expression is driven by myr promoter. Further, through measuring enzyme levels and histological structure, we determined the efficacy of this Ad-myr-HA-Akt virus in inhibiting the development of cirrhosis induced by CCl4 in rats. Lastly, using western blotting, we examined the expression levels and/or phosphorylation status of Akt, apoptotic mediators, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and markers for hepatic stellate cells activation to understand the underlying mechanisms of protective role of this virus. The Ad-myr-HA-Akt virus was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction amplification of inserted Akt gene and sequencing for full length of inserted fragment, which was consistent with the sequence reported in the GenBank. The concentrations of Ad-myr-HA-Akt and adenoviral enhanced green fluorescent protein (Ad-EGFP) virus used in the current study were 5.5 × 10(11) vp/mL. The portal vein diameter, peak velocity of blood flow, portal blood flow and congestion index were significantly increased in untreated, saline and Ad-EGFP cirrhosis groups when compared to normal control after the virus was introduced to animal through tail veil injection. In contrast, these parameters in the Akt cirrhosis group were comparable to normal control group. Compared to the normal control, the liver function (Alanine aminotransferase, Aspartate aminotransferase and Albumin) was significantly impaired in the untreated, saline and Ad-EGFP cirrhosis groups. The Akt cirrhosis group showed significant improvement of liver function when compared to the untreated, saline and Ad-EGFP cirrhosis groups. The Hyp level and portal vein pressure in Akt cirrhosis groups were also significantly lower than other cirrhosis groups. The results of HE and

  18. Simultaneous anaerobic transformation of carbon tetrachloride to carbon dioxide and tetrachloroethene to ethene in a continuous flow column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Mohammad F; Semprini, Lewis

    2017-08-01

    The simultaneous anaerobic transformation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and carbon tetrachloride (CT) was evaluated in a continuous flow column. The column was packed with quartz sand and bioaugmented with the Evanite culture (EV) that is capable of transforming PCE to ethene. Azizian and Semprini (2016) reported that PCE and CT could be simultaneously transformed in the column, with PCE (0.1mM) transformed mainly to ethene and CT (0.015mM) to chloroform (CF) (20%) and an unknown transformation product, likely carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The fermentation of propionate, formed from lactate fermentation, was inhibited after the transformation of CT, likely from the exposure to CF. Reported here is the second phase of that study where a second bioaugmentation of the EV culture was made to reintroduce a lactate and propionate fermenting population to the column. Effective lactate and propionate fermentation were restored with a H 2 concentration of ~25nM maintained in the column effluent. PCE (0.1mM) was effectively transformed to ethene (~98%) and vinyl chloride (VC) (~2%). Unlabeled CT (0.015 to 0.03mM) was completely transformed with a transient build-up of CF and chloromethane (CM), which were subsequently removed below their detection limits. A series of transient tests were initiated through the addition of carbon-13 labeled CT ( 13 CT), with concentrations gradually increased from 0.03 to 0.10mM. GC-MS analysis of the column effluent showed that 13 C labeled CO 2 ( 13 CO 2 ) was formed, ranging from 82 to 93% of the 13 CT transformed, with the transient increases in 13 CO 2 associated with the increased concentration of 13 CT. A modified COD analysis indicated a lesser amount of 13 CT (18%) was transformed to soluble products, while 13 CO 2 represented 82% the 13 CT transformed. In a final transient test, the influent lactate concentration was decreased from 1.1 to 0.67mM. The transformation of both CT and PCE changed dramatically. Only 59% of the 13 CT was transformed

  19. Lisosan G, a powder of grain, does not interfere with the drug metabolizing enzymes and has a protective role on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Vincenzo; Chirulli, Vera; Gervasi, Pier Giovanni; Nencioni, Simona; Pellegrini, Michela

    2007-08-01

    Lisosan G is a powder of grain registered as an alimentary integrator. The treatment of rats for 4 days with 0.5 g Lisosan G/kg had no effect on various drug metabolizing enzymes. Experiments in vitro showed that Lisosan G had radical scavenger activity. A confirmation of the antioxidative property of Lisosan G was also confirmed when it was administered in vivo to carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-intoxicated rats. The toxicity caused by CCl(4)-treatment of rats was restored to the control levels when the rats were given Lisosan G for 4 days before CCl(4). Lisosan G thus does not interfere with drug metabolizing system but has antioxidant properties and protects against CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity.

  20. Structure of methylene chloride addition product to zirconium tetrachloride complex with 1-tert.-butyl-2,4,4-trimethyl-2-thio-trimethylsilyl-1,3,2,4-diazaphosphasilatedine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusilovets, A.I.; Rusanov, Eh.B.; Chernega, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    Complex of zirconium tetrachloride with 1-tert.-butyl-2,4,4-trimethyl--2-thio-3-trimethyl-silyl-1,3,2,4-diazaphosphasilatedine interacts with methylene chloride with formation of bis[3-tert.-butyl-2,4,4-trimethyl-1--trimethylsilyl-2-chloremethylthio-1,3,2,4-diazaphosphasilatedinium] decachlorodizirconate. Specific features of crystal and molecular structure of the compound prepared have been studied by X-ray diffraction method. 21 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Spondias mombin leaf and stem extracts against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky L. Nwidu, PhD

    2018-06-01

    لعلاج ب CCI4 بشكل ملحوظ إصابة الكبد، وخفضت مستويات .ALT,AST,TBIL, CBIL. مستخلصات ورقة نبات سبوندياس مومبين أو جذع نبات سبوندياس مومبين زاد كثيرا المستويات الخلوية للجلوتاثيون، ونشاطات الكتالاز وديسموتاز الفائق، وخفض كثيرا المواد المتفاعلة لحمض ثيوباربيتوريك. النتائج: تقدم هذه الدراسة أدلة أولية تدعم الفوائد المحتملة لنبات سبوندياس مومبين لعلاج تسمم الكبد -الناجم عن الاكسيوبيوتيك. Abstract: Objective: Spondias mombin L. is a tree used in folk medicine in Nigeria for the treatment of hepatitis. This study was carried out to comparatively evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of S. mombin leaf and stem (SML and SMS methanolic extracts in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: Forty-two rats were distributed into seven groups. Groups A and B received water; groups C and D received 500 and 1000 mg/kg SML extract, respectively; groups E and F received 500 and 1000 mg/kg SMS extract, respectively; and group G received 100 mg/kg silymarin. Water, the two extracts, and silymarin were administered daily by oral gavage for 7 days. Hepatotoxicity was induced in groups B to G by the administration of CCl4 once on the seventh day. After 48 h, rats were sacrificed, and tissues and serum samples were examined for histological and biochemical indices of hepatotoxicity. Results: Administration of CCl4 resulted in liver injury with significant elevation in the hepatocellular injury markers alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin (TBIL, and conjugated bilirubin (CBIL, associated with a significant reduction in total circulatory protein. Pretreatment with SML and SMS extracts at

  2. The Effects of Silymarin on Oxidative Status and Bone Characteristics in Japanese Quail Subjected to Oxidative Stress Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride

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    Moradi F

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of Silymarin on oxidative status, bone characteristics, and some blood parameters in Japanese quail subjected to oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. The experiment was performed as a completely randomized design with four replicates, each with 30 birds, using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two doses of Silymarin (0 and 1 mL/kg BW and CCl4 (0 and 1 mL/kg BW. Results revealed that the interaction between Silymarin and CCl4on concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, albumin, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase were significant (P < 0.05. In contrast, concentrations of phosphorus, total protein, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in blood serum did not differ between experimental treatments. Experimental treatments had a significant effect on superoxide dismutase activity in blood serum (P < 0.05, but not on glutathione peroxide activity and malondialdehyde concentration. Experimental treatments significantly affected the weight, thickness, and external and internal diameters of tibia bone (P < 0.05, but not its length, ash, volume, and density. This study shows that Silymarin has potential to attenuate adverse effects of oxidative stress induced by CCl4 in Japanese quail.

  3. UV Absorption Cross Sections of Nitrous Oxide (N2O) and Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Between 210 and 350 K and the Atmospheric Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlon, Nabilah Rontu; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; Fleming, Eric L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Newman, Paul A.; Burkholder, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Absorption cross sections of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are reported at five atomic UV lines (184.95, 202.548, 206.200, 213.857, and 228.8 nm) at 27 temperatures in the range 210-350 K. In addition, UV absorption spectra of CCl4 are reported between 200-235 nm as a function of temperature (225-350 K). The results from this work are critically compared with results from earlier studies. For N2O, the present results are in good agreement with the current JPL recommendation enabling a reduction in the estimated uncertainty in the N2O atmospheric photolysis rate. For CCl4, the present cross section results are systematically greater than the current recommendation at the reduced temperatures most relevant to stratospheric photolysis. The new cross sections result in a 5-7% increase in the modeled CCl4 photolysis loss, and a slight decrease in the stratospheric lifetime, from 51 to 50 years, for present day conditions. The corresponding changes in modeled inorganic chlorine and ozone in the stratosphere are quite small. A CCl4 cross section parameterization for use in 37 atmospheric model calculations is presented.

  4. Solvent extraction of europium(III) with benzoylacetone and benzoyltrifluoroacetone into carbon tetrachloride in the absence and presence of tetrabutylammonium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noro, Junji; Sekine, Tatsuya.

    1992-01-01

    The solvent extraction of europium (III) in 0.1 mol dm -3 sodium nitrate solutions with benzoylacetone (Hbza) or benzoyltrifluoroacetone (Hbfa) in carbon tetrachloride was measured in the absence and presence or tetrabutylammonium ions (tba + ). Although extraction with Hbfa occurred at lower pH than with Hbza, the extraction measured as a function of the β-diketonate ion concentration in the aqueous phase was rather similar. It was also found that extraction with Hbfa was greatly enhanced by the addition of tba + , the effect, however, was negligible with Hbza. The data were analyzed from the stand point that the neutral metal chelate, Eu(bfa) 3 , was extracted into the organic phase and associated with ion-pairs of the reagents, bfa - tba + , in this phase. It was also found that though extraction of ion-pairs of bfa - tba + occurred, that of bza - tba + was negligible. Thus, the reason for the negligible extraction of the ternary complex, Eu (bza) 4 - tba + , was explained in terms of the negligible extraction of the bza - tba + , which might associate with Eu(bza) 3 in the organic phase. (author)

  5. Curcumin Attenuates on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice via Modulation of the Nrf2/HO-1 and TGF-β1/Smad3 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyan Peng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of curcumin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced acute liver injury in a mouse model, and to explain the underlying mechanism. Curcumin at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day were administered orally once daily for seven days prior to CCl4 exposure. At 24 h, curcumin-attenuated CCl4 induced elevated serum transaminase activities and histopathological damage in the mouse’s liver. Curcumin pre-treatment at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly ameliorated CCl4-induced oxidative stress, characterized by decreased malondialdehyde (MDA formations, and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT activities and glutathione (GSH content, followed by a decrease in caspase-9 and -3 activities. Curcumin pre-treatment significantly decreased CCl4-induced inflammation. Furthermore, curcumin pre-treatment significantly down-regulated the expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3 mRNAs (both p < 0.01, and up-regulated the expression of nuclear-factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and HO-1 mRNA (both p < 0.01 in the liver. Inhibition of HO-1 attenuated the protective effect of curcumin on CCl4-induced acute liver injury. Given these outcomes, curcumin could protect against CCl4-induced acute liver injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation, which may partly involve the activation of Nrf2/HO-1 and inhibition of TGF-β1/Smad3 pathways.

  6. Ethanol extract of Portulaca Oleracea L. reduced the carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in mice involving enhancement of NF-κB activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongguang; Liu, Xuefeng; Tang, Gusheng; Liu, Haiyan; Zhang, Yinghui; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Xuezhi; Wang, Wanyin

    2014-01-01

    Acute hepatic injury causes high morbidity and mortality world-wide. Management of severe acute hepatic failure continues to be one of the most challenging problems in clinical medicine. In present study, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was used to induce acute liver damage in mice and the protective effects of ethanol extract of Portulaca Oleracea L. (PO) were examined. The aminotransferase activities were biochemical estimated and the liver damage was tested by morphological histological analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The role of PO on the activity of NF-κB was determined by luciferase reporter gene assay and immunohistochemistry. The level of p-p65 was tested by western blot. Our results showed that PO administration on mice would decrease the serum aminotransferase level and reduced the liver histological damage. We also found that nuclear translocation of p65 was enhanced in liver tissues of mice treated with PO compared with control animals. In addition, in cultured hepatic cells, PO increased the NF-κB luciferase reporter gene activity and upregulated the level of phosphorylation of p65, but had no effects on mice liver SOD activity and MDA level. Collectively, PO attenuated CCl4 induced mice liver damage by enhancement of NF-κB activity. PMID:25628785

  7. Wu-Chia-Pi Solution Attenuates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Injury through the Antioxidative Abilities of Its Components Acteoside and Quercetin

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    Ching-Chiung Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wu-Chia-Pi medicated wine, composed nine Chinese medicines soaked in 35% alcohol, is widely used in Asia for its health-promoting functions. However, long-term consumption of alcohol could result in liver dysfunction. In this study, Wu-Chia-Pi solution (WCPS and extract (WCPE were prepared by modification of the principals given by the Committee on Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to explore the protective effect of WCPS against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver injury and to clarify its active component(s. Antioxidative effects of the test samples were evaluated via MDA inhibition, catalase activity and DPPH-scavenging assays. HPLC was used to analysis the active components. Results showed that WCPS (1 and 5 mL/kg significantly prevented CCl4-induced liver injury without chronic liver toxicity. Referring to the antioxidative activities, WCPE displayed significant MDA inhibitory and DPPH-scavenging activities with IC50 values of 0.91 ± 0.03 and 0.60 ± 0.04 mg/mL, respectively. Catalase activity was also enhanced by treatment of WCPE, acteoside and quercetin. Therefore, we suggest that acteoside and quercetin are the major contributors to the antioxidative and hepatoprotective activities of WCPS, and a possible mechanism could be mediated through reduction of oxidative stress.

  8. MR T1{rho} as an imaging biomarker for monitoring liver injury progression and regression: an experimental study in rats with carbon tetrachloride intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Feng; Wang, Yi-Xiang J.; Yuan, Jing; Deng, Min; Ahuja, Anil T. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong SAR (China); Wong, Hing Lok [School of Public Health and Primary Care, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Jockey Club Centre for Osteoporosis Care and Control, Hong Kong SAR (China); Chu, Eagle S.H.; Go, Minnie Y.Y.; Yu, Jun [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Institute of Digestive Disease and Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, Hong Kong SAR (China); Teng, Gao-Jun [Southeast University, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Nanjing (China)

    2012-08-15

    Recently it was shown that the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T1{rho} value increased with the severity of liver fibrosis in rats with bile duct ligation. Using a rat carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) liver injury model, this study further investigated the merit of T1{rho} relaxation for liver fibrosis evaluation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal injection of 2 ml/kg CCl{sub 4} twice weekly for up to 6 weeks. Then CCl{sub 4} was withdrawn and the animals were allowed to recover. Liver T1{rho} MRI and conventional T2-weighted images were acquired. Animals underwent MRI at baseline and at 2 days, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 6 weeks post CCl{sub 4} injection, and they were also examined at 1 week and 4 weeks post CCl{sub 4} withdrawal. Liver histology was also sampled at these time points. Liver T1{rho} values increased slightly, though significantly, on day 2, and then increased further and were highest at week 6 post CCl{sub 4} insults. The relative liver signal intensity change on T2-weighted images followed a different time course compared with that of T1{rho}. Liver T1{rho} values decreased upon the withdrawal of the CCl{sub 4} insult. Histology confirmed the animals had typical CCl{sub 4} liver injury and fibrosis progression and regression processes. MR T1{rho} imaging can monitor CCl{sub 4}-induced liver injury and fibrosis. (orig.)

  9. Antioxidant Activity of Grapevine Leaf Extracts against Oxidative Stress Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus and Cerebellum of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Wohlenberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has become increasingly important to study the beneficial properties of derivatives of grapes and grapevine. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of Vitis labrusca leaf extracts, comparing conventional and organic grapevines, in different brain areas of rats. We used male Wistar rats treated with grapevine leaf extracts for a period of 14 days, and on the 15th day, we administered in half of the rats, mineral oil and the other half, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. The animals were euthanized by decapitation and the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were removed to assess oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS were unchanged. However, CCl4 induced oxidative damage to proteins in all tissues studied, and this injury was prevented by both extracts. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was increased by CCl4 in the cerebral cortex and decreased in other tissues. However, CCl4 increased catalase (CAT activity in the cerebellum and decreased it in the cerebral cortex. The SOD/CAT ratio was restored in the cerebellum by both extracts and only in the cerebral cortex by the organic extract.

  10. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Study of Carbon Tetrachloride Adsorption and Degradation on a Natural a-Fe2O3(0001) Surface in Ultrahigh Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeg Rim, Kwang; Fitts, Jeffrey; Adib, Kaveh; Camillone, Nicholas, III; Schlosser, Peter; Osgood, Richard, Jr.; Flynn, George; Joyce, Stephen

    2001-03-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction have been used to study a natural a-Fe2O3(0001) surface and the adsorption and degradation of carbon tetrachloride on the reduced Fe3O4(111) terminated surface. A natural a-Fe2O3 (0001) surface was prepared by repeated cycles of Ar+ ion sputtering and annealing in vacuum or in O2 at 850 K. STM images and a LEED pattern indicate that an Fe3O4(111) terminated surface and a bi-phase can be formed depending on annealing conditions. The Fe3O4(111) terminated surface was dosed with CCl4 at room temperature, and flashed up to 590 K and 850 K. STM images show adsorbates on the surface at room temperature and the degradation products of CCl4 are isolated on the surface as the flashing temperature increases up to 850 K. Results from a companion temperature programmed desorption investigation are used in conjunction with the STM images to propose site specific reactions of CCl4 on the Fe3O4(111) terminated surface.

  11. Assessment of the hepatoprotective activity of the seeds of Hunteria umbellata (Hallier F.) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage in Wistar albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunlana, Olubanke Olujoke; Ogunlana, Oluseyi Ebenezer; Adelani, Isaacson Bababode; Adebayo, Angie Osariem Igbinoba; David, Opetoritse Laju; Adeleye, Oluwaseye Joseph; Udeogu, Stephanie Adaora; Adeyemi, Alaba Oladipupo; Akinyele, Julie Oluranti

    2018-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the seeds of Hunteria umbellata (HU) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced rats. Rats of groups 1 (normal control), 3 and 5 were not treated with CCl4 while rats of groups 2 (negative control), 4 and 6 rats were treated with single dose of CCl4 (2 ml/kg) by intraperitoneal administration. Normal control group 1 rats were given distilled water, groups 3 and 4 rats were given 50 mg/kg of silymarin while groups 5 and 6 rats were given 500 mg/kg of HU. Treatment was administered orally for 28 days and sacrificed on the 29th day after an overnight fast. The weights of the rats were taken before and after the treatment. Blood samples were collected in heparinized tubes and biochemical analysis of liver functions and lipid profile tests were carried out on plasma. There was a significant change (pgroup treated with HU compared to the CCl4 untreated group 2 animals. The results obtained showed that the ethanolic extract of HU has hepatoprotective property.

  12. Impact of a CXCL12/CXCR4 Antagonist in Bleomycin (BLM Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis and Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4 Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Mice.

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    Leola N Chow

    Full Text Available Modulation of chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 has been implicated in attenuation of bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatic injury. In pulmonary fibrosis, published reports suggest that collagen production in the injured lung is derived from fibrocytes recruited from the circulation in response to release of pulmonary CXCL12. Conversely, in hepatic fibrosis, resident hepatic stellate cells (HSC, the key cell type in progression of fibrosis, upregulate CXCR4 expression in response to activation. Further, CXCL12 induces HSC proliferation and subsequent production of collagen I. In the current study, we evaluated AMD070, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXCL12/CXCR4 in alleviating BLM-induced pulmonary and CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. Similar to other CXCR4 antagonists, treatment with AMD070 significantly increased leukocyte mobilization. However, in these two models of fibrosis, AMD070 had a negligible impact on extracellular matrix deposition. Interestingly, our results indicated that CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling has a role in improving mortality associated with BLM induced pulmonary injury, likely through dampening an early inflammatory response and/or vascular leakage. Together, these findings indicate that the CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling axis is not an effective target for reducing fibrosis.

  13. Analysis of nitrogen and carbon tetrachloride adsorption isotherms and pore size distribution for siliceous MCM-41 synthesized from rice husk silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriluk Chiarakorn

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available RH-MCM-41 particles were synthesized using sodium silicate prepared from rice husk as a silica source and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB as a surfactant. The molar compositions were 1.0SiO2: 1.1NaOH: 0.13CTAB: 0.12H2O. This material was used for adsorption isotherm studies of carbon tetrachloride (CT at 25 oC using a magnetically coupled microbalance, and compared with adsorption isotherms using nitrogen at 77 K. The CT isotherms were classified as reversible Type V isotherms, and the nitrogen adsorption isotherm was Type IVc. Capillary condensation was found in a very narrow pressure range, indicating the presence of nearly uniform pores in the RH-MCM-41 particles, which agrees very well with TEM results. The surface area estimated by using the BET method was (800 ± 8 m2 g-1. Pore size distributions (PSD of nitrogen and CT adsorption isotherms for a series of MCM-41 were calculated by using method recommended by Naono and Hakuman (1997. The pore size distributions from the nitrogen isotherm using the BJH and Naono methods showed quite narrow pore diameter distributions, centered around 27 and 29 Å, respectively. Similarly, the peak pore diameters calculated from CT isotherms using the BJH and Naono methods were 24 and 28 Å. It was found that the PSDs analyzed by the BJH method were underestimated compared to that from Naono method.

  14. Oral administration of Saccharomyces boulardii ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats via reducing intestinal permeability and modulating gut microbial composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Zhu, Lin; Xie, Ao; Yuan, Jieli

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effects of orally administrated Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) on the progress of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis, 34 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups including the control group (n = 8), the cirrhotic group (n = 10), the preventive group (n = 8), and the treatment group (n = 8). Results showed that the liver expression levels of collagen, type I, alpha 1 (Col1A1), alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased significantly in cirrhotic rats compared with control and decreased by S. boulardii administration. Treatment of S. boulardii also attenuated the increased endotoxin levels and pro-inflammatory cytokines in CCl4-treated rats. And, these were associated with the changes of intestinal permeability and fecal microbial composition. Our study suggested that oral administration of S. boulardii can promote the liver function of CCl4-treated rats, and the preventive treatment of this probiotic yeast may decelerate the progress of liver fibrosis.

  15. Liver Injury by Carbon Tetrachloride Intoxication in 16 Patients Treated with Forced Ventilation to Accelerate Toxin Removal via the Lungs: A Clinical Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Teschke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 is an efficient but highly toxic solvent, used in households and commercially in the industry under regulatory surveillance to ensure safety at the working place and to protect the workers’ health. However, acute unintentional or intentional intoxications by CCl4 may rarely occur and are potentially life-threatening. In this review article, therapy options are discussed that are based on a literature review of traditional poisoning cases and the clinical experience with 16 patients with acute poisoning by CCl4. Among various therapy options, the CO2-induced hyperventilation therapy will be considered in detail as the most promising approach. This special therapy was developed because only around 1% of the intoxicating CCl4 is responsible for the liver injury after conversion to toxic radicals via microsomal cytochrome P450 2E1 whereas 99% of the solvent will leave the body unchanged by exhalation. Therefore, to enhance CCl4 elimination through the lungs, CO2 is added to the inspiration air at a flow rate of 2–3 L min−1 in order to achieve hyperventilation with a respiratory volume of 25–30 L min−1. Under this therapy, the clinical course was favorable in 15/16 patients, corresponding to 93.8%. In essence, patients with acute CCl4 intoxication should be treated by forced ventilation.

  16. Assessment of changes in energy metabolism parameters provoked by carbon tetrachloride in Wistar rats and the protective effect of white grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Gabardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic and conventional grape juices consumption on the behavior of rats and their neuroprotective effect on the activity of brain energy metabolism enzymes in different brain areas of adult rats on the experimental model of hepatic encephalopathy. Male Wistar rats (90-days-old were treated once a day with conventional or organic white grape juice by gavage for 14 days (7 μL/g. On the 15th day the rats received carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in a single dose of 3.0 mL/kg. Cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were dissected to measure the activity of creatine kinase (CK and pyruvate kinase (PK. No changes in feeding behavior were observed after the treatment with the grapes juices. However, there was an increase in grooming behavior in the open field test provoked by both juices. CCl4 inhibited CK activity in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the rats and CCl4 also reduced PK activity in all brain structures studied. Furthermore, both white grape juices prevented the decrease in the activity of CK and PK. Therefore, we can suggest that organic and conventional white grape juices could restore the activity of enzymes with a central role in brain energy metabolism.

  17. Protective action of the immunomodulator ginsan against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury via control of oxidative stress and the inflammatory response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Ji-Young; Kim, Mi-Hyoung; Kim, Hyung-Doo; Ahn, Ji-Yeon; Yun, Yeon-Sook; Song, Jie-Young

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate immunomodulator ginsan, a polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced liver injury. BALB/c mice were injected i.p. with ginsan 24 h prior to CCl 4 administration. Serum liver enzyme levels, histology, expression of antioxidant enzymes, and several cytokines/chemokines were subsequently evaluated. Ginsan treatment markedly suppressed the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and hepatic histological necrosis increased by CCl 4 treatment. Ginsan inhibited CCl 4 induced lipid peroxidation through the cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) downregulation. The hepatoprotective effect of ginsan was attributed to induction of anti-oxidant protein contents, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) as well as restoration of the hepatic glutathione (GSH) concentration. The marked increase of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IFN-γ) and chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-2β, KC) in CCl 4 treated mice was additionally attenuated by ginsan, thereby preventing leukocyte infiltration and local inflammation. Our results suggest that ginsan effectively prevent liver injury, mainly through downregulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory response.

  18. Titanium nitride plasma-chemical synthesis with titanium tetrachloride raw material in the DC plasma-arc reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpichev, D. E.; Sinaiskiy, M. A.; Samokhin, A. V.; Alexeev, N. V.

    2017-04-01

    The possibility of plasmochemical synthesis of titanium nitride is demonstrated in the paper. Results of the thermodynamic analysis of TiCl4 - H2 - N2 system are presented; key parameters of TiN synthesis process are calculated. The influence of parameters of plasma-chemical titanium nitride synthesis process in the reactor with an arc plasmatron on characteristics on the produced powders is experimentally investigated. Structure, chemical composition and morphology dependencies on plasma jet enthalpy, stoichiometric excess of hydrogen and nitrogen in a plasma jet are determined.

  19. Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)—positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis—produces commercially...

  20. Tratamento homeopático da hepatotoxicose aguda induzida por tetracloreto de carbono em coelhos Homeopatic treatment of acute carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Ribeiro Moncorvo

    1998-09-01

    animals in group I were treated with carbon tetrachloride 30 CH, once a day. The animals in group II were treated with Phosphorus 30 CH also once a day. The rabbits in group III served as a control receiving the same quantity of placebo with the same protocol of lhe others. The blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture every 4 days. The seric concentrations of ALT, AST, GGT and FA were submited to estatistic avaliation. The variation of all enzimes tested was significant between the days, but not always between the groups. This study demonstrated thaf carbon tetrachloride 30 CH was efficient in acelerating the recuperation of normal levels of ALT, but the terapy with Phosphorus 30 CH was insufficient for reverting the hepatic intoxication.

  1. Serum metabonomics study of the hepatoprotective effect of Corydalis saxicola Bunting on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats by (1)H NMR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yong-Hong; Tang, Chao-Ling; Lu, Shi-Yin; Cheng, Bang; Wu, Fang; Chen, Zhao-Ni; Song, Fangming; Ruan, Jun-Xiang; Zhang, Hong-Ye; Song, Hui; Zheng, Hua; Su, Zhi-Heng

    2016-09-10

    Corydalis saxicola Bunting (CS), a traditional Chinese folk medicine, has been effectively used for treating liver disease in Zhuang nationality in South China. However, the exact hepatoprotective mechanism of CS was still looking forward to further elucidation by far. In present work, metabonomic study of biochemical changes in the serum of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury rats after CS treatment were performed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) analysis. Metabolic profiling by means of principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that the metabolic perturbation caused by CCl4 was reduced by CS treatment. A total of 9 metabolites including isoleucine (1), lactate (2), alanine (3), glutamine (4), acetone (5), succinate (6), phosphocholine (7), d-glucose (8) and glycerol (9) were considered as potential biomarkers involved in the development of CCl4-induced acute liver injury. According to pathway analysis by metabolites identified and correlation network construction by Pearson's correlation coefficency matrix, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism and glycerolipid metabolism were recognized as the most influenced metabolic pathways associated with CCl4 injury. As a result, notably, deviations of metabolites 1, 3, 4, 7 and 9 in the process of CCl4-induced acute liver injury were improved by CS treatment, which suggested that CS mediated synergistically abnormalities of the metabolic pathways, composed of alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism and glycerolipid metabolism. In this study, it was the first report to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of the CS based on metabonomics strategy, which may be a potentially powerful tool to interpret the action mechanism of traditional Chinese folk medicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Urinary metabonomics study of the hepatoprotective effects of total alkaloids from Corydalis saxicola Bunting on carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats using 1H NMR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fang; Zheng, Hua; Yang, Zheng-Teng; Cheng, Bang; Wu, Jin-Xia; Liu, Xu-Wen; Tang, Chao-Ling; Lu, Shi-Yin; Chen, Zhao-Ni; Song, Fang-Ming; Ruan, Jun-Xiang; Zhang, Hong-Ye; Liang, Yong-Hong; Song, Hui; Su, Zhi-Heng

    2017-06-05

    Chronic liver injury has been shown to cause liver fibrosis due to the sustained pathophysiological wound healing response of the liver, and eventually progresses to cirrhosis. The total alkaloids of Corydalis saxicola Bunting (TACS), a collection of important bioactive ingredients derived from the traditional Chinese folk medicine Corydalis saxicola Bunting (CS), have been reported to have protective effects on the liver. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms need further elucidation. In this study, the urinary metabonomics and the biochemical changes in rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced chronic liver injury due to treatment TACS or administration of the positive control drug-bifendate were studied via proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) analysis. Partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) suggested that metabolic perturbation caused by CCl 4 damage was recovered with TACS and bifendate treatment. A total of seven metabolites including 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, dimethylamine, taurine, phenylacetylglycine, creatinine and hippurate were considered as potential biomarkers involved in the development of CCl 4 -induced chronic liver injury. According to pathway analysis using identified metabolites and correlation network construction, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, gut microbiota metabolism and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism were recognized as the most affected metabolic pathways associated with CCl 4 chronic hepatotoxicity. Notably, the changes in 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, taurine and hippurate during the process of CCl 4 -induced chronic liver injury were significantly restored by TACS treatment, which suggested that TACS synergistically mediated the regulation of multiple metabolic pathways including the TCA cycle, gut microbiota metabolism and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism. This study could bring valuable insight to evaluating the efficacy of TACS intervention therapy, help deepen the understanding of the

  3. The effect of down-regulation of Smad3 by RNAi on hepatic stellate cells and a carbon tetrachloride-induced rat model of hepatic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.R. Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Searching for effective Smad3 gene-based gene therapies for hepatic fibrosis, we constructed siRNA expression plasmids targeting the rat Smad3 gene and then delivered these plasmids into hepatic stellate cells (HSCs. The effect of siRNAs on the mRNA levels of Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, and collagens I-α1, III-α1 and IV-α1 (Colα1, Col3α1, Col4α1, respectively was determined by RT-PCR. Eighty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Twice a week for 8 weeks, the untreated hepatic fibrosis model (N = 30 and the treated group (N = 20 were injected subcutaneously with 40% (v/v carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-olive oil (3 mL/kg, and the normal control group (N = 30 was injected with olive oil (3 mL/kg. In the 4th week, the treated rats were injected subcutaneously with liposome-encapsulated plasmids (150 µg/kg into the right liver lobe under general anesthesia once every 2 weeks, and the untreated rats were injected with the same volume of buffer. At the end of the 6th and 8th weeks, liver tissue and sera were collected. Pathological changes were assessed by a semi-quantitative scoring system (SSS, and a radioimmunoassay was used to establish a serum liver fibrosis index (type III procollagen, type IV collagen, laminin, and hyaluronic acid. The mRNA expression levels of the above cited genes were reduced in the HSCs transfected with the siRNA expression plasmids. Moreover, in the treated group, fibrosis evaluated by the SSS was significantly reduced (P < 0.05 and the serum indices were greatly improved (P < 0.01. These results suggest that Smad3 siRNA expression plasmids have an anti-fibrotic effect.

  4. Solid binary mixtures of neopentanol with tert-Butyl chloride and carbon tetrachloride studied by thermal, X-ray and dielectric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Girish; Murthy, S.S.N., E-mail: ssnm0700@gmail.com

    2016-05-10

    Highlights: • DSC, dielectric and X-ray measurements have been done on TBC-NPOH and CTC-NPOH. • The results show the formation of solid solution for concentrations 0.7 ≤ x{sub m} ≤ 0.9. • A primary α-process and two sub-T{sub g} processes are found for TBC-NPOH. • For CTC-NPOH only one sub-T{sub g} process is found. • All the three sub-T{sub g} processes are Johari–Goldstein type. - Abstract: The binary mixtures of Neopentanol (NPOH) with tert-Butyl chloride (TBC) and Carbon tetrachloride (CTC), have been studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Dielectric spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. The results indicate the formation of the solid solutions. The crystalline solid thus formed is found to be orientationally disordered and supercools easily to form glassy crystal for mole fraction of NPOH in the range of 0.7–0.9. The T{sub g} values are in the range of 140–147 K. In the dielectric study, a primary α-process and two sub-T{sub g} processes are found for TBC-NPOH, whereas for CTC-NPOH only one sub-T{sub g} process is found. The dielectric spectra of α- process follows the Havriliak–Negami equation. The sub-T{sub g} processes follow the Cole–Cole equation, and are found to be of Johari–Goldstein type, indicating intermolecular nature.

  5. Protective effect of Öküzgözü (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) grape juice against carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirinççioğlu, Mihdiye; Kızıl, Göksel; Kızıl, Murat; Özdemir, Gültekin; Kanay, Zeki; Ketani, M Aydın

    2012-06-01

    The consumption of fruits plays an important role as a health protecting factor. Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are believed to have health benefits due to their antioxidant activity. Öküzgözü is the largest among the grape varieties grown in Turkey. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) causes free radical generation in many tissues such as the liver, kidney, heart, lung, testis, brain and blood. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the only drug to treat primary biliary cirrhosis, but the effects remain controversial. The aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of Öküzgözü grape juice or UDCA against tissue damage induced by CCl₄ in rats. The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were found to be 1208.00 +/- 43.00 μg ml⁻¹ as the gallic acid equivalent and 5.2 +/- 0.19 μg ml⁻¹ as the quercitin equivalent in Öküzgözü grape juice, respectively. In vivo administration of CCl₄ caused a significant increase of various biochemical parameters such as alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB) and a decrease in albumin (ALB) levels in serum or an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the tissues when compared to a control. Administration of CCl₄ along with Öküzgözü grape juice or ursodeoxycolic acid (UDCA) significantly reduces these changes. Histopathalogical studies also support the protective effect of the extract. This study demonstrates the protective activity of Öküzgözü grape juice and thus scientifically supports the usage of this fruit in various traditional medicines for the treatment of tissue disorders. The effect of Öküzgözü grape juice was comparable with that of UDCA.

  6. Ameliorative effects of tannic acid on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the ameliorative effects and potential mechanisms of tannic acid (TA in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-intoxicated mice and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs. Liver fibrosis was observed in CCl4 (800 ml/kg-induced mice, and high viability was observed in CCl4 (10 mM-intoxicated HSCs. Pre-treatment of mice with TA (25 or 50 g/kg/day significantly ameliorated hepatic morphology and coefficient values and reduced the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA and serum levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1. In addition, TA increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and the serum level of NO. Moreover, TA reduced the expression of angiotensin II receptor-1 (ATR-1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β, caspase-3, c-fos, c-jun, the ratio of Bax/bcl-2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 and TA increased matrix metal proteinase-9 (MMP-9, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1. Furthermore, TA (0.01 μM, 0.1 μM or 1 μM decreased the TIMP-1/MMP-1 ratio and reduced the viability of HSCs. These results indicated that TA exerts significant liver-protective effects in mice with CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. The potential mechanism may rely on the inhibition of collagen accumulation, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis.

  7. Heterogenic transplantation of bone marrow-derived rhesus macaque mesenchymal stem cells ameliorates liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufeng Fu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Liver fibrosis is a disease that causes high morbidity and has become a major health problem. Liver fibrosis can lead to the end stage of liver diseases (livercirrhosisand hepatocellularcarcinoma. Currently, liver transplantation is the only effective treatment for end-stage liver disease. However, the shortage of organ donors, high cost of medical surgery, immunological rejection and transplantation complications severely hamper liver transplantation therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been regarded as promising cells for clinical applications in stem cell therapy in the treatment of liver diseases due to their unique multipotent differentiation capacity, immunoregulation and paracrine effects. Although liver fibrosis improvements by MSC transplantation in preclinical experiments as well as clinical trials have been reported, the in vivo fate of MSCs after transportation and their therapeutic mechanisms remain unclear. In this present study, we isolated MSCs from the bone marrow of rhesus macaques. The cells exhibited typical MSC markers and could differentiate into chondrocytes, osteocytes, and adipocytes, which were not affected by labeling with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP. The harvested MSCs respond to interferon-γ stimulation and have the ability to inhibit lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. EGFP-labeled MSCs (1 × 106 cells were transplanted into mice with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis via tail vein injection. The ability of the heterogenic MSC infusion to ameliorate liver fibrosis in mice was evaluated by a blood plasma chemistry index, pathological examination and liver fibrosis-associated gene expression. Additionally, a small number of MSCs that homed and engrafted in the mouse liver tissues were evaluated by immunofluorescence analysis. Our results showed that the transplantation of heterogenic MSCs derived from monkey bone marrow can be used to treat liver fibrosis in the mouse model and that the

  8. High regenerative capacity of the liver and irreversible injury of male reproductive system in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnov, Rostyslav V; Drahulian, Maria V; Buchek, Polina V; Gulko, Tamara P

    2018-03-01

    Liver fibrosis (LF) is a chronic disease, associated with many collateral diseases including reproductive dysfunction. Although the normal liver has a large regenerative capacity the complications of LF could be severe and irreversible. Hormone and sex-related issues of LF development and interactions with male reproductive have not been finally studied. The aim was to study the reproductive function of male rats in experimental CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis rat model, and the capability for restoration of both the liver and male reproduction system. Studies were conducted on 20 3-month old Wistar male rats. The experimental animals were injected with freshly prepared 50% olive oil solution of carbohydrate tetrachloride (CCl 4 ). On the 8th week after injection we noted the manifestations of liver fibrosis. The rats were left to self-healing of the liver for 8 weeks. All male rats underwent ultrasound and biopsy of the liver and testes on the 8th and 16th weeks. The male rats were mated with healthy females before CCl 4 injection, after modeling LF on the 8th week, and after self-healing of the liver. Pregnancy was monitored on ultrasound. On the 8th week of experiment we observed ultrasound manifestation of advanced liver fibrosis, including hepatosplenomegaly, portal hypertension. Ultrasound exam of the rat testes showed testicular degeneration, hydrocele, fibrosis, scarring, petrifications, size reduction, and restriction of testicular descent; testes size decreased from 1.24 ± 0.62 ml to 0.61 ± 0.13, p  reproductive system and altering of fertility: the offspring of male rats with advanced LF was 4.71 ± 0.53 born alive vs 9.55 ± 0.47 born from mating with healthy males, p  reproductive system.

  9. The Cytochrome P450-Mediated Metabolism Alternation of Four Effective Lignans From Schisandra chinensis in Carbon Tetrachloride-Intoxicated Rats and Patients With Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rongrong; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaorui; Liu, Feng; Zhou, Wenxia; Zhang, Yongxiang

    2018-01-01

    It is highly valuable to study the pharmacokinetics of herbal components under the pathological condition of liver dysfunction for safe and rational use of herbal medicines. In this study, the pharmacokinetic profiles of four effective lignans from Schisandra chinensis (SC) , schisandrin, schisantherin A, deoxyshisandrin and γ-schisandrin, were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-intoxicated rats. The metabolism of the four lignans was also studied using microsomes from patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. In situ intestinal and hepatic perfusions were conducted to clarify the contributions from impairments of gut and liver on the pharmacokinetics of the four schisandra lignans in CCl 4 -intoxicated rats. The metabolism in rat and human liver microsomes and transport in Caco-2 monolayer cell model were studied to reveal the key factors for the in vivo disposition of the four lignans. When SC alcoholic extract was orally administrated to CCl 4 -intoxicated rat for a short term (4 days), the pharmacokinetics of four active SC lignans was significantly changed while its hepatotherapeutic effect was not obviously observed. The plasma concentrations of the four schisandra lignans were dramatically elevated compared with the control. The Cmax, AUC and MRT were all increased or prolonged significantly while parameter CLz/F was obviously reduced in rat pretreated with CCl 4 . In hepatic perfusion study and liver microsomes incubation, it was found that the hepatic metabolism of the four lignans was markedly decreased mainly due to the activity reduction of multiple CYP450 isoenzymes involved the metabolism, which, eventually, might lead to the alternation of their pharmacokinetic profiles in CCl 4 -intoxicated rats or patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The pharmacokinetic studies of SC components in pathological situation of liver dysfunction are expected to provide useful data for rational and safe application of SC preparations in

  10. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Gd-EOB-DTPA for the Evaluation of Liver Fibrosis Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available To investigate the utility of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI with Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA for detecting liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rats.This study was approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Liver fibrosis in rats was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 1 mL/kg 50% CCl4 twice a week for 4-13 weeks. Control rats were injected with saline. Liver fibrosis was graded using the Metaviar score: no fibrosis (F0, mild fibrosis (F1-F2 and advanced fibrosis (F3-F4. DCE-MRI with Gd-EOB-DTPA was performed for all rats. Ktrans, Kep, Ve and iAUC of the liver parenchyma were measured. Relative enhancement (RE value of the liver was calculated on T1-weighted images at 15, 20 and 25 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration.Thirty-five rats were included: no fibrosis (n=13, mild fibrosis (n=11 and advanced fibrosis (n=11. Ktrans and iAUC values were highest in advanced fibrosis group and lowest in no fibrosis group (P<0.05. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC for fibrosis (stages F1 and greater were 0.773 and 0.882 for Ktrans and iAUC, respectively. AUROC for advanced fibrosis were 0.835 and 0.867 for Ktrans and iAUC, respectively. Kep and RE values were not able to differentiate fibrosis stages (all P>0.05.Ktrans and iAUC obtained from DCE-MRI with Gd-EOB-DTPA are useful for the detection and staging of rat liver fibrosis induced by CCl4.

  11. Producing charcoal from wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental works to use wood wastes for producing charcoal are examined, which are being conducted in the Sverdlovsk assembly and adjustment administration of Soyuzorglestekhmontazh. A wasteless prototype installation for producing fine charcoal is described, along with its subsequent briqueting, which is made on the basis of units which are series produced by the factories of the country. The installation includes subassemblies for preparing and drying the raw material and for producing the charcoal briquets. In the opinion of specialists, the charcoal produced from the wastes may be effectively used in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and in the production of pipes.

  12. Further details concerning the radiolysis of a carbon tetrachloride-benzene mixture (1961); Complements a l'etude de la radiolyse du melange tetrachlorure de carbone-benzene (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Gislon-Leray, N [Faculte des Sciences de Paris, 75 (France)

    1961-07-01

    The neutron-activation estimation of the chlorine fixed on DPPH during radiolysis of the mixture C{sub 6}H{sub 6}-CCl{sub 4} makes it possible to evaluate the contribution of the carbon tetrachloride to the overall phenomenon. (authors) [French] Le dosage par activation neutronique du chlore fixe sur le DPPH lors de la radiolyse du melange C{sub 6}H{sub 6}-CCl{sub 4} permet d'evaluer la contribution du tetrachlorure de carbone au phenomene global. (auteurs)

  13. Density evaluation of remotely-supplied hydrogen radicals produced via tungsten filament method for SiCl4 reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohra Dahmani, Fatima; Okamoto, Yuji; Tsutsumi, Daiki; Ishigaki, Takamasa; Koinuma, Hideomi; Hamzaoui, Saad; Flazi, Samir; Sumiya, Masatomo

    2018-05-01

    Effect of the hydrogen radical on the reduction of a silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) source was studied. The hydrogen radicals were generated using a tungsten (W) filament in a generation chamber, and were remotely supplied to another reaction chamber. The density of the hydrogen radical was estimated from the optical transmittance of 600-nm-wavelength light through phosphate glass doped with tungsten oxide (WO3). Lifetime of the hydrogen radical seemed sufficiently long, and its density as supplied to the reaction chamber was estimated to be on the order of 1012 cm‑3. Signal intensity of the peak corresponding to SiCl4 (m/z = 170) detected by quadrupole-mass measurement was confirmed to decrease owing to the reaction with the remotely-supplied hydrogen radical. This indicates the possibility that chemically-stable SiCl4, as one of the by-products of the Siemens process, can be reduced to produce silicon.

  14. Biologically produced sulfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are

  15. Consumers and Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Maira (Elisa)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the last few decades, advances in information and communication technology have dramatically changed the way consumers and producers interact in the marketplace. The Internet and social media have torn down the information barrier between producers and consumers, leading to

  16. Producers and oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, W.

    1993-01-01

    This article attempts an assessment of the potential use of futures by the Middle East oil producers. It focuses on Saudi Arabia since the sheer size of Saudi Arabian sales poses problems, but the basic issues discussed are similar for the other Middle East producers. (Author)

  17. Theoretical predictions of properties and volatility of chlorides and oxychlorides of group-4 elements. II. Adsorption of tetrachlorides and oxydichlorides of Zr, Hf, and Rf on neutral and modified surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershina, V.; Borschevsky, A.; Iliaš, M.; Türler, A.

    2014-08-01

    With the aim to interpret results of gas-phase chromatography experiments on volatility of group-4 tetrachlorides and oxychlorides including those of Rf, adsorption enthalpies of these species on neutral, and modified quartz surfaces were estimated on the basis of relativistic, two-component Density Functional Theory calculations of MCl4, MOCl2, MCl6-, and MOCl42 with the use of adsorption models. Several mechanisms of adsorption were considered. In the case of physisorption of MCl4, the trend in the adsorption energy in the group should be Zr > Hf > Rf, so that the volatility should change in the opposite direction. The latter trend complies with the one in the sublimation enthalpies, ΔHsub, of the Zr and Hf tetrachlorides, i.e., Zr Hf > Rf, as defined by the complex formation energies. In the case of adsorption of MCl4 on a chlorinated quartz surface, formation of the MCl62- surface complexes can occur, so that the trend in the adsorption strength should be Zr ≤ Hf < Rf. All the predicted sequences, showing a smooth change of the adsorption energy in the group, are in disagreement with the reversed trend Zr ≈ Rf < Hf, observed in the "one-atom-at-a-time" gas-phase chromatography experiments. Thus, currently no theoretical explanation can be found for the experimental observations.

  18. Comparative study of the pharmacokinetics of carbon tetrachloride in the rat following repeated inhalation exposures of 8 and 11.5 hr/day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paustenbach, D.J.; Carlson, G.P.; Christian, J.E.; Born, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate whether exposure to inhaled vapors for periods longer than 8 hr/day could affect the rates and routes of elimination, male Sprague-Dawley rats were repeatedly exposed to 100 ppm of radiolabeled carbon tetrachloride ( 14 CCl 4 ) in a closed-loop chamber. One group was exposed for 8 hr/day for 5 days and another group for 11.5 hr/day for 4 days. Two other groups were exposed for either 8 hr/day for 10 of 12 consecutive days or 11.5 hr/day for 7 of 10 days. The elimination of 14 C activity was measured in the expired air, urine, and feces for up to 100 hr following exposure and the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. Following 2 weeks of exposure to the 8-hr/day schedule, 14 CCl 4 in the breath and 14 C activity in the feces comprised 45 and 48% of the total 14 C excreted, respectively. Following 2 weeks of exposure to the 11.5-hr/day schedule, the values were 32 and 62%, respectively, indicating that repeated exposure to the longer schedule altered the route of elimination of CCl 4 . Regardless of the period of exposure, less than 8% of the inhaled 14 CCl 4 was excreted in the urine and less than 2% was exhaled in the breath as the 14 CO 2 metabolite. Approximately 97-98% of the 14 C activity in the expired air was 14 CCl 4 . The quantities of 14 C noted in the feces and urine suggest that more than 60% of the inhaled CCl 4 was metabolized. Elimination of 14 CCl 4 and 14 CO 2 in the breath followed a two-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic model (r2 = 0.98). For rats exposed 8 hr/day and 11.5 hr/day for 2 weeks, the average half-lives for elimination of 14 CCl 4 in the breath for the fast (alpha) and slow (beta) phases averaged 96 and 455 min, and 89 and 568 min, respectively. The average alpha and beta half-lives for elimination of 14 CO 2 in the breath

  19. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blas, Maite de; Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen; Navazo, Marino; Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley

    2016-01-01

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC–MSD for a one-year period (2007–2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003–2005, 2010–2011, and 2014–2015 years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120 pptv) than in VNP (80–100 pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources. - Highlights: • A methodology was developed to measure CTC using GC-MSD and GC-FID. • CTC ongoing sources were noticed in an industry surrounded urban area. • No noticeable nearby CTC sources impacted the rural site. • Long-term CTC trend in agreement

  20. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Maite de, E-mail: maite.deblas@ehu.eus [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Navazo, Marino [University College of Engineering of Vitoria-Gasteiz, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC–MSD for a one-year period (2007–2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003–2005, 2010–2011, and 2014–2015 years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120 pptv) than in VNP (80–100 pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources. - Highlights: • A methodology was developed to measure CTC using GC-MSD and GC-FID. • CTC ongoing sources were noticed in an industry surrounded urban area. • No noticeable nearby CTC sources impacted the rural site. • Long-term CTC trend in agreement

  1. Automated evaluation of liver fibrosis in thioacetamide, carbon tetrachloride, and bile duct ligation rodent models using second-harmonic generation/two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Chen, Long; Rao, Hui-Ying; Teng, Xiao; Ren, Ya-Yun; Lu, Yan-Qiang; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Nan; Liu, Fang-Fang; Wei, Lai

    2017-01-01

    Animal models provide a useful platform for developing and testing new drugs to treat liver fibrosis. Accordingly, we developed a novel automated system to evaluate liver fibrosis in rodent models. This system uses second-harmonic generation (SHG)/two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy to assess a total of four mouse and rat models, using chemical treatment with either thioacetamide (TAA) or carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), and a surgical method, bile duct ligation (BDL). The results obtained by the new technique were compared with that using Ishak fibrosis scores and two currently used quantitative methods for determining liver fibrosis: the collagen proportionate area (CPA) and measurement of hydroxyproline (HYP) content. We show that 11 shared morphological parameters faithfully recapitulate Ishak fibrosis scores in the models, with high area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) performance. The AUC values of 11 shared parameters were greater than that of the CPA (TAA: 0.758-0.922 vs 0.752-0.908; BDL: 0.874-0.989 vs 0.678-0.966) in the TAA mice and BDL rat models and similar to that of the CPA in the TAA rat and CCl 4 mouse models. Similarly, based on the trends in these parameters at different time points, 9, 10, 7, and 2 model-specific parameters were selected for the TAA rats, TAA mice, CCl 4 mice, and BDL rats, respectively. These parameters identified differences among the time points in the four models, with high AUC accuracy, and the corresponding AUC values of these parameters were greater compared with those of the CPA in the TAA rat and mouse models (rats: 0.769-0.894 vs 0.64-0.799; mice: 0.87-0.93 vs 0.739-0.836) and similar to those of the CPA in the CCl 4 mouse and BDL rat models. Similarly, the AUC values of 11 shared parameters and model-specific parameters were greater than those of HYP in the TAA rats, TAA mice, and CCl 4 mouse models and were similar to those of HYP in the BDL rat models. The automated

  2. Electron spin resonance and optical studies on the radiolysis of carbon tetrachloride. II. Structure and reaction of CClṡ-4 radical anion in tetramethylsilane low-temperature solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Hachizo; Nunome, Keichi

    1991-04-01

    An electron spin resonance (ESR) and optical study of carbon tetrachloride radical anion has been made to provide for a better understanding of the radiolysis of CCl4, following CClṡ+4 cation previously studied. It was found that the anion was metastably trapped in tetramethylsilane (TMS) matrices γ irradiated at 4 or 77 K. The g tensor and the hyperfine coupling tensors of all atoms of the radical were determined from ESR spectral simulation by using 12 CCl4 and the 13C enriched compound: g∥=2.004-5, g1=2.015,(A∥,A⊥) =(24.3,18.3) mT for 13C, (0.9, 0.2) mT for one 35Cl atom, and (A1,A2=A3)=(1.98,0.45) mT for the other three equivalent 35Cl atoms. From these parameters and a consideration on the g anisotropy combined with the optical data, the anion was found to have a predissociating molecular structure (CCl3ṡṡṡCl) ˙- with C3v symmetry, where the unpaired electron occupies A*1γ antibonding orbital. The carbon atom has a large spin density and near sp3 hybridization: ρp=0.62, ρs=0.18, ρp/ρs=3.4, and three Cl atoms and the other Cl atom have the spin densities ρp=0.10 and ρp=0.05, respectively. The species had two optical absorptions at λmax=265 and 370 nm which were assigned to the Eγ-A*1γ and A1γ-A*1γ electronic transitions, respectively. The anion converted to CCl ṡ3 radical by warming to ˜150 K in the TMS matrix. The present results have given unequivocal ESR and optical spectroscopic evidence and support for the assignment of the 370 nm band reported in the radiolyses of organic solutions containing CCl4.

  3. Producing the Spielberg Brand

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter looks at the manufacture of Spielberg’s brand, and the limits of its usage. Spielberg’s directorial work is well known, but Spielberg’s identity has also been established in other ways, and I focus particularly on his work as a producer. At the time of writing, Spielberg had produced (or executive produced) 148 movies and television series across a range of genres that takes in high budget blockbusters and low budget documentaries, with many more to come. In these texts, Spielber...

  4. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  5. Methods for producing diterpenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention discloses that by combining different di TPS enzymes of class I and class II different diterpenes may be produced including diterpenes not identified in nature. Surprisingly it is revealed that a di TPS enzyme of class I of one species may be combined with a di TPS enzyme...... of class II from a different species, resulting in a high diversity of diterpenes, which can be produced....

  6. Polysaccharide-producing microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braud, J.P.; Chaumont, D.; Gudin, C.; Thepenier, C.; Chassin, P.; Lemaire, C.

    1982-11-01

    The production of extracellular polysaccharides is studied with Nostoc sp (cyanophycus), Porphiridium cruentum, Rhodosorus marinus, Rhodella maculata (rhodophyci) and Chlamydomonas mexicana (chlorophycus). The polysaccharides produced are separated by centrifugation of the culture then precipitation with alcohol. Their chemical structure was studied by infrared spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. By their rheological properties and especially their insensitivity to temperatrure and pH variations the polysaccharides produced by Porphryridium cruentum and Rhodella maculata appear as suitable candidates for industrial applications.

  7. Producing metallurgic coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, T.; Isida, K.; Vada, Y.

    1982-11-18

    A mixture of power producing coals with coal briquets of varying composition is proposed for coking in horizontal chamber furnaces. The briquets are produced from petroleum coke, coal fines or semicoke, which make up less than 27 percent of the mixture to be briquetted and coals with a standard coking output of volatile substances and coals with high maximal Gizeler fluidity. The ratio of these coals in the mixture is 0.6 to 2.1 or 18 to 32 percent, respectively. Noncaking or poorly caking coals are used as the power producing coals. The hardness of the obtained coke is DJ15-30 = 90.5 to 92.7 percent.

  8. Standards and producers' liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmer, F.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses the liability of producers and the diligence required, which has to come up to technical standards and the latest state of technology. The consequences of this requirement with regard to claims for damages are outlined and proposals for reforms are pointed out. (HSCH) [de

  9. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic–inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie–Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol–gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie–Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating. (paper)

  10. [Effects of Anluohuaxianwan on transforming growth factor-β1 and related signaling pathways in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W; Gao, Y H; Wang, Z Z; Cai, Y S; Yang, Y Q; Miao, Y Q; Pei, F; Liu, X E; Zhuang, H

    2017-04-20

    Objective: The traditional Chinese medicine Anluohuaxianwan (ALHXW) has been used to treat liver fibrosis induced by chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the anti-fibrosis mechanisms of ALHXW remain to be investigated. This study used a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver fibrosis to explore the potential antifibrogenic mechanisms of ALHXW. Methods: Twenty-seven male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control group, model group, and treatment group ( n = 9 per group). Rats in the model and treatment group were injected intraperitoneally with 40% CCl(4)(2 ml/kg), and rats in the control group were administered saline twice a week for 6 weeks. Starting at week 4 following model construction, rats in the treatment group received daily gavages with ALHXW solution (concentration 0.15 g/ml) daily, while rats in the control and model groups were given saline for a total of 6 weeks. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured from blood samples collected at the end of weeks 3, 6 and 9. Histopathological examination of liver tissue was performed to evaluate liver fibrosis at week 9. At the same time, the mRNA expression of TGF-β1 and Smads in liver tissues was quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and TGF-β1 protein level in the liver was measured by Western blot. Inter-group comparison was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) when the continuous data were normally distributed and satisfied the homogeneity of variance; otherwise, nonparametric tests were used. Categorical data were compared between groups using nonparametric tests. Results: ALHXW markedly alleviated liver injury in the treatment group after 3 weeks of therapy as indicated by a significantly reduced level of ALT compared with the model group [(162.98 ± 73.14)U/L vs (322.52 ± 131.76)U/L, P = 0.047], and a 39.8% reduction in AST level compared with the model group[ (537.56 ± 306

  11. Symmetry-adapted-cluster configuration-interaction and equation-of-motion coupled-cluster studies of electronically excited states of copper tetrachloride and copper tetrabromide dianions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehara, Masahiro; Piecuch, Piotr; Lutz, Jesse J.; Gour, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Electronically excited states of CuCl 4 2- and CuBr 4 2- are determined using the scalar relativistic symmetry-adapted-cluster configuration-interaction and equation-of-motion coupled-cluster calculations. The results are compared with experimental spectra. Highlights: ► Electronic spectra of CuCl 4 2- and CuBr 4 2- are examined by SAC-CI and EOMCC methods. ► Relativistic SAC-CI and EOMCC results are compared with experimental spectra. ► An assignment of bands in the CuCl 4 2- and CuBr 4 2- absorption spectra is obtained. ► Relativistic effects affect excitation energies and ground-state geometries. ► The effect of relativity on the oscillator strengths is generally small. - Abstract: The valence excitation spectra of the copper tetrachloride and copper tetrabromide open-shell dianions, CuCl 4 2- and CuBr 4 2- , respectively, are investigated by a variety of symmetry-adapted-cluster configuration-interaction (SAC-CI) and equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOMCC) methods. The valence excited states of the CuCl 4 2- and CuBr 4 2- species that correspond to transitions from doubly occupied molecular orbitals (MOs) to a singly occupied MO (SOMO), for which experimental spectra are available, are examined with the ionized (IP) variants of the SAC-CI and EOMCC methods. The higher-energy excited states of CuCl 4 2- and CuBr 4 2- that correspond to transitions from SOMO to unoccupied MOs, which have not been characterized experimentally, are determined using the electron-attached (EA) SAC-CI and EOMCC approaches. An emphasis is placed on the scalar relativistic SAC-CI and EOMCC calculations based on the spin-free part of the second-order Douglass–Kroll–Hess Hamiltonian (DKH2) and on a comparison of the results of the IP and EA SAC-CI and EOMCC calculations with up to 2-hole-1-particle (2h-1p) and 2-particle-1-hole (2p-1h) excitations, referred to as the IP-SAC-CI SD-R and IP-EOMCCSD(2h-1p) methods in the IP case and EA-SAC-CI SD-R and EA

  12. USA coal producer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porco, J. [Alpha Natural Resources, Latrobe, PA (US). Alpha Energy Global Marketing

    2004-07-01

    The focus is on the Central Appalachian coal industry. Alpha Natural Resources was formed in 2002 from Pittston Coal's Virginia and Coastal operations. AMCI's U.S. operations and Mears Enterprises in Pennsylvania were acquired later. The company produces 20-21 million tonnes per year and sells 20 million tonnes of steam coal and 10 million tonnes of exports, including some coal that is brokered. Foundry coke is a major product. Capital investment has resulted in increased productivity. Central Appalachia is expected to continue as a significant coal-producing region for supplying metallurgical coke. Production is expected to stabilize, but not increase; so the mines will have a longer life. 31 slides/overheads are included.

  13. Dimuons produced by antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenuti, A.; Cline, D.; Ford, W.T.; Imlay, R.; Ling, T.Y.; Mann, A.K.; Orr, R.; Reeder, D.D.; Rubbia, C.; Stefanski, R.; Sulak, L.; Wanderer, P.

    1975-01-01

    In a run with a predominantly phi-bar beam we have observed seven dimuon events which show clearly that dimuons are produced by phi-bar as well as by phi. Using the signature of those events we tentatively identify twelve dimuon events from earlier runs as phi-bar-induced. The characteristics of the total sample support the explanation that dimuons arise from new hadron production

  14. Theoretical predictions of properties and volatility of chlorides and oxychlorides of group-4 elements. II. Adsorption of tetrachlorides and oxydichlorides of Zr, Hf, and Rf on neutral and modified surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershina, V.; Borschevsky, A.; Iliaš, M.; Türler, A.

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to interpret results of gas-phase chromatography experiments on volatility of group-4 tetrachlorides and oxychlorides including those of Rf, adsorption enthalpies of these species on neutral, and modified quartz surfaces were estimated on the basis of relativistic, two-component Density Functional Theory calculations of MCl 4 , MOCl 2 , MCl 6 − , and MOCl 4 2 with the use of adsorption models. Several mechanisms of adsorption were considered. In the case of physisorption of MCl 4 , the trend in the adsorption energy in the group should be Zr > Hf > Rf, so that the volatility should change in the opposite direction. The latter trend complies with the one in the sublimation enthalpies, ΔH sub , of the Zr and Hf tetrachlorides, i.e., Zr < Hf. On the basis of a correlation between these quantities, ΔH sub (RfCl 4 ) was predicted as 104.2 kJ/mol. The energy of physisorption of MOCl 2 on quartz should increase in the group, Zr < Hf < Rf, as defined by increasing dipole moments of these molecules along the series. In the case of adsorption of MCl 4 on quartz by chemical forces, formation of the MOCl 2 or MOCl 4 2− complexes on the surface can take place, so that the sequence in the adsorption energy should be Zr > Hf > Rf, as defined by the complex formation energies. In the case of adsorption of MCl 4 on a chlorinated quartz surface, formation of the MCl 6 2− surface complexes can occur, so that the trend in the adsorption strength should be Zr ≤ Hf < Rf. All the predicted sequences, showing a smooth change of the adsorption energy in the group, are in disagreement with the reversed trend Zr ≈ Rf < Hf, observed in the “one-atom-at-a-time” gas-phase chromatography experiments. Thus, currently no theoretical explanation can be found for the experimental observations

  15. Producing quality radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullinan, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book gives an overview of physics, equipment, imaging, and quality assurance in the radiology department. The chapters are laid out with generous use of subheads to allow for quick reference, Points are illustrated with clear, uncluttered line diagrams and well-produced images. The accompanying explanations are miniature lessons by themselves. Inserted at various points throughout the text are important notes that highlight key concepts. The chapter ''Image Evaluation and Application of Radiographic Principles'' present a systematic approach to evaluating radiographs and contains several sample radiographs to illustrate the points made

  16. Producing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of producing x-rays by directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target is described. Conversion efficiency of at least about 3 percent is obtained by providing the radiant energy in a low-power precursor pulse of approximately uniform effective intensity focused onto the surface of the target for about 1 to 30 nanoseconds so as to generate an expanding unconfined coronal plasma having less than normal solid density throughout and comprising a low-density (underdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is less than the laser radiation frequency and a higher-density (overdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is greater than the laser radiation frequency and, about 1 to 30 nanoseconds after the precursor pulse strikes the target, a higher-power main pulse focused onto the plasma for about 10 -3 to 30 nanoseconds and having such power density and total energy that the radiant energy is absorbed in the underdense region and conducted into the overdense region to heat it and thus to produce x-rays therefrom with the plasma remaining substantially below normal solid density and thus facilitating the substantial emission of x-rays in the form of spectral lines arising from nonequilibrium ionization states

  17. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes...... and social cohesion, as well as a provider of welfare services from a welfare state in dire straits. However, such a view upholds a sharp distinction between the three sectors and their distinct logic. This article claims that the separation of spheres is a fundamental part of our ‘social imaginary......’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...

  18. Power Producer Production Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kněžek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing developments in the electricity market, in particular the establishment of the Prague Energy Exchange (PXE and the associated transfer from campaign-driven sale to continuous trading, represent a significant change for power companies.  Power producing companies can now optimize the sale of their production capacities with the objective of maximizing profit from wholesale electricity and supporting services. The Trading Departments measure the success rate of trading activities by the gross margin (GM, calculated by subtracting the realized sales prices from the realized purchase prices and the production cost, and indicate the profit & loss (P&L to be subsequently calculated by the Control Department. The risk management process is set up on the basis of a business strategy defining the volumes of electricity that have to be sold one year and one month before the commencement of delivery. At the same time, this process defines the volume of electricity to remain available for spot trading (trading limits. 

  19. Antibiotics produced by Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, Rudi Emerson de Lima; Silva, Ingrid Reis da; Martins, Mayra Kassawara; Azevedo, João Lúcio de; Araújo, Janete Magali de

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria that grows in various environments, and its shape resembles filamentous fungi. The morphological differentiation of Streptomyces involves the formation of a layer of hyphae that can differentiate into a chain of spores. The most interesting property of Streptomyces is the ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites, such as antifungals, antivirals, antitumorals, anti-hypertensives, immunosuppressants, and especially antibiotics. The production of most antibiotics is species specific, and these secondary metabolites are important for Streptomyces species in order to compete with other microorganisms that come in contact, even within the same genre. Despite the success of the discovery of antibiotics, and advances in the techniques of their production, infectious diseases still remain the second leading cause of death worldwide, and bacterial infections cause approximately 17 million deaths annually, affecting mainly children and the elderly. Self-medication and overuse of antibiotics is another important factor that contributes to resistance, reducing the lifetime of the antibiotic, thus causing the constant need for research and development of new antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Cyclotron produced radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopicka, K.; Fiser, M.; Hradilek, P.; Hanc, P.; Lebeda, O.

    2003-01-01

    Some of the cyclotron-produced radionuclides may serve as important materials for the production of radiopharmaceuticals. This lecture deals with basic information relating to various aspects of these compounds. In comparison with radionuclides /compounds used for non-medical purposes, radiopharmaceuticals are subject to a broader scale of regulations, both from the safety and efficacy point of view; besides that, there are both radioactive and medical aspects that must be taken into account for any radiopharmaceutical. According to the regulations and in compliance with general rules of work with radioactivity, radiopharmaceuticals should only be prepared/manufactured under special conditions, using special areas and special equipment and applying special procedures (e.g. sterilisation, disinfection, aseptic work). Also, there are special procedures for cleaning and maintenance. Sometimes the requirements for the product safety clash with those for the safety of the personnel; several examples of solutions pertaining to these cases are given in the lecture. Also, the specific role of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals is discussed. (author)

  1. Radiation produced biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    radiation technique. Immobilization of biologically active species in hydrogel matrices, their use as drug delivery systems and enzyme traps as well as modification of material surfaces to improve their biocompatibility and ability to bond antigens and antibodies have been the main subject of their investigations. The rising interest in the field of application of radiation to bioengineering was also recognized by the International Atoimc Energy Agency, which has initiated the international programs relating to those studies. In these lectures some directions of investigations on the formation of hydrogels and their applications for biomedical purposes have been specified. Also, some examples of commercialized products being produced by means of radiation technique have been presented

  2. Theoretical predictions of properties and volatility of chlorides and oxychlorides of group-4 elements. II. Adsorption of tetrachlorides and oxydichlorides of Zr, Hf, and Rf on neutral and modified surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pershina, V., E-mail: V.Pershina@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, Darmstadt D-64291 (Germany); Borschevsky, A. [Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Mainz D-55128, Germany and Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study, Massey University, Private Bag 102904, 0745 North Shore MSC, Auckland (New Zealand); Iliaš, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Matej Bel University, Tajovského 40, SK-974 00 Banská Bystrica (Slovakia); Türler, A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, Freiestrasse 3, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland and Laboratory for Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2014-08-14

    With the aim to interpret results of gas-phase chromatography experiments on volatility of group-4 tetrachlorides and oxychlorides including those of Rf, adsorption enthalpies of these species on neutral, and modified quartz surfaces were estimated on the basis of relativistic, two-component Density Functional Theory calculations of MCl{sub 4}, MOCl{sub 2}, MCl{sub 6}{sup −}, and MOCl{sub 4}{sup 2} with the use of adsorption models. Several mechanisms of adsorption were considered. In the case of physisorption of MCl{sub 4}, the trend in the adsorption energy in the group should be Zr > Hf > Rf, so that the volatility should change in the opposite direction. The latter trend complies with the one in the sublimation enthalpies, ΔH{sub sub}, of the Zr and Hf tetrachlorides, i.e., Zr < Hf. On the basis of a correlation between these quantities, ΔH{sub sub}(RfCl{sub 4}) was predicted as 104.2 kJ/mol. The energy of physisorption of MOCl{sub 2} on quartz should increase in the group, Zr < Hf < Rf, as defined by increasing dipole moments of these molecules along the series. In the case of adsorption of MCl{sub 4} on quartz by chemical forces, formation of the MOCl{sub 2} or MOCl{sub 4}{sup 2−} complexes on the surface can take place, so that the sequence in the adsorption energy should be Zr > Hf > Rf, as defined by the complex formation energies. In the case of adsorption of MCl{sub 4} on a chlorinated quartz surface, formation of the MCl{sub 6}{sup 2−} surface complexes can occur, so that the trend in the adsorption strength should be Zr ≤ Hf < Rf. All the predicted sequences, showing a smooth change of the adsorption energy in the group, are in disagreement with the reversed trend Zr ≈ Rf < Hf, observed in the “one-atom-at-a-time” gas-phase chromatography experiments. Thus, currently no theoretical explanation can be found for the experimental observations.

  3. The potential protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats is mediated by suppression of oxidative stress and downregulation of MMP-9 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Olayan, Ebtisam M; El-Khadragy, Manal F; Aref, Ahmed M; Othman, Mohamed S; Kassab, Rami B; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-01-01

    The active constituent profile in Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) juice was determined by GC-MS. Quercetin and kaempferol were active components in the juice. In this study we have evaluated its potential protective effect on hepatic injury and fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Twenty-eight rats divided into 4 groups: Group I served as control group, and Group II received weekly i.p. injection of 2 mL CCl4/kg bwt for 12 weeks. Group III were supplemented with Physalis juice via the drinking water. The animals of Group IV received Physalis juice as Group III and also were intraperitoneally injected weekly with 2 mL CCl4/kg bwt for 12 weeks. Hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by improvement in liver enzymes serum levels, reduction in collagen areas, downregulation in expression of the fibrotic marker MMP-9, reduction in the peroxidative marker malonaldehyde and the inflammatory marker nitric oxide, and restoration of the activity of antioxidant enzymatic and nonenzymatic systems, namely, glutathione content, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities. The results show that the potential hepatoprotective effects of Physalis peruviana may be due to physalis acts by promotion of processes that restore hepatolobular architecture and through the inhibition of oxidative stress pathway.

  4. Producers give prices a boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Uranium producers came alive in August, helping spot prices crack the $8.00 barrier for the first time since March. The upper end of NUKEM's price range actually finished the month at $8.20. Scrambling to fulfill their long-term delivery contracts, producers dominate the market. In the span of three weeks, five producers came out for 2 million lbs U3O8, ultimately buying nearly 1.5 million lbs. One producer accounted for over half this volume. The major factor behind rising prices was that producers required specific origins to meet contract obligations. Buyers willing to accept open origins created the lower end of NUKEM's price range

  5. [Distiller Yeasts Producing Antibacterial Peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyachko, E V; Morozkina, E V; Zaitchik, B Ts; Benevolensky, S V

    2015-01-01

    A new method of controlling lactic acid bacteria contamination was developed with the use of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides. Genes encoding the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin with codons preferable for S. cerevisiae were synthesized, and a system was constructed for their secretory expression. Recombinant S. cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides effectively inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Pediacoccus pentasaceus, Pediacoccus acidilactici, etc. The application of distiller yeasts producing antibacterial peptides enhances the ethanol yield in cases of bacterial contamination. Recombinant yeasts producing the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin can successfully substitute the available industrial yeast strains upon ethanol production.

  6. A method of producing hydroxymethyfurfural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of producing 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by dehydration of fructose and/or glucose and/or mannose.......The present invention relates to a method of producing 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by dehydration of fructose and/or glucose and/or mannose....

  7. Producers' Complex Risk Management Choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Isengildina, O.; Irwin, S.H.; Garcia, P.; Good, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    Producers have a wide variety of risk management instruments available, making their choice(s) complex. The way producers deal with this complexity can vary and may influence the impact that the determinants, such as risk aversion, have on their choices. A recently developed choice bracketing

  8. Method of producing molybdenum-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Eric John

    2013-05-28

    Method of producing molybdenum-99, comprising accelerating ions by means of an accelerator; directing the ions onto a metal target so as to generate neutrons having an energy of greater than 10 MeV; directing the neutrons through a converter material comprising techentium-99 to produce a mixture comprising molybdenum-99; and, chemically extracting the molybdenum-99 from the mixture.

  9. Tekna's produced water conference 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The conference has 22 presentations discussing topics on discharge reduction, produced water quality, produced water re-injection, chemicals particularly environmentally friendly ones, separation technology, reservoir souring, total water management systems, pollution, oil in water problems and platform operation. Various field tests and experiences particularly from the offshore petroleum sector are presented (tk)

  10. DOES ELECTRIC CAR PRODUCE EMISSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír RIEVAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of the amount of emissions produced by vehicles with a combustion engine and electric cars. The comparison, which is based on the LCA factor results, indicates that an electric car produces more emissions than a vehicle with combustion engine. The implementation of electric cars will lead to an increase in the production of greenhouse gases.

  11. Chlorobenzene, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride adsorption on undoped and metal-doped sol-gel substrates (SiO{sub 2}, Ag/SiO{sub 2}, Cu/SiO{sub 2} and Fe/SiO{sub 2})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, M.A. [Postgrado de Ciencias Ambientales and Departamento de Investigacion en Zeolitas, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Edificio 76, Complejo de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 72570 Puebla (Mexico)], E-mail: mighern@siu.buap.mx; Gonzalez, A.I.; Corona, L.; Hernandez, F. [Postgrado de Ciencias Ambientales and Departamento de Investigacion en Zeolitas, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Edificio 76, Complejo de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 72570 Puebla (Mexico); Rojas, F.; Asomoza, M.; Solis, S. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Portillo, R.; Salgado, M.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-02-15

    Adsorption isotherms of chlorobenzene, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride vapors on undoped SiO{sub 2}, and metal-doped Ag/SiO{sub 2}, Cu/SiO{sub 2} and Fe/SiO{sub 2} substrates were measured in the temperature range of 398-593 K. These substrates were prepared from a typical sol-gel technique in the presence of metal dopants that rendered an assortment of microporous-mesoporous solids. The relevant characteristic of these materials was the different porosities and micropore to mesopore volume ratios that were displayed; this was due to the effect that the cationic metal valence exerts on the size of the sol-gel globules that compose the porous solid. The texture of these SiO{sub 2} materials was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR, and diverse adsorption methods. The pore-size distributions of the adsorbents confirmed the existence of mesopores and supermicropores, while ultramicropores were absent. The Freundlich adsorption model approximately fitted the chlorinated compounds adsorption data on the silica substrates by reason of a heterogeneous energy distribution of adsorption sites. The intensity of the interaction between these organic vapors and the surface of the SiO{sub 2} samples was analyzed through evaluation of the isosteric heat of adsorption and standard adsorption energy; from these last results it was evident that the presence of metal species within the silica structure greatly affected the values of both the amounts adsorbed as well as of the isosteric heats of adsorption.

  12. Induction of Nrf2-dependent Antioxidation and Protection Against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Liver Damage by Andrographis Herba (穿心蓮chuān xīn lián Ethanolic Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haw-Wen Chen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata is a traditional Chinese herb and displays diverse biological activities including antioxidation, anti-tumorigenesis, anti-virus, and anti-atherogenesis. In this study, we investigated the up-regulation of ethanolic extract of A. paniculata (APE on the antioxidant defense in rat livers and whether this enhancement protected against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver damage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered (i.g. 0, 0.75, or 2 g/kg/d APE for 5 d. At d 6, rats were sacrificed and liver tissues were removed. Some animals (n=8 were intraperitoneally injected CCl4 (1 mL/kg, 50% in olive oil and blood was drawn 24 h after CCl4 treatment. The results showed that APE increased hepatic glutathione (GSH content and superoxide dismutase, GSH peroxidase, and GSH S-transferase activities in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05. Results of immunoblotting and RT-PCR revealed that rats treated with APE had higher glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic and modifier subunits, heme oxygenase 1, superoxide dismutase 1, and GSH S-transferase Ya and Yb protein and mRNA expression than those of control rats. Moreover, APE increased Nrf2 nuclear translocation and Nrf2 binding to DNA in rat liver. In the presence of CCl4, APE decreased hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances production and plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities. These results suggest that APE protection against CCl4 insult is attributed, at least in part, to its up-regulation of antioxidant defense in rat liver.

  13. Mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics study of the hydroxyl stretch in methanol/carbon-tetrachloride mixtures II: excited state hydrogen bonding structure and dynamics, infrared emission spectrum, and excited state lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwac, Kijeong; Geva, Eitan

    2012-03-08

    We present a mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics study of the hydrogen-bonding structure and dynamics of a vibrationally excited hydroxyl stretch in methanol/carbon-tetrachloride mixtures. The adiabatic Hamiltonian of the quantum-mechanical hydroxyl is diagonalized on-the-fly to obtain the ground and first-excited adiabatic energy levels and wave functions which depend parametrically on the instantaneous configuration of the classical degrees of freedom. The dynamics of the classical degrees of freedom are determined by Hellmann-Feynman forces obtained by taking the expectation value of the force with respect to the ground or excited vibrational wave functions. Polarizable force fields are used which were previously shown to reproduce the experimental infrared absorption spectrum rather well, for different isotopomers and over a wide composition range [Kwac, K.; Geva, E. J. Phys. Chem. B 2011, 115, 9184]. We show that the agreement of the absorption spectra with experiment can be further improved by accounting for the dependence of the dipole moment derivatives on the configuration of the classical degrees of freedom. We find that the propensity of a methanol molecule to form hydrogen bonds increases upon photoexcitation of its hydroxyl stretch, thereby leading to a sizable red-shift of the corresponding emission spectrum relative to the absorption spectrum. Treating the relaxation from the first excited to the ground state as a nonadiabatic process, and calculating its rate within the framework of Fermi's golden rule and the harmonic-Schofield quantum correction factor, we were able to predict a lifetime which is of the same order of magnitude as the experimental value. The experimental dependence of the lifetime on the transition frequency is also reproduced. Nonlinear mapping relations between the hydroxyl transition frequency and bond length in the excited state and the electric field along the hydroxyl bond axis are established. These mapping relations

  14. Protective effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in precision-cut liver slices in vitro and in vivo in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjuan; Cao, Liping; Du, Jinliang; Jia, Rui; Wang, Jiahao; Xu, Pao; Yin, Guojun

    2015-03-01

    The protective effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in common carp were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs) were employed as an in vitro model system. LBPs (0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml) was added to PCLSs culture system before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after (pre- and post-treatment) the exposure of PCLSs to 12 mM CCl4. The supernatants and PCLSs were collected for biochemical analyses. Results showed that LBPs inhibited the elevations of the marker enzymes (GOT, GPT, LDH and AKP) and MDA induced by CCl4 in all LBPs treatments and it also enhanced the suppressed antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GST) and GSH, in the pre-treatment and pre- and post-treatment. In vivo, fish were fed diets containing LBPs at 0.1, 0.5 and 1% for 60 d before an intraperitoneal injection of 30% CCl4 in olive oil at a volume of 0.05 ml/10 g body weight. At 72 h post-injection, blood and liver samples were taken for biochemical analyses. Results showed that LBPs at 0.5 and 1% significantly reduced the levels of GOT, GPT and LDH in the serum; the decreases of the antioxidant enzymes and the increase of MDA in the liver tissue were inhibited markedly. Moreover, LBPs even at lower concentration exerted a potent DPPH scavenging activity. Overall results prove the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of LBPs and support the use of LBPs as a hepatoprotective agent in fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Producing colour pictures from SCAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robichaud, K.

    1982-01-01

    The computer code SCAN.TSK has been written for use on the Interdata 7/32 minicomputer which will convert the pictures produced by the SCAN program into colour pictures on a colour graphics VDU. These colour pictures are a more powerful aid to detecting errors in the MONK input data than the normal lineprinter pictures. This report is intended as a user manual for using the program on the Interdata 7/32, and describes the method used to produce the pictures and gives examples of JCL, input data and of the pictures that can be produced. (U.K.)

  16. Producing new radionuclides for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Arronax cyclotron, a new particle accelerator dedicated to the production of radionuclides for medicine and research has been commissioned in Nantes (France). Because of its unique features: an energy of 70 MeV and an intensity of 750 μA, Arronax will produce radionuclides that can not be produce in present cyclotrons. Among others it will produce Strontium-82 and Germanium-68 that are the precursors for Rubidium-82 and Gallium-68 respectively. 20 per cent of the research works will be dedicated to other domains like radioactive wastes, the radiation biological damage and the radiation damage on electronic devices. (A.C.)

  17. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, H. Craig

    1997-01-01

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

  18. Methods of producing cesium-131

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikrantz, David H; Snyder, John R

    2012-09-18

    Methods of producing cesium-131. The method comprises dissolving at least one non-irradiated barium source in water or a nitric acid solution to produce a barium target solution. The barium target solution is irradiated with neutron radiation to produce cesium-131, which is removed from the barium target solution. The cesium-131 is complexed with a calixarene compound to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution. A liquid:liquid extraction device or extraction column is used to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution.

  19. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony [Houston, TX; Bauldreay, Joanna M [Chester, GB

    2011-12-27

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  20. Price satisfaction and producer loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutonyi, Sarah; Beukel, Karin; Gyau, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design/methodology/approach......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design...... reliability, and relative price are dimensions of price satisfaction that affect producers’ trust in the buyer. Moreover, trust between the producer and the buyer is found to be a strong mediator between price satisfaction and producer loyalty. The findings support recent studies about trust and its mediating...... between the multi-dimensional nature of price satisfaction and producer loyalty with trust as a mediating variable in the business-to-business (B2B) context. Although B2B relationships have been shown to be of great importance for smallholders in enhancing business performance with their buyers, little...

  1. Producing liquid fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solantausta, Yrjo; Gust, Steven

    The aim of this survey was to compare, on techno-economic criteria, alternatives of producing liquid fuels from indigenous raw materials in Finland. Another aim was to compare methods under development and prepare a proposal for steering research related to this field. Process concepts were prepared for a number of alternatives, as well as analogous balances and production and investment cost assessments for these balances. Carbon dioxide emissions of the alternatives and the price of CO2 reduction were also studied. All the alternatives for producing liquid fuels from indigenous raw materials are utmost unprofitable. There are great differences between the alternatives. While the production cost of ethanol is 6 to 9 times higher than the market value of the product, the equivalent ratio for substitute fuel oil produced from peat by pyrolysis is 3 to 4. However, it should be borne in mind that the technical uncertainties related to the alternatives are of different magnitude. Production of ethanol from barley is of commercial technology, while biomass pyrolysis is still under development. If the aim is to reach smaller carbon dioxide emissions by using liquid biofuels, the most favorable alternative is pyrolysis oil produced from wood. Fuels produced from cultivated biomass are more expensive ways of reducing CO2 emissions. Their potential of reducing CO2 emissions in Finland is insignificant. Integration of liquid fuel production to some other production line is more profitable.

  2. Human body may produce bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerian, Alen J

    2017-06-01

    "Human body may produce bacteria" proposes that human body may produce bacteria and represent an independent source of infections contrary to the current paradigm of infectious disorders proposed by Louis Pasteur in 1880. The following observations are consistent with this hypothesis: A. Bidirectional transformations of both living and nonliving things have been commonly observed in nature. B. Complex multicellular organisms harbor the necessary properties to produce bacteria (water, nitrogen and oxygen). C. Physical laws suggest any previously observed phenomenon or action will occur again (life began on earth; a non living thing). D. Animal muscle cells may generate energy (fermentation). E. Sterilized food products (i.e. boiled eggs), may produce bacteria and fungus under special conditions and without any exposure to foreign living cells. "Human body may produce bacteria" may challenge the current medical paradigm that views human infectious disorders as the exclusive causative byproducts of invading foreign cells. It may also introduce new avenues to treat infectious disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Produced water - composition and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvernheim, Arne Lund

    1998-01-01

    Produced water can be defined as ''High volume waste-water separated from oil and gas that is produced from subsurface formations''. The water contains aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, particulate matter and soluble salts as well as elements originating from formations and from sea water injections. Residues of chemicals may also be present. The accepted North Sea discharge limit is 40 ppm. In this presentation the focus will be on the chemical composition of produced water and on the challenges involved in developing and implementing analytical methods. The focus will also be on the development of a new oil-in-water analytical method as a replacement for the Freon method. 7 refs., 1 tab

  4. Method of producing grouting mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelomov, I K; Alchina, S I; Dizer, E I; Gruzdeva, G A; Nikitinskii, V I; Sabirzyanov, A K

    1980-10-07

    A method of producing grouting mortar by mixing the cement with an aqueous salt solution is proposed. So as to increase the quality of the mortar through an acceleration of the time for hardening, the mixture is prepared in two stages, in the first of which 20-30% of the entire cement batch hardens, and in the second of which the remainder of the cement hardens; 1-3-% of an aqueous salt solution is used in quantities of 0.5/1 wt.-% of weight of the cement. The use of this method of producing grouting mortar helps to increase the flexural strength of the cement brick up to 50% after two days ageing by comparison with the strength of cement brick produced from grouting mortar by ordinary methods utilizing identical quantities of the initial components (cement, water, chloride).

  5. Apparatus for producing laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarboe, T.R.; Baker, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    This patent relates to an apparatus and method for producing deuterium targets or pellets of 25u to 75u diameter. The pellets are sliced from a continuously spun solid deuterium thread at a rate of up to 10 pellets/second. The pellets after being sliced from the continuous thread of deuterium are collimated and directed to a point of use, such as a laser activated combustion or explosion chamber wherein the pellets are imploded by laser energy or laser produced target plasmas for neutral beam injection

  6. Producing deep-water hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilenko, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Several studies relate the history and progress made in offshore production from oil and gas fields in relation to reserves and the techniques for producing oil offshore. The intention herein is not to review these studies but rather to argue that the activities of prospecting and producing deep-water oil and gas call for a combination of technology and project management and, above all, of devotion and innovation. Without this sense of commitment motivating men and women in this industry, the human adventure of deep-water production would never have taken place

  7. Method for producing redox shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupek, Krzysztof Z.; Dzwiniel, Trevor L.; Krumdick, Gregory K.

    2015-03-03

    A single step method for producing a redox shuttle having the formula 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-phenylene tetraethyl bis(phosphate) is provided, the method comprising phosphorylating tert butyl hydroquinone with a phosphate-containing reagent. Also provided is method for producing 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-phenylene tetraethyl bis(phosphate), the method comprising solubilizing tert-butyl hydroquinone and tetrabutylammonium bromide with methyltetrahydrofuran to create a mixture; heating the mixture while adding base to the mixture in an amount to turn the mixture orange; and adding diethyl chlorophosphate to the orange mixture in an amount to phosphorylate the hydroquinone.

  8. Marketing Hardwoods to Furniture Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven A. Sinclair; Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the many problems in developing marketing programs for small wood products manufacturers. It examines the problems of using price as a dominant means for getting and attracting customers. The marketing of hardwood lumber to furniture producers is then used as an example. Data from 36 furniture lumber buyers is presented to illustrate...

  9. Importance of producing impactful research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nienaber, S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available from the more pragmatic issue of funding. Funding agencies, organisational leadership and policymakers need scientists to prove that the science we produce makes enough of an impact to merit further funding in future. This emphasis and pressure around...

  10. Method of producing vegetable puree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A process for producing a vegetable puree, comprising the sequential steps of: a)crushing, chopping or slicing the vegetable into pieces of 1 to 30 mm; b) blanching the vegetable pieces at a temperature of 60 to 90°C; c) contacted the blanched vegetable pieces with a macerating enzyme activity; d......) blending the macerated vegetable pieces and obtaining a puree....

  11. Fraxinus rhynchophylla ethanol extract attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats via down-regulating the expressions of uPA, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wen-Huang; Tien, Yun-Chen; Huang, Chih-Yang; Huang, Tai-Hung; Liao, Jung-Chun; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Lin, Ying-Chih

    2010-02-17

    To investigate the effect of Fraxinus rhynchophylla ethanol extract (FR(EtOH)) on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in rats. Rat hepatic fibrosis was induced by oral administration of CCl(4). Sixty SD rats were divided randomly into 6 groups: control, CCl(4) group, silymarin group and three FR(EtOH)-treated groups. Except for the rats in control group, all rats were administered orally with CCl(4) (20%, 0.2 mL/100g body weight) twice a week for 8 weeks. Rats in FR(EtOH) groups were treated daily with FR(EtOH) (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg, p.o.) throughout the whole experimental period. Liver function parameters (such as activities of serum GOT and GPT levels), activities of liver anti-oxidant enzymes (such as catalase, SOD, GPx) and expressions of uPA, tPA, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1, -2, -3, -4 in the liver fibrosis pathway were detected. The results showed that FR(EtOH) (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg BW) significantly reduced the elevated activities of sGOT and sGPT caused by CCl(4). FR(EtOH) (0.1 and 0.5 g/kg BW) and significantly increased the activities of GSH-Px. The histopathological study showed that FR(EtOH) (0.1 and 0.5 g/kg BW) reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, lymphocytes infiltration, cytoplasm vacuolization hepatic necrosis and fibrous connective tissue proliferated induced by CCl(4) in rats. In our study it was showed that CCl(4)-treated group significantly increased the protein levels of uPA, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1. FR(EtOH) (0.1 and 0.5 g/kg BW) could inhibit the protein levels of uPA, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1. Finally, the amount of esculetin in the FR(EtOH) was 33.54 mg/g extract. Oral administration of FR(EtOH) significantly reduces CCl(4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats, probably by exerting a protective effect against hepatocellular fibrosis by its free radical scavenging ability. FR(EtOH) down-regulated the expressions of uPA, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in CCl(4)-induced liver fibrosis in rats

  12. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan [Santa Fe, NM; Perry, William L [Jemez Springs, NM; Chen, Chun-Ku [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-02-14

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  13. Nonlinear Pricing to Produce Information

    OpenAIRE

    David J. Braden; Shmuel S. Oren

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the firm's dynamic nonlinear pricing problem when facing consumers whose tastes vary according to a scalar index. We relax the standard assumption that the firm knows the distribution of this index. In general the firm should determine its marginal price schedule as if it were myopic, and produce information by lowering the price schedule; “bunching” consumers at positive purchase levels should be avoided. As a special case we also consider a market characterized by homogeneous...

  14. Method for producing metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-02-10

    Method for producing metallic nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating non-oxidizing plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone to metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and to the plasma afterglow where it cools and condenses to form solid metallic nanoparticles.

  15. Method for producing metallic microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-06-29

    Method for producing metallic particles. The method converts metallic nanoparticles into larger, spherical metallic particles. An aerosol of solid metallic nanoparticles and a non-oxidizing plasma having a portion sufficiently hot to melt the nanoparticles are generated. The aerosol is directed into the plasma where the metallic nanoparticles melt, collide, join, and spheroidize. The molten spherical metallic particles are directed away from the plasma and enter the afterglow where they cool and solidify.

  16. Extended producer responsibility in oligopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Ino

    2007-01-01

    I investigate the optimal environmental tax under a policy based on extended producer responsibility (EPR) in oligopoly markets. I introduce the recycling market and explicitly consider how these policies affect the incentive for recycling. I derive the optimal tax rule, which depends on the weighted sum of the markup in the product market and the markdown in the recycling market. In contrast to the existing works that emphasize that the optimal tax rate is lower than the marginal external da...

  17. MARKETING STRATEGIES OF SMARTPHONES PRODUCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Markova V.; Tzinlin M.; Ge C.

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones global market is one of the most dynamically developing markets that can be characterized by high level of competition. The growth of smartphones homogeneity, which is a reduction in difference between technical and functional parameters of smartphones produced by various manufacturers, can be considered the market’s specific feature. The unique situation of high-tech product homogeneity in a fast-growing market is scantily described in specialized literature. The article shows ch...

  18. Method of producing ethyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philliskirk, G; Yates, H J

    1978-09-13

    Ethanol was produced from whey by removing protein from the whey by ultrafiltration, concentrating the deproteinized whey by reverse osmosis to a lactose content of at least 8 g/100 mL, fermenting with Candida pseudotropicalis NCYC 744, and distilling. E.g., milk whey was deproteinized to give a permeate containing 8.3 g lactose/100 mL. After fermentation, the final lactose content was 0.1 g/100 mL and the ethanol concentration was 3.55 g/100 mL, representing a 42% conversion of lactose to ethanol.

  19. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  20. Uranium producers foresee new boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, H.

    1979-01-01

    The status of uranium production in Canada is reviewed. Uranium resources in Saskatchewan and Ontario are described and the role of the Cluff Lake inquiry in securing a government decision in favour of further uranium development is mentioned. There have been other uranium strikes near Kelowna, British Columbia and in the Northwest Territories. Increasing uranium demand and favourable prices are making the development of northern resources economically attractive. In fact, all uranium currently produced has been committed to domestic and export contracts so that there is considerable room for expanding the production of uranium in Canada. (T.I.)

  1. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semino, Stella Maris; Paul, Helena; Tomei, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel. To ensure that the production of biofuels is ‘sustainable', EU institutions and national governments...... are currently designing certification schemes for the sustainable production of biomass. This paper questions the validity of proposed environmental standards, using the production of Argentine soybean as a case study. The production of soybean production is associated with profound environmental impacts...

  2. Producing deuterium-enriched products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of producing an enriched deuterium product from a gaseous feed stream of mixed hydrogen and deuterium, comprises: (a) combining the feed stream with gaseous bromine to form a mixture of the feed stream and bromine and exposing the mixture to an electrical discharge effective to form deuterium bromide and hydrogen bromide with a ratio of D/H greater than the ratio of D/H in the feed stream; and (b) separating at least a portion of the hydrogen bromide and deuterium bromide from the mixture. (author)

  3. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  4. Methods of producing luminescent images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, P.; Newman, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for producing a luminescent image in a layer of a binding material in which is dispersed a thermoluminescent material. The layer is heated uniformly to a temperature of 80 to 300 0 C and is exposed to luminescence inducing radiation whilst so heated. The preferred exposing radiation is X-rays and preferably the thermoluminescent material is insensitive to electromagnetic radiation of wavelength longer than 300 mm. Information concerning preparation of the luminescent material is given in BP 1,347,672; this material has the advantage that at elevated temperatures it shows increased sensitivity compared with room temperature. At temperatures in the range 80 to 150 0 C the thermoluminescent material exhibits 'afterglow', allowing the image to persist for several seconds after the X-radiation has ceased, thus allowing the image to be retained for visual inspection in this temperature range. At higher temperatures, however, there is negligible 'afterglow'. The thermoluminescent layers so produced are particularly useful as fluoroscopic screens. The preferred method of heating the thermoluminescent material is described in BP 1,354,149. An example is given of the application of the method. (U.K.)

  5. Concrete produced with recycled aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. L. Tenório

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the mechanical and durable properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC for using in concrete. The porosity of recycled coarse aggregates is known to influence the fresh and hardened concrete properties and these properties are related to the specific mass of the recycled coarse aggregates, which directly influences the mechanical properties of the concrete. The recycled aggregates were obtained from construction and demolition wastes (CDW, which were divided into recycled sand (fine and coarse aggregates. Besides this, a recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density was obtained by mixing the recycled aggregates of the CDW with the recycled aggregates of concrete wastes (CW. The concrete was produced in laboratory by combining three water-cement ratios, the ratios were used in agreement with NBR 6118 for structural concretes, with each recycled coarse aggregates and recycled sand or river sand, and the reference concrete was produced with natural aggregates. It was observed that recycled aggregates can be used in concrete with properties for structural concrete. In general, the use of recycled coarse aggregate in combination with recycled sand did not provide good results; but when the less porous was used, or the recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density, the properties of the concrete showed better results. Some RAC reached bigger strengths than the reference concrete.

  6. How Mobility Systems Produce Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores a crucial aspect of sustainable mobility: the production of social inequality in mobility systems. The approach taken is to focus on how, as new transit infrastructures create alternative ways of traveling in and accessing the city, they create changed conditions for the forma......This paper explores a crucial aspect of sustainable mobility: the production of social inequality in mobility systems. The approach taken is to focus on how, as new transit infrastructures create alternative ways of traveling in and accessing the city, they create changed conditions...... for the formation of subject identities. New types of travellers are realised in the newly engineered spaces of mobility. The paper argues that this focus on these emergent mobile subject types can be useful in investigating the social inequalities that can result from the introduction of new infrastructures...... are constructed and how social inequality is materially produced....

  7. Producing The New Regressive Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Christine

    members, this thesis investigates a growing political trend and ideological discourse in the Arab world that I have called The New Regressive Left. On the premise that a media outlet can function as a forum for ideology production, the thesis argues that an analysis of this material can help to trace...... the contexture of The New Regressive Left. If the first part of the thesis lays out the theoretical approach and draws the contextual framework, through an exploration of the surrounding Arab media-and ideoscapes, the second part is an analytical investigation of the discourse that permeates the programmes aired...... becomes clear from the analytical chapters is the emergence of the new cross-ideological alliance of The New Regressive Left. This emerging coalition between Shia Muslims, religious minorities, parts of the Arab Left, secular cultural producers, and the remnants of the political,strategic resistance...

  8. Conducting nanofibres produced by electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Davis, F. J.; Mitchell, G. R.; Robinson, E.

    2009-08-01

    Electrospun fibres based on polypyrrole have been prepared. The incorporation of preformed polypyrrole into fibres electrospun from a carrier polymer can only be achieved when materials are prepared with particulates smaller than the cross-section of the fibre; even so there are some problems, with the substantial loss of material from the electrode tip. As an alternative approach, soluble polypyrroles can be prepared but these are not of sufficient viscosity to prepare electrospun fibres, once again a carrier polymer must be employed. More effective loadings are gained by the process of coating the outer surface of a pre-spun fibre; in this way electrospun fibres coated with polypyrrole can be prepared. This approach has been adapted to produce silver coated polymer fibres by the use of copolymers of styrene and 3-vinyl benzaldehyde.

  9. Conducting nanofibres produced by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S; Mitchell, G R; Robinson, E; Davis, F J

    2009-01-01

    Electrospun fibres based on polypyrrole have been prepared. The incorporation of preformed polypyrrole into fibres electrospun from a carrier polymer can only be achieved when materials are prepared with particulates smaller than the cross-section of the fibre; even so there are some problems, with the substantial loss of material from the electrode tip. As an alternative approach, soluble polypyrroles can be prepared but these are not of sufficient viscosity to prepare electrospun fibres, once again a carrier polymer must be employed. More effective loadings are gained by the process of coating the outer surface of a pre-spun fibre; in this way electrospun fibres coated with polypyrrole can be prepared. This approach has been adapted to produce silver coated polymer fibres by the use of copolymers of styrene and 3-vinyl benzaldehyde.

  10. Producer flexibility answers market forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Flatern, R.

    1996-01-01

    The petroleum industry was revolutionized in the 1980s when oil became a commodity and rising prices no longer ensured profits. Alliancing, partnering, integration and operator cooperation became economic responses to the 1990s market reality. The industry has long been a bastion of free-marketeering; competition among producers and service providers continues to control prices. But new, more efficient ways of doing business control costs in an industry buffeted by stagnant prices, a prolonged period of downsizing and increasingly difficult and remote operating environments. How long the new business atmosphere will last depends on industry needs and how well things work out. But based on the successes of the immediate past and the foreseeable future, the new cross-company business practices seem destined only to multiply

  11. Process for producing a polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshimura, M; Haruta, K; Matsuzaka, J; Terakado, H

    1969-02-13

    A novel polymer is produced by a novel polymerization or copolymerization process in the presence of a free radical-forming catalyst or radical-forming irradiation energy to provide a monomer of the general formula CH/sub 2/=C(R/sub 1/)(COO)-(R/sub 2/OOCR/sub 3/COO)sub(n)-R/sub 2/OH wherein R/sub 1/ is hydrogen, halogen or alkyl radical containing one or two atoms; R/sub 2/ is an epoxy compound residue; R/sub 3/ is a polybasic anhydride residue; and n is an integer. This polymer: (1) enables the cross-linking reaction, (2) improves the adhesiveness of adhesives, pigments, films and coatings; (3) is adjustable for mutual solubility and affinity when blending with other solvents and resins; (4) is resistant to yellowing and mechanically stronger than the benzene nucleus of styrene; (5) improves the textile dyeing affinity, adhesiveness and dispersion of pigments, and the dimensional stability of films and sheets; (6) is suitable as a molding material of synthetic resins, adhesives and coatings because of its three dimensional cross-linking construction; (7) can control the hardness, flexibility and rigidity of the molding materials; and (8) can lower the cost of production. In an example, 10 g of the monomer of the above mentioned formula wherein n=1, R/sub 1/=CH/sub 3/, R/sub 2/=-(CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/ and R/sub 3/ is ortho-substituted benzene, and 0.1 g of benzol peroxide, are added to ampoule, sealed and polymerized at 120/sup 0/C for 2 hours. Next the contents are precipitated in a large amount of benzene to produce a polymer having a molecular weight of 9,500. The products have good dimensional stability as molding materials.

  12. Role of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis and the effect of qi-tonifying and blood-activating prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIU Xuemin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the role of phosphatase and tensin homology deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver fibrosis and the molecular mechanism of action of qi-tonifying and blood-activating prescription in regulating PTEN and inhibiting liver fibrosis. Methods A total of 27 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, with 9 rats in each group. The rats in liver fibrosis group were treated with CCl4 to establish a model of liver fibrosis, and those in qi-tonifying and blood-activating prescription group were also treated with CCl4 to establish a model and then given a self-made qi-tonifying and blood-activating prescription containing Astragalus membranaceus, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and poria. The rats in the control group were given intraperitoneally injected olive oil. HE staining, Masson staining, and immunohistochemical staining of collagen type I alpha 1 (Col1A1 and collagen type Ⅳ (Col4 were performed to observe the degree of liver fibrosis and collagen deposition; qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot were used to measure the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, PTEN, and downstream genes AKT, mTOR, and p70S6K. A one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of continuous data between multiple groups and the least significant difference t-test was used for further comparison between any two groups. Results In the liver fibrosis group, liver pathology showed perisinusoidal fibrosis and fibrous tissue proliferation, collagen deposition, and formation of fibrous septum in the portal area; compared with the control group, the liver fibrosis group had significant increases in the mRNA and protein expression of TGF-β1, a significant reduction in the expression of PTEN, and significant increases in the mRNA and phosphorylated protein expression of AKT, mTOR, and p70S6K (all P<0.01. The qi-tonifying and blood-activating prescription group had a

  13. Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    numerous new developments that have taken place since then. Hence in this manual it was decided to focus only on reactor produced radioisotopes. This manual contains procedures for 48 important reactor-produced isotopes. These were contributed by major radioisotope producers from different parts of the world and are based on their practical experience. In case of widely used radioisotopes such as 131 I, 32 P and 99 Mo, information from more than one centre is included so that the users can compare the procedures. As in the earlier two versions, a general introductory write-up is included covering basic information on related aspects such as target irradiation, handling facilities, radiation protection and transportation, but in less detail. Relevant IAEA publications on such matters, particularly related to radiation protection and transportation, should be referred to for guidelines. Similarly, the nuclear data contained in the manual are only indicative and the relevant databases should be referred to for more authentic values. It is hoped that the manual will be a useful source of information for those working in radioisotope production laboratories as well as those intending to initiate such activities

  14. MARKETING STRATEGIES OF SMARTPHONES PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markova V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones global market is one of the most dynamically developing markets that can be characterized by high level of competition. The growth of smartphones homogeneity, which is a reduction in difference between technical and functional parameters of smartphones produced by various manufacturers, can be considered the market’s specific feature. The unique situation of high-tech product homogeneity in a fast-growing market is scantily described in specialized literature. The article shows changeability of smartphones global market leaders and explains that the key success factor in such a mature market is marketing. Based on secondary information, marketing strategies of long standing market leader in sales Samsung and overtaking Apple companies are determined as well as strategies of contenders for leadership - Chinese companies Huawei and Lenovo. It is shown on Lenovo case that inexplicit positioning leads to a loss of the growing market share due to offensive marketing strategies of other Chinese companies. The research results broaden the knowledge of methodical potential of marketing strategies in companies’ activities in competitive markets of homogeneous high-tech products.

  15. Producing tantalum or columbium powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rerat, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for the production of tantalum or columbium powder with a high yield within a desired range of particle sizes. A molten salt bath of a double salt comprising either an alkali metal tantalum fluoride or an alkali metal columbium fluoride and a relatively large amount of alkali metal halide diluent salt to act as a heat sink is initially maintained at a temperature a little above the liquidus temperature of the salt mixture. A liquid alkali metal at a comparatively low temperature is added to the continuously stirred bath at a high mass flow rate, and reduces the double salt, producing tantalum or columbium. The reaction is exothermic and causes the temperature to rise rapidly to a desired final reaction temperature within the range 760 to 1000 0 . The liquid alkali metal is thereafter fed at a high mass flow rate to complete the reaction quickly at the final reaction temperature. Forced cooling at a heat extraction rate not less than 42 kilojoules/min./kg. of double salt is used during at least a portion of the reaction cycle at a rate sufficient to maintain the final reaction temperature within a desired range. (author)

  16. Sideways Force Produced During Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, H. R.; Paccagnella, R.; Breslau, J.; Jardin, S.; Sugiyama, L.

    2012-10-01

    We extend previous studies [1] of vertical displacement events (VDE) which can produce disruptions. The emphasis is on the non axisymmetric ``sideways'' wall force Fx. Simulations are performed using the M3D [2] code. A VDE expels magnetic flux through the resistive wall until the last closed flux surface has q VDE is presented. The wall force depends strongly on γτw, where γ is the mode growth rate and τw is the wall resistive penetration time. The force Fx is largest when γτw is a constant of order unity, which depends on the initial conditions. For large values of γτw, the wall force asymptotes to a relatively smaller value, well below the critical value ITER is designed to withstand. The principle of disruption mitigation by massive gas injection is to cause a disruption with large γτw. [4pt] [1] H. R. Strauss, R. Paccagnella, and J. Breslau,Phys. Plasmas 17, 082505 (2010) [2] W. Park, E.V. Belova, G.Y. Fu, X. Tang, H.R. Strauss, L.E. Sugiyama, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999).

  17. Yeast: A new oil producer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beopoulos Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of plant oils or animal fat for biodiesel and specific lipid derivatives for the oleochemical field (such as lubricants, adhesives or plastics have created price imbalance in both the alimentary and energy field. Moreover, the lack of non-edible oil feedstock has given rise to concerns on land-use practices and on oil production strategies. Recently, much attention has been paid to the exploitation of microbial oils. Most of them present lipid profiles similar in type and composition to plants and could therefore have many advantages as are no competitive with food, have short process cycles and their cultivation is independent of climate factors. Among microorganisms, yeasts seem to be very promising as they can be easily genetically enhanced, are suitable for large-scale fermentation and are devoid of endotoxins. This review will focus on the recent understanding of yeasts lipid metabolism, the succeeding genetic engineering of the lipid pathways and the recent developments on fermentation techniques that pointed out yeasts as promising alternative producers for oil or plastic.

  18. Collision-produced atomic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.; Copenhagen Univ.

    1988-01-01

    The last 10-15 years have witnessed the development of a new, powerful class of experimental techniques for atomic collision studies, allowing partial or complete determination of the state of the atoms after a collision event, i.e. the full set of quantum-mechanical scattering amplitudes or - more generally - the density matrix describing the system. Evidently, such studies, involving determination of alignment and orientation parameters, provide much more severe tests of state-of-the-art scattering theories than do total or differential cross section measurements which depend on diagonal elements of the density matrix. The off-diagonal elements give us detailed information about the shape and dynamics of the atomic states. Therefore, close studies of collision-produced atomic states are currently leading to deeper insights into the fundamental physical mechanisms governing the dynamics of atomic collision events. The first part of the lectures deals with the language used to describe atomic states, while the second part presents a selection of recent results for model systems which display fundamental aspects of the collision physics in particularly instructive ways. I shall here restrict myself to atom-atom collisions. The discussion will be focused on states decaying by photon emission though most of the ideas can be easily modified to include electron emission as well. (orig./AH)

  19. Engineering microbes to produce biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackett, Lawrence P

    2011-06-01

    The current biofuels landscape is chaotic. It is controlled by the rules imposed by economic forces and driven by the necessity of finding new sources of energy, particularly motor fuels. The need is bringing forth great creativity in uncovering new candidate fuel molecules that can be made via metabolic engineering. These next generation fuels include long-chain alcohols, terpenoid hydrocarbons, and diesel-length alkanes. Renewable fuels contain carbon derived from carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is derived directly by a photosynthetic fuel-producing organism(s) or via intermediary biomass polymers that were previously derived from carbon dioxide. To use the latter economically, biomass depolymerization processes must improve and this is a very active area of research. There are competitive approaches with some groups using enzyme based methods and others using chemical catalysts. With the former, feedstock and end-product toxicity loom as major problems. Advances chiefly rest on the ability to manipulate biological systems. Computational and modular construction approaches are key. For example, novel metabolic networks have been constructed to make long-chain alcohols and hydrocarbons that have superior fuel properties over ethanol. A particularly exciting approach is to implement a direct utilization of solar energy to make a usable fuel. A number of approaches use the components of current biological systems, but re-engineer them for more direct, efficient production of fuels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reactor-produced therapeutic radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The significant worldwide increase in therapeutic radioisotope applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology requires the dependable production of sufficient levels of radioisotopes for these applications (Reba, 2000; J. Nucl. Med., 1998; Nuclear News, 1999; Adelstein and Manning, 1994). The issues associated with both accelerator- and reactor-production of therapeutic radioisotopes is important. Clinical applications of therapeutic radioisotopes include the use of both sealed sources and unsealed radiopharmaceutical sources. Targeted radiopharmaceutical agents include those for cancer therapy and palliation of bone pain from metastatic disease, ablation of bone marrow prior to stem cell transplantation, treatment modalities for mono and oligo- and polyarthritis, for cancer therapy (including brachytherapy) and for the inhibition of the hyperplastic response following coronary angioplasty and other interventional procedures (For example, see Volkert and Hoffman, 1999). Sealed sources involve the use of radiolabeled devices for cancer therapy (brachytherapy) and also for the inhibition of the hyperplasia which is often encountered after angioplasty, especially with the exponential increase in the use of coronary stents and stents for the peripheral vasculature and other anatomical applications. Since neutron-rich radioisotopes often decay by beta decay or decay to beta-emitting daughter radioisotopes which serve as the basis for radionuclide generator systems, reactors are expected to play an increasingly important role for the production of a large variety of therapeutic radioisotopes required for these and other developing therapeutic applications. Because of the importance of the availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes for these applications, an understanding of the contribution of neutron spectra for radioisotope production and determination of those cross sections which have not yet been established is important. This

  1. 7 CFR 1206.16 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... producing, or causing to be produced, mangos beyond the person's own family use and having value at first... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.16 Producer. Producer means...

  2. Mass-producing B mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksan, Roy; Ali, Ahmed

    1993-06-15

    Since the discovery of the upsilon resonances in 1977 the physics of the fifth quark - beauty - has played a vital role in establishing and consolidating today's Standard Model of particle physics. In recent years, a wealth of data on B particle (containing the beauty quark) has emerged from the detectors ARGUS (at the DORIS ring, DESY, Hamburg) and CLEO (at the Cornell CESR ring) as well as from CERN's LEP electron-positron collider and the proton-antiproton colliders at CERN and Fermilab. But the most challenging goal of this physics is to explore the mystery of CP violation, so far only seen in neutral kaon decays. This subtle mechanism - a disregard for the combined symmetry of particle antiparticle switching and left-right reflection - possibly moulded the evolution of the Universe after the Big Bang, providing a world dominated by matter, rather than one where matter and antimatter play comparable roles. To fully explore CP violation in the laboratory needs a dedicated machine - a particle 'factory' - to mass produce B mesons. Only when this full picture of CP violation has been revealed will physicists finally be able to solve its mysteries. As well as major proposals in the US and Japan, several ideas have been launched in Europe. Over the years, many working groups have accumulated an impressive amount of data and knowledge on the physics as well as on the machine and detectors. The spearheads of experimental B physics are the ARGUS and CLEO collaborations. Highlights include the determination of the parameters of the (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa, CKM) quark mixing matrix, testing the consistency of the Standard Model with six quarks and three leptons, and giving the first indirect hint that the as yet unseen sixth ('top') quark is very heavy, together with initial indications of how it should decay. Valuable complementary information has come from proton-antiproton collider data and particularly from the LEP experiments at the Z resonance. Experiments at

  3. Mass-producing B mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, Roy; Ali, Ahmed

    1993-01-01

    Since the discovery of the upsilon resonances in 1977 the physics of the fifth quark - beauty - has played a vital role in establishing and consolidating today's Standard Model of particle physics. In recent years, a wealth of data on B particle (containing the beauty quark) has emerged from the detectors ARGUS (at the DORIS ring, DESY, Hamburg) and CLEO (at the Cornell CESR ring) as well as from CERN's LEP electron-positron collider and the proton-antiproton colliders at CERN and Fermilab. But the most challenging goal of this physics is to explore the mystery of CP violation, so far only seen in neutral kaon decays. This subtle mechanism - a disregard for the combined symmetry of particle antiparticle switching and left-right reflection - possibly moulded the evolution of the Universe after the Big Bang, providing a world dominated by matter, rather than one where matter and antimatter play comparable roles. To fully explore CP violation in the laboratory needs a dedicated machine - a particle 'factory' - to mass produce B mesons. Only when this full picture of CP violation has been revealed will physicists finally be able to solve its mysteries. As well as major proposals in the US and Japan, several ideas have been launched in Europe. Over the years, many working groups have accumulated an impressive amount of data and knowledge on the physics as well as on the machine and detectors. The spearheads of experimental B physics are the ARGUS and CLEO collaborations. Highlights include the determination of the parameters of the (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa, CKM) quark mixing matrix, testing the consistency of the Standard Model with six quarks and three leptons, and giving the first indirect hint that the as yet unseen sixth ('top') quark is very heavy, together with initial indications of how it should decay. Valuable complementary information has come from proton-antiproton collider data and particularly from the LEP experiments at the

  4. 7 CFR 1212.19 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... producing, or causing to be produced, honey beyond personal use and having value at first point of sale. ... person who is engaged in the production and sale of honey in any State and who owns, or shares the...

  5. Genetic engineering of to produce Bacterial Polyhydroxyalkanotes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PHAs), in the sense of an environmental precaution appears meaningful and necessary. In order to more economically produce microbial products, this investigation was focused on suitable producers, like the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe ...

  6. Characterization of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum F1 and ... brevis OG1 isolated from Nigerian fermented food products, produced bacteriocins ... interest for food safety and may have future applications as food preservative.

  7. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk) and butterfat in milk of a producer that is: (a) Received by the operator of a pool... percentage in paragraph (d)(2) of this section may be increased or decreased by the market administrator if...

  8. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk), including nonfat components, and butterfat in milk of a producer that is: (a... percentages in paragraph (d)(4) of this section may be increased or decreased by the market administrator if...

  9. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk) and butterfat contained in milk of a producer that is: (a) Received by the operator... be increased or decreased by the Market Administrator if the Market Administrator finds that such...

  10. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk), including nonfat components, and butterfat contained in milk of a producer that is...) of this section may be increased or decreased by the market administrator if there is a finding that...

  11. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk) and butterfat contained in milk of a producer that is: (a) Received by the operator... (d) (1) through (3) of this section may be increased or decreased by the market administrator if the...

  12. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs and...

  13. Mechanism of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity. Hepatocellular damage by reactive carbon tetrachloride metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll, M.; Weber, L.W.D.; Becker, E.; Stampfl, A. [Inst. of Toxicology, GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2001-08-01

    CCl{sub 4}-induced liver damage was modeled in monolayer cultures of rat primary hepatocytes with a focus on involvement of covalent binding of CCl{sub 4} metabolites to cell components and/or peroxidative damage as the cause of injury. (1) Covalent binding of {sup 14}C-labeled metabolites was detected in hepatocytes immediately after exposure to CCl{sub 4}. (2) Low oxygen partial pressure increased the reductive metabolism of CCl{sub 4} and thus covalent binding. (3) [{sup 14}C]-CCl{sub 4} was bound to lipids and to proteins throughout subcellular fractions. Binding occurred preferentially to triacylglycerols and phospholipids, with phosphatidylcholine containing the highest amount of label. (4) The lipid peroxidation potency of CCl{sub 4} revealed subtle differences compared to other peroxidative substances, viz., ADP-Fe{sup 3+} and cumol hydroperoxide, respectively. (5) CCl{sub 4}, but not the other peroxidative substances, decreased the rate of triacylglycerol secretion as very low density lipoproteins. (6) The anti-oxidant vitamin E ({alpha}-tocopherol) blocked lipid peroxidation, but not covalent binding, and secretion of lipoproteins remained inhibited. (7) The radical scavenger piperonyl butoxide prevented CCl{sub 4}-induced lipid peroxidation as well as covalent binding of CCl{sub 4} metabolites to cell components, and also restored lipoprotein metabolism. The results confirm that covalent binding of the CCl{sub 3}{sup *} radical to cell components initiates the inhibition of lipoprotein secretion and thus steatosis, whereas the reaction with oxygen, to form CCl{sub 3}-OO{sup *}, initiates lipid peroxidation. The two processes are independent of each other, and the extent to which either process occurs depends on partial oxygen pressure. The former process may result in adduct formation and, ultimately, cancer initiation, whereas the latter results in loss of calcium homeostasis and, ultimately, apoptosis and cell death. (orig.)

  14. Inventory transparency for agricultural produce through IOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S. P.; Sorna Shanthi, D.; Anand, Aashish V.

    2017-06-01

    Re-structuring the practices of traditional inventory management is becoming more essential to optimize the supply chain transparency and accuracy of agricultural produce. A flexible and transparent inventory management system is becoming the need of any agricultural commodity. It was noticed that the major setback for the farmers who are the suppliers of the farm produce is due to poor supply chain integration. The recent advent technologies and IT explosion can bring up a greater impact in the process of storing, tracking, distributing and monitoring perishable agriculture produce of day to day life. The primary focus of this paper is to integrate IoT into inventory management and other inbound logistics management of agriculture produce. The unique features of agricultural produce like a prediction of supply, demand, the location of warehouses, distribution and tracking of inventory can be integrated through IoT. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for inventory management transparency involved in the supply chain of agriculture produce.

  15. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  16. Bioavailability of isoflavones from soy products in equol producers and non-producers in Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Miura

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: The results in this study suggest that bioavailability of isoflavones are different between equol producers and non-producers, because the 24 h urinary excretion of equol in the equol producers were significantly lower than those in the equol non-producers.

  17. Stable, fertile, high polyhydroxyalkanoate producing plants and methods of producing them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohmert-Tatarev, Karen; McAvoy, Susan; Peoples, Oliver P.; Snell, Kristi D.

    2015-08-04

    Transgenic plants that produce high levels of polyhydroxybutyrate and methods of producing them are provided. In a preferred embodiment the transgenic plants are produced using plastid transformation technologies and utilize genes which are codon optimized. Stably transformed plants able to produce greater than 10% dwt PHS in tissues are also provided.

  18. Potential biosurfactant producing endophytic and epiphytic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential biosurfactant producing endophytic and epiphytic fungi, isolated from macrophytes in the Negro River in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. ... Solms and Cyperus ligularis L., macrophytes collected from oil-contaminated waters, were studied to assess their potential for producing biosurfactants; the most promising ones ...

  19. Understanding producers' motives for adopting sustainable practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo-Barrera, Andres; Pennings, Joost M.E.; Hofenk, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the motives and risk attitudes of producers to engage in sustainable practices is important for policy-makers who wish to increase the likelihood of adoption and improve the design of incentives. This article examines the underlying motives of producers to adopt sustainable

  20. Does Bt Corn Really Produce Tougher Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bt corn hybrids produce insecticidal proteins that are derived from a bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. There have been concerns that Bt corn hybrids produce residues that are relatively resistant to decomposition. We conducted four experiments that examined the decomposition of corn residues und...

  1. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section, Producer milk means the skim milk (or skim milk equivalent of components of skim milk), including... filed a request in writing with the market administrator before the first day of the month the agreement... producer deliveries of each according to a method approved by the market administrator. (4) Diverted milk...

  2. Automatic produce quality monitoring in Reefer containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukasse, L.J.S.; Sanders, M.G.; Kramer, de J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Current day perishable supply chains require intermediate points for manual produce quality inspection. Over the last decade international seatransport of fruit and vegetables in reefer containers has grown tremendously. Reefer containers may completely close the cold chain only if produce quality

  3. 7 CFR 1206.8 - Foreign producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... produced, mangos beyond the person's own family use and having value at first point of sale. ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.8 Foreign producer. Foreign...

  4. Technology development for producing nickel metallic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubler, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    A technology to produce metallic filters by Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN-Brazilian CNEN) providing the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-Brazilian CNEN) in obtaining nickel alloy filters used for filtration process of uranium hexafluoride, was developed. The experiences carried out for producing nickel conical trunk filters from powder metallurgy are related. (M.C.K.)

  5. Music Teacher as Writer and Producer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randles, Clint

    2012-01-01

    In this article I attempt to redefine the role of a music teacher as being more than a director, the more traditional term ascribed to this position. I do this by using descriptions of the role of "writer" and "producer" of student lives borrowed from music education philosophy, screenwriting, and professional music producers. This vision is…

  6. Isolation and molecular characterization of phytase producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and molecular characterization of phytase producing bacteria from Malaysia hot springs. ... The strains were further analyzed in broth culture using sodium phytate as substrate. Among them, strain L3 was selected as the best producer (0.16 U/ml after 72 h of culture). This phytase showed optimal activity at 37 °C ...

  7. Extended Producer Responsibility in the Aviation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Marisa; Laan, Erwin; Irion, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we investigate recent initiatives with respect to extended producer responsibility in the aviation sector. We compare those with the existing practices in the automobile sector and the emerging regulations in the shipping sector. We describe the challenges and the lessons to be learned from the evolution and state of extended producer responsibility in these two industries.

  8. Exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caggianiello, Graziano; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Spano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is able to produce capsular or extracellular polysaccharides, with various chemical compositions and properties. Polysaccharides produced by LAB alter the rheological properties of the matrix in which they are dispersed, leading to typically viscous and

  9. Producer services, economic geography, and services tradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vaal, A; van den Berg, M

    We investigate how the incorporation of producer services linkages affects the outcome of an economic geography model. We specify the production of manufactures such that a variety of producer services is needed to transform tradable unfinished goods into final consumption goods. We find that

  10. Bacteriocin producers from traditional food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonart P.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 220 strains of LAB isolated from 32 samples of traditional fermented food from Senegal were screened for bacteriocin production. Two bacteriocin producers, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Enterococcus faecium, were identified from 12 bacteriocin-producing isolates on the basis of phenotypic analyses and 16S rDNA sequence. Both bacteriocins produced by new isolates show antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus coagulans whereas only that produced by Lactococcus lactis has an activity against Bacillus cereus. Bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis strains were found in a variety of traditional foods indicating a high potential of growth of this strain in variable ecological complex environment. Partial 16S rDNA of the two bacteriocin producers obtained in this study has been registered to Genbank databases under the accession number AY971748 for Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (named CWBI-B1410 and AY971749 for Enterococcus faecium (named CWBI-B1411. The new bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain has been selected for identification and application of the bacteriocin to food preservation.

  11. US producers in a competitive market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, M.

    1987-01-01

    The current (1986) situation in the world-wide uranium market is explained and the competitiveness of United States producers is considered in this context. Historical export contracts by US producers are examined to evaluate how sales quantities by region have changed. The influence of inflation and exchange rates on production costs are considered. The threat of US protectionism is discussed. Despite the contraction of the US uranium industry in recent years a number of US producers have remained competitive. Factors which could increase US competitiveness are listed. (U.K.)

  12. Method for producing uranium atomic beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krikorian, O.H.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for producing a beam of neutral uranium atoms by vaporizing uranium from a compound UM/sub x/ heated to produce U vapor from an M boat or from some other suitable refractory container such as a tungsten boat, where M is a metal whose vapor pressure is negligible compared with that of uranium at the vaporization temperature. The compound, for example, may be the uranium-rhenium compound, URe 2 . An evaporation rate in excess of about 10 times that of conventional uranium beam sources is produced

  13. Methods and systems for producing syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Grant L; O& #x27; Brien, James E; Stoots, Carl M; Herring, J. Stephen; McKellar, Michael G; Wood, Richard A; Carrington, Robert A; Boardman, Richard D

    2013-02-05

    Methods and systems are provided for producing syngas utilizing heat from thermochemical conversion of a carbonaceous fuel to support decomposition of at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells. Simultaneous decomposition of carbon dioxide and water or steam by one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells may be employed to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A portion of oxygen produced from at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells is fed at a controlled flow rate in a gasifier or combustor to oxidize the carbonaceous fuel to control the carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratio produced.

  14. Natural rubber producing plants: An overview | Venkatachalam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Hevea and also other natural rubber producing species for alternative source of latex production in the near future. Keywords: Alternative rubber sources, biotechnology, breeding, Hevea brasiliensis, Parthenium argentatum, Taraxacum koksaghyz, Ficus bengalensis, Lactuca serriola. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  15. Methods of producing compounds from plant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Schmidt, Andrew J [Richland, WA; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H. , Franz; James A. , Alnajjar; Mikhail S. , Neuenschwander; Gary G. , Alderson; Eric V. , Orth; Rick J. , Abbas; Charles A. , Beery; Kyle E. , Rammelsberg; Anne M. , Kim; Catherine, J [Decatur, IL

    2010-01-26

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  16. Methods of producing compounds from plant material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Alderson, Eric V.; Orth, Rick J.; Abbas, Charles A.; Beery, Kyle E.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.; Kim, Catherine J.

    2006-01-03

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  17. (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... the most common serious bacterial infections in infants ... UTI is a common cause of morbidity .... of ESBL and non-ESBL producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. ... in hospital and community acquired infections.

  18. Must producers earn a resource rent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    In petroleum producing countries it has been a prevailing opinion that a resource rent should be earned by petroleum producers due to the commodities' non-renewable nature. An important element in this logic is that the supply of oil and natural gas is limited to relatively few places in the world. As the resources are exploited, the remaining reserves are reduced. What is extracted today cannot be extracted tomorrow. Rationing of the scarce resource takes place through pricing mechanisms. Due to the scarcity the consumers must pay a higher price than the marginal production costs, so that the amounts supplied and demanded become equal. Most producers of oil and gas and not just the ones that produce the cheapest, have therefore until now earned an economic rent

  19. How to: Produce a Good Poster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, D

    1984-01-01

    'Poster sessions' have become a widespread feature of medical meetings. Here, an experienced medical artist gives his guidelines for producing a poster that provides clear information in an attractive and easy-to-assemble format.

  20. Sideways wall force produced during tokamak disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, H.; Paccagnella, R.; Breslau, J.; Sugiyama, L.; Jardin, S.

    2013-07-01

    A critical issue for ITER is to evaluate the forces produced on the surrounding conducting structures during plasma disruptions. We calculate the non-axisymmetric ‘sideways’ wall force Fx, produced in disruptions. Simulations were carried out of disruptions produced by destabilization of n = 1 modes by a vertical displacement event (VDE). The force depends strongly on γτwall, where γ is the mode growth rate and τwall is the wall penetration time, and is largest for γτwall = constant, which depends on initial conditions. Simulations of disruptions caused by a model of massive gas injection were also performed. It was found that the wall force increases approximately offset linearly with the displacement from the magnetic axis produced by a VDE. These results are also obtained with an analytical model. Disruptions are accompanied by toroidal variation of the plasma current Iφ. This is caused by toroidal variation of the halo current, as verified computationally and analytically.

  1. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  2. 7 CFR 1430.510 - New producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430... in 1999 or 2000 and not affiliated with other eligible producers may receive payments from sums made...

  3. Diagnostics of laser-produced plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batani Dimitri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the general challenges of plasma diagnostics for laser-produced plasmas and give a few more detailed examples: spherically bent crystals for X-ray imaging, velocity interferometers (VISAR for shock studies, and proton radiography.

  4. An anaerobic mitochondrion that produces hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, Brigitte; Graaf, Rob M. de; Staay, Georg W.M. van der; Alen, Theo A. van; Ricard, Guenola; Gabaldón, Toni; Hoek, Angela H.A.M. van; Moon-van der Staay, Seung Yeo; Koopman, Werner J.H.; Hellemond, Jaap J. van; Tielens, Aloysius G.M.; Friedrich, Thorsten; Veenhuis, Marten; Huynen, Martijn A.; Hackstein, Johannes H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogenosomes are organelles that produce ATP and hydrogen, and are found in various unrelated eukaryotes, such as anaerobic flagellates, chytridiomycete fungi and ciliates. Although all of these organelles generate hydrogen, the hydrogenosomes from these organisms are structurally and

  5. Hospital waste management and other small producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, H.; Roy, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes waste management in hospitals and other waste producers. Low-level radioactive wastes are collected by ANDRA (French Agency for radioactive waste management) and informations on waste processing or regulations on radiation sources are given

  6. How To Produce and Characterize Transgenic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savka, Michael A.; Wang, Shu-Yi; Wilson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Explains the process of establishing transgenic plants which is a very important tool in plant biology and modern agriculture. Produces transgenic plants with the ability to synthesize opines. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  7. Strategies of development of European power producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heddebaut, D.

    2007-12-01

    This economical study answers the following questions: what is the dynamics of European power markets? What is the relative competitiveness of the different power production means? What are the determining factors of electricity wholesale prices? Who are the operators the most threatened by the rise of wholesale prices? To what extend power producers are impacted by the CO 2 constrain? Who are the most efficient producers? The analysis is based on 18 of the most representative groups of the European electric utilities. The first volume of the study presents the strategic perspectives of European power producers: dynamics and basic characteristics of European power markets, strategic options of European operators, typology and financial results of European power producers, scenarios of market reorganization according to Eurostaf (possible mega-mergers in the future, competition). Volume 2 makes a detailed analysis of the positioning and perspectives of the 18 selected groups: key figures, sourcing strategies, production means management, Eurostaf's diagnosis. (J.S.)

  8. Recovery of metal chlorides from their complexes by molten salt displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Stoltz, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a process for recovering zirconium or hafnium chloride from a complex of zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride and phosphorus oxychloride. The process comprising: introducing liquid complex of zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride and phosphorus oxychloride into an upper portion of a feed column containing zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride vapor and phosphorus oxychloride vapor. The liquid complex absorbing zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride vapor and producing a bottoms liquid and also producing a phosphorus oxychloride vapor stripped of zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride; introducing the bottoms liquid into a molten salt containing displacement reactor, the reactor containing molten salt comprising at least 30 mole percent lithium chloride and at least 30 mole percent of at least one other alkali metal chloride, the reactor being heated to 30-450 0 C to displace phosphorus oxychloride from the complex and product zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride vapor and phosphorus oxychloride vapor and zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride-containing molten salt; introducing the zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride vapor and the phosphorus oxychloride vapor into the feed column below the point of introduction of the liquid stream; introducing the zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride containing-molten salt into a recovery vessel where zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride is removed from the molten salt to produce zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride product and zirconium or hafnium chloride-depleted molten salt; and recycling the zirconium or hafnium tetachloride-depleted molten salt to the displacement reactor

  9. Petroleum term markets and OPEC producers countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensarsa, F.

    1994-01-01

    The situation of petroleum producers countries in front of term markets is described. With an economics liberalization, policy configuration changing the energetic balance (increasing of american imports, of asiatic demand and developing countries; decreasing of russian production), a more efficient technology, a right management of energetic resources with energy economy, renewable energies and non polluting energies, it is difficult for producers countries to resist at the pressure of financing tools, more and more modern and efficient as they are term markets

  10. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Terry; Frost, Carol; Hayes, Thomas; Heath, Leo; Johnson, Drew; Lopez, David; Saffer, Demian; Urynowicz, Michael; Wheaton, John; Zoback, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm

  11. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  12. Produced water treatment methods for SAGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnich, K. [Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Produced water treatment methods for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes were presented. Lime softening is used to remove sludge before weak acid cation processes. However, the process is not reliable in cold climates, and disposal of the sludge is now posing environmental problems in Alberta. High pH MVC evaporation processes use sodium hydroxide (NaOH) additions to prevent silica scaling. However the process produces silica wastes that are difficult to dispose of. The sorption slurry process was designed to reduce the use of caustic soda and develop a cost-effective method of disposing evaporator concentrates. The method produces 98 per cent steam quality for SAGD injection. Silica is sorbed onto crystals in order to prevent silica scaling. The evaporator concentrate from the process is suitable for on- and off-site deep well disposal. The ceramic membrane process was designed to reduce the consumption of chemicals and improve the reliability of water treatment processes. The ion exchange desilication process uses 80 per cent less power and produces 80 per cent fewer CO{sub 2} emissions than MVC evaporators. A comparative operating cost evaluation of various electric supply configurations and produced water treatment processes was also included, as well as an analysis of produced water chemistry. tabs., figs.

  13. Wintertime Emissions from Produced Water Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J.; Lyman, S.; Mansfield, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Every year oil and gas drilling in the U.S. generates billions of barrels of produced water (water brought to the surface during oil or gas production). Efficiently disposing of produced water presents a constant financial challenge for producers. The most noticeable disposal method in eastern Utah's Uintah Basin is the use of evaporation ponds. There are 427 acres of produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin, and these were used to evaporate more than 5 million barrels of produced water in 2012, 6% of all produced water in the Basin. Ozone concentrations exceeding EPA standards have been observed in the Uintah Basin during winter inversion conditions, with daily maximum 8 hour average concentrations at some research sites exceeding 150 parts per billion. Produced water contains ozone-forming volatile organic compounds (VOC) which escape into the atmosphere as the water is evaporated, potentially contributing to air quality problems. No peer-reviewed study of VOC emissions from produced water ponds has been reported, and filling this gap is essential for the development of accurate emissions inventories for the Uintah Basin and other air sheds with oil and gas production. Methane, carbon dioxide, and VOC emissions were measured at three separate pond facilities in the Uintah Basin in February and March of 2013 using a dynamic flux chamber. Pond emissions vary with meteorological conditions, so measurements of VOC emissions were collected during winter to obtain data relevant to periods of high ozone production. Much of the pond area at evaporation facilities was frozen during the study period, but areas that actively received water from trucks remained unfrozen. These areas accounted for 99.2% of total emissions but only 9.5% of the total pond area on average. Ice and snow on frozen ponds served as a cap, prohibiting VOC from being emitted into the atmosphere. Emissions of benzene, toluene, and other aromatic VOCs averaged over 150 mg m-2 h-1 from unfrozen pond

  14. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-01-01

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  15. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  16. Bacteriocin-producing Enterococci from Rabbit Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabóová, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Enterococci are lactic acid bacteria belonging to the division Firmicutes. They occur in different ecosystems, rabbits including. Enterococci can possess probiotic properties and produce antimicrobial substances-bacteriocins. Rabbit meat as nutritionally healthy food offers novel source to study bacteriocin-producing and/or probiotic enterococci. Methodology and results: Enterococci were detected from rabbit meat samples (42. Most of the isolates were allotted to the species Enterococcus faecium by PCR method. The isolates have possessed the structural genes for enterocins A, P, B production. The inhibitory substances produced by the isolated enterococci inhibited the growth of 12 indicators. Of 34 isolates, 15 strains have shown the antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes CCM 4699, 12 strains against S. aureus 3A3, 10 strains against S. aureus 5A2 as well as Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4. Moreover, enterococci have tolerated 5 % bile, low pH; they have produced lactid acid in the amount from 0.740 ± 0.091 to 1.720 ± 0.095 mmol/l. The isolates were mostly sensitive to antibiotics. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Bacteriocin-producing strain E. faecium M3a has been selected for more detail characterization of its bacteriocin and probiotic properties with the aim for its further application as an additive.

  17. Management of small producers waste in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabjan, Marija; Rojc, Joze

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Radioactive materials are extensively used in Slovenia in various fields and applications in medicine, industry and research. For the managing of radioactive waste raised from these establishments the Agency for radwaste management (ARAO) was authorised as the state public service of managing the radioactive waste in 1999. The public service of the radioactive waste of small producers in Slovenia is performed in line with the Governmental decree on the Mode, Subject and Terms of Performing the Public Service of Radioactive Waste Management (Official Gazette RS No. 32/99). According to the Decree the scope of the public service includes: 'collection of the waste from small producers at the producers' premises and its transportation to the storage facility for treatment, storing and disposal', 'acceptance of radioactive waste in case of emergency situation on the premises, in case of transport accidents or some other accidents', 'acceptance of radioactive waste in cases when the producer is unknown', 'management (collection, transport, pre-treatment, storing, together with QA and radiation protection measures) of radioactive waste', 'treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste for storing and disposal', and 'operating of the Central Interim Storage for LIL waste from small producers'. After taking over the performing of the public service, ARAO first started with the project for refurbishment and modernization of the Central Interim Storage Facility, including improvements of the storage utilization and rearrangement of the stored waste. (authors)

  18. Characterization of Soluble Organics in Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, D.T.

    2002-01-16

    Soluble organics in produced water and refinery effluents represent treatment problems for the petroleum industry. Neither the chemistry involved in the production of soluble organics nor the impact of these chemicals on total effluent toxicity is well understood. The U.S. Department of Energy provides funding for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support a collaborative project with Shell, Chevron, Phillips, and Statoil entitled ''Petroleum and Environmental Research Forum project (PERF 9844: Manage Water-Soluble Organics in Produced Water''). The goal of this project, which involves characterization and evaluation of these water-soluble compounds, is aimed at reducing the future production of such contaminants. To determine the effect that various drilling conditions might have on water-soluble organics (WSO) content in produced water, a simulated brine water containing the principal inorganic components normally found in Gulf of Mexico (GOM) brine sources was prepared. The GOM simulant was then contacted with as-received crude oil from a deep well site to study the effects of water cut, produced-water pH, salinity, pressure, temperature, and crude oil sources on the type and content of the WSO in produced water. The identities of individual semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were determined in all as-received crude and actual produced water samples using standard USEPA Method (8270C) protocol. These analyses were supplemented with the more general measurements of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in the gas (C{sub 6}-C{sub 10}), diesel (C{sub 10}-C{sub 20}), and oil (C{sub 20}-C{sub 28}) carbon ranges as determined by both gas chromatographic (GC) and infrared (IR) analyses. An open liquid chromatographic procedure was also used to differentiate the saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, and polar components within the extractable TPH. Inorganic constituents in the produced water were analyzed by ion

  19. Recycling of aluminum to produce green energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Susana Silva; Lopez Benites, Wendy; Alvarez Gallegos, Alberto A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos C.P. 62210 (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-15

    High-purity hydrogen gas was generated from the chemical reaction of aluminum with sodium hydroxide. Several molar relations of sodium hydroxide/aluminum were investigated in this study. The experimental results showed that hydrogen yields are acceptable and its purity was good enough to be used in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell to produce electricity. An estimation of the amount of energy produced from the reaction of 100 aluminum cans with caustic soda showed that the hydrogen production is feasible to be scaled up to reach up to 5kWh in a few hours. This study is environmentally friendly and also shows that green energy can be produced from aluminum waste at a low cost.

  20. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  1. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T >approx. 600 0 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10 3 μm) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants

  2. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifen [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian Guo [Newton, MA; Lao, Jing Y [Chestnut Hill, MA; Li, Wenzhi [Brookline, MA

    2008-10-28

    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  3. Reduction of radioactivity produced by nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessler, Richard M [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Four main sources contribute to the radioactivity produced by a nuclear explosive: 1. Fission products from the nuclear explosive, 2. Fusion products from the nuclear explosive, 3. Induced radioactivity in the nuclear explosive, 4. Induced radioactivity in the environment. This paper will summarize some of the work done at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory at Livermore to reduce the radioactivity from these sources to levels acceptable for peaceful applications. Although it is theoretically possible to have no radioactivity produced by nuclear explosives, this goal has not been achieved.

  4. Producing of multicomponent and composite surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchon, T.; Bielinski, P.; Michalski, A.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a new method of producing multicomponent and composite layers on steel substrate. The combination of nickel plating with glow-discharge bordering or impulse-plasma deposition method gives an opportunity to obtain good properties of surface layers. The results of examinations of carbon 45 (0.45%C) steel, nickel plated and then borided under glow discharge conditions or covered with TiN layers are presented. The corrosion and friction wear resistance of such layers are markedly higher than for layer produced on non nickel plated substrates. (author). 19 refs, 5 figs

  5. Article and process for producing an article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Jacala, Ariel Caesar Prepena; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Schick, David Edward

    2017-10-24

    An article and a process of producing an article are provided. The article includes a base material, a cooling feature arrangement positioned on the base material, the cooling feature arrangement including an additive-structured material, and a cover material. The cooling feature arrangement is between the base material and the cover material. The process of producing the article includes manufacturing a cooling feature arrangement by an additive manufacturing technique, and then positioning the cooling feature arrangement between a base material and a cover material.

  6. Radiation produced by electrons incident on molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehlman, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    The work described in this thesis deals with light intensity measurements of emission spectra (1850-9000 A) produced by a continuous or pulsed beam of monoenergetic electrons (0 - 2000 eV) incident on a variety of molecular gases like H 2 , D 2 , H 2 O, HCl, NH 3 and several hydrocarbons. The emission spectra are dominated by fluorescence from excited fragments produced via dissociative excitation, besides fluorescence from excited parent molecules themselves. The experimental results thus obtained are expressed in terms of emission cross sections and lifetimes

  7. Energy transport in laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.

    1989-06-01

    The study of energy transport in laser produced plasmas is of great interest both because it tests and develops understanding of several aspects of basic plasma physics and also because it is of central importance in major applications of laser produced plasmas including laser fusion, the production of intense X-ray sources, and X-ray lasers. The three sections cover thermal electrons (energy transport in one dimension, plane targets and lateral transport from a focal spot, thermal smoothing, thermal instabilities), hot electrons (preheating in one dimension, lateral transport from a focal spot) and radiation (preheating in one dimension, lateral transport and smoothing, instabilities). (author)

  8. Polyamic Acid Nanofibers Produced by Needleless Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldrich Jirsak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The polyimide precursor (polyamic acid produced of 4,4′-oxydiphthalic anhydride and 4,4′-oxydianiline was electrospun using needleless electrospinning method. Nonwoven layers consisting of submicron fibers with diameters in the range about 143–470 nm on the polypropylene spunbond supporting web were produced. Filtration properties of these nanofiber layers on the highly permeable polypropylene support—namely filtration effectivity and pressure drop—were evaluated. Consequently, these polyamic acid fibers were heated to receive polyimide nanofibers. The imidization process has been studied using IR spectroscopy. Some comparisons with the chemically identical polyimide prepared as the film were made.

  9. Exceptional Antibodies Produced by Successive Immunizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Gearhart

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies stand between us and pathogens. Viruses mutate quickly to avoid detection, and antibodies mutate at similar rates to hunt them down. This death spiral is fueled by specialized proteins and error-prone polymerases that change DNA sequences. Here, we explore how B lymphocytes stay in the race by expressing activation-induced deaminase, which unleashes a tsunami of mutations in the immunoglobulin loci. This produces random DNA substitutions, followed by selection for the highest affinity antibodies. We may be able to manipulate the process to produce better antibodies by expanding the repertoire of specific B cells through successive vaccinations.

  10. Biologically produced sulfur particles and polysulfide ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effects of particles of biologically produced sulfur (or 'biosulfur') on a biotechnological process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams. Particular emphasis is given to the role of polysulfide ions in such a process. These

  11. Anthropology in the context that produced it

    OpenAIRE

    Terence Rajivan Edward

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates a definition of anthropology at home formulated by Marilyn Strathern in her book contribution ‘The Limits of Auto-Anthropology’. According to the definition, anthropology at home is anthropology carried out in the social context that produced this discipline. I argue that this is not an adequate definition of anthropology at home.

  12. Anthropology in the context that produced it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Rajivan Edward

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates a definition of anthropology at home formulated by Marilyn Strathern in her book contribution ‘The Limits of Auto-Anthropology’. According to the definition, anthropology at home is anthropology carried out in the social context that produced this discipline. I argue that this is not an adequate definition of anthropology at home.

  13. Sycamore produces viable seed after six years

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. F. Ike

    1966-01-01

    In the early stages of any tree improvement program it is desirable to know how soon progenies of selected parents can themselves be included in a breeding program. How soon will they produce viable pollen and seed? In the case of sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), the information is meager: the Woody- Plant Seed Manual lists the minimum commercial seedbearing age...

  14. Producing high-quality slash pine seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Barnett; Sue Varela

    2003-01-01

    Slash pine is a desirable species. It serves many purposes and is well adapted to poorly drained flatwoods and seasonally flooded areas along the lower Coastal Plain of the Southeastern US. The use of high-quality seeds has been shown to produce uniform seedlings for outplanting, which is key to silvicultural success along the Coastal Plain and elsewhere. We present...

  15. Method for producing substrates for superconducting layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    There is provided a method for producing a substrate (600) suitable for supporting an elongated superconducting element, wherein, e.g., a deformation process is utilized in order to form disruptive strips in a layered solid element, and where etching is used to form undercut volumes (330, 332...

  16. New techniques for producing thin boron films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A review will be presented of methods for producing thin boron films using an electron gun. Previous papers have had the problem of spattering of the boron source during the evaporation. Methods for reducing this problem will also be presented. 12 refs., 4 figs

  17. Method for Producing Substrates for Superconducting Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    There is provided a method for producing a substrate suitable for supporting an elongated superconducting element, wherein one or more elongated strips of masking material are placed on a solid element (202) so as to form one or more exposed elongated areas being delimited on one or two sides...

  18. A reappraisal of fungi producing aflatoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Aflatoxins are decaketide-derived secondary metabolites which are produced by a complex biosynthetic pathway. Aflatoxins are among the economically most important mycotoxins. Aflatoxin B1 exhibits hepatocarcinogenic and hepatotoxic properties, and is frequently referred to as the most potent natu...

  19. Thermostable crude endoglucanase produced by Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cellulases are used in many industries worldwide and there is an ever increasing need to isolate, produce or develop thermostable cellulases. Manipulation of fermentation techniques in order to obtain desirable product(s) can be one line of action. In this study Aspergillus fumigatus was grown on chopped wheat straw in a ...

  20. CHARACTERIZING THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STATE PRODUCED BY LSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KATZ, MARTIN M.; AND OTHERS

    THE DEVELOPMENT AND COMPONENTS OF LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE (LSD) PRODUCED PSYCHOLOGICAL STATES ARE INVESTIGATED. THE SUBJECTS WERE PAID VOLUNTEERS FROM THE PATUXENT INSTITUTION, A TREATMENT CENTER FOR EMOTIONALLY UNSTABLE CRIMINAL OFFENDERS. IN ONE STUDY, GROUPS OF 23 SUBJECTS RECEIVED LSD, AN AMPHETAMINE, OR A PLACEBO. IN THE SECOND STUDY, 11…

  1. Atmospheric signals produced by cavity rebound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.M.; App, F.N.; Whitaker, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the atmospheric acoustic signals produced by a class of low-yield tests conducted just below the base of the alluvial cover in Yucca Flat of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), has revealed a clear manifestation of an elastic, cavity rebound signal. We use modeling as the basis for understanding the observed phenomena

  2. Interaction of multiwalled carbon nanotube produces structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) has been found to produce structural changes in Calf Thymus-DNA (CT-DNA). The interaction or binding of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was investigated in order to discover if it brings about any significant changes of the DNA double helix using CD spectra ...

  3. Biological Art of Producing Useful Chemicals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 3. Metabolic Engineering: Biological Art of Producing Useful Chemicals. Ram Kulkarni. General Article Volume 21 Issue 3 March 2016 pp 233-237. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Antimicrobial substances produced by bacteria isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... We report here the preliminary antimicrobial activity of substances produced by Bacillus subtilis NB-6. (air flora isolate) ... Key words: Antimicrobial activity, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Corynebacterium, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. .... products contaminated with animal MRSA is very plausible ...

  5. Producing ammonium chloride from coal or shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, O L

    1921-02-25

    Process of producing ammonium chloride consists of mixing the substance to be treated with a chloride of an alkali or alkaline earth metal, free silica, water and free hydrochloric acid, heating the mixture until ammonium chloride distills off and collecting the ammonium chloride.

  6. Persistent producer-scrounger relationships in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harten, Lee; Matalon, Yasmin; Galli, Naama; Navon, Hagit; Dor, Roi; Yovel, Yossi

    2018-02-01

    Social foraging theory suggests that group-living animals gain from persistent social bonds, which lead to increased tolerance in competitive foraging and information sharing. Bats are among the most social mammals, often living in colonies of tens to thousands of individuals for dozens of years, yet little is known about their social foraging dynamics. We observed three captive bat colonies for over a year, quantifying >13,000 social foraging interactions. We found that individuals consistently used one of two foraging strategies, either producing (collecting) food themselves or scrounging it directly from the mouth of other individuals. Individual foraging types were consistent over at least 16 months except during the lactation period when females shifted toward producing. Scroungers intentionally selected whom to interact with when socially foraging, thus generating persistent nonrandom social relationships with two to three specific producers. These persistent producer-scrounger relationships seem to reduce aggression over time. Finally, scrounging was highly correlated with vigilance, and we hypothesize that vigilant-prone individuals turn to scrounging in the wild to mitigate the risk of landing on a potentially unsafe fruit tree. We find the bat colony to be a rich and dynamic social system, which can serve as a model to study the role that social foraging plays in the evolution of mammalian sociality. Our results highlight the importance of considering individual tendencies when exploring social behavior patterns of group-living animals. These tendencies further emphasize the necessity of studying social networks over time.

  7. Organic metabolites produced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and action of several antibacterial metabolites produced by a fish pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain An3 from marine ecosystem of Goa has been demonstrated. Antibacterial activity of the crude cell extract of the test bacterium has been evaluated against indicator pathogenic bacterial strains such as ...

  8. Produce Your Own: A Community Gardening Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, JoLynn; Arnold, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Many County Extension offices offer an adult Master Gardener Program, which includes advanced gardening training, short courses, newsletters, and conferences. However, with the comprehensive training provided comes a large time commitment. The Produce Your Own program was created to introduce adults to gardening in a similar manner, but with…

  9. Method and apparatus for producing microspherical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egli, W.; Bailey, W.H.; Leary, D.F.; Lansley, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates generally to a method and apparatus for producing microspherical particles and more particularly to a method and apparatus which are particularly useful in connection with the sol-gel process for the production of nuclear fuel kernels. (U.K.)

  10. Poultry Producer. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a comprehensive and verified employer competency list for a poultry producer program. It contains units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability…

  11. Applicability of biotechnologically produced insect silks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Heike M; Scheibel, Thomas

    2017-09-26

    Silks are structural proteins produced by arthropods. Besides the well-known cocoon silk, which is produced by larvae of the silk moth Bombyx mori to undergo metamorphosis inside their silken shelter (and which is also used for textile production by men since millennia), numerous further less known silk-producing animals exist. The ability to produce silk evolved multiple independent times during evolution, and the fact that silk was subject to convergent evolution gave rise to an abundant natural diversity of silk proteins. Silks are used in air, under water, or like honey bee silk in the hydrophobic, waxen environment of the bee hive. The good mechanical properties of insect silk fibres together with their non-toxic, biocompatible, and biodegradable nature renders these materials appealing for both technical and biomedical applications. Although nature provides a great diversity of material properties, the variation in quality inherent in materials from natural sources together with low availability (except from silkworm silk) impeded the development of applications of silks. To overcome these two drawbacks, in recent years, recombinant silks gained more and more interest, as the biotechnological production of silk proteins allows for a scalable production at constant quality. This review summarises recent developments in recombinant silk production as well as technical procedures to process recombinant silk proteins into fibres, films, and hydrogels.

  12. Carbapenemase-producing Organism in Food

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-06

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Carbapenemase-producing Organism in Food.  Created: 8/6/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/13/2014.

  13. Emulsifying behavior of an exopolysaccharide produced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Iyer A, Mody K, Jha B (2005). Characterization of an exopolysaccharide produced by a marine Entrobacter cloaceae. Ind. J. Exp. Biol., 43: 467–471. Matsuda M, Worawattanamateekul W, Okutani K (1992). Simultaneous production of muco- and sulfated polysaccharides by marine. Pseudomonas. Nippon.

  14. Planning and Producing Audiovisual Materials. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Jerrold E.

    A revised edition of this handbook provides illustrated, step-by-step explanations of how to plan and produce audiovisual materials. Included are sections on the fundamental skills--photography, graphics and recording sound--followed by individual sections on photographic print series, slide series, filmstrips, tape recordings, overhead…

  15. User community vs. producer innovation development efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hienerth, Christoph; von Hippel, Eric; Jensen, Morten Berg

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report upon a first empirical exploration of the relative efficiency of innovation development by product users vs. product producers. In a study of over 50 years of product innovation in the whitewater kayaking field, we find users in aggregate were approximately 3× more efficie...

  16. Industrial system for producing iodine-123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantley, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    An industrial system to produce iodine-123 required a complex set of steps involving new approaches by the Food and Drug Administration, difficult distribution procedures, and evidence from potential users that either very pure iodine-123 or inexpensive iodine-123 is needed. Industry has shown its willingness to invest in new radionuclides but needs strong evidence as to product potential to justify those investments

  17. Kinetics of exoglucanase and endoglucanase produced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-04-05

    Apr 5, 2012 ... Zn2+, Ca2+, Mn2+ and Co2+ enhanced the crude activity of EXG and EG ... processes for producing fuels and chemicals from plant ... increasing the yield of the fruit juices, oil extraction and in ... Trichoderma, Humicola and Aspergillus species were .... observation that stability of the fungal cellulases is.

  18. Why does gravitational radiation produce vorticity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, L; Barreto, W; Carot, J; Prisco, A Di

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the vorticity of worldlines of observers at rest in a Bondi-Sachs frame, produced by gravitational radiation, in a general Sachs metric. We claim that such an effect is related to the super-Poynting vector, in a similar way as the existence of the electromagnetic Poynting vector is related to the vorticity in stationary electrovacuum spacetimes

  19. Transforming business education to produce global managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kedia, Ben L.; Englis-Danskin, Paula

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, globalization of businesses has occurred faster than the internationalization of business schools—in terms of faculty, students, and curriculum. Indeed, there is now a disconnect between global economic realities and the ability of business schools to produce global managers. This

  20. Process of producing a fuel, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1924-12-01

    This invention has for its object a process of producing fuels by separating a light oil from primary tar, characterized by a succession of operations comprising preliminary removal of phenols from the oils, removing sulfur completely by the application of suitable catalysts and an agent to fix the free sulfur as hydrogen sulfide; finally, washing to remove ethylenes, pyridines, and impurities from the treatment.

  1. Characterization of biosurfactant produced from submerged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    interfacial tension. This work was designed to produce biosurfactants from the fermentation of .... The cashew apples were collected from. Ubogidi cashew ... and manually crushed to remove the juice using a pestle and mortar. The bagasse was ..... degradation by yeast species Trichosporon asahii isolated from petroleum ...

  2. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yoghurt produce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the physicochemical and sensory acceptability of yoghurt produced from ewe, goat and a mixture of ewe milk and goat milk in Nigeria in order for the populace to harness the nutritional and therapeutic benefits of the milks. Methods: Samples of whole cow milk (WCM) as standard, goat milk (GM), ewe ...

  3. Natural gas supply - a producer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papa, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The supply of natural gas from the producers standpoint is discussed. The following factors in the marketing demand for natural gas are considered to be important: gas demand is growing, U.S. gas resource base is large, chronic gas bubble has shrunk, and North American supply is more resilient than expected

  4. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk), including nonfat... market; (2) The quantity of milk diverted by a handler described in § 1000.9(c) may not exceed 90 percent... a milk classification and pricing program imposed under the authority of a State government...

  5. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk) and butterfat... market administrator if the market administrator finds that such revision is necessary to assure orderly marketing and efficient handling of milk in the marketing area. Before making such a finding, the market...

  6. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk) and butterfat... market administrator if the market administrator finds that such revision is necessary to assure orderly marketing and efficient handling of milk in the marketing area. Before making such a finding, the market...

  7. 7 CFR 1209.15 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Producer. 1209.15 Section 1209.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...

  8. Exobiopolymer from polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing transgenic yeast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subsequently, produced exopolymer was subject for further identification, characterization and analysis. Partial purification of exopolymer was performed and characterized as glycoprotein. HPLC analysis of the polymer revealed the presence of a fructose chain. The functional group analysis by FT-IR spectroscopy showed ...

  9. Process for producing nuclear reactor fuel oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goenrich, H.; Druckenbrodt, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The waste gases of the calcination process furnace in the AVC or AV/PuC process (manufacture of nuclear reactor fuel dioxides) are returned to the furnace in a closed circuit. The NH 3 produced replaces the hydrogen which would otherwise be required for reduction in this process. (orig.) [de

  10. Method of producing thermally stable uranium carbonitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugajin, M.; Takahashi, I.

    1975-01-01

    A thermally stable uranium carbonitride can be produced by adding tungsten and/or molybdenum in the amount of 0.2 wt percent or more, preferably 0.5 wt percent or more, to a pure uranium carbonitride. (U.S.)

  11. Climate forecasts for corn producer decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn is the most widely grown crop in the Americas, with annual production in the United States of approximately 332 million metric tons. Improved climate forecasts, together with climate-related decision tools for corn producers based on these improved forecasts, could substantially reduce uncertai...

  12. Subject Reference Lists Produced by Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-chih Chen

    1968-08-01

    Full Text Available A system developed to produce fourteen subject reference lists by IBM 360/75 is described in detail. The computerized system has many advantages over conventional manual procedures. The feedback from students and other users is discussed, and some analysis of cost is included.

  13. Superconducting lead particles produced by chemical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariss, T. L.; Nixon, W. E.; Bucelot, T. J.; Deaver, B. S., Jr.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1982-09-01

    The superconductivity of extremely small lead particles has been studied as a function of size, surface condition, and connectivity using chemical techniques to produce particles of well-controlled size and shape suspended in insulating media. Approximately monodisperse suspensions of equiaxed, rod, and lath-shaped particles of lead halides and other lead compounds suspended in gelatin, polyacrylamide, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, methyl cellulose, and hydroxyethyl cellulose have been produced. These particles have been reduced to pseudomorphs of lead in the liquid phase or the suspensions have been coated on substrates and dried before reduction. Reducing solutions containing aminoiminomethanesulfinic acid are effective with particles of lead halides, lead phosphate, lead sulfate, and lead tartrate. Suspensions of smaller discrete lead particles have also been produced by direct reduction of solutions of soluble lead salts containing suitable polymers, chelating, and stabilizing agents. Dispersions with mean particle dimensions between 3 nm and 5 μm, and a narrow size-frequency distribution, have been produced. The superconductivity of the particles has been characterized by measurements of the magnetization as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The larger particles have a transition temperature of 7.2 K, the same as bulk lead; however, for particles of characteristic dimensions less than 20 nm, the transition temperature is lower by ˜0.1 K.

  14. Superconducting lead particles produced by chemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fariss, T.L.; Nixon, W.E.; Bucelot, T.J.; Deaver, B.S. Jr.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The superconductivity of extremely small lead particles has been studied as a function of size, surface condition, and connectivity using chemical techniques to produce particles of well-controlled size and shape suspended in insulating media. Approximately monodisperse suspensions of equiaxed, rod, and lath-shaped particles of lead halides and other lead compounds suspended in gelatin, polyacrylamide, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, methyl cellulose, and hydroxyethyl cellulose have been produced. These particles have been reduced to pseudomorphs of lead in the liquid phase or the suspensions have been coated on substrates and dried before reduction. Reducing solutions containing aminoiminomethanesulfinic acid are effective with particles of lead halides, lead phosphate, lead sulfate, and lead tartrate. Suspensions of smaller discrete lead particles have also been produced by direct reduction of solutions of soluble lead salts containing suitable polymers, chelating, and stabilizing agents. Dispersions with mean particle dimensions between 3 nm and 5 μm, and a narrow size-frequency distribution, have been produced. The superconductivity of the particles has been characterized by measurements of the magnetization as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The larger particles have a transition temperature of 7.2 K, the same as bulk lead; however, for particles of characteristic dimensions less than 20 nm, the transition temperature is lower by approx.0.1 K

  15. Producing and Scrounging during Problem Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, William L.

    2013-01-01

    When problem based learning occurs in a social context it is open to a common social behaviour, scrounging. In the animal behaviour literature, scroungers do not attempt to find resources themselves but rather exploit resources found by other group members (referred to as producers). We know from studies of animal behaviour (including humans) that…

  16. Earth's Most Important Producers: Meet the Phytoplankton!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Meghan E.; Stevens, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The ocean is home to some of Earth's most important producers. Single-celled organisms in the ocean are responsible for more than half of Earth's productivity, as well as most of its oxygen. Phytoplankton are single-celled, plantlike organisms. That is, they have chloroplasts and perform photosynthesis, but are not true plants, which are typically…

  17. Urban Stories : Producing news for urban youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christa de Graaf; Dr. Joke Hermes

    2015-01-01

    This paper will query whether a dedicated news platform can attune to young people’s civic needs? That is to ask: can this be a space that follows a social media logic of conversation and ‘give and take’ – with producers and consumers changing roles or even losing the distinction? How could and

  18. Colonization of exopolysaccharide-producing Paenibacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... inhibitory effect against A. niger. Growth, protein and biopolymers production of bacteria were ... bacterium colonized plant roots and were able to migrate downward with the root as it elongated. Scanning electron ...... siderophores producing Pseudomonas fluorescence on crown rot. Haggag 1577 disease ...

  19. Silicon waveguides produced by wafer bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette; Jensen, Flemming; Bunk, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    X-ray waveguides are successfully produced employing standard silicon technology of UV photolithography and wafer bonding. Contrary to theoretical expectations for similar systems even 100 mu m broad guides of less than 80 nm height do not collapse and can be used as one dimensional waveguides...

  20. Isolation and morphological characterization of antibiotic producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To isolate and characterize antibiotic producing actinomycetes from soil samples in Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Methods: Crowded plate technique was used for the isolation of actinomycetes in media such as soybean – casein digest medium and actinomycetes isolation agar. The morphological and cultural ...

  1. Producing ergosterol from corn straw hydrolysates using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ergosterol is an economically important metabolite produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, the production of ergosterol by the strain using corn straw as an inexpensive carbon source was investigated. The total yield of ergosterol was determined by both the biomass and ergosterol content in yeast cells which ...

  2. Producing biodiesel from soybeans in Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, Dusan; Gorter, de Harry; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2016-01-01

    Facing a huge fiscal burden due to imports of its entire petroleum demand in the face of ample supply of agricultural land to produce biofuels, Zambia has recently introduced a biofuel mandate. However, a number of questions, particularly those related to the economics of biofuels, have not been

  3. Sub-Sahara's second largest oil producer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, C

    1991-05-01

    With the prospects for peace in Angola following the settlement of the civil war, the oil producing potential for the country is briefly reviewed. Topics covered include the problems of economic growth and development because of the civil war and communist ideology, US foreign policy, production sharing, military expenditure and economic planning. (UK).

  4. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron

  5. Producing and marketing a specialty egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michella, S M; Slaugh, B T

    2000-07-01

    Eggland's Best, Inc. markets premium quality shell eggs under the Eggland's Best (EB) brand name. The company, started in 1988, is comprised of a franchise network of established egg producers and covers most of the United States. Eggland's Best provides its franchisees with marketing and technical support. The franchisees produce, process, and distribute EB eggs according to the strict program established and monitored by EB. Production follows the all-natural vegetarian feed program in accordance with the company's US patent entitled "Eggs Compatible with a Cholesterol Reducing Diet and Method of Producing the Same." The EB program excludes animal fat and other animal byproducts. Eggland's Best eggs have seven times the generic level of vitamin E, nearly three times more omega-3 fatty acids and iodine, and 25% less saturated fat than regular generic eggs. Eggland's Best has one of the finest shell egg quality assurance programs anywhere. Eggland's Best franchisees submit weekly egg samples that are analyzed for shell quality, interior quality, vitamin E, iodine, cholesterol and fatty acids. Samples of feed and the EB-patented feed supplement are also analyzed. Approximately 28,000 total laboratory tests are conducted annually. Nationwide product and display retail evaluations are contracted through an outside audit company (40 to 50 cities evaluated four times per year). All EB eggs are USDA graded according to EB's strict quality standards. Producers must follow a food safety quality assurance program (United Egg Producers Association 5-Star or equivalent state or company program). Each egg is stamped "EB" as assurance of meeting EB's highest standards of flavor, quality, and nutrition. Eggland's Best has enjoyed record sales growth for the past 3 yr.

  6. Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, R.S. [Lovelace Health Systems, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01

    In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

  7. Dominance of IMP-4-Producing Enterobacter cloacae among Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townell, Nicola; Nimmo, Graeme R.; George, Narelle M.; Robson, Jennifer; Vohra, Renu; Davis, Louise; Heney, Claire; Paterson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has been increasing worldwide. blaIMP has been reported to be the predominant carbapenemase-encoding gene within Enterobacteriaceae in Australia. However, there are limited data currently available on CPE from Queensland, Australia. A total of 58 CPE isolates were isolated between July 2009 and March 2014 from Queensland hospitals. The clonality of isolates was determined by Diversilab repetitive sequence-based PCR. The isolates were investigated for the resistance mechanisms carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase, and AmpC β-lactamase and for aminoglycoside resistance and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes by PCR. The plasmid types associated with carbapenemase-encoding genes were characterized. The majority of the CPE were Enterobacter cloacae (n = 29). The majority of Queensland CPE isolates were IMP producers and comprised 11 species (n = 48). Nine NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae were identified. One NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate coproduced OXA-48. One K. pneumoniae isolate was an OXA-181 producer. The incidence of IMP producers increased significantly in 2013. blaIMP-4 was found in all IMP-producing isolates. blaTEM, qnrB, and aacA4 were common among IMP-4 producers. The HI2 (67%) and L/M (21%) replicons were associated with blaIMP-4. All HI2 plasmids were of sequence type 1 (ST1). All but one of the NDM producers possessed blaCTX-M-15. The 16S rRNA methylase genes found among NDM producers were armA, rmtB, rmtC, and rmtF. The substantial increase in the prevalence of CPE in Queensland has been associated mainly with the emergence E. cloacae strains possessing HI2 plasmids carrying blaIMP-4 over the past 2 years. The importation of NDM producers and/or OXA-48-like producers in patients also contributed to the increased emergence of CPE. PMID:25918153

  8. Sounds energetic: the radio producer's energy minibook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Minibook will be expanded into the final Radio Producer's Energy Sourcebook. Radio producers and broadcasters are asked to contribute ideas for presenting energy knowledge to the public and to be included in the Sourcebook. Chapter One presents a case study suggesting programming and promotion ideas and sample scripts for a radio campaign that revolves around no-cost or low-cost steps listeners can take to increase their home energy efficiency and save money. A variety of other energy topics and suggestions on ways to approach them are addressed in Chapter Two. Chapter Three contains energy directories for Baltimore, Philadelphia, Pittsburg, and Washington, DC. The directories will be expanded in the Sourcebook and will consist of a selection of local public and private sector energy-related organizations and list local experts and organizations and the best Federal, state, and local government programs that can provide consumers and citizens groups with information, technical assistance, and financial support. (MCW)

  9. Method of producing silicon carbide articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milewski, J.V.

    1985-01-01

    A method of producing articles comprising reaction-bonded silicon carbide (SiC) and graphite (and/or carbon) is given. The process converts the graphite (and/or carbon) in situ to SiC, thus providing the capability of economically obtaining articles made up wholly or partially of SiC having any size and shape in which graphite (and/or carbon) can be found or made. When the produced articles are made of an inner graphite (and/or carbon) substrate to which SiC is reaction bonded, these articles distinguish SiC-coated graphite articles found in the prior art by the feature of a strong bond having a gradual (as opposed to a sharply defined) interface which extends over a distance of mils. A method for forming SiC whisker-reinforced ceramic matrices is also given. The whisker-reinforced articles comprise SiC whiskers which substantially retain their structural integrity

  10. Calcitonin produces hypercalcemia in leopard sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, J; O'Sullivan, J; Miller, M; Wilkie, D W; Deftos, L J

    1985-02-01

    Calcitonin was detected by RIA in sera from four marine species, leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata), horn sharks (Heterodontus francisci), thornback rays (Platyrhinoides triseriata), and kelp bass (Paralabrax clathratus). These animals have levels of calcitonin and calcium higher than freshwater and terrestrial species have. The administration of salmon calcitonin to bass (4 micrograms/kg BW) produced hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia as has been reported for other bony vertebrates. In marked contrast, calcitonin produced a prompt hypercalcemia in sharks; the average was 9.8% increase in serum calcium in nine animals with no attendant change in phosphorus. These findings demonstrate that calcitonin can increase serum calcium in sharks. Because shark skeleton is composed of cartilage, this hypercalcemic effect of calcitonin does not require a bony skeleton.

  11. [New antibiotics produced by Bacillus subtilis strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanicheva, I A; Kozlov, D G; Efimenko, T A; Zenkova, V A; Kastrukha, G S; Reznikova, M I; Korolev, A M; Borshchevskaia, L N; Tarasova, O D; Sineokiĭ, S P; Efremenkova, O V

    2014-01-01

    Two Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from the fruiting body of a basidiomycete fungus Pholiota squarrosa exhibited a broad range of antibacterial activity, including those against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus INA 00761 (MRSA) and Leuconostoc mes6nteroides VKPM B-4177 resistant to glycopep-> tide antibiotics, as well as antifungal activity. The strains were identified as belonging to the "B. subtilis" com- plex based on their morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene fragments. Both strains (INA 01085 and INA 01086) produced insignificant amounts of polyene antibiotics (hexaen and pentaen, respectively). Strain INA 01086 produced also a cyclic polypeptide antibiotic containing Asp, Gly, Leu, Pro, Tyr, Thr, Trp, and Phe, while the antibiotic of strain INA 01085 contained, apart from these, two unidentified nonproteinaceous amino acids. Both polypeptide antibiotics were new compounds efficient against gram-positive bacteria and able to override the natural bacterial antibiotic resistance.

  12. Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    writers a larger public forum into which they can extend their identity. When the identity being extended represents a minority group, the web offers an opportunity for members of that group to engage mainstream ideology and work at reducing the rhetorical distance between their identity and mainstream......Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance: Extending Identity and Engaging Mainstream Ideology via the Web Constance Kampf, Department of Research Knowledge Communication, Aarhus School of Business, Denmark McLuhan describes technologies as extensions -the wheel being an extension...... perceptions. This paper theorizes about ways in which the Internet can change the act of producing knowledge through the characteristics of speed and reach, allowing minorities to access a widespread audience much more easily than before the Internet. Access to a widespread audience, in turn, offers...

  13. Alberta producers' gas export prices slip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekharaiah, M.N.; Dubben, G.; Kolster, B.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Alberta gas producers have approved a new contract with California buyers that includes slightly lower wellhead prices and more flexible pricing terms. The 1 year agreement, will apply a flexible price formula to gas sales. A basic volume of 212 MMcfd will receive $1.52 (U.S.)/Mcf. A and S also will buy 200 MMcfd at prices paid for other Alberta gas in the California market. It will have the right to buy added volumes at prices indexed to gas sold into California from the U.S. Southwest. Ballots cast by producers were to be verified by regulatory agencies in Alberta and British Columbia. The more flexible price terms in the new contract are seen as a positive development for negotiations in a dispute over long term contracts

  14. Producing ashless coal extracts by microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgur Sonmez; Elife Sultan Giray [Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey). Department of Chemistry

    2011-06-15

    To produce ashless coal extracts, three Turkish coals were extracted with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), NMP/ethylenediamine (EDA) (17/1, vol/vol) mixture and NMP/tetralin (9/1, vol/vol) mixture through thermal extraction and microwave extraction. Solvent extraction by microwave irradiation (MI) was found to be more effective than that by thermal extraction. Extraction yield of coals in NMP enhanced by addition of a little EDA, but tetralin addition showed variances according to extraction method used. While tetralin addition caused a decrease in the thermal extraction yield, it increased the yield of the extraction by MI. Following the extraction, the solid extracts were produced with ash content ranging from 0.11% to 1.1%. Ash content of solid extract obtained from microwave extraction are less than ash contents of solid extracts obtained from thermal extraction. 34 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. The future of UK gas producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallas, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, an oil company wishing to develop UK gas reserves almost always faced a protracted gas sales negotiation with British Gas. British Gas then had an effective monopoly in the resale of that gas to final consumers. This traditional pattern is now in a process of fundamental change, as a result of recent UK gas market re-regulation and the emergence of a new large scale opportunity to sell gas for power generation. The impact of these changes is still not very well understood outside a relatively small group of gas specialists but is likely to be significant for British Gas, consumers and UK gas producers. This paper outlines the background to the recent changes, the possible future of UK gas marketing and the likely impact on gas producers in the North Sea

  16. Market outlook for Australian uranium producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, M.

    2001-01-01

    Recent improvements in the uranium market and political changes in Australia presented the uranium producers with their best opportunity in over 15 years. The removal of the well known 'three mines policy' by the current government has encouraged Australian producers to develop new development plans. With the expansion of the existing operations at Ranger and Olympic Dam, and the potential operations of Jabiluka, Kintyre, Koongara, Honeymoon and Beverley, Australia expects to increase annual production to 11630 t U 3 O 8 by the end of the decade. It will then join Canada as a major supplier of uranium to the world's nuclear power utilities in the 21st century. Uranium exploration, which has been virtually nonexistent over the past 15 years, has once again been reactivated. This occurred because of the change in the Government, but also because the Aboriginal groups are once more allowing exploration on their land. (author)

  17. Bacillus subtilis as potential producer for polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Sanjay KS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are biodegradable polymers produced by microbes to overcome environmental stress. Commercial production of PHAs is limited by the high cost of production compared to conventional plastics. Another hindrance is the brittle nature and low strength of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB, the most widely studied PHA. The needs are to produce PHAs, which have better elastomeric properties suitable for biomedical applications, preferably from inexpensive renewable sources to reduce cost. Certain unique properties of Bacillus subtilis such as lack of the toxic lipo-polysaccharides, expression of self-lysing genes on completion of PHA biosynthetic process – for easy and timely recovery, usage of biowastes as feed enable it to compete as potential candidate for commercial production of PHA.

  18. Bacillus subtilis as potential producer for polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mamtesh; Patel, Sanjay Ks; Kalia, Vipin C

    2009-07-20

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable polymers produced by microbes to overcome environmental stress. Commercial production of PHAs is limited by the high cost of production compared to conventional plastics. Another hindrance is the brittle nature and low strength of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), the most widely studied PHA. The needs are to produce PHAs, which have better elastomeric properties suitable for biomedical applications, preferably from inexpensive renewable sources to reduce cost. Certain unique properties of Bacillus subtilis such as lack of the toxic lipo-polysaccharides, expression of self-lysing genes on completion of PHA biosynthetic process - for easy and timely recovery, usage of biowastes as feed enable it to compete as potential candidate for commercial production of PHA.

  19. Pricing Electricity in Pools With Wind Producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, A. J.; Kai Liu

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers an electricity pool that includes a significant number of wind producers and is cleared through a network-constrained auction, one day in advance and on an hourly basis. The hourly auction is formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming problem, where the first stage...... represents the clearing of the market and the second stage models the system operation under a number of plausible wind production realizations. This formulation co-optimizes energy and reserve, and allows deriving both pool energy prices and balancing energy prices. These prices result in both cost recovery...... for producers and revenue reconciliation. A case study of realistic size is used to illustrate the functioning of the proposed pricing scheme....

  20. Monetary Shocks in Models with Inattentive Producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Fernando E; Lippi, Francesco; Paciello, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    We study models where prices respond slowly to shocks because firms are rationally inattentive. Producers must pay a cost to observe the determinants of the current profit maximizing price, and hence observe them infrequently. To generate large real effects of monetary shocks in such a model the time between observations must be long and/or highly volatile. Previous work on rational inattentiveness has allowed for observation intervals that are either constant-but-long ( e.g . Caballero, 1989 or Reis, 2006) or volatile-but-short ( e.g . Reis's, 2006 example where observation costs are negligible), but not both. In these models, the real effects of monetary policy are small for realistic values of the duration between observations. We show that non-negligible observation costs produce both of these effects: intervals between observations are infrequent and volatile. This generates large real effects of monetary policy for realistic values of the average time between observations.

  1. Antibacterial Titanium Produced Using Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Andrew; Li, Xiaopeng; McCormick, Paul; Ren, Ling; Yang, Ke; Sercombe, Timothy B.

    2017-12-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys used in current medical and dental applications do not possess antibacterial properties, and therefore, postoperative infection remains a significant risk. Recently, the addition of silver and copper to conventional biomaterials has been shown to produce a material with good antibacterial properties. In this article, we investigate selective laser melting as a method of producing antibacterial Ti-6Al-4V containing elemental additions of Cu or Ag. The addition of Ag had no effect on the microstructure or strength, but it did result in a 300% increase in the ductility of the alloy. In contrast, the addition of Cu resulted in an increase in strength but in a decrease in ductility, along with a change in the structure of the material. The Cu-containing alloy also showed moderate antibacterial properties and was superior to the Ag-containing alloy.

  2. Radioisotopes produced by neutron irradiation of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, S; Seviour, R

    2016-04-01

    The use of neutrons for cargo interrogation has the potential to drastically improve threat detection. Previous research has focussed on the production of (24)Na, based on the isotopes produced in pharmaceuticals and medical devices. For both the total activity and the ingestion dose we show that a variety of isotopes contribute and that (24)Na is only dominant under certain conditions. The composition of the foods has a strong influence on the resulting activity and ingestion dose suggesting that the pharmaceuticals and medical devices considered initially are not a viable analogue for foodstuffs. There is an energy dependence to the isotopes produced due to the cross-sections of different reactions varying with neutron energy. We show that this results in different isotopes dominating the ingestion dose at different energies, which has not been considered in the previous literature. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Producing glass-ceramics from waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boccaccini, A.R.; Rawlings, R.D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-10-01

    An overview is given of recent research at the Department of Materials of Imperial College, London, UK, concerning the production of useful glass-ceramic products from industrial waste materials. The new work, using controlled crystallisation to improve the properties of vitrified products, could help to solve the problem of what to do with increasing amounts of slag, fly ash and combustion dust. The results show, that it is possible to produce new materials with interesting magnetic and constructive properties.

  4. The Ethics of Producing In Vitro Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, G Owen; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    The prospect of consumable meat produced in a laboratory setting without the need to raise and slaughter animals is both realistic and exciting. Not only could such in vitro meat become popular due to potential cost savings, but it also avoids many of the ethical and environmental problems with traditional meat productions. However, as with any new technology, in vitro meat is likely to face some detractors. We examine in detail three potential objections: 1) in vitro meat is disrespectful, e...

  5. Investigate Nasal Colonize Staphylococcus Species Biofilm Produced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Demir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: 127 S.aureus and 65 CoNS strains were isolated from patients noses%u2019. To produce a biofilm ability was investigated using three different methods. Slime-positive and negative staphylococcies%u2019 resistance were evaluated against different antibiotics. Material and Method: Swap samples puted 7% blood agar. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS isolates biofilm produced ability were investigated using Congo Red Agar (CRA, microplates (MP and Standard Tube (ST methods. In addition to that, presence of antibiotic resistance of the staphylococcal isolates are determined agar disc diffusion method. Results: The rate of biofilm producing Staphylococcus spp strains was found to be 72.4%, 67.7%, and 62.9%, respectively with CRA, MP, and ST tests. There was no significant relationship among the tests (p>0.05. In addition, antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus spp. against various antibiotics was also determined by the agar disk diffusion method. Resistance rates of biofilm positive (BP Staphylococcus spp for penicilin G, ampicilin, amocycilin/clavulanic acid, tetracyclin, eritromycin, gentamycin, and enrofloxacin 71.7%, 69.7%, 6.2%, 20.7%, 21.4%, 1.4%, and 0.7%, respectively. Resistance rates of biofilm negative (BN spp for 42.6%, 23.4%, 4.3%, 14.9%, 19.1%, 0.0%, 0.0% respectively. All Staphylococcus isolates were found to be susceptible to vancomycin and teicaplonin. Although BP strains antibiotic resistance rates were observed higher than BN strains. But resistance rates were not found statistically significant (p>0.05. Discussion: CRA is the reliablity and specifity method to determine Staphylococcus spp. biofilm produce ability.

  6. Particles produced in association with PSI(3098)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alverson, G.O.

    1979-01-01

    Dimuon production was studied at 217 GeV/c in π - -hydrogen and π - -beryllium collisions with a multiparticle spectrometer to detect associated particles. Particular attention was paid to the phiγ spectrum which shows an excess of events in the region 3.5 GeV. Attributing this to the presence of the chi(approx. 3.5) states implies that 94 +- 50% of psis are produced via radiative chi decay

  7. Electron acceleration using laser produced plasmas

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Landua, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    Low density plasmas have long been of interest as a potential medium for particle acceleration since relativistic plasma waves are capable of supporting electric fields greater than 100 GeV/m. The physics of particle acceleration using plasmas will be reviewed, and new results will be discussed which have demonstrated that relatively narrow energy spread (<3%) beams having energies greater than 100 MeV can be produced from femtosecond laser plasma interactions. Future experiments and potential applications will also be discussed.

  8. Proton beam writing for producing holographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ow, Y.S.; Breese, M.B.H.; Bettiol, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on the writing of computer generated hologram diffraction patterns using focused 2 MeV proton beam irradiation. These patterns were designed using a ray tracing algorithm and written directly into a thick polymethylmethacrylate layer. When the developed holographic pattern was illuminated with a 650 nm laser it produced a good reconstructed image. This work provides means of forming high-resolution, high aspect ratio holographic images in polymers for applications in data storage using switchable holography.

  9. Applications of irradiation in horticultural produce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Beirne, David

    1985-01-01

    In the case of horticultural produce, the usefulness of irradiation is selective and irradiation may be most beneficial when used in conjunction with other preservative treatments such as mild refrigeration. Big benefits may be derived from energy saving in the degree of chilling required, in extended shelf-life and in quality retention with particular reference to mushrooms and strawberries. Research in the Irish context is urgently required

  10. Method to produce a neutron shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    The neutron shielding for armoured vehicles consists of preshaped plastic plates which are coated on the armoured vehicle walls by conversion of the thermoplast. Suitable plastics or thermoplasts are PVC, PVC acetate, or mixtures of these, into which more than 50% B, B 4 C, or BN is embedded. The colour of the shielding may be determined by the choice of the neutron absorber, e.g. a white colour for BN. The plates are produced using an extruder or calender. (DG) [de

  11. Pheromone produced by the myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, K; Hegeman, G D; White, D

    1982-01-01

    An extracellular, diffusible signaling molecule (pheromone) was produced by Stigmatella aurantiaca during fruiting body formation. The pheromone decreased the aggregation period in both the light and the dark and substituted for light in stimulating the maturation of aggregates into fruiting bodies. The cells were more sensitive to lower concentrations of pheromone in the light than in the dark, possibly explaining the stimulation of aggregation and fruiting body formation by light. The phero...

  12. Cultivating Insect Cells To Produce Recombinant Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Glenn; Goodwin, Thomas; Prewett, Tacey; Andrews, Angela; Francis, Karen; O'Connor, Kim

    1996-01-01

    Method of producing recombinant proteins involves growth of insect cells in nutrient solution in cylindrical bioreactor rotating about cylindrical axis, oriented horizontally and infecting cells with viruses into which genes of selected type cloned. Genes in question those encoding production of desired proteins. Horizontal rotating bioreactor preferred for use in method, denoted by acronym "HARV", described in "High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating Cell-Culture Vessel" (MSC-21662).

  13. Covering Materials for Anaerobic Digesters Producing Biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itodo, I. N.; Philips, T. K.

    2002-01-01

    The suitability of foam, concrete and clay soil as covering material on anaerobic digesters producing biogas was investigated using four batch-type digesters of 20 litres volume. The methane yield from the digesters was of the order: foam >control> concrete > clay soil. The digester covered with foam had the highest methane yield, best temperature control and most favourable pH conditions. It is most suitable as cover material on anaerobic digesters

  14. Method of producing spherical lithium aluminate particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Medico, R.R.; Baugh, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Spherical particles of lithium aluminate are formed by initially producing aluminium hydroxide spheroids, and immersing the spheroids in a lithium ion-containing solution to infuse lithium ions into the spheroids. The lithium-infused spheroids are rinsed to remove excess lithium ion from the surface, and the rinsed spheroids are soaked for a period of time in a liquid medium, dried and sintered to form lithium aluminate spherical particles. (author)

  15. Method of producing encapsulated thermonuclear fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.H.; Taylor, W.L.; Turner, H.L.

    1976-01-01

    A method of producing a fuel particle is disclosed, which comprises forming hollow spheroids which have a mass number greater than 50, immersing said spheroids while under the presence of pressure and heat in a gaseous atmosphere containing an isotope, such as deuterium and tritium, so as to diffuse the gas into the spheroid and thereafter cooling said spheroids up to about 77 0 Kelvin to about 4 0 Kelvin. 4 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures

  16. Self-focusing in laser produced spark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakos, J.S.; Foeldes, I.B.

    1983-05-01

    The self-focusing effect appearing in different phases of development of laser produced breakdown plasma in air is investigated. Self-focusing during the ionization process is demonstrated. Thermal self-focusing was observed in the later stage of the plasma development at moderate light intensities. Plasma development was investigated by forward and side scattering of the laser light in the plasma. A crossed beam experiment gave evidence of the thermal mechanism of self-focusing. (author)

  17. Adventures in Laser Produced Plasma Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, M

    2006-01-13

    In the UK the study of laser produced plasmas and their applications began in the universities and evolved to a current system where the research is mainly carried out at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Central Laser Facility ( CLF) which is provided to support the universities. My own research work has been closely tied to this evolution and in this review I describe the history with particular reference to my participation in it.

  18. Process for producing furan from furfural aldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebold, James P.; Evans, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    A process of producing furan and derivatives thereof is disclosed. The process includes generating furfural aldehyde vapors and then passing those vapors over a zeolite catalyst at a temperature and for a residence time effective to decarbonylate the furfural aldehydes to form furans and derivatives thereof. The resultant furan vapors and derivatives are then separated. In a preferred form, the furfural aldehyde vapors are generated during the process of converting biomass materials to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  19. Process for producing furan from furfural aldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebold, J.P.; Evans, R.J.

    1987-04-06

    A process of producing furan and derivatives thereof as disclosed. The process includes generating furfural aldehyde vapors and then passing those vapors over a zeolite catalyst at a temperature and for a residence time effective to decarbonylate the furfural aldehydes to form furans and derivatives thereof. The resultant furan vapors and derivatives are then separated. In a preferred form, the furfural aldehyde vapors are generated during the process of converting biomass materials to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  20. Thunderstorm Charge Structures Producing Negative Gigantic Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, L.; Liu, N.; Riousset, J. A.; Shi, F.; Rassoul, H.

    2016-12-01

    Here we present observational and modeling results that provide insight into thunderstorm charge structures that produce gigantic jet discharges. The observational results include data from four different thunderstorms producing 9 negative gigantic jets from 2010 to 2014. We used radar, very high frequency (VHF) and low frequency (LF) lightning data to analyze the storm characteristics, charge structures, and lightning activity when the gigantic jets emerged from the parent thunderstorms. A detailed investigation of the evolution of one of the charge structures by analyzing the VHF data is also presented. The newly found charge structure obtained from the observations was analyzed with fractal modeling and compared with previous fractal modeling studies [Krehbiel et al., Nat. Geosci., 1, 233-237, 2008; Riousset et al., JGR, 115, A00E10, 2010] of gigantic jet discharges. Our work finds that for normal polarity thunderstorms, gigantic jet charge structures feature a narrow upper positive charge region over a wide middle negative charge region. There also likely exists a `ring' of negative screening charge located around the perimeter of the upper positive charge. This is different from previously thought charge structures of the storms producing gigantic jets, which had a very wide upper positive charge region over a wide middle negative charge region, with a very small negative screening layer covering the cloud top. The newly found charge structure results in leader discharge trees in the fractal simulations that closely match the parent flashes of gigantic jets inside and outside the thundercloud. The previously used charge structures, while vital to the understanding of gigantic jet initiation and the role of charge imbalances inside the cloud, do not produce leader discharge trees that agree with observed gigantic jet discharges.Finally, the newly discovered gigantic jet charge structures are formed near the end of a convective pulse [Meyer et al., JGR, 118

  1. Beneficial Reuse of Produced and Flowback Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water reuse and recycling is a significant issue in the development of oil and gas shale plays in the United StatesDrilling operations – 60,000 to 650,000 gallons per wellHydraulic fracturing operations – 3 million to 5 million gallons per wellDefinition of produced water and flowback waterInteractions of water quality constituents as they relate to water reuse and recyclingTesting criteria in the laboratory and field operations

  2. Method of producing radioactive carbon powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon powder, placed in a hermetically closed apparatus under vacuum together with radium ore, adsorbs radon gas emanating from the radium ore thus producing a radioactive carbonaceous material, the radioactivity of which is due to the presence of adsorbed radon. The radioactive carbon powder thus obtained has excellent therapeutical efficacy and is suitable for a variety of applications because of the mild radioactivity of radon. Radium ore permits substantially limitlessly repeated production of the radioactive carbon powder

  3. Bioethanol produced from Moringa oleifera seeds husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, E. N.; Kemat, S. Z.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the potential of bioethanol production from Moringa oleifera seeds husk which contains lignocellulosic through Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) process by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This paper investigates the parameters which produce optimum bioethanol yield. The husk was hydrolyzed using NaOH and fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. Batch fermentation was performed with different yeast dosage of 1, 3, and 5 g/L, pH value was 4.5, 5.0 and 5.5, and fermentation time of 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours. The temperature of fermentation process in incubator shaker is kept constant at 32ºC. The samples are then filtered using a 0.20 μm nylon filter syringe. The yield of bioethanol produced was analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the highest yield of 29.69 g/L was obtained at 3 hours of fermentation time at pH of 4.5 and using 1g/L yeast. This research work showed that Moringa oleifera seeds husk can be considered to produce bioethanol.

  4. Social inclusion policy: Producing justice or retribution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kym Macfarlane

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The notion of social inclusion has currently gained extraordinary credence in Australia. Policy incorporating social inclusion abounds across all discipline areas with the federal government for the first time instituting a government portfolio for this area, headed by the Deputy Prime Minister. Such a move indicates the importance of managing aspects of inclusion across all sectors, in a country where diversity abounds. However, this focus on inclusion can prove highly problematic, when it becomes such an integral part of policy formulation and of the assumptions, omissions and contradictions that policy produces. This paper examines how policy discourse produces ways of thinking about inclusion/exclusion. Using three vignettes, the author applies the theories of Michel Foucault to argue that the discursive production of such inclusive policy works to simultaneously exclude by categorising particular types of individuals and families as “proper” participants in society. The author contends that understandings of propriety relating to the inclusion/exclusion binary reinscribe each other, in ways that situate particular citizens outside of possibilities for “success” in social and systemic participation. Such understanding is highlighted by a conceptual examination of the ways in which discursively produced notions of propriety become normalised. Keywords: bricolage, discourse, authorised knowledge, imperative discourse, regimes of truth

  5. Mn nanoparticles produced by inert gas condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, M B; Brydson, R; Cochrane, R F

    2006-01-01

    The results from experiments using the inert gas condensation method to produce nanoparticles of manganese are presented. Structural and compositional data have been collected through electron diffraction, EDX (energy dispersive X-ray) and EELS (electron energy loss spectroscopy). Both Mn 3 O 4 and pure Mn particles have been produced. Moisture in untreated helium gas causes the particles to oxidize, whereas running the helium through a liquid nitrogen trap removes the moisture and produces β-Mn particles in a metastable state. The particle sizes and the size distribution have been determined. Particle sizes range from 2nm to above 100 nm, however the majority of particles lie in the range below 20 nm with a modal particle size of 6 nm. As well as the modal particle size of 6 nm, there is another peak in the frequency curve at 16 nm that represents another group particles that lie in the range 12 to 20 nm. The smaller particles are single crystals, but the larger particles appear to have a dense region around their edge with a less dense centre. Determination of their exact nature is ongoing

  6. The economics of producing energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapouri, H.; Duffield, J.

    1993-01-01

    The US agricultural sector has an immense supply of natural resources which can be used to product energy. Production of energy from these resources could stimulate economic growth, improve environmental quality, and enhance energy security. However, producing feedstocks and converting biomass to energy require large amounts of capital, equipment, labor, and processing facilities. This paper looks at the costs and benefits of producing energy crops for fuel conversion. A review of studies and crop data show that the cost of growing and converting various feedstocks with current technology is greater than the cost of producing conventional fuels. Conventional motor fuels have a price advantage over biofuels, but market prices don't always reflect the cost of negative externalities imposed on society. Government decisions to invest in alternative energy sources should be based on research that includes the environmental costs and benefits of energy production. The future of biofuels will depend on the continuation of government research and incentive programs. As new technologies advance, the costs of processing energy crops and residues will fall, making biofuels more competitive in energy markets

  7. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10 12 calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 μm scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity

  8. Radioisotopes produced by neutron irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, S.; Seviour, R.

    2016-01-01

    The use of neutrons for cargo interrogation has the potential to drastically improve threat detection. Previous research has focussed on the production of "2"4Na, based on the isotopes produced in pharmaceuticals and medical devices. For both the total activity and the ingestion dose we show that a variety of isotopes contribute and that "2"4Na is only dominant under certain conditions. The composition of the foods has a strong influence on the resulting activity and ingestion dose suggesting that the pharmaceuticals and medical devices considered initially are not a viable analogue for foodstuffs. There is an energy dependence to the isotopes produced due to the cross-sections of different reactions varying with neutron energy. We show that this results in different isotopes dominating the ingestion dose at different energies, which has not been considered in the previous literature. - Highlights: • We show that neutron interrogation of food can produce many radioisotopes. • We show a strong dependance between food and certain radioisotopes. • Some isotopes are shown to have an energy dependence. • Previous claims that 24Na is the main threat is shown to only apply in special cases.

  9. Manufacturing on the radiopharmaceuticals produced by cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Nobuo

    1994-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical (RP) produced by cyclotrons are widely used for the in vivo diagnosis of various diseases such as cancer, cerebral vascular disorders and cardiac diseases. The nuclides used as RPs and their nuclear reactions, and the quantity of RPs supplied in Japan in the last five years are shown. These RPs are delivered to about 1,100 hospitals in Japan. Thallium-201 and iodine-123 showed very high growth rate. Recently, two new I-123 RPs, BMIPP and MIBG which are heart-imaging agents, have been supplied. It suggests that the quantity of I-123 will increase much more in future. The image diagnostic method using RPs is called in vivo nuclear medicine, and has become the indispensable means for medical institutions together with X-ray CT, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonic diagnosis. The RPs for in vivo diagnosis generally used at present are classified into those labeled with the RIs produced with cyclotrons and those labeled with Tc-99m formed by the decay of Mo-99. The quantity being used is overwhelmingly more in the latter, but the former shows the tendency of growth. The commercial production of cyclotron RIs for medical use, the chemical forms and the diagnostic purposes of the RPs using cyclotron RIs, and the state of use of the cyclotron-produced RPs are reported. (K.I.)

  10. Consumer's Fresh Produce Food Safety Practices: Outcomes of a Fresh Produce Safety Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Amanda R.; Pope, Paul E.; Thompson, Britta M.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that there are 76 million cases of foodborne disease annually. Foodborne disease is usually associated with beef, poultry, and seafood. However, there is an increasing number of foodborne disease cases related to fresh produce. Consumers may not associate fresh produce with foodborne disease…

  11. Microstructure and Textural Properties of Yoghurts Produced by Exopolysaccharides- Producing Starter Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lanjun

    conferred a ropy texture and resulted in yoghurts with decreased water holding capacity and an open microstructure. In addition, one of the LB strains with high amounts of EPS producing capacity improved water retention, when it was combined with an ST strain that produced negligible amounts of EPS...

  12. Radioactivity monitoring of Irish dairy produce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, K.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The RPII has been carrying out monitoring of milk and dairy produce since 1986. Milk samples are routinely analysed for radiocaesium and strontium-90 as part of the RPII's environmental monitoring programme to determine the doses received to the Irish population from milk consumption. The method the RPII utilises for determining the Sr-90 activity in milk is by measuring the Cerenkov radiation produced by its daughter 90 Y isolated from interfering nuclides such as uranium, thorium, radium and their decay products as well as isotopes of caesium, potassium and strontium by extraction with 10% di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (HDEHP) in toluene. The chemical yield of 90 Y is determined by the acidmetric titration of yttrium nitrate carrier with titriplex III. The levels of Sr-90 and dose to the Irish population from milk consumption have been negligible when compared to other radioactive sources in the Irish environment. Other dairy products are analysed for radiocaesium on a routine basis for commercial customers to ensure the levels of radioactivity in the dairy products fall within EC regulations governing the export/import of dairy produce. The export of milk and milk produce from Ireland is a very important industry, 80% of dairy products produced in Ireland are exported and these exports are worth Euro 2.2 billion annually to the Irish economy. The dairy products are analysed by gamma spectroscopy and include full and skim milk powders, butter, casein, cheese, cream, whey and lactose. The levels of radiocaesium in these products are typically below 5 Bk/kg and fall well within the limit of 370 Bq/kg laid down by the European Community in Council Regulation 737/90. Although the levels of these radionuclides are relatively low the RPII recognises the importance of analysing these samples for radioactivity to inform the public, ensure consumer confidence and, more importantly, to maintain a level of expertise in the RPII in these analytical techniques so that

  13. Radioactivity monitoring of Irish dairy produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, K. (Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. Radiation Monitoring, Dublin (Ireland))

    2010-03-15

    Full text: The RPII has been carrying out monitoring of milk and dairy produce since 1986. Milk samples are routinely analysed for radiocaesium and strontium-90 as part of the RPII's environmental monitoring programme to determine the doses received to the Irish population from milk consumption. The method the RPII utilises for determining the Sr-90 activity in milk is by measuring the Cerenkov radiation produced by its daughter 90Y isolated from interfering nuclides such as uranium, thorium, radium and their decay products as well as isotopes of caesium, potassium and strontium by extraction with 10% di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (HDEHP) in toluene. The chemical yield of 90Y is determined by the acidmetric titration of yttrium nitrate carrier with titriplex III. The levels of Sr-90 and dose to the Irish population from milk consumption have been negligible when compared to other radioactive sources in the Irish environment. Other dairy products are analysed for radiocaesium on a routine basis for commercial customers to ensure the levels of radioactivity in the dairy products fall within EC regulations governing the export/import of dairy produce. The export of milk and milk produce from Ireland is a very important industry, 80% of dairy products produced in Ireland are exported and these exports are worth Euro 2.2 billion annually to the Irish economy. The dairy products are analysed by gamma spectroscopy and include full and skim milk powders, butter, casein, cheese, cream, whey and lactose. The levels of radiocaesium in these products are typically below 5 Bk/kg and fall well within the limit of 370 Bq/kg laid down by the European Community in Council Regulation 737/90. Although the levels of these radionuclides are relatively low the RPII recognises the importance of analysing these samples for radioactivity to inform the public, ensure consumer confidence and, more importantly, to maintain a level of expertise in the RPII in these analytical techniques so

  14. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray W. Sheldon

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (stripper gas water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  15. Treatment of Oil & Gas Produced Water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Production of oil and gas reserves in the New Mexico Four Corners Region results in large volumes of "produced water". The common method for handling the produced water from well production is re-injection in regulatory permitted salt water disposal wells. This is expensive (%7E $5/bbl.) and does not recycle water, an ever increasingly valuable commodity. Previously, Sandia National Laboratories and several NM small business tested pressure driven membrane-filtration techniques to remove the high TDS (total dissolved solids) from a Four Corners Coal Bed Methane produced water. Treatment effectiveness was less than optimal due to problems with pre-treatment. Inadequate pre-treatment allowed hydrocarbons, wax and biological growth to foul the membranes. Recently, an innovative pre-treatment scheme using ozone and hydrogen peroxide was pilot tested. Results showed complete removal of hydrocarbons and the majority of organic constituents from a gas well production water. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report was made possible through funding from the New Mexico Small Business Administration (NMSBA) Program at Sandia National Laboratories. Special thanks to Juan Martinez and Genaro Montoya for guidance and support from project inception to completion. Also, special thanks to Frank McDonald, the small businesses team POC, for laying the ground work for the entire project; Teresa McCown, the gas well owner and very knowledgeable- fantastic site host; Lea and Tim Phillips for their tremendous knowledge and passion in the oil & gas industry.; and Frank Miller and Steve Addleman for providing a pilot scale version of their proprietary process to facilitate the pilot testing.

  16. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations

  17. Hydrogen producing method and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Yasuhiro; Ito, Takehiko; Goto, Nobuo; Toyota, Ichiro; Tonegawa, Hiroshi.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention concerns a process for producing hydrogen from water by utilizing a γ · X ray radiation source such as spent nuclear fuels. Hydrogen is formed from water by combining a scintillator which uses a γ · X ray radiation source as an energy source to emit UV light and an optical catalyst or an optical catalyst electrode which undergoes UV light to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen. The present invention provides a method of effectively using spent fuel assemblies which have not been used at present and capable of converting them into hydrogen as storable chemical energy. (N.H.)

  18. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-23

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  19. Target spot localization at neutron producing accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medveczki, L.; Bornemisza-Pauspertl, P.

    1980-01-01

    In the application of neutron producing accelerators it is required to know the actual position and the homogeneity of distribution of the emitted neutrons. Solid state nuclear track detectors offer a good possibility to get precise information on these without any disturbing influence on them. LR 115 2 type cellulose nitrate Kodak-Pathe Foils were irradiated with fast neutrons. When track density is higher than about 104 tracks cm -2 the damaged area can be observed with the naked eye, too. To get quantitative information the track densities were counted with manual technique. (author)

  20. Ethylene-producing bacteria that ripen fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiacomo, Fabio; Girelli, Gabriele; Aor, Bruno; Marchioretti, Caterina; Pedrotti, Michele; Perli, Thomas; Tonon, Emil; Valentini, Viola; Avi, Damiano; Ferrentino, Giovanna; Dorigato, Andrea; Torre, Paola; Jousson, Olivier; Mansy, Sheref S; Del Bianco, Cristina

    2014-12-19

    Ethylene is a plant hormone widely used to ripen fruit. However, the synthesis, handling, and storage of ethylene are environmentally harmful and dangerous. We engineered E. coli to produce ethylene through the activity of the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) from Pseudomonas syringae. EFE converts a citric acid cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, to ethylene in a single step. The production of ethylene was placed under the control of arabinose and blue light responsive regulatory systems. The resulting bacteria were capable of accelerating the ripening of tomatoes, kiwifruit, and apples.